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1

Semicontinuous ethanol fermentation of sugar cane blackstrap molasses by pressed yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A mathematical model is proposed to explain the influence of the volume fraction of inoculum on the fermentation time and ethanol productivity in semicontinuous ethanol fermentation of sugar cane blackstrap molasses by pressed yeast.

Walter Borzani; Haroldo Hiss; Teresinha W. de Santos; Marina L. R. Vairo

1992-01-01

2

Semicontinuous alcoholic fermentation of sugar cane blackstrap molasses by pressed yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A third degree polynomial equation correlates the fermentation time and the volume fraction of inoculum in semicontinuous ethanol fermentation of sugar cane blackstrap molasses by pressed yeast. The volume of the inoculum varied from 40% to 92% of the reactor working volume. The highest ethanol productivity was obtained when the volume of the inoculum was 58% of the working

Teresinha W. de Santos; Marina L. R. Vairo; Haroldo Hiss; Walter Borzani

1992-01-01

3

Product inhibition during the feeding phasein fed-batch ethanol fermentation of sugar-cane blackstrap molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following equations represent the influence of the ethanol concentration (E) on the specific growth rate of the yeast cells (µ) and on the specific production rate of ethanol (?) during the reactor filling phase in fed-batch fermentation of sugar-cane blackstrap molasses: µ = µ0 - k · E and v = v0 · K\\/(K +E)

Walter Borzani

1995-01-01

4

Variation of the ethanol yield during oscillatory concentrations changes in undisturbed continuous ethanol fermentation of sugar-cane blackstrap molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the oscillatory phase of an undisturbed continuous ethanol fermentation of sugar-cane blackstrap molasses, the relative ethanol yield oscillated between 70 and 92% of the theoretical value (0.511), while its actual value was 85.6%. The ethanol yield based on catabolic activity oscillated between 0.290 and 1.174 g\\/kcal, while its actual value was 0.686 g\\/kcal. The specific production rate of ethanol

Walter Borzani

2001-01-01

5

Fed-batch alcoholic fermentation of sugar cane blackstrap molasses: influence of the feeding rate on yeast yield and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fed-batch ethanol fermentation tests of sugar cane blackstrap molasses were carried out at 32° C and ph 4.5–5.0, using pressed yeast as inoculum, and with no air supply. Two values of the fermentor filling-up time were adopted: 5 h and 7 h. The feeding rates obeyed equation F=F0·-K·t, with K equal to 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 h-1. The

João Carlos M. Carvalho; Eugênio Aquarone; Sunao Sato; Milton L. Brazzach; Dante A. Moraes; Walter Borzani

1993-01-01

6

The Net Energy of Blackstrap Molasses for Lactating Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The net energy of cane or blackstrap molasses for lactation has been determined when added to a basal ration of pineapple bran, soybean meal, dicalcium phosphate, and trace- mineralized salt. When fed at a level of 10 and 30% of the total ration, the net energy of the molasses was 68.1 and 23.1 meal. per 100 lb., respectively, compared to

G. P. Lofgreen; K. K. Otagaki

1960-01-01

7

Invertase activity of intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on sugar cane molasses. 1. Steady-state continuous culture tests  

SciTech Connect

During the steady-state continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on sugar cane blackstrap molasses under different experimental conditions, oscillatory variations of the invertase activity of the intact yeast cells were observed. The continuous morphological changes of the cells wall and of the periplasmic space affecting the interaction between invertase and sucrose molecules could be responsible by the observed oscillatory phenomena. The average invertase activity at the steady state is linearly correlated to the cell's growth rate.

Vitolo, M.; Vairo, M.L.R.; Borzani, W.

1985-08-01

8

Production of ethanol from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zymomonas mobilis strains were compared with each other and with a Saacharomyces cerevisiae strain for the production of ethanol from sugar cane molasses in batch fermentations. The effect of pH and temperature on ethanol production by Zymomonas was studied. The ability of Z. mobilis to produce ethanol from molasses varied from one strain to another. At low sugar concentrations Zymomonas

H. J. J. Vuuren; Lourine Meyer

1982-01-01

9

EFFECT OF SEX, FAT, FIBER, MOLASSES AND THYROPROTEIN ON DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS AND PERFORMANCE OF GROWING SWINE 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

I N many areas of the world, including Ha- waii, cane or blackstrap molasses is the lowest cost source of carbohydrate for live- stock feeds. Little technical data are available on the effect of molasses on digestibility of nutrients or on performance of swine. Like- wise, the data on the effects of fiber and fat are insufficient. Adsorption of molasses

C. C. BROOKS

2010-01-01

10

Economical succinic acid production from cane molasses by Actinobacillus succinogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC1593 using cane molasses as a low cost carbon source was developed. In anaerobic bottles fermentation, succinic acid concentration of 50.6±0.9gl?1 was attained at 60h using an optimum medium containing molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 79.5±1.1% and sugar utilization of 97.1±0.6%. When batch

Yu-Peng Liu; Pu Zheng; Zhi-Hao Sun; Ye Ni; Jin-Jun Dong; Lei-Lei Zhu

2008-01-01

11

Ethanolic fermentation of cane molasses by a highly flocculent yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A study of the comparative kinetics of standardS.uvarum ATCC 26602 withS.cerevisiae Y-10 (an isolate) and a highly flocculent strain ofS.uvarum in batch mode has shown that both the isolate and the highly flocculentS.uvarum strain have more desirable characteristics than the standard strains for ethanol production from cane molasses.

R. Raghav; H. Sivaraman; D. V. Gokhale; B. Seetarama Rao

1989-01-01

12

Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with h...

P. Simon

1999-01-01

13

Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses  

SciTech Connect

Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29

14

Effect of calcium ions on ethanol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most widely used feedstocks for potable or biofuel ethanol fermentation is blackstrap molasses, a byproduct of\\u000a cane sugar production. Inconsistent quality of molasses frequently found in industrial production, however, makes ethanol\\u000a production much less efficient and cost-ineffective. Besides fermentable sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) present in\\u000a molasses, calcium is also found in the range of 10–20% of

Sunee Chotineeranat; Rungtiva Wansuksri; Kuakoon Piyachomkwan; Pathama Chatakanonda; Pipat Weerathaworn; Klanarong Sriroth

2010-01-01

15

Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste management involving bioresource recovery in a cane molasses-based distillery engaged in the manufacture of rectified spirit (alcohol) is described. The spentwash generated from the distillation of fermenter wash is highly acidic (pH 4·0–4·3) with high rates of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD: 52–58, COD: 92–100kg\\/m3) and suspended solids (2·0–2·5kg\\/m3). Biogas is recovered from high strength raw spentwash through

Tapas Nandy; Sunita Shastry; S. N. Kaul

2002-01-01

16

Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery.  

PubMed

Waste management involving bioresource recovery in a cane molasses-based distillery engaged in the manufacture of rectified spirit (alcohol) is described. The spentwash generated from the distillation of fermenter wash is highly acidic (pH 4.0-4.3) with high rates of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD: 52-58, COD: 92-100 kg/m3) and suspended solids (2.0-2.5 kg/m3). Biogas is recovered from high strength raw spentwash through the full-scale application of a biomethanation system as pretreatment option, comprising anaerobic fixed film reactors. This, combined with subsequent concentration through multiple effect evaporators (MEE), and utilization of concentrated effluent for biocomposting of pressmud (another by-product of the industry) for production of biomanure contributes to the elimination of effluent discharges. PMID:12173420

Nandy, Tapas; Shastry, Sunita; Kaul, S N

2002-05-01

17

Fungal invertase as an aid for fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.4, ethanol production was increased by the addition of

Y. K. Park; H. H. Sato

1982-01-01

18

THE DIRECT DETERMINATION OF LACTIC ACID IN CANE MOLASSES BY GAS-LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the direct determination of lactic acid in cane molasses by gas-liquid chromatography is described. Data has been presented to show that the method is both precise and accurate. The method overcomes the lengthy ion-exchange separation of lactic acid, currently in use. The quantification of lactic acid in molasses is important as a means of determining sugar losses

T. A. CHORN

19

Cauliflower waste incorporation into cane molasses improves ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diluted cane molasses having total sugar and reducing sugar content of 9.60 and 3.80% (w\\/v) respectively was subjected to\\u000a ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178. Incorporation of dried Cauliflower Waste (CW) in molasses at the level of 15 % increased ethanol production by\\u000a nearly 36 % compared to molasses alone. Addition of 0.2 % yeast extract improved ethanol production

Gurpreet Singh Dhillon; Sunil Bansal; Harinder Singh Oberoi

2007-01-01

20

Full chain energy analysis of fuel ethanol from cane molasses in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of energy performance and supply potential was performed to evaluate molasses utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand. The Thai government recently has set up a production target of 1.925 million litres a day of sugar-based ethanol. The molasses-based ethanol (MoE) system involves three main segments: sugar cane cultivation, molasses generation, and ethanol conversion. Negative net energy value found

Thu Lan T. Nguyen; Shabbir H. Gheewala; Savitri Garivait

2008-01-01

21

Decolorization of molasses' wastewater using activated carbon prepared from cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decolorization of synthetic melanoidin was studied using activated carbon from cane bagasse obtained from Thailand and Brazil. Melanoidin, a nitrogenous brown polymer present in molasses' wastewater, is formed on the interaction between amino acids and carbohydrates. Bagasse, another by-product in the sugar industry, is a cheap material suitable for the preparation of activated carbon.Samples of cane bagasse were carbonized

E. C. Bernardo; R. Egashira; J. Kawasaki

1997-01-01

22

Fungal invertase as an aid for fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.4, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40 degrees C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5. (Refs. 8).

Park, Y.K.; Sato, H.H.

1982-10-01

23

Cane molasses fermentation for continuous ethanol production in an immobilized cells reactor by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium-alginate immobilized yeast was employed to produce ethanol continuously using cane molasses as a carbon source in an immobilized cell reactor (ICR). The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was performed by entrapment of the cell cultured media harvested at exponential growth phase (16 h) with 3% sodium alginate. During the initial stage of operation, the ICR was loaded with fresh beads of

Farshid Ghorbani; Habibollah Younesi; Abbas Esmaeili Sari; Ghasem Najafpour

2011-01-01

24

Novel supplements enhance the ethanol production in cane molasses fermentation by recycling yeast cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Eight alcohol producing yeast strains were screened for their sedimentation rates and it was found thatS.cerevisiae NCIM 3526 was a better flocculant strain. This strain was employed in cane molasses fermentation with yeast recycle, supplemented with skim milk, chitin and fungal mycelium individually or in combination, at 30°C, using fermentable sugars 15%. On the completion of ten 16 h

S. G. Patil; D. V. Gokhale; B. G. Patil

1989-01-01

25

Studies on continuous ethanol fermentation of sugar cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new laboratory system for continuous fermentation is described. It is well suited for fermenting concentrated substrates such as moderately dilute molasses. A rotating microporous filter, which is annexed to the fermentor vessel, allows the free escape of metabolic products while retaining yeast in the fermentor.

Åke Haraldson; Carl-Gustaf Rosén

1982-01-01

26

Studies on continuous ethanol fermentation of sugar cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous fermentation of concentrated molasses to ethanol with simultaneous product removal has been studied in a series of week-long continuous experiments. Influence of oxygen tension on ethanol yield and yeast growth has been studied for two different yeast strains, one Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one Schizosaccharomyces pombe. As expected, ethanol yield showed a steady decline for increasing oxygen tension. Yeast growth

Åke Haraldson; Carl-Gustaf Rosén

1982-01-01

27

Strategies for the development of a side stream process for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from sugar cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-stage process was developed to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from sugar cane molasses. The process includes (1) molasses acidogenic fermentation, (2) selection of PHA-accumulating cultures, (3) PHA batch accumulation using the enriched sludge and fermented molasses. In the fermentation step, the effect of pH (5–7) on the organic acids profile and productivity was evaluated. At higher pH, acetic and propionic

M. G. E. Albuquerque; M. Eiroa; C. Torres; B. R. Nunes; M. A. M. Reis

2007-01-01

28

Butyric acid fermentation in a fibrous bed bioreactor with immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum from cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2gl?1 with yield of 0.47gg?1 and reactor productivity up to 4.13gl?1h?1 at pH

Ling Jiang; Jufang Wang; Shizhong Liang; Xiaoning Wang; Peilin Cen; Zhinan Xu

2009-01-01

29

The use of tamarind waste to improve ethanol production from cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Tamarind wastes such as tamarind husk, pulp, seeds, fruit and the effluent generated during tartaric acid extraction were\\u000a used as supplements to evaluate their effects on alcohol production from cane molasses using yeast cultures. Small amounts\\u000a of these additives enhanced the rate of ethanol production in batch fermentations. Tamarind fruit increased ethanol production\\u000a (9.7%, w\\/v) from 22.5% reducing sugars of

B G Patil; D V Gokhale; K B Bastawde; S G Patil

1998-01-01

30

Purification of Fructose Syrups Produced from Cane Molasses Media Using Ultrafiltration Membranes and Activated Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purification of fructose syrups produced from sugar cane molasses media using ultrafiltration membranes, activated carbon, and ion?exchange resins was studied. Polyethersulfone (PES) membrane (10 kDa MWCO) and a thin film composite (TFC) membrane (1 kDa MWCO) were used for decolorization of fructose syrups. When activated carbon (Darco G?60) was used to remove colorants from the broth containing fructose, a color removal

Hasan K. Atiyeh; Zdravko Duvnjak

2005-01-01

31

Monensin supplementation of lactating cows fed tropical grasses and cane molasses or grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of monensin (Mon) on performance of Holstein–Friesian cows fed tropical grasses and cane molasses (M) or cereal grain were examined in three experiments. In experiment 1 (incomplete 4×4Latin square), three rumen-fistulated cows [188±11 days in milk (DIM)] were fed mixed diets based on rhodes grass (Chloris gayana cv. Callide) hay where M was substituted for wheat grain (W) at

B. C. Granzin; G. Mc L. Dryden

2005-01-01

32

Butyric acid fermentation in a fibrous bed bioreactor with immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum from cane molasses.  

PubMed

Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2 g l(-1) with yield of 0.47 g g(-1) and reactor productivity up to 4.13 g l(-1)h(-1) at pH 6.0. When repeated-batch fermentation was carried out, long-term operation with high butyrate yield, volumetric productivity was achieved. Several cane molasses pretreatment techniques were investigated, and it was found that sulfuric acid treatment gave better results regarding butyrate concentration (34.6+/-0.8 g l(-1)), yield (0.58+/-0.01 g g(-1)), and sugar utilization (90.8+/-0.9%). Also, fed-batch fermentation from cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was performed to further increase the concentration of butyrate up to 55.2 g l(-1). PMID:19297150

Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

2009-03-17

33

The Nutritive Value of Wood Molasses as Compared with Cane Molasses1  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the many objectives of the Forest Products Laboratory of the U. S. Forest Service at Madison, Wis., is to find and develop new uses for low quality wood and wood wastes. One such development of this laboratory is the produc- tion of wood molasses. Using a dilute acid process for hydrolysis similar to one used in Germany with

N. F. Colovos; H. A. Keener; J. R. Prescott; A. E. Teeri

1949-01-01

34

Citric acid production from sugar cane molasses by 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutant strain of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citric acid production from sugar cane molasses byAspergillus niger NIAB 280 was studied in a batch cultivation process. A maximum of 90 g\\/L total sugar was utilized in citric acid production\\u000a medium. From the parental strainA. niger, mutant strains showing resistance to 2-deoxyglucose in Vogal's medium containing molasses as a carbon source were induced\\u000a by ?-irradiation. Among the new series

S. Parvez; M. I. Rajoka; M. N. Ahmed; F. Latif; R. Shahid; K. A. Malik

1998-01-01

35

Influence of exponentially decreasing feeding rates on fed-batch ethanol fermentation of sugar cane blackstrap molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ethanol yield was not affected and the ethanol productivity was increased when exponentially decreasing feeding rates were used instead of constant feeding rates in fed batch ethanol fermentations. The influences of the initial sugar feeding rate on the ethanol productivity, on the constant ethanol production rate during the feeding phase and on the initial ethanol production specific rate

J. C. M. de Carvalho; E. Aquarone; S. Sato; M. L. Brazzach; K. A. Almeida; W. Borzani

1990-01-01

36

Influence of linearly decreasing feeding rates on fed-batch ethanol fermentation of sugar-cane blackstrap molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ethanol yield was not affected and the ethanol productivity increased (˜10%) when linearly decreasing feeding rates were used instead of constant feeding rates in fed-batch ethanol fermentations.

Margareth Krauter; E. Aquarone; S. Sato; L. Perego Jr; W. Borzani

1987-01-01

37

Pilot-scale multi-stage multi-feeding continuous ethanol fermentation using non-sterile cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Non-aseptic fermentation of a 28 brix cane molasses solution was successfully carried out in a pilot-scale 5-stage multi-feeding continuous system for 30 days. The effluent ethanol concentration, overall volumetric productivity and sugar conversion yield averaged 8.54 % (v\\/v), 5.35 g\\/L-hr and 92.4 % of theoretical, respectively.

H. C. Chen; D. G. Mou

1990-01-01

38

Lactic Acid Production from Cane Molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIM 2025 in Submerged Condition: Optimization of Medium Component by Taguchi DOE Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid production parameter optimization was performed using cane molasses by design of experiment (DOE) with the help of Qualitek-4 software with bigger is better as quality characteristics with eight media components at three levels in submerged culture condition. Eight factors with three levels studied were yeast extract, CaCO3, MnSO4, pH, Temperature, molasses, urea, and Tween 80. These factors were

S. M. Bhatt; S. K. Srivastava

2008-01-01

39

Production of ethanol by a flocculent Saccharomyces sp. in a continuous upflow reactor using sucrose, sugar-cane juice, and molasses as the carbon source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A flocculentSaccharomyces sp., isolated from spontaneously fermenting sugar-cane juice, was used to produce ethanol in a continuous upflow reactor. Media of different composition were tested using the same fermentation conditions. The best results were obtained fermenting either sugar-cane juice or molasses. The differences observed could be due to the influence of the medium composition on the growth rate and

C. M. Abate; D. A. S. Callieri; S. Acosta; M. de Vié

1987-01-01

40

The use of cane molasses for the manufacture of motor fuels as experienced in the early 1920s  

SciTech Connect

During the years 1919-1923 alcohol motor fuel was manufactured from sugar cane molasses in British Guiana. This alcohol motor fuel, known by the trade name of Alcolene, consisted of a mixture of about 63% ethyl alcohol, 35% ethyl ether, and 1% gas oil and pyridine. It was produced by fermenting cane molasses for the production of ethyl alcohol and afterwards manufacturing ethyl ether by treating a part of the ethyl alcohol with sulphuric acid in special distillation equipment manufactured by Walter E. Lummus., Boston, Massachusetts which mixed the alcohol and ether during the manufacturing process. No refrigeration was required. This Alcolene Motor Fuel was sold on the market in British Guiana for several years and used successfully in many types of gasolene engines with very little adjustment of the engines. Alcolene gave about 20 miles per US gallon as compared with 22.5 miles per gallon of gasolene. The motor engines remained in perfect condition when using this alcohol motor fuel.

Freeland, E.C.

1980-12-01

41

Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been\\u000a worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization\\u000a of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation\\u000a time) for ethanol production from sugar

Bodhisatta Maiti; Ankita Rathore; Saurav Srivastava; Mitali Shekhawat; Pradeep Srivastava

2011-01-01

42

Lipid accumulation in Rhodotorula glutinis on sugar cane molasses in single-stage continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial lipids produced byRhodotorula glutinis grown in continuous culture with molasses under nitrogen-limiting conditions were evaluated and the effects of growth rate on fatty acid composition were studied. As the growth rate decreased, cell biomass, lipid content and lipid yield gradually increased. The maximum lipid content recorded was 39% (w\\/w) of dry cell biomass at a dilution rate of 0.04

R. M. Alvarez; B. Rodríguez; J. M. Romano; A. O. Díaz; E. Gómez; D. Miró; L. Navarro; G. Saura; J. L. García

1992-01-01

43

Comparative Studies on Quantitative Saccharose Determination in Beet and Cane Molasses (Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Quantitativen Saccharosebestimmung in Rueben- und Rohrmelassen).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this study is to apply methods for determining saccharose to an examination of molasses which would yield absolute values correctly and with satisfactory precision. Acting upon recommendations of the International Commission for Uniform Method...

I. Bergmann-Danckert

1980-01-01

44

Feeding of Lablab purpureus forage with molasses blocks or sugar cane stalks to rabbit fryers in subtropical south Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the lesser-developed countries, pelleted commercial feeds for rabbits are generally not available or are cost prohibitive to most farmers. The development of high quality, forage-based diets with simple supplements is a high priority research area. A 35-day feeding experiment was conducted involving 60 rabbit fryers to evaluate lablab forage (fresh or hay) in combination with an energy supplement (molasses

S. S Linga; S. D Lukefahr; M. J Lukefahr

2003-01-01

45

High fructose formation from sugarcane syrup and molasses using Zymomonas mobilis mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High fructose recovery yields were obtained using sugarcane syrup and C-molasses (equal to blackstrap molasses) and a fructokinase negative mutant ofZymomonas mobilis. The fructose recovery was 95.7% with sugarcane syrup and 99.4% with 300 g\\/L C-molasses or mixtures of both. High fructose corn syrup of a 48\\/52 mixture of glucose and fructose gave only a 65–70% fructose recovery due to

Monica B. Doelle; Horst W. Doelle

1991-01-01

46

Sugarcane molasses fermentation by Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different quality types of sugar-cane molasses containing a total sugar content of 48%–50% (w\\/v) and 35%–42% (w\\/v) were investigated for Zymomonas biothanol production. Molasses concentrations of up to 250 g\\/l (1:3 dilution) were successfully fermented within 24 h despite a higher salt concentration in the lower grade molasses. Higher molasses concentrations (300 g\\/l) led to fructose accumulation. The addition

Monica B. Doelle; Horst W. Doelle

1990-01-01

47

Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from cane molasses using Clostridium beijerinckii mutant obtained by combined low-energy ion beam implantation and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induction.  

PubMed

In order to obtain mutant strains showing higher solvent tolerance and butanol production than those of wild-type strains, the butanol-producing strain Clostridium beijerinckii L175 was subjected to mutagenesis using a combined method of low-energy ion beam implantation and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induction. With this effort, mutant strain MUT3 was isolated. When it was used for butanol fermentation in P2 medium, the production of butanol was 15.8±0.7 g/L 46% higher than the wild-type strain. Furthermore, after optimization of butanol production from cane molasses with MUT3, the maximum butanol production of 14.9±0.5 g/L were obtained in crew-capped bottles. When ABE production by MUT3 was carried out in a bioreactor, the production of butanol and total solvent were 15.1±0.8 g/L and 22.1±0.9 g/L, respectively. The remarkable butanol production and solvent tolerance of MUT3 make it promising for butanol production from cane molasses. PMID:23587827

Li, Han-guang; Luo, Wei; Gu, Qiu-ya; Wang, Qiang; Hu, Wen-jun; Yu, Xiao-bin

2013-03-21

48

BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM MOLASSES BY DIFFERENT STRAINS OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In commercial ethanol production producers often use sugar cane molasses as raw material due to their abundance and low costs. The most employed microorganisms used for fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts due to their ability to hydrolyze sucrose from cane molasses into glucose and fructose, two easily assimilable hexoses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of

PATRASCU ELENA; RAPEANU GABRIELA; BONCIU CAMELIA; HOPULELE TRAIAN

49

Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of

Byung Y. Yang; Rex Montgomery

2007-01-01

50

Maufacture of raw cane sugar  

SciTech Connect

Procedures used at the Pepeekeo Sugar Factory in Hawaii for producing commercial sugar, molasses and bagasse from harvested sugar cane are described. The molasses is marketed, the sugar is refined elsewhere, and the bagasse is burned to produce steam and electric power for the Pepeekeo plant. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01

51

Bioenergy Systems Report. Special Issue: Cane Energy Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the use of cane to produce energy. It focuses primarily on two recent proposals for the production of electric power for the grid using cane residues and supplementary fuels. It also reviews use of cane juice or molasses to produce eth...

1986-01-01

52

ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTED and volatile COMPONENTS IN BLACKSTRAP MOLASSES feed AS CANDIDATE HOUSE FLY ATTRACTANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

House flies are a ubiquitous insect that have the potential to spread many diseases to humans and livestock. Controlling house fly populations is accomplished by having desirable baits, traps, and killing agents. Most house fly baits are designed for outdoor use or limited indoor use, and have a f...

53

Analysis of Extracted and Volatile Components in Blackstrap Molasses Feed as Candidate House Fly Attractants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

House flies are a ubiquitous insect that have the potential to spread many diseases to humans and livestock. Managing house fly populations is accomplished by having desirable baits, traps, and killing agents. Most house fly baits are designed for outdoor...

B. P. Quinn C. J. Geden D. A. Carlson J. A. Hogsette U. R. Bernier

2007-01-01

54

An Attractant for House Flies Based on Components Identified in Blackstrap Molasses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early research on house flies demonstrated that flies are attracted to a variety of sweet and fermenting materials. Most of the research on fly attractants during the past 35 years, however, has concentrated on pheromones (z-9-tricosene) and products involved in the metabolism and breakdown of prot...

55

Fermentation of molasses by Zymomonas mobilis: Effects of temperature and sugar concentration on ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentations utilizing strains of Zymomonas mobilis, in place of the traditional yeasts, have been proposed due their ethanol yields being close to theoretical. Ethanol production from sugar cane molasses was analyzed under different culture conditions using Z. mobilis in batch fermentation. The total reducing sugars (TRS) concentrations in the molasses, temperature, agitation and culture time effects were studied simultaneously through

M. L. Cazetta; M. A. P. C. Celligoi; J. B. Buzato; I. S. Scarmino

2007-01-01

56

Net energy balance of molasses based ethanol: The case of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates life cycle energy analysis of molasses based ethanol (MOE) in Nepal. Net energy value (NEV), net renewable energy value (NREV) and energy yield ratio are used to evaluate the energy balance of MOE in Nepal. Total energy requirements in sugarcane farming, cane milling and ethanol conversion processes are estimated and energy allocation is made between co-products (molasses

Dilip Khatiwada; Semida Silveira

2009-01-01

57

Sulfur Requirement of Lactating Dairy Cows. II. Utilization of Sulfates, Molasses, and Lignin-Sulfonate1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were designed to evaluate sodium and calcium sulfate, cane molasses, and lignin-sulfonate as sources of dietary sulfur for lactating dairy cows. Dietary sulfur was .15 and .30%. Molasses was fed at 14% of the ration dry matter, and sodium sulfate was added to attain .15 and .30% sulfur in the complete diet. Calcium sulfate was supplied in agricultural

R. Bouchard; H. R. Conrad

1973-01-01

58

Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic studies of the enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses were conducted using glucoamylase. Central Sugar Refinery SDN BHD contains 13–20% glucose. The molasses was diluted and the kinetic experiments were conducted at 67 °C with 100–1000 mg\\/l of glucoamylase. The glucose contents of the molasses were enhanced after hydrolysis of molasses solution with 1000 mg\\/l glucoamylase. A Lineweaver–Burk plot was obtained

Ghasem D. Najafpour; Cheong Poi Shan

2003-01-01

59

Bioenergy systems report. Special issue: cane energy systems  

SciTech Connect

The report examines the use of cane to produce energy. It focuses primarily on two recent proposals for the production of electric power for the grid using cane residues and supplementary fuels. It also reviews use of cane juice or molasses to produce ethanol for blending with gasoline. In both types of cane energy systems, the objective is the production of energy as well as sugar or sugar products. The report is divided into sections on growing and harvesting biomass fuels in cane fields, producing power for the grid with these fuels, the uses of the cane juice produced in cane energy systems, the costs and revenues associated with these systems, and the national benefits derived from these systems.

Not Available

1986-03-01

60

Cultivation of the carotenoid-hyperproducing mutant 2A2N of the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) with molasses.  

PubMed

The carotenoid-hyperproducing mutant 2A2N of the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) was cultivated using sugar beet blackstrap molasses. This molasses was composed of 70% (w/v) total solid and 50% (w/v) total sugar. Biomass yield (biomass/carbohydrate) significantly decreased at >5% (v/v) molasses. Atomic emission spectrometry revealed that Na and P were the limiting nutrients when molasses was used. Molasses (5%, v/v) containing urea (30 g/l molasses) and sodium phosphate (NaH2PO4, 5 g/l molasses) was formulated for biomass production by the mutant. The optimal pH for carotenoid production was 4.9 during the growth phase and 2.6-3.5 during the stationary phase. The three main sugars in molasses (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) were assimilated by the mutant but fructose was consumed slowly. When the formulated medium with pH 4.5-5.5 was used, the maximal biomass yield was 36 g/l (0.18 g of yeast l(-1)h(-1) and 40 mg of carotenoid l(-1)) in fed-batch pilot-scale 100-l cultivation. PMID:16233070

An, G H; Jang, B G; Cho, M H

2001-01-01

61

Life cycle assessment of Australian sugarcane products with a focus on cane processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This work generates attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) results for products produced from Australian sugarcane—raw\\u000a sugar, molasses, electricity (from bagasse combustion), and ethanol (from molasses). It focuses on cane processing in sugar\\u000a mills and is a companion to the work presented in (Renouf et al. 2010), where the focus is on cane growing. This work also examines the preferred approach

Marguerite Anne Renouf; Robert J. Pagan; Malcolm K. Wegener

2011-01-01

62

General Subject 4, Molasses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A report is given on the lastest international trends in the analysis of molasses for trade and processing, as well as recommendations for methods to study. A new enzymatic method to measure reducing sugars in molasses still needs work to stabilize the enzymes. There is a strong concern, worldwide...

63

Production of ethanol from molasses at 45?°C using alginate-immobilized Kluyveromyces marxianus imb3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermotolerant, ethanol-producing yeast strain, Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3, has been immobilized in calcium alginate matrices. The ability of the biocatalyst to produce ethanol from cane molasses originating in Guatemala, Honduras, Senegal, Guyana and the Philippines was examined. In each case the molasses was diluted to yield a sugar concentration of 140 g\\/l and fermentations were carried out in batch-fed mode

S. Gough; D. Brady; P. Nigam; R. Marchant; A. P. McHale

1997-01-01

64

Ergosterol production from molasses by genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by fungi. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae YEH56(pHXA42) with increased capacity of ergosterol formation was constructed by combined overexpression of sterol C-24(28)\\u000a reductase and sterol acyltransferase in the yeast strain YEH56. The production of ergosterol by this recombinant strain using\\u000a cane molasses (CM) as an inexpensive carbon source was investigated. An ergosterol content of 52.6 mg\\/g

Xiuping He; Xuena Guo; Nan Liu; Borun Zhang

2007-01-01

65

Aerobic treatment of molasses distillery waste hater and biomass production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molasses stillage 1s a pyproduct of the sugar cane Industry in Egypt. Candida utilis and Paecilomyces variotii were used separately and in a mixed culture for treatment of this still age and biomass production. A two?steps aerobic batch process has been adopted. The distillery waste water was treated with C. utilis 1n the first step and with P.. variotii 1n

A. M. Azzam; Y. A. Heikel

1989-01-01

66

Utilization of Molasses Sugar for Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii Mutant Uc-3 in Batch Fermentation?  

PubMed Central

Efficient lactic acid production from cane sugar molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii mutant Uc-3 in batch fermentation process is demonstrated. Lactic acid fermentation using molasses was not significantly affected by yeast extract concentrations. The final lactic acid concentration increased with increases of molasses sugar concentrations up to 190 g/liter. The maximum lactic acid concentration of 166 g/liter was obtained at a molasses sugar concentration of 190 g/liter with a productivity of 4.15 g/liter/h. Such a high concentration of lactic acid with high productivity from molasses has not been reported previously, and hence mutant Uc-3 could be a potential candidate for economical production of lactic acid from molasses at a commercial scale.

Dumbrepatil, Arti; Adsul, Mukund; Chaudhari, Shivani; Khire, Jayant; Gokhale, Digambar

2008-01-01

67

Ethanol fermentation of a diluted molasses medium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on chrysotile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the catalytic role of chrysotile support on the acceleration of alcoholic fermentation under non-aseptic conditions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. The fermentation medium employed consisted only of diluted sugar-cane molasses. In the batch fermentations process with immobilized yeasts, the initial rate of CO 2 production increased roughly 27 % during the first 30 minutes, compared to systems

Ranulfo Monte Alegre; Maurício Rigo; Inés Joekes

2003-01-01

68

FIELD EVALUATION OF CONCENTRATED MOLASSES STILLAGE AS A NUTRIENT SOURCE FOR SUGARCANE IN SWAZILAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stillage or vinasse, which is a byproduct of ethanol production, is produced from the fermentation of molasses and is used as a source of potassium on cane fields at Simunye-Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation. Due concern regarding its high salt content and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), a trial was established on an S set soil (Mayo form) to study the effect

P E TURNER; J H MEYER; A C KING

69

78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...2014) in-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV)....

2013-09-13

70

Extraction of sucrose from molasses  

SciTech Connect

Sucrose is extracted from molasses by passing an aqueous molasses solution over an adsorbent, e.g., calcined Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-supported pyrolyzed C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Thus, 10 mL molasses (approximately 46% solids) was run through a column containing 70 cubic centimetres above adsorbent with sucrose retention volume 21.4 and selectivity for sucrose - betaine 23.8.

Landis, A.M.

