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1

Fed-batch culture of Sacchoromyces cerevisiae in sugar-cane blackstrap molasses: invertase activity of intact cells in ethanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fed-batch cultures of Sacchoromyces cerevisiae were carried out in a 14 l fermenter (NBS, Microferm), containing sugar-cane blackstrap molasses supplemented with urea (0.5 g l?1) and penicillin V (500 ui\\/l), under the following conditions: 32(±1)°C; pH 4.5–5.0; N=200 min?1; inoculum and mash volume equal to 3.0 l and 7.0 l, respectively. The parameters varied were: filling time (T: 1, 2 or 3 h), time constant (K: 0,

O. F Echegaray; J. C. M Carvalho; A. N. R Fernandes; S Sato; E Aquarone; M Vitolo

2000-01-01

2

Simplified modeling of fed-batch alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane blackstrap molasses.  

PubMed

Simplified modeling based on material balances for biomass, ethanol and substrate was used to describe the kinetics of fed-batch alcohol fermentation of sugarcane blackstrap molasses. Maintenance requirements were previously shown to be of particular significance in this system, owing to the use of massive inoculum to minimize inhibitions; therefore, they were taken into consideration for kinetic modeling. Average values of biomass and ethanol yields, productivities, and substrate consumption rates, calculated at the end of runs performed either at constant or exponentially varying flow rates, demonstrated that all of these parameters were influenced by the initial sugar-feeding rate, F(o)S(o). Under conditions of substrate shortage (F(o)S(o)

Converti, Attilio; Arni, Saleh; Sato, Sunao; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro; Aquarone, Eugênio

2003-10-01

3

Use of cane condensed molasses solubles in feeding broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean composition of condensed molasses solubles (vinasse or stillage) obtained from the three alcohol fermentation plants of the sugar cane industry including proximate constituents, inorganic components and amino acid composition was obtained. Mean solids content was 620 g kg?1. Vinasse found to be low in fat and fiber but high in ash and different carbohydrate contents. Potassium content of

K. N. Waliszewski; A. Romero; V. T. Pardio

1997-01-01

4

Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste management involving bioresource recovery in a cane molasses-based distillery engaged in the manufacture of rectified spirit (alcohol) is described. The spentwash generated from the distillation of fermenter wash is highly acidic (pH 4·0–4·3) with high rates of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD: 52–58, COD: 92–100kg\\/m3) and suspended solids (2·0–2·5kg\\/m3). Biogas is recovered from high strength raw spentwash through

Tapas Nandy; Sunita Shastry; S. N. Kaul

2002-01-01

5

Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in sugarcane blackstrap molasses through a fed-batch process: optimization by response surface methodology.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of reactor filling time (T) (3-5 h), initial mass of inoculum (M) (1000-2100 g), and exponential time decay constant for the substrate feed rate (K) (0.6-1.6 h-1) on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in sugarcane blackstrap molasses through a fed-batch culture. The highest ethanol productivity (16.9 g/[L x h]) occurred at T = 3 h, K = 1.6 h-1, and M = 1300 g. In addition, productivity was affected by both M (for T = 3 and 4 h) and K (for T = 3 h) and varied inversely with T under any value fixed for M and K. By the quadratic regression multivariable analysis method, equations were determined to estimate ethanol yield and productivity as function of the variables studied (T, K, and M). PMID:14512635

Carvalho, João C M; Vitolo, Michele; Sato, Sunao; Aquarone, Eugênio

2003-09-01

6

Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery.  

PubMed

Waste management involving bioresource recovery in a cane molasses-based distillery engaged in the manufacture of rectified spirit (alcohol) is described. The spentwash generated from the distillation of fermenter wash is highly acidic (pH 4.0-4.3) with high rates of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD: 52-58, COD: 92-100 kg/m3) and suspended solids (2.0-2.5 kg/m3). Biogas is recovered from high strength raw spentwash through the full-scale application of a biomethanation system as pretreatment option, comprising anaerobic fixed film reactors. This, combined with subsequent concentration through multiple effect evaporators (MEE), and utilization of concentrated effluent for biocomposting of pressmud (another by-product of the industry) for production of biomanure contributes to the elimination of effluent discharges. PMID:12173420

Nandy, Tapas; Shastry, Sunita; Kaul, S N

2002-05-01

7

Effect of pH, aeration and sucrose feeding on the invertase activity of intact S. cerevisiae cells grown in sugarcane blackstrap molasses.  

PubMed

S. cerevisiae was grown in a blackstrap molasses containing medium in batch and fed-batch cultures. The following parameters were varied: pH (from 4.0 to 6.5), dissolved oxygen (DO) (from 0 to 5.0 mg O2 L-1) and sucrose feeding rate. When glucose concentration (S) was higher than 0.5 g L-1 a reduction in the specific invertase activity of intact cells (v) and an oscillatory behavior of v values during fermentation were observed. Both the invertase reduction and the oscillatory behavior of v values could be related to the glucose inhibitory effect on invertase biosynthesis. The best culture conditions for attaining S. cerevisiae cells suitable for invertase production were: temperature = 30 degrees C; pH = 5.0; DO = 3.3 mg O2 L-1; (S) = 0.5 g L-1 and sucrose added into the fermenter according to the equations: (V-Vo) = t2/16 or (V - Vo) = (Vf - Vo).(e0.6t-1)/10. PMID:7576463

Vitolo, M; Duranti, M A; Pellegrim, M B

1995-08-01

8

Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol from cane molasses in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  After China and India, Thailand is considered another emerging market for fuel ethanol in Asia. At present, ethanol in the\\u000a country is mainly a fermentation\\/distillery product of cane molasses, although cassava and cane juice are considered other\\u000a potential raw materials for the fuel. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impacts of substituting conventional gasoline\\u000a (CG) with

Thu Lan T. Nguyen; Shabbir H. Gheewala

2008-01-01

9

Influence of Ammonium Salts and Cane Molasses on Growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus and Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate  

PubMed Central

The production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545 was studied in a synthetic medium with 3% glucose at pH 7.0 supplemented with several ammonium substrates and cane molasses. Growth was measured by dry cell weight, and the PHB content was measured by gas chromatography. The effects of ammonium sources such as sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and chloride salts and those of different ammonium sulfate concentrations were evaluated. The best growth and PHB production were obtained with ammonium sulfate; however, NH(inf4)(sup+) concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5 g/liter showed no significant difference. Ammonium sulfate was therefore used as the sole source of NH(inf4)(sup+) for experiments with cane molasses as the growth activator. Optimal growth and PHB production were obtained with 0.3% molasses. However, the yields of biomass (39 to 48%) and PHB (17 to 26%) varied significantly among the different ammonium substrates and cane molasses concentrations.

Beaulieu, M.; Beaulieu, Y.; Melinard, J.; Pandian, S.; Goulet, J.

1995-01-01

10

Cost-effective lignocellulolytic enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei on a cane molasses medium  

PubMed Central

Background Cane molasses, an important residue of the sugar industry, have the potential as a cost-effective carbon source that could serve as nutrients for industrial enzyme-producing microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi. However, the enzyme mixtures produced in such a complex medium are poorly characterized. In this study, the secretome of Trichoderma reesei grown on a cane molasses medium (CMM) as well as on a lactose-based conventional medium (LCM) were compared and analyzed by using proteomics. Results In this study we show that both the CMM and LCM can serve as excellent growth media for T. reesei. The enzyme expression patterns in the two media were similar and a considerable number of the identified proteins on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) gels were those involved in biomass degradation. The most abundant cellulolytic enzymes identified in both media were cellobiohydrolases (Cel7A/Cel6A) and endoglucanases (Cel7A/Cel5A) and were found to be more abundant in CMM. We also found that both media can serve as an inducer of xylanolytic enzymes. The main xylanases (XYNI/XYNIV) and xyloglucanase (Cel74A) were found at higher concentrations in the CMM than LCM. Conclusions We analyzed the prevalent proteins secreted by T. reesei in the CMM and LCM. Here, we show that hydrolytic enzymes are cost-effective and can be produced on cane molasses as a carbon source which can be used to digest lignocellulolytic biomass.

2014-01-01

11

[Effects of sugar cane molasses on the nutritive value of Canavalia ensiformis seeds for broiler chicks].  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of sugar cane molasses to improve performance of broiler chicks fed a diet containing 30% raw or autoclaved Canavalia ensiformis seeds (Jack beans). For this latter purpose, canavalia seeds were ground and autoclaved at 120 degrees C and 15 psi during 60 min. Day-old male chicks (Cobb x Cobb) were used throughout the study. In Experiment 1, adding 10% molasses to a control diet devoided of jack beans seeds significantly (p < 0.05) increased chick feed intake. However, neither the addition of 10% molasses nor of 5% glucose, sucrose, fructose, xylose or corn starch to the 30% raw canavalia ration allowed feed intakes similar to that shown by the control diet (Experiment 2). Broiler performance was evaluated in Experiment 3 in response to diets containing 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal. Ten-percent molasses was also added to both diets which along with the control diet were fed to chiks had free access to diets. Growth was depressed when the Jack bean containing diets were pair-fed to chicks. The results indicated that the use of molasses does not overcome the deleterious effects on chick performance due to the presence of 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal in the diets. PMID:9239297

Vargas, R E; Castillo, M; Michelangeli, C

1996-06-01

12

Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.  

PubMed

L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid. PMID:24333698

Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

2014-02-01

13

High-level production of heterologous proteins using untreated cane molasses and corn steep liquor in Escherichia coli medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop an economical industrial medium, untreated cane molasses (UCM) was tested as a carbon source for fermentation culturing\\u000a of Escherichia coli. To test the industrial application of this medium, we chose a strain co-expressing a carbonyl reductase (PsCR) and a glucose\\u000a dehydrogenase (BmGDH). Although corn steep liquor (CSL) could be used as an inexpensive nitrogen source to replace peptone,

Qi Ye; Ximu Li; Ming Yan; Hou Cao; Lin Xu; Yueyuan Zhang; Yong Chen; Jian Xiong; Pingkai Ouyang; Hanjie Ying

2010-01-01

14

Exploiting Pulsed Flows for Heating Improvement: Application to Determination of Total Reducing Sugars in Molasses and SugarCane Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminar and pulsed flows typical of multi-commuted and multi-pumping flow systems, were evaluated in rela- tion to analytical procedures carried out at high temperatures. As application, the spectrophotometric determination of to- tal reducing sugars (TRS, hydrolyzed sucrose plus reducing sugars) in sugar-cane juice and molasses was selected. The method involves in-line hydrolysis of sucrose and alkaline degradation of the reducing

Evandro R. Alves; Mario A. Feres; Elias A. G. Zagatto; Jose L. F. C. Lima

2009-01-01

15

Aproveitamento do melaço e vinhaça de cana-de-açúcar como substrato para produção de biomassa protéica e lipídica por leveduras e bactéria Use of sugar cane molasses and vinasse for proteic and lipidic biomass production by yeast and bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work evaluated the lipid and protein growth and synthesis capacity by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotoruda mucilaginosa, Candida lipolytica, a yeast isolated from vinasse lakes and Corynebacterium glutamicum in 10% molasses and sugar cane crude vinasse. All microorganisms grew both in molasses and vinasse. The highest growth in crude vinasse was performed by R. mucilaginosa (7.05 g\\/L), and in 10% molasses,

Marcia Luciana Cazetta; Maria Antonia

16

Lactic Acid Production from Cane Molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIM 2025 in Submerged Condition: Optimization of Medium Component by Taguchi DOE Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid production parameter optimization was performed using cane molasses by design of experiment (DOE) with the help of Qualitek-4 software with bigger is better as quality characteristics with eight media components at three levels in submerged culture condition. Eight factors with three levels studied were yeast extract, CaCO3, MnSO4, pH, Temperature, molasses, urea, and Tween 80. These factors were

S. M. Bhatt; S. K. Srivastava

2008-01-01

17

Economical production of poly(?-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.  

PubMed

Poly(?-l-lysine) (?-PL) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) co-production by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 from cane molasses and hydrolysate of strepyomyces cells (HSC) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimal initial total sugar concentration of the cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was determined to be 20gL(-1), and HSC could substitute for yeast extract for ?-PL and PDAP co-production. When fed-batch fermentation was performed in 1t fermentor with pretreated cane molasses and HSC, 20.6±0.5gL(-1) of ?-PL and 5.2±0.6gL(-1) of PDAP were obtained. The amount of strepyomyces cells obtained in one fed-batch fermentation is sufficient to prepare the HSC to satisfy the demand of subsequent fermentations, thus the self-cycling of organic nitrogen source becomes available. These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and HSC can be used for the economical production of ?-PL and PDAP by S. albulus PD-1. PMID:24861999

Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai

2014-07-01

18

Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been\\u000a worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization\\u000a of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation\\u000a time) for ethanol production from sugar

Bodhisatta Maiti; Ankita Rathore; Saurav Srivastava; Mitali Shekhawat; Pradeep Srivastava

2011-01-01

19

Production of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase by a novel polyextremophilic Bacillus halodurans TSEV1 in cane molasses medium and its applicability in making whole wheat bread.  

PubMed

A high titre of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase was attained in cane molasses medium. When the culture variables for endoxylanase production were optimized [cane molasses 7 %, soluble alkaline extract of wheat bran (SAE-WB) 37 % and ammonium chloride 0.30 %], a 4.5-fold enhancement in xylanase production (69 U ml(-1)) was achieved as compared to that in the unoptimized medium (15 U ml(-1)). The enzyme titre attained in shake flasks could be sustained in a 7-l laboratory bioreactor. An activity band corresponding to 40 kDa was visualized on SDS-PAGE zymogram analysis. The enzyme has broad range of pH and temperature for activity with optima at 9.0 and 80 °C, and stable between pH 4.0 and 11.0 with 85 % retention of activity. It has T 1/2 of 40 and 15 min at 70 and 80 °C. The enzyme is halotolerant since it displays activity in the presence of salt up to 15 %, and remains 100 % active in the absence of salt. The supplementation of whole wheat dough with xylanase improves antistaling property, reducing sugar content, bread volume with prebiotic xylooligosaccharides in bread. This is the first report on xylanase production in cane molasses medium with SAE-WB as the inducer and its applicability in whole wheat bread making that improves human health. PMID:24297158

Kumar, Vikash; Satyanarayana, T

2014-06-01

20

The utilization of sugar cane molasses with/without the presence of lignosulfonate for the production of bacterial cellulose.  

PubMed

Production of bacterial cellulose (BC) using sugar cane molasses (MO) with/without the presence of lignosulfonate (MOL) as a sole carbon source in a Hestrin-Schramm medium (HS) was investigated. Six strains of Acetobacter xylinum [American Type Culture Collection 10245 and Institute of Fermentation in Osaka (IFO) 13693, 13772, 13773, 14815, and 15237] were screened for their BC production. The yield of the BC among all the strains from both the MO and MOL media was much higher than that from the HS medium. Acetobacter xylinum IFO 13772 was the best BC producer for all media. Furthermore, physical properties of these BC from the HS, MO, and MOL media were studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, and cross polarization/magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. There are no significant differences in the crystallinity and the recorded Ialpha fraction among the BC produced from the different media. A remarkable difference was only recorded in terms of viscosity. These results indicate that MO is a better carbon source than glucose for most of the strains investigated. PMID:16450110

Keshk, Sherif; Sameshima, Kazuhiko

2006-09-01

21

Alcohol production from molasses: selection of efficient yeast strains. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen yeast strains were procured from commercial and private culture collections to evaluate their relative ability to efficiently ferment blackstrap molasses from the Puunene factory of the Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company. In addition, the effects on ethanol production and yeast multiplication of heat treatment of molasses and the addition of nitrogen or phosphorus to the molasses were tested. Three

1979-01-01

22

Artificial intelligence based modeling and optimization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production process by using Azohydromonas lata MTCC 2311 from cane molasses supplemented with volatile fatty acids: a genetic algorithm paradigm.  

PubMed

The present work describes the optimization of medium variables for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] by Azohydromonas lata MTCC 2311 using cane molasses supplemented with propionic acid. Genetic algorithm (GA) has been used for the optimization of P(3HB-co-3HV) production through the simulation of artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM). The predictions by ANN are better than those of RSM and in good agreement with experimental findings. The highest P(3HB-co-3HV) concentration and 3HV content have been reported as 7.35 g/l and 16.84 mol%, respectively by hybrid ANN-GA. Upon validation, 7.20 g/l and 16.30 mol% of P(3HB-co-3HV) concentration and 3HV content have been found in the shake flask, whereas 6.70 g/l and 16.35 mol%, have been observed in a 3 l bioreactor, respectively. The specific growth rate and P(3HB-co-3HV) accumulation rate of 0.29 per h and 0.16 g/lh determined with cane molasses are comparable to those observed on pure substrates. PMID:22074908

Zafar, Mohd; Kumar, Shashi; Kumar, Surendra; Dhiman, Amit K

2012-01-01

23

Evaluation of baker's yeast strains exhibiting significant growth on Japanese beet molasses and compound analysis of the molasses types.  

PubMed

Cane molasses, most of which is imported, is used as a raw material for production of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Japan. On the other hand, beet molasses is scarcely used for this purpose, but it can be of great advantage to cane molasses because it is domestically produced in relatively high amounts as a by-product of beet sugar processing. However, the yield of baker's yeast is sometimes low with Japanese beet molasses compared to imported cane molasses. For the production of baker's yeast with Japanese beet molasses, we evaluated S. cerevisiae strains, including industrial and laboratory strains, to group them according to the growth profile on beet and cane molasses. To discuss the factors affecting growth, we further analyzed the major compounds in both types of molasses. Beet molasses seems to contain compounds that promote the growth of beet molasses-favoring strains rather than inhibit the growth of cane molasses-favoring strains. It was assumed that ?-amino acid was one of the growth promotion factors for beet molasses-favoring strains. PMID:24333188

Nakata, Hiroaki; Tamura, Masahiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

2014-06-01

24

Maufacture of raw cane sugar  

SciTech Connect

Procedures used at the Pepeekeo Sugar Factory in Hawaii for producing commercial sugar, molasses and bagasse from harvested sugar cane are described. The molasses is marketed, the sugar is refined elsewhere, and the bagasse is burned to produce steam and electric power for the Pepeekeo plant. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01

25

78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups and molasses), specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES...for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar (syrups and molasses). Pursuant to Additional U.S. Note 8 to Chapter 17...

2013-09-18

26

Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic studies of the enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses were conducted using glucoamylase. Central Sugar Refinery SDN BHD contains 13–20% glucose. The molasses was diluted and the kinetic experiments were conducted at 67 °C with 100–1000 mg\\/l of glucoamylase. The glucose contents of the molasses were enhanced after hydrolysis of molasses solution with 1000 mg\\/l glucoamylase. A Lineweaver–Burk plot was obtained

Ghasem D. Najafpour; Cheong Poi Shan

2003-01-01

27

Bioenergy systems report. Special issue: cane energy systems  

SciTech Connect

The report examines the use of cane to produce energy. It focuses primarily on two recent proposals for the production of electric power for the grid using cane residues and supplementary fuels. It also reviews use of cane juice or molasses to produce ethanol for blending with gasoline. In both types of cane energy systems, the objective is the production of energy as well as sugar or sugar products. The report is divided into sections on growing and harvesting biomass fuels in cane fields, producing power for the grid with these fuels, the uses of the cane juice produced in cane energy systems, the costs and revenues associated with these systems, and the national benefits derived from these systems.

Not Available

1986-03-01

28

FIELD EVALUATION OF CONCENTRATED MOLASSES STILLAGE AS A NUTRIENT SOURCE FOR SUGARCANE IN SWAZILAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stillage or vinasse, which is a byproduct of ethanol production, is produced from the fermentation of molasses and is used as a source of potassium on cane fields at Simunye-Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation. Due concern regarding its high salt content and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), a trial was established on an S set soil (Mayo form) to study the effect

P E TURNER; J H MEYER; A C KING

29

Production of PHB by a Bacillus megaterium strain using sugarcane molasses and corn steep liquor as sole carbon and nitrogen sources.  

PubMed

Poly(hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) and other biodegradable polyesters are promising candidates for the development of environment-friendly, totally biodegradable plastics. The use of cane molasses and corn steep liquor, two of the cheapest substrates available in Egypt, may help to reduce the cost of producing such biopolyesters. In this work, the effect of different carbon sources was studied. Maximum production of PHB was obtained with cane molasses and glucose as sole carbon sources (40.8, 39.9 per mg cell dry matter, respectively). The best growth was obtained with 3% molasses, while maximum yield of PHB (46.2% per mg cell dry matter) was obtained with 2% molasses. Corn steep liquor was the best nitrogen source for PHB synthesis (32.7 mg per cell dry matter), on the other hand, best growth was observed when ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphate, ammonium oxalate or ammonium phosphate were used as nitrogen sources. PMID:11716209

Gouda, M K; Swellam, A E; Omar, S H

2001-01-01

30

A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sa?dere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

31

Effect of molasses-based liquid supplements on digestibility of creeping bluestem and performance of mature cows on winter range.  

PubMed

Poor quality of tropical range forage leads to excessive weight loss and poor reproductive performance of beef cows. This research measured 1) the digestibility by steers fed creeping bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium var. stoloniferum) diets supplemented with cane molasses (0 or 20% of diet DM) and(or) added CP (no added CP, urea, or soybean meal) and 2) the performance of mature cows grazing creeping bluestem range and supplemented with 1.6 kg/(cow.d) (DM basis) of either molasses-urea or molasses-cottonseed meal-urea, each containing 30% CP (DM basis). Bluestem averaged 4.7% CP and 37.0% in vitro OM digestion. In the digestion trial, diets supplemented with molasses had greater (P < .01) apparent OM digestibility but lower (P < .01) apparent NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose digestibilities than diets not supplemented with molasses. Apparent OM digestibility of diets supplemented with soybean meal was greater (P < .05) than that of diets supplemented with urea but not different (P > .05) from the control. While grazing range, mature cows supplemented with molasses-urea lost less (P < .05) body condition (-1.7 vs -1.3) than cows supplemented with molasses-cottonseed meal-urea. Treatment did not affect cow weight loss on range (P = .85) or pregnancy rate (P = .51). Cows supplemented with molasses-urea tended to wean a heavier calf (P = .09). When fed at 1.6 kg/(cow.d) to mature cows grazing range, a molasses-based supplement containing urea was of equal value to one containing a natural protein. PMID:7608020

Kalmbacher, R S; Brown, W F; Pate, F M

1995-03-01

32

Sugar Cane Magic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane

Mower, Nancy Alpert

33

Active guidance towards proper cane usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of conventional assistive cane devices is critical in reducing the risk of falls, which are particularly detrimental to the elderly and disabled. Individuals that experience the greatest risks rely on cane devices for support of ambulation. Results of many studies, however, have shown that incorrect cane usage is prevalent among cane users. The original SmartCane assistive system has

Lawrence K. Au; Winston H. Wu; Maxim A. Batalin; William J. Kaiser

2008-01-01

34

Bio-concentration of vinasse from the alcoholic fermentation of sugar cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concentration-incineration process of vinasse has been in use for several years in order to deal with pollution resulting from the industrial production of ethanol by fermentation and distillation. However, as vinasse concentration has a high energy demand, a bio-concentration method with no energy consumption is reported in this paper. Vinasses was used instead of water in the preparation of

A. R Navarro; M del C. Sepúlveda; M. C Rubio

2000-01-01

35

Cost analysis of yeast protein and RNA production by aerobic fermentation of cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cost feasibility study was made for Candida production at different production capacities with and without the production of flavor nucleotides from the hydrolysis of RNA and adapted to Mexican socio-economic conditions. It was concluded plants of small production capacity were economically attractive if flavor nucleotides were considered as the main product and SCP as a by-product. In addition, SCP

E. Peschard-Mariscal; G. Viniegra-Gonzalez

1977-01-01

36

19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. 151.28...TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a)...

2009-04-01

37

19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. 151.28...TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a)...

2010-04-01

38

Astaxanthin formation by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma on molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Phaffia rhodozyma grown on 7–10% B or C garde molasses contained 2 to 3 times more astaxanthin than reported earlier for this red yeast. Yield of astaxanthin with 10% molasses as fermentation substrate was 15.3 µg\\/ml which was about 3 times higher than with glucose and 2 times higher than with a sugar blend representative of the molasses.

N. F. Haard

1988-01-01

39

Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

2012-01-01

40

Effect of Residual Molasses on Microbial Straw Decomposition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study investigates the effect of residual molasses on the growth of cellulolytic bacteria and fungi in shake cultures and surface cultures. The highest growth rates were obtained with concentrations of up to 8 per cent residual molasses, and the large...

W. Kisker

1982-01-01

41

Production of activated carbon from a new precursor: Molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon has been prepared from molasses, a natural precursor of vegetable origin resulting from the sugar industry in Morocco. The preparation of the activated carbon from the molasses has been carried out by impregnation of the precursor with sulfuric acid, followed by carbonization. The adsorption capacity, the BET surface area, and the pore volume of the activated carbon were

K. Legrouri; M. Ezzine; S. Ichcho; H. Hannache; R. Denoyel; R. Pailler; R. Naslain

2005-01-01

42

Thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard was measured in two planes; parallel to the surface and perpendicular to the surface of the manufactured sheet. The information was necessary to better understand the thermal response of a loaded shipping container. The tests demonstrated that the thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard in the plane parallel to the surface of the sheet was nearly twice as great as the conductivity of the same material in a plane perpendicular to the sheet. There was no significant difference in the conductivity in different directions within the plane parallel to the surface, and the presence of glue between layers of fiberboard did not significantly change the conductivity of the assembly. The tests revealed that the thermal conductivity measured in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the surface of a stack of cane fiberboard sheets not bonded together, decreases with an increase in the mean temperature. This was determined to be the result of air gaps between the sheets of fiberboard, and not related to the properties of the material itself

Leader, D.R.

1995-05-01

43

Short communication: Effects of molasses products on productivity and milk fatty acid profile of cows fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that replacing up to 5% [of dietary dry matter (DM)] corn with cane molasses can partially alleviate milk fat depression when cows are fed high-concentrate, low-fiber rations containing dried distillers grains with solubles. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether dietary molasses alters milk fatty acid (FA) profile or improves solids-corrected milk yield in the context of a more typical lactation diet. A secondary objective was to assess production responses to increasing rumen-degradable protein supply when molasses was fed. Twelve primiparous and 28 multiparous Holstein cows (196±39 d in milk) were blocked by parity and assigned to 4 pens. Pens were randomly allocated to treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, balanced for carryover effects. Treatment periods were 21 d, with 17 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for sample and data collection. Treatments were a control diet, providing 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DM basis), 35% neutral detergent fiber, 30% starch, and 5% ether extract; a diet with 4.4% cane molasses replacing a portion of the corn grain; a diet with 2.9% molasses supplement containing 32% crude protein on a DM basis; and a diet with 5.8% (DM basis) molasses supplement. Animal-level data were analyzed using mixed models, including the fixed effect of treatment and the random effects of period, pen, period × pen interaction, and cow within pen to recognize pen as the experimental unit. Diets did not alter DM intake, milk production, milk component concentration or yield, feed efficiency (DM intake/milk yield), body weight change, or milk somatic cell count. Milk stearic acid content was increased by the diet containing 5.8% molasses supplement compared with the control diet and the diet containing 2.9% molasses supplement, but the magnitude of the effect was small (12.27, 11.75, and 11.69±0.29 g/100g of FA). Production data revealed a dramatic effect of period on milk fat content and yield. Milk fat content decreased during the course of the experiment (least squares means = 3.16, 2.81, 2.93, and 2.64±0.09% for periods 1 to 4, respectively), as did milk fat yield (1.20, 1.03, 0.98, and 0.79±0.05 kg/d). Exchanging molasses-based products for corn at 2.9 to 5.8% of dietary DM did not influence productivity and had minute effects on milk FA profile. The limited responses in this study may have been influenced by dietary unsaturated FA content or the advancing stage of lactation of cows in the study. PMID:24746128

Siverson, A; Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Bradford, B J

2014-06-01

44

Processing of total, close-spaced cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited tests were conducted in Audubon Sugar Factory during Fall, 1976, to determine the processibility of the whole cane plant (tops and leaves included). Also tested was the processibility of cane grown under special, close-spaced (12 inch) conditions. These tests were part of the Energy from Crops program sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and coordinated by the

J. A. Polack; H. S. Birkett

1977-01-01

45

Hawaii Ethanol from Molasses Project, Phase I. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the best available commercial processes in the manufacture of anhydrous ethanol from molasses, (2) to determine those processes in the research and development stage that have the potential of becoming commer...

C. S. Chen W. O. Gibson K. I. Mashima R. R. Roberts D. A. Rezachek

1980-01-01

46

Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.  

PubMed

Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology. PMID:24150836

Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

2014-03-01

47

?-Carotene production in sugarcane molasses by a Rhodotorula glutinis mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Several wild strains and mutants of Rhodotorula spp. were screened for growth, carotenoid production and the proportion of -carotene produced in sugarcane molasses. A better\\u000a producer, Rhodotorula glutinis mutant 32, was optimized for carotenoid production with respect to total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration and pH. In shake\\u000a flasks, when molasses was used as the sole nutrient medium with 40 g

P Bhosale; R V Gadre

2001-01-01

48

Evaluation of hydrogen production by clostridium strains on beet molasses.  

PubMed

Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792, C. acetobutylicum DSM 1731 and two newly isolated bacteria defined as the members of genus Clostridium - based on the 16S rRNA analysis and biochemical traits - were characterized with regard to their hydrogen production in media containing increasing beet molasses concentrations. The highest hydrogen yield was observed for C. acetobutylicum DSM 792 with a yield of 2.8 mol H2 mol-1 hexose in medium including 60 g L-1 molasses. This bacterium also produced the maximum amount of hydrogen (5908.8 mL L-1) at the same molasses concentration. A slightly lower hydrogen yield was measured for C. acetobutylicum DSM 1731 (2.5 mol H2 mol-1 hexose) when grown on 40 g L-1 molasses. The new isolates Clostridium roseum C and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum PF produced hydrogen with yields of 2.0 mol H2 mol-1 hexose at 40 and 60 g L-1 molasses and 2.1 mol H2 mol-1 hexose at 40 gL-1 molasses, respectively. PMID:24600866

Avci, Ay?e; Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Dönmez, Gönöl; Dönmez, Sedat

2014-01-01

49

How to Use Crutches, Canes and Walkers  

MedlinePLUS

... foot, you may have to use crutches. Proper Positioning The top of your crutches should reach between ... also help you to keep living independently. Proper Positioning The top of your cane should reach to ...

50

Drop-Off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection…

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

2009-01-01

51

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2010-01-01

52

7 CFR 1435.306 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.306 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.306 State cane sugar...

2009-01-01

53

Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, looking from the northeast (note Front Street in background) - Roque House, Between Front Street & Cane River, Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, LA

54

Present-day stress orientation in the Molasse Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present-day state of stress in Western Europe is considered to be controlled by forces acting at the plate boundaries. It is assumed that the Alpine orogen only influence the regional pattern of present-day stress in Western Europe within the Alps themselves. We examine the present-day maximum horizontal stress orientation in the Molasse Basin in the Alpine foreland in order to investigate the possible influence of the Alps on the far-field stress pattern of Western Europe. Four-arm caliper and image logs were analysed in 137 wells, in which a total of 1348 borehole breakouts and 59 drilling-induced fractures were observed in 98 wells in the German Molasse Basin. The borehole breakouts and drilling-induced fractures reveal that stress orientations are highly consistent within the Molasse Basin and that the present-day maximum horizontal stress orientation rotates from N-S in southeast Germany (002°N ± 19°) to approximately NNW-SSE in southwest Germany and the Swiss Molasse Basin (150°N ± 24°). The present-day maximum horizontal stress orientation in the Molasse Basin is broadly perpendicular to the strike of the Alpine front, indicating that the stress pattern is probably controlled by gravitational potential energy of Alpine topography rather than by plate boundary forces. The present-day maximum horizontal stress orientations determined herein have important implications for the production of hydrocarbons and geothermal energy in the German Molasse Basin, in particular that hydraulically-induced fractures are likely to propagate N-S and that wells deviated to the north or south may have reduced wellbore instability problems.

Reinecker, John; Tingay, Mark; Müller, Birgit; Heidbach, Oliver

2010-02-01

55

A Fluorescence Spectroscopic Study of Honey and Cane Sugar Syrup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence spectroscopic properties of honey and cane sugar syrup were investigated in order to explore the use of optical techniques for detection of adulteration of honey with cane sugar syrup. Measurements showed that while the major contributor to the fluorescence of cane sugar syrup is the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, the fluorescence of honey is dominated by flavins.

N. GHOSH; Y. VERMA; S. K. MAJUMDER; P. K. GUPTA

2005-01-01

56

Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

Uslan, Mark M.

1978-01-01

57

Human Factor Analysis of Long Cane Design: Weight and Length  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of experiments, canes of different lengths, weights, and weight distributions were assessed to determine the effect of these characteristics on various performance measures. The results indicate that the overall weight of a cane and the distribution of weight along a cane's shaft do not affect a person's performance, but accuracy does…

Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

2005-01-01

58

Ethanol fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 immobilized in Luffa cylindrica L. sponge discs and Ca-alginate matrices.  

PubMed

Bio-ethanol production from cane molasses (diluted to 15 % sugar w/v) was studied using the bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 entrapped in luffa (Luffa cylindrica L.) sponge discs and Ca-alginate gel beads as the immobilizing matrices. At the end of 96 h fermentation, the final ethanol concentrations were 58.7 ± 0.09 and 59.1 ± 0.08 g/l molasses with luffa and Ca-alginate entrapped Z. mobilis cells, respectively exhibiting 83.25 ± 0.03 and 84.6 ± 0.02 % sugar conversion. There was no statistical significant difference (Fischer's LSD) in sugar utilization (t = 0.254, p<0.801) and ethanol production (t =-0.663, p<0.513) between the two immobilization matrices used. Further, the immobilized cells in both the matrices were physiologically active for three more cycles of operation with less than 15 % decrease in ethanol yield in the 4(th) cycle, which was due to some leakage of cells. In conclusion, luffa sponge was found to be equally good as Ca-alginate as a carrier material for bacterial (Z. mobilis) cell immobilization for ethanol production. Further, it has added advantages such as it is cheap, non-corrosive and has no environmental hazard. PMID:24031981

Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama C; Ray, Ramesh C

2012-10-01

59

Chemical oxidation of wastewater from molasses fermentation with ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color removal from biologically pre-treated molasses wastewater by means of chemical oxidation with ozone has been investigated. Batch experiments have been performed in order to analyze the influence of ozone dosage and reaction time on color removal, molecular weight distribution and decolorization kinetics. Depending on the applied ozone dosage, color removal from 71% to 93% and COD reduction from 15%

M. Peña; M. Coca; G. González; R. Rioja; M. T. Garc??a

2003-01-01

60

Variables affecting efficiency of molasses fermentation wastewater ozonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main operating variables affecting ozonation efficiencies of wastewater from beet molasses alcoholic fermentation have been studied. Semibatch experiments have been performed in order to analyze the influence of pH, bicarbonate ion, temperature and stirring rate on color and organic matter removals. The efficiencies were similar regardless of the pH, which indicates that direct reactions of ozone with wastewater organics

M. Coca; M. Peña; G. González

2005-01-01

61

Neutron activation analysis of final molasses from Cuban sugar industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal and epithermal non-destructive activation analyses have been performed on samples of final molasses from 14 different sugar factories, covering the most important regions in Cuba. From the first measurement after irradiation at the Triga Mark reactor (VTT), the concentration of more than 15 elements is reported. The almost constant elemental composition shows that they can be used equally for

J. Griffith; R. J. Rosenberg; O. Díaz-Rizo; E. González

1996-01-01

62

Effect of Protein Level and Source in Molasses Slurries on the Performance of Growing Cattle Fed Hay During Winter1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four molasses slurries of varying protein level and source were fed in two performance trials (Year 1, 105 d; Year 2, 92 d) to growing cattle (Year 1, 230 kg; Year 2, 247 kg). Treatments were CONTROL (hay only), MOL (molasses-corn meal), MOL-UREA (molasses-urea-corn meal), MOL-SBM (molasses-soybean meal), and MOL-BF (molasses- urea-corn meal-blood meal-hydrolyzed feather meal). Animals on all treatments

D. A. Stateler; W. E. Kunkle; A. C. Hammond

63

ECOSTATIC CANE PROCESSING SYSTEM PROTOTYPE PHASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate a systems environmental management approach, from field to final product, for the processing of raw cane sugar. Specific sub-systems which were to be developed and demonstrated as part of this systems approach were: (a) har...