1982-01-26

71

Natural immobilisation of microorganisms for continuous ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a growth medium based on cane blackstrap molasses, we compared ethanol production by two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that were immobilized in polyurethane foam cubes in a fluidised-bed fermenter. One strain (NCYC 1119) was adhesive and extremely flocculent, whilst the other strain was not adhesive and only weakly flocculent. The strong flocs of NCYC 1119 caused blockage of the

C. M. S. G. Baptista; J. M. A. Cóias; A. C. M. Oliveira; N. M. C. Oliveira; J. M. S. Rocha; M. J. Dempsey; K. C. Lannigan; P. S. Benson

2006-01-01

72

Development and characterization of butanol — Resistant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum in molasses medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of acetone—butanol—ethanol solvents from cane molasses by locally isolated culture ofClostridium acetobutylicum was limited by butanol toxicity (1.6 mol\\/L). The butanol tolerance of the isolated culture was increased up to 4.8 mol\\/L\\u000a by a serial enrichment method. The butanol-resistant strain had greater efficiency for the conversion of saccharides to mixed\\u000a solvents and produced 52% more butanol at the

S. Quratulain; M. A. Qadeer; M. Y. Chaudhry; A. R. Kausar

1995-01-01

73

Top and bottom yeasts together accelerate ethanol production in molasses fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Alcohol producing top and bottom yeasts were employed individually and together to assess their role in enhancing the rate of ethanol production, in cane molasses fermentation, at 30°C. The combination of top yeastS.cerevisiae NCIM 3281, and bottom yeastS.uvarum NCIM 3509, improved the enthanol production rate by 32.6% in batch fermentation and 25.2% in recycling yeasts cell fermentation as compared

S. G. Patil; B. G. Patil

1989-01-01

74

Development of a novel fungal consortium for the treatment of molasses distillery wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, cane molasses–based distilleries are major production centers of ethanol. These industries release a dark brown\\u000a colored effluent known as spent wash, which even after anaerobic treatment retains the color. The commonly used practices\\u000a of treatment fail to remove the color and COD. A novel fungal consortium was developed for the treatment of this recalcitrant\\u000a wastewater. The consortium was

Deepak Pant; Alok Adholeya

2010-01-01

75

INAA and AAS of different products from sugar cane industry in Pakistan: Toxic trace elements for nutritional safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been used to determine As, Br, Hg, Sb and Se in combination with atomic\\u000a absorption spectrometry (AAS) as a complementary technique for the quantification of Cd and Pb in jaggery, brown sugar, white\\u000a sugar and molasses. All sugar cane products were collected from the local sugar cane industry of Pakistan. The highest concentration\\u000a of

S. Waheed; S. Rahman; K. P. Gill

2009-01-01

76

SUPPLEMENTATION OF SUGAR CANE\\/UREA FOR GROWING CATTLE: LEVELS OF MAIZE GRAIN AND A PROTEIN CONCENTRATE 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect on rate of growth and conversion of different levels of a protein supplement, with or without maize grain in basal diets of sugarcane\\/urea or sugar cane and molasses\\/urea given in separately feeders. In experiment 1 the levels of a 30% protein concentrate (compounded from soya bean, meat, maize gluten and alfalfa)

R Silvestre; N A MacLeod; T R Preston

77

75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under...

2010-08-05

78

Free-Standing Canes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A precane device, called the "free-standing cane," was developed to help children with blindness along with other disabilities. The cane detects obstacles; guides the user's hands into a relaxed, static position in front of the hips; facilitates postural security and control; and offers tactile and kinesthetic feedback. (JDD)|

Ehresman, Paul

1995-01-01

79

Effect of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This fact sheet summarizes the results of two continuous culture fermentor studies that evaluated the effects of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation of a pasture diet. The first study compared molasses with corn supplementation. Diets consisted of pasture only, molasses plus pasture, co...

80

Bacterial Cellulose Production from Beet Molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial friendly cellulose is produced from beet molasses using Gluconacetobacter xylinus ATCC 10245. The yield of the bacterial cellulose (BC) produced from beet molasses was higher than that using glucose as a sole carbon source. The structure of BC produced in presence of beet molasses was studied using IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. IR spectra show the relative absorbance of

Sherif M. A. S. Keshk; Taha M. A. Razek; Kazuhiko Sameshima

2006-01-01

81

Cane production for sugar and electric power in Jamaica  

SciTech Connect

The principal conclusion of the report is that the Jamaican sugar industry can be made profitable. Although sugar has been grown in Jamaica for centuries, a combination of circumstances, including declining world sugar prices and a severe shortage of foreign exchange, have undermined the economic viability of the government-owned sugar estates. As a result, they have become a burden to the economy. With proper management, cane can become a highly attractive source of fuel for the generation of electricity while at the same time producing sugar and molasses.

Not Available

1984-10-01

82

"Cane" as Blues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cane...represents the apotheosis of one man's attempt to bear witness to the reality and the power of an idea . . . that the Negro is not an apprentice to equality but a journeyman in suffering." (Author)

McKeever, Benjamin F.

1970-01-01

83

SUPPLEMENTING BAHIAGRASS HAY WITH MOLASSES OR MOLASSES-UREA WITH OR WITHOUT SOYBEAN HULLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of molasses or molasses-urea fed with or without soybean hulls on digestibility, intake and animal performance of cattle fed bahiagrass hay (8% CP). In exp. 1, Holstein steers were fed one of six diets: 1) hay only; 2) hay plus molasses (0.75% BW...

84

Chemical composition of grape canes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, chemical composition of canes which were sampled from ten different grape cultivars was investigated. For the determination of total phenolics, total flavanols and total flavonol contents, canes were analyzed spectrophotometrically. The phenolic compositions of the canes, including caffeic acid, catechin, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, gallic acid, luteolin and trans-resveratrol were detected by HPLC. The anthron method was used

Emine Sema Çetin; Duygu Altinöz; Ecehan Tarçan; Nilgün Göktürk Baydar

2011-01-01

85

19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26 Customs Duties...and Molasses § 151.26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the port...

2013-04-01

86

Production of ethanol from molasses at 45?°C using Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3 immobilized in calcium alginate gels and poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermotolerant, ethanol-producing yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3 has been immobilized in calcium alginate gel and poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel (PVAC) beads. The immobilized preparations were used as biocatalyst in fed-batch reactor systems for prolonged periods. The substrate utilized in each case consisted of sugar cane molasses diluted to yield a sugar load of 140 g\\/l. During the first cycle the

S. Gough; N. Barron; A. L. Zubov; V. I. Lozinsky; A. P. McHale

1998-01-01

87

Selection of Production Processes for Utilization of Molasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Described is the prevailing position of the production and utilization of molasses in Pakistan and the different processes available for the utilization of molasses as animal feedstuffs, food products and chemical products. Each of these processes is desc...

F. H. Shah

1973-01-01

88

Hawaii ethanol from molasses program: literature review summary  

SciTech Connect

A literature review on the production of industrial alcohol from molasses is presented. The following processes are discussed: molasses pretreatment; fermentation; ethanol recovery; by-product recovery; and waste disposal. 66 references. (DMC)

Rezachek, D.; Roberts, R.; Krill, K.; Hsu, D.

1979-10-01

89

Utilization of molasses based distillery effluent for fertigation of sugarcane.  

PubMed

A field study was carried out to monitor the effect of application of molasses based distillery effluent on yields of sugarcane and soil properties. The treatments consisted of main plots: control (I0), first pre-sowing irrigation with undiluted effluent (I1), one irrigation with effluent: tube-well water (1:3) at tillering stage (I2), two irrigations with effluent: tube-well water (1:4) at tillering and 30 d after tillering stage (I3). The subplots either received no fertilizer application (F0) or had 50 % of recommended dose (50 kg N, 60 kg P(2)O(5) and 40 kg K(2)O ha(-1) as basal dose (F1) with top dressing of 50 kg N ha(-1) at tillering and in June before the onset of monsoon. Nitrogen to the ratoon crops was applied in three equal splits. Application of 50 % recommended fertilizer dose increased the cumulative cane yields under different effluent treatments. Use of distillery effluent irrespective of the method of application significantly increased the cumulative yields of sugarcane over no application of effluent significantly at p ? 0.05. After the harvest of second ratoon crop, no significant effect of different treatments was noted on soil pH, electrical conductance and exchangeable Na. Significantly higher build-up of organic C in surface soil was noted under I2 treatment in comparison to I0 treatment at p ? 0.05. With no fertilizer application, both I1 and I2 significantly increased accumulation of alkaline KMnO(4) hydrolysable N in 30-45 cm layer in comparison to I0F0 at p ? 0.05. In comparison to I0, use of I2 increased the content of Olsen's P significantly (p ? 0.05) in 30-45 and 45-60 cm layers while I3 increased it significantly at p ? 0.05 in 0-15 and 45-60 cm layers. Use of distillery effluent as pre-sowing or standing crop irrigation increased ammonium acetate extractable K in surface and sub-surface layers significantly in comparison to I0 at p ? 0.05. Thus, use of distillery effluent in sugarcane crop as pre-sown or standing crop irrigation had no adverse impact on soil reaction or electrical conductivity and could save at least fifty percent of basal NPK application with significantly higher cumulative millable cane yields of main crop and two subsequent ratoons. PMID:22886369

Srivastava, P C; Singh, R K; Srivastava, P; Shrivastava, Manoj

2012-08-11

90

Molasses Tail in Dense Hard Core Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long slow decaying potential part of the shear-stress autocorrelation function has been called the ``molasses tail'' to differentiate it from the hydrodynamic origin of the long time tail in the velocity autocorrelation function and to emphasize its relation to the highly viscous glassy state [1]. Some twenty years ago, the molasses tail in dense liquids near the solid-fluid transition point was speculated to be due to transient crystal nuclei formation [2].This slow decaying process of the OACF and its decomposition (pair, triplet, and quadruplet) is a key factor in understanding the onset of the glass transition. With additional computer power, we are now investigating the origin of the molasses tail using a modern fast algorithm based on event-driven Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation.We confirm the non-algebraic decay (stretched exponential) at intermediate times corresponding to the existence of various cluster sizes a solid cluster at high densities. The decay in dense systems thus consists of a three stage relaxation process, which are the kinetic regime, the molasses regime and the diffusional power regime[3]. [1] B. J. Alder, in Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Statistical-mechanical Systems, G. Ciccotti and W. G. Hoover, eds.(North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1986) 66. [2] A. J. C. Ladd, and B. J. Alder, J. Stat. Phys. 57, 473 (1989). [3] M. Isobe and B. J. Alder, Mol. Phys., 107, 609 (2009).

Isobe, Masaharu; Alder, Berni

2010-03-01

91

21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the juice of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum...ingredients that may be used in cane sirup are: (1) Salt. (2) Preservatives. (3) Defoaming agents. (c)...

2013-04-01

92

21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device intended for medical purposes that is...

2013-04-01

93

Molasses increases HDL cholesterol in rats research note.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to determine whether molasses might exert effects on serum lipoproteins. In experiment 1, 24 rats were divided into two groups and fed diets containing liquid molasses from sugar beet or sucrose (7.71 g of molasses dry matter or sucrose per kg of diet). The second experiment included four groups of rats (n = l2/group) and was conducted in a bifactorial design, with the factors being molasses (non-supplementation vs. supplementation of 77.1 g of molasses dry matter per kg of diet at the expense of sucrose) and dietary cholesterol (0 vs. 5 g/kg diet). In experiment 1, the ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration tended to be lower in rats fed the molasses diet than in rats fed the control diet (p < 0.15). In experiment 2, rats fed the molasses diet had higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol (+ 26%) than control rats fed diets without molasses (p < 0.05). This effect was independent of the dietary cholesterol concentration. Concentrations of cholesterol in LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and liver as well as concentrations of triacylglycerols in plasma and liver remained unaffected by molasses in both experiments. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that supplementation of molasses is effective at raising HDL cholesterol levels in rats. PMID:16028637

Schlegelmilch, Ulf; Brandsch, Corinna; Stangl, Gabriele I; Eder, Klaus

2005-05-01

94

Bio-concentration of vinasse from the alcoholic fermentation of sugar cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concentration-incineration process of vinasse has been in use for several years in order to deal with pollution resulting from the industrial production of ethanol by fermentation and distillation. However, as vinasse concentration has a high energy demand, a bio-concentration method with no energy consumption is reported in this paper. Vinasses was used instead of water in the preparation of

A. R Navarro; M del C. Sepúlveda; M. C Rubio

2000-01-01

95

Fuel ethanol from cane molasses in Thailand: Environmental and cost performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of the world's energy crisis and environmental concerns, crop-based ethanol has emerged as an energy alternative, the use of which can help reduce oil imports as well as emissions of CO2 and other air pollutants. However, a clear disadvantage of ethanol is its high cost over gasoline under the current pricing scheme that does not include externalities.

Thu Lan T. Nguyen; Shabbir H. Gheewala

2008-01-01

96

Production of Microbial Transglutaminase on Media Made from Sugar Cane Molasses and Glycerol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyses an acyl transfer reaction between g-car- boxamide groups of glutaminyl residues and lysine residues in proteins. Due to this prop- erty, this enzyme is used for enhancing textural properties of protein-rich food. The trans- glutaminase used as food additive is obtained by microorganisms, mainly by Streptoverti- cillium ladakanum. On the other hand, sugar

Oscar M. Portilla-Rivera; Simón J. Téllez-Luis; José A. Ramírez de León; Manuel Vázquez

97

Use of the UASB reactor for the anaerobic treatment of stillage from sugar cane molasses  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of applying the UASB concept for the anaerobic treatment of stillage of distilleries in the sugar producing area of Argentina was subject to study. Results obtained in a 100-l UASB reactor treating stillages with COD values between 35 and 100 g COD/l are presented. Loading rates of up to 24 g COD/l/day, were applied with an average COD removal of 75% and a biogas production of more than 9 l/l/day, with an average methane content of 58%. The settling velocity distribution of sludge particles would indicate a good formation of biomass pellets. System interruptions of months without feed and at ambient temperature (20-24/sup 0/C) were well tolerated.

Sanchez Riera, F.; Cordoba, P.; Sineriz, F.

1985-12-01

98

19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. 151.28...TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a)...

2010-04-01

99

19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. 151.28...TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a)...

2009-04-01

100

19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. 151.28...TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a)...

2013-04-01

101

Astaxanthin formation by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma on molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Phaffia rhodozyma grown on 7–10% B or C garde molasses contained 2 to 3 times more astaxanthin than reported earlier for this red yeast. Yield of astaxanthin with 10% molasses as fermentation substrate was 15.3 µg\\/ml which was about 3 times higher than with glucose and 2 times higher than with a sugar blend representative of the molasses.

N. F. Haard

1988-01-01

102

Sugar Canes as Bioenergy Feedstocks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugar cane crops currently being grown in the South can play a role in helping the United States meet its need for both renewable transportation fuel and food and feed. Research being conducted at the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service’s Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, Louisiana is g...

103

Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

2012-01-01

104

Effect of Residual Molasses on Microbial Straw Decomposition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study investigates the effect of residual molasses on the growth of cellulolytic bacteria and fungi in shake cultures and surface cultures. The highest growth rates were obtained with concentrations of up to 8 per cent residual molasses, and the large...

W. Kisker

1982-01-01

105

Pretreatment of beet molasses to increase pullulan production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of beet molasses with cation exchange resin, sulphuric acid, tricalcium phosphate, potassium ferrocyanide, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and disodium salt (EDTA) to increase the production of pullulan was investigated. Among the above techniques used for the removal of heavy metals, sulphuric acid treatment gave better results regarding polysaccharide concentration, polysaccharide yield, and sugar utilization. Aureobasidium pullulans grown on beet molasses

T. Roukas

1998-01-01

106

The Preschool Blind Child Can Be a Cane User.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article proposes the teaching of long cane mobility skills to blind preschool-age children. Traditional arguments against early cane use are refuted and possible advantages of early use identified. Strategies and techniques for cane introduction are specified. (DB)|

Pogrund, R. L.; Rosen, S. J.

1989-01-01

107

Wetland paradise lost: Miocene community dynamics in large herbivorous mammals from the German Molasse Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions: What was the distribution of fossil mammal taxa in the Miocene German Molasse Basin? Were there changes in community structure during the terrestrial development of the Molasse Basin? Were community dynamics similar in the Molasse Basin to those in the rest of Europe? Data: We gathered the available Miocene large mammal herbivore occurrences from the southern German Molasse Basin

Jussi T. Eronen; Gertrud E. Rössner

2007-01-01

108

Ergonomic Factors Related to Drop-Off Detection With the Long Cane: Effects of Cane Tips and Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane.Background: Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user’s ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies

Dae Shik Kim; Robert S. Wall Emerson; Amy B. Curtis

2010-01-01

109

Growing of sugar cane for energy  

SciTech Connect

The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

Humbert, R.P.

1980-06-01

110

Hawaii Ethanol from Molasses Project, Phase I. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the best available commercial processes in the manufacture of anhydrous ethanol from molasses, (2) to determine those processes in the research and development stage that have the potential of becoming commer...

C. S. Chen W. O. Gibson K. I. Mashima R. R. Roberts D. A. Rezachek

1980-01-01

111

Influence of optical molasses in loading a shallow optical trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined loading of Rb85 atoms into a shallow far-off-resonance trap (FORT) from an optical molasses stage following a magneto-optical trap (MOT) stage and compared it to loading from a MOT stage only. Substantially more atoms could be loaded into the FORT using an optical molasses. To determine why this was the case, we measured the rate of atoms loaded into the FORT and the losses from the FORT during both loading processes over a range of detunings and hyperfine pump powers. We found that the losses induced during MOT loading were essentially the same as the losses induced during molasses loading and decreased with increased red detuning; however, we found that the differences in load rate caused an optical molasses to optimize at a greater detuning, improving the number of atoms we could trap by a factor of 2 over that of optimal loading from a MOT.

Hamilton, Mathew S.; Gorges, Anthony R.; Roberts, Jacob L.

2009-01-01

112

Factors affecting the ethanol productivity of yeast in molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol production by a laboratory yeast strain, X2180-1B, was less than half that by an alcohol yeast, YOY655, in a molasses medium containing 30% sugars, although X2180-1B produced approximately the same amount of ethanol as YOY655 in a nutrition medium with the same sugar content. The weak productivity of X2180-1B in the molasses was ascribed to the limitation of

Kazuhiko Takeshige; Kozo Ouchi

1995-01-01

113

Biosurfactant production using molasses and whey under thermophilic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosurfactant production was studied by Bacillus licheniformis K51, B. subtilis 20B, B. subtilis R1 and Bacillus strain HS3 using molasses or cheese whey as a sole source of nutrition at 45°C. The isolates were able to grow and produce biosurfactant under shaking as well as static conditions. Maximum biosurfactant production was achieved with molasses at 5.0–7.0% (w\\/v). The biosurfactant retained

Sanket Joshi; Chirag Bharucha; Sujata Jha; Sanjay Yadav; Anuradha Nerurkar; Anjana J. Desai

2008-01-01

114

?-Carotene production in sugarcane molasses by a Rhodotorula glutinis mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Several wild strains and mutants of Rhodotorula spp. were screened for growth, carotenoid production and the proportion of -carotene produced in sugarcane molasses. A better\\u000a producer, Rhodotorula glutinis mutant 32, was optimized for carotenoid production with respect to total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration and pH. In shake\\u000a flasks, when molasses was used as the sole nutrient medium with 40 g

P Bhosale; R V Gadre

2001-01-01

115

Cane River National Heritage Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tucked away in the northwestern corner of Louisiana, the Cane River winds its way through a primarily rural and agricultural landscape. Over the past several hundred years, the many groups of people who have lived and worked by the river have transformed this landscape. Created by the National Park Service, in partnership with the Louisiana Division of Historic Preservation and the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers, this website serves as a virtual tour guide to the Cane River National Heritage Area. First-time visitors should click on the interactive map offered here, as they can get the Âlay of the landÂ, and also utilize this feature to learn about historic landmarks in the area, such as the Cherokee Plantation and Fort Jesup. Along with this mélange of photos, maps, and descriptive passages, visitors can also take a look at three concise essays that provide answers to such questions as ÂWho are LouisianaÂs Creoles?Â

116

Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses  

PubMed Central

Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses. Results Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. Conclusion The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: ?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-?-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-?-D-glucopyranoside (named ?-planteose), ?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1)-?-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-?-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose), ?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-?-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose), and ?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-?-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose). 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time.

2012-01-01

117

Biosurfactant production in sugar beet molasses by some Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed

In this study rhamnolipid biosurfactant production was investigated in eighteen strains of Pseudomonas spp.. Rhamnolipid by these strains was determined by a spectrophotometric method in nutrient broth medium (NB). From the 18 strains screened, two Pseudomonas strains (Pseudomonas luteola B17 and Pseudomonas putida B12) which had produced the highest percentage yield of rhamnolipid were examined for rhamnolipid production at different incubation times (24, 48 and 72 hr) and different sugar beet molasses concentrations [1-5% w/v concentration (1-5 g molasses/100 ml water)]. The rhamnolipid production increased with the increase in the concentration of molasses and maximum production occurred when 5 % (w/v) of molasses were used. At the same time, maximum rhamnolipid production occurred after 72 hr of incubation. When the amount of rhamnolipid produced at different incubation times (24, 48 and 72 hr) and with different concentrations of molasses [1-5 % w/v concentration (1-5 g molasses/100 ml water)] by Pseudomonas spp.; was compared, no significant difference in amount of production was seen. These studies show that the waste product from sugar industry may be suggested for important biotechnological processes such as rhamnolipid production. PMID:20112880

Onbasli, Dilsad; Aslim, Belma

2009-01-01

118

IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE  

SciTech Connect

The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

Dr. Donal F. Day

2009-01-29

119

Utilization of Urea and Growth of Heifer Calves with Corn Molasses or Cane Molasses as the Only Readily Available Carbohydrate in the Ration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previously published studies on the utilization of urea by the rumi- nant, we presented data showing the need for a readily fermentable carbo- hydrate (4) in the ration, and for a low level of dietary protein (8), in order to have effective transformation of the urea nitrogen into protein. Corn starch was the carbohydrate studied. When urea was added

R. C. Mills; C. C. Lardinois; I. W. Rupel; E. B. Hart

1944-01-01

120

How to Use Crutches, Canes and Walkers  

MedlinePLUS

... foot, you may have to use crutches. Proper Positioning The top of your crutches should reach between ... also help you to keep living independently. Proper Positioning The top of your cane should reach to ...

121

FRACTIONATION OF ORANGE PEEL PHENOLS IN ULTRAFILTERED MOLASSES AND MASS BALANCE STUDIES OF THEIR ANTIOXIDANT LEVELS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The flavonoids in orange peel molasses was fractionated by adsorption, ion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Size-exclusion chromatography effectively separated the different classes of flavonoids in ultrafiltered molasses, including the polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone-O-trisacchari...

122

Molasses as fermentation substrate for levan production by Halomonas sp.  

PubMed

Levan is a homopolymer of fructose with many outstanding properties like high solubility in oil and water, strong adhesiveness, good biocompatibility, and film-forming ability. However, its industrial use has long been hampered by costly production processes which rely on mesophilic bacteria and plants. Recently, Halomonas sp. AAD6 halophilic bacteria were found to be the only extremophilic species producing levan at high titers in semi-chemical medium containing sucrose, and in this study, pretreated sugar beet molasses and starch molasses were both found to be feasible substitutes for sucrose. Five different pretreatment methods and their combinations were applied to both molasses types. Biomass and levan concentrations reached by the Halomonas sp. AAD6 cells cultivated on 30 g/L of pretreated beet molasses were 6.09 g dry cells/L and 12.4 g/L, respectively. When compared with literature, Halomonas sp. was found to stand out with its exceptionally high levan production yields on available fructose. Molecular characterization and monosaccharide composition studies confirmed levan-type fructan structure of the biopolymers. Rheological properties under different conditions pointed to the typical characteristics of low viscosity and pseudoplastic behaviors of the levan polymers. Moreover, levan polymer produced from molasses showed high biocompatibility and affinity with both cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. PMID:21161209

Küçüka?ik, Faruk; Kazak, Hande; Güney, Dilvin; Finore, Ilaria; Poli, Annarita; Yenigün, Orhan; Nicolaus, Barbara; Oner, Ebru Toksoy

2010-12-16

123

Drop-Off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection…

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

2009-01-01

124

Effect of molasses supplementation and nutritive value on ruminal fermentation of a pasture-based diet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molasses is used by some grazing dairy producers to replace higher-cost corn. However, anecdotal results are mixed, and little research exists evaluating the effects of molasses fed to grazing dairy cows as the sole supplement. This study evaluated the effects of level of molasses supplementation an...

125

Fat synthesis from supplemented beet molasses by penicillium soppi zaleski in still and shaken cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media composed of molasses alone did not support good growth nor high fat formation even when used at high concentrations. Peptone supplement as an external source of nitrogen accelerated both growth and fat formation in still as well as in shake cultures. But shaking mankedly suppressed growth and fat formation in media of molasses alone or molasses and peptone.

Kaiser Naguib; I. A. Al-Sohaily; A. S. Al-Sultan

1973-01-01

126

The utilization of beet molasses as a retarding and water-reducing admixture for concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molasses, a by-product of sugar industry, increases the fluidity of fresh concrete, and also delays the hardening time of cement paste. In this study, the molasses were determined from three different sugar production factories. A normal water-reducing admixture, based on lignosulphonate, has been used in the control mixture. Setting times of cement pastes prepared with molasses at three different dosages

Amanmyrat Jumadurdiyev; M. Hulusi Ozkul; Ali R. Saglam; Nazmiye Parlak

2005-01-01

127

HSPA molasses and alcohol stillage characterization project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Samples of final molasses were collected at the Puunene factory of Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company from October 1977 to December 1978 for analysis, conversion into alcohol and stillage, and analysis of the resulting stillage. Sugars, ash, and organic nonsugars were determined on both the soluble and insoluble fractions of the molasses and stillage. The soluble portion of the stillage contained a significant quantity of potassium (average of about 120 lb/ton of molasses) and is of potential value as a fertilizer. The insoluble portion would be a moderately good feed supplement for cattle, swine, and poultry. Centrifuging may be sufficient to separate the fertilizer and animal feed values, although further study will be required to ascertain this. Means of concentrating the fertilizer to practical levels will also require study.

Sloane, G.E.

1979-04-06

128

Magnetic or optical molasses loading for a Cs dipole trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the loading of a single-beam or a crossed dipole trap made by a Nd:YAG laser. The loading was performed from a magnetic trap or after a molasses phase with cesium atoms. Looking for high atomic density to perform a fast evaporation to reach the Bose-Einstein Condensation, we found that a crossed dipole trap with a waist of 30 ?m and a laser power P=10 W, loaded from a molasses, gives a good starting point to begin evaporation with 5 &|m~ 106 atoms loaded in 50 ms.

Stern, G.; Dimova, E.; Fioretti, A.; Comparat, D.; Pillet, P.

2007-03-01

129

Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, looking from the northeast (note Front Street in background) - Roque House, Between Front Street & Cane River, Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, LA

130

7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

2013-01-01

131

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2013-01-01

132

7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

2012-01-01

133

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2010-01-01

134

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2012-01-01

135

7 CFR 1435.306 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.306 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.306 State cane sugar...

2009-01-01

136

Human Factor Analysis of Long Cane Design: Weight and Length  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of experiments, canes of different lengths, weights, and weight distributions were assessed to determine the effect of these characteristics on various performance measures. The results indicate that the overall weight of a cane and the distribution of weight along a cane's shaft do not affect a person's performance, but accuracy does…

Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

2005-01-01

137

Hawaii Ethanol from Molasses Project, Phase I. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the best available commercial processes in the manufacture of anhydrous ethanol from molasses, (2) to determine those processes in the research and development stage that have the potential of becoming commercial, and (3) from these determinations to recommend the conceptual design of a plant which incorporates the best processes. The following

C. S Chen; W. O. Gibson; K. I. Mashima; R. R. Roberts; D. A. Rezachek; K. Krill; D. Hsu; R. W. Stanley

1980-01-01

138

Kinetic study of ozonation of molasses fermentation wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic study of molasses wastewater ozonation was carried out in a stirred tank reactor to obtain the rate constants for the decolorization reaction and the regime through which ozone is absorbed. First, fundamental mass transfer parameters such as ozone solubility, volumetric mass transfer coefficients and ozone decomposition kinetics were determined from semi-batch experiments in organic-free solutions with an ionic

M. Coca; M. Peña; G. González

2007-01-01

139

Chemical oxidation of wastewater from molasses fermentation with ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color removal from biologically pre-treated molasses wastewater by means of chemical oxidation with ozone has been investigated. Batch experiments have been performed in order to analyze the influence of ozone dosage and reaction time on color removal, molecular weight distribution and decolorization kinetics. Depending on the applied ozone dosage, color removal from 71% to 93% and COD reduction from 15%

M. Peña; M. Coca; G. González; R. Rioja; M. T. Garc??a

2003-01-01

140

Variables affecting efficiency of molasses fermentation wastewater ozonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main operating variables affecting ozonation efficiencies of wastewater from beet molasses alcoholic fermentation have been studied. Semibatch experiments have been performed in order to analyze the influence of pH, bicarbonate ion, temperature and stirring rate on color and organic matter removals. The efficiencies were similar regardless of the pH, which indicates that direct reactions of ozone with wastewater organics

M. Coca; M. Peña; G. González

2005-01-01

141

Inhibition of beet molasses alcoholic fermentation by lactobacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol production rate decreases as the concentration of bacterial contaminants increases. In complex medium, such as beet molasses, an alternative mechanism can be used by homofermentative lactic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei). Lactic acid and associated products, especially acetic acid, are liberated into the medium. The inhibition induced by these metabolites was reinforced by the presence of viable lactobacilli.

J. J. Essia Ngang; F. Letourneau; E. Wolniewicz; P. Villa

1990-01-01

142

Alcoholic Fermentation of beet molasses: study on stillage recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Stillage recycle in beet molasses alcoholic fermentation can be lower the production costs by a decrease of energy requirements for waste water treatment but it becomes necessary to optimise, separately, the sugar and non sugar contents of the wort. It is shown that the increase of the wort osmolality, linked to stillage recycle disturbs yeast metabolism above 1,5 osmol.

E. Wolniewicz; J. J. Essia Ngang; F. Letourneau; P. Villa

1990-01-01

143

Aerobic–anaerobic biodegradation of beet molasses alcoholic fermentation wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the aerobic degradation of beet molasses alcoholic fermentation wastewater diluted to 50% (chemical oxygen demand, COD: 82 g\\/l) was carried out using the following fungi: Penicillium sp., Penicillium decumbens, Penicillium lignorum and Aspergillus niger. These four microorganisms produce a decolorization of the wastewater from the first day of incubation, achieving the maximum decolorization level at the fourth

Antonia M. Jiménez; Rafael Borja; Antonio Mart??n

2003-01-01

144

Biohydrogen production from beet molasses by sequential dark and photofermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological hydrogen production using renewable resources is a promising possibility to generate hydrogen in a sustainable way. In this study, a sequential dark and photofermentation has been employed for biohydrogen production using sugar beet molasses as a feedstock. An extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was used for the dark fermentation, and several photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodobacter capsulatus wild type, R. capsulatus hup? mutant,

Ebru Özgür; Astrid E. Mars; Begüm Peksel; Annemarie Louwerse; Meral Yücel; Ufuk Gündüz; Pieternel A. M. Claassen; ?nci Ero?lu

2010-01-01

145

Color elimination from molasses wastewater by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color elimination by Aspergillus niger from wastewater from molasses alcoholic fermentation was studied. The influences of the nutrient concentrations, initial pH and carbon source on this color elimination were analyzed. It worked in a discontinuous process in shaken cultures and in a continuous process in a bubble reactor. During the batch process, through all experiments the maximal color elimination was

M. Peña Miranda; G. González Benito; N. San Cristobal; C. Heras Nieto

1996-01-01

146

UPGRADING OF SUGAR CANE BAGASSE BY THERMAL PROCESSES. 4. COAL COPROCESSING USING SUGAR CANE BAGASSE OIL AS SOLVENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, coal co-processing with sugar cane bagasse oil was studied for the first time. Sugar cane bagasse was chosen due to its great offer, since it is a residue in the process of a large project named PROALCOOL aiming the producing ethanolfrom sugarcane. In addition, the liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse with monoethanolamine was already developed in

Fernando M. Lanças; Rita M. B. Andrade

1995-01-01

147

Ethanol fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 immobilized in Luffa cylindrica L. sponge discs and Ca-alginate matrices.  

PubMed

Bio-ethanol production from cane molasses (diluted to 15 % sugar w/v) was studied using the bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 entrapped in luffa (Luffa cylindrica L.) sponge discs and Ca-alginate gel beads as the immobilizing matrices. At the end of 96 h fermentation, the final ethanol concentrations were 58.7 ± 0.09 and 59.1 ± 0.08 g/l molasses with luffa and Ca-alginate entrapped Z. mobilis cells, respectively exhibiting 83.25 ± 0.03 and 84.6 ± 0.02 % sugar conversion. There was no statistical significant difference (Fischer's LSD) in sugar utilization (t = 0.254, p<0.801) and ethanol production (t =-0.663, p<0.513) between the two immobilization matrices used. Further, the immobilized cells in both the matrices were physiologically active for three more cycles of operation with less than 15 % decrease in ethanol yield in the 4(th) cycle, which was due to some leakage of cells. In conclusion, luffa sponge was found to be equally good as Ca-alginate as a carrier material for bacterial (Z. mobilis) cell immobilization for ethanol production. Further, it has added advantages such as it is cheap, non-corrosive and has no environmental hazard. PMID:24031981

Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama C; Ray, Ramesh C

2012-06-01

148

Ethanol fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 immobilized in Luffa cylindrica L. sponge discs and Ca-alginate matrices  

PubMed Central

Bio-ethanol production from cane molasses (diluted to 15 % sugar w/v) was studied using the bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 entrapped in luffa (Luffa cylindrica L.) sponge discs and Ca-alginate gel beads as the immobilizing matrices. At the end of 96 h fermentation, the final ethanol concentrations were 58.7 ± 0.09 and 59.1 ± 0.08 g/l molasses with luffa and Ca-alginate entrapped Z. mobilis cells, respectively exhibiting 83.25 ± 0.03 and 84.6 ± 0.02 % sugar conversion. There was no statistical significant difference (Fischer’s LSD) in sugar utilization (t = 0.254, p<0.801) and ethanol production (t =-0.663, p<0.513) between the two immobilization matrices used. Further, the immobilized cells in both the matrices were physiologically active for three more cycles of operation with less than 15 % decrease in ethanol yield in the 4th cycle, which was due to some leakage of cells. In conclusion, luffa sponge was found to be equally good as Ca-alginate as a carrier material for bacterial (Z. mobilis) cell immobilization for ethanol production. Further, it has added advantages such as it is cheap, non-corrosive and has no environmental hazard.

Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama C.; Ray, Ramesh C.

2012-01-01

149

Production of curdlan using sucrose or sugar cane molasses by two-step fed-batch cultivation of Agrobacterium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Maltose and sucrose were efficient carbon sources for the production of curdlan by a strain of Agrobacterium sp. A two-step, fed-batch operation was designed in which biomass was first produced, followed by curdlan production which\\u000a was stimulated by nitrogen limitation. There exists an optimal timing for nitrogen limitation for curdlan production in the\\u000a two-step, fed-batch operation. Maximum curdlan production (60?g?L?1)

I-Y Lee; W T Seo; G J Kim; M K Kim; C S Park; Y H Park

1997-01-01

150

Drop-off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance  

PubMed Central

This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection threshold. The findings may help an orientation and mobility instructor select an appropriate technique for a particular client or training situation.

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

2010-01-01

151

SUGAR CANE BAGASSE DRYING - A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bagasse is the only fuel used in the sugar - alcohol industry in Brazil, the biggest producer of sugar cane in the world. The sugar - alcohol industry produces, by cogeneration, electric energy for its own use and for selling. The improvement of the use of bagasse in the furnaces is an important industrial strategy nowadays. This subject has

Juan H. Sosa-Arnao?; Fabiano Marquezi de Oliveira; Jefferson L. G. Corrêa

152

ECOSTATIC CANE PROCESSING SYSTEM PROTOTYPE PHASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate a systems environmental management approach, from field to final product, for the processing of raw cane sugar. Specific sub-systems which were to be developed and demonstrated as part of this systems approach were: (a) har...

153

Augmented white cane with multimodal haptic feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an instrumented handle with multimodal augmented haptic feedback, which can be integrated into a conventional white cane to extend the haptic exploration range of visually impaired users. The information extracted from the environment through a hybrid range sensor is conveyed to the user in an intuitive manner over two haptic feedback systems. The first renders impulses that

S. Gallo; D. Chapuis; L. Santos-Carreras; Y. Kim; P. Retornaz; H. Bleuler; R. Gassert

2010-01-01

154

Intake and Digestibility of Bahiagrass Hay Supplemented with Molasses or Molasses-urea with or without Soybean Hulls when Fed to Cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of molasses or molasses-urea supplementation with or without soybean hulls on digestibility, intake and animal performance in cattle fed bahiagrass hay. In experiment 1, Holstein steers were fed one of six treatment diets: 1) hay only; 2) hay pl...

155

Screening of different fungi for decolorization of molasses  

PubMed Central

The decolorization of molasses by 17 different fungi in 2 media was studied. Trichoderma viride showed the highest decolorization yield (53.5%) when cultivated at 30ºC for 7 days in Medium 1 which contained the molasses which was diluted to 40 g/L in distilled water. The other Trichoderma species and Penicillium sp. also gave similar results of 40-45%. Decolorization yield was increased by adding peptone and yeast extract to the production medium except Penicillium sp. Growth rate was not related to decolorization yet pH value was. When the pH decreased below 5.0 after the incubation, the decolorization yield increased. Although reducing sugar in culture broth decreased with decreasing color intensity, there was no connection between protein utilization and decolorizing activity.

Seyis, Isil; Subasioglu, Tugba

2009-01-01

156

Ultracold plasma in blue-detuned optical molasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of a new application of optical molasses for viscous confinement and control of the state of ultracold electron ion neutral plasma containing ions with quantum transition resonant with respect to the laser radiation has been shown. This viscous confinement scheme is based on the action of radiation damping force upon plasma ions in the strong field of standing light wave with large positive (“blue”) frequency detuning from resonance.

Krasnov, I. V.

2008-04-01

157

Detecting thermal anomalies within the Molasse Basin, southern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The groundwater flow regime at great depth within the Molasse Basin (SW Germany) was studied. Data relevant for a flow model\\u000a at 600–1,600 m depth are sparse in the western part of the basin. However, temperature measurements are available covering\\u000a much of the area at a wide range of depths. Therefore, a thermal 3D steady-state model was set up with the

Wolfram Rühaak; Volker Rath; Christoph Clauser

2010-01-01

158

Fermentation of molasses using a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3: simplex optimisation of media supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of molasses as a substrate for ethanol production by the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus was investigated at 45°C. A maximum ethanol concentration of 7.4% (v\\/v) was produced from unsupplemented molasses at a concentration\\u000a of 23% (v\\/v). The effect on ethanol production of increasing the sucrose concentration in 23% (v\\/v) molasses was determined.\\u000a Increased sucrose concentration had

S. Gough; O. Flynn; C. J. Hack; R. Marchant

1996-01-01

159

Anaerobic co-digestion of desugared molasses with cow manure; focusing on sodium and potassium inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desugared molasses (DM), a syrup residue from beet-molasses, was investigated for biogas production in both batch and in continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments. DM contained 2–3 times higher concentration of ions than normal molasses, which could inhibit the biogas process. The effect of sodium and potassium concentration on biogas production from manure was also investigated. Fifty percent inhibition occurred at

Cheng Fang; Kanokwan Boe; Irini Angelidaki

2011-01-01

160

Suitability of commercial beet molasses fractions as substrates fro polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Azotobacter vinelandii UWD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Beet molasses that had been fractionated commercially by ion exclusion resulted in two waste-streams: extract molasses (EM) and concentrated separator by-product (CSB). Only EM at 4–5% w\\/v contained sufficient sugar to promote polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) formation byAzotobacter vinelandii UWD, but the yield of PHB\\/protein was less than that obtained in unfractionated beet molasses. EM and especially CSB added at 0.5–2.0%

William J. Page

1992-01-01

161

World Sugar and Molasses Situation and Outlook, May 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World centrifugal sugar production is forecast at a record 102.4 million tons (raw value) for 1987/88, 1 percent above 1986/87, and 3 percent more than 1985/86. World Production of sugar from cane is forecast at 65.4 million tons, up 3 percent; sugar from...

1987-01-01

162

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2010-07-01

163

40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2009-07-01

164

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2009-07-01

165

40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2009-07-01

166

40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2010-07-01

167

40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2010-07-01

168

40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory....

2012-07-01

169

Biological nitrogen fixation associated with sugar cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent15N dilution\\/N balance study confirmed that certain sugar cane varieties are capable of obtaining large contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated N2 fixation. It was estimated that up to 60 to 80% of plant N could be derived from this source, and under good conditions of water and mineral nutrient supply, it may be possible to dispense with N fertilization

R. M. Boddey; S. Urquiaga; V. Reis; J. Döbereiner

1991-01-01

170

Ergonomic Factors Related to Drop-Off Detection With the Long Cane: Effects of Cane Tips and Techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane. Background Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user’s ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies have examined such effect. Method A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study. Participants were 17 adults who were legally blind and had no other disabilities. Participants attempted to detect the drop-offs of varied depths using different cane tips and cane techniques. Results Drop-off detection rates were similar between the marshmallow tip (77.0%) and the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) when both tips were used with the constant contact technique, p = .294. However, participants detected drop-offs at a significantly higher percentage when they used the constant contact technique with the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) than when they used the two-point touch technique with the marshmallow tip (63.2%), p < .001. Conclusion The constant contact technique used with a marshmallow roller tip (perceived as a less advantageous tip) was more effective than the two-point touch technique used with a marshmallow tip (perceived as a more advantageous tip) in detecting drop-offs. Application The findings of the study may help cane users and orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques and cane tips in accordance with the cane user’s characteristics and the nature of the travel environment.

Kim, Dae Shik; Wall Emerson, Robert S.; Curtis, Amy B.

2010-01-01

171

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

2013-07-01

172

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

2009-07-01

173

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

2010-07-01

174

Invitro Digestion and Fermentation Characteristics of Temulose Molasses, a Co-Product of Fiberboard Production, and Select Temulose Fractions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is of interest to discover new fermentable carbohydrates sources that function as prebiotics. This study evaluated the hydrolytic digestibility, fermentative capacity, and microbiota modulating properties of temulose molasses, four hydrolyzed fractions of temulose molasses, short-chain fructooli...

175

Saccharomyces yeast growth on beet molasses effects of substrate concentration on alcohol toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Growth of a baker's yeast strain has been studied on beet molasses wort to determine the influence of molasses quality and concentration on alcohol toxicity with regard to yeast specific growth rate. A quantitative relation, based on Levenspiel's model has been found useful to describe the growth of our strain. The results show that ethanol toxicity can be directly

F. Letourneau; P. Villa

1987-01-01

176

Decolorization of molasses wastewater by Bacillus sp. under thermophilic and anaerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various microorganisms were screened for their ability to decolorize molasses wastewater under thermophilic and anaerobic conditions. Strain MD-32, which was newly isolated from a soil sample, was selected as the best strain. From taxonomical studies, the strain was concluded to belong to the genus Bacillus, most closely resembling B. smithii. The strain decolorized 35.5% of molasses pigment within 20 d

Toshiaki Nakajima-Kambe; Mifumi Shimomura; Nobuhiko Nomura; Thalerng Chanpornpong; Tadaatsu Nakahara

1999-01-01

177

Molasses as the primary energy supplement on an organic grazing dairy farm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to increasing organic grain costs, organic dairy farmers are looking for less expensive ingredients that can be reasonably fed to lactating dairy cows. Molasses seems to be a less expensive source of supplemental energy and vitamins. Organic dairy farmers inquire about molasses as an alternative...

178

Case study: molasses as the primary energy source on an organic grazing dairy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic dairies face many challenges, one of which is the high cost of purchased organic grains. Molasses may be a less expensive energy alternative. However, anecdotal results have been mixed for farms that used molasses as the sole energy source. This research project quantified animal performance...

179

A radiochemical, hydrochemical and dissolved gas study of groundwaters in the Molasse basin of Upper Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Innviertel (Ottnangian) formation of the Molasse zone of Upper Austria is of major importance as a source of potable water. A hydrochemical, radiochemical and dissolved gas study was undertaken to establish the flow pattern in the Innviertel and its relationship to groundwaters in deeper formations in the Molasse basin. The Innviertel groundwaters could be differentiated into three groups on

J. N. Andrews; J. E. Goldbrunner; W. G. Darling; P. J. Hooker; G. B. Wilson; M. J. Youngman; L. Eichinger; W. Rauert; W. Stichler

1985-01-01

180

Kinetic study of nitrite inhibition during alcoholic fermentation of beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Alcoholic fermentation cycle with Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied on beet molasses exempt from nitrite ions and containing added amounts of these ions from 200 to 400 ppm. Experimental results indicate that fermentation duration increases with increasing nitrite concentration in the molasses. A detailed kinetic study reveals that this increase occurs only during the latency period. Moreover, the biomass

A. Glacet; F. Letourneau; P. Leveque; P. Villa

1985-01-01

181

Optimization of lactic acid production from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of lactic acid from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130 in static and shake flask fermentation was investigated. Shake flasks proved to be a better fermentation system for this purpose. Substitution of yeast extract with other low cost protein sources did not improve lactic acid production. The maximum lactic acid concentration was achieved without treatment of molasses. A

Ch. Kotzamanidis; T. Roukas; G. Skaracis

2002-01-01

182

Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Breads Supplemented with Sugar Beet Molasses-Based Ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic dehydration in sugar beet molasses as hypertonic medium was used to treat apples, plums, carrots and cabbage. Following the treatment, the fruits\\/vegetables were dried and ground. The obtained powders or pure beet molasses were incorporated into white wheat bread at 5 and 10% levels (flour basis). The results showed that the mineral content (K, Mg, Ca) and antioxidant potential

Bojana Filip?ev; Ljubinko Levi?; Marija Bodroža-Solarov; Nevena Mišljenovi?; Gordana Koprivica

2010-01-01

183

Kinetic study of the acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic interest in xylitol production can be enhanced if the needed xylose solutions can be obtained from the hydrolysis of low-cost lignocellulosic wastes. Sugar cane bagasse is a renewable, cheap and widely available waste in tropical countries. The hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to obtain xylose solutions has a double consequence, the elimination of a waste and the generation of

R Aguilar; J. A Ram??rez; G Garrote; M Vázquez

2002-01-01

184

Rotating cross arm trellis and cane training for brambles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in winter to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in 'Apache', 'Boysenberry', 'Siskiyou', and 'Triple Crown' blackberry. After tying p...

185

Histological Intestinal Recovery in Chickens Refed Dietary Sugar Cane Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane extract (SCE), the residue after removing glucose, fructose, and sucrose from sugar cane juice, has growth-promoting, antistress, and immunosti- mulation effects. The objective of this study was to investi- gate the effects of refeeding dietary SCE on recovery of BW and intestinal histology after withdrawing feed from chickens. Forty-eight male Sanuki Cochin chickens were assigned randomly to 6

K. Yamauchi; K. Koge; T. Ebashi

186

Anaerobic digestion of solid wastes of cane sugar industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cane sugar manufacturing industry generates large quantities of lignocellulosic solid wastes, namely bagasse and cachaza. Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane after extracting the juice. Cachaza is the filter cake of the precipitated insoluble sugars. This research investigates the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of bagasse and cachaza to produce methane. Two rations of bagasse-cachaza

Dasgupta

1983-01-01

187

HAWAIIAN SUGAR CANE RAT CONTROL METHODS AND PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of rats in our Hawaiian sugar cane fields has been with us for a long time. Early records tell of heavy damage at various times on all the islands where sugar cane is grown. Many methods were tried to control these rats. Trapping was once used as a control measure, a bounty was used for a time, gangs

William R. Smythe

1964-01-01

188

Problems in breeding and cytology of sugar cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a survey is given on sugar cane breeding, as it was performed in Java during a period of about fifty years. When in the eighties of the nineteenth century sugar cane was heavily affected by the sereh disease it was Soltwedel, the first director of the Sugar Experiment Station “Midden Java”, who tried to obtain sereh resistant

G. Bremer

1961-01-01

189

Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue—Part 2: gasification of cane trash  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part 1 of this two-part paper, results from gasification of bagasse in a cyclone gasifier have been reported. In this paper results from gasification of cane trash in the same cyclone gasifier are presented. The cane trash powder is injected into the cyclone with air as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and

Mohamed Gabra; Esbjörn Pettersson; Rainer Backman; Björn Kjellström

2001-01-01

190

Shrinkage of cane ( Arundo donax ) I. Irregular shrinkage of green cane due to the collapse of parenchyma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrinkage of green cane ( Arundo donax L.) was measured during air-drying at room temperature. The cane began to shrink at 150% moisture content due to a remarkable collapse of parenchyma cells. The collapse recovered after boiling in water, but more serious collapse (recollapse) was induced by the following drying. On the other hand, the collapse recovered almost completely after

Eiichi Obataya; Joseph Gril; Bernard Thibaut

2004-01-01

191

[Screening of microorganism producing polyunsaturated fatty acids with sugarcane molasses].  

PubMed

A strain name LB1 producing polyunsaturated fatty acids with sugarcane molasses was screened form soil samples by the methods of Sudan Black B stain and the determination of PUFAs' iodine value. Based on the grass morphological and physiological characteristics and the sequence similarity of ribosomal DNA-ITS, the strain was identified as Mucor recurvus sp.. The results of L64 (4(3)) orthogonal experiments indicated when Mucor recurvus was cultivated at 28 degrees C for 5 days with 160 r/min, the yields of PUFAs with 10(0) BX sugarcane molasses (pH 6.0) were up to 80.49% content of total fatty acids. The total lipids content was 57.08% of fermentation biomass, which were composed of 15.42% Oleic acid, 14.38% Linolenic, 23.55% gamma-Linolenic, 3.06% alpha-Linolenic, 9.87% Arachidonic acid, 8.14% Eicosapentaenoic acid, 6.07% Docosahexaenoic acid, etc. PMID:17037053

Li, Nan; Deng, Zhi-nian; Qin, Yong-ling; Ling, Min; Liang, Zhi-qun

2006-08-01

192

Continuous ozonation of biologically pretreated molasses fermentation effluents.  

PubMed

In this work, continuous chemical oxidation processes (single ozonation and ozone combined with hydrogen peroxide) of biologically pretreated wastewaters from a beet molasses fermentation factory have been studied. Oxidation processes were carried out in a stirred tank reactor at the natural pH of the wastewater and 25 degrees C, analyzing the effect of the hydraulic residence time and applied ozone mass flow on color and organic matter removals. Ozone consumption was also measured in each experiment. The results show that continuous ozonation was effective for decolorization of molasses wastewater. Operating with a hydraulic residence time of 45 minutes and an applied ozone mass flow of 1.7 g/h, color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions were about 80% and 14%, respectively. Increasing the hydraulic residence time or ozone mass flow led to a considerably increase in the ozone consumption, with similar color and organic matter reduction percentages. Slightly higher removal percentages were obtained combining ozone with hydrogen peroxide, attaining 83% color reduction and 20% COD removal. As consequence of the oxidation processes, biodegradability of the decolorized effluent increased about 40-50% and the ratio BOD5/COD was twofold higher. PMID:17474004

Peña, Mar; Coca, Mónica; González, Gerardo

2007-05-01

193

Assessment of canes used by older adults in senior living communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to provide basic but essential information about how older cane users obtain their canes and how they use these canes for their daily mobility, since there is still lack of information on these areas. Ninety-three older (?65 years old) subjects who use canes for daily activities were recruited from four assisted living facilities

Joshua Eaves; Wen Wang; Jill Womack; Paige Bullock

2011-01-01

194

Novel strategy using an adsorbent-column chromatography for effective ethanol production from sugarcane or sugar beet molasses.  

PubMed

Molasses-based distilleries generate large volumes of a highly polluted and dark brown-colored wastewater. The present work describes the way in which an adsorbent-column chromatography can effectively remove the colorant and produce biomass ethanol from sugarcane or sugar beet molasses. It was found that the color and chemical oxygen demand of the resulting wastewater was respectively reduced by approximately 87% and 28% as compared with conventional molasses fermentation. Gas chromatography showed that the decolorized molasses maintained good ethanol productivity almost equal to that of the original molasses. Furthermore, it was revealed that the colorant concentrations of about 5 mg ml(-1) in the medium were the most favorable for ethanolic fermentation. In summary, we have concluded that this method is the most effective when the adsorbent chromatography is performed just before molasses fermentation and that the decolorized molasses is an ideal substrate for fuel ethanol production. PMID:19467586

Hatano, Ken-ichi; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yohei; Sakamoto, Hironobu; Takigami, Machiko; Kojima, Yasuyoshi

2009-05-24

195

Methane production and effluent quality from fermentation of beef cattle manure and molasses  

SciTech Connect

The effect of mixing molasses and beef cattle manure on methane (CH/sub 4/) production and effluent quality was evaluated. The manure and molasses were mixed so that they contributed varying percentages in the mixture, as follows: 100% manure (100:0); 75% manure and 25% molasses (75:25); and 50% manure and 50% molasses (50:50). At similar hydraulic retention time (HRT) and volatile solids (VS) loading rates, fermentors receiving the 50:50, 75.25, and 100:0 mixtures produced the highest, middle, and lowest volumetric CH/sub 4/ production rates (m/sup 3/CH/sub 4//m/sup 3/ fermentor day), respectively. Kinetic evaluation showed that increased CH/sub 4/ production rates of molasses containing substrates were due only to higher ultimate CH/sub 4/ yields (B/sub 0/) of the manure-molasses mixtures, and not due to reduced inhibition nor increased microbial growth rate. B/sub 0/ were 0.325, 0.335, and 0.360 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//kg VS fed for the 100:0, 75:25 and 50:50 mixtures, respectively. The addition of molasses to manure also decreased the ammonia to total nitrogen ratio in the effluent.

Hashimoto, A.G.

1981-01-01

196

Energy expenditure and physiological performance of Sudanese cane cutters.  

PubMed Central

The thermal and exercise tolerances of 165 Sudanese cane cutters were measured in the laboratory and related to work performance and productivity in the cane fields. The results showed that the amount of cane cut per minute in the field was significantly correlated with changes in body weight (r = +0-53) during the third hour of work, aerobic energy expenditure (r = + 0-43), and cardiac frequency during work. These variables in turn were associated with predicted maximal power output (VO2 max) measured in the laboratory. The average energy expenditure during cane cutting was 1-66 +/- 0-33 1/min-1 (34-9 kJ/min-1) which represents approximately 60% of the workers predicted VO2 max. This rate of energy expenditure was sustained in the cane fields for at least three hours without significant pauses for rest. The sweat losses measured in 32 cane cutters during the two and three hours of work averaged 637 +/- 221 and 770 +/- 282 g/h-1 respectively, while the mean urine temperature immediately on cessation of effort was 37-74 +/- 0-46 degrees C. Despite the additional environmental heat load of the tropics, it would seem that cane cutters performing a self-paced task demanding heavy physical effort, are able to sustain work levels well in excess of those recommended for most European factory workers without obvious signs of fatigue or heat stress.

Davies, C T; Brotherhood, J R; Collins, K J; Dore, C; Imms, F; Musgrove, J; Weiner, J S; Amin, M A; Ismail, H M; El Karim, M; Omer, A H; Sukkar, M Y

1976-01-01

197

Engineered Enterobacter aerogenes for efficient utilization of sugarcane molasses in 2,3-butanediol production.  

PubMed

Sugarcane molasses is considered to be a good carbon source for biorefinery due to its high sugar content and low price. Sucrose occupies more than half of the sugar in the molasses. Enterobacter aerogenes is a good host strain for 2,3-butanediol production, but its utilization of sucrose is not very efficient. To improve sucrose utilization in E. aerogenes, a sucrose regulator (ScrR) was disrupted from the genomic DNA. The deletion mutation increased the sucrose consumption rate significantly when sucrose or sugarcane molasses was used as a carbon source. The 2,3-butanediol production from sugarcane molasses by the mutant was enhanced by 60% in batch fermentation compared to that by the wild type strain. In fed-batch fermentation, 98.69 g/L of 2,3-butanediol production was achieved at 36 h. PMID:23644066

Jung, Moo-Young; Park, Bu-Soo; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

2013-04-08

198

Decolorization of molasses wastewater by Bacillus sp. under thermophilic and anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

Various microorganisms were screened for their ability to decolorize molasses wastewater under thermophilic and anaerobic conditions. Strain MD-32, which was newly isolated from a soil sample, was selected as the best strain. From taxonomical studies, the strain was concluded to belong to the genus Bacillus, most closely resembling B. smithii. The strain decolorized 35.5% of molasses pigment within 20 d at 55 degrees C under anaerobic conditions, but no decolorization activity was observed when it was cultivated aerobically. At all the concentrations tested molasses pigment was effectively decolorized by MD-32, with decolorization yields of around 15% within 2 d. The molecular weight distribution as determined by gel filtration chromatography revealed that the decolorization of molasses pigment by the isolated strain is accompanied by a decrease in not only small molecules but also large ones. PMID:16232438

Nakajima-Kambe, T; Shimomura, M; Nomura, N; Chanpornpong, T; Nakahara, T

1999-01-01

199

Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas are…

Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

200

VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, BUMPER ROLLERS IN THE CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

201

VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

202

Walking cane use in prison: a medical and cultural analysis.  

PubMed

This study examined the diagnosis, race, age, and conviction offenses of those using walking canes at California Medical Facility through a random review of 40 charts and 40 conviction folders. Motivating factors were concern about the potential for misuse of canes as weapons and a desire to further understand the clinical challenges faced by patients. Findings suggest that walking canes are most often prescribed for neurological or musculoskeletal problems, sometimes are prescribed with no apparent indication, and are more readily prescribed to violent offenders. Beyond their weight-bearing medical function, it is possible that canes bear cultural significance in prison culture, perhaps symbolizing pugnacious independence. The anthropological literature on aggression, interpersonal violence, and weapon use is explored to help understand the racial variation in use of fighting accoutrements in prison settings. PMID:21278316

Anderson, Scott T; Capozzoli, Nicholas

2011-01-01

203

Factors associated with cane use among community dwelling older adults.  

PubMed

Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this study examined factors associated with cane use among community dwelling older adults. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 106 community residing older adults in Ottawa, Canada. Using a stepwise discriminant analysis, subjective norms, attitudes, and age surfaced as the key variables associated with cane use in this sample. The discriminant function accounted for 67% of the variance in cane use and correctly classified 91% of cases (Wilks's lambda = 0.33, lambda2 = 110.12, df = 3, p < 0.0001). The findings provide evidence for the utility of the TPB in its application to understanding cane use behaviors of older persons and have important implications for the design of theory-based fall prevention interventions to enhance the acceptance and effective use of mobility aids. PMID:11115146

Aminzadeh, F; Edwards, N

204

Environmentally friendly beef production from two genotypes fed cereal\\/molasses diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of sugar beet molasses, a by-product of the food industry, for producing environmentally friendlier beef than with less fossil energy-intensive grain was assessed with respect to growth, carcass merit and feed efficiency. Cattle investigated included bulls and heifers of Holstein×native Brown of Atlas (HB) or Holstein×Friesian (HF). Molasses included at 0, 20, 40 or 60% of total ration

A Araba; F. M Byers

2002-01-01

205

The last erosional stage of the Molasse Basin and the Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a synoptic overview of the Miocene-present development of the northern Alpine foreland basin (Molasse Basin), with\\u000a special attention to the pattern of surface erosion and sediment discharge in the Alps. Erosion of the Molasse Basin started\\u000a at the same time that the rivers originating in the Central Alps were deflected toward the Bresse Graben, which formed part\\u000a of

Fritz Schlunegger; Jon Mosar

2011-01-01

206

Production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola grown on soy molasses as substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophorolipids (SLs) were produced from Candida bombicola using soy molasses and oleic acid as co-substrates. The purified SLs were obtained at 21 g l-1 and were 97% in lactone form. The major SL constituent (81% relative abundance) of the product mixture contains an oleoyl chain. The surface properties of the SLs obtained from the soy molasses\\/oleic acid fermentation had minimum surface-tension

Daniel K. Y. Solaiman; Richard D. Ashby; Alberto Nuñez; Thomas A. Foglia

2004-01-01

207

Production of pullulan from beet molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans in a stirred tank fermentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the aeration rate on pullulan production from beet molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans P56 in a stirred tank fermentor was investigated. A maximum polysaccharide concentration (23 g\\/l), biomass dry weight (22.5 g\\/l), polysaccharide yield (40%) and sugar utilization (96%) was achieved at an aeration rate of 1.0 vvm. A. pullulans grown on molasses produced a mixture of polysaccharides.

Triantafyllos Roukas; Maria Liakopoulou-Kyriakides

1999-01-01

208

Comportment of S. cerevisiae in relation to ions Ca ++ and Mg ++ on beet molasses wort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Calcium and magnesium are present in molasses at variable and sub-optimal concentrations for yeast metabolism. A molasse wort containing 60 p.p.m. of magnesium and 125 p.p.m. of calcium allows an optimal fermentation. If calcium becomes quickly toxic by accumulation in the yeasts, this effect can be corrected by additions of magnesium, without significant effect on the biomass.

E. Wolniewicz; F. Letourneau; P. Villa

1988-01-01

209

Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses by formed nitrogen oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses was developed in a series of three reactors. Nitrogen oxides formed were used to manufacture oxalic acid in the second and third reactor. Parameters affecting the reaction were determined to be, air flow rate, temperature, the amount of V2O5 catalyst and the concentrations of molasses and H2SO4. The maximum yields in the

Metin Gürü; Ali Y. Bilgesü; Vecihi Pamuk

2001-01-01

210

Optimization of xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris grown in molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 1395 using sugar beet molasses as carbon source was studied. The pre-treatment of sugar beet molasses and the supplementation of the medium were investigated in order to improve xanthan gum production. Addition of K2HPO4 to the medium had a significant positive effect on both xanthan gum and biomass production. The medium was subsequently

Stavros Kalogiannis; Gesthimani Iakovidou; Maria Liakopoulou-Kyriakides; Dimitrios A Kyriakidis; George N Skaracis

2003-01-01

211

Production of microbial levan from sucrose, sugarcane juice and beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bacillus polymyxa (NRRL-18475) produced a levan-type fructan (B, 2?6 fructofuranoside) when grown on sucrose, sugarcane juice, and sugarbeet molasses. The organism converted about 46% of the fructose moiety of sucrose to levan when grown on sucrose medium, however, the yields of levan from sugarcane juice and beet molasses were much less than sucrose solution. Such sugarcane juice and beet

Y. W. Han; M. A. Watson

1992-01-01

212

By-products of the cane sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

Paturav, J.M.

1989-01-01

213

Large-Angle Deflection of MOT-Based Cold Cs Beam by Optical Molasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have generated a slow moving Cs atomic beam from a vapor-cell Cs MOT and deflected the cold Cs beam by an angle of 30 degrees using a 1-D optical molasses. The MOT-generated Cs atomic beam travels at a mean velocity of 7 m/s with a velocity spread of 1 m/s. At 18 cm down-stream from the Cs MOT, the Cs atomic beam interacts with a 1-D optical molasses formed by a pair of frequency-stabilized, retro-reflected laser beams. The 1-D optical molasses is set up in such a way that the molasses laser beams are perpendicular to the final atomic beam propagation path. Thus, the Cs beam velocity components along the molasses axis are efficiently damped to nearly zero, while the velocity component along the final atomic beam propagation path is unaffected. In a probe region about 34 cm down-stream from the optical molasses, laser induced fluorescence of the deflected Cs beam is obtained and used for studies of the atomic beam deflection efficiencies and beam manipulation parameters. This deflected Cs atomic beam will be used in our cold Cs beam atomic clock experiment. This work was supported under The Aerospace Corporation's Mission Oriented Investigation and Experimentation program, funded by the U.S. Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center under Contract No. FA8802-04-C-0001.

Wang, H.; Iyanu, G.

2007-06-01

214

Impact of invasive cane toads on Australian birds.  

PubMed

The cane toad (Bufo marinus), a large, toxic, American anuran, was introduced to Australia in 1935. Populations of many of Australia's reptiles (snakes, varanid lizards, crocodiles) and carnivorous mammals (dasyurid marsupials) have declined because these predators are killed by the toad's powerful toxins. In contrast to these well-studied species, little is known about the cane toads impacts on Australian birds. We reviewed published and unpublished data on behavioral interactions between Australian avian predators and cane toads and collated distributional and dietary information to identify avian taxa potentially at risk from cane toad invasion. Cane toads are sympatric with 172 frog-eating bird species in Australia, and an additional 8 bird species overlap with the predicted future range of the toad. Although many bird species thus are potentially at risk, behavioral observations suggest the risk level is generally low. Despite occasional reports of Australian birds being killed when they ingest cane toads, most birds either ignore toads or survive the predation event. The apparently higher tolerance of Australian birds to toad toxins, compared with Australian reptiles and marsupials, may reflect genetic exchange between Australian birds and Asian populations that encounter other bufonid species regularly and hence have evolved the capacity to recognize or tolerate this toxic prey. PMID:19508674

Beckmann, Christa; Shine, Richard

2009-06-08

215

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing...

2010-07-01

216

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing...

2009-07-01

217

Composition of sugar cane, energy cane, and sweet sorghum suitable for ethanol production at Louisiana sugar mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

A challenge facing the biofuel industry is to develop an economically viable and sustainable biorefinery. The existing potential\\u000a biorefineries in Louisiana, raw sugar mills, operate only 3 months of the year. For year-round operation, they must adopt\\u000a other feedstocks, besides sugar cane, as supplemental feedstocks. Energy cane and sweet sorghum have different harvest times,\\u000a but can be processed for bio-ethanol using

Misook KimDonal; Donal F. Day

2011-01-01

218

Production and characterization of pullulan from beet molasses using a nonpigmented strain of Aureobasidium pullulans in batch culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of pullulan from beet molasses by a pigment-free strain of Aureobasidium pullulans on shake-flask culture was investigated. Combined pretreatment of molasses with sulfuric acid and activated carbon to remove\\u000a potential fermentation inhibitors present in molasses resulted in a maximum pullulan concentration of 24 g\\/L, a biomass dry\\u000a wt of 14 g\\/L, a pullulan yield of 52.5%, and a

Athina Lazaridou; Costas G. Biliaderis; Triantafyllos Roukas; Marta Izydorczyk

2002-01-01

219

Effect of molasses on the production and activity of dye-decolorizing peroxidase from Geotrichum candidum Dec1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) was investigated by cultivating Geotrichum candidum Dec1 using molasses as a carbon source. Molasses at concentrations greater than 10 g·l?1 was found to increase the decolorization activity of the culture broth toward dye, reactive blue 5 mainly because the amount of enzyme produced was enhanced. However, complete inhibition of DyP activity by molasses was

Tae Ho Lee; Hirokazu Aoki; Yasushi Sugano; Makoto Shoda

2000-01-01

220

40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

2012-07-01

221

40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

2012-07-01

222

40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

2012-07-01

223

21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a) Identification. Cane, crutch,...

2013-04-01

224

Kinetic study of ozonation of molasses fermentation wastewater.  

PubMed

A kinetic study of molasses wastewater ozonation was carried out in a stirred tank reactor to obtain the rate constants for the decolorization reaction and the regime through which ozone is absorbed. First, fundamental mass transfer parameters such as ozone solubility, volumetric mass transfer coefficients and ozone decomposition kinetics were determined from semi-batch experiments in organic-free solutions with an ionic composition similar that of industrial wastewater. The influence of operating variables such as the stirring rate and gas flow rate on the kinetic and mass transfer parameters was also studied. The application of film theory allows to establish that the reactions between ozone and colored compounds in wastewater take place in the fast and pseudo-first-order regime, within the liquid film. The decolorization rate constants were evaluated at pH 8.7 and 25 degrees C, varying from 0.6 x 10(7) to 3.8 x 10(7)L mol(-1)s(-1), depending on the stirring rate and the inlet gas flow. PMID:17498874

Coca, M; Peña, M; González, G

2007-04-06

225

Variables affecting efficiency of molasses fermentation wastewater ozonation.  