64

Ecostatic Cane Processing System Prototype Phase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate a systems environmental management approach, from field to final product, for the processing of raw cane sugar. Specific sub-systems which were to be developed and demonstrated as part of this syste...

R. T. Webb M. A. Goldman

1977-01-01

65

Composition of sugar cane, energy cane, and sweet sorghum suitable for ethanol production at Louisiana sugar mills.  

PubMed

A challenge facing the biofuel industry is to develop an economically viable and sustainable biorefinery. The existing potential biorefineries in Louisiana, raw sugar mills, operate only 3 months of the year. For year-round operation, they must adopt other feedstocks, besides sugar cane, as supplemental feedstocks. Energy cane and sweet sorghum have different harvest times, but can be processed for bio-ethanol using the same equipment. Juice of energy cane contains 9.8% fermentable sugars and that of sweet sorghum, 11.8%. Chemical composition of sugar cane bagasse was determined to be 42% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin, and that of energy cane was 43% cellulose, 24% hemicellulose, and 22% lignin. Sweet sorghum was 45% cellulose, 27% hemicellulose, and 21% lignin. Theoretical ethanol yields would be 3,609 kg per ha from sugar cane, 12,938 kg per ha from energy cane, and 5,804 kg per ha from sweet sorghum. PMID:20803247

Kim, Misook; Day, Donal F

2011-07-01

66

75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA...MTRV for certain sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined...sugar and certain sugars, syrups, and molasses that may be entered under the...

2010-08-05

67

The effect of microorganisms in molasses on its fermentability during Citric Acid Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Microbiological analysis of 65 samples of molasses from various Czechoslovak sugar works revealed that the presence of thermophilic\\u000a anaerobic bacteria producing hydrogen sulphide affects the fermentability of molasses and thus their applicability to citric\\u000a acid production by fermentation. The fermentability of molasses containing bacteria of this group is not increased after pressure\\u000a sterilization. It was found that hydrogen sulphide inhibits

L. Seichert

1962-01-01

68

[Improving ergosterol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae].  

PubMed

Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by yeast. To improve the production of ergosterol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae YEH56 (pHXA42) from molasses, a cheap and regenerative material, different strategies were applied. First, Plackett-Burman design and central composite design were applied to screen the significant factors in fermentation medium using ergosterol yield (g/L) as the response value. Ergosterol yield reached 371.56 mg/L by using the optimal fermentation medium in shake-flask culture (total sugar in molasses 40 g/L, KH2PO4 1 g/L, K2HPO4 1.86 g/L, CuSO4 x 5H2O 17.5 mg/L, FeSO4 x 7H2O 13.9 mg/L, MgSO4 x 5H2O 12.3 mg/L, corn steep liquor 10 mL/L), which was increased by 29.5% compared with the initial culture. Second, ergosterol yield was increased by 62.1% using a pH-control strategy in a 5-L bioreactor. Third, ergosterol production was improved further by using molasses feeding strategy. After 38 h fermentation, ergosterol yield reached 1 953.85 mg/L, which was 3.2 times of that in batch fermentation. Meanwhile, ergosterol production rate was increased by 42.7% compared with that in the batch culture. PMID:24701833

Wang, Shaojie; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun

2013-11-01

69

Sugar cane. Positive energy source for alcohol  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane stands out as a renewable resource for fuel alcohol production, thanks to its unique, highly positive energy balance. It supplies its own processing fuel, bagasse. Net liquid fuel usage is only that consumed on the farm, amounting to a maximum of 0.3 volume per volume of ethanol produced. In some locations, the net liquid fuel consumption of the farm is as low as 0.12 volume/volume produced. This small debit may be offset by generating electric power and by foreseeable processing improvements. In view of the very favorable fuel balance for sugar cane, a decision to employ it as a renewable source of ethanol depends wholly on economic and political factors, which in turn are highly location-dependent.

Polack, J.A.; Birkett, H.S.; West, M.D.

1981-06-01

70

Fermentative Production of Butanol from Sorghum Molasses as a Potential Agricultural Fuel. Final Report, June 26, 1981-September 25, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A strain, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 4259, suitable for butanol-acetone fermentation of sorghum molasses was selected from several strains of the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It was cultivated in the composition-optimized sorghum molasses...

L. T. Fan

1982-01-01

71

Production of activated carbon from a new precursor molasses by activation with sulphuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon has been prepared from molasses, a natural precursor of vegetable origin resulting from the sugar industry in Morocco. The preparation of the activated carbon from the molasses has been carried out by impregnation of the precursor with sulphuric acid, followed by carbonisation at varying conditions (temperature and gas coverage) in order to optimize preparation parameters. The influence of

K. Legrouri; E. Khouya; M. Ezzine; H. Hannache; R. Denoyel; R. Pallier; R. Naslain

2005-01-01

72

Optimization of lactic acid production from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of lactic acid from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130 in static and shake flask fermentation was investigated. Shake flasks proved to be a better fermentation system for this purpose. Substitution of yeast extract with other low cost protein sources did not improve lactic acid production. The maximum lactic acid concentration was achieved without treatment of molasses. A

Ch. Kotzamanidis; T. Roukas; G. Skaracis

2002-01-01

73

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor...Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime...sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section...

2009-07-01

74

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor...Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime...sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section...

2010-07-01

75

Test results from sugar cane bagasse and high fiber cane co-fired with fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cofiring tests were conducted in a boiler at the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar factory at Puunene, Hawaii. Three tests were conducted; a baseline test firing coal and fuel oil (Test 1) and two cofiring tests utilizing coal, fuel oil, and biomass. In the latter two tests, bagasse (Test 2) and a blend of bagasse and fiber cane (Test 3) were

Scott Q. Turn; Bryan M. Jenkins; Lee A. Jakeway; Linda G. Blevins; Robert B. Williams; Gary Rubenstein; Charles M. Kinoshita

2006-01-01

76

Insights to the clarification of sugar cane juice expressed from sugar cane stalk and trash.  

PubMed

Processing of juice expressed from green sugar cane containing all the trash (i.e., tops and leaves, the nonstalk component) of the sugar cane plant during sugar manufacture has been reported to lead to poor clarified juice (CJ) quality. Studies of different liming techniques have been conducted to identify which liming technique gives the best clarification performance from juice expressed from green cane containing half of all trash extracted (GE). Results have shown that lime saccharate addition to juice at 76 °C either continuous or batchwise gives satisfactory settling rates of calcium phosphate flocs (50-70 cm/min) and CJ with low turbidity and minimal amounts of mineral constituents. Surprisingly, the addition of phosphoric acid (? 300 mg/kg as P?O?), prior to liming to reduce juice turbidity (? 80%), increased the Mg (? 101%) and Si (? 148%) contents particularly for clarified GE juices. The increase was not proportional with increasing phosphoric acid dose. The nature of the flocs formed, including the zeta potential of the particles by the different liming techniques, has been used to account for the differences in clarification performance. Differences between the qualities of the CJ obtained with GE juice and that of burnt cane juices with all trash extracted (BE) have been discussed to provide further insights into GE processing. PMID:22364593

Thai, C C D; Bakir, H; Doherty, W O S

2012-03-21

77

Kinetic study of the acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic interest in xylitol production can be enhanced if the needed xylose solutions can be obtained from the hydrolysis of low-cost lignocellulosic wastes. Sugar cane bagasse is a renewable, cheap and widely available waste in tropical countries. The hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to obtain xylose solutions has a double consequence, the elimination of a waste and the generation of

R Aguilar; J. A Ram??rez; G Garrote; M Vázquez

2002-01-01

78

Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Caning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on chair caning is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of caning; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

79

Determination of trace elements of Egyptian cane sugar (Naga Hammady factories) by neutron activation, atomic absorption spectrophotometric and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric analyses.  

PubMed

INAA, AAS and ICP-AES techniques are applied to the determination of trace amounts of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in the stalks of sugar cane plant after extracting juice, raw juice principal (mixed) juice, juice withdrawn from the successive stages of sugar industry, sirup, deposits from evaporators, molasse, A-? and B-sugar and in the soil samples (collected from the field supplying the factories by cane plants) taken from the immediate vicinity of the plant roots at surface, 30 and 60 cm depth. The results obtained are in a good agreement of the safety baselines of using juice as beverage, molasse derivatives (honey, sweets, ...) as diet for common people in the developed countries and in industry (methanol, ethanol, acetone & acetic acid, ...) and sugar sweeting for many purposes (in beverages, desserts, ...). Differences of trace elements concentrations in soil samples may be reasoned to geochemical and biogeochemical fractionation while those in juice may be due to the changes in the environmental conditions, chemical composition and botanic structures. Variations in trace element contents in the products formed during the successive stages of sugar industry may be a result of evaporation, filtration processes, chemical treatments or corrosion of vessels, containers or engines. Trace elements are very important where they are responsible for enzymatic and biochemical reactions, matabolism, health and diseases. PMID:6526566

Awadallah, R M; Sherif, M K; Mohamed, A E; Grass, F

1984-01-01

80

Older Homebound Women: Negotiating Reliance on a Cane or Walker  

PubMed Central

Canes and walkers are commonly characterized as assistive devices and as devices that serve the same purpose, as walking aides. These general views were reappraised and tempered in this descriptive phenomenological study with 40 older women (aged 85-98) who were unable to leave their homes without help. The purpose was to describe the phenomena of negotiating reliance on canes and walkers as walking devices and the lifeworld context underlying each phenomenon. Relative to lifeworld, there were differences between coming to terms with using a cane and coming to terms with using a walker. Data revealed similarities and distinctions between the basic intentions of relying on canes and on walkers and the associated purposes served by canes and walkers. Participants did not view either device as consistently assistive. Findings evoke opportunities for dialogue among older persons, scholars, practitioners, and designers of these devices about coming to terms with such devices and relying on them.

Porter, Eileen J.; Benson, Jacquelyn J.; Matsuda, Sandy

2012-01-01

81

Replacing dried fish with fresh water spinach for growing pigs fed whole sugar cane stalks or cane juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was conducted at CelAgrid (UTA, Cambodia), located in Kandal province. Whole sugar cane stalk and sugar cane juice were used as the sources of energy, and the protein source was the level of dry fish to provide 50, 100, 150 or 200 g protein per day. Fresh water spinach was chopped and fed ad libitum on the diets

Sorn Suheang; T R Preston

82

Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue—Part 2: gasification of cane trash  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part 1 of this two-part paper, results from gasification of bagasse in a cyclone gasifier have been reported. In this paper results from gasification of cane trash in the same cyclone gasifier are presented. The cane trash powder is injected into the cyclone with air as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and

Mohamed Gabra; Esbjörn Pettersson; Rainer Backman; Björn Kjellström

2001-01-01

83

Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.  

PubMed

The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves. PMID:24420892

Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

1994-01-01

84

Effects of molasses grass, Melinis minutiflora volatiles on the foraging behavior of the cereal stemborer parasitoid, Cotesia sesamiae.  

PubMed

Olfactory responses of the cereal stemborer parasitoid Cotesia sesamiae to volatiles emitted by gramineous host and nonhost plants of the stemborers were studied in a Y-tube olfactometer. The host plants were maize (Zea mays) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), while the nonhost plant was molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora). In single-choice tests, females of C. sesamiae chose volatiles from infested and uninfested host plants and molasses grass over volatiles from the control (soil). In dual-choice tests, the wasp preferred volatiles from infested host plants to those from uninfested host plants. There was no discrimination between molasses grass volatiles and those of uninfested maize, uninfested sorghum, or infested maize. The wasp preferred sorghum volatiles over maize. Combining uninfested maize or sorghum with molasses grass did not make volatiles from the combination more attractive as compared to only uninfested host plants. Infested maize alone was as attractive as when combined with molasses grass. Infested sorghum was preferred over its combination with molasses grass. Local growth conditions of the molasses grasses influenced attractiveness to the parasitoids. Volatiles from Thika molasses grass were attractive, while those from Mbita molasses grass were not. Growing the Thika molasses grass in Mbita rendered it unattractive and vice versa with the Mbita molasses grass. This is a case of the same genotype expressing different phenotypes due to environmental factors. PMID:12757330

Gohole, Linnet S; Overholt, William A; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A; Vet, Louise E M

2003-03-01

85

Engineered Enterobacter aerogenes for efficient utilization of sugarcane molasses in 2,3-butanediol production.  

PubMed

Sugarcane molasses is considered to be a good carbon source for biorefinery due to its high sugar content and low price. Sucrose occupies more than half of the sugar in the molasses. Enterobacter aerogenes is a good host strain for 2,3-butanediol production, but its utilization of sucrose is not very efficient. To improve sucrose utilization in E. aerogenes, a sucrose regulator (ScrR) was disrupted from the genomic DNA. The deletion mutation increased the sucrose consumption rate significantly when sucrose or sugarcane molasses was used as a carbon source. The 2,3-butanediol production from sugarcane molasses by the mutant was enhanced by 60% in batch fermentation compared to that by the wild type strain. In fed-batch fermentation, 98.69 g/L of 2,3-butanediol production was achieved at 36 h. PMID:23644066

Jung, Moo-Young; Park, Bu-Soo; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

2013-07-01

86

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing...

2010-07-01

87

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing...

2009-07-01

88

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar...mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and...

2013-04-01

89

The last erosional stage of the Molasse Basin and the Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a synoptic overview of the Miocene-present development of the northern Alpine foreland basin (Molasse Basin), with\\u000a special attention to the pattern of surface erosion and sediment discharge in the Alps. Erosion of the Molasse Basin started\\u000a at the same time that the rivers originating in the Central Alps were deflected toward the Bresse Graben, which formed part\\u000a of

Fritz Schlunegger; Jon Mosar

2011-01-01

90

Environmentally friendly beef production from two genotypes fed cereal\\/molasses diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of sugar beet molasses, a by-product of the food industry, for producing environmentally friendlier beef than with less fossil energy-intensive grain was assessed with respect to growth, carcass merit and feed efficiency. Cattle investigated included bulls and heifers of Holstein×native Brown of Atlas (HB) or Holstein×Friesian (HF). Molasses included at 0, 20, 40 or 60% of total ration

A Araba; F. M Byers

2002-01-01

91

Molasses enhanced phyto and bioremediation treatability study of explosives contaminated Hawaiian soils.  

PubMed

A 15-week treatability study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential effects of molasses on the bioremediation and phytoremediation potential of Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum) for treating energetic contaminated soil from the open burn/open detonation area of the Makua Military Reservation, Oahu, HI (USA). The energetics in the soil were royal demolition explosive (RDX) and high-melting explosive (HMX). Among the 6 treatments employed in this study, enhanced removal of RDX was observed from treatments that received molasses and went to completion. The RDX degradation rates in treatments with molasses diluted 1:20 and 1:40 were comparable suggesting that the lower dose worked as well as the higher dose. Treatments without molasses degraded RDX slowly and residuals remained after 15 weeks. The bacterial densities in molasses-treated units were much greater than those without molasses. Phytoremediation alone seems to have little effect on RDX disappearance. For HMX, neither bioremediation nor phytoremediation was found to be useful in reducing the concentration within the experimental period. The concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous in the soil did not change significantly during the experiment, however, a slight increase in soil pH was observed in all treatments. The study showed that irrigating with diluted molasses is effective at enhancing RDX degradation mainly in the root zone and just below it. The long term sustainability of active training ranges can be enhanced by bioremediation using molasses treatments to prevent RDX deposited by on-going operations from migrating through the soil to groundwater and off-site. PMID:23164624

Lamichhane, Krishna M; Babcock, Roger W; Turnbull, Steve J; Schenck, Susan

2012-12-01

92

Use of the C-5 Laser Cane by School Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of the Laser Cane with four blind students attending public school is discussed with emphasis on modifications in technique needed to integrate the cane's use into each student's travel system. (Author)

Goldie, Dorothy

1977-01-01

93

Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Brazilian sugar cane expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil is the leading producer of sugar cane in the world with roughly half used for ethanol production. Because of suitable climatic growing conditions, the majority of biofuel production is derived from sugar plantations in southeastern states. Anticipated increases in global demand for biofuels are expected to lead to future sugar cane expansion extending into Brazilian pasturelands and native cerrado. Prior to undergoing large-scale expansion an evaluation of impacts on the region's hydroclimate is warranted. Using a suite of multi-year ensemble-based simulations with the WRF modeling system, we quantify hydroclimatic consequences of sugar cane expansion across portions of south-central Brazil. Conversion from current land use to sugar cane causes opposing seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature. Proggresively greater cooling is simulated during the course of the growing season, followed by an abrupt warming shift post-harvest. Although seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature are significant, with cooling of 1C occurring during the peak of the growing season followed by warming of similar magnitude, impacts are small when annually averaged. Ensemble mean differences between the imposed sugar cane expansion and non-expansion scenario are suggestive of a drying precipitation trend, yet large uncertainty among individual members precludes definitive statements about impacts on the region's rainfall.

Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

2012-12-01

94

3 CFR 8307 - Proclamation 8307 of October 13, 2008. White Cane Safety Day, 2008  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Proclamation 8307 of October 13, 2008. White Cane Safety Day, 2008 8307 Proclamation...8307 of October 13, 2008 Proc. 8307 White Cane Safety Day, 2008By the President...able to participate fully in society. The white cane allows many of our citizens who...

2009-01-01

95

Ochratoxin A in grape pekmez (grape molasses) consumed in Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, ochratoxin A (OTA) in 55 home-made, 20 commercial and 7 organic grape pekmez (grape molasses) produced in Turkey was investigated. OTA was detected in 73% of home-made pekmez samples, in 35% of commercial pekmez samples and in 71% of organic pekmez samples. Eleven per cent of the samples had OTA levels higher than 10 µg/l. The highest OTA level (31 µg/l) was detected in organic pekmez. The maximum OTA levels were 15 µg/l and 12 µg/l in home-made and commercial pekmez samples, respectively. Mean OTA levels were 3.5 µg/l, 1.4 µg/l and 9.2 µg/l in home-made, commercial and organic pekmez samples, respectively. Organic pekmez samples and home-made pekmez samples had higher OTA contamination than commercial pekmez samples. Results confirm OTA contamination in grape pekmez samples, indicating that the OTA level in grape pekmez could be a potential risk for consumers. PMID:24779977

Tosun, Halil; Y?ld?z, Hasan; Obuz, Ersel; Seçkin, A Kemal

2014-03-01

96

Process Integration of Bioethanol from Sugar Cane and Hydrogen Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study several alternatives for process integration of bioethanol from sugar cane and hydrogen production were evaluated. Bioethanol was produced above all in the fermentation of sweetened juice from sugar cane, stillage was removed. Stillage and bagasse are the process byproducts. The bioethanol steam reforming is an endothermic catalytic process when vaporized ethanol and steam are fed using a 1:6 molar ratio to reformer with a Ni-catalyst at atmospheric pressure and 350xC. Taking into account the processes properties mentioned above, it is possible to integrate the bioethanol production from sugar cane and its reforming by using byproducts like bagasse and stillage and to produce energy for steam reforming and bioethanol solution concentration by direct firing (for bagasse) or anaerobic digestion to get methane (for stillage).

Hernandez, L.; Kafarov, V.

97

Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge.  

PubMed

Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio=28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio=29). PHB production yield (Y(p/s)) was highest (0.184 g g(-1) COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB. PMID:19500968

Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Vaidya, Atul N; Kumar, M Suresh; Chakrabarti, Tapan

2009-09-01

98

77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and the Fiscal Year 2013 Overall Allotment...MTRV for certain sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined...sugar and certain sugars, syrups, and molasses that may be entered under the...

2012-09-10

99

Advanced nano-based manipulations of molasses in the cellulose and paper discipline: Introducing a master cheap environmentally safe retention aid and strength promoter in papermaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work introduces, for the first time worldwide, molasses – a byproduct of the sugar industry – as a master retention aid and strength promoter in papermaking. The paper nanocomposites produced in the present work – involving molasses, natural cellulose fibers, and kaolin – retained larger amounts of kaolin while exhibiting greater strength, as compared to their molasses-free counterparts. Recently,

Tamer Y. A. Fahmy; Fardous Mobarak

2009-01-01

100

Value of feather meal in a molasses-based liquid supplement fed to yearling cattle consuming a forage diet.  

PubMed

Hydrolyzed feather meal (FM) was compared to other sources of CP to determine its value as a protein source in a molasses-based liquid supplement. Ruminal N escape values (measured in situ) for FM, ring-dried blood meal, cottonseed meal, and soybean meal approximated reported values. Ruminal N escape value for catfish meal was lower than values reported for other fish meals. In two trials (194 d), 84 yearling heifers were allotted to 12 pastures (3 pastures/treatment) and fed one of four supplements (1.7 kg of DM.heifer-1.d-1) containing either molasses and urea; molasses, urea,and FM; molasses, urea, FM, and catfish meal; or molasses, urea, FM, and catfish oil. Heifers were exposed to bulls for 60 d. In two trials, 112 steers were allotted to 16 pastures (4 Pastures/treatment) and fed one of four supplements (1.7 kg of DM.steer-1.d-1) containing molasses and urea; molasses, urea and FM; molasses, urea, FM and ring-dried poultry blood meal; or molasses, urea, and poultry feathers and blood hydrolyzed together. In all trials, cattle fed molasses containing FM had faster gains (P < .05) and heifers had heavier live weights at breeding (P < .05) and higher pregnancy rates (P < .05) than cattle fed molasses and urea. Combining poultry blood with molasses, urea, and FM improved (P < .05) steer gains in one of two trials. Combining catfish meal with molasses, urea, and FM did not improve (P > .05) ADG of pregnancy rate of heifers. Combining catfish oil with molasses, urea, and FM increased (P < .05) ADG in one trial and blood cholesterol and live weight of heifers at breeding in both trials. It is concluded that protein feeds, such as FM, that contain a large portion of ruminally undegradable protein may provide much of the CP in liquid supplements fed to growing cattle consuming moderate-quality forage. Adding catfish oil to a liquid supplement may improve ADG and live weight of yearling heifers at breeding. PMID:8617655

Pate, F M; Brown, W F; Hammond, A C

1995-10-01

101

Kinetics of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses under cell recycle.  

PubMed

In this work, a kinetic model for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses was developed. A model previously developed for fermentation of pure molasses was modified by the inclusion of a new term for acetic acid inhibition on microorganism growth rate and the kinetic parameters were estimated as functions of temperature. The influence of the hydrolysate on the kinetic parameters is analyzed by comparing with the parameters from fermentation of pure molasses. The impact of cells recycling in the kinetic parameters is also evaluated, as well as on the ethanol yield and productivity. The model developed described accurately most of the fermentations performed in several successive batches for temperatures from 30 to 38°C. PMID:23313680

de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

2013-02-01

102

Statistical optimization of medium components for enhanced acetoin production from molasses and soybean meal hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional requirements for acetoin production by Bacillus subtilis CICC 10025 were optimized statistically in shake flask experiments using indigenous agroindustrial by-products. The medium\\u000a components considered for initial screening in a Plackett–Burman design comprised a-molasses (molasses submitted to acidification\\u000a pretreatment), soybean meal hydrolysate (SMH), KH2PO4·3H2O, sodium acetate, MgSO4·7H2O, FeCl2, and MnCl2, in which the first two were identified as significantly

Z. J. Xiao; P. H. Liu; J. Y. Qin; P. Xu

2007-01-01

103

Ethanol production from cane juice by Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zymomonas mobilis Z 7 fermented 100 to 200 g.l- 1 sucrose in cane juice to ethanol without addition of cofactors or mineral salts in 1 ltr laboratory and 100 ltr pilot plant fermenters. Ethanol yields (Eyield) were from 60 to 88% with fermentation times of 20 to 29 h at 35 °C.

E. Lyness; H. W. Doelle

1981-01-01

104

Potential for generation of public electricity in cane sugar factories  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane is the most efficient crop for the conversion of solar energy into biomass. The possibility of conservation of energy in cane sugar producing countries by substituting bagasse for imported oil, was studied in Guyana, South America and financed by the World Bank. The concept of cogeneration was considered, where the heat energy generated by burning bagasse of high fiber content is converted into steam and used both for electricity generation and generation of internal power. Several methods of achieving energy efficiency in this process were discussed such as efficient generation and use of the steam by using high pressure boilers, drying and pelletization of bagasse, and using sugar cane trash as fuel. About 40% of the bagasse could be available for the generation of electric energy. A method for evaluation of the power potential showed that the quantity of public electricity produced, depended on certain important process parameters, fiber content, steam conditions and process steam. The cost effectiveness of the project increases with increasing fiber content in the sugar cane.

Torisson, T.

1984-04-01

105

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

...e) Past marketings and past processings will each be weighted by 0.25 and the ability to market will be weighted by 0.50 in determining the States' respective cane sugar allotments. The weights may be adjusted, as CCC deems...

2014-01-01

106

Structured Discovery in Cane Travel: Constructivism in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a general sense today that constructivist teaching is not up to the task of preparing students for high-stakes exams. In this article, the authors describe a highly effective constructivist approach used to teach students in a learning situation that takes the meaning of "high stakes" to another level. They talk about teachers of "cane

Maurer, Matthew M.; Bell, Edward C.; Woods, Eric; Allen, Roland

2006-01-01

107

Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass of energy cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable alternative to diminishing petroleum based liquid fuels. The release of many new sugarcane varieties by the United States Department of Agriculture to be used as energy crops is a promising feedstock alternative. Energy cane produces large amounts of biomass that can be easily transported, and production does not compete with food supply

Sara Shields; Raj Boopathy

2011-01-01

108

Assessing the Potential Impact of Cane Toads on Australian Snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are large, highly toxic anurans that were introduced into Australia in 1937. Anecdotal reports suggest that the invasion of toads into an area is followed by dramatic declines in the abundance of terrestrial native frog-eating predators, but quantitative studies have been restricted to nonpredator taxa or aquatic predators and have generally reported minimal impacts. Will toads

BEN L. PHILLIPS; GREGORY P. BROWN; RICHARD SHINE

2003-01-01

109

Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.  

PubMed

The effect of the U.S. and worldwide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugar cane harvesting on processing and the use of sugar cane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugar cane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon (repeat) crop of five commercial, Louisiana sugar cane varieties (LCP 85-384, HoCP 96-540, L 97-128, L 99-226, and L 99-233). Replicated sample tissues of brown, dry leaves (BL), green leaves (GL), growing point region (GPR), and stalk (S) were separated. Composite juice from each tissue type was clarified following a hot lime clarification process operated by most U.S. factories. Only GPR and GL juices foamed on heating and followed the normal settling behavior of factory sugar cane juice, although GL was markedly slower than GPR. GPR juice aided settling. S juice tended to thin out rather than follow normal settling and exhibited the most unwanted upward motion of flocs. Most varietal variation in settling, mud, and clarified juice (CJ) characteristics occurred for GL. The quality rather than the quantity of impurities in the different tissues mostly affected the volume of mud produced: After 30 min of settling, mud volume per unit tissue juice degrees Brix (% dissolved solids) varied markedly among the tissues (S 1.09, BL 11.3, GPR 3.0, and GL 3.1 mL/degrees Brix). Heat transfer properties of tissue juices and CJs are described. Clarification was unable to remove all BL cellulosic particles. GL and BL increased color, turbidity, and suspended particles in CJs with BL worse than GL. This will make the future attainment of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar in the U.S. more difficult. Although optimization of factory unit processes will alleviate extra trash problems, economical strategies to reduce the amount of green and brown leaves processed need to be identified and implemented. PMID:19994855

Eggleston, Gillian; Grisham, Michael; Antoine, April

2010-01-13

110

Mixotrophic cultivation of microalga Spirulina platensis using molasses as organic substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spirulina is a microalga rich in proteins, vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids. This microorganism grows photosynthetically but an organic substrate can stimulate its growth. Molasses is a by-product from sugar industry, containing more than 50% of sugar, and potentially useful as substrate to microalgae culture. On the other hand, light is needed to the photosynthetic fixation of CO2. So, we

Michele R. Andrade; Jorge A. V. Costa

2007-01-01

111

Biohydrogen production from biomass and molasses wastewater by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred-tank reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen is a clean energy carrier which has a great potential to be an alternative fuel. Abundant biomass from various industries could be a source for biohydrogen production where combination of waste treatment and energy production would be an advantage. A study of biohydrogen production using aerobic-pretreated sludge and molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) was investigated.

Han Wei; Li Yong-feng; Deng Jie-xuan

2010-01-01

112

Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand  

SciTech Connect

The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

Mangmeechai, Aweewan, E-mail: aweewan.m@nida.ac.th [National Institute of Development Administration, International College (Major in Public Policy and Management) (Thailand)] [National Institute of Development Administration, International College (Major in Public Policy and Management) (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Thailand)] [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Thailand)

2013-12-15

113

Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea.  

PubMed Central

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4.

Mella, C M; Perez-Oliva, O; Loew, F M

1976-01-01

114

Immobilized Sclerotinia sclerotiorum invertase to produce invert sugar syrup from industrial beet molasses by-product.  

PubMed

The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces invertase activity during cultivation on many agroindustrial residues. The molasses induced invertase was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated at 48 kDa. Optimal temperature was determined at 60 °C and thermal stability up to 65 °C. The enzyme was stable between pH 2.0 and 8.0; optimum pH was about 5.5. Apparent K(m) and V(max) for sucrose were estimated to be respectively 5.8 mM and 0.11 ?mol/min. The invertase was activated by ?-mercaptoethanol. Free enzyme exhibited 80 % of its original activity after two month's storage at 4 °C and 50 % after 1 week at 25 °C. In order to investigate an industrial application, the enzyme was immobilized on alginate and examined for invert sugar production by molasses hydrolysis in a continuous bioreactor. The yield of immobilized invertase was about 78 % and the activity yield was 59 %. Interestingly the immobilized enzyme hydrolyzed beet molasses consuming nearly all sucrose. It retained all of its initial activity after being used for 4 cycles and about 65 % at the sixth cycle. Regarding productivity; 20 g/l of molasses by-product gave the best invert sugar production 46.21 g/day/100 g substrate related to optimal sucrose conversion of 41.6 %. PMID:24142426

Mouelhi, Refka; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib

2014-03-01

115

Quantized 1D- and 2D optical molasses: Laser cooling and spectrum of resonance fluorescene  

SciTech Connect

We present results for laser cooling of optical molasses and the spectrum of resonance fluorescene based on a fully quantum mechanical treatment of the atomic center-of-mass motion for 1D and 2D laser configurations. Our calculations based on recently developed wave function simulations of the quantum master equation for laser cooling.

Marte, P.; Dum, R.; Taieb, R.; Zoller, P.

1993-05-01

116

The effect of phenolic acids and molasses spent wash concentration on distillery wastewater remediation by fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of gallic acid, vanillic acid, and molasses spent wash (MSW) concentration on growth and decolourizing capability of four fungi (Geotrichum candidum, Coriolus versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Mycelia sterilia) was studied. Fungal growth was inhibited to a varying extent in the presence of gallic and vanillic acid, except for G. candidum, which was unaffected by gallic acid. G. candidum

Francis FitzGibbon; Dalel Singh; Geoff McMullan; Roger Marchant

1998-01-01

117

Unusual catalysts from molasses: synthesis, properties and application in obtaining biofuels from algae.  

PubMed

Acid catalysts were prepared by sulfonation of carbon materials obtained from the pyrolysis of sugar beet molasses, a cheap, viscous byproduct in the processing of sugar beets into sugar. Conditions for the pyrolysis of molasses (temperature and time) influenced catalyst performance; the best combination came from pyrolysis at low temperature (420 °C) for a relatively long time (8-15 h), which ensured better stability of the final material. The most effective molasses catalyst was highly active in the esterification of fatty acids with methanol (100 % yield after 3 h) and more active than common solid acidic catalysts in the transesterification of vegetable oils with 25-75 wt % of acid content (55-96 % yield after 8 h). A tandem process using a solid acid molasses catalyst and potassium hydroxide in methanol was developed to de-acidificate and transesterificate algal oils from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Nannochloropsis gaditana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, which contain high amounts of free fatty acids. The amount of catalyst required for the de-acidification step was influenced by the chemical composition of the algal oil, thus operational conditions were determined not only in relation to free fatty acids content in the oil, but according to the composition of the lipid extract of each algal species. PMID:22678658

Samorì, Chiara; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe; Faraloni, Cecilia; Galletti, Paola; Spera, Silvia; Tagliavini, Emilio; Torzillo, Giuseppe

2012-08-01

118

Molasses as a source of carbon dioxide for attracting the malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus  

PubMed Central

Background Most odour baits for haematophagous arthropods contain carbon dioxide (CO2). The CO2 is sourced artificially from the fermentation of refined sugar (sucrose), dry ice, pressurized gas cylinders or propane. These sources of CO2 are neither cost-effective nor sustainable for use in remote areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, molasses was evaluated as a potential substrate for producing CO2 used as bait for malaria mosquitoes. Methods The attraction of laboratory-reared and wild Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes to CO2 generated from yeast-fermentation of molasses was assessed under semi-field and field conditions in western Kenya. In the field, responses of wild Anopheles funestus were also assessed. Attraction of the mosquitoes to a synthetic mosquito attractant, Mbita blend (comprising ammonia, L-lactic acid, tetradecanoic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol) when augmented with CO2 generated from yeast fermentation of either molasses or sucrose was also investigated. Results In semi-field, the release rate of CO2 and proportion of An. gambiae mosquitoes attracted increased in tandem with an increase in the quantity of yeast-fermented molasses up to an optimal ratio of molasses and dry yeast. More An. gambiae mosquitoes were attracted to a combination of the Mbita blend plus CO2 produced from fermenting molasses than the Mbita blend plus CO2 from yeast-fermented sucrose. In the field, significantly more female An. gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were attracted to the Mbita blend augmented with CO2 produced by fermenting 500 g of molasses compared to 250 g of sucrose or 250 g of molasses. Similarly, significantly more An. funestus, Culex and other anopheline mosquito species were attracted to the Mbita blend augmented with CO2 produced from fermenting molasses than the Mbita blend with CO2 produced from sucrose. Augmenting the Mbita blend with CO2 produced from molasses was associated with high catches of blood-fed An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes. Conclusion Molasses is a suitable ingredient for the replacement of sucrose as a substrate for the production of CO2 for sampling of African malaria vectors and other mosquito species. The finding of blood-fed malaria vectors in traps baited with the Mbita blend and CO2 derived from molasses provides a unique opportunity for the study of host-vector interactions.

2014-01-01

119

Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 highly produces mannitol from sugarcane molasses as carbon source.  