PubMed

The main operating variables affecting ozonation efficiencies of wastewater from beet molasses alcoholic fermentation have been studied. Semibatch experiments have been performed in order to analyze the influence of pH, bicarbonate ion, temperature and stirring rate on color and organic matter removals. The efficiencies were similar regardless of the pH, which indicates that direct reactions of ozone with wastewater organics were predominant to radical reactions. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed the reduction in the concentration of organics absorbing light at 475 nm after ozonation. The elimination of bicarbonate ion, strong inhibitor of hydroxyl radical reactions, yielded an improvement in both color and COD reduction efficiencies. Acidification for removing bicarbonate ions produced a shift of colored compounds to smaller molecular weights. The highest efficiencies were achieved at 40 degrees C. Color and COD reductions at 40 degrees C were about 90% and 37%, respectively. In no case, the percentage of TOC removed was higher than 10-15%. Stirring rate had a slightly positive effect during the first stage of the ozonation showing that mass transfer played a role only during the initial reaction phase when direct attack of ozone molecules to aromatic/olefinic structures of colored substances was the predominant pathway. PMID:16054910

Coca, M; Peña, M; González, G

2005-04-09

226

Hawaii ethanol from molasses project. Report on plant inspections  

SciTech Connect

Personal inspections were made of several ethanol plants in Europe and the US in order to determine the best commercial processes presently in operation, prepare a conceptual design of a large plant incorporating these processes, describe the processes, and list best estimates of yields, energy requirements, capital costs and operating costs. Information was obtained from fermentation plant manufacturers and alcohol producers concerning their company-sponsored process improvement and new process developments. A summary of the highlights of these observations are included in this report. The inspectors: observed commercial incineration of waste sulfite liquors; observed the pilot plant (not in operation) to incinerate various waste liquors resulting from fermentation of different feedstocks; observed commercial continuous and batch fermentation of beet molasses for the production of ethanol and stillage evaporation to 70% dissolved solids for animal feed; observed pilot plant operation of a new process (Carver-Greenfield process) for handling stillage; observed anhydrous ethanol production from fermentation of sulfite waste liquor using ethyl ether as the dehydrating agent; and observed the safety precautions taken when using this hazardous material.

Gibson, W.O.; Mashima, K.I.; Roberts, R.R.; Chen, C.S.

1979-09-18

227

Estimation of fruit weight by cane traits for eight American blackberries (Rubus fructicosus L.) cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 values) in MRA were found to be Black Satin (99.40%), Ness (99.16%), Navaho (96.46%), Dirksen Thornless (96.22%), Chester Thornless (91.92%), and Cv. Jumbo (91.26%), which meant that most (almost 100%) variation in fruit weight for these cultivars was explained by the number of cane, cane height, cane diameter, and cane yield. However, corresponding values for Arapaho and Cherokee cultivars

S. Peral Eyduran; Ecevit Eyduran; Y. Sabit Agaoglu

2008-01-01

228

Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge  

SciTech Connect

Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 29). PHB production yield (Y{sub p/s}) was highest (0.184 g g{sup -1} COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

Khardenavis, Anshuman A. [Environmental Genomics Unit, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India)], E-mail: aa_khardenavis@neeri.res.in; Vaidya, Atul N. [Solid Waste Management Unit, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India); Kumar, M. Suresh [Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India); Chakrabarti, Tapan [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India)

2009-09-15

229

The Effect of Sugar Cane Chewing on the Development of Dental Caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Tanzania, the effect of sugar cane chewing on the development of caries was investigated. Two groups were selected; those who had easy access to sugar cane (sugar cane cutters) and those who did not (sisal plant workers). These groups had a similar socio-economic background, had similar levels of fluoride in drinking water, consumed similar amounts of refined sugar per

J. E. Frencken; P. Rugarabamu; J. Mulder

1989-01-01

230

Process Integration of Bioethanol from Sugar Cane and Hydrogen Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study several alternatives for process integration of bioethanol from sugar cane and hydrogen production were evaluated. Bioethanol was produced above all in the fermentation of sweetened juice from sugar cane, stillage was removed. Stillage and bagasse are the process byproducts. The bioethanol steam reforming is an endothermic catalytic process when vaporized ethanol and steam are fed using a 1:6 molar ratio to reformer with a Ni-catalyst at atmospheric pressure and 350xC. Taking into account the processes properties mentioned above, it is possible to integrate the bioethanol production from sugar cane and its reforming by using byproducts like bagasse and stillage and to produce energy for steam reforming and bioethanol solution concentration by direct firing (for bagasse) or anaerobic digestion to get methane (for stillage).

Hernandez, L.; Kafarov, V.

231

Effect of Molasses Supplementation on the Production of Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Diets Based on Alfalfa and Corn Silage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adding sugar to the diet has been reported to im- prove production in dairy cows. In each of 2 trials, 48 lactating Holsteins (8 with ruminal cannulas) were fed covariate diets for 2 wk, blocked by days in milk into 12 groups of 4, and then randomly assigned to dietsbased onalfalfasilage containing4levels ofdried molasses (trial 1) or liquid molasses (trial

G. A. Broderick; W. J. Radloff

2004-01-01

232

Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative  

SciTech Connect

CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

Alexander, A.G.

1984-01-01

233

Kinetics of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses under cell recycle.  

PubMed

In this work, a kinetic model for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses was developed. A model previously developed for fermentation of pure molasses was modified by the inclusion of a new term for acetic acid inhibition on microorganism growth rate and the kinetic parameters were estimated as functions of temperature. The influence of the hydrolysate on the kinetic parameters is analyzed by comparing with the parameters from fermentation of pure molasses. The impact of cells recycling in the kinetic parameters is also evaluated, as well as on the ethanol yield and productivity. The model developed described accurately most of the fermentations performed in several successive batches for temperatures from 30 to 38°C. PMID:23313680

de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

2012-12-20

234

Generation of microscale current loops, atom rings, and cubic clusters using twisted optical molasses  

SciTech Connect

We propose a scheme for a viable and highly flexible all-optical atomic cooling and trapping using twisted light. In particular, we explain how one-dimensional twisted optical molasses should lead to a microscale atomic ring or a picoampere ionic current. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional molasses lead, respectively, to the creation of atom or ion loops and discrete atom clusters positioned at the eight corners of a microcube. These features at the microscale should find applications in physics and in quantum information processing using optically trapped atoms and ions.

Carter, A. R.; Babiker, M. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Al-Amri, M. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); King Khalid University, Abha, P.O. Box 9003 (Saudi Arabia); Andrews, D. L. [School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

2006-02-15

235

Statistical optimization of medium components for enhanced acetoin production from molasses and soybean meal hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional requirements for acetoin production by Bacillus subtilis CICC 10025 were optimized statistically in shake flask experiments using indigenous agroindustrial by-products. The medium\\u000a components considered for initial screening in a Plackett–Burman design comprised a-molasses (molasses submitted to acidification\\u000a pretreatment), soybean meal hydrolysate (SMH), KH2PO4·3H2O, sodium acetate, MgSO4·7H2O, FeCl2, and MnCl2, in which the first two were identified as significantly

Z. J. Xiao; P. H. Liu; J. Y. Qin; P. Xu

2007-01-01

236

The production of 2,3-butanediol by fermentation of high test molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella oxytoca fermented 199 g·l-1 high test or invert molasses using batch fermentation with substrate shift to produce 95.2–98.6 g 2,3-butanediol·l-1 and 2,4–4.3 g acetoin·l-1 with a diol yield of 96–100% of the theoretical value and a diol productivity of 1.0–1.1 g·l-1·h-1. Fermentation was performed numerous times with molasses in repeated batch culture with cell recovery. Such repeated batch fermentation,

A. S. Afschar; K. H. Bellgardt; C. E. Vaz Rossell; A. Czok; K. Schaller

1991-01-01

237

The effect of cane use method on center of mass displacement during stair ascent.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine the effect of forward and lateral cane placement on displacement of whole body center of mass (COM) and spatial relationship between COM and the cane during stair ascent (SA) in healthy adults. The data were obtained using three-dimensional motion analysis while ascending stairs non-reciprocally with following methods: (1) dominant foot stepped up first, then the opposite foot without a cane (NC); (2) forward placement of a quadricane followed by the ipsilateral foot, then contralateral foot (FCI); (3) forward cane placement followed by the contralateral foot, then ipsilateral foot (FCC); (4) ipsilateral foot stepping up first, followed by the contralateral foot, then the cane (LCI); (5) contralateral foot stepping up, followed by the ipsilateral foot, then the cane (LCC). The results indicated that the cane placement had significant effect on the medial-lateral (ML) COM displacement and the kinematics of the trunk. Lateral cane placement requires greater trunk extension and side-flexion. The major differences between ipsilateral and contralateral cane use are the motions at frontal and transverse planes in which the COM displacement in ML direction is larger in ipsilateral cane use. The COM displacement in ML direction is larger in ipsilateral use of cane (LCI and FCI). The results of this study may help clinicians better understand the possible nature of balance control in patients who ascend stairs with a cane, and suggest that the method of cane placement should be taken into consideration by clinicians when teaching the cane user to ascend stairs. PMID:20800489

Hsue, Bih-Jen; Su, Fong-Chin

2010-08-25

238

Assessing the Potential Impact of Cane Toads on Australian Snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are large, highly toxic anurans that were introduced into Australia in 1937. Anecdotal reports suggest that the invasion of toads into an area is followed by dramatic declines in the abundance of terrestrial native frog-eating predators, but quantitative studies have been restricted to nonpredator taxa or aquatic predators and have generally reported minimal impacts. Will toads

BEN L. PHILLIPS; GREGORY P. BROWN; RICHARD SHINE

2003-01-01

239

65 FR 62989 - White Cane Safety Day, 2000  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2000 White Cane Safety Day, 2000 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Last month at the Olympic Games in Sydney, American runner Marla Runyan made history in the women's 1500- meter race. She was not considered...

2000-10-19

240

Structured Discovery in Cane Travel: Constructivism in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a general sense today that constructivist teaching is not up to the task of preparing students for high-stakes exams. In this article, the authors describe a highly effective constructivist approach used to teach students in a learning situation that takes the meaning of "high stakes" to another level. They talk about teachers of "cane

Maurer, Matthew M.; Bell, Edward C.; Woods, Eric; Allen, Roland

2006-01-01

241

Mechanical planter update: 2007 Bayou Teche test plant cane results  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mechanization of cane planting has been somewhat limited, due to the fact that the entire 4-5 ft stalk must be planted horizontally in the seedbed. Several modifications were made to mechanical planters by a grower cooperator. To test the modifications, a replicated field trial was planted on Augus...

242

Methods of alcohol production available to the cane sugar refiner  

SciTech Connect

The three methods of fermenting sugar feedstocks, namely, batch, batch recycle and continuous culture are described. With the current emphasis on fuel alcohol from sugar cane products, new techniques for dealing with the effuent stillage are required. Other areas for improvement include the fermentation process itself and the various distillation methods. New technology in these areas together with the economic considerations involved are reviewed.

Bennett, M.C.

1981-11-01

243

MINLP APPROACH FOR ENERGY MINIMIZATION AT THE SUGAR CANE INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost reduction in food processing plants can be achieved by coordinating the use of the manufacturing resources and operations. Heat exchange is widely employed in most of the processes and the efficiency of this operation highly depends on the maintenance policy. An adequate maintenance policy is critical in cases affected by rapid fouling, such as the processing of sugar cane

244

MULTIPLE CHALLENGES OF GREEN-CANE HARVESTING IN LOUISIANA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the widespread adoption of the chopper harvester system in Louisiana, producers are concerned about the effects of different ground and extractor fan speeds on cane yield, quality, losses, and profit, therefore an experiment was conducted to address these concerns. We tested ground speeds of 2...

245

Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.  

PubMed

The effect of the U.S. and worldwide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugar cane harvesting on processing and the use of sugar cane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugar cane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon (repeat) crop of five commercial, Louisiana sugar cane varieties (LCP 85-384, HoCP 96-540, L 97-128, L 99-226, and L 99-233). Replicated sample tissues of brown, dry leaves (BL), green leaves (GL), growing point region (GPR), and stalk (S) were separated. Composite juice from each tissue type was clarified following a hot lime clarification process operated by most U.S. factories. Only GPR and GL juices foamed on heating and followed the normal settling behavior of factory sugar cane juice, although GL was markedly slower than GPR. GPR juice aided settling. S juice tended to thin out rather than follow normal settling and exhibited the most unwanted upward motion of flocs. Most varietal variation in settling, mud, and clarified juice (CJ) characteristics occurred for GL. The quality rather than the quantity of impurities in the different tissues mostly affected the volume of mud produced: After 30 min of settling, mud volume per unit tissue juice degrees Brix (% dissolved solids) varied markedly among the tissues (S 1.09, BL 11.3, GPR 3.0, and GL 3.1 mL/degrees Brix). Heat transfer properties of tissue juices and CJs are described. Clarification was unable to remove all BL cellulosic particles. GL and BL increased color, turbidity, and suspended particles in CJs with BL worse than GL. This will make the future attainment of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar in the U.S. more difficult. Although optimization of factory unit processes will alleviate extra trash problems, economical strategies to reduce the amount of green and brown leaves processed need to be identified and implemented. PMID:19994855

Eggleston, Gillian; Grisham, Michael; Antoine, April

2010-01-13

246

Fermentative production of butanol from sorghum molasses as a potential agricultural fuel. Final report, June 26, 1981-September 25, 1982  

SciTech Connect

A strain, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 4259, suitable for butanol-acetone fermentation of sorghum molasses was selected from several strains of the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It was cultivated in the composition-optimized sorghum molasses medium. The microbial growth and sugar consumption pattern in the sorghum molasses medium exhibited a typical diauxie phenomenon. The results strongly suggest that the difficulty encountered by the Weizmann type of organisms in butanol-acetone fermentation of molasses is due to the diauxie phenomenon causing a significant decrease in the solvent production rate. Acid hydrolysis of sorghum molasses minimizes the occurrence of the phenomenon, thereby remarkably increasing the solvent yield. The final solvent concentrations in the inverted molasses medium were butanol, 1.0% (w/v); acetone, 0.37% (w/v); ethanol, 0.18% (w/v); and total solvent, 1.55% (w/v). The total solvent yield in the inverted sorghum molasses medium was 30.3% based on the weight of sugar consumed. Effects of the temperature, agitation and heat-shocking were also investigated.

Fan, L.T.

1982-12-01

247

The effect of cane molasses amendment on biocontrol of frosty pod rot ( Moniliophthora roreri) and black pod ( Phytophthora spp.) of cocoa ( Theobroma cacao) in Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri, and black pod (BP), caused by Phytophthora spp., of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) cause combined pod losses of more than 80% in Panama. Biological control of both diseases appeared promising in Peru and is desired by certified organic producers in Panama. We evaluated both local and Peruvian fungal antagonists in participatory trials on

Ulrike Krauss; G. Martijn ten Hoopen; Eduardo Hidalgo; Adolfo Martínez; Tim Stirrup; Claudio Arroyo; Johnny García; Manuel Palacios

2006-01-01

248

The eVect of cane molasses amendment on biocontrol of frosty pod rot (Moniliophthora roreri) and black pod (Phytophthora spp.) of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri, and black pod (BP), caused by Phytophthora spp., of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) cause combined pod losses of more than 80% in Panama. Biological control of both diseases appeared promising in Peru and is desired by certiWed organic producers in Panama. We evaluated both local and Peruvian fungal antagonists in participatory trials on

Ulrike Krauss; G. Martijn; Eduardo Hidalgo; Adolfo Martínez; Tim Stirrup; Claudio Arroyo; Johnny García; Manuel Palacios

249

Production of Cerebroside from Beet Molasses by the Yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two strains classified as Saccharomyces kluyveri were grown on beet molasses as the principal carbon source to select a strain for the production of a glycosphingolipid cerebroside. Six strains accumulated relatively high amounts of cerebroside (> 0.40 mg [g dry weight]) and grew well in an Erlenmeyer flask. Thirty strains were isolated from single spores of strain CBS 4800 after

Masahiko Tamura; Osamu Matsumoto; Naoya Takakuwa; Yuji Oda; Masao Ohnishi

2005-01-01

250

Biological decolourisation of wastewater from molasses fermentation by Trametes versicolor in an airlift reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous decolourisation of wastewater from molasses fermentation using mycelium of Trametes versicolor in pellets shape was performed in an airlift bioreactor (semi-pilot scale) with the aim of operating steadily for a long period, maintaining the colour removal activity. The influences of influent flow and glucose feed rate were tested. Induction of peroxidases secretion by Mn addition was also studied. The

R. Rioja; M. T. García; M. Peña; G. González

2008-01-01

251

Process optimization of biological hydrogen production from molasses by a newly isolated Clostridium butyricum W5  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work sought to optimize fermentation parameters in a batch process for hydrogen production from molasses by a newly isolated Clostridium butyricum W5. Hydrogen yield and production rate, bacterial biomass and volatile fatty acids, including acetic, lactic and butyric acids, were measured. Key fermentation operation parameters, including concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources, growth temperature and pH, and inoculum size

Xiaoyi Wang; Bo Jin

2009-01-01

252

ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS EXTRACTED FROM MOLASSES FOR EVALUATION AS CANDIDATE FLY ATTRACTANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: House flies and other fly species can wound or injure farm animals causing weight loss or other deleterious effects resulting in a loss of revenue to farmers. Farm grade molasses used for cattle feed is a strong attractant to many species of flies seeking the sugars contained in the m...

253

Observations of sodium atoms in a magnetic molasses trap loaded by a continuous uncooled source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe observations of atoms trapped in magnetic molasses made by using a simplified apparatus that is loaded by a continuous uncooled source of atoms. We also measured the cross section for collisions in which trapped sodium atoms are ejected from the trap by thermal sodium atoms and estimate that the cross section is 30 times larger than for collisions

A. Cable; M. Prentiss; N. P. Bigelow

1990-01-01

254

Effect of Substituting Dry Sugars for Molasses in Calf Starters on Feed Intake and Growth Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six Holstein and 12 Brown Swiss calves were assigned at random within breed and sex to four starter ration groups; namely, control, molasses, sucrose, and dextrose, to determine the growth responses as measured by live weight gains and voluntary starter consumption in an early-weaning lbnited whole milk feeding regimen. Differences in live weight gains among the four groups were not

S. R. Atai; K. E. Harshbarger

1965-01-01

255

Case study: molasses as the primary energy supplement on an organic grazing dairy farm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic dairies face many challenges, one of which is the high cost of purchasing organic feed grains. Many of these farms are seeking lower-cost feed ingredients that can be reasonably fed to lactating dairy cows. Molasses seems to be a viable, less expensive source of supplemental energy and vit...

256

Electricity production from molasses wastewater in two-chamber microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

Molasses wastewater contains large amounts of glucose, and it can provide enough energy for microbial decomposition. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) in this study was demonstrated to be able to treat real wastewater with the benefit of harvesting electricity energy. Efficient operation of this MFC requires a molasses wastewater and preferably an inexpensive anode electrolyte. The results from a batch of experiments showed that molasses wastewater could not only serve as the electron acceptor in anode, but also generate electricity stably. A maximum voltage output of 514.5 mV and a maximum power density of 65.82 mW/m(2) were recorded at external resistance of 1,000 ?. The MFC not only effectively dealt with the molasses wastewater, the chemical oxygen demand removal rate is 81.22%, but also had a significant effect in the processing of analog silver wastewater. At the end of the experiment, after disassembling the device, silver precipitation was found stacked on the cathode carbon paper electrode, and some black sediment was found at the side of the proton membrane anode. PMID:23863446

Zhang, Yong-juan; Sun, Cai-yu; Liu, Xiao-ye; Han, Wei; Dong, Yi-xing; Li, Yong-feng

2013-01-01

257

Effect of molasses or cornmeal on milk production and nitrogen utilization of grazing organic dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pasture is rich in soluble nitrogen (N) which is rapidly converted to ammonia in the rumen reducing N utilization in lactating dairy cows. Sucrose is more quickly degraded in the rumen than starch, suggesting that feeding molasses (MOL) to balance the supplies of energy and rumen degradable protein...

258

Quantized 1D- and 2D optical molasses: Laser cooling and spectrum of resonance fluorescene  

SciTech Connect

We present results for laser cooling of optical molasses and the spectrum of resonance fluorescene based on a fully quantum mechanical treatment of the atomic center-of-mass motion for 1D and 2D laser configurations. Our calculations based on recently developed wave function simulations of the quantum master equation for laser cooling.

Marte, P.; Dum, R.; Taieb, R.; Zoller, P.

1993-05-01

259

Supercritical water oxidation for the destruction of municipal excess sludge and alcohol distillery wastewater of molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical water oxidation has been focused as an environmentally attractive technology where organic materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide, water, and N2. We have applied the supercritical water oxidation to municipal excess sludge and alcohol distillery wastewater of molasses. The reaction was carried out in a batch reactor or a flow reactor with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant in the

Motonobu Goto; Takatsugu Nada; Akane Ogata; Akio Kodama; Tsutomu Hirose

1998-01-01

260

Timing of the Tianshan Mountains uplift constrained by magnetostratigraphic analysis of molasse deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tianshan Mountains lie in the actively deforming part of the India–Asia collision zone. The thrust faulting and folding of the Neogene and Quaternary sediments, forming linear, roughly east–west anticlines at the northern and southern borders of the orogenic belts, indicate crustal shortening and thickening in late Cenozoic time. Detailed magnetostratigraphic studies of the molasse deposits of the folded Neogene

Jimin Sun; Rixiang Zhu; James Bowler

2004-01-01

261

Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from molasses produces bacteriocins active against Gram-negative bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bacteriocins, ST28MS and ST26MS, produced by Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from molasses, inhibited the growth of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumanii. The mode of activity of the bacteriocins is bacteriostatic, as observed against L. casei and P. aeruginosa. Reduction in antimicrobial activity was recorded after treatment with Proteinase K, papain,

S. D. Todorov; L. M. T. Dicks

2005-01-01

262

Comparative studies on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger and Candida lipolytica using molasses and glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citric acid production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 548 and Candida lipolytica NCIM 3472 has been studied in shake culture using glucose and molasses as carbon sources. Methanol addition (3% v\\/v) at 40 h of fermentation enhanced the production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger whereas a reduction in citric acid production by Candida lipolytica was observed with addition of methanol.

M. Pazouki; P. A. Felse; J. Sinha; T. Panda

2000-01-01

263

Attempts at improving citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger in beet-molasses medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural oils with high unsaturated fatty acids content when added at concentrations of 2% and 4% (v\\/v) to beet molasses (BM) medium caused a considerable increase in citric acid yield from Aspergillus niger. The fermentation capacities were also examined for production of citric acid using BM-oil media under different fermentation conditions. Maximum citric acid yield was achieved in surface culture

Nehad Z. Adham

2002-01-01

264

Improvement of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger with addition of phytate to beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytate is an important plant constituent and can be found in the seeds of cereals and legumes. Phytic acid has 12 replaceable protons in the phytic molecule, giving it the ability to complex with multivalent cations. In this study, the phytate was used as an additive to enhance citric acid production by Aspergillus niger from an untreated beet molasses. The

Jianlong Wang

1998-01-01

265

Monitoring and control of industrial downstream processing of sugar beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present work the determination of several amino acids during the industrial chromatographic desugarisation of molasses is presented. The use of innovative biosensor systems for highly specific detection of serine is described. Using two-dimensional fluorescence spectrometry, a non-invasive method for the determination of several product fractions could be established in an industrial chromatographic procedure.

Roland Ulber; Robert Faurie; Peter Sosnitza; Lutz Fischer; Egbert Stärk; Christian Harbeck; Thomas Scheper

2000-01-01

266

Unusual catalysts from molasses: synthesis, properties and application in obtaining biofuels from algae.  

PubMed

Acid catalysts were prepared by sulfonation of carbon materials obtained from the pyrolysis of sugar beet molasses, a cheap, viscous byproduct in the processing of sugar beets into sugar. Conditions for the pyrolysis of molasses (temperature and time) influenced catalyst performance; the best combination came from pyrolysis at low temperature (420 °C) for a relatively long time (8-15 h), which ensured better stability of the final material. The most effective molasses catalyst was highly active in the esterification of fatty acids with methanol (100 % yield after 3 h) and more active than common solid acidic catalysts in the transesterification of vegetable oils with 25-75 wt % of acid content (55-96 % yield after 8 h). A tandem process using a solid acid molasses catalyst and potassium hydroxide in methanol was developed to de-acidificate and transesterificate algal oils from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Nannochloropsis gaditana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, which contain high amounts of free fatty acids. The amount of catalyst required for the de-acidification step was influenced by the chemical composition of the algal oil, thus operational conditions were determined not only in relation to free fatty acids content in the oil, but according to the composition of the lipid extract of each algal species. PMID:22678658

Samorì, Chiara; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe; Faraloni, Cecilia; Galletti, Paola; Spera, Silvia; Tagliavini, Emilio; Torzillo, Giuseppe

2012-06-08

267

Citric acid production from beet molasses by cell recycle of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Production of citric acid from beet molasses at a varying pH profile using cell recycle ofAspergillus niger was investigated. Best results in terms of citric acid concentration, yield, productivity and specific citric acid productivity were obtained with a substrate pH of 3.0.

T. Roukas; E. Alichanidis

1991-01-01

268

Optimization of Molasses and Air Feeding Profiles in Fed-Batch Baker's Yeast Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on maximization of the amount of biomass in the production of baker's yeast in fed-batch fermenters while minimizing the undesirable alcohol formation, by regulating the molasses and air feed rates. An optimization mechanism coupled with a state estimation algorithm and an Artificial Neural Network model based on original industrial data has been designed. As substrate and biomass

Ilknur Atasoy; Mehmet Yüceer; Ridvan Berber

2009-01-01

269

Effect of Dehydrated Alfalfa, Molasses and Pelleting on Utilization of Urea Rations1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digestion trials determined the effect of including in the supplement, dehydrated alfalfa and molasses and of pelleting on utilization of urea-containing rations. All possible combinations of these three varia- bles were tested. The basal ration contained 57% corn and 25% corn cobs. The sup- plement supplied the total ration with 1% urea, additional vitamins and minerals and sufficient soybean meal

F. G. OWEhl; E. L. Fisher; P. J. Cunningham

1971-01-01

270

Seismic stratigraphy and stratigraphic modelling of the South-eastern German Molasse Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the German Molasse Basin can be regarded as a mature hydrocarbon province, no regional sequence stratigraphic analysis has been carried out so far. We have studied seismic lines and well data from the region between the Isar and Inn rivers (SE Germany) that have been generously supplied by German oil companies (DEE, BEB, Mobil, RWE-DEA and Wintershall). Initial work

T. Aigner; J. Jin; P. Luterbacher

1995-01-01

271

[Screening and identification of microorganisms for decolorization of molasses spent wash].  

PubMed

Microorganisms were screened from the natural environment for decolorization of molasses spent wash, and the isolated strains were then employed in the treatment of actual wastewater. The primary screening was carried out on agar plates supplemented with synthesized melanoidin as the target substrate, since melanoidin is one of the most refractory pigments in wastewater. Promising microorganisms were further selected through secondary screening by decolorization of untreated actual wastewater in shaking flask cultures. Gel filtration chromatography was used to determine the molecular weight distribution of pigments in molasses spent wash before and after decolorization. A strain named A5P1 was isolated from the soil samples collected, showing a good ability of decolorizing molasses spent wash, and was later identified as Aspergillus flavus by morphology and ITS sequence analysis. Experimental study of factors affecting the decolorization performance of strain A5P1 gave the optimal conditions as follows: 4.3 x 10(4) mL(-1) of inoculum size, medium with initial pH of 4.5 and cultivation at 39 degrees C. It could decolorize 53.0% of the pigments in the untreated molasses spent wash and decreased 80% of chemical oxygen demand after four-day incubation. The result of gel filtration chromatography demonstrated that both the large and small molecular weight fractions of pigments in the molasses spent wash could be removed by strain A5P1. Based on the measurement of enzyme activities, at least three different kinds of enzymes, i. e. the enzyme with H2O2-producing activity, laccase and manganese peroxidase were involved in the decolorization process. Therefore, the decolorization mechanism of strain A5P1 was preliminarily considered to be mainly biodegradation, with bioadsorption as a minor reaction. PMID:23243885

Li, Bi-Jin; Liu, You-Yan; He, Kai; Teng, Fang-Ming; He, Xi-Pu; Li, Qing-Yun

2012-09-01

272

Interaction Effects of the Amount of Practice, Preferred Cane Technique, and Type of Cane Technique Used on Drop-Off Detection Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the interaction effects of the amount of practice and the cane technique used in drop-off detection with a sample of 32 adults who were blind. The advantage of the constant contact technique over the two-point touch technique was significantly greater for the less experienced cane users than for the more experienced ones.…

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

2010-01-01

273

Interaction Effects of the Amount of Practice, Preferred Cane Technique, and Type of Cane Technique Used on Drop-off Detection Performance  

PubMed Central

This study examined the interaction effects of the amount of practice and the cane technique used in drop-off detection with a sample of 32 adults who were blind. The advantage of the constant contact technique over the two-point touch technique was significantly greater for the less experienced cane users than for the more experienced ones.

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

2010-01-01

274

Chromatographic detection of sugar cane samples via polarimetry.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of molecular exclusion cromatography with the laser polarimetry has become a powerful technique to separate and evaluate some carbohydrates of sugar cane plants. In the following work it has been obtained chromatograms of carbohydrates standards, which has been used as comparison patterns in the studies of the juice quality in different cane varieties of different physiological stadiums and stress conditions. By means of the employment of this technique, it has also been determined the influence of carbohydrates of medium molecular mass in the determination of the apparent sucrose in the routine sugar analysis. On the other hand, discreet determination of the fractions causes time consuming and a troublesome manipulation. In the present work some modifications to the system are shown, obtaining a small volume sample (less than 1 ml) and angular readings on line, avoiding the employment of fraction collectors.

López, Juan Carlos; Fajer, Victor; Rodríguez, Carlos W.; Naranjo, Salvador; Mora, Luis; Ravelo, Justo; Cossio, Gladys; Avila, Norma

2004-03-01

275

EFFECT OF MOLASSES ON REGROWTH OF E. COLI O157:H7 AND SALMONELLA IN COMPOST TEAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Compost water extracts (compost teas) are gaining popularity among organic growers, largely because of their disease suppressive activity when applied to foliage or soil. Production methods often include addition of supplemental constituents, particularly molasses, to stimulate plant-beneficial micr...

276

Bioconversion of phytosterols to androstanes by mycobacteria growing on sugar cane mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct sterol conversion of sugar cane mud (residue) by Mycobacterium sp. was demonstrated to be possible technologically, thus avoiding sugar cane oil extraction and further processes of extraction and purification of phytosterols from this oil. Indeed, mycobacterial cells were able to convert phytosterols from sugar cane mud into 4-androstene-dione (AD) and 1,4 androsta-diene-3,17-dione (ADD). For the various concentrations assayed, concomitant

C. Pérez; A. Falero; B. R. Hung; S. Tirado; Y. Balcinde

2005-01-01

277

Changes in quality of sugar-cane juice upon delayed extraction and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of sugar-cane juice extracted from stored canes, as well as changes in quality of fresh juice stored at different temperatures, were studied. Cane stems were stored at 10±1°C, 85–88% relative humidity (RH) and 27±1°C, 55–85% RH, while fresh juice was stored at 5±1°C, 61–84% RH and 27±1°C, 55–85% RH. The physicochemical parameters evaluated were juice yield, juice colour,

S. Yusof; L. S. Shian; A. Osman

2000-01-01

278

Evaluation of green-cane harvesting and crop management with a trash-blanket  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the feasibility of green-cane harvest at San Carlos Sugar Mill in Ecuador, the agronomic parameters that may be\\u000a affected when changing from burned to green-cane harvest were evaluated. Two sites were harvested green by hand and compared\\u000a with two adjacent sites that were also harvested manually but burned. Manual, green-cane harvesting was found to be not feasible\\u000a for

Oscar Núñez; Egbert Spaans

2008-01-01

279

Effect of leaf stripping on cane and sugar yield in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of leaf stripping +2 levels at monthly intervals starting from August till December on cane yield and commercial cane\\u000a sugar (CCS) of sugarcane was studied under field conditions. Treatments comprised of whole leaf removal (WLR) and leaf blade\\u000a removal (LBR). Cane yield showed significant improvement when stripping was performed in the month of August and November\\u000a and the magnitude

Radha Jain; N. Kulshreshtha; H. N. Shahi; S. Solomon; A. Chandra

2010-01-01

280

UTILIZZO DEL TRAMADOLO PER VIA EPIDURALE NEL CANE: CASE REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIASSUNTO In questo lavoro è stato impiegato e descritto l'utilizzo del Tramadolo per via epidurale durante l'anestesia in un cane che affronta, in successione, tre interventi nella stessa seduta operatoria; il primo in regione perineale seguito da orchiectomia e successivamente l'exeresi di una grossa neoformazione sul gomito. La somministrazione epidurale lombo-sacrale effettuata con Tramadolo a 2mg\\/kg diluito 1:1 in soluzione

Pierre MELANIE

281

Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar-cane bagasse and leaves (10--15 g oven-dry basis) were fractionated without size reduction by a rapid (45 s to 4 min), immersed percolation using only hot (190--230 C), compressed (P > P{sub sat}), liquid water (0.6--1.2 kg). Over 50% of the biomass could be solubilized. All of the hemicellulose, together with much of the acid-insoluble lignin in the bagasse (>60%),

Stephen Glen Allen; Lance Cameron Kam; Andreas Joseph Zemann; Michael Jerry Antal

1996-01-01

282

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse for enhanced ruminal digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residues, such as sugar cane bagasse (SCB), have been largely used for cattle feeding However, the close association\\u000a that exists among the three major plant cell-wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, limits the efficiency\\u000a by which ruminants can degrade these materials Previously, we have shown that pretreatment with 3% (w\\/w) phosphoric acid,\\u000a under relatively mild conditions, increased considerably the

Francisco C. Deschamps; Luiz P. Ramos; José D. Fontana

1996-01-01

283

The behavioral ecology of cannibalism in cane toads ( Bufo marinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies show that predatory cane toads (Bufo marinus) exhibit specialized toe-luring behavior that attracts smaller conspecifics, but field surveys of toad diet rarely record\\u000a cannibalism. Our data resolve this paradox, showing that cannibalism is common under specific ecological conditions. In the\\u000a wet–dry tropics of Australia, desiccation risk constrains recently metamorphosed toads to the edges of the natal pond. Juvenile

Lígia Pizzatto; Richard Shine

2008-01-01

284

A New Milky Way Dwarf Satellite in Canes Venatici  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Letter, we announce the discovery of a new dwarf satellite of the Milky Way, located in the constellation Canes Venatici. It was found as a stellar overdensity in the north Galactic cap using Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 (SDSS DR5). The satellite's color-magnitude diagram shows a well-defined red giant branch as well as a horizontal branch.

V. Belokurov; N. W. Evans; M. I. Wilkinson; T. Sivarani; S. Hodgkin; D. M. Bramich; J. M. Irwin; G. Gilmore; B. Willman; S. Vidrih; M. Fellhauer; P. C. Hewett; T. C. Beers; E. F. Bell; E. K. Grebel; D. P. Schneider; H. J. Newberg; R. F. G. Wyse; C. M. Rockosi; B. Yanny; R. Lupton; J. A. Smith; J. C. Barentine; H. Brewington; J. Brinkmann; M. Harvanek; S. J. Kleinman; J. Krzesinski; D. Long; A. Nitta; S. A. Snedden

2006-01-01

285

EXPRESSION OF MEMBRANE TRANSPORTERS IN CANE TOAD BUFO MARINUS OOCYTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane transport proteins (transporters and ion channels) have been extensively expressed in amphibian oocytes. The aims of this study were to determine whether oocytes from the cane toad Bufo marinus could be used as an alternative expression system to the broadly used Xenopus laevis oocytes. mRNAs encoding plasma membrane transporters NaSi-1 and sat-1 (sulphate transporters), NaDC-1 (dicarboxylate transporter), SGLT- 1

DANIEL MARKOVICH; RALF R. REGEER

286

Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose, and molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet\\u000a molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation\\u000a of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by

Mahnaz Sharifia; Keikhosro Karimi; Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

2008-01-01

287

Glucose syrup and corn steep liquor as alternative to molasses substrates for production of baking-quality yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the possibility of substituting molasses with glucose syrup produced from corn starch and supplemented with corn steep liquor (CSL) (a by-product of corn- starch extraction process) as a source of proteins, vitamins and oligo-elements was investigated. For this purpose, fed-batch fermentations with constant volume were carried out to evaluate the influence of molasses sugars replacement (0-30-60-100%)

G. Spigno; M. D. Fumi; D. M. De Faveri

288

Polyurethane composites derived from glycerol and molasses polyols filled with oil palm empty fruit bunches studied by TG and DMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyurethane composites filled with oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were prepared using molasses and glycerol based polyols (MLP and GlyP). Glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel fuel (BDF) from palm oil, and EFB a residual component of the palm oil tree. MLP or GlyP was prepared by dissolving molasses or glycerol in polyethylene glycol. In the first series of

Guan-Seng Tay; Takashi Nanbo; Hyoe Hatakeyama; Tatsuko Hatakeyama

2011-01-01

289

Novel strategy using an adsorbent-column chromatography for effective ethanol production from sugarcane or sugar beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molasses-based distilleries generate large volumes of a highly polluted and dark brown-colored wastewater. The present work describes the way in which an adsorbent-column chromatography can effectively remove the colorant and produce biomass ethanol from sugarcane or sugar beet molasses. It was found that the color and chemical oxygen demand of the resulting wastewater was respectively reduced by approximately 87% and

Ken-ichi Hatano; Satoshi Kikuchi; Yohei Nakamura; Hironobu Sakamoto; Machiko Takigami; Yasuyoshi Kojima

2009-01-01

290

Effect of the shear rate on pullulan production from beet molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans in an airlift reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the shear rate on pullulan production from beet molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans P56 in an airlift reactor was investigated. A maximum polysaccharide concentration (18.5 g\\/L), biomass dry weight (14.0 g\\/L),\\u000a polysaccharide yield (38.5%), and sugar utilization (96%) was achieved at a shear rate of 42 s?1. A. pullulans grown on beet molasses produced a mixture of pullulan

T. Roukas; G. Serris

1999-01-01

291

Stilbenoid profiles of canes from Vitis and Muscadinia species.  

PubMed

We present stilbenoid profiles of canes from 16 grapevines. Fifteen stilbenoids were obtained through isolation and structure identification using MS, NMR, and [?](D) or as commercial standards. An HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous quantification of nine of these stilbenoids was developed and applied to canes of Vitis amurensis, Vitis arizonica, Vitis berlandieri, Vitis betulifolia, Vitis cinerea, Vitis × champini, Vitis × doaniana, Vitis labrusca, Vitis candicans (syn. Vitis mustangensis), Vitis riparia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis vinifera, Muscadinia rotundifolia, and a V. vinifera × M. rotundifolia hybrid. In these species, E-ampelopsin E, E-amurensin B, E-piceid, E-piceatannol, E-resveratrol, E-resveratroloside, E-?-viniferin, E-?-viniferin, and E-vitisin B were quantified, when found in sufficient amounts. Total concentrations ranged from ~2.2 to 19.5 g/kg of dry weight. Additional stilbenoids, E-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 2-C-glucoside, Z-ampelopsin E, Z-trans-miyabenol C, E-trans-miyabenol C, scirpusin A, and Z-vitisin B, were identified but not quantified. Our results indicate that canes, particularly those of non-vinifera species, have substantial quantities of valuable, health-promoting stilbenoids. PMID:23270496

Pawlus, Alison D; Sahli, Ramla; Bisson, Jonathan; Rivière, Céline; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Richard, Tristan; Gomès, Eric; Bordenave, Louis; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

2013-01-11

292

Ethanol from Sugar Cane: Flask Experiments Using the EX-FERM Technique  

PubMed Central

Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. Two types of cane treatments were used: chips and shredded pith, either fresh or dried. A mother culture of the yeast was prepared in enriched cane juice and then added to the cane-water mixture. After static fermentation for 40 h at 30°C, the cane was removed, and fresh cane was added to the yeast-alcohol broth. After an additional 24 h, the cane was again removed and the liquor was analyzed. After the first 40-h cycle, sugar consumption was above 99% with 10 of the 37 yeast strains tested, and ethanol reached levels of 1.29 to 4.00 g per 100 ml, depending on the yeast strain. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37 g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level.

Rolz, Carlos; de Cabrera, Sheryl

1980-01-01

293

Cellulose Production by Acetobacter acetigenum and other Acetobacter spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The synthesis of cellulose by Acetobacter on media based on blackstrap molasses was studied. Methods are described for the determination of cellulose, and of growth as cell-N, in static culture. Different carbohydrate substrates were compared for cellulose production by Acetobacter acetigenum strain EA-I ; hydrolysed molasses was found to give the largest yields. In media based on this substrate

W. F. DUDMAN

1959-01-01

294

19 CFR 10.139 - Liquidation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compliance with §§ 10.136, 10.137, and 10.138. Blackstrap molasses is âfinalâ molasses practically free from sugar crystals, containing not over 58 percent total sugars and having a ratio of total sugars à 100/Brix not in excess of...

2013-04-01

295

Production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola grown on soy molasses as substrate.  

PubMed

Sophorolipids (SLs) were produced from Candida bombicola using soy molasses and oleic acid as co-substrates. The purified SLs were obtained at 21 g l(-1) and were 97% in lactone form. The major SL constituent (81% relative abundance) of the product mixture contains an oleoyl chain. The surface properties of the SLs obtained from the soy molasses/oleic acid fermentation had minimum surface-tension values of 37 mN m(-1) (pH 6) and 38 mN m(-1) (pH 9), and critical micelle concentration values of 6 mg l(-1) (pH 6) and 13 mg l(-1) (pH 9). PMID:15289681

Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Ashby, Richard D; Nuñez, Alberto; Foglia, Thomas A

2004-08-01

296

Simplified soy molasses-based medium for reduced-cost production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola.  

PubMed

A simplified medium containing only soy molasses and oleic acid as ingredients was developed for the production of sophorolipids (SLs) from Candida bombicola. We achieved a product yield of 53 +/- 3 g of purified sophorolipids per liter of starting culture volume, which is 71 +/- 4% of the yield obtained with growth medium that also additionally contains the costly yeast extract and urea as nitrogen source. The large majority of the SL components existed in the lactone form (87%), and the predominant component is SL containing (omega-1)-hydroxyoleic acid as the lipid moiety. The study demonstrated for the first time the usefulness of the low-value soy molasses as a combined nitrogen- and carbon-source for SL production at a reduced cost. PMID:17541506

Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Ashby, Richard D; Zerkowski, Jonathan A; Foglia, Thomas A

2007-05-31

297

Influence of Optical Molasses in the Loading of a Shallow Optical Trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have compared loading ^85Rb atoms into a shallow far-off-resonance trap (FORT) from an optical molasses stage following a magneto-optical trap (MOT) stage with loading from a MOT stage only. Examination of the rate of atoms loaded into the FORT as well as the losses from the FORT during both loading processes over a range of detunings and hyperfine pump powers reveals that losses during both are essentially the same. The load rate however, is different enough that the number of atoms which we can trap is improved by a factor of 2 using an optimized sequence which includes an optical molasses stage compared with optimal loading directly from a MOT. These observations are consistent with disruptions due to the magnetic fields present in the MOT.

Hamilton, Mathew; Gorges, Anthony; Roberts, Jacob

2009-05-01

298

Clostridium strain co-cultures for biohydrogen production enhancement from condensed molasses fermentation solubles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anaerobic continuous-flow hydrogen fermentor was operated at a hydraulic retention time of 8h using condensed molasses fermentation solubles (CMS) substrate of 40g-COD\\/L. Serum bottles were used for seed micro-flora cultivation and batch hydrogen fermentation tests (CMS substrate concentrations of 10–160g-COD\\/L). Three hydrogen-producing bacterial strains Clostridium sporosphaeroides F52, Clostridium tyrobutyricum F4 and Clostridium pasteurianum F40 were isolated from the seed

Chin-Lang Hsiao; Jui-Jen Chang; Jou-Hsien Wu; Wei-Chih Chin; Fu-Shyan Wen; Chieh-Chen Huang; Chin-Chao Chen; Chiu-Yue Lin

2009-01-01

299

Production of mycelia and exo-biopolymer from molasses by Cordyceps sinensis 16 in submerged culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular weight of exo-biopolymer obtained from a submerged culture of Cordyceps sinensis 16 consisted of a main unit and a subunit of 126 and 68kDa, respectively. The optimal medium for the production of mycelia and exo-biopolymer was determined to be molasses containing 2% sucrose, 0.9% yeast extract, 0.3% K2HPO4, and 0.4% CaCl2. Using optimized medium, maximum productions of mycelia

S. H. Cha; J. S. Lim; C. S. Yoon; J. H. Koh; H. I. Chang; S. W. Kim

2007-01-01

300

Study of sugarcane pieces as yeast supports for ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the environmental concerns and the increasing price of oil, bioethanol was already produced in large amount in Brazil\\u000a and China from sugarcane juice and molasses. In order to make this process competitive, we have investigated the suitability\\u000a of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AS2.1190 on sugarcane pieces for production of ethanol. Electron microscopy clearly showed that cell immobilization\\u000a resulted

Lei Liang; Yuan-ping Zhang; Li Zhang; Ming-jun Zhu; Shi-zhong Liang; Yu-nan Huang

2008-01-01

301

High gravity fermentation of sugarcane molasses to produce ethanol: Effect of nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation efficiency of more than 85% was obtained by high gravity fermentation of 33–34°Bx (spec. gravity ?1.134) molasses\\u000a medium with certain nutrients, instead of generally employed medium containing ?16% (w\\/v) total sugar (spec. gravity ?1.090)\\u000a for ethanol fermentation in distilleries to get maximum 80–85% conversion. The fermenting yeast, Saccharomyces, has varied capabilities, depending on the species and nutrition for fermenting

P. Pradeep; O. V. S. Reddy

2010-01-01

302

Simplified soy molasses-based medium for reduced-cost production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified medium containing only soy molasses and oleic acid as ingredients was developed for the production of sophorolipids\\u000a (SLs) from Candida bombicola. We achieved a product yield of 53 ? 3 g of purified sophorolipids per liter of starting culture volume, which is 71 ? 4%\\u000a of the yield obtained with growth medium that also additionally contains the costly yeast extract and urea as

Daniel K. Y. Solaiman; Richard D. Ashby; Jonathan A. Zerkowski; Thomas A. Foglia

2007-01-01

303

Oxygen isotope evidence of climate change from pedogenic clay minerals in the Himalayan molasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examine the oxygen isotope ratios of smectite and kaolinite in a stratigraphic sequence of paleosols in the Siwalik Himalayan molasse on the Potwar Plateau, northern Pakistan. There is a 3–4%o increase in the smectite ?18O values synchronous with a ? 3.5%o increase in ?18O values of pedogenic calcite at 8.5–6.5 Ma (previously observed by Quade et

Libby A. Stern; C. Page Chamberlain; Robert C. Reynolds; Gary D. Johnson

1997-01-01

304

Rheological and sensory properties of pekmez (grape molasses)\\/tahin (sesame paste) blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological and sensory properties of pekmez (grape molasses)\\/tahin (sesame paste) blends were studied using pekmez concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6.0% at 30, 40, 50, 60, 65 and 75 °C. The empirical power law model fitted the apparent viscosity-rotational speed data. All blends exhibited pseudoplastic behaviour. The pekmez content and temperature influenced the flow behaviour and consistency index values.

M Alpaslan; M Hayta

2002-01-01

305

Soy molasses as fermentation substrate for production of butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Spray-dried soy molasses (SDSM) contains the sugars dextrose, sucrose, fructose, pinitol, raffinose, verbascose, melibiose,\\u000a and stachyose. Of the 746 g kg?1 total sugars in SDSM, 434 g kg?1 is fermentable using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101. SDSM was used to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by C. beijerinckii BA101 in batch cultures. Using 80 g l?1 SDSM, 10.7 g l?1 ABE

N Qureshi; A Lolas; H P Blaschek

2001-01-01

306

Experience in using an ethanol sensor to control molasses feed-rates in baker's yeast production  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethanol sensor has been tested for feed-rate control of baker's yeast prouction. The yeast was grown on molasses in an 8 dm3 fed-batch reactor up to a cell concentration of 60–70 kg\\/m3. Studies were made on three levels: reliability of the sensor system, characterisation of the control problem, and evaluation of ethanol-controlled cultivations in terms of yield and production

J. P. Axelsson; C. F. Mandenius; O. Holst; P. Hagander; B. Mattiasson

1988-01-01

307

Bioaccumulation of the reactive textile dyes by Candida tropicalis growing in molasses medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioaccumulation of the reactive textile dyes, Remazol Blue, Reactive Black and Reactive Red, by the yeast species Candida tropicalis growing in molasses medium was studied in a batch system as a function of initial pH and initial dye concentration. The optimum pH value for bioaccumulation was determined as 3.0 for all the dyes tested. The maximum specific bioaccumulation capacity of

Gönül Dönmez

2002-01-01

308

Biohydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation with a pilot-scale bioreactor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale study of biohydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 1.48m3) for over 200 days. The hydrogen bio-producing reactor (HBR) system was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 3.11–85.57kgCOD\\/m3reactor\\/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. Both biogas and hydrogen yields increased with OLR at the

Nanqi Ren; Jianzheng Li; Baikun Li; Yong Wang; Shirui Liu

2006-01-01

309

Continuous hydrogen production from molasses by fermentation using urethane foam as a support of flocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous hydrogen production by fermentation was tried using molasses as a substrate. In the fermenter, pieces of urethane foam were suspended to make them suports for cells or cell flocks of a bacterium, Enterobacter aerogenes strain E.82005. The suspended cell density was ca 0.8 g dry cell 1?1 during cultivation, while the probability of adhesion of cells on or in

S. Tanisho; Y. Ishiwata

1995-01-01

310

Production of Isoamyl Acetate from Sugar Beet Molasses by Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. Inst. Brew. 114(1), 34-38, 2008 Three strains of Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus were employed for the production of natural isoamyl acetate (the character im- pact compound of banana flavour) using sugar beet molasses as the carbon source and batch cultivation at 25°C under anaerobic conditions. Of the three strains, strain HUT 7087 was the best producer of isoamyl acetate,

Murat Yilmaztekin; Huseyin Erten; Turgut Cabaroglu

311

Attempts at improving citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger in beet-molasses medium.  

PubMed

Natural oils with high unsaturated fatty acids content when added at concentrations of 2% and 4% (v/v) to beet molasses (BM) medium caused a considerable increase in citric acid yield from Aspergillus niger. The fermentation capacities were also examined for production of citric acid using BM-oil media under different fermentation conditions. Maximum citric acid yield was achieved in surface culture in the presence of 4% olive oil after 12 days incubation. PMID:12137276

Adham, Nehad Z

2002-08-01

312

Continuous biohydrogen production from diluted molasses in an anaerobic contact reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anaerobic contact reactor (ACR) system comprising a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with settler to decouple\\u000a the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from solids retention time (SRT) was developed for fermentative hydrogen production from\\u000a diluted molasses by mixed microbial cultures. The ACR was operated at various volumetric loading rates (VLRs) of 20–44 kgCOD·m?3·d?1 with constant HRT of 6 h

Sheng Chang; Jianzheng Li; Feng Liu

2011-01-01

313

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

2012-07-01

314

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling...

2013-04-01

315

29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...

2013-07-01

316

Production of sophorolipid glycolipid biosurfactants from sugarcane molasses using Starmerella bombicola NBRC 10243.  

PubMed

Biosurfactants (BS) are produced by a variety of microorganisms from renewable resources, and have unique properties compared to chemical surfactants. In order to attain efficient production of BS from low-cost materials, we focused our attention on the use of sugarcane molasses. Fifteen yeast strains that are known as BS producers were examined for BS productivity from a culture medium consisting of only molasses and water. Among the strains tested, only Starmerella bombicola NBRC 10243 produced sophorolipids (SL), which are glycolipid BS. The culture conditions for the yeast were then investigated in a shake-flask culture. SL production was significantly affected by the pH of the medium and was highly accelerated at pH 6. Under the optimum conditions, the amount of SL reached 14.4 g/L after 120 h from a medium containing 150 g/L of total sugars. We tried to improve the production of SL further by feeding the molasses using a jar fermentor. Interestingly, the amount of SL increased up to 22.8 g/L after 120 h; the production rate was 1.6-fold higher than that in the shake-flask culture. These results suggest that the present yeast should have great potential for the low-cost production of SL, and facilitate the application of BS in various fields. PMID:21502725

Takahashi, Makoto; Morita, Tomotake; Wada, Koji; Hirose, Naoto; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

2011-01-01

317

Process optimization of biological hydrogen production from molasses by a newly isolated Clostridium butyricum W5.  

PubMed

This work sought to optimize fermentation parameters in a batch process for hydrogen production from molasses by a newly isolated Clostridium butyricum W5. Hydrogen yield and production rate, bacterial biomass and volatile fatty acids, including acetic, lactic and butyric acids, were measured. Key fermentation operation parameters, including concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources, growth temperature and pH, and inoculum size were investigated. The best results in terms of hydrogen yield and productivity were obtained under the conditions of 100 g/L molasses, 1.2 g/L NH4NO3, 39 degrees C at pH 6.5 with initial cell concentration of 9x10(4) cell/ml. Maximum hydrogen yield was 1.85 mol hydrogen/mol hexose, corresponding to a hydrogen production rate of 17.38 mmol/h/L. Experimental data showed that the acetic/butyric acid ratio remained relatively stable with an increase in molasses concentration, while the unfavoured product, lactic acid, portion increased. No solvent (ethanol, butanol and acetone) was detected during the fermentation. Propionic acid was measured at a very low level in the hydrogen fermentation. Statistical analysis showed that hydrogen yield increased exponentially with the increase in cell growth, and that there was no correlation between the hydrogen yield and ratio of acetic acid to butyric acid. PMID:19217551

Wang, Xiaoyi; Jin, Bo

2009-02-01

318

Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol from corn mash and molasses in batch fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The production of solvents from corn mash and molasses in batch fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum P 262 was examined. The content of saccharose of beet molasses used in experiments is determined by using the gravimetric method (52.45% saccharose). The quantities of molasses that are used in the nutrient medium are calculated after doing the above determination. The samples of fermentation liquid are taken within a certain time, the determination of saccharose is done by using the same method, and all the saccharose is converted by the microorganism to organic end products. The quantitative and qualitative determination of acetone-butanol has been made by using gas chromatography. On the other hand, using the three isolation way, three different cultures are obtained, and with microscopic observations, the cultures obtained are of the C. acetobutylicum genus. According to the literature values, the concentration of maximum mixed solvent formed during fermentation is about 2%. This is seen in this experiment. There is only a slight difference from this value. This difference is caused by another organic product that is formed during fermentation. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Guevenilir, Y.A.; Deveci, N. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

1996-02-01

319

Production of fructose and ethanol from sugar beet molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36858.  

PubMed

The production of enriched fructose syrups and ethanol from beet molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36858 was studied. In batch experiments with a total sugar concentration between 94.9 and 312.4 g/L, the fructose yield was above 93% of the theoretical value. The ethanol yield and volumetric productivity in the beet molasses media with sugar concentration below 276.2 g/L were in the range of 59-76% of theoretical value and between 0.48 and 2.97 g of ethanol/(L x h), respectively. The fructose fraction in the carbohydrates content of the produced syrups was more than 95% when the total initial sugar concentration in the medium was below 242.0 g/L. Some oligosaccharides and glycerol were also produced in all tested media. Raffinose and the produced oligosaccharides were completely consumed by the end of the fermentation process when the total initial sugar concentration was below 190.1 g/L. The glycerol concentration was below 16.1 g/L. The results could be useful for a potential industrial production of ethanol and high-fructose syrup from sugar beet molasses. PMID:11934290

Atiyeh, Hasan; Duvnjak, Zdravko

320

Anaerobic co-digestion of desugared molasses with cow manure; focusing on sodium and potassium inhibition.  

PubMed

Desugared molasses (DM), a syrup residue from beet-molasses, was investigated for biogas production in both batch and in continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments. DM contained 2-3 times higher concentration of ions than normal molasses, which could inhibit the biogas process. The effect of sodium and potassium concentration on biogas production from manure was also investigated. Fifty percent inhibition occurred at sodium and potassium concentration of 11 and 28 g/L, respectively. The reactor experiments were carried out to investigate the biogas production from DM under different dilutions with water and co-digestion with manure. Stable operation at maximum methane yield of 300 mL-CH4/gVS-added was obtained at a mixture of 5% DM in cow manure. The biogas process was inhibited at DM concentrations higher than 15%. Manure was a good base substrate for co-digestion, and a stable anaerobic digestion could be achieved by co-digesting DM with manure at the concentration below 15% DM. PMID:20951579

Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

2010-09-26

321

Seismic stratigraphy and stratigraphic modelling of the South-eastern German Molasse Basin  

SciTech Connect

Although the German Molasse Basin can be regarded as a mature hydrocarbon province, no regional sequence stratigraphic analysis has been carried out so far. We have studied seismic lines and well data from the region between the Isar and Inn rivers (SE Germany) that have been generously supplied by German oil companies (DEE, BEB, Mobil, RWE-DEA and Wintershall). Initial work indicates that five major seismic sequences within three main depositional cycles are developed. The Alpine thrust belt to the south serves as the primary sediment source in the foreland basin. However, sedimentary infill mainly took place parallel to the basin axis. Our analysis suggests that the stratigraphic development of the Molasse Basin was mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level changes which caused the shoreline to shift in the W-E direction. The shifting of the depocenter axis in a N-S direction was controlled by the tectonic evolution of the thrust belt. The sea-level curve determined by seismic stratigraphy and well-derived subsidence curves have been used as input parameters for stratigraphic modelling, using the programs GeoMOD and PHIL. Basin-fill simulations with PHIL are in good agreement with the main features of the sequence stratigraphy and the distribution of the systems tracts observed in the study area. The qualitative sea-level curve for the German Molasse Basin derived from the seismostratigraphic analysis could be quantified by the stratigraphic exercises.

Aigner, T.; Jin, J.; Luterbacher, P. [Univerisitaet Tuebingen (Germany)

1995-08-01

322

Effects of sugar cane monocultures on origin and characteristics of dissolved organic matter in the Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil has extensive sugar cane monocultures, which significantly alter hydrogeochemical material fluxes. We studied dissolved organic matter (OM) fluxes in the Manguaba lagoon–estuary system, which drains a sugar cane monoculture-dominated hinterland and discharges into the Atlantic coastal ocean. The OM fluxes into the lagoon originate from baseflow, field runoff and sugar cane factory effluents. In the study, dissolved organic carbon

Berit Brockmeyer; Alejandro Spitzy

2011-01-01

323

Considerations Relative to the Use of Canes by Blind Travelers in Air Carrier Aircraft Cabins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of specific areas of study; i.e.: (1) passenger evacuation time lapses with and without the presence of canes; (2) emergency exiting advantages and disadvantages with and without the presence of canes; (3) the utility of surrogate ca...

R. F. Chandler J. D. Garner D. L. Lowrey J. G. Blethrow J. A. Anderson

1980-01-01

324

Analysis of Return on Investment of the Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES) Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to calculate a value for the return on investment (ROI) of the Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES). The research examines previous work performed by the CANES team in the development of a business cas...

A. B. Rognlie

2010-01-01

325

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Beijerinckia Derx in the rhizosphere of sugar cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions The rhizosphere effect of sugar cane on nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genusBeijerinckia Derx was studied under field conditions, during two growing periods of the cane. Counts ofBeijerinckia in soil samples from the rhizosphere and from the rhizoplan (soil from root surface) showed an increase in this nitrogen fixer of up to 20 times in the rhizosphere

Johanna Dobereiner

1961-01-01

326

SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

327

White Paper: Demonstration of Equivalency of Cane and Softwood Based Celotex (Trade Name) for 9975 Packaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package. Cane-based Ce...

J. L. Varble

2007-01-01

328

Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry  

SciTech Connect

This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

1988-05-01

329

Computer simulation of combine harvesting and handling of sugar cane in Barbados  

SciTech Connect

The broad objective of this study was to improve the efficiency of combine harvesting of sugar cane in Barbados. The harvesting process was broken down into two subsystems: a field subsystem and a factory yard subsystem. Two computer simulation models structured in GASP IV simulation language, were developed to model the operations involved in these systems. Model FIELDOP simulated the activities involved in the harvesting and loading of cane in the field, and in its transportation to the factory for processing. Model FACYARD simulated the weighing and unloading activities performed on cane transport units at the factory. Output from the models included utilization factors for the various component machines, daily cane delivery from the field system, and daily amounts of cane handled by the factory yard system. This output was fed into a cost program which calculated unit harvesting costs and total annual cane delivery for the equipment combinations simulated. Results indicated that a second scale at the factory can reduce the factory residence time of transport units by 88%, increase combine harvester utilization efficiency by 50-60%, increase daily cane receipts at the factory by more than 30%, and eliminate milling lost time due to lack of cane. The economic analysis demonstrated that harvesting cost per tonne can be significantly reduced.

Harvey, W.O.

1983-01-01

330

Walking Speed of Older Pedestrians Who Use Canes or Walkers for Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings are presented of a follow-up study conducted in Winnipeg, Canada, to investigate the walking speed of older pedestrians who use walkers or canes for mobility. The results are from research conducted to understand the differences between the normal and the crossing walking speeds of older pedestrians who use walkers or canes for mobility at signalized intersections. This walking speed

Jorge Arango; Jeannette Montufar

2008-01-01

331

Materials Testing in Long Cane Design: Sensitivity, Flexibility, and Transmission of Vibration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Different materials that are used in manufacturing long cane shafts were assessed for their ability to transmit vibration and their sensitivity to tactile information, flexibility, and durability. It was found that the less flexible a cane shaft is, the better it transmits vibrations that are useful for discriminating surface textures and that…

Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

2005-01-01

332

Ethanol production from sugar cane segments in a high solids drum fermentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful yeast fermentation for the production of relatively high concentration of ethanol (9% w\\/v) was carried out using sugar cane segments. Extraction of sugar from segments occurred simultaneously with ethanol formation. The beer produced was transferred to a fresh batch of sugar cane segments and the fermentation cycle was repeated successively three times with the same beer. A high

Z. Er-el; E. Battat; U. Shechter; I. Goldberg

1981-01-01

333

Effects of pulse feeding of beet molasses on recombinant benzaldehyde lyase production by Escherichia coli BL21(DE3).  

PubMed

The effect of fed-batch operation (FBO) strategy was investigated using pretreated-beet molasses, containing galactose that induces the lac promoter, on benzaldehyde lyase (BAL) production by recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLySs. After batch cultivation with 30 g l(-1) pretreated-beet molasses consisting of 7.5 g l(-1) glucose and 7.5 g l(-1) fructose, three FBO strategies were applied at dissolved oxygen (=40%) cascade to air-flow rate. In FBO1 when air-flow rate decreased considerably, feed was given to the system in pulses in such a way that pretreated-beet molasses concentration increased by 10 kg m(-3) (containing 2.5 g l(-1) glucose+2.5 g l(-1) fructose); however, decrease in air-flow rate demonstrated only the absence of glucose but not fructose. Thus, in FBO2 when fructose and glucose were completely utilized, pretreated-beet molasses was pulse-fed and its concentration increased by 10 g l(-1). In FBO3 with the decreased amount of pretreated-beet molasses (6 g l(-1)), shift response time from glucose to fructose consumption was avoided, and glucose and fructose consumptions were well correlated with air-flow rate, and the highest CX (8.04 g l(-1)) and BAL (2,315 U ml(-1)) production were obtained (t=24 h) with the highest substrate yield on cell and product formation. PMID:19547969

Calik, Pinar; Levent, Hande

2009-06-23

334

Beet sugar syrup and molasses as low-cost feedstock for the enzymatic production of fructo-oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Sugar syrup and molasses from beet processing containing 620 and 570 mg/mL sucrose, respectively, were assayed as low-cost and available substrates for the enzymatic synthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs). A commercial pectinase (Pectinex Ultra SP-L, from Aspergillus aculeatus) characterized by the presence of a transfructosylating activity was used as a biocatalyst. The FOS production increased when lowering the initial pH value of syrup (7.5) and molasses (8.9) to 5.5. Sugar syrup and molasses were diluted in order to reduce substrate viscosity; interestingly, the percentage of FOS with regards to total sugars remained almost constant, which indicated a high transferase-to-hydrolase ratio for this enzyme. Kinetics of FOS production was analyzed. Using approximately 10 U transfructosylating activity per g sucrose, the FOS concentration reached a maximum of 388 mg/mL after 30 h using syrup and 235 mg/mL in 65 h with molasses. These values corresponded to approximately 56 and 49% (w/w), respectively, of the total amount of carbohydrates in the mixture. The enzyme was also covalently immobilized on an epoxy-activated polymethacrylate-based polymer (Sepabeads EC-EP5). We found that immobilized Pectinex Ultra SP-L can be efficiently applied to the synthesis of FOS using syrup and molasses as substrates. PMID:16608216

Ghazi, Iraj; Fernandez-Arrojo, Lucia; Gomez De Segura, Aranzazu; Alcalde, Miguel; Plou, Francisco J; Ballesteros, Antonio

2006-04-19

335

Production of 2,3-butanediol from corncob molasses, a waste by-product in xylitol production.  

PubMed

Corncob molasses, a waste by-product in xylitol production, contains high concentrations of mixed sugars. In the present study, corncob molasses was used to produce 2,3-butanediol (BD) using Klebsiella pneumoniae SDM. This was the first report on the use of corncob molasses to produce bulk chemicals. Our results indicated that K. pneumoniae SDM can utilize various sugars contained in the corncob molasses in a preferential manner: glucose > arabinose > xylose. It was shown that high sugars concentration had an inhibitory effect on the cells growth and BD production. The maximum concentration of BD was 78.9 g/l after 61 h of fed-batch fermentation, giving a BD productivity of 1.3 g/l h and a yield of 81.4%. The present study suggests that the low-cost corncob molasses could be used as an alternative substrate for the production of BD by K. pneumoniae SDM, as well as a potential carbon source for production of other high-value chemicals. PMID:20376634

Wang, Ailong; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Tianyi; Li, Lixiang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2010-04-08

336

Decomposition of Reintroduced Native Cane in a Restored Stream Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream restorations are often coupled with efforts to restore riparian zones. Native plants are often used in restored riparian areas but their effects on the streams (e.g. as a carbon subsidy) are not often assessed as part of a restoration evaluation. A channelized reach of Wilson Creek (Kentucky, USA) was relocated using natural channel design techniques and its new riparian zone was planted with a variety of native species including the river cane, Arundinaria gigantean, which was once a common riparian species in Kentucky. We installed decomposition packs containing stems or leaves of the cane at five locations in the restored section of Wilson Creek, one in an unrestored upstream site and at two locations in two unrestored reference streams to assess mass loss, N dynamics and fungal colonization. Initial results indicate that regardless of site leaf mass loss was faster in Wilson Creek than in the two reference streams (0.019% per day vs. 0.007%); stalk mass losses show similar trends to date. Research is continuing at Wilson to assess the performance of native vegetation at the site and to understand the role of riparian zone species in the success or failure of stream restorations.

Pirkle, R. S.; Word, D. A.; Carper, S.; Jack, J. D.