PubMed

Mannitol is a natural polyol extensively used in the food industry as low-calorie sugar being applicable for diabetic food products. We aimed to evaluate mannitol production by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 using sugarcane molasses as low-cost energy source. Mannitol formation was studied in free-pH batch cultures using 3-10% (w/v) molasses concentrations at 37 °C and 30 °C under static and agitated conditions during 48 h. L. reuteri CRL 1101 grew well in all assayed media and heterofermentatively converted glucose into lactic and acetic acids and ethanol. Fructose was used as an alternative electron acceptor and reduced it to mannitol in all media assayed. Maximum mannitol concentrations of 177.7?±?26.6 and 184.5?±?22.5 mM were found using 7.5% and 10% molasses, respectively, at 37 °C after 24-h incubation. Increasing the molasses concentration from 7.5% up to 10% (w/v) and the fermentation period up to 48 h did not significantly improve mannitol production. In agitated cultures, high mannitol values (144.8?±?39.7 mM) were attained at 8 h of fermentation as compared to static ones (5.6?±?2.9 mM), the highest mannitol concentration value (211.3?±?15.5 mM) being found after 24 h. Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was measured during growth in all fermentations assayed; the highest MDH values were obtained during the log growth phase, and no correlation between MDH activities and mannitol production was observed in the fermentations performed. L. reuteri CRL 1101 successfully produced mannitol from sugarcane molasses being a promising candidate for microbial mannitol synthesis using low-cost substrate. PMID:22350320

Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Fornaguera, María José; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

2012-08-01

120

Synthesis and characterization of methylcellulose from sugar cane bagasse cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, methylcellulose was produced from cellulose extracted of sugar cane bagasse, using dimethyl sulfate in heterogeneous conditions. The infrared spectra of the cellulose and of the methylcellulose present significant differences at the regions from 3600 to 2700cm?1 and from 1500 to 800cm?1. The ratio between the absorption intensities of the OH stretching band (?3400cm?1) and the CH

Rose G. P. Viera; Guimes Rodrigues Filho; Rosana M. N. de Assunção; Carla da S. Meireles; Júlia G. Vieira; Grasielle S. de Oliveira

2007-01-01

121

The behavioral ecology of cannibalism in cane toads ( Bufo marinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies show that predatory cane toads (Bufo marinus) exhibit specialized toe-luring behavior that attracts smaller conspecifics, but field surveys of toad diet rarely record\\u000a cannibalism. Our data resolve this paradox, showing that cannibalism is common under specific ecological conditions. In the\\u000a wet–dry tropics of Australia, desiccation risk constrains recently metamorphosed toads to the edges of the natal pond. Juvenile

Lígia Pizzatto; Richard Shine

2008-01-01

122

Stilbenoid profiles of canes from Vitis and Muscadinia species.  

PubMed

We present stilbenoid profiles of canes from 16 grapevines. Fifteen stilbenoids were obtained through isolation and structure identification using MS, NMR, and [?](D) or as commercial standards. An HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous quantification of nine of these stilbenoids was developed and applied to canes of Vitis amurensis, Vitis arizonica, Vitis berlandieri, Vitis betulifolia, Vitis cinerea, Vitis × champini, Vitis × doaniana, Vitis labrusca, Vitis candicans (syn. Vitis mustangensis), Vitis riparia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis vinifera, Muscadinia rotundifolia, and a V. vinifera × M. rotundifolia hybrid. In these species, E-ampelopsin E, E-amurensin B, E-piceid, E-piceatannol, E-resveratrol, E-resveratroloside, E-?-viniferin, E-?-viniferin, and E-vitisin B were quantified, when found in sufficient amounts. Total concentrations ranged from ~2.2 to 19.5 g/kg of dry weight. Additional stilbenoids, E-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 2-C-glucoside, Z-ampelopsin E, Z-trans-miyabenol C, E-trans-miyabenol C, scirpusin A, and Z-vitisin B, were identified but not quantified. Our results indicate that canes, particularly those of non-vinifera species, have substantial quantities of valuable, health-promoting stilbenoids. PMID:23270496

Pawlus, Alison D; Sahli, Ramla; Bisson, Jonathan; Rivière, Céline; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Richard, Tristan; Gomès, Eric; Bordenave, Louis; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

2013-01-23

123

[New technologies and workers' health: mechanization of sugar cane harvesting].  

PubMed

In the context of reorganization of production in the sugar and alcohol industry, mechanization of sugar cane harvesting has been justified as a protective measure for the environment and workers. This article focuses on the consequences of organization of work in mechanization of sugar cane harvesting with regard to the harvester operators' health. Based on data gathered through interviews and direct observation at the workplace, changes implemented in the technological base and division of labor and organization were analyzed, identifying the work load inherent to the process and how it affects workers' health. While harvesters help decrease the physical, chemical, and mechanical work load, they increase the physiological and psychological work load. There is evidence of significant change in the pattern of work-related accidents, entailing a decrease in their frequency and increase in severity. The pattern of illness among harvester operators is similar to that of manual sugar cane cutters, with a highlight on psychosomatic illness related to the organization of work in shifts and increased tempo due to use of machinery. PMID:10203455

Scopinho, R A; Eid, F; Vian, C E; Silva, P R

1999-01-01

124

Optimization of nutrients for gellan gum production by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC-31461 in molasses based medium using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

A molasses based medium for the production of gellan by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC-31461 was developed. Placket-Burman design criterion was applied to study the effect of various nutrient supplements on gellan production using molasses. Among the 20 variables tested, molasses, tryptone, casaminoacid, disodium hydrogen orthophosphate and manganese chloride showed significant effect on gellan production. A central composite design was applied to determine the optimum concentrations of the significant variables obtained from Placket-Burman design. Most suitable medium composition for production of gellan was (g/l): molasses-112.5; tryptone-1; casaminoacid-1; disodium hydrogen orthophosphate-1; manganese chloride-0.947 and the optimum gellan production was 13.814 g/l. PMID:16707262

Banik, R M; Santhiagu, A; Upadhyay, S N

2007-03-01

125

Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose, and molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet\\u000a molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation\\u000a of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by

Mahnaz Sharifia; Keikhosro Karimi; Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

2008-01-01

126

Effect of Supplementation of Molasses\\/Urea Blocks and Graded Levels of Concentrate on Growth Performance of Grazing Arsi Bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sisay, A., Hassen, A. and Alemu, T. 1999. Effect of supplementation of molasses\\/urea blocks and graded levels of concentrate on growth performance of grazing Arsi bulls. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 16: 47–52.Thirty grazing Arsi bulls (24m, 130kg) were used in a 120 day trial to evaluate the effect of Molasses\\/urea block (MUB) with graded levels of concentrate supplementation on growth

Amsalu Sisay; Abubeker Hassen; Tesfaye Alemu

1999-01-01

127

75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2010-04-27

128

76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2011-04-12

129

75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2010-07-06

130

Gray-molasses cooling of 39K to a high phase-space density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new techniques in cooling 39K atoms using laser light close to the D1 transition. First, a new compressed-MOT configuration is taking advantage of gray-molasses-type cooling induced by blue-detuned D1 light. It yields an optimized density of atoms. Then, we use pure D1 gray molasses to further cool the atoms to an ultra-low temperature of 6\\ \\mu\\text{K} . The resulting phase-space density is 2\\times 10^{-4} and will ease future experiments with ultracold potassium. As an example, we use it to directly load up to 3\\times 10^7 atoms in a far detuned optical trap, a result that opens the way to the all-optical production of potassium degenerate gases.

Salomon, G.; Fouché, L.; Wang, P.; Aspect, A.; Bouyer, P.; Bourdel, T.

2013-12-01

131

Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

132

Rheological and sensory properties of pekmez (grape molasses)\\/tahin (sesame paste) blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological and sensory properties of pekmez (grape molasses)\\/tahin (sesame paste) blends were studied using pekmez concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6.0% at 30, 40, 50, 60, 65 and 75 °C. The empirical power law model fitted the apparent viscosity-rotational speed data. All blends exhibited pseudoplastic behaviour. The pekmez content and temperature influenced the flow behaviour and consistency index values.

M Alpaslan; M Hayta

2002-01-01

133

Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD\\/m3 reactor\\/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L\\/d

Wei Han; Yong-Feng Li; Hong Chen; Jie-Xuan Deng; Chuan-Ping Yang

2010-01-01

134

Experience in using an ethanol sensor to control molasses feed-rates in baker's yeast production  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethanol sensor has been tested for feed-rate control of baker's yeast prouction. The yeast was grown on molasses in an 8 dm3 fed-batch reactor up to a cell concentration of 60–70 kg\\/m3. Studies were made on three levels: reliability of the sensor system, characterisation of the control problem, and evaluation of ethanol-controlled cultivations in terms of yield and production

J. P. Axelsson; C. F. Mandenius; O. Holst; P. Hagander; B. Mattiasson

1988-01-01

135

Fattening goats with sugarcane sprouts, corn stubble, protein concentrate, molasses and urea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily weight gains (DWG), dry matter intake (DMI) and cost of fattening were studied using a diet of 29% sugarcane sprouts, 29% corn stubble, 29% concentrate with 18% crude protein (CP), 9.5% molasses, 2% urea, 1% salt and 0.5% mineral salts. The study was conducted during three consecutive years (1990–1992), using a total of 374 goats of 12–36 months of

M. A. Galina; D. Pacheco; E. Silva; J. M. Palma; J. Hummel

1995-01-01

136

Urea and biuret as nonprotein nitrogen sources in cooked molasses blocks for steers fed prairie hay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen steers (268±16kg) were used in an intake and digestion study (experiment 1), and six ruminally cannulated steers (459±33kg) were used in a ruminal fermentation study (experiment 2) to evaluate sources of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) in cooked molasses blocks supplemented to cattle fed prairie hay ad libitum. Treatments for experiment 1 were: (1) control (no block); (2) 60% CP block

C. A Löest; E. C Titgemeyer; J. S Drouillard; B. D Lambert; A. M Trater

2001-01-01

137

Biohydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation with a pilot-scale bioreactor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale study of biohydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 1.48m3) for over 200 days. The hydrogen bio-producing reactor (HBR) system was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 3.11–85.57kgCOD\\/m3reactor\\/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. Both biogas and hydrogen yields increased with OLR at the

Nanqi Ren; Jianzheng Li; Baikun Li; Yong Wang; Shirui Liu

2006-01-01

138

Quantitative estimation of polysaccharides in molasses using Near Infra Red spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in transmittance mode between 1100–2500 nm was employed for the quantitative\\u000a estimation of dextran, starch, gum and pectin in final molasses one at a time. Partial least square regression analyses was\\u000a used to develop a calibration model with 40 samples each in 0th, 1st and 2nd derivatives which gave low SEC values. This method was

Satindar Kaur; R. S. S. Kaler

2008-01-01

139

Soy molasses as fermentation substrate for production of butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Spray-dried soy molasses (SDSM) contains the sugars dextrose, sucrose, fructose, pinitol, raffinose, verbascose, melibiose,\\u000a and stachyose. Of the 746 g kg?1 total sugars in SDSM, 434 g kg?1 is fermentable using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101. SDSM was used to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by C. beijerinckii BA101 in batch cultures. Using 80 g l?1 SDSM, 10.7 g l?1 ABE

N Qureshi; A Lolas; H P Blaschek

2001-01-01

140

Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol from corn mash and molasses in batch fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The production of solvents from corn mash and molasses in batch fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum P 262 was examined. The content of saccharose of beet molasses used in experiments is determined by using the gravimetric method (52.45% saccharose). The quantities of molasses that are used in the nutrient medium are calculated after doing the above determination. The samples of fermentation liquid are taken within a certain time, the determination of saccharose is done by using the same method, and all the saccharose is converted by the microorganism to organic end products. The quantitative and qualitative determination of acetone-butanol has been made by using gas chromatography. On the other hand, using the three isolation way, three different cultures are obtained, and with microscopic observations, the cultures obtained are of the C. acetobutylicum genus. According to the literature values, the concentration of maximum mixed solvent formed during fermentation is about 2%. This is seen in this experiment. There is only a slight difference from this value. This difference is caused by another organic product that is formed during fermentation. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Guevenilir, Y.A.; Deveci, N. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

1996-02-01

141

Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a molasses byproduct of pine ( Pinus taeda ) fiberboard production.  

PubMed

"Temulose" is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300-400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for Temulose is predominantly a single species of pine ( Pinus taeda ) grown and harvested in stands in southeastern Texas. Because of the method of production, the molasses was predicted to consist of water-soluble hemicelluloses, mainly arabinoxylan-type and galactoglucomannan-type oligosaccharides, plus minor components of lignin, but no detailed structural study had been reported. The structure and composition of the molasses has now been deduced by a combination of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, size exclusion chromatography, proton and (13)C NMR techniques, and classic carbohydrate analysis. Limited acid hydrolysis released a series of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMO) that were selectively recovered from the acid-labile arabinogalactan by precipitation with ethanol. The precipitate was named "Temulose brown sugar" because of its appearance, and is shown to consist of GGMO with a degree of polymerization (DP) from 4 to 13, with the major component being DP 5-8. The structure of these oligosaccharides is a ?-1,4-linked backbone of Man and Glc residues, with occasional ?-1,6 branching by single galactosyl units. PMID:21288026

Price, Neil P J; Hartman, Trina M; Faber, Trevor A; Vermillion, Karl E; Fahey, George C

2011-03-01

142

Improvement production of bacterial cellulose by semi-continuous process in molasses medium.  

PubMed

Bacterial cellulose (BC) has unique properties such as structural, functional, physical and chemical. The mass production of BC for industrial application has recently become attractive to produce more economical and high productive cellulose. In this study, to improve the productivity of bacterial cellulose (BC), BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus FC01 was investigated in molasses medium with static semi-continuous operation mode. Cell dry weight, polysaccharide, sugar and cellulose concentrations were monitored and cellulose was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest cellulose yield (1.637 g/L) was obtained in SCP50-7d, which molasses of 1/2 ratio for 7 days by static semi-continuous operation mode. The results show that BC can be highly produced by G. xylinus in molasses with static semi-continuous process than batch process. We claimed that low-cost medium with semi-continuous operation mode in static culture is a good candidate for industrial scale BC productions. PMID:24721044

Cakar, Fatih; Ozer, I??lay; Aytekin, A Özhan; Sahin, Fikrettin

2014-06-15

143

76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country...

2011-04-15

144

75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: May 11, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

2010-05-11

145

76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. USTR is also reallocating a portion of...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

2011-07-18

146

75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: July 9, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d) (3) of the...

2010-07-09

147

77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country...

2012-04-26

148

75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: March 25, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

2010-03-25

149

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used...

2009-04-01

150

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used...

2010-01-01

151

A Reduction in Rainfall Associated with Smoke from SugarCane Fires--An Inadvertent Weather Modification?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of 60 years of rainfall during three months of the cane-harvesting season has shown a reduction of rainfall at inland stations coinciding with increasing cane production; no such reduction occurred at a `control' station upwind of smoke from the cane fires. The reduction is consistent with the hypothesis that through their activity as condensation nuclei the smoke particles

J. Warner

1968-01-01

152

Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry  

SciTech Connect

This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

1988-05-01

153

SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

154

Determination of sugar cane herbicides in soil and soil treated with sugar cane vinasse by solid-phase extraction and HPLC-UV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on the development and validation of a small-scale and efficient SPE-HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous determination of the most used herbicides (diuron, hexazinone, and tebuthiuron) applied to soil and soil treated with sugar cane vinasse (soil-vinasse) in areas where sugar cane crops are grown in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The analytical procedure was optimized for

Carolina Lourencetti; Mary Rosa Rodrigues de Marchi; Maria Lúcia Ribeiro

2008-01-01

155

Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis of biomass: differences between sugar cane bagasse and cane trash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse and cane trash were pyrolysed in a novel quartz fluidised-bed\\/fixed-bed reactor. Quantification of the Na, K, Mg and Ca in chars revealed that pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, valence and biomass type were important factors influencing the volatilisation of these alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species. Pyrolysis at a slow heating rate (?10Kmin?1) led to minimal (often

Daniel M. Keown; George Favas; Jun-ichiro Hayashi; Chun-Zhu Li

2005-01-01

156

Monitoring Freeze Injury and Evaluating Losingto Sugar-Cane Using RS and GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From Jan 12th to Feb 12th 2008, the most severity cold chilling and freeze injury weather took place during the last 50 years in the southern of China.Sugar-cane was suffered injury severity. However, the losing of sugar-cane which it was aroused by thisweather disaster had not been exactitude evaluated till on Apr 1st, 2008. It was not only affected the sugar-cane ordinary harvesting and crushing, but also affected reserving sugar-cane seed for planting. Freeze injury is common disaster for sugar-cane in southern of China and monitoring freeze injury using RS and GIS are of great economic significance but little research work about it has been done in China Freeze injuring is not only related to crop growth stage and the cold air intension from northern to southern and weather types, but also consanguineous related to land form and physiognomy and geographical latitude and height above sea level etc and crop planting spatial distribution. The case study of Guangxi province which is the biggest region of sugar-cane planting in China in this paper, the values of sugar-cane NDVI among the freeze injury occur former and after in early 2008 and without freeze injury occur in the same term 2007 were analyzed and compared based on the sugar-cane planting spatial distribution information which were carried out by using multi-phase EOS/MODIS data. The result showed that it was not only commendably reflected the spatial distribution of freeze injury but also reflected the sugarcane suffered from degree using the values of sugar-cane NDVIof freeze injury occur former and after. The field sample investigation data of using GPS was integrated with the NDVI, the evaluation of region sugar-cane suffer from freeze injury losing could quickly and exactly realize.

Tan, Zongkun; Ding, Meihua; Wang, Longhe; Yang, Xin; Ou, Zhaorong

157

78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA...quantity of certain sugars, syrups, and molasses (also referred to as refined sugar...sugar and certain sugars, syrups, and molasses that may be entered under the...

2013-09-13

158

Beet sugar syrup and molasses as low-cost feedstock for the enzymatic production of fructo-oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Sugar syrup and molasses from beet processing containing 620 and 570 mg/mL sucrose, respectively, were assayed as low-cost and available substrates for the enzymatic synthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs). A commercial pectinase (Pectinex Ultra SP-L, from Aspergillus aculeatus) characterized by the presence of a transfructosylating activity was used as a biocatalyst. The FOS production increased when lowering the initial pH value of syrup (7.5) and molasses (8.9) to 5.5. Sugar syrup and molasses were diluted in order to reduce substrate viscosity; interestingly, the percentage of FOS with regards to total sugars remained almost constant, which indicated a high transferase-to-hydrolase ratio for this enzyme. Kinetics of FOS production was analyzed. Using approximately 10 U transfructosylating activity per g sucrose, the FOS concentration reached a maximum of 388 mg/mL after 30 h using syrup and 235 mg/mL in 65 h with molasses. These values corresponded to approximately 56 and 49% (w/w), respectively, of the total amount of carbohydrates in the mixture. The enzyme was also covalently immobilized on an epoxy-activated polymethacrylate-based polymer (Sepabeads EC-EP5). We found that immobilized Pectinex Ultra SP-L can be efficiently applied to the synthesis of FOS using syrup and molasses as substrates. PMID:16608216

Ghazi, Iraj; Fernandez-Arrojo, Lucia; Gomez De Segura, Aranzazu; Alcalde, Miguel; Plou, Francisco J; Ballesteros, Antonio

2006-04-19

159

Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water  

SciTech Connect

Sugar-cane bagasse and leaves (10--15 g oven-dry basis) were fractionated without size reduction by a rapid (45 s to 4 min), immersed percolation using only hot (190--230 C), compressed (P > P{sub sat}), liquid water (0.6--1.2 kg). Over 50% of the biomass could be solubilized. All of the hemicellulose, together with much of the acid-insoluble lignin in the bagasse (>60%), was solubilized, while less than 10% of the cellulose entered the liquid phase. Moreover, recovery of the hemicellulose as monomeric sugars (after a mild posthydrolysis) exceeded 80%. Less than 5% of the hemicellulose was converted to furfural. Percolation beyond that needed to immerse the biomass in hot liquid water did not result in increased solubilization. The yield of lignocellulosic residue was also not sensitive to the form of the sugar cane used (bagasse or leaves) or its moisture content (8--50%). Commercial applications for this fractionation process include the pretreatment of lignocellulosics for bioconversion to ethanol and the production of pulp and paper products.

Allen, S.G.; Kam, L.C.; Zemann, A.J.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1996-08-01

160

Anaerobic digestion of solid wastes of cane sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

The cane sugar manufacturing industry generates large quantities of lignocellulosic solid wastes, namely bagasse and cachaza. Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane after extracting the juice. Cachaza is the filter cake of the precipitated insoluble sugars. This research investigates the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of bagasse and cachaza to produce methane. Two rations of bagasse-cachaza mix as substrates were investigated. The first one was 8:1 which represents the average ratio of bagasse and cachaza produced in a raw sugar mill. The second ratio investigated was 2.4:1 which represents the proportion of bagasse and cachaza wastes after 70% of the bagasse is burned in sugar mill boilers. An acclimated microbial culture for this substrate was developed. Organic Loading-Detention Time relationships were established for an optimum system. Pre-treatment techniques of the substrate were investigated as a means of enhancing the digestibility of the cellulosic substrate. Recirculation of the filtrate was evaluated as a method for increasing solids retention time without increasing hydraulic detention time. The kinetics of the digestion process for bagasse-cachaza mixed substrate was investigated and growth constants were determined. The bionutritional characteristics of the substrate used for the digestion were evaluated. Based on the results obtained, mass balances and preliminary economic analysis of the digestion system were developed.

Dasgupta, A.

1983-01-01

161

Antiatherosclerotic function of Kokuto, Okinawan noncentrifugal cane sugar.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the effect of phenolic compounds (PCs) and policosanol of Kokuto, Okinawan noncentrifugal cane sugar, on the development of atherosclerosis. A total of 67 male Japanese quail were divided into eight dietary groups in trial 1. The dietary groups were fed the atherosclerotic diet (AD) containing 5% corn oil, 2% cholesterol, and 30% sucrose or seven different types of Kokuto. Dietary intakes of Kokuto notably prevented the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the serum radical scavenging activity and the degree of atherosclerosis in the dietary groups. In trial 2, a total of 63 Japanese quail were fed AD with sucrose, Kokuto, PC extracts from Kokuto, wax extracts from sugar cane, octacosanol, vitamin C, and vitamin E. As a result, the supplementation of the diet with Kokuto and PCs significantly reduced the development of atherosclerosis as compared with the ingestion of AD with sucrose. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, among various components of Kokuto, PCs play a central role for the prevention of experimental atherosclerosis in Japanese quail. PMID:19072226

Okabe, Takafumi; Toda, Takayoshi; Inafuku, Masashi; Wada, Koji; Iwasaki, Hironori; Oku, Hirosuke

2009-01-14

162

The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.  

PubMed

Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage. PMID:24359831

Avila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

2014-02-01

163

Simultaneous detoxification and decolorization of molasses spent wash by the immobilized white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus isolated from a marine habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wastewaters of molasses-based alcohol distilleries contain brown colored melanoidin pigments that are one of the major pollutants. We reported decolorization of such intensely brown colored molasses spent wash (MSW) by Flavodon flavus, a white-rot basidiomycete fungus isolated from a marine habitat. We have further attempted to improve the process of decolorization of MSW by this fungus by immobilization. Polyurethane

Chandralata Raghukumar; C. Mohandass; Shilpa Kamat; M. S. Shailaja

2004-01-01

164

Diets Based on Sugar Cane Treated with Calcium Oxide for Lambs  

PubMed Central

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa Inês castrated male lambs with a 16.6±1.8 kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2 m2 individual pens, and the intake and digestibility evaluations were performed during the last four days of each period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 14% crude protein (CP), and presenting 70% sugar cane treated with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% of CaO (as-fed basis), corrected with 1% urea, and 30% concentrate. The sugar cane with added CaO was chopped, treated, and offered to the animals after 24 h of storage. The sugar cane with CaO increased the DM, OM, CP, NDF, NDFap, TC, NFCap and TDN intake (kg/d), when compared to natural sugar cane, and produced the same intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (% BW). The NFCap digestibility of the CaO-treated sugar cane was inferior to the NFCap digestibility in natural sugar cane. There was a linear increase in the DM intake with the CaO-added sugar cane, but the DM and NDF digestibility and the TDN content decreased linearly. The chemical treatment of sugar cane with CaO increases the intake but does not improve the nutrient digestibility. Two days of total fecal collection were found to be sufficient to estimate the total apparent digestibility in lambs.

Carvalho, G. G. P.; Garcia, R.; Pires, A. J. V.; Silva, R. R.; Detmann, E.; Filho, A. Eustaquio; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Carvalho, L. M.

2013-01-01

165

Industrial-hygiene survey report, worker exposures during sugar cane harvesting, Florida Sugar Cane League, Clewiston, Florida  

SciTech Connect

Literature dealing with commercially important plant species that contain amorphous silica was reviewed. Specifically, results were presented of a field survey of sugar cane field workers in Florida. Determinations were made of the airborne concentration of amorphous silica fibers to which these workers were exposed. The airborne fibers ranged in size from 3.5 to 65 micrometers long with an average diameter of 0.6 micrometers. The concentration of these fibers in the air was as high as 300,000 fibers per cubic meter during cane-cutting activities. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were detected in the burnt leaf, but the concentrations in air were well below the limit of detection. The author recommends that comprehensive monitoring be considered for exposure to biogenic fibers among field workers, as well as refinery workers. The author also suggests that exposure to biogenic silicates in other industries which involve processing of agricultural commodities should be investigated. Solubility and persistence of these particular fibers in biological fluids should be considered.

Boeniger, M.

1986-12-01

166

Design and Optimization of a Process for Sugarcane Molasses Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Response Surface Methodology.  

PubMed

A statistical model was developed in this study to describe bioethanol production through a batch fermentation process of sugarcane molasses by locally isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-39. Response surface methodology RSM based on central composite face centered design CCFD was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for maximum bioethanol production and study the significance and interaction of incubation period, initial pH, incubation temperature, and molasses concentration on bioethanol yield. With the use of the developed quadratic model equation, a maximum ethanol production of 255?g/L was obtained in a batch fermentation process at optimum operating conditions of approximately 71?h, pH 5.6, 38°C, molasses concentration 18%?wt.%, and 100?rpm. PMID:24222769

El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Madian, Hekmat R; Amr, Salem S Abu

2013-01-01

167

Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

1981-01-01

168

Erosion processes in molassic cliffs: the role of the rock surface temperature and atmospheric conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology of the Swiss Plateau is modeled by numerous steep cliffs of Molasse. These cliffs are mainly composed of sub-horizontal alternated layers of sandstone, shale and conglomerates deposed in the Alps foreland basin during the Tertiary period. These Molasse cliffs are affected by erosion processes inducing numerous rockfall events. Thus, it is relevant to understand how different external factors influence Molasse erosion rates. In this study, we focus on analyzing temperature variation during a winter season. As pilot study area we selected a cliff which is formed by a sub-horizontal alternation of outcropping sandstone and shale. The westward facing test site (La Cornalle, Vaud, Switzerland), which is a lateral scarp of a slow moving landslide area, is currently affected by intense erosion. Regarding data acquisition, we monitored both in-situ rock and air temperatures at 15 minutes time-step since October 2013: (1) on the one hand we measured Ground Surface Temperature (GST) at near-surface (0.1 meter depth) using a GST mini-datalogger M-Log5W-Rock model; (2) On the other hand we monitored atmospheric conditions using a weather station (Davis Vantage pro2 plus) collecting numerous parameters (i.e. temperature, irradiation, rain, wind speed, etc.). Furthermore, the area was also seasonally monitored by Ground-Based (GB) LiDAR since 2010 and monthly monitored since September 2013. In order to understand how atmospheric conditions (such as freeze and thaw effect) influence the erosion of the cliff, we modeled the temperature diffusion through the rock mass. To this end, we applied heat diffusion and radiation equation using a 1D temperature profile, obtaining as a result both temperature variations at different depths together with the location of the 0°C isotherm. Our model was calibrated during a given training set using both in-situ rock temperatures and atmospheric conditions. We then carried out a comparison with the rockfall events derived from the 3D GB-LiDAR datasets in order to quantify the erosion rates and to correlate it with atmospheric conditions, aiming to analyze which parameters influence Molasse erosion process.

Carrea, Dario; Abellán, Antonio; Guerin, Antoine; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Voumard, Jérémie

2014-05-01

169

The role of the Najd Fault System in the tectonic evolution of the Hammamat molasse sediments, Eastern Desert, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hammamat molasse sediments of the Eastern Desert of Egypt were deposited in isolated basins formed during an initial stage\\u000a of orogen parallel N–S extension (650–580 Ma) in the Neoproterozoic time. Supply of sediments to the molasse basins began\\u000a after the eruption of Dokhan volcanics (602–593 Ma), exhumation of core complexes (650–550 Ma), and intrusion of late tectonic\\u000a granites (610–550 Ma). The late Neoproterozoic

Mohamed A. Abd El-Wahed

2010-01-01

170

A novel UASB–MFC–BAF integrated system for high strength molasses wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor–microbial fuel cell–biological aerated filter (UASB–MFC–BAF) system was developed for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and molasses wastewater treatment in this study. The maximum power density of 1410.2mW\\/m2 was obtained with a current density of 4947.9mA\\/m2 when the high strength molasses wastewater with chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 127,500mg\\/l was employed as the influent. The total COD,

Baogang Zhang; Huazhang Zhao; Shungui Zhou; Chunhong Shi; Chao Wang; Jinren Ni

2009-01-01

171

76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary,...

2011-06-22

172

Cane River Creole National Historical Park Magnolia Plantation. Gin Barn Historic Structure Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Much of the historical information in this report is found in research compiled by Cane River Creole National Historical Park since 1994. Most important have been Dr. Ann Malone Rose's historical overview and Dr. Bennie Keel's archaeological investigation...

2004-01-01

173

Chemistry based on renewable raw materials: perspectives for a sugar cane-based biorefinery.  

PubMed

Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

2011-01-01

174

Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfa, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

2011-01-01

175

Production and Evaluation of Sugar Cane Fiber Geotextiles. Report 2. Field Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prior research involved the production and laboratory testing of sugar cane fiber geotextiles for soil erosion control. Comparative preliminary studies were conducted on test slopes to determine slope stability, in horticulture plots to determine grass pr...

J. R. Collier B. J. Collier J. L. Thames M. M. ElSunni

1997-01-01

176

Z and W sex chromosomes in the cane toad ( Bufo marinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cane toad (Bufo marinus) is one of the most notorious animal pests encountered in Australia. Members of the genus Bufo historically have been regarded as having genotypic sex determination with male homogamety\\/female heterogamety. Nevertheless,\\u000a as with many toads, karyotypic analyses of the cane toad have so far failed to identify heteromorphics sex chromosomes. In\\u000a this study, we used comparative

John Abramyan; Tariq Ezaz; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves; Peter Koopman

2009-01-01

177

Study of Fall Detection Using Intelligent Cane Based on Sensor Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-wheeled omni-directional cane robot is designed for aiding the elderly walking. A new human fall detection method is proposed based on fusing sensory information from a vision system and a laser ranger finder (LRF). This method plays an important role in the fall-prevention for the cane robot. The human fall model is represented in a 2D space, where the

Jian Huang; Pei Di; K. Wakita; T. Fukuda; K. Sekiyama

2008-01-01

178

Soil temperature in a sugar-cane crop as a function of the management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air and soil temperatures are, by far, the most important state variables of agroecosystems. In the case of sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) they affect plant development, maturation and a series of biological and physical-chemical soil processes. This paper presents a comparative study of three management practices, applied to the first ratoon of a sugar-cane crop established on a Rhodic Kandiudox

J. C. M. Oliveira; L. C. Timm; T. T. Tominaga; F. A. M. Cássaro; K. Reichardt; O. O. S. Bacchi; D. Dourado-Neto; G. M. de S. Câmara

2001-01-01

179

Diffusion of moisture in drying of sugar cane fibers and bundles  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane fibers and arrangements of fibers in cylindrical bundles were dried in a thermoanalyzer and their diffusive coefficients were calculated using the slope method. The effect of temperature, moisture content as well as structural changes were analyzed. Diffusion coefficients changed nonlinearly with moisture content and followed an Arrhenius-like functionality with temperature. The analysis of these effects suggested a liquid diffusion transport mechanism of moisture transfer inside sugar cane fibers and bundles.

Rodriguez-Ramirez, J.; Quintana-Hernandez, P.A.; Mendez-Lagunas, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, G.; Gonzalez-Alatorre, G.

2000-05-01

180

Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses by formed nitrogen oxides.  

PubMed

Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses was developed in a series of three reactors. Nitrogen oxides formed were used to manufacture oxalic acid in the second and third reactor. Parameters affecting the reaction were determined to be, air flow rate, temperature, the amount of V2O5 catalyst and the concentrations of molasses and H2SO4. The maximum yields in the second and third reactors were 78.9% and 74.6% of theoretical yield, respectively. Also, kinetic experiments were performed and the first-order rate constants were determined for the glucose consumption rate. Nitrogen oxides in off-gases from the final reactor were absorbed in water and concentrated sulphuric acid and reused in the following reactors giving slightly lower yields under similar conditions. In this novel way, it was possible to recover NO(x) and to prevent air pollution. Meanwhile, it was possible to reduce the unit cost of reactant for oxalic acid production. A maximum 77.5% and 74.1% of theoretical yield was obtained by using the absorption solutions with NO(x). PMID:11211079

Gürü, M; Bilgesü, A Y; Pamuk, V

2001-03-01

181

Rhamnolipid production by pseudomonas aeruginosa GIM 32 using different substrates including molasses distillery wastewater.  

PubMed

A rhamnolipid production strain newly isolated from oil-contaminated soil was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa GIM32 by its morphology and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The effect of carbon source and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio on rhamnolipids production was investigated. Palm oil was favorable as a carbon source for rhamnolipid production. The maximum biomass and rhamnolipid concentration were 8.24 g/L and 30.4 g/L, respectively, with an optimization medium containing 50 g/L palm oil and 5 g/L sodium nitrate. Molasses distillery wastewater as an unconventional substrate for rhamnolipid production was investigated. It was found that 2.6 g/L of rhamnolipids was produced; this amount was higher than that of past reports using wastewater as a substrate. In addition, 44% of the chemical oxygen demand of wastewater was removed at the same time under the optimization condition. Eleven kinds of different molecular weight rhamnolipid homologues were identified in the rhamnolipids obtained from molasses distillery wastewater by P. aeruginosa GIM32 by LC-MS analysis. PMID:20830582

Li, An-hua; Xu, Mei-ying; Sun, Wei; Sun, Guo-ping

2011-03-01

182

Study of sugarcane pieces as yeast supports for ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses.  