2005-05-01

337

Simultaneous detoxification and decolorization of molasses spent wash by the immobilized white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus isolated from a marine habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wastewaters of molasses-based alcohol distilleries contain brown colored melanoidin pigments that are one of the major pollutants. We reported decolorization of such intensely brown colored molasses spent wash (MSW) by Flavodon flavus, a white-rot basidiomycete fungus isolated from a marine habitat. We have further attempted to improve the process of decolorization of MSW by this fungus by immobilization. Polyurethane

Chandralata Raghukumar; C. Mohandass; Shilpa Kamat; M. S. Shailaja

2004-01-01

338

A Cane Improves Postural Recovery From an Unpracticed Slip During Walking in People With Parkinson Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the effects of use of a cane on balance during perturbed gait or whether people with Parkinson disease (PD) benefit from using a cane. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cane use on postural recovery from a slip due to repeated surface perturbations in individuals with PD compared with age- and sex-matched individuals who were healthy. Design This was a prospective study with 2 groups of participants. Methods Fourteen individuals with PD (PD group) and 11 individuals without PD (control group) walked across a platform that translated 15 cm rightward at 30 cm/s during the single-limb support phase of the right foot. Data from 15 trials in 2 conditions (ie, with and without an instrumented cane in the right hand) were collected in random order. Outcome measures included lateral displacement of body center of mass (COM) due to the slip and compensatory step width and length after the perturbation. Results Cane use improved postural recovery from the first untrained slip, characterized by smaller lateral COM displacement, in the PD group but not in the control group. The beneficial effect of cane use, however, occurred only during the first perturbation, and those individuals in the PD group who demonstrated the largest COM displacement without a cane benefited the most from use of a cane. Both PD and control groups gradually decreased lateral COM displacement across slip exposures, but a slower learning rate was evident in the PD group participants, who required 6, rather than 3, trials for adapting balance recovery. Limitations Future studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of repeated slip training in people with PD. Conclusions Use of a cane improved postural recovery from an unpracticed slip in individuals with PD. Balance in people with PD can be improved by training with repeated exposures to perturbations.

Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Horak, Fay B.

2012-01-01

339

Production of alcohol from sugar beet molasses without heat or filter sterilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Among three esters of p-hydroxybenzoate, n-butyl p-hydroxybenzoate was selected as the best antimicrobial substance. Molasses medium sterilized by this ester was used as\\u000a a substrate for ethanol production. n-Butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (0.15%?w\\/v) completely inhibited the growth of free yeast cell inoculum, Ca-alginate immobilized yeast \\u000a inoculum and bacterial contaminants. Immobilization of the yeast cell inoculum in Ca-alginate with castor oil (6%?v\\/v) offered

G Zayed

1997-01-01

340

Ethanol from sugar cane: flask experiments using the EX-FERM technique  

SciTech Connect

Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level.

Rolz, C.; Cabrera, S.

1980-09-01

341

Production of d -lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40?C. After 72 h,\\u000a the lactic acid from 13% (w\\/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l?1) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l?1) was 107 g l?1 and 120 g l?1, respectively. With 10% (w\\/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l?1), 84 g lactic

Buenaventurada P. Calabia; Yutaka Tokiwa

2007-01-01

342

Novel 1D optical molasses composed of two elliptical Gaussian beams with an ultrahigh orbital angular-momentum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel scheme to form a 1D optical molasses by using two counter-propagating red-detuned elliptical Gaussian beams possessing an ultrahigh orbital angular-momentum. In this optical molasses, atoms will suffer both an axial and an azimuthal Doppler cooling, and their temperature can be far below the conventional Doppler cooling limit, which provides a new opportunity for the laser cooling of the most abundant bosonic isotopes of alkaline-earth atoms. Because these atoms lack the hyperfine structure, they cannot be cooled by the well-known sub-Doppler cooling schemes.

Wang, Zhengling; Yin, Jianping

2009-12-01

343

Effects of pulse feeding of beet molasses on recombinant benzaldehyde lyase production by Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fed-batch operation (FBO) strategy was investigated using pretreated-beet molasses, containing galactose that\\u000a induces the lac promoter, on benzaldehyde lyase (BAL) production by recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLySs. After batch cultivation with 30 g l?1 pretreated-beet molasses consisting of 7.5 g l?1 glucose and 7.5 g l?1 fructose, three FBO strategies were applied at dissolved oxygen (=40%) cascade to air-flow rate. In

P?nar Çal?k; Hande Levent

2009-01-01

344

Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40 degrees C. After 72 h, the lactic acid from 13% (w/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l(-1)) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l(-1)) was 107 g l(-1) and 120 g l(-1), respectively. With 10% (w/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l(-1)), 84 g lactic acid l(-1) was produced. The optical purities of D: -lactic acid from the feedstocks ranged from 97.2 to 98.3%. PMID:17541505

Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Tokiwa, Yutaka

2007-05-31

345

Anastomosed river deposits, sedimentation rates, basin subsidence and locations in proximal molasse basins  

SciTech Connect

Recent research on large sized modern anastomosing river systems (upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, and Magdalena River, Colombia, South America) has recognized six depositional environments: channel, levee, crevasse-splay, lacustrine, marsh, and peat bog or swamp. Average sedimentation rates in both river systems are 5 mm/yr and 3.8 mm/yr, respectively. Such rapid sedimentation rates (vertical accretion) are keeping pace with equivalent rates of basin subsidence. High rates of sedimentation and basin subsidence are most likely to be found at proximal locations in molasse basins during major orogenic pulses. Such conditions were present during the Columbian and Laramide orogenies during the early Cretaceous and Tertiary in the foreland adjacent to the Rocky Mountain system. Thus, channel and crevasse-splay shale-encased sandstone reservoirs and coal, common in anastomosed fluvial rock sequences in proximal molasse settings, should be encountered in parts of the Western Interior sedimentary basin. Such deposits probably have been interpreted as deltaic or alluvial plain and should be reexamined to better predict sandstone trends for hydrocarbon exploration.

Smith, D.G.

1984-07-01

346

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production by Bacillus cereus SPV using sugarcane molasses as the main carbon source.  

PubMed

The main hindrance in the use of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as a replacement for existing petroleum-based plastics is their high production cost. The carbon source accounts for 50% of the cost for PHA production. Thus, increasing the yield and productivity of PHAs on cheap substrates is an important challenge for biotechnologists to support the commercialization and further applications of these polymers. In this study, we have investigated the use of an agricultural raw material, sugarcane molasses, as the main carbon source for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) production by Bacillus cereus SPV. These studies were carried out in both shaken flasks and 2 L bioreactors. Various conditions were evaluated for their effects on biomass and P(3HB) accumulation. A high polymer yield was obtained, 61.07% dry cell weight (DCW) in a 1 L shaken flask study and 51.37% DCW in a 2 L fermenter study. These yields are 50% higher than previously observed with Bacillus cereus SPV. Hence, the results are encouraging and show that sugarcane molasses are a promising carbon source for an economical and commercially viable production of P(3HB). PMID:22147642

Akaraonye, Everest; Moreno, Catalina; Knowles, Jonathan C; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Roy, Ipsita

2011-12-07

347

Modeling dynamic experiments on the anaerobic degradation of molasses waste water  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of anaerobic degradation of a molasses waste water were measured under constant pH conditions in a laboratory scale packed bed reactor. In continuous and batch experiments the formation and degradation rates of the organic acids (butyric, propionic and acetic) have been followed. The influence of hydrogen gas on the acid degradation rates has been measured and, contrary to the literature and the thermodynamic calculations, no inhibition was detected, biofilm diffusional effects may be the reason. Two dynamic simulation models were tested, a heterogeneous model, which considered the biofilm diffusion-reaction phenomena and a quasihomogeneous model with the same kinetics. Except for hydrogen, the diffusion effects were found to be negligible. Otherwise both models gave essentially the same results and the time profiles of acids, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane agreed relatively well with dynamic startup experiments. Batch experiments showed the acid concentrations to be highly sensitive to the initial molasses concentration. This aspect was not included in the model but is being investigated further.

Denac, M.; Miguel, A.; Dunn, I.J.

1988-01-01

348

Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses by formed nitrogen oxides.  

PubMed

Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses was developed in a series of three reactors. Nitrogen oxides formed were used to manufacture oxalic acid in the second and third reactor. Parameters affecting the reaction were determined to be, air flow rate, temperature, the amount of V2O5 catalyst and the concentrations of molasses and H2SO4. The maximum yields in the second and third reactors were 78.9% and 74.6% of theoretical yield, respectively. Also, kinetic experiments were performed and the first-order rate constants were determined for the glucose consumption rate. Nitrogen oxides in off-gases from the final reactor were absorbed in water and concentrated sulphuric acid and reused in the following reactors giving slightly lower yields under similar conditions. In this novel way, it was possible to recover NO(x) and to prevent air pollution. Meanwhile, it was possible to reduce the unit cost of reactant for oxalic acid production. A maximum 77.5% and 74.1% of theoretical yield was obtained by using the absorption solutions with NO(x). PMID:11211079

Gürü, M; Bilgesü, A Y; Pamuk, V

2001-03-01

349

Distances to five resolved galaxies in the Canes Venatici cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of CCD imaging in B, V of five late-type galaxies with radial velocities V_0 < 350 km/s in the Canes Venatici cloud. Based on the photometry of their brightest blue stars we derived the following distances to the galaxies: 9.7 Mpc for NGC 4144, 4.5 Mpc for NGC 4244, 4.2 Mpc for NGC 4395, 2.9 Mpc for NGC 4449, and 8.2 Mpc for UGC 8331. Tables 3 to 7 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Karachentsev, I. D.; Drozdovsky, I. O.

1998-07-01

350

Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfa, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

2011-01-01

351

Estimation of the Sugar Cane Cultivated Area from LANDSAT Images Using the Two Phase Sampling Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions are developed for the estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as t...

C. A. Cappelletti F. J. Mendonca D. C. L. Lee Y. E. Shimabukuro

1982-01-01

352

Nitrogenase activity in the rhizosphere of sugar cane and some other tropical grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Roots of sugar cane had considerable nitrogenase activity and produced up to 5 n moles ethylene\\/h\\/g root by the reduction of acetylene. The rhizosphere soil and soil mid-way between the cane rows also reduced acetylene.Beijerinckia indica was abundant on roots and in the soil. Nitrogenase activity was also associated with roots ofPanicum maximum,Pennisetum purpureum andCymbopogon citratus.

Johanna Döbereiner; J. M. Day; P. J. Dart

1972-01-01

353

Diffusion of moisture in drying of sugar cane fibers and bundles  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane fibers and arrangements of fibers in cylindrical bundles were dried in a thermoanalyzer and their diffusive coefficients were calculated using the slope method. The effect of temperature, moisture content as well as structural changes were analyzed. Diffusion coefficients changed nonlinearly with moisture content and followed an Arrhenius-like functionality with temperature. The analysis of these effects suggested a liquid diffusion transport mechanism of moisture transfer inside sugar cane fibers and bundles.

Rodriguez-Ramirez, J.; Quintana-Hernandez, P.A.; Mendez-Lagunas, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, G.; Gonzalez-Alatorre, G.

2000-05-01

354

Relationship of maximum aerobic power output to productivity and absenteeism of East African sugar cane workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Davies, C. T. M. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 146-154. Relationship of maximum aerobic power output to productivity and absenteeism of East African sugar cane workers. The relationship of the physiological responses to laboratory exercise on an upright bicycle ergometer and predicted maximum aerobic power output (V?O2max) to daily and season output has been investigated in 78 cane cutters aged

C. T. M. Davies

1973-01-01

355

Use of green manures in increasing inputs of biologically fixed nitrogen to sugar cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the contribution of biological N2 fixation (BNF) to several green manure crops used at planting of sugar cane, or in the inter-rows of the ratoon crop, was evaluated. The subsequent effects of these legumes on the N supply and yield of the sugar cane crop was also investigated. The experiment was conducted in an extremely sandy N-deficient

Alexander S. de Resende; Rogério P. Xavier; Diego M. Quesada; Segundo Urquiaga; Bruno J. R. Alves; Robert M. Boddey

2003-01-01

356

Influence of Sugar Cane Intake on Digestibility and Ruminal Fermentation in Crossbreed Steers Fed Stargrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aranda, E., Mendoza, G.D., Bárcena, G.R., Ramos, J. and Castrejón, F. 2003. Influence of sugar cane intake on digestibility and ruminál fermentation in crossbreed steers fed stargrass. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 23: 153–160.An experiment was conducted to study effects of feeding different levels of sugar cane on ruminál fermentation and fiber digestion in crossbreed steers fed with stargrass mixtures when

E. Aranda; G. D. Mendoza; G. R. Bárcena; J. Ramos; F. Castrejón

2003-01-01

357

The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others,\\u000afor the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for\\u000abio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The aim of this study is to assess\\u000athe green, blue

P. W. Gerbens-Leenes; A. Y. Hoekstra

2009-01-01

358

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of four alternatives for using by-products of cane sugar production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cane sugar production by-products can be considered either as waste, affecting the environment, or as a resource when an appropriate valorization technology is implemented.This study is made with the objective of identifying and quantifying the aspects which have the largest environmental impact of four alternatives for using by-products and wastes from the cane sugar process and suggest improvements in the

Ana M. Contreras; Elena Rosa; Maylier Pérez; Herman Van Langenhove; Jo Dewulf

2009-01-01

359

Life-history of Neurospora intermedia in a sugar cane field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life-history ofNeurospora in nature has remained largely unknown. The present study attempts to remedy this. The following conclusions are based on\\u000a observation ofNeurospora on fire-scorched sugar cane in agricultural fields, and reconstruction experiments using a colour mutant to inoculate sugar\\u000a cane burned in the laboratory. The fungus persists in soil as heat- resistant dormant ascospores. These are activated by

Alka Pandit; Ramesh Maheshwari

1996-01-01

360

Effects of adding extra molasses to a texturized calf starter on rumen development, growth characteristics, and blood parameters in neonatal dairy calves.  

PubMed

A texturized calf starter containing 5 (control) or 12% molasses [on a dry matter (DM) basis] was fed to dairy calves to determine effects on intake, growth, blood parameters, and rumen development. Forty-six Holstein calves (26 male and 20 female) were started at 2 +/- 1 d of age and studied for 42 d. Starter DM intake was measured and fecal scoring was conducted daily. Growth and blood parameter measurements were conducted weekly. A subset of 6 male calves (3 per treatment) was euthanized at 4 wk of age, and rumen tissue sampled for rumen epithelial growth measurements. Starter sugar content was significantly increased in the starter containing extra molasses. Postweaning and overall starter DM intake, overall total DM intake, daily heart girth change, and final heart girth were significantly decreased, whereas overall average daily gain tended to decrease when calves received starter containing 12% molasses. However, blood volatile fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased when calves received a starter containing 12% molasses. No significant differences were observed between calves receiving starters containing 5 or 12% molasses for all other variables. The data indicates that adding extra molasses to a texturized calf starter decreases intake and structural growth, possibly causing decreased weight gain, but increases blood volatile fatty acid concentrations and slightly increases ruminal development. However, feed handling and physical prehension problems in addition to the negative influences on calf growth and intake do not support increasing starter molasses content to 12% of the supplement. PMID:15591407

Lesmeister, K E; Heinrichs, A J

2005-01-01

361

A kinetic study of biohydrogen production from glucose, molasses and cheese whey by suspended and attached cells of Thermotoga neapolitana.  

PubMed

Batch tests of H2 production from glucose, molasses and cheese whey by suspended and immobilized cells of Thermotoga neapolitana were conducted to develop a kinetic model of the process. H2 production was inhibited by neither H2 (up to 0.7mgL(-1)) nor O2 (up to 0.2mgL(-1)). The H2 specific rates obtained at different substrate concentrations were successfully interpolated with Andrew's inhibition model. With glucose and molasses, biofilms performed better than suspended cells. The suspended-cell process was successfully scaled-up to a 19-L bioreactor. Assays co-fed with molasses and cheese whey led to higher H2 productivities and H2/substrate yields than the single-substrate tests. The simulation of the suspended-cell continuous-flow process indicated the potential attainment of H2 productivities higher than those of the batch tests (up to 3.6mmolH2h(-1)L(-1) for molasses and 0.67mmolH2h(-1)L(-1) for cheese whey) and allowed the identification of the optimal dilution rate. PMID:24013293

Frascari, Dario; Cappelletti, Martina; Mendes, Jocelia De Sousa; Alberini, Andrea; Scimonelli, Francesco; Manfreda, Chiara; Longanesi, Luca; Zannoni, Davide; Pinelli, Davide; Fedi, Stefano

2013-08-22

362

Rim15p-mediated regulation of sucrose utilization during molasses fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.  

PubMed

Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the Rim15p-mediated stress-response pathway contribute to the high fermentation rate of sake yeast strains. In the present study, we found that disruption of the RIM15 gene in ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2 accelerated molasses fermentation through enhanced sucrose utilization following glucose starvation. PMID:23757382

Inai, Tomomi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Fukada, Rie; Akao, Takeshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

2013-06-10

363

Decolorization of molasses spent wash by the white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus , isolated from a marine habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden, a basidiomycete (NIOCC strain 312) isolated from decomposing leaves of a sea grass, decolorized pigments in molasses spent wash (MSW) by 80% after 8 days of incubation, when used at concentrations of 10% and 50%. Decolorizing activity was also present in media prepared with half-strength seawater (equivalent to 15 ppt salinity). Decolorizing activity was seen in

Chandralata Raghukumar; Gauri Rivonkar

2001-01-01

364

Effects of cornmeal or molasses supplemented with different protein sources on milk production and nitrogen utilization of organic dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sixteen lactating organic Jersey cows were assigned to four replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare the effects of feeding cornmeal (CM) or molasses (MOL) with either flaxseed meal (Flax) or a protein mix [(PM = 11% soybean meal (SB) + 5% sunflower ...

365

Eocene-Pliocene time scale and stratigraphy of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a general stratigraphic synthesis for the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB) from Eocene to Pliocene times. The stratigraphic data were compiled both from literature and from research carried out by the authors during the past 6 years ; an index of the stratigraphically most important localitites is provided. We distinguish 14 geographical areas from

Jean-Pierre Berger; Bettina Reichenbacher; Damien Becker; Matthias Grimm; Kirsten Grimm; Laurent Picot; Andrea Storni; Claudius Pirkenseer; Andreas Schaefer

2005-01-01

366

SUPPLEMENTAL VALUE OF FEED GRADE BIURET AND UREA-MOLASSES FOR COWS ON DRY WINTER GRASS l ,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Four trials were conducted to evaluate the supplemental value of feed grade biuret (in dry supplements) and urea (in liquid urea-molasses mixtures) when compared to natural protein and urea in dry supplements for beef cows grazing low quality dry winter range grass. Urea or feed grade biuret provided 50% of the nitrogen in 30% CP dry supplements and urea

Ivan G. Rush; Robert Totusek

367

Effects of a New Molasses Bvmoduct. Concentrated Separator Byproduct, on NGtrient Digestibility and Ruminal Fermentation in Cattle1f2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous chromatographic sepa- rator techniques have allowed the extraction of more simple sugars from molasses (MOL). The resultant byproduct, concentrated separator byproduct (CSB), has reduced readily fermentable carbohydrates but elevated CP and mineral con- tent. The feed value of CSB was compared to that of MOL in two separate trials. In Trial 1, a chopped forage mixture containing 84 O\\/O

R. D. Wiedmeier; B. H. Tanner; J. R. Bair; H. T. Shenton; M. J. Arambel; J. L. Walters

2010-01-01

368

Fortifying native pasture hay with molasses–urea mixtures improves its digestibility and nutrient intake by weaner sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weaner ewes were fed poor quality native pasture hay fortified with molasses–urea solutions, and a 42-day indoor metabolism study was conducted to determine forage intake and nutrient metabolism. Low quality native pastures in the Falkland Islands restrict sheep productivity, and methods to improve the value of this resource have been requested by local farmers. Fortification solutions used in the study

Sean M. Miller; Gordon Lennie; Derek Clelland

2005-01-01

369

Enhanced production of isoamyl acetate from beet molasses with addition of fusel oil by Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusel oil which contains high level of amyl alcohols (approximately 45–55%) is a by-product obtained from the distillation of alcohol made by fermentation of molasses. Williopsis saturnus is a yeast which is able to convert isoamyl alcohol into isoamyl acetate. The aim of this study was to increase the formation of isoamyl acetate by the addition of fusel oil at

Murat Yilmaztekin; Huseyin Erten; Turgut Cabaroglu

2009-01-01

370

Slipping cane and crutch tips. Part I--static performance of current devices.  

PubMed

A variety of commercially available cane and crutch tips were tested on surfaces of ice and soapy tile under varying axial (thrust) loads. The output measurement consisted of the angle between the vertical and the cane axis at which slip occurred. It was learned that: 1. From the viewpoint of a user, a minimal slip angle of roughly 25 deg is desirable. 2. On ice-rink ice, a number of cane tips approach the desired slip angle under conditions of low temperature; fewer appear safe at elevated air temperatures. Only one of the tested devices appears truly safe under any ice condition. 3. On rough tile flooded with soapy water, some cane tips offer adequate performance. However, no tested cane tip offers acceptable performance on slick tile flooded with soapy water. 4. There appears to be no simple relationship between the slip performance of a cane tip on ice-rink ice and that developed on soapy wet tiles. 5. No simple relationship between thrust load and slip angle emerged. Similarly, no simple relationship between contact area and slip appeared in the data. PMID:615654

Bennett, L; Murphy, E F

1977-01-01

371

A low-energy continuous reactor-separator for ethanol from starch, whey permeate, permeate mother liquor, molasses or cellulosics. Project final report, April 1, 1994--February 28, 1997  

SciTech Connect

In this project, a novel bio-reactor technology in which reaction is coupled with product separation was developed to pilot/demonstration scale. Combining reaction with separation during a fermentation allows the fermentation of highly concentrated feeds and allows the fermentation of streams with high levels of salts/non-fermentable inhibitors. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose can also be combined with ethanol separation in the Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS). Application of the bio-reactor to various substrates was investigated on a lab scale with fermentation of raw starch, cane molasses, xylose, whey permeate and permeate mother liquor. Flocculating yeast strains for high density sucrose/glucose fermentation were selected and adapted to form fast settling pellets. A strain of K marxianus capable of fermenting high salt permeate mother liquor was also selected and adapted. A low energy solvent ethanol recovery system was developed for ethanol recovery from the vapors leaving the reactor/separator. This Solvent Absorption/Extractive Distillation (SAED) process gives a low energy method for purifying the ethanol to an anhydrous product. The amount of energy needed to recover an anhydrous ethanol product from a CSRS stage running at 8% ethanol was calculated to be under 8,000 BTU/gallon. This process may also have further application in VOC (volatile organic carbon compounds) removal from air streams. During this project, a 24,000 Liter CSRS was designed, fabricated, installed, and operated at a small batch ethanol plant (Permeate Refining Inc) in NE Iowa. The reactor was operated on a semi-continuous basis over a period of 18 months. A Solvent Absorption Extractive Distillation (SAED) system was also recently completed and installed at the Permeate Refining Inc. site for ethanol recovery/dehydration.

Dale, M.C.; Moelhman, M.

1997-04-14

372

Production and characterization of pullulan from beet molasses using a nonpigmented strain of Aureobasidium pullulans in batch culture.  

PubMed

The production of pullulan from beet molasses by a pigment-free strain of Aztreobasidium pullulans on shake-flask culture was investigated. Combined pretreatment of molasses with sulfuric acid and activated carbon to remove potential fermentation inhibitors present in molasses resulted in a maximum pullulan concentration of 24 g/L, a biomass dry wt of 14 g/L, a pullulan yield of 52.5%, and a sugar utilization of 92% with optimum fermentation conditions (initial sugar concentration of 50 g/L and initial pH of 7.0). The addition of other nutrients as carbon and nitrogen supplements (olive oil, ammonium sulfate, yeast extract) did not further improve the production of the exopolysaccharides. Structural characterization of the isolated polysaccharides from the fermentation broths by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and pullulanase digestion combined with size-exclusion chromatography confirmed the identity of pullulan and the homogeneity (>93% dry basis) of the elaborated polysaccharides by the microorganism. Using multiangle laser light scattering and refractive index detectors in conjunction with high-performance size-exclusion chromatography molecular size distributions and estimates of the molecular weight (Mw = 2.1-4.1 x 10(5)), root mean square of the radius of gyration (R = 30-38 nm), and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn = 1.4-2.4) were obtained. The fermentation products of molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid and/or activated carbon were more homogeneous and free of contaminating proteins. In the concentration range of 2.8-10.0 (w/v), the solution's rheologic behavior of the isolated pullulans was almost Newtonian (within 1 and 1200 s(-1) at 20 degrees C); a slight shear thinning was observed at 10.0 (w/v) for the high molecular weight samples. Overall, beet molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid and activated carbon appears as an attractive fermentation medium for the production of pullulan by A. pullulans. PMID:11900113

Lazaridou, Athina; Biliaderis, Costas G; Roukas, Triantafyllos; Izydorczyk, Marta

2002-01-01

373

Production of mycelia and exo-biopolymer from molasses by Cordyceps sinensis 16 in submerged culture.  

PubMed

The molecular weight of exo-biopolymer obtained from a submerged culture of Cordyceps sinensis 16 consisted of a main unit and a subunit of 126 and 68 kDa, respectively. The optimal medium for the production of mycelia and exo-biopolymer was determined to be molasses containing 2% sucrose, 0.9% yeast extract, 0.3% K2HPO4, and 0.4% CaCl2. Using optimized medium, maximum productions of mycelia and exo-biopolymer in shake-flask culture were 54.0 g/L and 28.4 g/L, respectively. This study suggests that large-scale production of mycelia and exo-biopolymer by C. sinensis 16 is possible in submerged culture. PMID:16387491

Cha, S H; Lim, J S; Yoon, C S; Koh, J H; Chang, H I; Kim, S W

2006-01-04

374

Design development of an electrocoagulation reactor for molasses process wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The impact of electrode corrosion behaviour, reactor geometry and current density on electrocoagulation efficiency were investigated for the treatment of molasses process wastewater. Two laboratory-scale vertical plate electrocoagulation reactors were used for this investigation: the first being a low aspect ratio bath reactor with a low specific electrode area, while the other was a high aspect ratio column reactor with a high specific electrode area. Anomalous anodic dissolution and cathodic corrosion of the aluminium electrodes both contributed significantly to overall metal consumption. Increasing specific electrode area and aspect ratio each led to improved treatment efficiency, whereas the impact of current density was more complicated involving the combined influences of several competing effects. The space-time yields of coagulant and bubbles (both functions of specific electrode area, current density and current efficiency) were found to influence mixing within the reactor and thus treatment efficiency. PMID:20555220

Gadd, A S; Ryan, D R; Kavanagh, J M; Barton, G W

2010-01-01

375

Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

Han, Wei; Li, Yong-Feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-Xuan; Yang, Chuan-Ping

2010-11-01

376

Twisted optical molasses for all-optical atomic cooling and trapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explain how a proper specification of the spatial field distribution and angular momentum content of a twisted light beam propagating in an arbitrary direction can be made using appropriate transformations. Such transformations are needed whenever a light beam is to be combined with other similar beams propagating in specified directions. The transformation procedure greatly facilitates the evaluations of the radiation forces acting on atoms subject to an arbitrary set of twisted light beams. It allows atomic trajectories in one-, two-, and three-dimensional optical molasses configurations to be correctly evaluated. We find that multiple twisted beams offer a flexible means of controlling the motion of atoms, but there are notable features attributable only to the orbital optical angular momentum property of the twisted light. Under suitable conditions, atoms can be decelerated and ultimately made to congregate in specific regions of space. The implications of this for all-optical atomic cooling and trapping using twisted light are pointed out and discussed.

Carter, A. R.; Babiker, M.

2008-04-01

377

New alcohol resistant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae species for potable alcohol production using molasse.  

PubMed

Two alcohol resistant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae species were isolated from a Greek vineyard plantation. The strain AXAZ-1 gave a concentration of 17.6% v/v alcohol and AXAZ-2 16.5%, when musts from raisin and sultana grapes, respectively, were employed in alcoholic fermentations. They were found to be more alcohol tolerant and fermentative in the fermentation of molasse than the traditional baker's yeast. Specifically, using an initial [symbol: see text] Be density of 16 [symbol: see text] Be at the repeated batch fermentation process, in the first as well as fourth batch, the better AXAZ-1 gave final [symbol: see text] Be densities of 6.0 and 10.5 respectively, and the baker's yeast 11.6 and 14.5. PMID:1288406

Argiriou, T; Kalliafas, A; Psarianos, C; Kana, K; Kanellaki, M; Koutinas, A A

1992-09-01

378

Geothermal field development in foreland basins: Case study Mauerstetten, Bavarian Molasse Basin (Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreland basins with their increasing depth towards the orogenic front are ideal geologic systems for geothermal resources. The Bavarian Molasse Basin is an example where geothermal energy is being successfully developed mainly by industry. However, the predicted productivity is not achieved in all project sites because either temperature or flow rate or both are lower than expected. The case study Mauerstetten in the southwestern Bavarian Molasse Basin is one of the industry triggered projects where high temperature of over 150°C but insufficient flow rate dragged the overall project performance down. As research project, Mauerstetten is revived aiming to gain the relevant knowledge to develop a strategy to increase reservoir productivity. Within this framework structural geological and biostratigraphical analysis were combined with geomechanical tests. The structural geological analysis on 2D seismic sections revealed fossil normal faults in a strike slip to transpressional stress regime. Biostratigraphical analysis was undertaken on thin sections from wellbore cuttings to delineate appropriate analog outcrops for geomechanical tests to predict reservoir behavior under injection and production. Remarkably, the upper Jurassic Malm formation exhibits extremely high rock strength if Tubiphytes dominate the carbonate rock. Tubiphytes are encrusting and branching organisms associated with shallow-water sponge reefs rimmed along the continental margin of Laurasia towards the Tethys during Upper Jurassic. Other than coral dominated reef limestone, Tubiphyte-dominated limestone is expected to trigger a high self-propping effect along shear fractures due to its brittleness, and a low reactivation potential due to its high rock strength. Natural and artificial shear fractures are expected to be preferential flow pathways. Abnormal high injection pressure is necessary to induce slip in Tubiphytes limestone in the present-day stress field. Our study exemplifies that exploration of geothermal reservoirs is site-specific with distinct selection of appropriate methods as in this case structural geology, biostratigraphy and geomechanics. This approach should be considered for geothermal field development in foreland basins where facies and fractures control geoenergy systems in general.

Moeck, Inga; Jensch, Anna; Steiger, Thorsten; Stiller, Manfred; Tondera, Detlef; Blöcher, Guido

2013-04-01

379

Effect of molassed sugar beet pulp on nutrient utilisation and metabolic parameters during exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of partly replacing oats with molassed sugar beet pulp in a traditional hay/oat diet on nutrient utilisation and metabolic parameters in exercising horses. In a change-over experiment, 4 Standardbred geldings were fed a hay and oat-based diet (Oat diet) and a hay and oat-based diet where oats was partially replaced with molassed sugar beet pulp (MSBP diet). Each experimental period was 21 days during which total collection of faeces and urine was made and an exercise test (ET) performed. The crude fat digestibility was lower on the MSBP diet (P<0.05), while there were no differences in digestibility of other nutrients and energy and in the urinary excretion of nitrogen and energy. At rest plasma insulin were lower (P<0.05) 60 and 90 min postprandially on the MSBP diet, while no differences were found in plasma glucose and insulin between the diets during the ET. The peak plasma and muscle lactate values were lower (P<0.05) on the MSBP diet and the content of muscle glycogen was higher (P<0.05) after the ET on the MSBP diet. In conclusion, the metabolic response differed between diets giving a lower lactate response and a higher glycogen content in muscle after exercise on the MSBP diet. This suggests that the dietary carbohydrate composition may influence the rate of glycogenolysis with lactate production and support the hypothesis that MSBP can replace oats in a hay based diet without impairing nutrient utilisation and metabolic response in exercising horses. PMID:12405658

Palmgren Karlsson, C; Jansson, A; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Lindberg, J E

2002-09-01

380

Analisis elemental de hoja de cana de azucar y suelos caneros de un CAI. (Basic analysis of sugar cane leaves and cane fields of an AIC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concentration of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves and soils samples from a cuban sugar factory were determine by means of thermal reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The samples were taken acc...

O. Diaz Rizo M. Saunders E. Herrerra R. Rodriguez A. Mendoza

1991-01-01

381

Production of ethanol from the mixture of beet molasses and cheese whey by a 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutant of Kluyveromyces marxianus.  

PubMed

Fourteen lactose-fermenting strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus, including its anamorph, Candida kefyr, were grown in two media containing 20% (w/v) sugar as either beet molasses or cheese whey. Strain NBRC 1963 of K. marxianus converted sucrose and lactose to ethanol in both media most efficiently. However, ethanol was produced from sucrose and not from lactose by strain NBRC 1963 in the medium containing equal amounts of sugar from beet molasses and cheese whey. The spontaneous mutants resistant to 2-deoxyglucose in the minimal medium composed of galactose as the sole carbon source were isolated from strain NBRC 1963. Among them, strain KD-15 vigorously produced ethanol in the media containing beet molasses, cheese whey, or both. The mutant strain KD-15 was insensitive to catabolite repression, as shown by the observation that beta-galactosidase was not repressed in the presence of sucrose from beet molasses. PMID:19456875

Oda, Yuji; Nakamura, Kenji

2009-04-28

382

Production and characterization of PHA from recombinant E. coli harbouring phaC1 gene of indigenous Pseudomonas sp. LDC-5 using molasses.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable and biocompatible green thermoplastics, synthesized by wide variety of bacteria as an intracellular carbon and energy storage intermediate. They are used as an alternative to nonrenewable petroleum derived plastics. The current interest in these biopolyesters is stimulated by the search for cost-effective capitalized production. This paper attempts to achieve maximized production rate from recombinant system using inexpensive substrate. Molasses from agro-industrial waste was used to produce PHA from recombinant E.coli in batch culture. PHA yield in molasses (3.06g/L ± 0.05?75.5%) was higher than that of sucrose (2.5g/L ± 0.05 - 65.1%). Properties of the polymer produced from molasses and sucrose were analyzed by DSC, TGA, DTA, GC/MS, TLC and optical rotation studies. The findings suggested that molasses enhanced PHA production in recombinant E.coli. PMID:24031729

Saranya, V; Shenbagarathai, R

2011-09-01

383

Effects of the supplementation of yeast, molasses and barley to barley straw diets on the intake, digestibility and ruminal fermentation in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the supplementation of yeast, molasses and barley to barley straw diets on the dry matter intake, digestibil- ity and ruminal fermentation in sheep were investigated. Ten male merino sheep were used in a changeover design trial of five 30-day periods. Baker's yeast (50 g\\/kg straw), molasses (100g\\/kg straw) and barley grain (100 g\\/kg straw) were given either

Ahmet G. ÖNOL; S. Yalçin; S. Ya?ar; A. ?ehu

1998-01-01

384

Balanced cross sections of the Subalpine Molasse of Austria and Bavaria: Differential Miocene shortening causes clockwise vertical axis rotation in the external Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Subalpine Molasse is the most external tectonic unit of the Alps and represents the sediments of the peripheral Alpine foreland basin displaced by Alpine tectonism. We compiled a new tectonic map and measured shortening in nine cross sections of the Subalpine Molasse from the Rhine valley to Salzburg in the east to investigate alongstrike changes in structure. Alpine thrusting started to affect the Subalpine Molasse at the end of the lower Miocene . Growth strata on top of the frontal anticline document the initial development of the structure. Subsequent back-breaking thrusts truncate the preexisting structures; from these relationships we conclude that most of the thrusting within the Subalpine Molasse postdates the late Early Miocene. Total shortening within the Subalpine Molasse changes dramatically alongstrike: around 50km are measured near the Rhine valley (compare contribution Pomella et al., this session), almost zero near Salzburg. A continuous eastward decrease of shortening is observed in the balanced cross sections, which is controlled by the interaction of escape tectonics with post-collisional shortening. Transfer of shortening into the hinterland, which was the zone of lateral escape, causes the end of foreland-propagation of the Alpine thrusts, and an apparent break-back sequence of thrusting. However, the thrusts remained active, as the escape related faults remained transpressive throughout their activity. In such a scenario, tectonic units on top of the Subalpine Molasse must experience clockwise vertical axis rotation. As thrusting in the Subalpine Molasse is closely related to contemporaneous transport and shortening within the tectonically higher Helvetic thrust sheets, that have no counterpart near Salzburg, values for Miocene differential shortening and clockwise vertical axis rotation are minimum values, and probably exceed the 12° as deduced from the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt alone. It seems quite likely that further late Alpine shortening is transferred southwards into the Tauern Window, and the Southern Alps, where corresponding Middle to Late Miocene structures are well known.

Ortner, Hugo; Pomella, Hannah; Zerlauth, Michael; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

2013-04-01

385

Accumulation of recombinant cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase in the leaves of mature transgenic sugar cane.  

PubMed

A major strategic goal in making ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel is to reduce the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars. Current production systems for these enzymes, namely microbes, are not economic. One way to substantially reduce production costs is to express cellulolytic enzymes in plants at levels that are high enough to hydrolyse lignocellulosic biomass. Sugar cane fibre (bagasse) is the most promising lignocellulosic feedstock for conversion to ethanol in the tropics and subtropics. Cellulolytic enzyme production in sugar cane will have a substantial impact on the economics of lignocellulosic ethanol production from bagasse. We therefore generated transgenic sugar cane accumulating three cellulolytic enzymes, fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), CBH II and bacterial endoglucanase (EG), in leaves using the maize PepC promoter as an alternative to maize Ubi1 for controlling transgene expression. Different subcellular targeting signals were shown to have a substantial impact on the accumulation of these enzymes; the CBHs and EG accumulated to higher levels when fused to a vacuolar-sorting determinant than to an endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal, while EG was produced in the largest amounts when fused to a chloroplast-targeting signal. These results are the first demonstration of the expression and accumulation of recombinant CBH I, CBH II and EG in sugar cane and represent a significant first step towards the optimization of cellulolytic enzyme expression in sugar cane for the economic production of lignocellulosic ethanol. PMID:21356003

Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, Jason; Coleman, Heather D; Shand, Kylie; Kinkema, Mark; Palupe, Anthony; Hassall, Rachael; Sainz, Manuel; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Dale, James L

2011-02-28

386

Evolutionary responses to invasion: cane toad sympatric fish show enhanced avoidance learning.  

PubMed

The introduced cane toad (Bufo marinus) poses a major threat to biodiversity due to its lifelong toxicity. Several terrestrial native Australian vertebrates are adapting to the cane toad's presence and lab trials have demonstrated that repeated exposure to B. marinus can result in learnt avoidance behaviour. Here we investigated whether aversion learning is occurring in aquatic ecosystems by comparing cane toad naïve and sympatric populations of crimson spotted rainbow fish (Melanotaenia duboulayi). The first experiment indicated that fish from the sympatric population had pre-existing aversion to attacking cane toad tadpoles but also showed reduced attacks on native tadpoles. The second experiment revealed that fish from both naïve and sympatric populations learned to avoid cane toad tadpoles following repeated, direct exposure. Allopatric fish also developed a general aversion to tadpoles. The aversion learning abilities of both groups was examined using an experiment involving novel distasteful prey items. While both populations developed a general avoidance of edible pellets in the presence of distasteful pellets, only the sympatric population significantly reduced the number of attacks on the novel distasteful prey item. These results indicate that experience with toxic prey items over multiple generations can enhance avoidance leaning capabilities via natural selection. PMID:23372788

Caller, Georgina; Brown, Culum

2013-01-23

387

Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant

Anand R. Gopal; Daniel M. Kammen

2009-01-01

388

Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many biofuel standards, including California’s recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant

Anand R Gopal; Daniel M Kammen

2009-01-01

389

40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2010-07-01

390

40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

2009-07-01

391

PRODUCTION OF CAROTENOIDS BY RHODOTORULA RUBRA AND R. GLUTINIS IN CULTURE MEDIUM SUPPLEMENTED WITH SUGAR CANE JUICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane juice, an abundant agricultural product in Brazil, was investigated as the main substrate for the culture of Rhodotorula rubra and R. glutinis. In order to evaluate yeast growth and carotenoid production, an experimental factorial design (2) was used for the following variables: sugar concentration in the sugar cane juice, yeast extract concentration, absence or presence of peptone and

F. M. Squina; F. Yamashita; J. L. Pereira; A. Z. Mercadante

2002-01-01

392

New DTW-based method to similarity search in sugar cane regions represented by climate and remote sensing time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil is an important sugar cane producer, which is the main resource for ethanol production, a renewable source of energy. This agricultural commodity is important to the country economy, becoming fundamental to improve models that assist the crops monitoring process. Vegetation indexes originated from remote sensing images and agrometeorological indexes can be combined to represent sugar cane fields in a

Luciana A. S. Romani; R. R. V. Goncalves; Jurandir Zullo Jr.; Caetano Traina Jr.; Agma J. M. Traina

2010-01-01

393

Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue—Part 1: gasification of bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for avoiding excessive amount of alkali compounds and carryover particles in producer gas from gasification of sugar cane residue has been studied and evaluated. The cane sugar residue is gasified in a two-stage combustor at atmospheric pressure, where the first stage is a cyclone gasifier. The cyclone works as particle separator as well.This paper covers the results obtained

Mohamed Gabra; Esbjörn Pettersson; Rainer Backman; Björn Kjellström

2001-01-01

394

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills....

2010-01-01

395

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills....

2009-04-01

396

The future of sugar cane in (the) People’s Republic of China and India – Supply constraints and expansion potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has seen a surging demand for biofuels in the wake of increasing oil prices and rising environmental concerns. The most common biofuel is bio-ethanol accounting for more than 90% of total biofuel usage. It is increasingly produced from sugar cane making cane a strategic crop for biofuels. Given the growing demand for “green” fuels, bio-ethanol production has

Genia Kostka; Christine Polzin; Jenny Scharrer

2009-01-01

397

Production of bio-ethanol from soybean molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae at laboratory, pilot and industrial scales.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to develop an economical bioprocess to produce the bio-ethanol from soybean molasses at laboratory, pilot and industrial scales. A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LPB-SC) was selected and fermentation conditions were defined at the laboratory scale, which included the medium with soluble solids concentration of 30% (w/v), without pH adjustment or supplementation with the mineral sources. The kinetic parameters - ethanol productivity of 8.08g/Lh, YP/S 45.4%, YX/S 0.815%, m 0.27h(-1) and microX 0.0189h(-1) - were determined in a bench scale bioreactor. Ethanol production yields after the scale-up were satisfactory, with small decreases from 169.8L at the laboratory scale to 163.6 and 162.7L of absolute ethanol per ton of dry molasses, obtained at pilot and industrial scales, respectively. PMID:18485696

Siqueira, Paula F; Karp, Susan G; Carvalho, Júlio C; Sturm, Wilerson; Rodríguez-León, José A; Tholozan, Jean-Luc; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Pandey, Ashok; Soccol, Carlos R

2008-05-15

398

Comparative study of the effect of ferrocyanide and EDTA on the production of ethyl alcohol from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

SciTech Connect

The effects of potassium ferrocyanide and EDTA on ethyl alcohol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated on simulated batch pilot-plant-scale conditions for alcoholic fermentation of molasses. Ethyl alcohol production was more sensitive to ferrocyanide than to EDTA. When ferrocyanide was introduced into the cultures at the time of inoculation, there was stimulation of ethyl alcohol production, with 261 ppm ferrocyanide producing the maximum effect, which was 3.0% more than n control cultures. When added during the propagation of the yeast, ferrocyanide depressed ethyl alcohol production by 4.0% maximum whereas EDTA stimulated ethyl alcohol production by 2.0%. Addition of ferrocyanide during the fermentation stage produced no significant effect on alcohol production, whereas over a wide range of EDTA concentration there was a steady increase in alcohol yield.

Oderinde, R.A.; Ngoka, L.C.; Adesogan, E.K.

1986-01-01

399

Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control. PMID:22696528

Crossland, Michael R; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A; Capon, Robert J; Shine, Richard

2012-06-13

400

Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina)  

PubMed Central

If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control.

Crossland, Michael R.; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A.; Capon, Robert J.; Shine, Richard

2012-01-01

401

Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most of hemicellulose content of can bagasse was solubilized, by 2% alkaline hydrogen peroxide at 30{sup 0}C within 8 h. The cellulose content was consequently increased from 42% in the original cane bagasse to 75% in the oxidized pulp. Saccharification of this pulp residue with cellulase from Trichorderma viride at 45{sup 0}C for 24 h, yielded glucose with 95% efficiency. The efficiency of ethanol production from the insoluble fraction with S. cervisiae was 90% compared to about 50% for untreated cane bagasse.

Azzam, A.M. (National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt))

1989-01-01

402

Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Cear?, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates.

Pereira, Regina F. R.; Vidal, Carla B.; de Lima, Ari C. A.; Melo, Diego Q.; Dantas, Allan N. S.; Lopes, Gisele S.; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F.; Gomes, Clerton L.; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

2012-01-01

403

Confined channel-levee complex development in an elongate depocenter: Deep-water Tertiary strata of the Austrian Molasse basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basin axial-channel belt was largely responsible for the observed distribution of coarse-grained gravity-flow deposits in the Tertiary Puchkirchen and basal Hall formations of the Molasse foreland basin in Upper Austria. Elements of this depositional system, mapped in three-dimensional (3D) seismic-reflection data, include channel-belt thalweg, mass-transport complexes, overbank wedge, overbank lobe, and tributary channel. The primary objective of this paper

Stephen M. Hubbard; Menno J. de Ruig; Stephan A. Graham

2009-01-01

404

Layer-Charge Heterogeneity in Smectites of IS Phases in Pelitic Sediments from the Molasse Basin, Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to characterize more fully the surface charge characteristics of the end-member smectite in illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer phases found previously in pelitic sediments of the Molasse Basin in Austria. The smectite end member was shown to have an unusually high interlayer charge (0.58). Based on earlier work on pure smectites, it was hypothesized that this

Susanne Gier; E OTTNER; W. D. JOHNS

1998-01-01

405

Sub-Doppler laser cooling of fermionic 40K atoms in three-dimensional gray optical molasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate sub-Doppler cooling of 40K on the D1 atomic transition. Using a gray-molasses scheme, we efficiently cool a compressed cloud of 6.5 × 108 atoms from ˜4 mK to 20 ?K in 8 ms. After transfer to a quadrupole magnetic trap, we measure a phase space density of ˜10-5. This technique offers a promising route for fast evaporation of fermionic 40K.

Rio Fernandes, D.; Sievers, F.; Kretzschmar, N.; Wu, S.; Salomon, C.; Chevy, F.

2012-12-01

406

Depositional and structural evolution of a foreland basin margin in a magnetostratigraphic framework: the eastern Swiss Molasse Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This integrated study of the sedimentology, magnetostratigraphic chronology and petrography of the mostly continental clastics\\u000a of the Oligocene to Miocene Swiss Molasse Basin underpins a reconstruction of facies architecture and delineates relationships\\u000a between the depositional evolution of a foreland-basin margin and exhumation phases and orogenic events in the adjacent orogen.\\u000a A biostratigraphically based high-resolution magnetostratigraphy provides a detailed temporal framework

O. Kempf; A. Matter; D. W. Burbank; M. Mange

1999-01-01

407

Decolorization and biodegradation of anaerobically digested sugarcane molasses spent wash effluent from biomethanation plants by white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four white-rot fungal cultures were examined for their ability to decolorize and bioremediate anaerobically digested molasses spent wash (DMSW) generated by biomethanation plants. Two cultures Coriolus versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed an ability to decolorize and reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of diluted DMSW (12·5% v\\/v). Both cultures required an additional labile carbon source to carry out decolorization while

V. Kumar; L. Wati; P. Nigam; I. M. Banat; B. S. Yadav; D. Singh; R. Marchant

1998-01-01

408

Comparative Tertiary stratigraphy of the Rhine Graben, Bresse Graben and Molasse Basin: correlation of Alpine foreland events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative tectonostratigraphic analysis of the Tertiary (Middle Eocene–Pliocene) of the Rhine–Bresse graben system and the western Molasse Basin demonstrates the occurrence of eleven correlative sequences (CRF I–XI). These show a close relationship between intra-basinal tectonics and depositional history. Their punctuated sediment accumulation can be related to phases of extra-Alpine taphrogenesis and Alpine orogenesis, and to coeval eustatic changes in sea-level.

W. Sissingh

1998-01-01

409

Enhanced production of ligninolytic enzymes and decolorization of molasses distillery wastewater by fungi under solid state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected isolates of fungi were grown on wheat straw and corncob in the presence of different moistening agents such as water,\\u000a molasses, potato dextrose broth and distillery effluent. All the fungal isolates responded differently with respect to growth\\u000a and ligninolytic enzyme production. Fungal growth on different substrates was checked by calculating ergosterol content, which\\u000a varied widely within a single species

Deepak Pant; Alok Adholeya

2007-01-01

410

Production of ?-carotene from beet molasses by Blakeslea trispora in stirred-tank and bubble column reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of aeration rate and agitation speed on ?-carotene production from molasses by Blakeslea trispora in a stirred-tank fermentor and optimization of the production of the pigment in a bubble column reactor were investigated.\\u000a In addition, a central composite design was employed to determine the maximum ?-carotene concentration at optimum values for\\u000a the process variables (aeration rate, sugar concentration,

Yekta Goksungur; Fani Mantzouridou; Triantafyllos Roukas; Parthena Kotzekidou

2004-01-01

411

Characterization of pullulan produced from beet molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans in a stirred tank reactor under varying agitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular characteristics of pullulan produced from beet molasses, following their pretreatment with sulfuric acid and activated carbon, by Aureobasidium pullulans P56 (a melanin-deficient strain) in a stirred tank fermentor under varying agitation conditions have been examined. A maximum pullulan concentration of 49gl?1, biomass dry weight of 25gl?1, pullulan yield of 50% and sugar utilization of 97% were achieved at

A Lazaridou; T Roukas; C. G Biliaderis; H Vaikousi

2002-01-01

412

Application of a statistical technique to the production of ethanol from sugar beet molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a statistical model which can be used to describe the rate of ethanol production from sugar beet molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed. Total sugar concentration, pH, and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) concentration were chosen as a 23-factorial experimental design and the effects of these factors on ethanol production were examined in repeated shake flask cultures according

Mübeccel Ergun; S Ferda Mutlu

2000-01-01

413

The effect of pH on production of citric and gluconic acid from beet molasses using continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of pH on the production of citric and gluconic acid, from beet molasses byAspergillus niger, was studied using continuous culture. At pH values above 2.5 gluconic acid was the major product, citric acid being the predominant product at low pH values. The optimum specific activities of citrate synthase, aconitase, NAD-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase, and NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase occurred

T. Roukas; L. Harvey

1988-01-01

414

Molecular characterization and molasses fermentation performance of a wild yeast strain operating in an extremely wide temperature range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molasses fermentation performance by both a cryotolerant and a thermophilic yeast (strain AXAZ-1) isolated from grapes in Greece was evaluated in an extremely wide temperature range (3–40°C). Sequence analysis of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer and the D1\\/D2 ribosomal DNA (rDNA) regions assigned isolate to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the mitochondrial DNA showed that strain AXAZ-1 is

Nikolaos Kopsahelis; Aspasia Nisiotou; Yiannis Kourkoutas; Panayiotis Panas; George J.-E. Nychas; Maria Kanellaki

2009-01-01

415

Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose, and molasses.  

PubMed

The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by the enzyme invertase. The fungus efficiently grew on glucose and fructose and produced ethanol in synthetic media or from molasses. The cultivations were carried out aerobically and anaerobically, and manipulated toward filamentous or yeast-like morphology. Ethanol was the major metabolite in all the experiments. The ethanol yield in anaerobic cultivations was between 0.35 and 0.48 g/g sugars consumed, depending on the carbon source and the growth morphology, while a yield of as low as 0.16 g/g was obtained during aerobic cultivation. The yeast-like form of the fungus showed faster ethanol production with an average productivity of 0.90 g/l h from glucose, fructose and inverted sucrose, than the filamentous form with an average productivity of 0.33 g/l h. The biomass of the fungus was also analyzed with respect to alkali-insoluble material (AIM), chitin, and chitosan. The biomass of the fungus contained per g maximum 0.217 g AIM and 0.042 g chitosan in yeast-like cultivation under aerobic conditions. PMID:18712551

Sharifia, Mahnaz; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2008-08-20

416

Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted based in six hospitals in the predominantly sugar cane farming districts of the province of Maharashtra in India. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence, and timing of diagnosis. RESULTS: Adjusting for confounders, an increased risk of lung cancer was found for workers ever employed on a sugar cane farm (odds ratio (OR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.08 to 3.40). Increased risks were found for work involving preparation of the farm (OR 1.81, 95% CI 0.99 to 3.27) and burning of the farm after harvesting (OR 1.82, 95% CI 0.99 to 3.34). Non-significant increases in risks were found for harvesting the crop (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.70 to 2.90) and processing the cane in the mills (OR 1.70, 95% CI 0.20 to 12.60). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to fibres of biogenic amorphous silica (BAS) formed from silica absorbed from the soil and deposited in the leaves of the sugar cane crop or crystalline silica formed as a result of conversion of BAS to cristobalite at high temperatures may account for the increased risks of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers.  

Amre, D. K.; Infante-Rivard, C.; Dufresne, A.; Durgawale, P. M.; Ernst, P.

1999-01-01

417

Oxoester oxidoreductase activities in new isolates of Pichia anomala from apple, grape and cane juices.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine yeasts isolated from apple, grape and cane juices were screened for their oxidoreductase activity. The two strains of Pichia, one isolated from apple and one from cane juices, appear to be promising strains for oxidoreductase activity on alpha-oxoesters. They showed similar high yields in converting ethyl pyruvate to ethyl lactate as Saccharomyces spp. (86.6% and 85.3% versus 86.6%), and higher yields in the reduction of alpha-oxocarboxylic esters (ketopantolactone to pantolactone: 74% and 73.3%, respectively) compared to Saccharomyces spp. (yield 60%). PMID:15780669

Pérez-Mendoza, Francisco; Ruiz-Terán, Francisco; Abarca, Blanca Escudero; Navarro-Ocaña, Arturo; Aguilar-Uscanga, Guadalupe; Valerio-Alfaro, Gerardo

2005-04-01

418

Tectonics of Miocene Pliocene fresh-water molasses in the Carpathian Foredeep (Witów Series, South Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Normal faults of different orientations appear to be the youngest manifestations of faulting in the Polish Outer Carpathians, composed of the Lower Cretaceous trough Lower Miocene strata, and the related Carpathian Foredeep, which is filled with the Lower to Middle Miocene sediments. In the Outer Carpathians, the folds and thrusts produced by accretion-related shortening were formed between the Paleocene and early Late Miocene. The origin of normal faults is still debatable, since it is not known whether these faults were a result of multidirectional extension produced in a single collapse event, or differently oriented extension proceeding in a series of successive events. Structural studies of the Late Miocene Pliocene(?) fresh-water molasses of the Witów Series provide a possibility to reconstruct the Late Neogene stress field in the central part of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep and, indirectly, in the central part of the Polish Outer Carpathians. The strata of such an age are unique features in the Polish Carpathian Foredeep, proving thereby a key record of structural deformation during the latest stages of orogenic evolution of the Carpathian orogen. The molasses are cut by joints, and normal and strike-slip faults which were formed in two successive events: (1) a syn-depositional one, proceeding under NNW-SSE to N-S oriented horizontal compression, possibly coeval with reactivation of a NE-striking sinistral fault of the Kurdwanów-Zawichost Fault Zone in the basement; and (2) a post-depositional one, during N-S to NE-SW-oriented extension. In the first event, reactivation of the NE-striking sinistral fault led to formation of N-S-oriented joints, as well as NW-striking dextral, and NNW-trending normal faults. This event was probably contemporaneous with sinistral reactivation of some thrusts in the Western Outer Carpathians, induced by eastward-directed extrusion of crustal blocks in the Carpathian internides. In the second event, both W-E and NW-SE-oriented joints and WNW-striking normal faults were formed. The latter most probably originated due to reactivation of the Early Paleocene WNW- and NW-striking normal faults in the basement. Therefore, normal faults detected in the Outer Carpathians and Carpathian Foredeep appear to be a result of not a single collapse event but of different successive events. This extensional episode lasted at least to the late Pleistocene. No evidence for the recent NNE-directed tectonic compressive stress, typical for that segment of the Carpathian arc, has been found yet.

Galicia T. Group; Rauch-W?odarska, Marta; Zuchiewicz, Witold; Brud, Stanis?aw; Galicia T. Group

2006-05-01

419

Wave-, tide-, and current-controlled sandbodies of miocene molasse, western Switzerland  

SciTech Connect

The Miocene (Burdigalian) clastic sediments of western Switzerland were deposited in a wide variety of environments ranging from fan deltas to offshore coquina banks. Conglomerates and sandstones of the proximal fan-delta facies were deposited in distributary channels that were influenced by tides to varying extents. Tidal sand waves exhibiting bipolar paleocurrent patterns and intertidal sand flats are the most conspicuous features of the coastal facies belt. The nearshore facies is composed of thick, sandy subtidal shoals built of current-generated megaripples, intershoal swales containing horizontally stratified fine sandstones and mudstones, and swash bars or flood ramps with low angle accretionary bedding. The offshore facies belt contains very large coquina banks fashioned by vigorous (tidal) currents and reworked by fair-weather waves. Wave power, calculated from preserved ripple marks, indicates a moderate-energy sea of limited fetch, perhaps 100 km. The ratio of wave power to reasonable estimates of discharge effectiveness index suggests wave-dominated rather than fluvial-dominated deltaic systems. Additionally, comparison of wave power with interpreted tidal range (microtidal to mesotidal) indicates strong influence from both tides and waves but little influence from river outflow. The predicted association of sand-filled distributaries and laterally persistent nearshore features is in agreement with the facies described from the Burdigalian Molasse of the Fribourg area, western Switzerland. 16 figures.

Homewood, P. (Universite de Fribourg, Perolles, Switzerland); Allen, P.

1981-12-01

420

[Phosphorus removal characteristics by aerobic granules in normal molasses wastewater after anaerobic treatment].  

PubMed

COD decreased obviously in normal molasses wastewater after anaerobic treatment, however, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were still higher in the effluent which seriously damaged the ecological balance. In this study, aerobic granules cultivated in sequencing batch airlift reactor (SBAR) were carried out for treating the effluent; phosphorus removal processes and characteristics were discussed as well. The mean diameter of aerobic granules cultivated by multiple carbon sources (acetate, propionate and butyrate) was 1.7 mm. The average phosphorus removal efficiency was 90.9% and the level of phosphorus in effluent was only 1.3 mg x L(-1); TP released per COD consumed was 0.571 and the specific rate of TP released was 5.73 mg x (g x h)(-1). NO3(-) -N usage of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) improved during denitrifying process because the concentration of propionate and butyrate increased in multiple carbon sources which means the phosphorus uptake efficiency increased when per NO3(-) -N consumed. Phosphorus content represented a stronger correlation with magnesium, calcium and ferrum contents in aerobic granules and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the phosphorus adsorption by EPS could enhance phosphorus removal. 61.9% of phosphorus accumulating organisms were denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms in aerobic granules and TP uptake per NO3(-) -N consumed was 1.14 which was higher than that of aerobic granules only cultivated by acetate. PMID:22724155

Wang, Shuo; Yu, Shui-Li; Shi, Wen-Xin; Bao, Rui-Ling; Yi, Xue-Song; Li, Jian-Zheng

2012-04-01

421

Cooper-Pair Molasses: Cooling a nanomechanical resonator with quantum backaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the back-action of a superconducting single electron transistor using a radio frequency nanomechanical resonator. The backaction forces are a factor of 15 above the intensity required by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle: ?SxSf=152 . This system has also shown a record position and force sensitivity of 0.4fm/?Hz and 0.5aN/?Hz, and the closest approach to the quantum ground state of a mechanical system (N=25) (1). In addition, we have discovered a novel cooling mechanism, analogous to optical molasses, which is a result of resonant Josephson effects in the transistor (2,3). Using devices of similar design and performance, we are anticipating the observation of squeezed, superposition, and entangled states of a mechanical device.1. M.LaHaye, O. Buu, B. Camarota, K. Schwab, Science 304, 74 (2004). 2. M. P. Blencowe, J. Imbers and A. D. Armour, xxx.lanl.gov/ cond-mat/0507645.3. A. A. Clerk, S. Bennett, xxx.lanl.gov/ cond-mat/0507646.

Naik, A. K.; Buu, O.; Lahaye, M. D.; Schwab, K. C.; Armour, A. D.; Clerk, A. A.; Blencowe, M. P.

2006-03-01

422

IMPLICATION OF GREEN-CANE HARVESTING ON PLANTING AND CROP RE-ESTABLISHMENT: AN OVERVIEW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As the world's sugarcane industries switch from burnt to green cane harvesting and even more increasingly from manual to mechanical harvesting, management practices will have to be modified. There are a number of advantages to harvesting the crop green and leaving a blanket of residue on the soil su...

423

Direct impacts on local climate of sugar-cane expansion in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing global demand for biofuels will require conversion of conventional agricultural or natural ecosystems. Expanding biofuel production into areas now used for agriculture reduces the need to clear natural ecosystems, leading to indirect climate benefits through reduced greenhouse-gas emissions and faster payback of carbon debts. Biofuel expansion may also cause direct, local climate changes by altering surface albedo and evapotranspiration, but these effects have been poorly documented. Here we quantify the direct climate effects of sugar-cane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado, on the basis of maps of recent sugar-cane expansion and natural-vegetation clearance combined with remotely sensed temperature, albedo and evapotranspiration over a 1.9millionkm2 area. On a regional basis for clear-sky daytime conditions, conversion of natural vegetation to a crop/pasture mosaic warms the cerrado by an average of 1.55 (1.45-1.65)°C, but subsequent conversion of that mosaic to sugar cane cools the region by an average of 0.93 (0.78-1.07)°C, resulting in a mean net increase of 0.6°C. Our results indicate that expanding sugar cane into existing crop and pasture land has a direct local cooling effect that reinforces the indirect climate benefits of this land-use option.

Loarie, Scott R.; Lobell, David B.; Asner, Gregory P.; Mu, Qiaozhen; Field, Christopher B.

2011-05-01

424

Infection and Colonization of Sugar Cane and Other Graminaceous Plants by Endophytic Diazotrophs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculturally important grasses such as sugar cane (Saccharum sp.), rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum) sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), maize (Zea mays), Panicum maximum, Brachiaria spp., and Pennisetum purpureum contain numerous diazotrophic bacteria, such as, Acetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum spp., Azospirillum spp. These bacteria do not usually cause disease symptoms in the plants with which they are associated and the more numerous

Euan K. James; Fábio L. Olivares

1998-01-01

425

The design and evaluation of a hybrid sensor network for cane-toad monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates a wireless, acoustic sensor network application — monitoring amphibian populations in the monsoonal woodlands of northern Australia. Our goal is to use automatic recognition of animal vocalizations to census the populations of native frogs and the invasive introduced species, the Cane Toad (see Fig. 1). This is a challenging application because it requires high frequency acoustic sampling,

Wen Hu; Van Nghia Tran; Nirupama Bulusu; Chun Tung Chou; Sanjay Jha; Andrew Taylor

2005-01-01

426

Assessment of the Effects of Sugar Cane Plantation Burning on Daily Counts of Inhalation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to evaluate the association between sugar cane plantation burning and hospital visits in Araraquara in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. From June 1 to August 31, 1995, the daily number of visits of patients who needed inhalation therapy in one of the main hospitals of the city was recorded and used as health impairment estimation.

Marcos A. Arbex; Gyorgy M. Böhm; Paulo H. N. Saldiva; Gleice M. S. Conceição; Arden C. Pope III; Alfesio L. F. Braga

2000-01-01

427

Detailed images and distance measurements for eighteen dwarf irregular galaxies in the Canes Venatici cloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Canes Venatici cloud, eighteen dwarf irregular galaxies were observed in B, V bands at the Nordic Optical Telescope under a seeing of one arcsec. Most of the galaxies having radial velocities V_0 < 500 km\\/s have been resolved into stars for the first time. The galaxy distances were derived based on photometry of their brightest blue stars. Distances

L. Makarova; I. Karachentsev; L. O. Takalo; P. Heinaemaeki; M. Valtonen

1998-01-01

428

The effect of galanin and galanin fragments on blood pressure in the Cane toad, Bufo marinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galanin has previously been shown to have a slight vasodepressor or no effect on blood pressure in placental mammals, but causes potent increases in blood pressure in several other vertebrate species. In this paper, the part of the galanin molecule responsible for the pressor activity was investigated in the Cane toad, Bufo marinus by administration of fragments of galanin into

David A. Mahns; Gillian P. Courtice

1996-01-01

429

‘When you have no law you are nothing’: Cane toads, social consequences and management issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we demonstrate that Yanyuwa people have detailed biological knowledge of their northern Australian environment, which is culturally defined and embedded within their relationships to country, resources and each other. Through a case study of the impact of Bufo marinus (cane toads) on Yanyuwa culture and everyday life, we argue that Aboriginal management strategies and Aboriginal peoples’ intimate

Kathryn A. Seton; John J. Bradley

2004-01-01

430

Cane toads on cowpats: commercial livestock production facilitates toad invasion in tropical australia.  

PubMed

Habitat disturbance and the spread of invasive organisms are major threats to biodiversity, but the interactions between these two factors remain poorly understood in many systems. Grazing activities may facilitate the spread of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia by providing year-round access to otherwise-seasonal resources. We quantified the cane toad's use of cowpats (feces piles) in the field, and conducted experimental trials to assess the potential role of cowpats as sources of prey, water, and warmth for toads. Our field surveys show that cane toads are found on or near cowpats more often than expected by chance. Field-enclosure experiments show that cowpats facilitate toad feeding by providing access to dung beetles. Cowpats also offer moist surfaces that can reduce dehydration rates of toads and are warmer than other nearby substrates. Livestock grazing is the primary form of land use over vast areas of Australia, and pastoral activities may have contributed substantially to the cane toad's successful invasion of that continent. PMID:23145158

González-Bernal, Edna; Greenlees, Matthew; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

2012-11-07

431

Increased estimates of air-pollution emissions from Brazilian sugar-cane ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse-gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels on air quality and climate. Sugar-cane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here we use a life-cycle approach to produce spatially and temporally explicit estimates of air-pollutant emissions over the whole life cycle of sugar-cane ethanol in Brazil. We show that even in regions where pre-harvest field burning has been eliminated on half the croplands, regional emissions of air pollutants continue to increase owing to the expansion of sugar-cane growing areas, and burning continues to be the dominant life-cycle stage for emissions. Comparison of our estimates of burning-phase emissions with satellite estimates of burning in São Paulo state suggests that sugar-cane field burning is not fully accounted for in satellite-based inventories, owing to the small spatial scale of individual fires. Accounting for this effect leads to revised regional estimates of burned area that are four times greater than some previous estimates. Our revised emissions maps thus suggest that biofuels may have larger impacts on regional climate forcing and human health than previously thought.

Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J. E.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Chen, Y.

2012-01-01

432

Pozzolanic activity and filler effect of sugar cane bagasse ash in Portland cement and lime mortars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) is generated as a combustion by-product from boilers of sugar and alcohol factories. Composed mainly of silica, this by-product can be used as a mineral admixture in mortar and concrete. Several studies have shown that the use of SCBA as partial Portland cement replacement can improve some properties of cementitious materials. However, it is not

G. C. Cordeiro; R. D. Toledo Filho; L. M. Tavares; E. M. R. Fairbairn

2008-01-01

433

Accidental fatal poisoning of a dog by Dieffenbachia picta (dumb cane).  