PubMed

Due to the environmental concerns and the increasing price of oil, bioethanol was already produced in large amount in Brazil and China from sugarcane juice and molasses. In order to make this process competitive, we have investigated the suitability of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AS2.1190 on sugarcane pieces for production of ethanol. Electron microscopy clearly showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported-biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 89.73-77.13 g/l in average value), and ethanol productivities (about 59.53-62.79 g/l d in average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.34-3.60 g/l) with conversions ranging from 97.67-99.80%, showing efficiency (90.11-94.28%) and operational stability of the biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of this study concerning the use of sugarcane as yeast supports could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:18685877

Liang, Lei; Zhang, Yuan-ping; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Ming-jun; Liang, Shi-zhong; Huang, Yu-nan

2008-12-01

183

SUPPLEMENTAL VALUE OF FEED GRADE BIURET AND UREA-MOLASSES FOR COWS ON DRY WINTER GRASS l ,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Four trials were conducted to evaluate the supplemental value of feed grade biuret (in dry supplements) and urea (in liquid urea-molasses mixtures) when compared to natural protein and urea in dry supplements for beef cows grazing low quality dry winter range grass. Urea or feed grade biuret provided 50% of the nitrogen in 30% CP dry supplements and urea

Ivan G. Rush; Robert Totusek

184

A bioprocess for the remediation of anaerobically digested molasses spentwash from biogas plant and simultaneous production of lactic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial isolate LAB-1 identified as Lactobacillus casei was cultivated in a fermentation medium containing biogas plant effluent. This effluent was generated after anaerobic digestion of molasses spentwash in biogas fermenters. In the bioremediation process of this very dark coloured effluent through the cultivation of L. casei, decrease in effluent's colour of 49 and 52% and reduction in COD level

A. R. Shibu; V. Kumar; L. Wati; K. Chaudhary; D. Singh; P. Nigam

1999-01-01

185

The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Carbon Budget of Land Use Conversion from Pasture to Energy Cane Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States is committed to produce 140 billion liters of ethanol by 2022. To meet this goal, and mitigate concerns about the "fuel versus food" conundrum, there is a pressing need for a second generation of sustainable biofuel feedstocks. Energy cane is a high yield, cold-tolerant C4 grass that can be efficiently used to produce bio-ethanol via existing cellulo-lignosic conversion technologies. There is exciting promise for Energy cane as an ethanol feedstock, however the climate implications of large-scale land use change from pasture (a significant use of land in the Southeastern USA) to production of an energy grass has not been fully explored. Furthermore, the soil type on which Energy cane will be grown will likely have a significant impact on greenhouse gases (GHG). We use DAYCENT, a process based biogeochemical model, to forecast how land use change from pasture to Energy cane production influences ecosystem level GHG flux and soil carbon flux. Because Energy cane is not widely cultivated, we use the available sugar cane literature to validate our in silico experiments. DAYCENT simulations suggest that soil type and fertilization rates have a strong control on the GHG and soil C dynamics after changing land from pasture to Energy cane. Our model results show net losses of ecosystem level C when Energy cane is grown on Histosols (organic matter rich soils), and a net gain of ecosystem C when that crop is grown on Spodosols (sandy soils). Respired CO2, N2O and total GHG efflux is significantly higher on Histosols compared to Spodosols in cane production. We conclude that the soil type on which Energy cane is grown determines the climatic impact of changing a landscape from pasture to Energy cane, and the greatest long-term climate benefit comes from growing cane on Spodosols.

Duval, B.; Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S. P.; DeLucia, E. H.

2011-12-01

186

A low-energy continuous reactor-separator for ethanol from starch, whey permeate, permeate mother liquor, molasses or cellulosics. Project final report, April 1, 1994--February 28, 1997  

SciTech Connect

In this project, a novel bio-reactor technology in which reaction is coupled with product separation was developed to pilot/demonstration scale. Combining reaction with separation during a fermentation allows the fermentation of highly concentrated feeds and allows the fermentation of streams with high levels of salts/non-fermentable inhibitors. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose can also be combined with ethanol separation in the Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS). Application of the bio-reactor to various substrates was investigated on a lab scale with fermentation of raw starch, cane molasses, xylose, whey permeate and permeate mother liquor. Flocculating yeast strains for high density sucrose/glucose fermentation were selected and adapted to form fast settling pellets. A strain of K marxianus capable of fermenting high salt permeate mother liquor was also selected and adapted. A low energy solvent ethanol recovery system was developed for ethanol recovery from the vapors leaving the reactor/separator. This Solvent Absorption/Extractive Distillation (SAED) process gives a low energy method for purifying the ethanol to an anhydrous product. The amount of energy needed to recover an anhydrous ethanol product from a CSRS stage running at 8% ethanol was calculated to be under 8,000 BTU/gallon. This process may also have further application in VOC (volatile organic carbon compounds) removal from air streams. During this project, a 24,000 Liter CSRS was designed, fabricated, installed, and operated at a small batch ethanol plant (Permeate Refining Inc) in NE Iowa. The reactor was operated on a semi-continuous basis over a period of 18 months. A Solvent Absorption Extractive Distillation (SAED) system was also recently completed and installed at the Permeate Refining Inc. site for ethanol recovery/dehydration.

Dale, M.C.; Moelhman, M.

1997-04-14

187

Effect of protein level and source in molasses slurries on the performance of growing cattle fed hay during winter.  

PubMed

Four molasses slurries of varying protein level and source were fed in two performance trials (Year 1, 105 d; Year 2, 92 d) to growing cattle (Year 1, 230 kg; Year 2, 247 kg). Treatments were CONTROL (hay only), MOL (molasses-corn meal), MOL-UREA (molasses-urea-corn meal), MOL-SBM (molasses-soybean meal), and MOL-BF (molasses-urea-corn meal blood meal-hydrolyzed feather meal). Animals on all treatments were offered bermudagrass hay (Year 1: 12.8% CP, 50% TDN; Year 2: 12.8% CP, 54% TDN) and a complete mineral mixture free choice. Each treatment was fed to three pens each year with seven animals/pen. Slurries were offered at 2.1 kg/d (DM) and effects on forage intake, ADG, condition score (1 to 9), hip height, and plasma urea nitrogen were monitored. Treatment effects for Years 1 and 2 were analyzed separately due to treatment x year interactions (P < .15) with respect to ADG, hip height change, condition score change, and feed cost of gain. Supplementation increased (P < .001) ADG over CONTROL in Year 1 (.41 vs .06 kg/d) and Year 2 (.69 vs .25 kg/d), increased hip height change by .02 cm/d (P < .001) in Year 1 and by .01 cm/d (P = .012) in Year 2, and decreased (P < .001) loss of body condition in Years 1 and 2. Molasses-urea showed no advantage over MOL in Years 1 and 2. Natural protein (MOL-SBM and MOL-BF) increased ADG by .10 kg/d in Year 1 (P = .001) and by .06 kg/d in Year 2 (P = .077) compared with MOL-UREA. Daily gain was improved by MOL- BF by .05 kg/d (P = .109) in Year 1 and by .08 kg/d (P = .063) in Year 2 compared with MOL-SBM. Results indicate that growing cattle fed bermudagrass hay during winter respond positively to energy supplementation in the form of molasses. The addition of animal source protein enhanced this response. PMID:8617680

Stateler, D A; Kunkle, W E; Hammond, A C

1995-10-01

188

Improvement of cell growth and L-lysine production by genetically modified Corynebacterium glutamicum during growth on molasses.  

PubMed

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and fructokinase (ScrK) have important roles in regenerating glucose-6-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and thus increasing L-lysine production. This article focuses on the development of L-lysine high-producing strains by heterologous expression of FBPase gene fbp and ScrK gene scrK in C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) with molasses as the sole carbon source. Heterologous expression of fbp and scrK lead to a decrease of residual sugar in fermentation broth, and heterologous expression of scrK prevents the fructose efflux. Heterologous expression of fbp and scrK not only increases significantly the activity of corresponding enzymes but also improves cell growth during growth on molasses. FBPase activities are increased tenfold by heterologous expression of fbp, whereas the FBPase activity is only increase fourfold during co-expression of scrK and fbp. Compared with glucose, the DCW of heterologous expression strains are higher on molasses except co-expression of fbp and scrK strain. In addition, heterologous expression of fbp and scrK can strongly increase the L-lysine production with molasses as the sole carbon source. The highest increase (88.4 %) was observed for C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-fbp-scrK, but the increase was also significant for C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-fbp (47.2 %) and C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-scrK (36.8 %). By-products, such as glycerol and dihydroxyacetone, are decreased by heterologous expression of fbp and scrK, whereas trehalose is only slightly increased. The strategy for enhancing L-lysine production by regeneration of glucose-6-phosphate in PPP may provide a reference to enhance the production of other amino acids during growth on molasses or starch. PMID:24029876

Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Junlan; Guo, Yanfeng; Zai, Yugui; Zhang, Weiguo

2013-12-01

189

Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric CO{sub 2} or, consequently, to global warming. However, these advantages are negated if large quantities of fossil fuels need to be used to grow or process the biofuel crop. In this regard, the Brazilian bioethanol program, based on the fermentation/distillation of sugar cane juice, is particularly favorable, not only because the crop is principally hand harvested, but also because of the low nitrogen fertilizer use on sugar cane in Brazil. Recent {sup 15}N and N balance studies have shown that in some Brazilian cane varieties, high yields are possible without N fertilization because the plants are able to obtain large contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated biological N{sub 2} fixation (BNF). The N{sub 2}-fixing acid-tolerant bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus was first found to occur within roots, stems, and leaves of sugar cane. Subsequently, two species of Herbaspirillum also have been found to occur within the interior of all sugar cane tissues. The discovery of these, and other N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria that survive poorly in soil but thrive within plant tissue (endophytic bacteria), may account for the high BNF contributions observed in sugar cane. Further study of this system should allow the gradual elimination of N fertilizer use on sugar cane, at least in Brazil, and opens up the possibility of the extension of this efficient N{sub 2}-fixing system to cereal and other crops with consequent immense potential benefits to tropical agriculture. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Boddey, R.M. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Agrobiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1995-05-01

190

Do invasive cane toads affect the parasite burdens of native Australian frogs??  

PubMed Central

One of the most devastating impacts of an invasive species is the introduction of novel parasites or diseases to native fauna. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia contain several types of parasites, raising concern that the toads may increase rates of parasitism in local anuran species. We sampled cane toads and sympatric native frogs (Limnodynastes peronii, Litoria latopalmata, and Litoria nasuta) at the southern invasion front of cane toads in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW). We dissected and swabbed these anurans to score the presence and abundance of nematodes (Rhabdias lungworms, and gastric encysting nematodes), myxozoans, and chytrid fungus. To determine if cane toad invasion influences rates of parasitism in native frogs, we compared the prevalence and intensity of parasites in frogs from areas with toads, to frogs from areas without toads. Contrary to the situation on the (rapidly-expanding) tropical invasion front, cane toads on the slowly-expanding southern front were heavily infected with rhabditoid lungworms. Toads also contained gastric-encysting nematodes, and one toad was infected by chytrid fungus, but we did not find myxozoans in any toads. All parasite groups were recorded in native frogs, but were less common in areas invaded by toads than in nearby yet to be invaded areas. Contrary to our predictions, toad invasion was associated with a reduced parasite burden in native frogs. Thus, cane toads do not appear to transfer novel parasites to native frog populations, or act as a reservoir for native parasites to ‘spill-back’ into native frogs. Instead, cane toads may reduce frog-parasite numbers by taking up native parasites that are then killed by the toad’s immune defences.

Lettoof, Damian C.; Greenlees, Matthew J.; Stockwell, Michelle; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

191

Do invasive cane toads affect the parasite burdens of native Australian frogs?  

PubMed

One of the most devastating impacts of an invasive species is the introduction of novel parasites or diseases to native fauna. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia contain several types of parasites, raising concern that the toads may increase rates of parasitism in local anuran species. We sampled cane toads and sympatric native frogs (Limnodynastes peronii, Litoria latopalmata, and Litoria nasuta) at the southern invasion front of cane toads in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW). We dissected and swabbed these anurans to score the presence and abundance of nematodes (Rhabdias lungworms, and gastric encysting nematodes), myxozoans, and chytrid fungus. To determine if cane toad invasion influences rates of parasitism in native frogs, we compared the prevalence and intensity of parasites in frogs from areas with toads, to frogs from areas without toads. Contrary to the situation on the (rapidly-expanding) tropical invasion front, cane toads on the slowly-expanding southern front were heavily infected with rhabditoid lungworms. Toads also contained gastric-encysting nematodes, and one toad was infected by chytrid fungus, but we did not find myxozoans in any toads. All parasite groups were recorded in native frogs, but were less common in areas invaded by toads than in nearby yet to be invaded areas. Contrary to our predictions, toad invasion was associated with a reduced parasite burden in native frogs. Thus, cane toads do not appear to transfer novel parasites to native frog populations, or act as a reservoir for native parasites to 'spill-back' into native frogs. Instead, cane toads may reduce frog-parasite numbers by taking up native parasites that are then killed by the toad's immune defences. PMID:24533330

Lettoof, Damian C; Greenlees, Matthew J; Stockwell, Michelle; Shine, Richard

2013-12-01

192

Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

Han, Wei; Li, Yong-Feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-Xuan; Yang, Chuan-Ping

2010-11-01

193

Enhanced bioremediation of crude oil utilizing lipophilic fertilizers combined with biosurfactants and molasses.  

PubMed

Many research studies have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus to combat oil spills in marine environments. Rapid dilution of water-soluble nutrients can be overcome by oleophilic formulations that retain optimal nutrient concentrations at the oil-water interface where biodegradation occurs. Previous work has demonstrated that biodegradation processes are enhanced by the addition of lipophilic fertilizers of natural origin (uric acid and lecithin). In this work, we examined the effectiveness of these nutrients in combination with biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) and molasses (source of C and vitamins) to enhance the biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms. It was found that the use of biosurfactants resulted in an increased removal of petroleum hydrocarbons (96% removal of C19-C34 n-alkanes within a period of 18 days) as well as in a reduction of the lag phase (almost 80% removal was achieved within the first week of biosurfactant application). PMID:18799169

Nikolopoulou, Maria; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

2008-11-01

194

Invasive Cane Toads: Social Facilitation Depends upon an Individual's Personality  

PubMed Central

Individual variation in behavioural traits (including responses to social cues) may influence the success of invasive populations. We studied the relationship between sociality and personality in invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) from a recently established population in tropical Australia. In our field experiments, we manipulated social cues (the presence of a feeding conspecific) near a food source. We captured and compared toads that only approached feeding sites where another toad was already present, with conspecifics that approached unoccupied feeding sites. Subsequent laboratory trials showed correlated personality differences (behavioural syndromes) between these two groups of toads. For example, toads that approached already-occupied rather than unoccupied feeding sites in the field, took longer to emerge from a shelter-site in standardized trials, suggesting these individuals are ‘shy’ (whereas toads that approached unoccupied feeding stations tended to be ‘bold’). Manipulating hunger levels did not abolish this difference. In feeding trials, a bold toad typically outcompeted a shy toad under conditions of low prey availability, but the outcome was reversed when multiple prey items were present. Thus, both personality types may be favored under different circumstances. This invasive population of toads contains individuals that exhibit a range of personalities, hinting at the existence of a wide range of social dynamics in taxa traditionally considered to be asocial.

Gonzalez-Bernal, Edna; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

2014-01-01

195

Efficient production of L-lactic acid from corncob molasses, a waste by-product in xylitol production, by a newly isolated xylose utilizing Bacillus sp. strain.  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars are considered nowadays to be an economically attractive carbohydrate feedstock for large-scale fermentations of bulk chemicals such as lactic acid. In the present study, corncob molasses containing a high content of xylose, which is one of the lignocellulosic biomasses and a waste by-product from xylitol production, was used for L-lactic acid production via a newly isolated xylose utilizing Bacillus sp. strain XZL9. Bacillus sp. strain XZL9 can utilize the mixture of sugars including xylose, arabinose, and glucose in corncob molasses for L-lactic acid production. High concentration of L-lactic acid (74.7 g l?¹) was obtained from corncob molasses (initial total sugars of 91.4 g l?¹) in fed-batch fermentation. This study provides an encouraging means of producing L-lactic acid from lignocellulosic resource such as the low-cost corncob molasses. PMID:20627714

Wang, Limin; Zhao, Bo; Liu, Bo; Yu, Bo; Ma, Cuiqing; Su, Fei; Hua, Dongliang; Li, Qinggang; Ma, Yanhe; Xu, Ping

2010-10-01

196

DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES  

SciTech Connect

Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

2008-05-27

197

Evolutionary Responses to Invasion: Cane Toad Sympatric Fish Show Enhanced Avoidance Learning  

PubMed Central

The introduced cane toad (Bufo marinus) poses a major threat to biodiversity due to its lifelong toxicity. Several terrestrial native Australian vertebrates are adapting to the cane toad’s presence and lab trials have demonstrated that repeated exposure to B. marinus can result in learnt avoidance behaviour. Here we investigated whether aversion learning is occurring in aquatic ecosystems by comparing cane toad naïve and sympatric populations of crimson spotted rainbow fish (Melanotaenia duboulayi). The first experiment indicated that fish from the sympatric population had pre-existing aversion to attacking cane toad tadpoles but also showed reduced attacks on native tadpoles. The second experiment revealed that fish from both naïve and sympatric populations learned to avoid cane toad tadpoles following repeated, direct exposure. Allopatric fish also developed a general aversion to tadpoles. The aversion learning abilities of both groups was examined using an experiment involving novel distasteful prey items. While both populations developed a general avoidance of edible pellets in the presence of distasteful pellets, only the sympatric population significantly reduced the number of attacks on the novel distasteful prey item. These results indicate that experience with toxic prey items over multiple generations can enhance avoidance leaning capabilities via natural selection.

Caller, Georgina; Brown, Culum

2013-01-01

198

Ground Water Nitrate Reduction in Giant Cane and Forest Riparian Buffer Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground water contamination by excess nitrate leaching in row-crop fields is an important issue in intensive agricultural areas of the United States and abroad. Giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones were monitored to determine each cover type's ability to reduce ground water nitrate concentrations. Ground water was sampled at varying distances from the field edge to determine an effective width for maximum nitrate attenuation. Ground water samples were analyzed for nitrate concentrations as well as chloride concentrations, which were used as a conservative ion to assess dilution or concentration effects within the riparian zone. Significant nitrate reductions occurred in both the cane and the forest riparian buffer zones within the first 3.3 m, a relatively narrow width. In this first 3.3 m, the cane and forest buffer reduced ground water nitrate levels by 90 percent and 61 percent, respectively. Approximately 40 percent of the observed 99 percent nitrate reduction over the 10 m cane buffer could be attributed to dilution by upwelling ground water. Neither ground water dilution nor concentration was observed in the forest buffer. The ground water nitrate attenuation capabilities of the cane and forest riparian zones were not statistically different. During the spring, both plant assimilation and denitrification were probably important nitrate loss mechanisms, while in the summer nitrate was more likely lost via denitrification since the water table dropped below the rooting zone.

Schoonover, Jon E.; Williard, Karl W. J.

2003-04-01

199

Accumulation of recombinant cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase in the leaves of mature transgenic sugar cane.  

PubMed

A major strategic goal in making ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel is to reduce the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars. Current production systems for these enzymes, namely microbes, are not economic. One way to substantially reduce production costs is to express cellulolytic enzymes in plants at levels that are high enough to hydrolyse lignocellulosic biomass. Sugar cane fibre (bagasse) is the most promising lignocellulosic feedstock for conversion to ethanol in the tropics and subtropics. Cellulolytic enzyme production in sugar cane will have a substantial impact on the economics of lignocellulosic ethanol production from bagasse. We therefore generated transgenic sugar cane accumulating three cellulolytic enzymes, fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), CBH II and bacterial endoglucanase (EG), in leaves using the maize PepC promoter as an alternative to maize Ubi1 for controlling transgene expression. Different subcellular targeting signals were shown to have a substantial impact on the accumulation of these enzymes; the CBHs and EG accumulated to higher levels when fused to a vacuolar-sorting determinant than to an endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal, while EG was produced in the largest amounts when fused to a chloroplast-targeting signal. These results are the first demonstration of the expression and accumulation of recombinant CBH I, CBH II and EG in sugar cane and represent a significant first step towards the optimization of cellulolytic enzyme expression in sugar cane for the economic production of lignocellulosic ethanol. PMID:21356003

Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, Jason; Coleman, Heather D; Shand, Kylie; Kinkema, Mark; Palupe, Anthony; Hassall, Rachael; Sainz, Manuel; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Dale, James L

2011-10-01

200

Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala infection in Bufo marinus: lung nematodes reduce viability of metamorph cane toads.  

PubMed

Cane toads (Bufo marinus) were introduced to Australia in 1935 and have since spread widely over the continent, generating concern regarding ecological impacts on native predators. Most Australian cane toad populations are infected with lung nematodes Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala, a parasite endemic to New World (native-range) cane toad populations; presumably introduced to Australia with its toad host. Considering the high intensities and prevalence reached by this parasite in Australian toad populations, and public ardour for developing a control plan for the invasive host species, the lack of experimental studies on this host-parasite system is surprising. To investigate the extent to which this lungworm influences cane toad viability, we experimentally infected metamorph toads (the smallest and presumably most vulnerable terrestrial phase of the anuran life cycle) with the helminth. Infected toads exhibited reduced survival and growth rates, impaired locomotor performance (both speed and endurance), and reduced prey intake. In summary, R. pseudosphaerocephala can substantially reduce the viability of metamorph cane toads. PMID:19523249

Kelehear, C; Webb, J K; Shine, R

2009-07-01

201

Effect of Addition of Urea or Urea Plus Molasses to Different Corn Silages Harvested at Dough Stage on Silage Quality and Digestible Dry Matter Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demirel, M., Yilmaz, ?., Deniz, S., Kaplan, O. and Akdeniz, H. 2003. Effect of addition of urea or urea plus molasses to different corn silages harvested at dough stage on silage quality and digestible dry matter yield. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 24: 7–16.To study the effects of 0.5% urea, and 0.5% urea plus 4% molasses addition to different corn silages

Murat Demirel; ?brahim Yilmaz; Suphi Deniz; Oktay Kaplan; Hakki Akdeniz

2003-01-01

202

Effect of urea molasses mineral granules (UMMG) on rumen fermentation pattern and blood biochemical constituents in goat kids fed sola (Aeschonomene indica Linn) grass-based diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on twenty graded jamunapari goat kids fed on four different groups. Group I was fed solely on roughage, i.e. sola (Aeschonomene indica Linn) grass hay and rice straw (70:30). Groups II, III and IV were fed on de-oiled rice bran (100 g\\/d), urea molasses mineral granules (50 g\\/d) and urea molasses mineral granules (50 g\\/d) plus

Nisha Jain; Sita Prasad Tiwari; Pushpraj Singh

203

Balanced cross sections of the Subalpine Molasse of Austria and Bavaria: Differential Miocene shortening causes clockwise vertical axis rotation in the external Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Subalpine Molasse is the most external tectonic unit of the Alps and represents the sediments of the peripheral Alpine foreland basin displaced by Alpine tectonism. We compiled a new tectonic map and measured shortening in nine cross sections of the Subalpine Molasse from the Rhine valley to Salzburg in the east to investigate alongstrike changes in structure. Alpine thrusting started to affect the Subalpine Molasse at the end of the lower Miocene . Growth strata on top of the frontal anticline document the initial development of the structure. Subsequent back-breaking thrusts truncate the preexisting structures; from these relationships we conclude that most of the thrusting within the Subalpine Molasse postdates the late Early Miocene. Total shortening within the Subalpine Molasse changes dramatically alongstrike: around 50km are measured near the Rhine valley (compare contribution Pomella et al., this session), almost zero near Salzburg. A continuous eastward decrease of shortening is observed in the balanced cross sections, which is controlled by the interaction of escape tectonics with post-collisional shortening. Transfer of shortening into the hinterland, which was the zone of lateral escape, causes the end of foreland-propagation of the Alpine thrusts, and an apparent break-back sequence of thrusting. However, the thrusts remained active, as the escape related faults remained transpressive throughout their activity. In such a scenario, tectonic units on top of the Subalpine Molasse must experience clockwise vertical axis rotation. As thrusting in the Subalpine Molasse is closely related to contemporaneous transport and shortening within the tectonically higher Helvetic thrust sheets, that have no counterpart near Salzburg, values for Miocene differential shortening and clockwise vertical axis rotation are minimum values, and probably exceed the 12° as deduced from the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt alone. It seems quite likely that further late Alpine shortening is transferred southwards into the Tauern Window, and the Southern Alps, where corresponding Middle to Late Miocene structures are well known.

Ortner, Hugo; Pomella, Hannah; Zerlauth, Michael; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

2013-04-01

204

40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory...CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

2013-07-01

205

Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control. PMID:22696528

Crossland, Michael R; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A; Capon, Robert J; Shine, Richard

2012-09-01

206

Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Cear?, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates.

Pereira, Regina F. R.; Vidal, Carla B.; de Lima, Ari C. A.; Melo, Diego Q.; Dantas, Allan N. S.; Lopes, Gisele S.; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F.; Gomes, Clerton L.; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

2012-01-01

207

Nitrous oxide emissions in giant cane in the Cache River watershed, southern Illinois  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large stands of Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhl, called canebrakes, were vital to wildlife and lowland ecosystem functions and historically covered millions of acres in the southeastern United States. Since European settlement, human disturbances (e.g., clearing for agriculture and fire suppression) have caused giant cane to decline to approximately 2% of its historic range. Cane's ecological importance has led to an increased interest in canebrake restoration in riparian zones. Giant cane is a good candidate to include in multispecies riparian buffers designs, as it promotes infiltration of surface runoff and deposition of sediment and associated nutrients through its high density culms and extensive shallow rooting network. In addition, nitrous oxide is produced naturally in the soil during the microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification. To examine the role that cane plays in nutrient cycling, we have designed a research strategy to determine physical and chemical properties of existing riparian stands of native giant cane and their associated soils. We collected data on soil carbon/nitrogen ratios and monthly nitrous oxide release in both canebrakes and nearby forested riparian areas. Soil in the canebrakes had significantly higher C:N ratios (10.9) than that in cropfields (9.8), but showed no significant difference than that in the forest (10.8). Nitrous oxide emissions had a strong correlation with soil water content (r2 = 24%), but no relation with soil temperature (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in N2O releases between forest and cane, nor among the monthly samples.

Nelson, A. M.; Williard, K. W.; Schoonover, J.

2013-12-01

208

Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

2005-12-01

209

CANE FIBERBOARD DEGRADATION WITHIN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION  

SciTech Connect

The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.

2013-06-19

210

AGING MODEL FOR CANE FIBERBOARD OVERPACK IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect

Many radioactive material shipping packages incorporate a cane fiberboard overpack for thermal insulation and impact resistance. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard following thermal aging in several temperature/humidity environments. Several of the measured properties change significantly over time in the more severe environments, while other properties are relatively constant. Changes in each of the properties have been fit to a model to allow predictions of degradation under various storage scenarios. Additional data continue to be collected to provide for future refinements to the model.

Daugherty, W.; Harris, S.

2010-03-05

211

Culture of Candida in vinasse and molasses: Effect of acid and salt addition on biomass and raw protein production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of the genera Candida grown in vinasse and molasses were studied under the following conditions: agitation of containers, pH 4.6, culture time of 24 hours at 30°C. The greatest biomass production of C. krusei grown in vinasse was obtained with the addition of 0.1% H3PO4, and of C. guilliermondii and C. utilis with the addition 0.02% urea plus 0.03%

Sâmia Maria Tauk

1982-01-01

212

Biohydrogen production from ethanol-type fermentation of molasses in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) process with granular activated carbon (GAC) was developed for fermentative hydrogen production from molasses-containing wastewater by mixed microbial cultures. No pH regulation was performed during the whole operation period. Running at the temperature of 35°C, the EGSB reactor presented a high hydrogen production ability as the hydrogen production rate (HPR) maximized at 0.71L\\/Lh. At

Wan-Qian Guo; Nan-Qi Ren; Xiang-Jing Wang; Wen-Sheng Xiang; Zhao-Hui Meng; Jie Ding; Yuan-Yuan Qu; Lu-Si Zhang

2008-01-01

213

Single-mode quantum cascade lasers employing a candy-cane shaped Fabry-Perot cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-mode Quantum Cascade lasers employing a candy-cane shaped Fabry-Perot cavity are demonstrated. Single-mode emission with ~25 dB side mode suppression is achieved up to ~500 mA above threshold current in pulsed operation.

Peter Q. Liu; Kamil Sladek; Xiaojun Wang; Jen-Yu Fan; Claire F. Gmachl

2011-01-01

214

Cane Toads on Cowpats: Commercial Livestock Production Facilitates Toad Invasion in Tropical Australia  

PubMed Central

Habitat disturbance and the spread of invasive organisms are major threats to biodiversity, but the interactions between these two factors remain poorly understood in many systems. Grazing activities may facilitate the spread of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia by providing year-round access to otherwise-seasonal resources. We quantified the cane toad’s use of cowpats (feces piles) in the field, and conducted experimental trials to assess the potential role of cowpats as sources of prey, water, and warmth for toads. Our field surveys show that cane toads are found on or near cowpats more often than expected by chance. Field-enclosure experiments show that cowpats facilitate toad feeding by providing access to dung beetles. Cowpats also offer moist surfaces that can reduce dehydration rates of toads and are warmer than other nearby substrates. Livestock grazing is the primary form of land use over vast areas of Australia, and pastoral activities may have contributed substantially to the cane toad’s successful invasion of that continent.

Gonzalez-Bernal, Edna; Greenlees, Matthew; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

2012-01-01

215

Assessment of Virally Vectored Autoimmunity as a Biocontrol Strategy for Cane Toads  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so

Jackie A. Pallister; Damien C. T. Halliday; Anthony J. Robinson; Daryl Venables; Rhonda D. Voysey; Donna G. Boyle; Thayalini Shanmuganathan; Christopher M. Hardy; Nicole A. Siddon; Alex D. Hyatt; Pedro R. Lowenstein

2011-01-01

216

Cane toads on cowpats: commercial livestock production facilitates toad invasion in tropical australia.  

PubMed

Habitat disturbance and the spread of invasive organisms are major threats to biodiversity, but the interactions between these two factors remain poorly understood in many systems. Grazing activities may facilitate the spread of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia by providing year-round access to otherwise-seasonal resources. We quantified the cane toad's use of cowpats (feces piles) in the field, and conducted experimental trials to assess the potential role of cowpats as sources of prey, water, and warmth for toads. Our field surveys show that cane toads are found on or near cowpats more often than expected by chance. Field-enclosure experiments show that cowpats facilitate toad feeding by providing access to dung beetles. Cowpats also offer moist surfaces that can reduce dehydration rates of toads and are warmer than other nearby substrates. Livestock grazing is the primary form of land use over vast areas of Australia, and pastoral activities may have contributed substantially to the cane toad's successful invasion of that continent. PMID:23145158

González-Bernal, Edna; Greenlees, Matthew; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

2012-01-01

217

Accidental fatal poisoning of a dog by Dieffenbachia picta (dumb cane).  

PubMed

A single case of accidental fatal poisoning by Dieffenbachia picta, (dumb cane) (Araceae) in a 9-y-old female Poodle is described. Clinical signs included severe, locally extensive erosive/ulcerative glossitis accompanied by marked dyspnea of acute onset. The animal did not respond to emergency procedures to relieve severe respiratory distress; fatal asphyxiation ensued from edema of the glottis a few hours after the first clinical signs were observed. According to the owner, the dog had access to a tall, potted dumb cane plant and chewed the thick stem of the plant intensely. The owner did not authorize a necropsy of the animal. The diagnosis of Dieffenbachia picta poisoning was based on the history of accidental consumption of dumb cane and clinical signs. A comparison of this single case with other reports of dumb cane poisoning suggests that dogs poisoned by Dieffenbachia species usually recover uneventfully with conservative management and that death from asphyxiation is a rare but possible consequence of this intoxication. Severe edematous swelling of the glottis with occlusion of the larynx airway passage can occur in those cases in which large amounts of sap are quickly squeezed from the plant during intense chewing. Death would occur if owners do not seek veterinary care immediately and if emergency procedures are not instituted on time. PMID:14513888

Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; da Silva Ilha, Marcia Regina; Ribeiro, Rita Elaine Streda

2003-10-01

218

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of thermal degradation of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal degradation of sugar cane bagasse has been studied between 200 and 800 °C under a nitrogen gas flow. Different experimental parameters of the pyrolysis have been investigated, including holding temperature, time duration of pyrolysis, and heating rate. The solid residues obtained were then analyzed by classical elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.The most important structure modifications appeared

Ketty Bilba; Alex Ouensanga

1996-01-01

219

Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most

A. M. Azzam

1989-01-01

220

Infection and Colonization of Sugar Cane and Other Graminaceous Plants by Endophytic Diazotrophs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculturally important grasses such as sugar cane (Saccharum sp.), rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum) sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), maize (Zea mays), Panicum maximum, Brachiaria spp., and Pennisetum purpureum contain numerous diazotrophic bacteria, such as, Acetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum spp., Azospirillum spp. These bacteria do not usually cause disease symptoms in the plants with which they are associated and the more numerous

Euan K. James; Fábio L. Olivares

1998-01-01

221

Lack of effect of sugar cane policosanol on plasma cholesterol in Golden Syrian hamsters.  

PubMed

Policosanol is a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols shown to have beneficial effects on plasma lipid levels in animals and humans. Over 50 studies have reported significant reductions in plasma cholesterol using policosanol obtained from Cuban sugar cane (Dalmer, La Havana, Cuba). However, other research groups using policosanol from alternative sources have failed to reproduce the efficacy of these alcohols observed in earlier studies. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the cholesterol-lowering effect of the Dalmer sugar cane policosanol (SCP) product versus an alternative mixture of similar policosanol composition. Forty-eight male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly assigned to four groups and fed experimental diets ad libitum for a period of 4 weeks: (i) non-cholesterol control, (ii) 0.1% cholesterol control, (iii) 0.1% cholesterol diet supplemented with 275 mg/kg diet of Dalmer Cuban sugar cane policosanol and (iv) 0.1% cholesterol diet supplemented with 275 mg/kg diet of alternative sugar cane policosanol. Hamsters were sacrificed and blood was collected at the end of the feeding period. Body weights and food intakes were similar across study groups. Neither of the two policosanol treatments had any significant effect on plasma lipid levels, as compared to cholesterol control. The outcome of the present study questions the clinical usefulness of policosanol mixtures as cholesterol-lowering nutraceuticals. PMID:17123537

Kassis, Amira N; Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Jain, Deepak; Ebine, Naoyuki; Jones, Peter J H

2007-09-01

222

Teaching the Use of a Long Cane Step by Step: Suggestions for Progressive, Methodical Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fundamental part of the orientation and mobility curriculum is the acquisition and retention of skills in using a long cane automatically and proficiently to detect and negotiate obstacles and drop-offs. Using practitioners' experiences and the principles of learning theory, instructors can monitor students' advancement and adapt teaching…

Sauerburger, Dona; Bourquin, Eugene

2010-01-01

223

Discrimination and classification of beet and cane inverts in honey by FT-Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a natural product, honey has been prone to adulteration. Adulteration of honey by substituting with cheap invert sugars is a critical issue in the honey industry. Fourier Transform (FT) Raman Spectroscopy was used to detect adulterants such as cane and beet invert in honey. FT Ra man spectrum of adulterated samples were characterized and the region between 200 and

M. M Paradkar; J Irudayaraj

2002-01-01

224

WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING  

SciTech Connect

Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex{trademark} manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex{trademark}. The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package.

Varble, J

2007-11-20

225

Production of compost with bagasse and vinasses for cane crop in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a mixture of bagasse, animal manure and vinasse can be transformed into compost suitable for agriculture. The factors necessary for good composting are discussed, these include the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture, aeration and temperature. A mixture of 300 kg cane bagasse and 38 kg poultry manure moistened with vinasse gave the best results.

Park, Y.K.; Castro Gomez, R.J.H.

1982-10-01

226

Ethanol Production from Sugar Cane: Assessing the Possibilities of Improving Energy Efficiency through Exergetic Cost Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugar and ethanol production is one of the most important economical activities in Brazil, mainly due its high efficiency and competitiveness. Ethanol production is done by a series of steps: juice extraction, treatment, fermentation, and distillation. The juice extraction and treatment is a common operation of both the sugar and ethanol industries. The process begins with the sugar cane

Marcelo Modesto; Roger J. Zemp; Sílvia A. Nebra

2009-01-01

227

PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL OF ARTIFICIAL STIMULATION OF RAINFALL IN THE NATAL CANE BELT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of rainfall stimulation was made with the aim of assessing its economic potential for the Natal cane belt. High variability of precipitation in both space and time makes the determination of requirements and effects of large scale seeding programmes very difficult. Evaluation of field and laboratory tests have, however, identified two conditions under which seeding could increase precipitation

B. E. KELBE

228

Structural and physicochemical characteristics of starch from sugar cane and sweet sorghum stalks.  

PubMed

The starch present in sugar cane and sorghum juice has been considered a problem to the sugar industry. The objective of this work was to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the starch present in sugar cane and sweet sorghum. Sugar cane and sweet sorghum starches presented small granules (maximum 5.9 and 7.9?m), A-type diffraction pattern, high degree of relative crystallinity (44.4 and 42.0%), and low amylose content (17.5 and 16.4%), respectively. Sugar cane starch presented more uniformity in granule shape and size, more homogeneity in amylose chain length, higher number of long lateral chains of amylopectin, and higher susceptibility to enzymatic digestion. Besides being in higher amount in the juice, sweet sorghum starch presented lower values for thermal properties of gelatinization, as well as higher swelling factor, which can cause more problems during processing. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the variety and maturity influence on these properties. PMID:25037392

Alves, Fernanda Viginotti; Polesi, Luís Fernando; Aguiar, Cláudio Lima; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira

2014-10-13

229

Measuring Energetics and Behaviour Using Accelerometry in Cane Toads Bufo marinus  

PubMed Central

Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration), to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R2?=?0.74). Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species.

Halsey, Lewis G.; White, Craig R.

2010-01-01

230

Increased estimates of air-pollution emissions from Brazilian sugar-cane ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse-gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels on air quality and climate. Sugar-cane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here we use a life-cycle approach to produce spatially and temporally explicit estimates of air-pollutant emissions over the whole life cycle of sugar-cane ethanol in Brazil. We show that even in regions where pre-harvest field burning has been eliminated on half the croplands, regional emissions of air pollutants continue to increase owing to the expansion of sugar-cane growing areas, and burning continues to be the dominant life-cycle stage for emissions. Comparison of our estimates of burning-phase emissions with satellite estimates of burning in São Paulo state suggests that sugar-cane field burning is not fully accounted for in satellite-based inventories, owing to the small spatial scale of individual fires. Accounting for this effect leads to revised regional estimates of burned area that are four times greater than some previous estimates. Our revised emissions maps thus suggest that biofuels may have larger impacts on regional climate forcing and human health than previously thought.

Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J. E.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Chen, Y.

2012-01-01

231

The design and evaluation of a hybrid sensor network for cane-toad monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates a wireless, acoustic sensor network application — monitoring amphibian populations in the monsoonal woodlands of northern Australia. Our goal is to use automatic recognition of animal vocalizations to census the populations of native frogs and the invasive introduced species, the Cane Toad (see Fig. 1). This is a challenging application because it requires high frequency acoustic sampling,

Wen Hu; Van Nghia Tran; Nirupama Bulusu; Chun Tung Chou; Sanjay Jha; Andrew Taylor

2005-01-01

232

Alkali-based AFEX pretreatment for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse and cane leaf residues to ethanol.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is one of the major agricultural crops cultivated in tropical climate regions of the world. Each tonne of raw cane production is associated with the generation of 130 kg dry weight of bagasse after juice extraction and 250 kg dry weight of cane leaf residue postharvest. The annual world production of sugarcane is approximately 1.6 billion tones, generating 279 MMT tones of biomass residues (bagasse and cane leaf matter) that would be available for cellulosic ethanol production. Here, we investigated the production of cellulosic ethanol from sugar cane bagasse and sugar cane leaf residue using an alkaline pretreatment: ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX). The AFEX pretreatment improved the accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses to enzymes during hydrolysis by breaking down the ester linkages and other lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds and the sugar produced by this process is found to be highly fermentable. The maximum glucan conversion of AFEX pretreated bagasse and cane leaf residue by cellulases was approximately 85%. Supplementation with hemicellulases during enzymatic hydrolysis improved the xylan conversion up to 95-98%. Xylanase supplementation also contributed to a marginal improvement in the glucan conversion. AFEX-treated cane leaf residue was found to have a greater enzymatic digestibility compared to AFEX-treated bagasse. Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose, produced from high solid loading (6% glucan) hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and cane leaf residue, using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (424A LNH-ST) produced 34-36 g/L of ethanol with 92% theoretical yield. These results demonstrate that AFEX pretreatment is a viable process for conversion of bagasse and cane leaf residue into cellulosic ethanol. PMID:20521302

Krishnan, Chandraraj; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Jin, Mingjie; Chang, Linpei; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

2010-10-15

233

Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

2012-04-01

234

Wave-, tide-, and current-controlled sandbodies of miocene molasse, western Switzerland  

SciTech Connect

The Miocene (Burdigalian) clastic sediments of western Switzerland were deposited in a wide variety of environments ranging from fan deltas to offshore coquina banks. Conglomerates and sandstones of the proximal fan-delta facies were deposited in distributary channels that were influenced by tides to varying extents. Tidal sand waves exhibiting bipolar paleocurrent patterns and intertidal sand flats are the most conspicuous features of the coastal facies belt. The nearshore facies is composed of thick, sandy subtidal shoals built of current-generated megaripples, intershoal swales containing horizontally stratified fine sandstones and mudstones, and swash bars or flood ramps with low angle accretionary bedding. The offshore facies belt contains very large coquina banks fashioned by vigorous (tidal) currents and reworked by fair-weather waves. Wave power, calculated from preserved ripple marks, indicates a moderate-energy sea of limited fetch, perhaps 100 km. The ratio of wave power to reasonable estimates of discharge effectiveness index suggests wave-dominated rather than fluvial-dominated deltaic systems. Additionally, comparison of wave power with interpreted tidal range (microtidal to mesotidal) indicates strong influence from both tides and waves but little influence from river outflow. The predicted association of sand-filled distributaries and laterally persistent nearshore features is in agreement with the facies described from the Burdigalian Molasse of the Fribourg area, western Switzerland. 16 figures.

Homewood, P. (Universite de Fribourg, Perolles, Switzerland); Allen, P.

1981-12-01

235

Fermentative hydrogen production from molasses wastewater in a continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor.  

PubMed

A novel continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor (CMISR) containing activated carbon as support carrier was used for fermentative hydrogen production from molasses wastewater. When the CMISR system operated at the conditions of influent COD of 2000-6000mg/L, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6h and temperature of 35°C, stable ethanol type fermentation was formed after 40days operation. The H(2) content in biogas and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were estimated to be 46.6% and 13%, respectively. The effects of organic loading rates (OLRs) on the CMISR hydrogen production system were also investigated. It was found that the maximum hydrogen production rate of 12.51mmol/hL was obtained at OLR of 32kg/m(3)d and the maximum hydrogen yield by substrate consumed of 130.57mmol/mol happened at OLR of 16kg/m(3)d. Therefore, the continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor (CMISR) could be a promising immobilized system for fermentative hydrogen production. PMID:22326329

Han, Wei; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yan; Wang, De-Xin; Wang, Yan; Yue, Li-Ran; Li, Yong-Feng; Ren, Nan-Qi

2012-04-01

236

Kinetics and thermodynamics of ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MLD10 using molasses.  

PubMed

In this study, we have used ultraviolet (UV) and ?-ray induction to get a catabolite repression resistant and thermotolerant mutant with enhanced ethanol production along with optimization of sugar concentration and temperature of fermentation. Classical mutagenesis in two consecutive cycles of UV- and ?-ray-induced mutations evolved one best catabolite-resistant and thermotolerant mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae MLD10 which showed improved ethanol yield (0.48 ± 0.02 g g(-1)), theoretical yield (93 ± 3%), and extracellular invertase productivity (1,430 ± 50 IU l(-1) h(-1)), respectively, when fermenting 180 g sugars l(-1) in molasses medium at 43 °C in 300 m(3) working volume fermenter. Ethanol production was highly dependent on invertase production. Enthalpy (?H*) (32.27 kJ M(-1)) and entropy (?S*) (-202.88 J M(-1) K(-1)) values at 43 °C by the mutant MLD10 were significantly lower than those of ?-glucosidase production by a thermophilic mutant derivative of Thermomyces lanuginosus. These results confirmed the enhanced production of ethanol and invertase by this mutant derivative. These studies proved that mutant was significantly improved for ethanol production and was thermostable in nature. Lower fermentation time for ethanol production and maintenance of ethanol production rates (3.1 g l(-1) h(-1)) at higher temperature (43 °C) by this mutant could decrease the overall cost of fermentation process and increase the quality of ethanol production. PMID:24395695

Arshad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Sibtain; Zia, Muhammad Anjum; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim

2014-03-01

237

The relationship between mixed microbial culture composition and PHA production performance from fermented molasses.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters that can be produced from industrial wastewater or surplus products by mixed microbial cultures (MMC). To optimise PHA production by MMCs, the link between the microbial structure and function of these enrichments must be better established. This study investigates, for the first time, the impact of operational changes on the microbial community and the associated process performance of PHA producing MMCs. It was found that a PHA producing community fed with fermented molasses was dominated by a combination of Azoarcus, Thauera and Paracoccus, where the former two groups were present in highest abundance. Dominance of either Thauera or Azoarcus seemed to be determined by the organic loading rate imposed in the selection reactor. While higher Azoarcus enrichments led to higher PHA production yields and lower biomass growth yields as compared to Thauera, the Thauera abundance was strongly linked to higher hydroxyvalerate (HV) fractions. Paracoccus abundance was correlated with a lower PHA production capacity as compared to Azoarcus, and produced lower HV fractions than Thauera and Azoarcus. The findings of this study suggest that MMCs targeting the enrichment of Azoarcus as the primary biomass fraction with Thauera as a minor fraction lead to optimal specific PHA production and polymers with high HV content, which is likely to improve their mechanical properties. PMID:24025669

Carvalho, Gilda; Oehmen, Adrian; Albuquerque, Maria G E; Reis, Maria A M

2014-06-25

238

Impacts of energy cane expansion on ecosystem services: A Florida case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a rising demand for sustainable and secure sources of energy. This demand is driving the development of second-generation biofuel crops across the United States. However, in a changing climate the capability of these crops to meet energy demands are uncertain. Additionally, the impacts of energy crop adoption on biophysical and biochemical ecosystem services need to be refined. Central Florida has been identified as a test bed for energy cane in anticipation of increased investment for energy crop production in the southeastern United States. Currently, the land cover in this region is characterized by pasturelands with relatively low rates of productivity and evapotranspiration. By replacing these lands with highly productive and irrigated energy cane significant perturbations to the local and regional budgets of water, energy, and carbon are anticipated. In this study, we extend the Agro-IBIS LSM with a mechanistic multilayer canopy model of biofuel crops to simulate inter-canopy fluxes of energy, moisture, and carbon. We validate the model using published leaf area, surface flux, and yield observations taken from studies that encompassed variable soil types, climatic conditions, and management decisions. This extended Agro-IBIS model is used to simulate the growth of energy cane in central Florida. Using this model we assess the potential impacts of large-scale changes in land cover on future ecosystem services for the region. In particular, we focus on how changes in atmospheric CO2 and temperature influence energy cane's regulation of surface fluxes and storage. Using a series of simulations that represent a range of climatic regimes we test how increased atmospheric carbon concentrations may enhance or diminish stresses associated with changes in regional climate, and how the physiological plant responses feedback on fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. This allows us to quantitatively evaluate how large-scale energy cane production will impact regional budgets of water, energy, and carbon.

Bagley, J. E.; VanLoocke, A.; Jaiswal, D.; Bernacchi, C. J.; Long, S.

2012-12-01

239

75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2010-08-17

240

75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

2010-08-30

241

77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OFFICE OF THE TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2012-09-17

242

76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2011-08-12

243

Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area reached values above 200 t ha-1, with higher values of productivity are concentrated in the region northern terrain. The maps of soil electrical conductivity (ECa-V and ECa-H) showed behavior similar to the productivity of cane sugar. The linear correlation showed values of 0.74 (yield x ECa-H) and 0.85 (yield x ECa-V). The adjusted semivariograms showed no similarity in the spatial pattern of pairs of semivariance. The electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction has been shown as an important tool for predicting the productivity of sugar cane, however more studies are needed to determine the magnitude of the differences between such attributes.

Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

2013-04-01

244

Kinetics of ethanol production during the reactor feeding phase in constant fed-batch fermentation of molasses  

SciTech Connect

During the fermentor feeding phase in constant fed-batch ethanol fermentation of molasses, the ethanol production rates are constant and are correlated to the sugar feeding rates by a Monod-like equation. The parameters of this Monod-like correlation depend on the sugars concentration of the feeding mash. A model is proposed to explain the constancy of the ethanol production rate experimentally observed. From the Monod-like correlation it is possible to evaluate the maximum value of the mash feeding rate to be used in order to have a completely fermented medium just at the end of the feeding phase.

Borzani, W.

1987-05-01

245

Decolourization and removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with energy recovery: Treatment of biodigester effluent of a molasses-based alcohol distillery using inorganic coagulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of molasses-derived colour and chemical oxygen demand from the biodigester effluent of a molasses-based alcohol distillery effluent treatment plant was studied using inorganic coagulants—FeCl3, AlCl3 and polyaluminium chloride (PAC). The coagulation\\/flocculation yield about 55, 60 and 72% COD reductions and about 83, 86 and 92% colour reductions, with the use of 60mM\\/l AlCl3, 60mM\\/l FeCl3 and 30ml\\/l of

Parmesh Kumar Chaudhari; Indra Mani Mishra; Shri Chand

2007-01-01

246

Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate  

SciTech Connect

Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A. [Faculty of Chemical Enginering of Lorena (Brazil); Vitolo, M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1997-12-31

247

Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants  

PubMed Central

Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from ‘floor dump sediment’, ‘cooling tower water’, and ‘bagasse leachate’. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as ‘lactic acid bacteria’, capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria.

Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

2013-01-01

248

Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants.  

PubMed

Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from 'floor dump sediment', 'cooling tower water', and 'bagasse leachate'. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as 'lactic acid bacteria', capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

2013-01-01

249

Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

1983-01-01

250

Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.

1979-01-01

251

Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1982-01-01

252

Use of Sugar Cane Vinasse to Mitigate Aluminum Toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to its toxicity, aluminum (Al), which is one of the most abundant metals, inhibits the productivity of many cultures\\u000a and affects the microbial metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate\\u000a the adverse effects of Al on cell growth, viability, and budding, as the likely result of possible chelating action.

Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza Oliveira; Beatriz Rivas Torres; Mario Zilli; Daniela de Araújo Viana Marques; Luiz Carlos Basso; Attilio Converti

2009-01-01

253

Arundo donax cane as a precursor for activated carbons preparation by phosphoric acid activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canes from Arundo donax, a herbaceous rapid-growing plant, were used as precursor for activated carbon preparation by phosphoric acid activation under a self-generated atmosphere. The influence of the carbonization temperature in the range 400–550 °C and of the weight ratio phosphoric acid to precursor (R=1.5–2.5) on the developed porous structure of the resulting carbons was studied for 1 h of

T Vernersson; P. R Bonelli; E. G Cerrella; A. L Cukierman

2002-01-01

254

Lipase production by solid state fermentation of olive cake and sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil cake (OOC) from Morocco and sugar cane bagasse (SCB) were used for lipase production using thermostable fungal cultures of Rhizomucor pusillus and Rhizopus rhizopodiformis. The maximum production of lipase by Rhizomucor pusillus and Rhizopus rhizopodiformis in solid state fermentation (SSF) using SCB, was 4.99 U\\/g DM equivalent to 1.73 U\\/ml and 2.67 U\\/g DM equivalent to 0.97 U\\/ml,

J Cordova; M Nemmaoui; A Morin; S Roussos; M Raimbault; B Benjilali

1998-01-01

255

Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range.  

PubMed

Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degrees C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications. PMID:19472641

Davidson, Melanie T M; Jordan, Kevin J

2009-04-01

256

Mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of Trichoderma reesei with Aspergillus niger on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma reesei LM-UC4, the parent strain, and its hypercellulolytic mutant LM-UC4E1 were co-cultured with Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 in solid substrate fermentation on alkali-treated sugar cane for cellulolytic enzyme production. Bagasse was supplemented with either soymeal or with ammonium sulfate and urea, and fermented at 80% moisture content and 30°C. Mixed culturing produced better results with the inorganic supplement. The

Marcel Gutierrez-Correa; Leticia Portal; Patricia Moreno; Robert P. Tengerdy

1999-01-01

257

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate for ethanol production by yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate was prepared by dilute sulfuric acid (3% w\\/v) hydrolysis with a high-solid, low-liquid\\u000a ratio followed by leaching. The hydrolyzate contains 11% (w\\/v) of fermentable sugars with xylose as the major component, which\\u000a comprises up to 75% of the total reducing sugars. The neutralized hydrolyzate exhibited strong inhibition toward cell growth\\u000a and ethanol production by yeasts.

C. S. Gong; C. S. Chen; L. F. Chen

1993-01-01

258

Study of the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse using phosphoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, samples of sugar cane bagasse were hydrolysed with phosphoric acid under mild conditions (H3PO4 2–6%, time 0–300min and 122°C) to study the feasibility of using the liquid phase as fermentation media. Solid yield, sugar concentrations and decomposition product concentrations were measured. The composition of hydrolysates, their purity and the ratio sugars\\/inhibitors were analyzed. Kinetic models were

Sara Gámez; Juan Jose González-Cabriales; José Alberto Ramírez; Gil Garrote; Manuel Vázquez

2006-01-01

259

NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) from sugar cane leaves. Kinetic properties of different oligomeric structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) from sugar cane leaves was inhibited by increasing the ionic strength in the assay medium. The inhibitory effect was higher at pH 7.0 than 8.0, with median inhibitory concentrations (ICs0) of 89 mM and 160 mM respectively, for inhibition by NaCl. Gel-filtration experiments indicated that the enzyme dissociated into dimers and monomers when exposed to high

Alberto A. IGLESIAS; Carlos S. ANDREO

1990-01-01

260

The enduring toxicity of road-killed cane toads ( Rhinella marina )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary ecological impact of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia is mediated by their powerful toxins, which are fatal to many native species. Toads use roads as invasion corridors\\u000a and feeding sites, resulting in frequent road-kills. The flattened, desiccated toad carcasses remain highly toxic despite\\u000a being heated daily to >40°C for many months during the tropical dry-season. In

Michael Crossland; Gregory Brown; Richard Shine

261

Differentially delayed root proteome responses to salt stress in sugar cane varieties.  

PubMed

Soil salinity is a limiting factor to sugar cane crop development, although in general plants present variable mechanisms of tolerance to salinity stress. The molecular basis underlying these mechanisms can be inferred by using proteomic analysis. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify differentially expressed proteins in sugar cane plants submitted to salinity stress. For that, a greenhouse experiment was established with four sugar cane varieties and two salt conditions, 0 mM (control) and 200 mM NaCl. Physiological and proteomics analyses were performed after 2 and 72 h of stress induction by salt. Distinct physiological responses to salinity stress were observed in the varieties and linked to tolerance mechanisms. In proteomic analysis, the roots soluble protein fraction was extracted, quantified, and analyzed through bidimensional electrophoresis. Gel images analyses were done computationally, where in each contrast only one variable was considered (salinity condition or variety). Differential spots were excised, digested by trypsin, and identified via mass spectrometry. The tolerant variety RB867515 showed the highest accumulation of proteins involved in growth, development, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species metabolization, protein protection, and membrane stabilization after 2 h of stress. On the other hand, the presence of these proteins in the sensitive variety was verified only in stress treatment after 72 h. These data indicate that these stress responses pathways play a role in the tolerance to salinity in sugar cane, and their effectiveness for phenotypical tolerance depends on early stress detection and activation of the coding genes expression. PMID:24251627

Pacheco, Cinthya Mirella; Pestana-Calsa, Maria Clara; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Mansur Custodio Nogueira, Rejane Jurema; Menossi, Marcelo; Calsa, Tercilio

2013-12-01

262

Environmental repercussions of cane-sugar industries on the Chhoti Gandak river basin, Ganga Plain, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chhoti Gandak river basin, situated in the Ganga Plain, is one of India’s most productive cane-sugar industrial belts. Soil\\u000a and groundwater samples were collected to investigate the impacts of these industries on the environment of the Chhoti Gandak\\u000a river basin with special reference to soil and water. The results show that concentration of most metals are affected by industrial\\u000a activities

Vikram Bhardwaj; Dhruv Sen Singh; Abhay K. Singh

2010-01-01

263

Lack of cholesterol-lowering efficacy of Cuban sugar cane policosanols in hypercholesterolemic persons13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: More than 50 studies have reported substantial re- ductions in plasma lipid concentrations in response to 2-40 mg Cuban sugar cane policosanol (SCP) mixtures\\/d. However, several animal and human trials conducted outside of Cuba that used non- Cubanmixtureshavefailedtoreproducetheefficacyofpolicosanols observed in earlier studies. Objective: The objective was to evaluate lipid-modulating actions of the authentic Cuban SCPs on plasma lipids in

Amira N Kassis; Peter JH Jones

264

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate for xylitol production by yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of six known xylitol-producing yeast strains were screened for production of xylitol from xylose.Candida sp. 11-2 proved to be the best producer. It was chosen to study its ability to produce xylitol from hemicellulose hydrolysate\\u000a derived from sugar cane bagasse. The hydrolysate was prepared by dilute sulfuric acid (2–3% [w\\/v]) hydrolysis, with a high-solid,\\u000a low-liquid ratio followed by

Jose M. Dominguez; Cheng S. Gong; George T. Tsao

1996-01-01

265

A novel UASB-MFC-BAF integrated system for high strength molasses wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation.  

PubMed

An up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor-microbial fuel cell-biological aerated filter (UASB-MFC-BAF) system was developed for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and molasses wastewater treatment in this study. The maximum power density of 1410.2 mW/m(2) was obtained with a current density of 4947.9 mA/m(2) when the high strength molasses wastewater with chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 127,500 mg/l was employed as the influent. The total COD, sulfate and color removal efficiencies of the proposed system were achieved of 53.2%, 52.7% and 41.1%, respectively. Each unit of this system had respective function and performed well when integrated together. The UASB reactor unit was mainly responsible for COD removal and sulfate reduction, while the MFC unit was used for the oxidation of generated sulfide with electricity generation. The BAF unit dominated color removal and phenol derivatives degradation. This study is a beneficial attempt to combine MFC technology with conventional anaerobic-aerobic processes for actual wastewater treatment. PMID:19604688

Zhang, Baogang; Zhao, Huazhang; Zhou, Shungui; Shi, Chunhong; Wang, Chao; Ni, Jinren

2009-12-01

266

Characterisation of the impact of coagulation and anaerobic bio-treatment on the removal of chromophores from molasses wastewater.  

PubMed

The performance of a coagulation sequence using aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH) and a low MW polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC), and ferric chloride, for decolourising a high-strength industrial molasses wastewater was compared at bench scale. At their optimum dosages, ACH/polyDADMAC gave higher colour removal than FeCl(3) (45% cf. 28%), whereas COD reduction was similar (?30%), indicating preferential removal of melanoidins (a major contributor to the colour) by ACH/polyDADMAC. Size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectrometry suggested that chromophoric Fe-organic complexes were formed during FeCl(3) treatment of the molasses wastewater, which appeared to compromise decolourisation efficiency. Anaerobic bio-treatment of the wastewater enhanced the coagulation efficiency markedly, with FeCl(3) achieving 94% colour and 96% COD removal, while ACH/polyDADMAC gave 70% and 56% removal, respectively. The improved decolourisation was attributed to the decrease in low MW organics (<500 Da) and biopolymers by the biological treatment, leading to reduced competition with melanoidins for interaction with coagulant/flocculant. For both the wastewater and the biologically treated wastewater, ACH/polyDADMAC treatment gave flocs with markedly better settling properties compared with FeCl(3). PMID:21641627

Fan, Linhua; Nguyen, Thang; Roddick, Felicity A

2011-07-01

267

Continuous ethanol production from sugarcane molasses using a newly designed combined bioreactor system by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Continuous ethanol fermentation using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), immobilized yeast, and sugarcane molasses (22 and 35°Bx) with 8 g/L urea was run in a combined bioreactor system consisting of three-stage tubular bioreactors in series. The effect of the dilution rate (D) at 0.0037, 0.0075, 0.0117, 0.0145, 0.018, and 0.0282 H(-1) on continuous ethanol fermentation was investigated in this study. The results showed that D had a significant effect on fermentation efficiency, sugar-utilized rate, ethanol yield, and ethanol productivity in this designed continuous fermentation system. The D had a linear relationship with residual sugar and ethanol production under certain conditions. The highest fermentation efficiency of 83.26%, ethanol yield of 0.44 g/g, and the lowest residual sugar content of 6.50 g/L were achieved at 0.0037 H(-1) in the fermentation of 22°Bx molasses, indicating that the immobilization of cells using PVA, sugarcane pieces, and cotton towel is feasible and the established continuous system performs well. PMID:24164318

Xu, Wanxia; Liang, Lei; Song, Zhentao; Zhu, Mingjun

2014-05-01

268

Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.  

PubMed

Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg. PMID:20133118

Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

2010-05-01

269

Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs  

PubMed Central

Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax.

Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

1990-01-01

270

An improved chemically inducible gene switch that functions in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane.  

PubMed

Chemically inducible gene switches can provide precise control over gene expression, enabling more specific analyses of gene function and expanding the plant biotechnology toolkit beyond traditional constitutive expression systems. The alc gene expression system is one of the most promising chemically inducible gene switches in plants because of its potential in both fundamental research and commercial biotechnology applications. However, there are no published reports demonstrating that this versatile gene switch is functional in transgenic monocotyledonous plants, which include some of the most important agricultural crops. We found that the original alc gene switch was ineffective in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane, and describe a modified alc system that is functional in this globally significant crop. A promoter consisting of tandem copies of the ethanol receptor inverted repeat binding site, in combination with a minimal promoter sequence, was sufficient to give enhanced sensitivity and significantly higher levels of ethanol inducible gene expression. A longer CaMV 35S minimal promoter than was used in the original alc gene switch also substantially improved ethanol inducibility. Treating the roots with ethanol effectively induced the modified alc system in sugar cane leaves and stem, while an aerial spray was relatively ineffective. The extension of this chemically inducible gene expression system to sugar cane opens the door to new opportunities for basic research and crop biotechnology. PMID:24142380

Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, R Jason; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; De Lucca, Paulo C; Palupe, Anthony; Harrison, Mark D; Jepson, Ian; Dale, James L; Sainz, Manuel B

2014-03-01

271

Wearable Gait Measurement System with an Instrumented Cane for Exoskeleton Control  

PubMed Central

In this research we introduce a wearable sensory system for motion intention estimation and control of exoskeleton robot. The system comprises wearable inertial motion sensors and shoe-embedded force sensors. The system utilizes an instrumented cane as a part of the interface between the user and the robot. The cane reflects the motion of upper limbs, and is used in terms of human inter-limb synergies. The developed control system provides assisted motion in coherence with the motion of other unassisted limbs. The system utilizes the instrumented cane together with body worn sensors, and provides assistance for start, stop and continuous walking. We verified the function of the proposed method and the developed wearable system through gait trials on treadmill and on ground. The achievement contributes to finding an intuitive and feasible interface between human and robot through wearable gait sensors for practical use of assistive technology. It also contributes to the technology for cognitively assisted locomotion, which helps the locomotion of physically challenged people.

Hassan, Modar; Kadone, Hideki; Suzuki, Kenji; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

2014-01-01

272

Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

2011-12-01

273

Abatement of Ground Water Phosphate in Giant Cane and Forest Riparian Buffers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest and grass riparian buffers have been shown to be effective best management practices for controlling nonpoint source pollution. However, little research has been conducted on giant cane [Arundinaria gigantea (Walt. Muhl.)], a formerly common bamboo species, native to the lower midwestern and southeastern United States, and its ability to reduce nutrient loads to streams. From May 2002 through May 2003, orthophosphate or dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP) concentrations in ground water were measured at successive distances from the field edge through 12 m of riparian buffers of both giant cane and mixed hardwood forest along three streams draining agricultural land in the Cache River watershed in southern Illinois. Giant cane and mixed hardwood forest did not differ in their DRP sequestration abilities. Ground water DRP concentrations were significantly reduced (14 percent) in the first 1.5 m of the buffers, and there was an overall 28 percent reduction in DRP concentration by 12 m from the field edge. The relatively low DRP reductions compared to other studies could be attributed to high DRP input levels, narrow (12 m) buffer lengths, and/or mature (28 to 48 year old) riparian vegetation.

Blattel, Christopher R.; Williard, Karl W. J.; Baer, Sara G.; Zaczek, James J.

2005-04-01

274

Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in time ourselves, we investigated whether material at the museum of natural history could be used to retrieve parasites, and whether they were infected at the time of their collection (specifically prior to and after the cane toad translocation to Australia in 1935). Results Using the herpetological collection at the Australian Museum we showed that no myxospores were found in any animals (n = 115) prior to the cane toad invasion (1879-1935). The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea), the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) and the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) were all negative for the presence of the parasite using microscopy of the gallbladder content and its histology. These results were sufficient to conclude that the population was free from this disease (at the expected minimum prevalence of 5%) at 99.7% confidence level using the 115 voucher specimens in the Australian Museum. Similarly, museum specimens (n = 29) of the green and golden bell frog from New Caledonia, where it was introduced in 19th century, did not show the presence of myxospores. The earliest specimen positive for myxospores in a gallbladder was a green tree frog from 1966. Myxospores were found in eight (7.1%, n = 112) frogs in the post cane toad introduction period. Conclusion Australian wildlife is increasingly under threat, and amphibian decline is one of the most dramatic examples. The museum material proved essential to directly support the evidence of parasite emergence in Australian native frogs. This parasite can be considered one of the luckiest parasites, because it has found an empty niche in Australia. It now flourishes in > 20 endemic and exotic frog species, but its consequences are yet to be fully understood.

2010-01-01

275

Micromorphological and geochemical characterization of Tertiary ‘freshwater carbonates’ locally preserved north of the edge of the Miocene Molasse Basin (SW Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miocene carbonates intercalated in a deposit of Upper Freshwater Molasse (Middle Miocene), exposed in a limestone quarry at Heidenheim-Mergelstetten (Germany), were analysed geochemically and micromorphologically. The heavy minerals (fine sand) and clay minerals confirm the sedimentary interpretation of the formation as a sequence of Paleogene soil residues overlain by younger Neogene soil horizons developed in sediments of the Upper Freshwater

Peter Kallis; Klaus E Bleich; Karl Stahr

2000-01-01

276

Impact of cultivation and sugar-cane green trash management on carbon fractions and aggregate stability for a Chromic Luvisol in Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advances in sugar-cane harvesting and processing is bringing about rapid changes in production systems which could impact on soil physical conditions. An increasing incidence of soil structural decline and depletion of soil carbon levels has increased the risk of soil erosion and crop yield reductions. Soil carbon (C) and aggregate stability were studied on a sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

Nelly Blair

2000-01-01

277

Stellar Populations and Structural Properties of Ultra Faint Dwarf Galaxies, Canes Venatici I, Boötes I, Canes Venatici II, and Leo IV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We take deep images of four ultra faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Canes Venatici I (CVn I), Boötes I (Boö I), Canes Venatici II (CVn II), and Leo IV, using the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend below main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) and yield measurements of the ages of stellar populations. The stellar populations of three faint galaxies, the Boö I, CVn II, and Leo IV dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), are estimated to be as old as the Galactic globular cluster M92. We confirm that Boö I dSph has no intrinsic color spread in the MSTO and no spatial difference in the CMD morphology, which indicates that Boö I dSph is composed of an old single stellar population. One of the brightest UFDs, CVn I dSph, shows a relatively younger age (~12.6 Gyr) with respect to Boö I, CVn II, and Leo IV dSphs, and the distribution of red horizontal branch (HB) stars is more concentrated toward the center than that of blue HB stars, suggesting that the galaxy contains complex stellar populations. Boö I and CVn I dSphs show the elongated and distorted shapes. CVn II dSph has the smallest tidal radius of a Milky Way satellite and has a distorted shape, while Leo IV dSph shows a less concentrated spherical shape. The simple stellar population of faint UFDs indicates that the gases in their progenitors were removed more effectively than those of brighter dSphs at the occurrence of their initial star formation. This is reasonable if the progenitors of UFDs belong to less massive halos than those of brighter dSphs. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

Okamoto, Sakurako; Arimoto, Nobuo; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Onodera, Masato

2012-01-01

278

Interaction of molasses and monensin in alfalfa hay- or corn silage-based diets on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and milk production by Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Sugar supplementation can stimulate rumen microbial growth and possibly fiber digestibility; however, excess ruminal carbohydrate availability relative to rumen-degradable protein (RDP) can promote energy spilling by microbes, decrease rumen pH, or depress fiber digestibility. Both RDP supply and rumen pH might be altered by forage source and monensin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate interactions of a sugar source (molasses) with monensin and 2 forage sources on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and production and fatty acid composition of milk. Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a 5 x 7 incomplete Latin square design with five 28-d periods. Four corn silage diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), 3) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea (MU), or 4) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea plus monensin sodium (Rumensin, at the intermediate dosage from the label, 16 g/909 kg of dry matter; MUR). Three chopped alfalfa hay diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), or 3) 2.6% molasses plus Rumensin (MR). Urea was added to corn silage diets to provide RDP comparable to alfalfa hay diets with no urea. Corn silage C and M diets were balanced to have 16.2% crude protein; and the remaining diets, 17.2% crude protein. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment, but there was a trend for lower milk production in alfalfa hay diets compared with corn silage diets. Despite increased total volatile fatty acid and acetate concentrations in the rumen, total tract organic matter digestibility was lower for alfalfa hay-fed cows. Rumensin did not affect volatile fatty acid concentrations but decreased milk fat from 3.22 to 2.72% in corn silage diets but less in alfalfa hay diets. Medium-chain milk fatty acids (% of total fat) were lower for alfalfa hay compared with corn silage diets, and short-chain milk fatty acids tended to decrease when Rumensin was added. In whole rumen contents, concentrations of trans-10, cis-12 C(18:2) were increased when cows were fed corn silage diets. Rumensin had no effect on conjugated linoleic acid isomers in either milk or rumen contents but tended to increase the concentration of trans-10 C(18:1) in rumen samples. Molasses with urea increased ruminal NH(3)-N and milk urea N when cows were fed corn silage diets (6.8 vs. 11.3 and 7.6 vs. 12.0 mg/dL for M vs. MU, respectively). Based on ruminal fermentation characteristics and fatty acid isomers in milk, molasses did not appear to promote ruminal acidosis or milk fat depression. However, combinations of Rumensin with corn silage-based diets already containing molasses and with a relatively high nonfiber carbohydrate:forage neutral detergent fiber ratio influenced biohydrogenation characteristics that are indicators of increased risk for milk fat depression. PMID:19109286

Oelker, E R; Reveneau, C; Firkins, J L

2009-01-01

279

Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

2014-05-01

280

Testosterone secretion and pharmacological spermatozoal recovery in the cane toad (Bufo marinus).  

PubMed

The cane toad (Bufo marinus) was used as a model to study male anuran reproductive endocrinology and to develop a protocol for non-invasive sperm recovery. Circulating testosterone concentrations in 6-hourly samples did not vary significantly (P < 0.05) over a 24 h period although there was a tendency (P = 0.06) for testosterone to be elevated at 19:00 h relative to other times of the day, which may be related to the nocturnal activity pattern of this species. Testosterone secretion after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of either a GnRH agonist (5 microg IP) or hCG (1000 IU) was also examined. While the GnRH agonist did not produce a significant increase above basal plasma testosterone (0.29, 95% C.I. of 0.05-1.10 ng/ml), injection of hCG resulted in an increase (P < 0.01) of plasma testosterone with peak concentrations at approximately 120 min (4.17, 95% C.I. of 2.69-7.44 ng/ml) after injection. Non-invasive pharmaceutical sperm recovery was attempted following IP injection of graded doses of GnRH agonist, hCG or FSH. Urine was collected at 3, 6 and 12 h after treatment to assess sperm quality and quantity. The optimal protocol for sperm recovery in cane toads was injection of either 1000 or 2000 IU hCG; there was no significant difference in the quality of the spermic urine samples obtained using either dose of hCG or with respect to collection time. The findings indicated that hCG can be used to assess testicular steroidogenic status and also to induce sperm recovery in the cane toad. The hCG protocols developed in this study will have application in studies on the reproductive biology of rare and endangered male anurans. PMID:16257605

Iimori, E; D'Occhio, M J; Lisle, A T; Johnston, S D

2005-11-01

281

Potential of Trichoderma species on Helminthosporium causing leaf spot on cane palm, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens.  