PubMed

A single case of accidental fatal poisoning by Dieffenbachia picta, (dumb cane) (Araceae) in a 9-y-old female Poodle is described. Clinical signs included severe, locally extensive erosive/ulcerative glossitis accompanied by marked dyspnea of acute onset. The animal did not respond to emergency procedures to relieve severe respiratory distress; fatal asphyxiation ensued from edema of the glottis a few hours after the first clinical signs were observed. According to the owner, the dog had access to a tall, potted dumb cane plant and chewed the thick stem of the plant intensely. The owner did not authorize a necropsy of the animal. The diagnosis of Dieffenbachia picta poisoning was based on the history of accidental consumption of dumb cane and clinical signs. A comparison of this single case with other reports of dumb cane poisoning suggests that dogs poisoned by Dieffenbachia species usually recover uneventfully with conservative management and that death from asphyxiation is a rare but possible consequence of this intoxication. Severe edematous swelling of the glottis with occlusion of the larynx airway passage can occur in those cases in which large amounts of sap are quickly squeezed from the plant during intense chewing. Death would occur if owners do not seek veterinary care immediately and if emergency procedures are not instituted on time. PMID:14513888

Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; da Silva Ilha, Marcia Regina; Ribeiro, Rita Elaine Streda

2003-10-01

434

Production of compost with bagasse and vinasses for cane crop in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a mixture of bagasse, animal manure and vinasse can be transformed into compost suitable for agriculture. The factors necessary for good composting are discussed, these include the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture, aeration and temperature. A mixture of 300 kg cane bagasse and 38 kg poultry manure moistened with vinasse gave the best results.

Park, Y.K.; Castro Gomez, R.J.H.

1982-10-01

435

A PROCEDURE FOR PROCESSING MIXTURES OF SOIL, CEMENT, AND SUGAR CANE BAGASSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two schemes for processing mixtures of soil, cement, and sugar cane bagasse have been investigated to determine the best way of processing house construction bricks for rural Africa. In one case, bagasse fibers were treated for removing sugar while untreated bagasse fibers were used in the other one. Processing house construction bricks from soil, cement, and untreated bagasse turned out

R. Medjo Eko; G. L. Riskowski

436

Measuring Energetics and Behaviour Using Accelerometry in Cane Toads Bufo marinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure

Lewis G. Halsey; Craig R. White; Alejandro Lucia

2010-01-01

437

Biomechanical Movements in Experienced Cane Users with and without Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Travelers with visual impairments and orientation and mobility (O&M) instructors were assessed in their performance of the two-point touch cane technique. Both groups deviated similarly from classical stipulations of the technique, having wider arc widths and hand positions off of midline. Measures of body coverage and rhythm were less than…

Wall, Robert S.; Ashmead, Daniel H.

2002-01-01

438

Post Sugar Cane Succession in Moist Alluvial Sites in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane cultivation spanned over two centuries in Puerto Rico, at one time covering 14% of the island's total area. The most productive plantations were located in alluvial valleys that were deforested before there was an opportunity to record the species composition and structural development of the original native forests. This has led to speculation about the nature of these

Oscar Abelleira Martínez; Ariel E. Lugo

439

Nançay ``blind'' 21 CM line survey of the Canes Venatici group region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radio spectroscopic driftscan survey in the 21 cm line with the Nançay decimetric radio telescope of 0.08 steradians of sky in the direction of the constellation Canes Venatici covering a heliocentric velocity range of -350 < V_hel < 2350 km s(-1) produced 53 spectral features, which was further reduced to a sample of 33 reliably detected galaxies by extensive

R. C. Kraan-Korteweg; W. van Driel; F. Briggs; B. Binggeli; T. I. Mostefaoui

1999-01-01

440

Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. PMID:20493626

Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

2010-05-20

441

Biomechanical Movements in Experienced Cane Users with and without Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Travelers with visual impairments and orientation and mobility (O&M) instructors were assessed in their performance of the two-point touch cane technique. Both groups deviated similarly from classical stipulations of the technique, having wider arc widths and hand positions off of midline. Measures of body coverage and rhythm were less than ideal.…

Wall, Robert S.; Ashmead, Daniel H.

2002-01-01

442

Biomedical Substrates of the Two-Point Cane Technique: A Review of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on the biomechanical elements related to the most commonly used long cane technique, the two-point touch, by individuals with blindness or low vision. The use of several natural biomechanical tendencies supports the contention that the technique is inherently efficient. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

Wall, Robert

2002-01-01

443

Cost of the Electrical Energy Obtained by Cogeneration in the Sugar Cane Mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most sugar cane mills there are consumers of steam (process). They work with a very small pressure compared with the one obtained in the steam boilers, this pressure is increased even more if over heaters are used. In order to obtain this low operation pressure, it is necessary to pass the steam through a reducing valve. If this steam

J. J. S. Jimenez; M. D. Z. Izquierdo; J. S. B. Leon; A. M. del Sol; J. O. T. Valdes

2008-01-01

444

Assessment of Virally Vectored Autoimmunity as a Biocontrol Strategy for Cane Toads  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so

Jackie A. Pallister; Damien C. T. Halliday; Anthony J. Robinson; Daryl Venables; Rhonda D. Voysey; Donna G. Boyle; Thayalini Shanmuganathan; Christopher M. Hardy; Nicole A. Siddon; Alex D. Hyatt; Pedro R. Lowenstein

2011-01-01

445

Invasive cane toads ( Bufo marinus) cause mass mortality of freshwater crocodiles ( Crocodylus johnstoni) in tropical Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species are frequently blamed for faunal declines, but there is little direct evidence about the pathways, magnitude and size-selectivity of mortality induced by invaders. Top predators are of particular interest in this context, because their removal can generate substantial cascades of secondary effects on community composition. Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are large South American anurans currently spreading rapidly through

Mike Letnic; Jonathan K. Webb; Richard Shine

2008-01-01

446

Pyrolysis and gasification of pellets from sugar cane bagasse and wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood pellets have become a popular form of biomass for power generation and residential heating due to easier handling both for transportation and for feeders in the treatment units, improved conversion and storage possibilities. The research on wood pellets as fuel has also been intensified during the past decade. However, other biomass sorts in pellet form, such as sugar cane

Catharina Erlich; Emilia Björnbom; David Bolado; Marian Giner; Torsten H. Fransson

2006-01-01

447

A review of the 2006 International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists' Pathology Workshop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists’ (ISSCT) Pathology Workshop was held on January 23-27, 2006, at the INRA Research Center in Petit Bourg, Guadeloupe, French West Indies and was hosted by CIRAD and organized by Jean Heinrich Daugrois and the CIRAD staff. There were 30 delegates ...

448

Modelling decomposition of sugar cane surface residues with APSIM–Residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since residues on the soil surface affect the soil hydrological and nitrogen cycles, cropping system models need to accurately predict the decomposition of surface residues through time. Recent field measurements of sugar cane residue decomposition have found that rates of residue decomposition are slower than those predicted by the agricultural productions systems simulator (APSIM) cropping system model. To improve predictions

Peter J. Thorburn; Mervyn E. Probert; Fiona A. Robertson

2001-01-01

449

Antioxidant Activity of Phenolics Compounds From Sugar Cane ( Saccharum officinarum L.) Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice were identified and quantified by analytical high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection, showing the predominance of flavones (apigenin, luteolin and tricin derivatives), among flavonoids, and of hydroxycinnamic, caffeic and sinapic acids, among phenolic acids, representing a total content of around 160 mg\\/L. A tricin derivative was present in the highest

Joaquim Maurício Duarte-Almeida; Alexis Vidal Novoa; Adyary Fallarero Linares; Franco M. Lajolo; Maria Inés Genovese

2006-01-01

450

Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most

A. M. Azzam

1989-01-01

451

Production of xylanase by Thermoascus aurantiacus from sugar cane bagasse in an aerated growth fermentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the use of xylanases has been adopted by many processing industries, such as pulp and paper, food and textile factories. This study demonstrates that Thermoascus aurantiacus ATCC 204492 is able to produce a high level of thermostable xylanase when sugar cane bagasse is used as a substrate. Fermentations were performed in a glass-column reactor with forced aeration.

A. M. F Milagres; E Santos; T Piovan; I. C Roberto

2004-01-01

452

WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING  

SciTech Connect

Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex{trademark} manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex{trademark}. The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package.

Varble, J

2007-11-20

453

The caning of Charles Sumner : honor, idealism, and the origins of the Civil War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charles Sumner was seated at his Senate desk on May 22, 1856, when Democratic Congressman Preston S. Brooks approached, pulled out a walking stick, and struck him on the head. Brooks continued to beat the stunned Sumner, forcing him to the ground and repeatedly striking him even as the cane shattered. He then pursued the bloodied, staggering Republican senator up

Williamjames Hoffer

2010-01-01

454

Motion control of omni-directional type cane robot based on human intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-wheeled omni-directional cane robot is designed for aiding the elderly walking. Possible move modes are analyzed and a corresponding hybrid model is constructed to describe walking behavior. A concept called intentional direction is presented to denote the moving intention of a human. Based on experiments and some assumptions, dynamic model of intentional direction is obtained as well as its

Jian Huang; Pei Di; Toshio Fukuda; Takayuki Matsuno

2008-01-01

455

Raising Cane in the 'Glades: The Global Sugar Trade and the Transformation of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last century, the Everglades underwent a metaphorical and ecological transition from impenetrable swamp to endangered wetland. At the heart of this transformation lies the Florida sugar industry, which by the 1990s was at the center of the political storm over the multi-billion dollar ecological “restoration” of the Everglades. Raising Cane in the ’Glades is the first study to

Gail M. Hollander

2008-01-01

456

Abatement of Ground Water Phosphate in Giant Cane and Forest Riparian Buffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest and grass riparian buffers have been shown to be effective best management practices for controlling nonpoint source pollution. However, little research has been conducted on giant cane [Arundinaria gigantea (Walt. Muhl.)], a formerly common bamboo species, native to the lower midwestern and southeastern United States, and its ability to reduce nutrient loads to streams. From May 2002 through May

Christopher R. Blattel; Karl W. J. Williard; Sara G. Baer; James J. Zaczek

2005-01-01

457

Pyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse in a wire-mesh reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved experimental techniques are described, using a wire mesh reactor; for determining the pyrolysis yields of lignocellulosic materials. In this apparatus pyrolysis tars are rapidly swept from the hot zone of the reactor and quenched, secondary reactions are thereby greatly diminished. Particular emphasis is placed upon the measurement of the pyrolysis yields for sugar cane bagasse, an abundant agricultural waste

Ana-Rita F. Drummond; Ian W. Drummond

1996-01-01

458

Mechanical relaxation processes due to sugars in cane ( Arundo donax L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The storage modulus and the mechanical loss tangent of untreated, extracted, and sugar- impregnated canes (Arundo donax L.) were measured over a temperature range of ?150° to 0°C at low frequencies. Two relaxation processes, labeled ? and ?,\\u000a were detected in the ranges ?60° to 0°C and ?120° to ?100°C, respectively. The ? and ? processes shifted to lower temperatures

Eiichi Obataya; Misato Norimoto

1999-01-01

459

Use of the Sonicguide and Laser Cane in Obtaining or Keeping Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Owners of laser canes and Sonicguides were surveyed to determine whether these devices were used in employment settings. Of the 94 respondents, 74 were still using their electronic travel aids: 36 percent used the devices to travel to and from work, and 49 percent used them on the job. (SEW)

Jacobson, William H.; Smith, Tom E. C.

1983-01-01

460

Development of appropriate technology for treatment of molasses-based wastewater.  

PubMed

In this study, the performance of a proposed treatment system consisting of an anaerobic process (acidification, methane fermentation) and an aerobic process (trickling filter) was evaluated for treating high concentrations of molasses-based wastewater (43-120 gCOD/L) by a continuous flow experiment. An anaerobic up-flow staged sludge bed (USSB) reactor, equipped with multiple gas solid separators, was used as the main treatment/methane recovery process. The USSB showed good efficiency of both COD removal (80-87%) and methane recovery (70-80%) at an organic loading rate of 11-43 kgCOD/m(3) day. As the influent COD concentration was increased, the organic loading rate for stable operation of the USSB was reduced due to cation inhibition. However, the COD removal efficiency of the whole treatment system (including the aerobic post-treatment process) was 96% even at an influent COD concentration of 120 gCOD/L. Use of the treated wastewater as a fertilizer and/or irrigation-water for sugarcane was evaluated by a field cultivation test. Both growth of sugarcane and emission of greenhouse gases from the field soil were measured. A relatively high methane flux (352 ?gCH4/m(2) h) was observed when the treated wastewater from day 0 was used. By day 3, however, this value was reduced to the same level as the control. In addition, growth of sugarcane was satisfactory when the treated wastewater was used. The treated wastewater was found to be useful for cultivation of sugarcane in terms of both a low risk of greenhouse gas emission from the field soil and effectiveness for growth of sugarcane. PMID:23573932

Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Onodera, Takashi; Choeisai, Pairaya; Khodphuvieng, Jamnan; Prammanee, Preecha; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Kaewpradit, Wanwipa; Kubota, Keiichi

2013-01-01

461

Kinetics of ethanol production during the reactor feeding phase in constant fed-batch fermentation of molasses  

SciTech Connect

During the fermentor feeding phase in constant fed-batch ethanol fermentation of molasses, the ethanol production rates are constant and are correlated to the sugar feeding rates by a Monod-like equation. The parameters of this Monod-like correlation depend on the sugars concentration of the feeding mash. A model is proposed to explain the constancy of the ethanol production rate experimentally observed. From the Monod-like correlation it is possible to evaluate the maximum value of the mash feeding rate to be used in order to have a completely fermented medium just at the end of the feeding phase.

Borzani, W.

1987-05-01

462

Co-production of ice nuclei and xanthan gum by transformed Xanthomonas campestris grown in sugar beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recombinant plasmids, expressing ice nucleation activity, were constructed and named pCPP30inaZ and pCPP38inaZ. They were transferred to the ice-negative, xanthan-producing Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris by electroporation. The transformants were used for co-production of xanthan gum and ice nuclei from sugar beet molasses. The highest values obtained were 20 g l-1 and 1018 ice nuclei ml-1, respectively. The above values fulfil the criteria

Amalia S. Afendra; Efthalia E. Yiannaki; Maria A. Palaiomylitou; Dimitrios A. Kyriakidis; Constantin Drainas

2002-01-01

463

Conversion of beet molasses and cheese whey into fatty acid methyl esters by the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus.  

PubMed

Eighty-one yeast isolates from raw milk were surveyed for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Only one species, identified as Cryptococcus curvatus, produced FAME at a detectable level. Cr. curvatus TYC-19 produced more FAME from beet molasses and cheese whey medium than other strains of the same species. In both media, the major FAME produced were linoleic and oleic acid methyl esters. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA indicated that TYC-19 diverged from the same species. PMID:20431242

Takakuwa, Naoya; Saito, Katsuichi

2010-01-01

464

76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2011-08-12

465

75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2010-08-17

466

77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OFFICE OF THE TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2012-09-17

467

75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

2010-08-30

468

78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2013-09-18

469

75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments...Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice...e-mail to angel.f.gonzalez@fas.usda.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

2010-04-27

470

76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments...Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice...e-mail to angel.f.gonzalez@fas.usda.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

2011-04-12

471

75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments...Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice...e-mail to: angel.f.gonzalez@fas.usda.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

2010-07-06

472

CROWN AND CANE GALL OF A BLACKBERRY-RASPBERRY HYBRID CAUSED BY AGROBACTERIUM RHIZOGENES IN NORTHERN ITALY  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY During a serious epidemic of crown and cane gall on the blackberry-raspberry (Rubus occidentalis-Rubus idaeus) hybrid Lockness in a specialized crop in the province of Treviso (northern Italy) Gram-negative bac- teria were found associated with tumours. Following ex- perimental inoculation these bacteria caused tumours on tomato stems and on pot-grown hybrid canes in the greenhouse. These bacteria were found

S. A. Weller; D. E. Stead; U. Mazzucchi

2004-01-01

473

Molecular responses to the fungal pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi in the leaves of chewing cane ( Saccharum officinarum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular responses induced by the fungal pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi in the leaves of chewing cane were investigated using proteomics, physiological and biochemical approaches, and real-time\\u000a fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Proteins were extracted from the leaves of the chewing cane\\u000a cultivar Fuan at 0 and 48 h after inoculation. Twenty-four proteins that showed up-\\/ down-regulated expression were identified\\u000a using

Sheng Lin; Yifei Zhou; Guanshui Chen; Yang Zhang; Yanyun Zhang; Wenjun Ning; Daren Pan

2010-01-01

474

Effect of chopping and level of inclusion of whole sugar cane in the diet on intake and growth of goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 156 crossbred goats (F1 of India×Bachthao) with an initial weight of 10.2–11.9 kg and ages ranging between 3.5 and 4 months were used in studies to examine how physical form and inclusion level of sugar cane influenced intake. In the intake study whole sugar cane was divided into leaves, tops and stalks. The leaves were offered chopped

Nguyen Thi Mui; Inger Ledin; Dinh Van Binh

2000-01-01

475

Comparative analysis of the Metarhizium anisopliae secretome in response to exposure to the greyback cane grub and grub cuticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metarhizium anisopliae is a well-characterized biocontrol agent of a wide range of insects including cane grubs. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis was used to display secreted proteins of M. anisopliae strain FI-1045 growing on the whole greyback cane grubs and their isolated cuticles. Hydrolytic enzymes secreted by M. anisopliae play a key role in insect cuticle-degradation and initiation

Nirupama Shoby Manalil; V. S. Junior Téo; K. Braithwaite; S. Brumbley; P. Samson; K. M. Helena Nevalainen

2010-01-01

476

Preliminary evaluation of organosolv pre-treatment of sugar cane bagasse for glucose production: Application of 2 3 experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse was submitted to ethanol organosolv pre-treatment using a 50L pilot scale reactor. The influence of catalyst type (H2SO4 or NaOH), catalyst concentration (1.25–1.50% w\\/w on dry fiber) and process time (60–90min) on total solid recovery and solid composition (glucan, xylan and lignin contents) was evaluated by performing a 23 full factorial experimental design. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse

Leyanis Mesa; Erenio González; Encarnación Ruiz; Inmaculada Romero; Cristóbal Cara; Fernando Felissia; Eulogio Castro

2010-01-01

477

Stilbene levels in grape cane of different cultivars in southern Chile: determination by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method.  

PubMed

Health benefits of trans-resveratrol and other stilbenes in grapes, must, and wine have been pointed out by numerous authors. Less attention has been paid to the presence of stilbene derivatives in viticultural residues, such as grape canes. The present work reports the first results of a systematic study of stilbene levels in different grape varieties and cultivation areas in Chile, to evaluate their potential as an alternative source of bioactive stilbenes. In all cane samples, the predominant stilbene is trans-resveratrol, followed by ?-viniferin and piceatannol. In canes of Pinot noir up to 5590 ± 172 mg kg(-1) of trans-resveratrol and up to 6915 ± 175 mg kg(-1) of total stilbenes were detected. The observed concentrations of stilbenes in canes of Pinot noir from southern Chile until now are higher than those reported previously for this red variety. However, the highest concentration of total stilbenes observed in the analyzed samples was in the canes of white variety Gewürztraminer with 7857 ± 498 mg kg(-1). Preliminary results indicate that these levels can evolve if canes are left for some months on the vineyard after pruning, observing an increase during the first 2 months and a decrease after this period. PMID:22224931

Vergara, Carola; von Baer, Dietrich; Mardones, Claudia; Wilkens, Andrea; Wernekinck, Katerina; Damm, Anika; Macke, Sebastian; Gorena, Tamara; Winterhalter, Peter

2012-01-17

478

Feeding value of urea molasses-treated wheat straw ensiled with fresh cattle manure for growing crossbred cattle calves.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to evaluate the influence of urea plus molasses-treated wheat straw (WS) ensiled with cattle manure (CM) on nutrients intake, their digestibilities, and growth performance of crossbred (Sahiwal × Holstein Friesian) cattle calves. The CM was mixed with ground WS in a ratio of 30:70 on dry matter (DM) basis. The WS-CM mixture treated with urea (4% DM) and molasses (4% DM) was allowed to ferment for 40 days in a cemented pit. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic fermented wheat straw (FWS)-based experimental diets were formulated. The FWS0, FWS20, FWS30, and FWS40 diets contained 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% FWS, respectively. Twenty calves (9-10 months of age) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design, five in each group. Increasing trends for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber intakes by calves were observed with increasing dietary FWS level. Weight gain was significantly different among calves fed different levels of FWS. The highest weight gain (491.8 g/day) was observed in calves fed FWS40 diet, while calves fed FWS0 and FWS20 diets gained 350.0 and 449.6 g/day, respectively. The results from this study imply that the FWS can be added up to 30% in the diet of growing crossbred calves without any detrimental effect on their performance. PMID:21110091

Sarwar, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Nisa, Mahr U; Afzal, Danish; Sharif, Muhammad; Saddiqi, Hafiz A

2010-11-26

479

Superior molasses assimilation, stress tolerance, and trehalose accumulation of baker's yeast isolated from dried sweet potatoes (hoshi-imo).  

PubMed

Yeast strains were isolated from dried sweet potatoes (hoshi-imo), a traditional preserved food in Japan. Dough fermentation ability, freeze tolerance, and growth rates in molasses, which are important characteristics of commercial baker's yeast, were compared between these yeast strains and a commercial yeast derivative that had typical characteristics of commercial strains. Classification tests including pulse-field gel electrophoresis and fermentation/assimilation ability of sugars showed that almost the stains isolated belonged to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One strain, ONY1, accumulated intracellular trehalose at a higher level than commercial strain T128. Correlated with intracellular trehalose contents, the fermentation ability of high-sugar dough containing ONY1 was higher. ONY1 also showed higher freeze tolerance in both low-sugar and high-sugar doughs. The growth rate of ONY1 was significantly higher under batch and fed-batch cultivation conditions using either molasses or synthetic medium than that of strain T128. These results suggest that ONY1 has potential commercial use as baker's yeast for frozen dough and high-sugar dough. PMID:15277748

Nishida, Osamu; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Suzuki, Chise; Shima, Jun

2004-07-01

480

Paleogeography of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB) from Eocene to Pliocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty paleogeographic maps are presented for Middle Eocene (Lutetian) to Late Pliocene times according to the stratigraphical data given in the companion paper by Berger et al. this volume. Following a first lacustrine-continental sedimentation during the Middle Eocene, two and locally three Rupelian transgressive events were identified with the first corresponding with the Early Rupelian Middle Pechelbronn beds and the second and third with the Late Rupelian ? Serie Grise ? (Fischschiefer and equivalents). During the Early Rupelian (Middle Pechelbronn beds), a connection between North Sea and URG is clearly demonstrated, but a general connection between North Sea, URG and Paratethys, via the Alpine sea, is proposed, but not proved, during the late Rupelian. Whereas in the southern URG, a major hiatus spans Early Aquitanian to Pliocene times, Early and Middle Miocene marine, brackish and freshwater facies occur in the northern URG and in the Molasse Basin (OMM, OSM); however, no marine connections between these basins could be demonstrated during this time. After the deposition of the molasse series, a very complex drainage pattern developed during the Late Miocene and Pliocene, with a clear connection to the Bresse Graben during the Piacenzian (Sundgau gravels). During the Late Miocene, Pliocene and Quaternary sedimentation persisted in the northern URG with hardly any interruptions. The present drainage pattern of the Rhine river (from Alpine area to the lower Rhine Embayment) was not established before the Early Pleistocene.

Berger, Jean-Pierre; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Becker, Damien; Grimm, Matthias; Grimm, Kirsten; Picot, Laurent; Storni, Andrea; Pirkenseer, Claudius; Derer, Christian; Schaefer, Andreas

2005-09-01

481

Eocene-Pliocene time scale and stratigraphy of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general stratigraphic synthesis for the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB) from Eocene to Pliocene times. The stratigraphic data were compiled both from literature and from research carried out by the authors during the past 6 years ; an index of the stratigraphically most important localitites is provided. We distinguish 14 geographical areas from the Helvetic domain in the South to the Hanau Basin in the North. For each geographical area, we give a synthesis of the biostratigraphy, lithofacies, and chronostratigraphic ranges. The relationships between this stratigraphic record and the global sea-level changes are generally disturbed by the geodynamic (e.g., subsidence) evolution of the basins. However, global sea-level changes probably affected the dynamic of transgression regression in the URG (e.g., Middle Pechelbronn Beds and Serie Grise corresponding with sea-level rise between Ru1/Ru2 and Ru2/Ru3 sequences, respectively) as well as in the Molasse basin (regression of the UMM corresponding with the sea-level drop at the Ch1 sequence). The URGENT-project (Upper Rhine Graben evolution and neotectonics) provided an unique opportunity to carry out and present this synthesis. Discussions with scientists addressing sedimentology, tectonics, geophysics and geochemistry permitted the comparison of the sedimentary history and stratigraphy of the basin with processes controlling its geodynamic evolution. Data presented here back up the palaeogeographic reconstructions presented in a companion paper by the same authors (see Berger et al. in Int J Earth Sci 2005).

Berger, Jean-Pierre; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Becker, Damien; Grimm, Matthias; Grimm, Kirsten; Picot, Laurent; Storni, Andrea; Pirkenseer, Claudius; Schaefer, Andreas

2005-09-01

482

Characterisation of sugar cane straw waste as pozzolanic material for construction: Calcining temperature and kinetic parameters  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the influence of calcining temperature (800 and 1000 deg. C) on the pozzolanic activation of sugar cane straw (SCS). The reaction kinetics of SCS ash-lime mixtures were inferred from physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetry analysis. The fitting of a kinetic-diffusive model to the experimental data (fixed lime versus time) allowed the computing of the kinetic parameters (reaction rate constant) of the pozzolanic reaction. Results obtained confirm that the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) calcined at 800 and 1000 deg. C have properties indicative of very high pozzolanic activity. No influence of calcining temperature on the pozzolanic activity was observed. Also, no crystalline compounds during the pozzolanic reaction were identified up to 90 days of reaction. Environmental durability and strength of the consequential mortars remain to be assessed.

Frias, Moises [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), c/ Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mfrias@ietcc.csic.es; Villar-Cocina, E.; Valencia-Morales, E. [Department of Physics, Central University of Las Villas, Santa Clara 54830 (Cuba)

2007-07-01

483

Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.  

PubMed

The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits. PMID:23561163

Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R

2013-01-16

484

Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants.  

PubMed

Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from 'floor dump sediment', 'cooling tower water', and 'bagasse leachate'. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as 'lactic acid bacteria', capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

2013-11-01

485

Lactic acid production from sugar-cane juice by a newly isolated Lactobacillus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly isolated sucrose-tolerant, lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. strain FCP2, was grown on sugar-cane juice (125 g sucrose l?1, 8 g glucose l?1 and 6 g fructose l?1) for 5 days and produced 104 g lactic acid l?1 with 90% yield. A higher yield (96%) and productivity (2.8 g l?1 h?1) were obtained when strain FCP2 was cultured on 3% w\\/v (25 g sucrose l?1, 2 g glucose l?1 and 1 g fructose l?1) sugar-cane juice for 10 h. Various cheap nitrogen sources such as

Walaiporn Timbuntam; Klanarong Sriroth; Yutaka Tokiwa

2006-01-01

486

Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range  

SciTech Connect

Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degree sign C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Jordan, Kevin J. [Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada)

2009-04-15

487

Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum.

Rahul Kumar; Deepshikha Verma; Bhanu L. Singh; Umesh Kumar; Shweta

2010-01-01

488

Arundo donax cane as a precursor for activated carbons preparation by phosphoric acid activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canes from Arundo donax, a herbaceous rapid-growing plant, were used as precursor for activated carbon preparation by phosphoric acid activation under a self-generated atmosphere. The influence of the carbonization temperature in the range 400–550 °C and of the weight ratio phosphoric acid to precursor (R=1.5–2.5) on the developed porous structure of the resulting carbons was studied for 1 h of

T Vernersson; P. R Bonelli; E. G Cerrella; A. L Cukierman

2002-01-01

489

Study of the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse using phosphoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, samples of sugar cane bagasse were hydrolysed with phosphoric acid under mild conditions (H3PO4 2–6%, time 0–300min and 122°C) to study the feasibility of using the liquid phase as fermentation media. Solid yield, sugar concentrations and decomposition product concentrations were measured. The composition of hydrolysates, their purity and the ratio sugars\\/inhibitors were analyzed. Kinetic models were

Sara Gámez; Juan Jose González-Cabriales; José Alberto Ramírez; Gil Garrote; Manuel Vázquez

2006-01-01

490

On the Newly Discovered Canes Venatici II dSph Galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the detection of variable stars in the Canes Venatici II (CVn II) dwarf spheroidal galaxy, a new satellite of the Milky Way recently discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We also present a V, B-V color-magnitude diagram that reaches V~25.5 mag, showing the galaxy's main-sequence turnoff at V~24.5 mag and revealing several candidate blue straggler stars.

Claudia Greco; Massimo Dall'Ora; Gisella Clementini; Vincenzo Ripepi; Luca Di Fabrizio; Karen Kinemuchi; Marcella Marconi; Ilaria Musella; Horace A. Smith; Christopher T. Rodgers; Charles Kuehn; Timothy C. Beers; Márcio Catelan; Barton J. Pritzl

2008-01-01

491

An isotopic method for quantifying sweeteners derived from corn and sugar cane1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, as well as cane sugar, has been implicated in the rise of the obesity and diabetes epidemics. To date, however, no reliable biomarker for the con- sumption of these sweeteners is available. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the natural abundance stable-carbon-isotope signature of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. Design:

A Hope Jahren; Christopher Saudek; Edwina H Yeung; Linda Kao; Rebecca A Kraft; Benjamin Caballero

492

Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w\\/w on dry bagasse basis, 160°C and above, 10min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers

C. C. Geddes; J. J. Peterson; C. Roslander; G. Zacchi; M. T. Mullinnix; K. T. Shanmugam; L. O. Ingram

2010-01-01

493

Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range.  

PubMed

Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degrees C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications. PMID:19472641

Davidson, Melanie T M; Jordan, Kevin J

2009-04-01

494

Sugar Cane Policosanols do not Reduce LDL Oxidation in Hypercholesterolemic Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane policosanols (SCP) have been shown to exert antioxidant properties in various studies conducted in Cuba. Independent\\u000a studies have since reported no significant effect of SCP consumption on oxidized LDL levels. The objective of the present\\u000a study was to confirm the effects of Cuban SCP on LDL oxidation using a high-precision capture ELISA procedure in hypercholesterolemic\\u000a individuals. Twenty-one otherwise

Amira N. Kassis; Stan Kubow; Peter J. H. Jones

2009-01-01

495

Isolation of a high-specific-growth-rate mutant of Cellulomonas flavigena on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

By treatment of a wild-type strain of Cellulomonas flavigena with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine at 150 µg\\/ml, mutants PN-7 and PN-10 were obtained, which produce 1.38 and 1.5 times more carboxymethylcellulase than the wild strain when cultured in a batch system with sugar cane bagasse as the sole carbon source. These mutants also exhibited higher specific growth rates compared to the wild strain.

T. Ponce-Noyola; M. Torre

1995-01-01

496

Influence of start-up procedure on crossflow microfiltration of raw cane sugar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different start-up procedures have been applied on a crossflow microfiltration plant for the clarification of solutions from raw cane sugar. Compared to the abrupt start-up mode, a progressive setting-up of both transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity allowed the permeate fluxes to increase significantly without any alteration of the clarifying effect. This result has been proved on three different lots of

M. Dornier; R. Petermann; Martine Decloux

1995-01-01

497

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated sugar cane leaves to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of pretreated sugar cane leaves to produce ethanol using a cellulolytic enzyme complex from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL-Y-132 was optimized. Enzymic saccharification parameters were evaluated prior to SSF studies. A 92% conversion of 2·5% substrate (alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated) to sugars was achieved at 50°C and pH 4·5, using T.

S. Hari Krishna; K. Prasanthi; G. V. Chowdary; C. Ayyanna

1998-01-01

498

Computer Simulation of Cane Techniques Used by People with Visual Impairments for Accessibility Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The wheelchair symbol is the modern designation representing access for people with disabilities. However, wheelchairs are\\u000a relatively new devices of mobility for people with disabilities. The use of a staff or cane as a mobility aid for people with\\u000a visual impairments has been recorded for centuries. In the Bible, Leviticus 19:14, we find: “Thou shalt not curse the deaf,\\u000a nor

Bruce B. Blasch; William R. L’aune; Franklyn K. Coombs

499

Environmental repercussions of cane-sugar industries on the Chhoti Gandak river basin, Ganga Plain, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chhoti Gandak river basin, situated in the Ganga Plain, is one of India’s most productive cane-sugar industrial belts. Soil\\u000a and groundwater samples were collected to investigate the impacts of these industries on the environment of the Chhoti Gandak\\u000a river basin with special reference to soil and water. The results show that concentration of most metals are affected by industrial\\u000a activities

Vikram Bhardwaj; Dhruv Sen Singh; Abhay K. Singh

2010-01-01

500

Biodegradation of heavy crude oil Maya using spent compost and sugar cane bagasse wastes.  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out to evaluate the use of some agroindustrial wastes as supports in solid state cultures for the biodegradation of crude oil Maya in static column reactors over 15-20 days periods. Spent compost and cane bagasse wastes showed superior qualities over peat moss waste as support candidates with the advantage that they contain appreciable densities of autochthonous microorganisms in the order of 10(2) cfu g(-1). Mercuric chloride (2%) was able to completely inhibit growth of these microfloras. Biodegradation was enhanced in the presence of the IMP consortium and highest when microflora from cane bagasse only was the bioaugmentation partner (180.7 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). Combination of these waste materials (3:1 ratio, respectively) was observed to significantly biodegrade the crude oil by approximately 40% in 15 days from an initial concentration of 10,000 mg kg(-1) with a four order of magnitude increase in microbial density during this period. Spent compost and cane bagasse wastes are veritable solid support candidates for use in the biodegradation of crude oil polluted systems. PMID:17395244

Trejo-Hernández, M R; Ortiz, A; Okoh, A I; Morales, D; Quintero, R

2007-03-28