PubMed

The cane palm, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens is one among the plant material of the export industries in Sri Lanka. The export quality of C. lutescens was declined due to the repeated occurrence of a leaf spot caused by Helminthosporium. Widespread occurrence of the leaf spot affected the cane palm production and succumb it to a huge setback in the floriculture industry in Sri Lanka. Being an export industry eco-friendly means of disease control was the prime focus for a better management of such vulnerable disease. Trichoderma is a potential bio agent, which has definite role in suppressing the inoculum of Helminthosporium sp. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Trichoderma species to control naturally established leaf spot in cane palm under field conditions. Three isolates of T. viride and two isolates of T. harzianum were evaluated. All the Trichoderma species performed significantly in reducing the disease incidence. T. viride + T. harzianum combination (1 x 10(10) cfu/ml) was the best compared to chemical in decreasing the mean disease severity index and improving the frequency of healthy plants. The colour of the leaves regained due to the application of Trichoderma sp. The results revealed that leaf spot incidence was lowered significantly in cane palms treated with Trichoderma species followed by treatment with combination of Trichoderma sp. and fungicides. The fungicide mixture (hexaconozole 50 g/l + Isoprothiolane 400 g/l) failed to lower the disease incidence and had no effect in suppressing the inocula of Helminthosporium, although recommended. Mixing of Trichoderma species with fungicide did not exhibit any additive effect. The combination of different species of Trichoderma would target species of Helminthosporium that exist as a complex group under field conditions. The results also proved that the existence of heterogeneity in Helminthosporium that could be tackled and effectively controlled by a combination of different species of the bio-agent, if available, to broaden the selectivity of the pathogens. The use of Trichoderma species had claimed not only to reduce the incidence of Helminthosporium but also to sustain the growth and vigor of the C. lutescens to most fit for exporting. PMID:19226758

Jegathambigai, V; Karunaratne, M D S D; Svinningen, A; Mikunthan, G

2008-01-01

282

Radium-226 in sugar cane, Saccharum officinarum, products in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the 226Ra concentrations in samples of sugar cane juice, which is sold for human consumption in the city of Recife, capital of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The sample collections were carried out in seventeen commercial establishments where high quantities of the juice are usually sold. The methodology used to determine the concentrations of 226Ra in the juice was based on 222Rn emanation classical technique. Concentrations of 226Ra in the samples varied from 18 to 89 mBqL(-1). PMID:18500415

Silva, C M; Amaral, R S; Santos Júnior, J A; Breckenfeld, M R O; Menezes, R S C

2008-05-01

283

Production of ethanol from sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate by Pichia stipitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability ofPichia stipitis to fermentd-xylose andd-glucose in the acid-hydrolyzed hemicellulose component of sugar cane bagasse depends on the alkali used to neutralize the\\u000a hydrolyzate to pH 6.5. With NH4OH and NaOH no fermentation occurred, whereas neutralization with Ca(OH)2 gave the best results (Qpmax=0.25 g\\/L-h; Yp\\/s =0.38 g\\/g sugar). However, the volumetric productivity was still considerably less than observed in

Carina Van Zyl; Bernard A. Prior; James C. Du Preez

1988-01-01

284

Biofiltration of volatile ethanol using sugar cane bagasse inoculated with Candida utilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candidautilis (C.utilis) growing on sugar cane bagasse complemented with a mineral salt solution was studied for gaseous ethanol removal in a biofilter. Ethanol loads from 93.7 to 511.9g\\/hm3 were used, by varying both inlet ethanol concentration (9.72 to 52.4g\\/m3) and air flow rate (1.59×10?3 to 2.86×10?3m3\\/h). At a loading rate of 93.7g\\/hm3, a steady-state was maintained for 300h. Ethanol removal

P. Christen; F. Domenech; G. Michelena; R. Auria; S. Revah

2002-01-01

285

Method for processing whole cane and sweet sorghum into fuel alcohol and electric power  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for fermenting whole cane in situ to ethanol, rather than extracting the sugar and fermenting it separately. An energy efficient way of obtaining dehydrated ethanol is the employment of a molecular sieve using bagasse as a desicant. The remaining bagasse is recovered and dried prior to gasification. The producer gas is used to fuel a spark ignition engine which may be geared either to a generating unit or a hydraulic pump. The economics of the process are discussed briefly. (Refs. 3).

le Grand, F.

1983-10-01

286

Fermentation of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate for xylitol production: Effect of pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was grown in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 2.0 g l?1, CaCl2 0.1 g l?1 and rice bran 20.0 g l?1, through 45-h batch tests (agitation of 200 min?1 and temperature of 30°C) with initial pH varying from 2.5 to 7.5. Under pH < 4.5 the consumption of glucose, xylose and arabinose as well

Maria G. A. Felipe; Michele Vitolo; Ismael M. Mancilha; Silva S. Silva

1997-01-01

287

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of a mixture of fatty acids isolated and purified from sugar cane wax oil.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of FAM, a defined mixture of fatty acids isolated from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.), was evaluated. Oral administration of this mixture showed anti-inflammatory activity in the cotton pellet granuloma assay and in the carrageenin-induced pleurisy test, both in rats, as well as in the peritoneal capillary permeability test in mice. In addition, FAM showed analgesic properties in the hot-plate model and in the acetic acid-induced writhings test, both in mice. In conclusion, these results provide evidence on the potential usefulness of the mixture of fatty acids from sugar cane wax oil in inflammatory disorders. PMID:12709906

Ledón, N; Casacó, A; Rodríguez, V; Cruz, J; González, R; Tolón, Z; Cano, M; Rojas, E

2003-04-01

288

Morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni among sugar-cane cutters in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Quantitative determination of Schistosoma mansoni infection was carried out on 1995 cane cutters of the Hippo Valley and Triangle Sugar Estates. A total of 315 cutters were chosen for the study on the basis of S. mansoni infection and lack of anti-schistosomal chemotherapy during the previous three years. Stool consistency and blood and mucus in stool were determined for all the infected cutters. Overt and occult blood in stool was detected in a significantly high number of infected people compared to the control subjects (chi 2 p less than 0.001). However, the blood loss was found to have no anaemia-producing effect as determined by haemoglobin and red blood cell counts. Watery stool was prevalent among people with egg output exceeding 500 eggs per gram of stool. Mucus in stool was found to be more prevalent among infected people compared to the control subjects but the difference was not significant (p greater than 0.05). Symmer's periportal fibrosis (PPF) of various degrees of severity was detected in 47% of the infected people and grade one liver fibrosis was found in 7.5% of the control subjects (p less than 0.0001). Some 54.5% of those infected complained of abdominal pains compared to 35% of uninfected controls (p less than 0.01). There was a significant difference in the rate of absenteeism from work due to abdominal pains and diarrhoea among the infected and uninfected cane cutters (p less than 0.02). PMID:1955265

Ndamba, J; Makaza, N; Kaondera, K C; Munjoma, M

1991-09-01

289

Larger Body Size at Metamorphosis Enhances Survival, Growth and Performance of Young Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)  

PubMed Central

Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans) with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors). To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran’s body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water), and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual’s long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species.

Cabrera-Guzman, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

290

Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 9: Catalytic liquefaction in ethanol  

SciTech Connect

This article presents the results of a study on the process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, using ethanol as solvent. A systematic study with 12 different types of commercially available catalysts was accomplished. For each catalyst, the conversion yield of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products, which are useful as liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks, was determined. The highest conversion yield was observed when a nickel catalyst on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used. The liquefied products were fractionated into oils, asphaltenes, and asphaltols. The oil samples were separated and then fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography. The highest proportion of light-oils (F1 to F5) was obtained with the potassium fluoride catalyst on silica gel. High proportions of resins (F6) were obtained with three types of catalysts: nickel on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ruthenium, or platinum on activated carbon powder. The highest proportion of asphaltenes (F7) and of asphaltols (F8) were obtained with the niobium oxide catalyst.

Lancas, F.M.; Rezemini, A.L. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry; Donate, P.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1999-05-01

291

Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 10: Catalytic liquefaction in aqueous medium  

SciTech Connect

This work presents the results of a study of a process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, in aqueous medium, using different pH values. The experiments were conducted in the absence as well as in the presence of commercial catalysts. In the absence of catalyst, the results showed that the conversion of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products is not influenced by the pH of the reaction mixture. An increase in the temperature augments the yield of liquefied products. The utilization of different commercial catalysts permits an increase in the yields of liquefied products up to 92.4%, obtained with 10% palladium on activated carbon powder as catalyst. The liquefied products were fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography (PLC-8 method). In the absence of catalyst, high conversion yields into light-oils and resins (fractions F1 to F6) was observed only at pH = 9. When the catalysts were used (at pH = 9 and at 370 C), an important increase (from 29 to 78%) of resins (fraction F6) was observed. Under this condition, the proportion of asphaltenes and asphaltols (fractions F7 and F8) decreases from 70 to 20%.

Lancas, F.M.; Ruggiero, M.A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry; Donate, P.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1999-05-01

292

Immune Response Varies with Rate of Dispersal in Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)  

PubMed Central

What level of immunocompetence should an animal maintain while undertaking long-distance dispersal? Immune function (surveillance and response) might be down-regulated during prolonged physical exertion due to energy depletion, and/or to avoid autoimmune reactions arising from damaged tissue. On the other hand, heightened immune vigilance might be favored if the organism encounters novel pathogens as it enters novel environments. We assessed the links between immune defense and long-distance movement in a population of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia. Toads were radio-tracked for seven days to measure their activity levels and were then captured and subjected to a suite of immune assays. Toads that moved further showed decreased bacteria-killing ability in their plasma and decreased phagocytic activity in their whole blood, but a heightened skin-swelling response to phytohemagglutinin. Baseline and post-stress corticosterone levels were unrelated to distance moved. Thus, long-distance movement in cane toads is associated with a dampened response in some systems and enhanced response in another. This pattern suggests that sustained activity is accompanied by trade-offs among immune components rather than an overall down or up-regulation. The finding that high mobility is accompanied by modification of the immune system has important implications for animal invasions.

Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

2014-01-01

293

Development and application of a thermophysical property model for cane fiberboard subjected to high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A thermophysical property model has been developed to analytically determine the thermal response of cane fiberboard when exposed to temperatures and heat fluxes associated with the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident condition (HAC) and associated post fire cooling. The complete model was developed from high temperature cane fiberboard 1-D test results and consists of heating and cooling sub-models. The heating property model accounts for the enhanced heat transfer of the hot gases in the fiberboard, the loss of energy via venting, and the loss of mass from venting during the heating portion of the test. The cooling property model accounts for the degraded material effects and the continued heat transfer associated with the hot gases after removal of the external heating source. Agreement between the test results of a four inch thick fiberboard sample with the analytical application of the complete property model is quite good and will be presented. A comparison of analysis results and furnace test data for the 9966 package suggests that the property model sufficiently accounts for the heat transfer in an actual package.

Hensel, S.J.; Gromada, R.J.

1994-06-01

294

Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw  

SciTech Connect

The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of a rudimentary incinerator where sugar cane straw is burnt in order to obtain a reactive ash. The incinerator is designed and constructed according to state-of-the-art recommendations for this kind of device. Various burning trials were performed in order to obtain ash for the experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on powdered ash shows significant presence of amorphous (glassy) material. Lime-pozzolana pastes were prepared. The pastes were subjected to X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, chemical titration, and SEM observation, as a means to examine the pozzolanicity of the ash via the progress with time of calcium hydroxide consumption, and changes in the pore size distribution and strength. Calcium silicate hydrate phases are the main reaction product of the pozzolanic reaction. The long residence time of the ash in the burning chamber seems to be the reason for the fairly low reactivity of the ash; the reactivity of the ash was not significantly improved in comparison with that of the ash burnt in uncontrolled conditions in the open air.

Martirena, Fernando [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba)]. E-mail: f.martirena@enet.cu; Middendorf, Bernhard [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Department of Structural Materials, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Day, Robert L. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Gehrke, Matthias [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Department of Structural Materials, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Roque, Pablo [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Martinez, Lesday [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Betancourt, Sergio [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba)

2006-06-15

295

Solid-state fermentation for gluconic acid production from sugarcane molasses by Aspergillus niger ARNU-4 employing tea waste as the novel solid support.  

PubMed

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was evaluated to produce gluconic acid by metal resistant Aspergillus niger (ARNU-4) strain using tea waste as solid support and with molasses based fermentation medium. Various crucial parameters such as moisture content, temperature, aeration and inoculum size were derived; 70% moisture level, 30 degrees C temperature, 3% inoculum size and an aeration volume of 2.5l min(-1) was suited for maximal (76.3 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production. Non-clarified molasses based fermentation media was utilized by strain ARNU-4 and maximum gluconic acid production was observed following 8-12 days of fermentation cycle. Different concentrations of additives viz. oil cake, soya oil, jaggary, yeast extract, cheese whey and mustard oil were supplemented for further enhancement of the production ability of microorganism. Addition of yeast extract (0.5%) was observed inducive for enhanced (82.2 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production. PMID:17881224

Sharma, Amit; Vivekanand, V; Singh, Rajesh P

2008-06-01

296

Betaine removal during thermo- and mesophilic aerobic batch biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse: Influence of temperature and pH on the progress and efficiency of the process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key issue in achieving a high extent of biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse is to establish the conditions for the assimilation of betaine, which is the main pollutant in this high-strength industrial effluent. In the present study, aerobic batch biodegradation was conducted over the temperature range of 27–63°C (step 9°C), at a pH of 6.5 and 8.0, using a

Edmund Cibis; Agnieszka Ryznar-Luty; Ma?gorzata Krzywonos; Krzysztof Lutos?awski; Tadeusz Mi?kiewicz

2011-01-01

297

The uptake of fenbendazole by cattle and buffalo following long-term low-level administration in urea-molasses blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fenbendazole (Panacur bolus, Hoechst India Ltd) was incorporated at a rate of 0.5 g\\/kg into urea-molasses blocks made by two different processes. The concentration of the drug in blocks and its bioavailability were measured using plasma oxfendazole as marker. The recovery of the drug in blocks made by a warm process was 68% and the plasma oxfendazole concentration remained fairly

P. K. Sanyal; D. K. Singh

1993-01-01

298

EFFECT OF GRADED LEVELS OF SOYBEAN MEAL AND OF A NONPROTEIN NITROGEN-MOLASSES SUPPLEMENT ON CONSUMPTION AND DIGESTIBILITY OF WHEAT STRAW 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A study was made of the voluntary intake of wheat straw by cattle fed soybean meal (trial 1) or a liquid supplement (trial 2) containing urea and ammonium polyphosphate as nonprotein N sources in a molasses base. Supplementary crude protein was fed at 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 g crude protein\\/kg BW'TS\\/day. Digestibility data were obtained by means

D. C. Church; Ariel Santos

299

Integrated stratigraphy and 40 Ar\\/ 39 Ar chronology of the early to middle Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse in western Bavaria (Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed integrated stratigraphic study (biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy) was carried out on five sections from\\u000a the western part of the Bavarian Upper Freshwater Molasse of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB), greatly improving the\\u000a chronostratigraphy of these sediments. The sections belong to the lithostratigraphic units Limnische Untere Serie (UL) and Fluviatile Untere Serie (UF) and contain 19 (mostly new) small-mammal

Hayfaa Abdul Aziz; Madelaine Böhme; Alexander Rocholl; Jerome Prieto; Jan R. Wijbrans; Valerian Bachtadse; Albert Ulbig

2010-01-01

300

Radiation and NRSP effect on protein, filtration efficiency and crude fiber degradation after sugar cane bagasse fermentation by mushroom fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upgrading of sugar cane bagasse with natural rubber waste by irradiation and three mushroom fungi was studied in order to produce economical animal feed and mushrooms. The protein concentrations changed a little at 0, 1% of NRSP but greatly increased at 5% NRSP concentration with irradiation and nonirradiation in liquid fermentation. The filtration rate decreased at 5% NRSP concentration

H.-S. Shin; J.-H. Lee; E.-J. Hwang; J.-S. Shon; G.-N. Kim; S. Matsuhashi; T. Kume

1998-01-01

301

A comparison of liquid hot water and steam pretreatments of sugar cane bagasse for bioconversion to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated with either liquid hot water (LHW) or steam using the same 25 l reactor. Solids concentration ranged from 1% to 8% for LHW pretreatment and was ?50% for steam pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time ranged from 170 to 230 °C and 1 to 46 min, respectively. Key performance metrics included fiber reactivity, xylan recovery, and

Mark Laser; Deborah Schulman; Stephen G Allen; Joseph Lichwa; Michael J Antal; Lee R Lynd

2002-01-01

302

Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific phenology of sugar cane. The calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS on several sites and for different technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of land use change related to bioenergy crops.

Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

2010-12-01

303

Geophysical Methods for Locating Karst Conduits in Cane Run Watershed, Central Kentucky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cane Run watershed in central Kentucky was listed by the Kentucky Division of Water as one of four focus watersheds for clean-up under the State’s nonpoint-source pollution program. This watershed is degraded by pathogens, nutrients, siltation, and organic enrichment. The sources of pollution include both municipal point sources and nonpoint agricultural and nonagricultural sources. The relative contribution of different parts of the watershed to the contamination is not well understood, however. The geology of Cane Run watershed consists of Ordovician thin-bedded limestone with sparse interbeds of shale. The landscape is dominated by karst features such as sinkholes and springs. Cane Run only flows during times of significant rainfall, usually in the spring of the year. The remainder of the year, most water is recharged to a karst conduit system that leads from Lexington, Ky to Royal Spring, as demonstrated by groundwater tracing. Royal Spring is the major water supply for Georgetown in Scott County, Ky. We attempted to locate the karst conduit so that groundwater flowing through the conduit could be monitored. These monitoring data are essential for assessing the effectiveness of remediation plans. In 2008, based on geology, karst features, and hydrogeology, an initial round of electrical-resistivity and spontaneous-potential geophysical surveys were conducted to help pinpoint the location of the conduit at three sites. Fifteen exploratory boreholes were drilled on the basis of the geophysical results. The boreholes confirmed the geophysical surveys had located minor mud-filled conduits that were interpreted as tributaries to the main conduit. Another round of 2D and 3D electrical resistivity surveys were conducted in 2009 to search for the main conduit. The analysis of this round of surveys resulted in one promising site that is suspected to be in close proximity to the conduit. A time-lapse 2D electrical resistivity survey in conjunction with calcium chlorite solution injection was performed to pinpoint the conduit location. Microgravity measurements were also taken at the site to check whether the gravity anomaly signals are associated with conduits. The geophysical results will be further tested by exploratory boreholes. This work is being carried out in cooperation with the University of Kentucky’s College of Agriculture and Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences.

Zhu, J.; Paylor, R.; Currens, J. C.; Dinger, J. S.

2009-12-01

304

Character & Cane  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

Sartorius, Tara Cady

2009-01-01

305

Use of urea-molasses-multinutrient block and urea-treated rice straw for improving dairy cattle productivity in Vietnam.  

PubMed

After conducting a preliminary survey, a feeding trial was carried out to determine the effect of urea-molasses-multinutrient block (UMMB) and urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) as a feed supplement on the productivity of dairy cows. Sixty Holstein-Friesian crossbred cows on 11 smallholder farms were divided equally into control, UMMB and UTRS supplementation groups. Milk yield and feed intake were recorded daily. Milk fat content, body weight and body condition score (BSC) of each cow were determined at two week intervals. Milk samples for progesterone analysis were collected once a week commencing one month after parturition. Data were recorded for date of onset of ovarian activity, estrus, insemination, and conception rate. Milk production increased by 10.3-11.9% and milk fat content increased by 3-5%, therefore, profit for farmers increased by US $0.55-0.73 per cow per day (exchange rate US $1 = VN $11,000). The intervals from calving to onset of ovarian activity (91-94 days), to estrus (110-114 days), to conception (121-122 days) and the calving interval (13.4-13.6 months) in the trial groups were significantly shorter than those in the control group (112, 135, 152 days and 14.4 months, respectively. PMID:10081798

Vu, D D; Cuong, L X; Dung, C A; Hai, P H

1999-01-27

306

Optimization of continuous hydrogen production from co-fermenting molasses with liquid swine manure in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.  

PubMed

This study investigated and optimized the operational conditions for continuous hydrogen production from sugar beet molasses, co-fermented with liquid swine manure in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor. Results indicated that pH, HRT and total solids content in the swine manure (TS) had significant impact on all the responses such as biogas production rate (BPR), hydrogen content (HC), hydrogen production rate (HPR), and hydrogen yield (HY), although the highest level of each response was achieved at different combination of the three variables. The maximum BPR, HC, HPR and HY of 32.21 L/d, 30.51%, 2.23 L/d/L and 1.57 mol-H2/mol-sugar were estimated at the optimal pH, HRT, and TS of 5.55, 15.78 h, and 0.71% for BPR; 5.22, 12.04, and 0.69 for HC; 5.32, 15.62, and 0.78% for HPR; and 5.36, 17.56, and 0.74% for HY, respectively. Good linear relationships of the predicted and tested results for all the parameters were observed. PMID:23567702

Wu, Xiao; Lin, Hongjian; Zhu, Jun

2013-05-01

307

Binding Nickel and Zinc Ions with Activated Carbon Prepared from Sugar Cane Fibre (Saccharum officinarum L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activated carbon was prepared from sugar cane fibre by carbonizing at 500°C for 30 min. This was followed by activation with ammonium chloride. The activated carbon was characterised in terms of pH, bulk density, ash content, surface area and surface charge. Equilibrium sorption of nickel and zinc ions by the activated carbon was studied using a range of metal ion concentrations. The sorption data was observed to have an adequate fit for the Langmuir isotherm equation. The level of metal ion uptake was found to be of the order: Ni2+ > Zn2+. The difference in the removal efficiency could be explained in terms of the hydration energy of the metal ions. The distribution coefficient for a range of metal ion concentration of the metal ions at the sorbent water interface is higher than the concentration in the continuous phase.

Ikhuoria, E. U.; Onojie, O. C.

308

Electric power from sugar cane in Costa Rica. A technical and economic analysis  

SciTech Connect

A team of specialists visited Costa Rica in May 1988 to analyze the potential for production and sale of electricity by the sugar-cane industry. Focusing on three sugar mills, the team made technical projections at four levels of investment, ranging from the simplest sale of surplus power to the installation of new turbogenerator systems. For each level, capital costs, electricity production and sales, and fuel options were estimated. Associated risks were assessed through sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the possible impacts of varying interest rates, fuel costs, and electricity sales prices. The team concluded that production and sale of electricity for the national grid could be an excellent investment opportunity for the sugar industry and would provide important economic benefits, including creation of additional jobs in rural areas, diversification of the sugar industry, and (in the short term) displacement of the need for imported fuels.

Tugwell, F.; Gowen, M.; Kenda, W.; Cohen, A.

1988-07-01

309

Experimental variables effects on the direct liquefaction of lignin sugar cane bagasse  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane bagasse lignin was submitted to a liquefaction process with the aim of obtaining light oils. In order to increase the yields of light oils a study of the influence of experimental variables in the liquefaction process was performed. A 2{sup 4} factorial design was used, involving two levels and four variables: temperature, pressure, solute/solvent ratio, and time. It was observed that the variables time, temperature, and solute/solvent ratio influenced an increase in yield, and the variable solute/solvent ratio was independent, while the second-order effect among t {times} T, t {times} P was observed, and third-order among T {times} t {times} P occurs.

Celeghini, R.M.S.; Lancas, F.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry

1998-08-01

310

The effect of fire retardants on combustion and pyrolysis of sugar-cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimetry to measure the affect of three fire retardants (ammonium sulphate, boric acid and borax) on the mass-loss rate and combustion characteristics of sugar-cane bagasse. Compared with untreated bagasse, bagasse impregnated with aqueous solutions of 0.1-0.5M fire retardants exhibited an increase in char mass production from 16% up to 41% when pyrolysed and up to a 41% reduction in total heat release (THR) during combustion. Char mass production was only a weak function of additive concentration over the range of concentrations (0.1-0.5M) used. Combining the additives did not show any synergistic effects for char production or heat release rate (HRR). Treatment of bagasse by these chemicals could be useful to enhance biochar yields in pyrolysis processes or to reduce flammability risk in composites containing bagasse. PMID:21680181

Griffin, G J

2011-09-01

311

Distribution of prokaryotic organisms in a tropical estuary influenced by sugar cane agriculture in northeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

In a joint Brazilian-German case study, distribution patterns of microorganisms were compared with environmental variables in the tropical coastal Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil, which is situated downstream of several sugar cane processing plants . 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gene fingerprinting were used to follow the composition and distribution of microorganisms throughout the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Potentially abundant microorganisms were identified by sequencing representative SSCP bands. It could be demonstrated that the distribution of microbes was in close relation to the physico-chemical environmental settings and followed a common scheme. In the in- and outlet areas of the lagoon rather transient microbial communities were found, whereas in the central part a stable, diverse community was encountered, that due to the long residence time of the water, had ample time for development and adaptation.

Wolf, Lars; Schwalger, Berit; Knoppers, Bastiaan A.; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter; Pollehne, Falk

2010-01-01

312

Cane Creek flood-flow characteristics at State Route 30 near Spencer, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tennessee Department of Transportation has constructed a new bridge and approaches on State Route 30 over Cane Creek near Spencer, Tennessee. The old bridge and its approaches were fairly low, permitting considerable flow over the road during high floods. The new bridge and its approaches are considerably higher, causing different flow conditions at the site. Analysis of the effects of the new bridge, as compared to the old bridge, on floods of the magnitude of the May 27, 1973, flood is presented. The May 27, 1973, flood was greater than a 100-year flood. Analysis of the 50- and 100-year floods for the new bridge are also presented. Results of the study indicate that the new construction will increase the water-surface elevation for a flood equal to the May 27, 1973, flood by approximately 1 foot upstream from bridge. (USGS)

Gamble, Charles R.

1983-01-01

313

Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.  

PubMed

The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30 days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum. This treatment was followed by vermicomposting for 40 days with the native earthworm, Drawida willsi. The combination of both treatments reduced the overall time required for composting to 20 days and accelerated the degradation process of waste by-products of sugar processing industry, thereby producing a nutrient-enriched compost product useful for sustaining high crop yield, minimizing soil depletion and value added disposal of waste materials. PMID:20403689

Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Deepshikha; Singh, Bhanu L; Kumar, Umesh; Shweta

2010-09-01

314

[Determination of organic acids in cane vinasse by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with indirect ultraviolet detection].  

PubMed

Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) with indirect ultraviolet (UV) detection method for the separation and determination of several organic acids in cane vinasse, including malonic, formic, tartaric, malic, succinic, glutaric, acetic, lactic and glutamic acids, were developed. Electrophoretic conditions were as follows: uncoated fused silica capillary (56 cm/ 64 cm (effective/total length), 50 microm i. d. ), 7.5 mmol/L potassium acid phthalate-1. 5 mmol/L cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) at pH = 6.50 as buffer solution, applied voltage -25 kV, temperature 25 degrees C, detection wavelength 300 nm, reference wavelength 210 nm. Good linearities were obtained for nine organic acids, and the detection limits were 0.5 mg/L, 0.3 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L, 0.3 mg/L, 0.3 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L for malonic, formic, tartaric, malic, succinic, glutaric, acetic, lactic and glutamic acid, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for migration times and peak areas of nine organic acids within a day were 0.4% - 0.6% and 2.3% - 4.8%, respectively. The corresponding data for five days were 0.5% -0.7% and 3.3% - 5.2%. The recoveries of acid standards were above 93%. The method can be applied to determine the organic acids in cane vinasse with satisfactory results. PMID:16827307

Xu, Yuanjin; Xu, Guiping; Wei, Yuanan

2006-01-01

315

Improved sugar cane juice clarification by understanding calcium oxide-phosphate-sucrose systems.  

PubMed

It is accepted that the efficiency of sugar cane clarification is closely linked with sugar juice composition (including suspended or insoluble impurities), the inorganic phosphate content, the liming condition and type, and the interactions between the juice components. These interactions are not well understood, particularly those between calcium, phosphate, and sucrose in sugar cane juice. Studies have been conducted on calcium oxide (CaO)/phosphate/sucrose systems in both synthetic and factory juices to provide further information on the defecation process (i.e., simple liming to effect impurity removal) and to identify an effective clarification process that would result in reduced scaling of sugar factory evaporators, pans, and centrifugals. Results have shown that a two-stage process involving the addition of lime saccharate to a set juice pH followed by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a final juice pH or a similar two-stage process where the order of addition of the alkalis is reversed prior to clarification reduces the impurity loading of the clarified juice compared to that of the clarified juice obtained by the conventional defecation process. The treatment process showed reductions in CaO (27% to 50%) and MgO (up to 20%) in clarified juices with no apparent loss in juice clarity or increase in residence time of the mud particles compared to those in the conventional process. There was also a reduction in the SiO2 content. However, the disadvantage of this process is the significant increase in the Na2O content. PMID:21322558

Doherty, William O S

2011-03-01

316

Use of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate aluminum toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Owing to its toxicity, aluminum (Al), which is one of the most abundant metals, inhibits the productivity of many cultures and affects the microbial metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the adverse effects of Al on cell growth, viability, and budding, as the likely result of possible chelating action. For this purpose, Fleischmann's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used in growth tests performed in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 mL of YED medium (5.0 g/L yeast extract plus 20 g/L glucose) supplemented with the selected amounts of either vinasse or Al in the form of AlCl(3) . H(2)O. Without vinasse, the addition of increasing levels of Al up to 54 mg/L reduced the specific growth rate by 18%, whereas no significant reduction was observed in its presence. The toxic effect of Al on S. cerevisiae growth and the mitigating effect of sugar cane vinasse were quantified by the exponential model of Ciftci et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 25:2007-2023, 1983). The cell viability decreased from 97.7% at the start to 84.0% at the end of runs without vinasse and to 92.3% with vinasse. On the other hand, the cell budding increased from 7.62% at the start to 8.84% at the end of runs without vinasse and to 17.8% with vinasse. These results demonstrate the ability of this raw material to stimulate cell growth and mitigate the toxic effect of Al. PMID:19184166

de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Rivas Torres, Beatriz; Zilli, Mario; de Araújo Viana Marques, Daniela; Basso, Luiz Carlos; Converti, Attilio

2009-10-01

317

Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii.  

PubMed

Arsenical herbicides were used extensively for emergent weed control in Hawaiian sugar cane cultivation from 1913 to about 1950. As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern portion of the Island of Hawaii. This study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and arsenic bioaccessibility in the iron-rich volcanic soils. Soils are predominantly Andisols, formed by weathering of basaltic lava and tephra, with pedogenic solid phases consisting of short-range order iron oxyhydroxides, allophane-like aluminosilicates, and metal-humus compounds. These reactive solid phases strongly adsorb oxyanions, such as phosphate and arsenite/arsenate. High arsenic sorption capacity limits desorption and vertical migration within the soil column and prevents contamination of the underlying groundwater aquifer, despite high arsenic loading and precipitation rates. In vitro arsenic bioaccessibility, as measured by the SBRC gastric-phase test, ranges from 2% to 35% and averages 9% of total arsenic. Bioaccessible arsenic is higher in less weathered soils (Udifolists, Typic and Lithic Hydrudands) and lower in more weathered ash-dominant soils (Acrudoxic Hydrudands). Soil weathering indicators, such as reactive iron content, are strong predictors of arsenic bioaccessibility. Based on evidence from soil mineralogy, geochemistry and arsenic speciation, as well as limited soil arsenic bioavailability/bioaccessibility comparisons, risks to human health from direct contact (soil ingestion) are significantly reduced by low arsenic bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, some soils within former sugar cane cultivation areas contain bioaccessible arsenic concentrations exceeding Hawaii Department of Health risk-based action levels, and will require mitigating actions. Even higher levels of soil arsenic contamination have been identified at former pesticide storage and mixing areas, but are generally of localized extent. PMID:23178778

Cutler, William G; Brewer, Roger C; El-Kadi, Aly; Hue, Nguyen V; Niemeyer, Patrick G; Peard, John; Ray, Chittaranjan

2013-01-01

318

Cane toads lack physiological enhancements for dispersal at the invasive front in Northern Australia  

PubMed Central

Summary Many invasive species have evolved behavioural and morphological characteristics that facilitate their dispersal into new areas, but it is unclear how selection on this level of the phenotype filters through to the underlying physiology. Cane toads have been dispersing westward across northern tropical Australia for more than 70 years. Previous studies of cane toads at the invasive front have identified several behavioural, morphological and locomotory characteristics that have evolved to facilitate dispersal of toads. We assessed a range of physiological characteristics associated with locomotory abilities in toads from the long-established, east coast of Australia, from the invasive front, and from a site in between these locations. We measured time to exhaustion and respiratory gases of toads exercising on a treadmill, time to recovery from exhaustion, blood properties (lactate, haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, blood cell volume), and muscle properties associated with locomotion (activities of the enzymes citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase, and pH buffering capacity). None of the measured physiological parameters supported the hypothesis that toads from the invasive front possess physiological adaptations that facilitate dispersal compared to toads from areas colonised in the past. The strongest difference among the three groups of toads, time to exhaustion, showed exactly the opposite trend; toads from the long-established populations in the east coast had the longest time to exhaustion. Successful colonisers can employ many characteristics to facilitate their dispersal, so the extent to which behaviour, morphology and physiology co-evolve remains an interesting question. However, in the present case at least, behavioural adaptations do not appear to have altered the organism's underlying physiology.

Tracy, Christopher R.; Christian, Keith A.; Baldwin, John; Phillips, Ben L.

2012-01-01

319

Produções agrícola e industrial de cana-de-açúcar submetida a doses de vinhaça1 Agricultural and industrial yields of sugar cane submitted to vinasse rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to assess the influence of vinasse rates on the agricultural and industrial yields of sugar cane. The experiment was set up at the School Farm of the State University of Londrina, in \\

Aline Fagote Paulino; Cristiane de Conti Medina; Carla Renata; Pazotti Robaina; Raffael Alberto Laurani

320

Improved Biorefinery for the Production of Ethanol, Chemicals, Animal Feed and Biomaterials from Sugar Cane. Report from April 1, 2004 through June 30, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State Universitys Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol...

D. Day

2008-01-01

321

Grape cane waste as a source of trans-resveratrol and trans-viniferin: High-value phytochemicals with medicinal and anti-phytopathogenic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape cane waste was investigated as a potential source of high-value phytochemicals with medicinal and anti-phytopathogenic applications. Extraction yields of trans-resveratrol and trans-?-viniferin from Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir grape cane were 3.45±0.04 and 1.30±0.07mgg?1dw, respectively. The analyte extraction efficiencies were investigated using protic and aprotic solvents. Yields varied 22-fold over the range of solvent systems investigated, demonstrating the importance

Sierra Rayne; Erkan Karacabey; G. Mazza

2008-01-01

322

Developing capacities in aging studies in the Middle East: Implementation of an Arabic version of the CANE IV among community-dwelling older adults in Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the feasibility, reliability, and construct validity of the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) in identifying needs among community-dwelling older adults in South Lebanon with a view towards expanding ageing research in the country.Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 322 individuals, using the CANE, the EQ5d and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Reliability was determined through

Laurie E. AbiHabib; Hiam S. Chemaitelly; Lina Y. Jaalouk; Nadim E. Karam

2011-01-01

323

A Suspected Parasite Spill-Back of Two Novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) Causing Disease in Australian Endemic Frogs Found in the Invasive Cane Toad  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence.

Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dykova, Iva; Jirku, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N.; Slapeta, Jan

2011-01-01

324

Description of Gluconacetobacter sacchari sp. nov., a new species of acetic acid bacterium isolated from the leaf sheath of sugar cane and from the pink sugar-cane mealy bug.  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Gluconacetobacter, for which the name Gluconacetobacter sacchari sp. nov. is proposed, was isolated from the leaf sheath of sugar cane and from the pink sugar-cane mealy bug, Saccharicoccus sacchari, found on sugar cane growing in Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia. The nearest phylogenetic relatives in the alpha-subclass of the Proteobacteria are Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, which have 98.8-99.3% and 97.9-98.5% 16S rDNA sequence similarity, respectively, to members of Gluconacetobacter sacchari. On the basis of the phylogenetic positioning of the strains, DNA reassociation studies, phenotypic tests and the presence of the Q10 ubiquinone, this new species was assigned to the genus Gluconacetobacter. No single phenotypic characteristic is unique to the species, but the species can be differentiated phenotypically from closely related members of the acetic acid bacteria by growth in the presence of 0.01% malachite green, growth on 30% glucose, an inability to fix nitrogen and an inability to grow with the L-amino acids asparagine, glycine, glutamine, threonine and tryptophan when D-mannitol was supplied as the sole carbon and energy source. The type strain of this species is strain SRI 1794T (= DSM 12717T). PMID:10555349

Franke, I H; Fegan, M; Hayward, C; Leonard, G; Stackebrandt, E; Sly, L I

1999-10-01

325

Post 12 Ma tectonic activity of the Subalpine Molasse resolved by combining thermochronology and critical wedge analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermochronological studies in the Northern Alpine Foreland Basin show that the folded and thrusted part of the basin, the Subalpine Molasse (SM), has been tectonically active during the last 12 Ma (Cederbom, C. E. et al., 2011; von Hagke, C. et al., in review). However, the amount of erosion and timing of thrusting is so far only reported from the Swiss Molasse basin. To test whether this is a local signal and whether climate contributed to this thrusting, we report thermochronological data from a profile south of Lake Constance and analyse the results in the framework of critical taper theory. We selected the Bregenzerach stream as suitable study area because it is one of the few profiles, which provides excellent outcrops in all stratigraphic units of the SM and is located east of the Jura fold and thrust belt, north of the Eastern Alps. We present new apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) and apatite fission track (AFT) data. In contrast to the Central Alps, the new data do not show full resetting of the AFT system. This demonstrates that the eastern SM has experienced less erosion than the central SM. The AHe system in contrast, shows complete resetting also in the eastern SM. We observe age-offsets across the same thrusts which have been reactivated in the central SM. This confirms that the SM of the Eastern Alps must have been tectonically active until at least 5 Ma, as is also known from the central SM. This implies reactivation of thrusts, which formed originally in mid to late Miocene times. From critical taper analysis, reactivation of thrusting (assuming constant dip of the basal detachment through time) can only be obtained (1) by an increase of basal detachment strength or (2) a decrease of surface slope. An increase of detachment strength through time is either possible due to jumping of the detachment to another stratigraphic level or a change in pore fluid pressure. A decrease in surface slope is either tectonic- or erosion-controlled. We show that today the Eastern Alps are at a stable state whereas the Central Alps are critical. We use these first order constraints in combination with new and old thermochronological data and discuss the influence of climate on foreland deformation. This presentation was supported by the EUROCORES programme TOPO-EUROPE of the European Science Foundation CEDERBOM, C.E., SCHLUNEGGER, F., VAN DER BEEK, P.A., SINCLAIR, H.D. & ONCKEN, O. (2011) Rapid, Extensive Erosion of the North Alpine Foreland Basin at 5-4 Ma. Basin Research, 23, 528-550. VON HAGKE, C., CEDERBOM, C.E., ONCKEN, O., STOCKLI, D.F., RAHN, M. & SCHLUNEGGER, F. (in review) Linking the Northern Alps with Their Foreland: The Latest Uplift and Erosion History Resolved with Low Temperature Thermochronology. submitted to Tectonics.

von Hagke, C.; Oncken, O.; Ortner, H.; Cederbom, C.

2012-04-01

326

Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.  

PubMed

In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields. PMID:19886425

Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

2009-09-01

327

Co-firing of sugar cane bagasse with rice husk in a conical fluidized-bed combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental results on co-firing of ‘as-received’ sugar cane bagasse and rice husk in a conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using silica sand as the bed material. Axial temperature, O2, CO2, CO and NO concentration profiles in the conical FBC operated at 82.5–82.8kg\\/h fuel feed rate and various values of excess air (of about 40, 60, 80 and 100%)

V. I. Kuprianov; K. Janvijitsakul; W. Permchart

2006-01-01

328

Particle geometry affects differentially substrate composition and enzyme profiles by Pleurotus ostreatus growing on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Pleurotus ostreatus was analyzed on three particle sizes of sugar cane bagasse: 0.92mm and1.68mm in diameter, in addition to heterogeneous fibers (average 2.9mm in diameter). Specific growth rate on heterogeneous particles was lower (?=0.043h?1), although soluble protein production was maximal (809?g\\/g dry wt). Higher ? values were reached on the other two particles sizes (0.049–0.05h?1) with less

Isabel Membrillo; Carmen Sánchez; Marcos Meneses; Ernesto Favela; Octavio Loera

2011-01-01

329

The structure of the penis with the associated baculum in the male greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus).  

PubMed

In this study, the structures of penises of eight sexually mature male greater cane rats were examined at both macroscopic and histological levels. Each animal was sacrificed after anaesthesia with ether and then dissected open with the penis exposed from its root. The penises were first grossly examined, measured, and then prepared for histological examination. From this study it was observed that the body size has no allometry with penile size, but the testicular weight correlated with Os penis length in the greater cane rat. Grossly, the penis which was whitish in colour, with a mean length of 5.46 ± 0.36 cm, has no obvious collum penis but a flexura that turns it caudo-ventral and separates the corpus and glans penis. There was the presence of cornified papillae covering parts of the corpus and glans penis as well as a blind sac sacculus urethralis under the urethra on the glans penis. Histologically, the corpora cavernosa penis were completely separated by a connective tissue septum which sent the trabeculae network into the cavernous tissues and replaced the caverns as it moves from corpus to glans penis. The Os penis formed through endochondral ossification after 42 months of age in this animal. Therefore, from a histological standpoint, the cane rat penis belongs to the intermediate type. In conclusion, these findings provide vital information on the penile anatomy of the greater cane rat, which will serve as a basis for comparing penile morphology among the suborder hystricomorpha and expand knowledge of the reproductive biology in this animal. PMID:21866532

Adebayo, A O; Akinloye, A K; Olurode, S A; Anise, E O; Oke, B O

2011-08-01

330

Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Milled Grape Canes ( Vitis vinifera ) Using a Pressurized Low-Polarity Water Extractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans-resveratrol and trans-?-viniferin were extracted from milled grape canes using pressurized low-polarity water. The effects of temperature were\\u000a significant for both compounds (p???0.05): extraction at 160 °C resulted in a 40% loss of trans-resveratrol compared to 95 °C while reduction of trans-?-viniferin at both temperatures remained at 30%. Increasing ethanol concentration from 0% to 25% increased the extraction\\u000a of total phenolics and

Erkan Karacabey; Giuseppe Mazza; Levent Bay?nd?rl?; Nevzat Art?k

331

Influence of lung parasites on the growth rates of free-ranging and captive adult cane toads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many parasites affect the viability of their hosts, but detailed studies combining empirical data from both the field and\\u000a the laboratory are limited. Consequently, the nature and magnitude of such effects are poorly known for many important host–parasite\\u000a systems, including macroparasites of amphibians. We examined the effects of lungworm (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) infections in cane toads (Bufo marinus) within their invasive

Crystal Kelehear; Gregory P. Brown; Richard Shine

2011-01-01

332

Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p<0.05) LA content and higher dry matter (DM) recovery than the control and P silages. P silage had lower (p<0.05) LA content than the control silage. During aerobic exposure, lactic acid contents decreased gradually in the control and M silages, while that of P and PM silages increased, and the peak values were observed after 9 d. M silage had similar yeast counts with the control silage (>105 cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage.

Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

2014-01-01

333

Beet-vinasse (condensed molasses solubles) as an ingredient in diets for cattle and pigs - nutritive value and limitations.  

PubMed

Sugar beet vinasse, originating as the condensed molasses residue from yeast production, was fed to bulls and pigs to determine the feed value. It contained, per kg dry matter (DM content 66.8%), 293 g crude protein, 305 g N-free extract (therefrom 34.4 g total sugar), and 395 g crude ash. The experiment was carried out with three fattening bulls (German Holstein) and four adult pigs (Gottingen Minipig). In bulls, two balance trials lasting 20 days each (10 days adaptation; 10 days collection) were conducted in which subsequently a basal ration without and with vinasse (14% in DM) was fed. In pigs, the experiment consisted of three 12-day balance trials with the final 5 days as collection period. In the first trial, pigs received a basal diet without vinasse and in the following, a mixed diet with 16 and 43% vinasse (in DM) respectively. Digestibilities of components in vinasse in bulls were: organic matter 73.5%, crude protein 72.6%, and N-free extract 52.3%. In bulls, no influence on faeces quality could be detected while feeding 14% vinasse in DM. While feeding 16% vinasse in DM to pigs, the digestibility of organic matter amounted to 72.3% (crude protein 71.8%; NfE 74.6%). Feeding higher amounts of vinasse (43% in DM) in the diet of pigs, digestibilities were reduced (organic matter: 61.6%), which might be a result of a reduced retention time of the chyme as a result of an osmotically driven diarrhoea because of unexpectedly high sulphate (136 g/kg DM) content in the vinasse. It is concluded that because of organic matter digestibility >70% for cattle and pigs, the use of vinasse in these species in small proportions is reasonable. PMID:15787991

Stemme, K; Gerdes, B; Harms, A; Kamphues, J

2005-01-01

334

3-D seismic analysis of a carbonate platform in the Molasse Basin - reef distribution and internal separation with seismic attributes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate platforms differ from clastic sedimentary environments by a greater heterogeneity, so that key horizons for mapping and compartmentalisation of the reservoir are generally missing. We show that different seismic attributes help to compete with these difficulties and to identify different carbonate facies within the platform. The Upper Jurassic carbonate platform in Southern Germany in the Molasse Basin is a main exploration target for hydrogeothermal projects. Knowledge about the distribution of different carbonate facies within the platform, which is overprinted by faults, is important for a realistic reservoir simulation. The platform with an average thickness of 600 meters was artificially divided into four layers of equal thickness. Within each layer the characteristic seismic pattern was visualized by different attributes (travel time mapping, spectral decomposition), allowing additionally for further depositional classification. Within the uppermost layer the coral reef distribution could be mapped. The reefs form several complexes of up to 12 square kilometres in size. The surrounding slope and trough areas are identified as well. Within the platform , the distribution of sponge reefs could be visualized. They form either amalgamations in distinct areas, or are spread as small singular structures with diameters of approximately less than hundred meters. Comparing tectonic elements and reef distribution within the whole platform reveals that the early topography triggered the reef distribution, while these lithologic inhomogenities influenced later on the local shape of tectonic lineaments. The fault system which dominates the structural style in the area is visible in the different transformations but does not obscure the facies distribution, which hindered former interpretations of the data set. In this way a reservoir model can incorporate now the first time the reef distribution within an area.

von Hartmann, Hartwig; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Schulz, Rüdiger

2012-10-01

335

[Microbiological contamination and antimicrobial activity of cristalised cane sugar on some medically important microorganisms in Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Microbiological contamination and antimicrobial activity of cristalised cane sugar on some medically important microorganisms in Costa Rica. Unrefined cristalised cane sugar, obtained after the filtration and evaporation of sugar cane juice, is a nutritional product of traditional consumption in Costa Rica and other Neotropical countries. It has been used in the topic treatment of infected wounds, with satisfactory results even with some antibiotic-ressistant bacteria. We studied the microbiological quality of 50 commercial samples. The analyses included total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria plate count; aerobic and anaerobic spore count; mold and yeast count; total and fecal coliforms; and presence of Clostridium botulinum. The antimicrobial effect was tested for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), S. epidermidis (UCR 2902), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 13076), Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Aspergillus niger (Asni 06). Most of the samples (76%) presented counts lower than 100 CFU/g especially for sporulated forms (90% lower than 20 CFU/g), the mold and yeast count was higher (38% higher than 10(2) CFU/g), demonstrating the importance of these microorganisms in the spoilage of the product; 76% of the samples presented fecal contamination; C. botulinum was not isolated with the methodology employed. No inhibitory effect was observed for A. niger, but all samples han an inhibitory effect over the other species, especially for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. PMID:19256417

Pujol, Verónica; Diaz, Jendry; Rodríguez, Evelyn; Arias, María Laura

2008-06-01

336

Characterization and use of high surface area activated carbons prepared from cane pith for liquid-phase adsorption.  

PubMed

Carbonaceous adsorbents with controllable surface areas were chemically activated with KOH at 780 degrees C from char that had been carbonized from cane pith at 450 degrees C. The pore properties including the BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and mean pore diameter of these activated carbons were characterized and derived using the t-plot method based on N(2) adsorption isotherms. The activated cane pith carbons, with KOH/char ratios of 2-6, exhibited BET surface areas ranging from 912 to 2299 m(2) g(-1). The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations revealed that the surface morphology of honeycombed holes on all activated cane pith carbons was significantly influenced by the KOH/char ratio. The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherms of acid blue 74, methylene blue, basic brown 1, p-nitrophenol, p-chlorophenol, p-cresol, and phenol from water at 30 degrees C on the activated carbons were studied. The adsorption kinetics were suitably described by a simplified kinetic model, the Elovich equation. All adsorption equilibrium isotherms were in agreement with the Langmuir equation, and were used to compare the covered area (S(c)/S(p)) of the activated carbons at different KOH/char ratios. The high-surface-area activated carbons were proven to be promising adsorbents for pollution control and for other applications. PMID:16488539

Tseng, Ru-Ling; Tseng, Szu-Kung

2006-08-25

337

Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium and nickel stress: the use of the sugar cane vinasse as a potential mitigator.  

PubMed

Most of the metals released from industrial activity, among them are cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni), inhibit the productivity of cultures and affect microbial metabolism. In this context, the aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the adverse effects of Cd and Ni on cell growth, viability, budding rate and trehalose content of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, likely because of adsorption and chelating action. For this purpose, the yeast was grown batch-wise in YED medium supplemented with selected amounts of vinasse and Cd or Ni. The negative effects of Cd and Ni on S. cerevisiae growth and the mitigating one of sugar cane vinasse were quantified by an exponential model. Without vinasse, the addition of increasing levels of Cd and Ni reduced the specific growth rate, whereas in its presence no reduction was observed. Consistently with the well-proved toxicity of both metals, cell viability and budding rate progressively decreased with increasing their concentration, but in the presence of vinasse the situation was remarkably improved. The trehalose content of S. cerevisiae cells followed the same qualitative behavior as cell viability, even though the negative effect of both metals on this parameter was stronger. These results demonstrate the ability of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the toxic effects of Cd and Ni. PMID:21809054

Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Basso, Luiz Carlos; Junior, Adalberto Pessoa; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Del Borghi, Marco; Converti, Attilio

2012-01-01

338

Rapid identification of primary constituents in parotoid gland secretions of the Australian cane toad using HPLC/MS-Q-TOF.  

PubMed

Toad parotoid gland secretion or toad venom has in recent years been increasingly shown to possess potentially beneficial pharmacological effects; this speculation has drawn much interest centred on elucidating the chemical basis of its multimodal effects. For this purpose, we explored the use of a rapid and accurate analysis method for systemic investigation of the parotoid gland chemistry, when extracted from Australian cane toads. Full-scan data of cane toad venom extract was acquired using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry system (HPLC/MS-Q-TOF), with multiple ionization sources (ESI and APCI) in positive and negative mixed modes. By measuring the exact mass differences between the theoretical and measured mass of each assumed compound, we confirmed the presence of 12 key constituents. The present results demonstrate that the use of HPLC/MS-Q-TOF with multiple ionization sources delivers exemplary selectivity and sensitivity, allowing for the rapid and accurate identification of constituents within cane toad venom. This paves the way for this technique to be used in future routine screening of components within the genus Bufo and for key analytes too, then reliably assessed for any purported beneficial (clinic) properties. PMID:23319165

Jing, Jing; Ren, Wei C; Li, Chun; Bose, Utpal; Parekh, Harendra S; Wei, Ming Q

2013-06-01

339

Parameters-related uncertainty in modeling sugar cane yield with an agro-Land Surface Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the coupling of specific crop models and large-scale generic vegetation models. They aim at accounting for the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum with a particular emphasis on how crop phenology and agricultural management practice influence the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty in these models is related to the many parameters included in the models' equations. In this study, we quantify the parameter-based uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS on a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Reunion and Brazil. First, the main source of uncertainty for the output variables NPP, GPP, and sensible heat flux (SH) is determined through a screening of the main parameters of the model on a multi-site basis leading to the selection of a subset of most sensitive parameters causing most of the uncertainty. In a second step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the parameters selected from the screening analysis at a regional scale. For this, a Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used. First, we quantify the sensitivity of the output variables to individual input parameters on a regional scale for two regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Then, we quantify the overall uncertainty in the simulation's outputs propagated from the uncertainty in the input parameters. Seven parameters are identified by the screening procedure as driving most of the uncertainty in the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS model output at all sites. These parameters control photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), root uptake of water (root profile), and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients). We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and optimal photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in NPP and GPP simulations whereas stomatal conductance is the most sensitive parameter controlling SH, followed by optimal photosynthesis temperature and optimal carboxylation rate. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and output variables is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting that climate mediated regionally different sensitivities of modeled sugarcane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil.

Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ruget, F.; Gabrielle, B.

2012-12-01

340

InSAR Studies of Crustal Deformation Near Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland and Cane Creek Anticline, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present studies of two kinds of crustal deformation phenomena using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique. Jakobshavn Isbrae, one of the largest outlet glaciers in Greenland, has been undergoing significant thinning and acceleration in recent years (Thomas, et al, 2003; Joughin et al, 2004). We use InSAR to measure crustal uplift in the ice-free bedrock area near the mouth of the glacier from 2002 to 2007, caused by the removal of the ice load. We will discuss the possibility of using the crustal deformation measurement to improve the estimation of mass loss rate of Jakobshavn Isbrae. Orbital error correction using empirical models and GPS data as ground control points will also be discussed. Since 1970s, potash ore has been mined from about 3000 feet underneath the Cane Creek anticline in southeastern Utah, using a system combining solution mining and solar evaporation. The barren and arid conditions in this area are ideal for InSAR measurements. Ground coherence is well maintained, even for time spans larger than 5 years. Interferograms formed by using ERS-1/2 SAR data show that the ground surface was subsiding steadily with a rate of 10~15 mm/yr in the period of 1992 to 2002. Detailed results, including time series studies of the subsidence rate and shape and their relation to mining activities will be provided.

Liu, L.; Wahr, J.; Howat, I.; Khan, S. A.; Joughin, I.

2007-12-01

341

New antioxidative phenolic glycosides isolated from Kokuto non-centrifuged cane sugar.  

PubMed

Nine compounds, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), beta-D-fructfuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-vanilloyl)-glucopyranoside (2), beta-D-fructfuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-syringyl)-glucopyranoside (3), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-(E)-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenoxy]propyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-(E)-propenyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy] propyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-9'-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), 4-[ethane-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propen]oxy]-2,6-dimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), 4-[ethane-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propen]oxy]-2-methoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), and 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-(E)-propenyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy]propyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9), were isolated from Kokuto non-centrifuged cane sugar. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence, mainly based on the NMR technique. Among them, seven new glycosides were identified. The 2-deoxyribose oxidation method was used to measure their antioxidative activity. All of these compounds showed antioxidative activities. PMID:11866116

Takara, Kensaku; Matsui, Daigo; Wada, Koji; Ichiba, Toshio; Nakasone, Yoko

2002-01-01

342

[Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].  

PubMed

Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young. PMID:16402584

Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

2005-11-01

343

Environmental repercussions of cane-sugar industries on the Chhoti Gandak river basin, Ganga Plain, India.  

PubMed

Chhoti Gandak river basin, situated in the Ganga Plain, is one of India's most productive cane-sugar industrial belts. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to investigate the impacts of these industries on the environment of the Chhoti Gandak river basin with special reference to soil and water. The results show that concentration of most metals are affected by industrial activities and surrounding agricultural practices. It is evidenced by increased heavy metal concentration in the soils as well as in the aquifers. Metals such as Pb, Cu, and Zn in the soil around the industrial sets are found significantly higher than their normal values in the soil. Metals like Fe and Mn in the groundwater are more than the permissible limit prescribed by the World Health Organization. In this study, an attempt was made to distinguish between the naturally occurring and anthropogenically induced metals in the soil. Analysis of geochemical properties, disposal of industrial wastes, inadequate application of agrochemicals, and their impact on environment indicate the sustainable implementation of integrated wastewater management plan in these industrial sets and also in similar situations. PMID:20041344

Bhardwaj, Vikram; Singh, Dhruv Sen; Singh, Abhay K

2010-12-01

344

Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases.  

PubMed

A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w/w on dry bagasse basis, 160 degrees C and above, 10 min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers by a low concentration of Biocellulase W (0.5 filter paper unit/gWIS) supplemented with beta-glucosidase, although much higher levels of cellulase (100-fold) were required for complete hydrolysis. After neutralization and nutrient addition, phosphoric acid syrups of hemicellulose sugars were fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY160 without further purification. Fermentation of these syrups was preceded by a lag that increased with increased pre-treatment temperature. Further improvements in organisms and optimization of steam treatments may allow the co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose, eliminating need for liquid-solid separation, sugar purification, and separate fermentations. PMID:19880314

Geddes, C C; Peterson, J J; Roslander, C; Zacchi, G; Mullinnix, M T; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

2010-03-01

345

Respiratory toxicity of repeated exposure to particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.  

PubMed

We compared the toxicity of subchronic exposure to equivalent masses of particles from sugar cane burning and traffic. BALB/c mice received 3 intranasal instillations/week during 1, 2 or 4 weeks of either distilled water (C1, C2, C4) or particles (15?g) from traffic (UP1, UP2, UP4) or biomass burning (BP1, BP2, BP4). Lung mechanics, histology and oxidative stress were analyzed 24h after the last instillation. In all instances UP and BP groups presented worse pulmonary elastance, airway and tissue resistance, alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction and macrophage influx into the lungs than controls. UP4, BP2 and BP4 presented more alveolar collapse than UP1 and BP1, respectively. UP and BP had worse bronchial and alveolar lesion scores than their controls; BP4 had greater bronchial lesion scores than UP4. Catalase was higher in UP4 and BP4 than in C4. In conclusion, biomass particles were more toxic than those from traffic after repeated exposures. PMID:24280381

Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Carvalho, Giovanna M C; Lanzetti, Manuella; Valença, Samuel S; Silva, Luiz F F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Zin, Walter A; Faffe, Débora S

2014-01-15

346

Stereo camera based virtual cane system with identifiable distance tactile feedback for the blind.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose a new haptic-assisted virtual cane system operated by a simple finger pointing gesture. The system is developed by two stages: development of visual information delivery assistant (VIDA) with a stereo camera and adding a tactile feedback interface with dual actuators for guidance and distance feedbacks. In the first stage, user's pointing finger is automatically detected using color and disparity data from stereo images and then a 3D pointing direction of the finger is estimated with its geometric and textural features. Finally, any object within the estimated pointing trajectory in 3D space is detected and the distance is then estimated in real time. For the second stage, identifiable tactile signals are designed through a series of identification experiments, and an identifiable tactile feedback interface is developed and integrated into the VIDA system. Our approach differs in that navigation guidance is provided by a simple finger pointing gesture and tactile distance feedbacks are perfectly identifiable to the blind. PMID:24932864

Kim, Donghun; Kim, Kwangtaek; Lee, Sangyoun

2014-01-01

347

Adapting to an invasive species: Toxic cane toads induce morphological change in Australian snakes  

PubMed Central

The arrival of invasive species can devastate natural ecosystems, but the long-term effects of invasion are less clear. If native organisms can adapt to the presence of the invader, the severity of impact will decline with time. In Australia, invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) are highly toxic to most snakes that attempt to eat them. Because snakes are gape-limited predators with strong negative allometry for head size, maximum relative prey mass (and thus, the probability of eating a toad large enough to be fatal) decreases with an increase in snake body size. Thus, the arrival of toads should exert selection on snake morphology, favoring an increase in mean body size and a decrease in relative head size. We tested these predictions with data from specimens of four species of Australian snakes, collected over >80 years. Geographic information system layers provided data on the duration of toad exposure for each snake population, as well as environmental variables (latitude, precipitation, and temperature). As predicted, two toad-vulnerable species (Pseudechis porphyriacus and Dendrelaphis punctulatus) showed a steady reduction in gape size and a steady increase in body length with time since exposure to toads. In contrast, two species at low risk from toads (Hemiaspis signata and Tropidonophis mairii) showed no consistent change in these morphological traits as a function of the duration of toad exposure. These results provide strong evidence of adaptive changes in native predators as a result of the invasion of toxic prey.

Phillips, Ben L.; Shine, Richard

2004-01-01

348

The effects of experimentally infecting Australian tree frogs with lungworms (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) from invasive cane toads.  

PubMed

Invasive species may transmit novel pathogens to native taxa, and lacking a history of coevolutionary interactions with the pathogen, the new hosts may be severely affected. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) were introduced to Australia in 1935, bringing with them a lungworm (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) not found in Australian frogs. Previous studies suggest that most frog species are unaffected by this parasite, but one tree-frog (Litoria caerulea) can harbour high numbers of lungworm. More detailed laboratory studies confirm and extend the earlier results on L. caerulea and show that Rhabdias infection severely depresses the viability of metamorphs of an allied tree-frog species, Litoria splendida. Parasitic larvae infected both of these two closely related tree-frog species, but the two anurans differed in the consequences of infection. Parasitism reduced the survivorship of L. splendida and the stamina of both species. Lungworms did not consistently reduce growth rates or affect heart rates in either tree-frog species. Although L. splendida is potentially vulnerable to the arrival of toad-transported lungworms, rates of host-switching may be reduced by low levels of habitat overlap between the frogs (which are rock-dwelling and arboreal) and the toads (which are terrestrial and most abundant in disturbed habitats). PMID:21624371

Pizzatto, Lígia; Shine, Richard

2011-08-01

349

Stereo Camera Based Virtual Cane System with Identifiable Distance Tactile Feedback for the Blind  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we propose a new haptic-assisted virtual cane system operated by a simple finger pointing gesture. The system is developed by two stages: development of visual information delivery assistant (VIDA) with a stereo camera and adding a tactile feedback interface with dual actuators for guidance and distance feedbacks. In the first stage, user's pointing finger is automatically detected using color and disparity data from stereo images and then a 3D pointing direction of the finger is estimated with its geometric and textural features. Finally, any object within the estimated pointing trajectory in 3D space is detected and the distance is then estimated in real time. For the second stage, identifiable tactile signals are designed through a series of identification experiments, and an identifiable tactile feedback interface is developed and integrated into the VIDA system. Our approach differs in that navigation guidance is provided by a simple finger pointing gesture and tactile distance feedbacks are perfectly identifiable to the blind.

Kim, Donghun; Kim, Kwangtaek; Lee, Sangyoun

2014-01-01

350

Betaine removal during thermo- and mesophilic aerobic batch biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse: influence of temperature and pH on the progress and efficiency of the process.  

PubMed

The key issue in achieving a high extent of biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse is to establish the conditions for the assimilation of betaine, which is the main pollutant in this high-strength industrial effluent. In the present study, aerobic batch biodegradation was conducted over the temperature range of 27-63°C (step 9°C), at a pH of 6.5 and 8.0, using a mixed culture of bacteria of the genus Bacillus. Betaine was assimilated at 27-54°C and the pH of 8.0, as well as at 27-45°C and the pH of 6.5. The processes where betaine was assimilated produced a high BOD(5) removal, which exceeded 99.40% over the temperature range of 27-45°C at the pH of 8.0, as well as at 27°C and the pH of 6.5. Maximal COD removal (88.73%) was attained at 36°C and the pH of 6.5. The results indicate that the process can be applied on an industrial scale as the first step in the treatment of beet molasses vinasse. PMID:21367516

Cibis, Edmund; Ryznar-Luty, Agnieszka; Krzywonos, Ma?gorzata; Lutos?awski, Krzysztof; Mi?kiewicz, Tadeusz

2011-07-01

351

Biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse by a mixed culture of micro organisms: effect of aeration conditions and pH control.  

PubMed

The effect of aeration conditions and pH control on the progress and efficiency of beet molasses vinasse biodegradation was investigated during four batch processes at 38 degrees C with the mixed microbial culture composed of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Rhodopseudomonas, and Saccharomyces. The four processes were carried out in a shake flask with no pH control, an aerobic bioreactor without mixing with no pH control, and a stirred-tank reactor (STR) with aeration with and without pH control, respectively. All experiments were started with an initial pH 8.0. The highest efficiency of biodegradation was achieved through the processes conducted in the STR, where betaine (an organic pollutant occurring in beet molasses in very large quantities) was completely degraded by the microorganisms. The process with no pH control carried out in the STR produced the highest reduction in the following pollution measures: organic matter expressed as chemical oxygen demand determined by the dichromatic method + theoretical COD of betaine (COD(sum), 85.5%), total organic carbon (TOC, 78.8%) and five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5, 98.6%). The process conditions applied in the shake flask experiments, as well as those used in the aerobic bioreactor without mixing, failed to provide complete betaine assimilation. As a consequence, reduction in COD(sum), TOC and BOD5 was approximately half that obtained with STR. PMID:22432306

Lutos?awski, Krzysztof; Ryznar-Luty, Agnieszka; Cibis, Edmund; Krzywonos, Ma?gorzata; Mi?kiewicz, Tadeusz

2011-01-01

352

Engineering and adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli W for L-lactic acid fermentation from molasses and corn steep liquor without additional nutrients.  

PubMed

The D-lactic acid producing strain, Escherichia coli HBUT-D, was reengineered for L(+)-lactic acid fermentation by replacing the D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA) with an L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) from Pedicoccus acidilactici, followed by adaptive evolution in sucrose. The resulting strain, WYZ-L, has enhanced expression of the sucrose operon (cscA and cscKB). In 100 g L(-1) of sucrose fermentation using mineral salt medium, WYZ-L produced 97 g L(-1) of l(+)-lactic acid, with a yield of 90%, a maximum productivity of 3.17 g L(-1)h(-1) and an optical purity of greater than 99%. In fermentations using sugarcane molasses and corn steep liquor without additional nutrients, WYZ-L produced 75 g L(-1) of l(+)-lactic acid, with a yield of 85%, a maximum productivity of 1.18 g L(-1)h(-1), and greater than 99% optical purity. These results demonstrated that WYZ-L has the potential to use waste molasses and corn steep liquor as a resource for L(+)-lactic acid fermentation. PMID:24063823

Wang, Yongze; Li, Kunpeng; Huang, Feng; Wang, Jinhua; Zhao, Jinfang; Zhao, Xiao; Garza, Erin; Manow, Ryan; Grayburn, Scott; Zhou, Shengde

2013-11-01

353

Analysis of sucrose accumulation in the sugar cane culm on the basis of in vitro kinetic data.  

PubMed Central

Sucrose accumulation in developing sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is accompanied by a continuous synthesis and cleavage of sucrose in the storage tissues. Despite numerous studies, the factors affecting sucrose accumulation are still poorly understood, and no consistent pattern has emerged which pinpoints certain enzyme activities as important controlling steps. Here, we develop an approach based on pathway analysis and kinetic modelling to assess the biochemical control of sucrose accumulation and futile cycling in sugar cane. By using the concept of elementary flux modes, all possible routes of futile cycling of sucrose were enumerated in the metabolic system. The available kinetic data for the pathway enzymes were then collected and assembled in a kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in sugar cane culm tissue. Although no data were fitted, the model agreed well with independent experimental results: in no case was the difference between calculated and measured fluxes and concentrations greater than 2-fold. The model thus validated was then used to assess different enhancement strategies for increasing sucrose accumulation. First, the control coefficient of each enzyme in the system on futile cycling of sucrose was calculated. Secondly, the activities of those enzymes with the numerically largest control coefficients were varied over a 5-fold range to determine the effect on the degree of futile cycling, the conversion efficiency from hexoses into sucrose, and the net sucrose accumulation rate. In view of the modelling results, overexpression of the fructose or glucose transporter or the vacuolar sucrose import protein, as well as reduction of cytosolic neutral invertase levels, appear to be the most promising targets for genetic manipulation. This offers a more directed improvement strategy than cumbersome gene-by-gene manipulation. The kinetic model can be viewed and interrogated on the World Wide Web at http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za.

Rohwer, J M; Botha, F C

2001-01-01

354

The Impact of Sugar Cane-Burning Emissions on the Respiratory System of Children and the Elderly  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the influence of emissions from burning sugar cane on the respiratory system during almost 1 year in the city of Piracicaba in southeast Brazil. From April 1997 through March 1998, samples of inhalable particles were collected, separated into fine and coarse particulate mode, and analyzed for black carbon and tracer elements. At the same time, we examined daily records of children (< 13 years of age) and elderly people (> 64 years of age) admitted to the hospital because of respiratory diseases. Generalized linear models were adopted with natural cubic splines to control for season and linear terms to control for weather. Analyses were carried out for the entire period, as well as for burning and nonburning periods. Additional models were built using three factors obtained from factor analysis instead of particles or tracer elements. Increases of 10.2 ?g/m3 in particles ? 2.5 ?m/m3 aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and 42.9 ?g/m3 in PM10 were associated with increases of 21.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.3–38.5] and 31.03% (95% CI, 1.25–60.21) in child and elderly respiratory hospital admissions, respectively. When we compared periods, the effects during the burning period were much higher than the effects during nonburning period. Elements generated from sugar cane burning (factor 1) were those most associated with both child and elderly respiratory admissions. Our results show the adverse impact of sugar cane burning emissions on the health of the population, reinforcing the need for public efforts to reduce and eventually eliminate this source of air pollution.

Cancado, Jose E.D.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.; Pereira, Luiz A.A.; Lara, Luciene B.L.S.; Artaxo, Paulo; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Arbex, Marcos A.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Braga, Alfesio L.F.

2006-01-01

355

Analysis of genetic similarity detected by AFLP and coefficient of parentage among genotypes of sugar cane ( Saccharum spp.).  

PubMed

Despite the economical importance of sugar cane, until the present-date no studies have been carried out to determine the correlation of the molecular-based genetic similarity (GS) and the coefficient of parentage ( f)-estimates generated for cultivars. A comprehensive knowledge of the amount of genetic diversity in parental cultivars, could improve the effectiveness of breeding programmes. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and pedigree data were used to investigate the genetic relationship in a group of 79 cultivars (interspecific hybrids), used as parents in one of the Brazilian breeding programmes, and four species of Saccharum ( Saccharum sinense, Saccharum barberi and two of Saccharum officinarum). The objectives of this study were to assess the level of genetic similarity among the sugar-cane cultivars and to investigate the correlation between the AFLP-based GS and f, based on pedigree information. Twenty one primer combinations were used to obtain the AFLP molecular markers, generating a total of 2,331 bands, of which 1,121 were polymorphic, with a polymorphism rate, on average, of 50% per primer combination. GSs were determined using Jaccard's similarity coefficient, and a final dendrogram was constructed using an unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA). AFLP-based GS ranged from 0.28 to 0.89, with a mean of 0.47, whereas f ranged from 0 to 0.503, with a mean of 0.057. Cluster analysis using GS divided the genotypes into related subgroups suggesting that there is important genetic relationship among the cultivars. AFLP-based GS and f were significantly correlated ( r= 0.42, P< 0.001), thus the significance of this r value suggests that the AFLP data may help to more-accurately quantify the degree of relationship among sugar-cane cultivars. PMID:12579425

Lima, M L A; Garcia, A A F; Oliveira, K M; Matsuoka, S; Arizono, H; De Souza, C L; De Souza, A P

2002-01-01

356

Detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method: collaborative study.  

PubMed

Results of a collaborative study are reported for the detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific natural isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method. The method is based on the fact that the deuterium content at specific positions of the sugar molecules is different in maple syrup from that in beet or cane sugar. The syrup is diluted with pure water and fermented; the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield and analyzed with a high-field NMR spectrometer fitted with a deuterium probe and fluorine lock. The proportion of ethanol molecules monodeuterated at the methyl site is recorded. This parameter (D/H)I is decreased when beet sugar is added and increased when cane sugar is added to the maple syrup. The precision of the method for measuring (D/H)I was found to be in good agreement with the values already published for the application of this method to fruit juice concentrates (AOAC Official Method 995.17). An excellent correlation was found between the percentage of added beet sugar and the (D/H)I isotopic ratio measured in this collaborative study. Consequently, all samples in which exogenous sugars were added were found to have a (D/H)I isotopic ratio significantly different from the normal value for an authentic maple syrup. By extension of what is known about plants having the C4 cycle, the method can be applied to corn sweeteners as well as to cane sugar. One limitation of the method is its reduced sensitivity when applied to specific blends of beet and cane sugars or corn sweeteners. In such case, the C13 ratio measurement (see AOAC Official Method 984.23, Corn Syrup and Cane Sugar in Maple Syrup) may be used in conjunction. PMID:11601471

Martin, Y L

2001-01-01

357

Changes in cholesterol kinetics following sugar cane policosanol supplementation: a randomized control trial  

PubMed Central

Background Sugar cane policosanols (SCP) have been shown to exert cholesterol-modulating properties in various studies conducted in Cuba by substantially reducing cholesterol synthesis. Independent research examining changes in cholesterol kinetics in response to SCP is limited to few studies, none of which was able to replicate findings of the original research. Moreover, no data are available on the effect of SCP on cholesterol absorption to date. The present study was undertaken to determine effects on cholesterol kinetics, namely synthesis and absorption, within hypercholesterolemic individuals consuming a SCP treatment. Twenty-one otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic subjects participated in a randomized double-blind crossover study where they received 10 mg/day of policosanols or a placebo incorporated in margarine as an evening snack for a period of 28 days. The last week of the study phase, subjects were given 13C labelled cholesterol and deuterated water for the measurement of cholesterol absorption and synthesis respectively. Blood was collected on the first two and last five days of the trial. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis were determined by measuring red cell cholesterol 13C and deuterium enrichment, respectively. Results There was no significant change in LDL cholesterol levels as compared to control. In addition, the area under the curve for red cell cholesterol 13C enrichment across 96 hours was not significantly different in the SCP group as compared to control. Similarly, no difference was observed in the fractional rate of cholesterol synthesis over the period of 24 hours between the two treatment groups. Conclusion The findings of the present study fail to support previous research concerning efficacy and mechanism of action for policosanols.

Kassis, Amira N; Jones, Peter JH

2008-01-01

358

Influence of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) injury on the quality of cane juice.  

PubMed

Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål) is an important pest in Latin America and causes significant reduction in sugarcane productivity. There is no information regarding the effect of this pest on the quality of cane juice used for sugar and alcohol production. This work aimed at evaluating the quality of sugarcane juice from plants attacked by spittlebugs. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with 15 replications, and comprised two treatments: control and chemical treatment with thiamethoxam. An average of 9.2 +/- 4.44 spittlebug nymphs m-1 were found in the plots prior to insecticide application. Nymphs were counted 18, 35, 55, and 82 days after the initial sampling (december/2003). During the mid growing season (July 2004), the juice was extracted from stalks and analyzed for Brix, Pol, RS, pH, fiber, purity, TRS, dextran, starch, and total phenolic compounds. Stalk yield was also measured. Chemical treatment was efficient in reducing spittlebug population, and elevated both stalk yield and juice pH. The accumulated infestation expressed as insect-days was significantly and negatively correlated to yield, Pol, pH, and purity. The concentration of phenolic compounds increased with pest infestation, while dextran and starch levels were not affected. The infestation of 2.4 and 7.3 nymphs m-1 day-1 caused reductions of 8.3% and 29.8% in yield; 1.9% and 5.8% in Pol; 0.4% and 1.1% in pH and 0.4% and 1.2% in purity, respectively, in comparison to areas where the pest population was extremely low (< 0.1 nymphs m-1). PMID:18368252

Madaleno, Leonardo L; Ravaneli, Gisele C; Presotti, Leandro E; Mutton, Miguel A; Fernandes, Odair A; Mutton, Márcia J R

2008-01-01

359

Geology of the Cane Branch and Helton Branch watershed areas, McCreary County, Kentucky  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cane Branch and Helton Branch in McCreary County, Kentucky, are about 1.4 miles apart (fig. 1). Can Branch, which is about 2.1 miles long, emptied into Hughes Fork of Beaver Creek. Its watershed area of about 1.5 square miles lies largely in the Wiborf 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (SW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle), but the downstream part of the area extends northward into the Hail 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (NW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle). Helton Branch, which is about 1.1 miles long, has two tributaries and empties into Little Hurricane Fork of Beaver Creek. It drains an area of about 0.8 square mile of while about 0.5 square mile is in the Hail quadrangle and the remainder in the Wilborg quadrangle. The total relief in the Can Branch area is about 500 feet and in the Helton Branch area about 400 feet. Narrow, steep-sided to canyon-like valley and winding ridges, typical of the Pottsville escarpment region, are characteristic of both areas. Thick woods and dense undergrowth cover much of the two areas. Field mapping was done on U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2-minute maps having a scale of 1:24,000 and a contour interval of 20 feet. Elevations of lithologic contacts were determined with a barometer and a hand level. Aerial photographs were used principally to trace the cliffs formed by sandstone and conglomerate ledges. Exposures, except for those of the cliff- and ledge-forming sandstone and conglomerates, are not abundant. The most complete stratigraphic sections (secs. 3 and 4, fig. 2) in the two areas are exposed in cuts of newly completed Forest Service roads, but the rick in the upper parts of the exposures is weathered. To supplement these sections, additional sections were measured in cuts along the railroad and main highways in nor near the watersheds.

Lyons, Erwin J.

1957-01-01

360

Diet of eared doves (Zenaida auriculata, Aves, Columbidae) in a sugar-cane colony in South-eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Farmers in the Paranapanema Valley (São Paulo, Brazil) have reported problems with flocks of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata) eating sprouting soybeans. In this region these birds breed colonially in sugar-cane, and eat four crop seeds, using 70% of the dry weight, in the following order of importance: maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans. Three weeds (Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria plantaginea, and Commelina benghalensis) were important. This information suggests that the doves adapted particularly well to the landscape created by the agricultural practices in the region, exploiting many available foods. PMID:12071322

Ranvaud, R; de Freitas, K C; Bucher, E H; Dias, H S; Avanzo, V C; Alberts, C C

2001-11-01

361

Sulphur, Molasses, Purple Ditto.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Homework, like grandmother's spring tonic, is a useless and hated ritual that is continued only because everyone seems to expect it. The best way to make homework enriching and personal is to prepare idea cards for each study unit, allowing each student to select a suitable project. (SJL)

Gatch, Jean

1978-01-01

362

Simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in grape canes by HPLC-DAD-UV using wavelength switching detection.  

PubMed

The paper described a novel chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds such as gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric and salicylic acid, (+)-catechin, (?)-epicatechin, rutin, morin, quercetin, coumarin and trans-resveratrol at their maximum absorbance wavelengths (MAW) employing reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography combined with DAD and UV detection via detection wavelength switching. The method was based on MAW acquisition by DAD and quantification by UV. The separation process was performed on a Shim-Pack VP-ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) held at 30 °C, utilizing 3.0% acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in the gradient elution mode. The method was fully validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.9990, 10?350 mg/L), precision (both intra-day and inter-day RSD < 4.22%), accuracy (97.31%?104.66%), specificity, robustness (0.59% < RSD < 2.86%), limit of detection and quantification. The switching method significantly improved the sensitivities of most phenolics studied in comparison with the standard constant wavelength detection (280 nm). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of 14 phenolic compounds in 89 varieties of one-year-old Chinese grape one-year-canes. Grape canes contain many phenolics, especially trans-resveratrol, (?)-epicatechin, and (+)-catechin. PMID:24252994

Zhang, Ang; Wan, Li; Wu, Cuiyun; Fang, Yulin; Han, Guomin; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

2013-01-01

363

(S)-2-acetoxy-5-undecanone, female sex pheromone of the raspberry cane midge, Resseliella theobaldi (Barnes).  

PubMed

The raspberry cane midge, Resseliella theobaldi, is a widespread pest of cultivated red raspberry in Europe. Pheromone-baited traps could provide a much-needed, accurate means to monitor the pest. Volatiles collected separately from virgin female and male midges were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) to reveal four female-specific components. In analyses by GC coupled to electroantennographic (EAG) recording from the antennae of a male midge, at least three of these components elicited responses. Based on its GC retention indices and mass spectrum, we propose that the major component is 2-acetoxy-5-undecanone and confirm this by synthesis of the racemic compound in seven steps and 63% yield from 4-pentenoic acid. The three minor components were each present at approximately 30% of the major component and were identified as 2-undecanone, (S)-2-acetoxyundecane, and (S)-2-undecanol by comparison of GC retention times and mass spectra with those of synthetic standards. GC analyses of the female-produced volatiles on an enantioselective column showed that only one enantiomer of 2-acetoxy-5-undecanone was present, and this was found to be the S-enantiomer by hydrolytic kinetic resolution of an epoxide intermediate in the synthesis and also by enantioselective hydrolysis of the racemic acetate with a lipase enzyme. The two enantiomers were also separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on an enantioselective column for field tests. In two field trapping tests, (S)-2-acetoxy-5-undecanone was highly attractive to male R. theobaldi; the R-enantiomer was not attractive. The racemic compound was just as attractive as the S-enantiomer, and addition of the three minor components in racemic form at two different loads did not affect catches. The pheromone could be dispensed from both rubber septa and polyethylene vials for at least 1 month under field conditions, but the former was preferred as it gave more uniform release. 2-Acetoxy-5-undecanone belongs to a new group of pheromone structures in the Cecidomyiidae, most others being mono- or diesters. PMID:19169750

Hall, David R; Farman, Dudley I; Cross, Jerry V; Pope, Tom W; Ando, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Masanobu

2009-02-01

364

Effect of Different Pretreatment of Sugar Cane Bagasse on Cellulase and Xylanases Production by the Mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 Grown in Submerged Culture  

PubMed Central

The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147?U·mL?1) was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher ?-glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups.

Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J. P.

2014-01-01

365

Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.  

PubMed

Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate. PMID:24295691

Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

2014-04-15

366

Influence of Electron Beam Irradiation and Coupling Agents on the Thermal Stability of Sugar Cane Bagasse Fiber-Thermoplastics Scrape Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of blending of sugar cane bagasse with thermoplastics scrape as well as incorporation of some coupling agents has been conducted using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the effect of electron beam preirradiation of low density polyethylene on the properties of the bagasse-LDPE composite was also studied. Simulation of TGA data reveals that the presence of bagasse fiber accelerates

H. A. Youssef; M. A. M. Ali; M. R. Ismail; A. H. Zahran

2007-01-01

367

Usefulness and acceptability of a standardised orientation and mobility training for partially-sighted older adults using an identification cane  

PubMed Central

Background Orientation and mobility (O&M) training in using an identification (ID) cane is provided to partially-sighted older adults to facilitate independent functioning and participation in the community. Recently, a protocolised standardised O&M-training in the use of the ID cane was developed in The Netherlands. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and acceptability of both the standardised training and the regular training for participants and O&M-trainers in a randomised controlled trial (NCT00946062). Methods The standardised O&M-training consists of two structured face-to-face sessions and one telephone follow-up, in which, in addition to the regular training, self-management and behavioural change techniques are applied. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data on the training’s usefulness, e.g. the population reached, self-reported benefits or achievements, and acceptability, e.g. the performance of the intervention according to protocol and participants’ exposure to and engagement in the training. Results Data was collected from 29 O&M-trainers and 68 participants. Regarding the self-reported benefits, outcomes were comparable for the standardised training and the regular training according the trainers and participants e.g., about 85% of the participants in both groups experienced benefits of the cane and about 70% gained confidence in their capabilities. Participants were actively involved in the standardised training. Nearly 40% of the participants in the standardised training group was not exposed to the training according to protocol regarding the number of sessions scheduled and several intervention elements, such as action planning and contracting. Conclusions The standardised and regular O&M-training showed to be useful and mostly acceptable for the partially-sighted older adults and trainers. Yet, a concern is the deviation from the protocol of the standardised O&M-training by the O&M-trainers regarding distinguishing elements such as action planning. Overall, participants appreciated both trainings and reported benefit.

2012-01-01

368

A new small-mammal biostratigraphy and high-resolution chronostratigraphic model for the Upper Freshwater Molasse of the eastern part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (Bavaria, Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed integrated stratigraphic study (lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, 40Ar\\/39Ar dating) was carried out on twelve sections from the eastern part of the Upper Freshwater Molasse of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB), improving greatly the chronostratigraphy and the temporal resolution (up to 100 kyr) of these sediments. The sections contain 19 new small-mammal bearing levels. Based on this material and

M. Boehme; H. Abdul Aziz; V. Bachtadse; J. Prieto; A. Rocholl; A. Ulbig; J. R. Wijbrans

2009-01-01

369

A new fossil thryonomyid from the Late Miocene of the United Arab Emirates and the origin of African cane rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cane rats (Thryonomyidae) are represented today by two species inhabiting sub-Saharan Africa. Their fossil record is predominately African, but includes several Miocene species from Arabia and continental Asia that represent dispersal events from Africa. For example, Paraulacodus indicus, known from the Miocene of Pakistan, is closely related to living Thryonomys. Here we describe a new thryonomyid, Protohummus dango, gen. et sp. nov., from the late Miocene Baynunah Formation of the United Arab Emirates. The new thryonomyid is less derived than " Thryonomys" asakomae from the latest Miocene of Ethiopia and clarifies the origin of crown Thryonomys and the evolutionary transition from Paraulacodus. A phylogenetic analysis shows Protohummus dango to be morphologically intermediate between Paraulacodus spp. and extinct and living Thryonomys spp. The morphological grade and phylogenetic position of Protohummus dango further supports previous biochronological estimates of the age of the Baynunah Formation (ca. 6-8 Ma).

Kraatz, Brian P.; Bibi, Faysal; Hill, Andrew; Beech, Mark

2013-05-01

370

Vitis vinifera canes, a new source of antifungal compounds against Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator, and Botrytis cinerea.  

PubMed

Methanolic and ethanolic crude extracts of Vitis vinifera canes exhibited significant antifungal activity against the three major fungal pathogens affecting grapevines, Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator and Botrytis cinerea. The active extracts were analyzed by LC-PDA-ESI-MS, and selected compounds were identified. Efficient targeted isolation using medium-pressure liquid chromatography afforded six pure constituents in one step. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and HRMS. Six identified compounds (ampelopsin A, hopeaphenol, trans-resveratrol, ampelopsin H, ?-viniferin, and E-vitisin B) presented antifungal activities against P. viticola. ?-Viniferin also exhibited a low antifungal activity against B. cinerea. None of the identified compounds inhibited the germination of E. necator. The potential to develop a novel natural fungicide against the three major fungal pathogens affecting V. vinifera from viticulture waste material is discussed. PMID:23730921

Schnee, Sylvain; Queiroz, Emerson F; Voinesco, Francine; Marcourt, Laurence; Dubuis, Pierre-Henri; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Gindro, Katia

2013-06-12

371

An invasive species induces rapid adaptive change in a native predator: cane toads and black snakes in Australia  

PubMed Central

Rapid environmental change due to human activities has increased rates of extinction, but some species may be able to adapt rapidly enough to deal with such changes. Our studies of feeding behaviour and physiological resistance to toxins reveal surprisingly rapid adaptive responses in Australian black snakes (Pseudechis porphyriacus) following the invasion of a lethally toxic prey item, the cane toad (Bufo marinus). Snakes from toad-exposed localities showed increased resistance to toad toxin and a decreased preference for toads as prey. Separate laboratory experiments suggest that these changes are not attributable to learning (we were unable to teach naive snakes to avoid toxic prey) or to acquired resistance (repeated sub-lethal doses did not enhance resistance). These results strongly suggest that black snake behaviour and physiology have evolved in response to the presence of toads, and have done so rapidly. Toads were brought to Australia in 1935, so these evolved responses have occurred in fewer than 23 snake generations.

Phillips, Ben L; Shine, Richard

2006-01-01

372

Effects of cooked molasses blocks and fermentation extract or brown seaweed meal inclusion on intake, digestion, and microbial efficiency in steers fed low-quality hay.  

PubMed

Five ruminally, duodenally, and ileally cannulated steers (376 +/- 8.1 kg of initial BW) were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square to evaluate effects of cooked molasses block supplementation and inclusion of fermentation extract (Aspergillus oryzae) or brown seaweed meal (Ascophyllum nodosum) on intake, site of digestion, and microbial efficiency. Diets consisted of switchgrass hay (6.0% CP; DM basis) offered ad libitum, free access to water, and one of three molasses blocks (0.341 kg of DM/d; one-half at 0600 and one-half at 1800). Treatments were no block (control), block with no additive (40.5% CP; POS), block plus fermentation extract bolused directly into the rumen via gelatin capsules (2.0 g/d; FS), fermentation extract included in the block (2.0 g/d; FB), and seaweed meal included in the block (10 g/d; SB). Steers were adapted to diets for 14 d followed by a 7-d collection period. Overall treatment effect on hay OM intake tended (8.1 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.5 kg/d; P = 0.14) to increase with block supplementation. Total OM intake (8.4 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.5 kg/d; P = 0.01) increased in steers consuming block compared with control. Apparent and true ruminal OM digestibility increased (P = 0.05) with block consumption. Steers fed SB had greater (P = 0.10) true ruminal OM digestibility compared with steers fed POS (61.0 vs. 57.9 +/- 1.6%). True ruminal CP digestibility increased (P = 0.01) with block supplementation compared with control (37.5 vs. 23.6 +/- 3.7%). Addition of fermentation extract did not affect intake or digestion. Treatments did not alter ruminal pH, total VFA, or individual VFA proportions; however, ruminal ammonia increased (P = 0.01) with block supplementation. In situ disappearance rates of hay DM (3.14 +/- 0.44 %/h), NDF (3.18 +/- 0.47 %/h), and ADF (3.02 +/- 0.57 %/h) were not altered by treatment. Seaweed block increased (P = 0.01) slowly degraded CP fraction compared with POS (39.5 vs. 34.0 +/- 2.07%). Similarly, SB increased (P = 0.01) the extent of CP degradability (74.2 vs. 68.9 +/- 1.81%). No treatment effects (P = 0.24) were observed for microbial efficiency. Block supplementation increased intake, and use of brown seaweed meal seemed to have beneficial effects on forage digestibility in low-quality forage diets. PMID:16282634

Leupp, J L; Caton, J S; Soto-Navarro, S A; Lardy, G P

2005-12-01

373

Present-day and future tectonic underplating in the western Swiss Alps: reconciliation of basement/wrench-faulting and décollement folding of the Jura and Molasse basin in the Alpine foreland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Alps form a geodynamically active mountain belt showing the typical features of an evolving orogenic wedge with its pro-wedge geometry to the NNW and its retro-wedge structures to the SSE. Renewed tectonic underplating of European continental crust occurred after the orogenic wedge underwent major dynamic disequilibrium following the break-off of the southward subducting slab of the European passive margin. The most important of these basement imbricates are the Mont-Blanc-Aiguilles Rouges and Gastern-Aar crystalline massifs, also forming the Alps' highest mountains. The upper plate-present-day orogenic wedge of the western Alps includes the Molasse basin and the Jura fold-and-thrust belt, both decoupled from the basement over a basal décollement surface. The overall geometry of this wedge appears to be strongly unstable according to simple wedge models. In its attempt to regain stability, out-of-sequence thrusts form in the existing basement nappes; but also new basement nappes should develop beneath the southern portion of the Molasse basin. New out-of-sequence thrusts in the cover, trigger higher than average uplift rates concentrated around the newly forming structures and are accompanied by a concentration of earthquakes. Tectonic underplating is further corroborated by neotectonics and the tectonic structures observed in the Préalpes, Molasse basin and Jura. Similarly, uplift rates, and earthquakes along the southern edge of the Jura mountains seem to witness the development of a new/incipient basement nappe at depth (partial inversion of former Permo-Carboniferous grabens in the basement). A possible spatial coincidence of areas with strong earthquake activity and zones with uplift rates above surrounding values, suggest a common mechanism for their origin in the western Swiss Alpine foreland. Combined with information from basement geometry and wedge dynamics it is proposed that the common mechanism is the development of basement imbricates by tectonic underplating. The proposed model for ongoing and possible future tectonic underplating beneath an active Alpine orogenic wedge also allows to reconcile the models of basement/wrench-faulting in the Molasse basin and Jura with the distant push theory, where the Molasse basin and Jura develop over a basal décollement horizon.

Mosar, Jon

1999-11-01

374

An organic acid-tolerant HAA1-overexpression mutant of an industrial bioethanol strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses  

PubMed Central

Bacterial contamination is known as a major cause of the reduction in ethanol yield during bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acetate is an effective agent for the prevention of bacterial contamination, but it negatively affects the fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae. We have proposed that the combined use of organic acids including acetate and lactate and yeast strains tolerant to organic acids may be effective for the elimination of principally lactic acid bacterial (LAB) contamination. In a previous study employing laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, we showed that overexpression of the HAA1 gene, which encodes a transcriptional activator, could be a useful molecular breeding method for acetate-tolerant yeast strains. In the present study, we constructed a HAA1-overexpressing diploid strain (MATa/?, named ER HAA1-OP) derived from the industrial bioethanol strain Ethanol Red (ER). ER HAA1-OP showed tolerance not only to acetate but also to lactate, and this tolerance was dependent on the increased expression of HAA1 gene. The ethanol production ability of ER HAA1-OP was almost equivalent to that of the parent strain during the bioethanol production process from sugarcane molasses in the absence of acetate. The addition of acetate at 0.5% (w/v, pH 4.5) inhibited the fermentation ability of the parent strain, but such an inhibition was not observed in the ethanol production process using ER HAA1-OP.

2013-01-01

375

Study of Sugarcane Pieces as Yeast Supports for Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Juice and Molasses Using Newly Isolated Yeast from Toddy Sap  

PubMed Central

A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations.

Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

2012-01-01

376

Changes in microbial community structure in two anaerobic systems to treat bagasse spraying wastewater with and without addition of molasses alcohol wastewater.  

PubMed

This study investigates the microbial community and structure in the internal circulation (IC) reactors that treat wastewater from bagasse spraying, with (reactor B) and without (reactor A) addition of molasses alcohol wastewater (MAW). The V3 regions in the 16S rRNA of bacteria were sequenced using illumina sequencing to characterize the microbial community structures. The results showed that there were approximately 34.8% more microorganisms were reduced, while the proportions of the three most predominant bacterial populations especially some sulfate-reducing bacteria increased in reactor B. The archaeal community composition was measured by PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis and sequencing some clones from the 16S rRNA gene library. The results showed that numerous, mostly uncharacterized, archaeal genera are present in reactors A and B; the genus Methanomethylovorans was only detected in the samples that received MAW. This study demonstrated the significant effect of MAW on microbial communities in the wastewater treatment bioreactor. PMID:23370216

Shen, Peihong; Zhang, Junya; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Chengjian; Tang, Xianlai; Li, Junfang; Zhang, Min; Wu, Bo

2013-03-01

377

Topochemical distribution of lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids in sugar-cane cell walls and its correlation with the enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Lignin and hemicelluloses are the major components limiting enzyme infiltration into cell walls. Determination of the topochemical\\u000a distribution of lignin and aromatics in sugar cane might provide important data on the recalcitrance of specific cells. We\\u000a used cellular ultraviolet (UV) microspectrophotometry (UMSP) to topochemically detect lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids in\\u000a individual fiber, vessel and parenchyma cell walls of untreated and

Germano Siqueira; Adriane MF Milagres; Walter Carvalho; Gerald Koch; André Ferraz

2011-01-01

378

Cellulase production by Penicillium funiculosum and its application in the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for second generation ethanol production by fed batch operation.  

PubMed

This study aimed to produce a cellulase blend and to evaluate its application in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for second generation ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse. The sugar cane bagasse was subjected to pretreatments (diluted acid and alkaline), as for disorganizing the ligocellulosic complex, and making the cellulose component more amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. The residual solid fraction was named sugar cane bagasse partially delignified cellulignin (PDC), and was used for enzyme production and ethanol fermentation. The enzyme production was performed in a bioreactor with two inoculum concentrations (5 and 10% v/v). The fermentation inoculated with higher inoculum size reduced the time for maximum enzyme production (from 72 to 48). The enzyme extract was concentrated using tangential ultrafiltration in hollow fiber membranes, and the produced cellulase blend was evaluated for its stability at 37 °C, operation temperature of the simultaneous SSF process, and at 50 °C, optimum temperature of cellulase blend activity. The cellulolytic preparation was stable for at least 300 h at both 37 °C and 50 °C. The ethanol production was carried out by PDC fed-batch SSF process, using the onsite cellulase blend. The feeding strategy circumvented the classic problems of diffusion limitations by diminishing the presence of a high solid:liquid ratio at any time, resulting in high ethanol concentration at the end of the process (100 g/L), which corresponded to a fermentation efficiency of 78% of the maximum obtainable theoretically. The experimental results led to the ratio of 380 L of ethanol per ton of sugar cane bagasse PDC. PMID:23123260

Maeda, Roberto Nobuyuki; Barcelos, Carolina Araújo; Santa Anna, Lídia Maria Melo; Pereira, Nei

2013-01-10

379

Complete Genome Sequence of the Sugar Cane Endophyte Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2, a Disease-Suppressive Bacterium with Antifungal Activity toward the Plant Pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum  

PubMed Central

The endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2 exhibits antifungal activity and represents a biocontrol agent to suppress red rot disease of sugar cane. Here, we report the completely sequenced 6.6-Mb genome of P. aurantiaca PB-St2. The sequence contains a repertoire of biosynthetic genes for secondary metabolites that putatively contribute to its antagonistic activity and its plant-microbe interactions.

Bauer, Judith S.

2014-01-01

380

An ancient seismite response to Taconian far-field forces - the Cane Run Bed, Upper Ordovician (Trenton) Lexington Limestone, Central Kentucky (USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cane Run Bed is a prominent unit of micrograined limestone and shale of distal storm origin in the lower part of the Late Ordovician (late Chatfieldian; late Caradoc) Lexington Limestone (Trenton) in central Kentucky, USA. The unit's prominence relates to presence of up to three horizons of penecontemporaneous, soft-sediment deformation that form a distinctive event bed; equivalent horizons of different lithology are also deformed. Concurrence of four lines of evidence, including deformation consistent with a seismogenic origin, widespread distribution in temporally and stratigraphically constrained horizons, a pattern of increasing frequency or deformation intensity toward likely epicentral areas, and the ability to exclude other likely causes, points strongly to a seismogenic origin for each horizon. This interpretation is bolstered by the facts that the deformation contains random fold axes, crosses facies boundaries, is associated with a periodically reactivated basement structural lineament, and crosscuts undeformed beds from both above and below. Moreover, mapping the distribution of deformation intensity allows for the interpretation of possible epicentral areas. The association of Cane Run deformation with other sedimentologic-stratigraphic anomalies related to reactivated basement faults, as well as their coincidence with the inception of a Taconian tectophase, suggest that Cane Run seismites are one of several responses to the distal transmission of far-field forces from the coeval Taconian orogeny into the foreland, largely via zones of basement structural weakness. Units like the Cane Run Bed and its equivalents, whose seismogenic origins can be confidently demonstrated, suggest that seismicity must have had a substantial influence at times on epicontinental sedimentation, even in seas far removed from orogenic sources of stress.

Jewell, Helen E.; Ettensohn, Frank R.

2004-04-01

381

An approach to the utilisation of CO2 as impregnating agent in steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves for ethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min) and temperature (190 to 220°C). The pretreatment was assessed in terms of glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitor formation (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) in the pretreatment. Results from pretreatment using SO2 as impregnating agent was used as reference. Results For sugar cane bagasse, the highest glucose yield (86.6% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 205°C for 15 min. For sugar cane leaves the highest glucose yield (97.2% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 220°C for 5 min. The reference pretreatment, using impregnation with SO2 and performed at 190°C for 5 min, resulted in an overall glucose yield of 79.7% and 91.9% for bagasse and leaves, respectively. Conclusions Comparable pretreatment performance was obtained with CO2 as compared to when SO2 is used, although higher temperature and pressure were needed. The results are encouraging as some characteristics of CO2 are very attractive, such as high availability, low cost, low toxicity, low corrosivity and low occupational risk.

2010-01-01

382

E-CANES: A Research Network dedicated to Electromagnetic Coupling of the Atmosphere With Near-Earth Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient luminous events in the stratosphere and mesosphere, the sprites, elves, blue jets and gigantic jets, are observed above intense thunderstorms in association with particularly intense lightning discharges. Their recent discovery (1989) offers an opportunity to study the fundamental process of the electric discharge under the different conditions of the troposphere (lightning), stratosphere (blue jets) and the mesosphere (sprites) and the coupling between these regions by electric and magnetic fields. It further facilitates studies of the more general questions of thunderstorm effects on the atmosphere and the role of thunderstorms in a changing climate. New space missions will be launched in the coming years to study the various effects of thunderstorms. They will focus on transient luminous events, the generation of relativistic electron beams in discharges, and the perturbation to the atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere of lightning, transient luminous events, water vapour transport and gravity waves. The missions are the French micro-satellite TARANIS, the ESA ASIM payload on board the International Space Station and the Japanese Sprite Sat mission. These highly interdisciplinary missions will result in a wealth of new data, which require knowledge based capacity building to underpin the observations with improved statistical data analysis and theoretical modelling. We are therefore establishing a global framework for research on thunderstorm processes and their effect on the atmosphere, in particular (1) the fundamental process of the electric discharge as manifested in the stratosphere and mesosphere as sprites and jets, (2) the relationship between cosmic rays, lightning discharges, transient luminous events and terrestrial gamma ray flashes, and (3) the environmental impact of the above physical processes, and thunderstorms in general, on the atmosphere and near-Earth space. The first step has been the creation of the European research group (GDRE) dubbed E-CANES (Electromagnetic Coupling of the Atmosphere with the Near-Earth Space). It complements in a synergistic way the former EU Research Training Network 'Coupling of Atmospheric Layers', the existing COST action on 'The physics of lightning flash and its effects', the ASIM Topical Team, and other programs. The main objective of E-CANES is to initiate and promote coordination activities towards a global research community on the subject. The first actions include the establishment of an organization for coordinating ground, balloon and aircraft observation campaigns, the creation of a community-wide mailing list and website, and the promotion and coordination of joint activities with other structures - to include new communities and to avoid the duplication of meetings and workshops.

Hanuise, C.; Blanc, E.; Crosby, N.; Ebert, U.; Mareev, E.; Neubert, T.; Rothkaehl, H.; Santolik, O.; Yair, Y.; Gille, P.

2008-12-01

383

Influence of sugar cane vinasse on the sorption and degradation of herbicides in soil under controlled conditions.  

PubMed

This study reports the influence of sugar cane vinasse on the persistence, sorption and leaching potential of diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea), hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dione) and tebuthiuron (1-(5-tert-butyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1,3-dimethylurea) in both a clay and sandy soil from a tropical area of Brazil. The experiments were conducted out under controlled laboratory conditions. The addition of sugarcane vinasse to soil influenced the persistence and sorption of the herbicides in both the studied clay and sandy soils, with a considerable decrease in the diuron DT?? values in clay soil. The Ground Water Ubiquity Score (GUS) Index classifies the herbicides as leachers in both soils and treatments, with the exception of diuron, which is classified as a non-leacher in clay soil-vinasse and as a transient herbicide in sandy soil. These results suggest that special attention should be given to areas such as those where the sandy soil was collected in this study, which is a recharge area of the Guarani Aquifer and is likely to experience groundwater contamination due to the high leaching potential of the applied pesticides. PMID:22938579

Lourencetti, Carolina; De Marchi, Mary R R; Ribeiro, Maria L

2012-01-01

384

Role of parameter errors in the spring predictability barrier for ENSO events in the Zebiak-Cane model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of both initial and parameter errors on the spring predictability barrier (SPB) is investigated using the Zebiak-Cane model (ZC model). Previous studies have shown that initial errors contribute more to the SPB than parameter errors in the ZC model. Although parameter errors themselves are less important, there is a possibility that nonlinear interactions can occur between the two types of errors, leading to larger prediction errors compared with those induced by initial errors alone. In this case, the impact of parameter errors cannot be overlooked. In the present paper, the optimal combination of these two types of errors [i.e., conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) errors] is calculated to investigate whether this optimal error combination may cause a more notable SPB phenomenon than that caused by initial errors alone. Using the CNOP approach, the CNOP errors and CNOP-I errors (optimal errors when only initial errors are considered) are calculated and then three aspects of error growth are compared: (1) the tendency of the seasonal error growth; (2) the prediction error of the sea surface temperature anomaly; and (3) the pattern of error growth. All three aspects show that the CNOP errors do not cause a more significant SPB than the CNOP-I errors. Therefore, this result suggests that we could improve the prediction of the El Niño during spring by simply focusing on reducing the initial errors in this model.

Yu, Liang; Mu, Mu; Yu, Yanshan

2014-05-01

385

Added Sugars  

MedlinePLUS

... sweetened milk); and other grains (cinnamon toast and honey-nut waffles). Too much sugar isn't so ... molasses, cane sugar, corn sweetener, raw sugar, syrup, honey or fruit juice concentrates. Learn more about reading ...

386

Status Report - Cane Fiberboard Properties and Degradation Rates for Storage of the 9975 Shipping Package in KAMS  

SciTech Connect

Thermal, mechanical and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard samples following accelerated aging for up to approximately 7 years. The aging environments have included elevated temperature < 250 ?F (the maximum allowed service temperature for fiberboard in 9975 packages) and elevated humidity. The results from this testing have been analyzed, and aging models fit to the data. Correlations relating several properties (thermal conductivity, energy absorption, weight loss and height decrease) to their rate of change in potential storage environments have been developed. Combined with an estimate of the actual conditions the fiberboard experiences in KAMS, these models allow development of service life predictions. Some of the predicted degradation rates presented in this report are relatively extreme. However, these relate to environments that do not exist within KAMS, or would be postulated only as upset conditions that would not likely persist for an extended period. For a typical package with ~10 watts internal heat load or less, and ambient temperatures below 90 ?F, the fiberboard experiences storage conditions less severe than any of the aging environments. Little or no degradation of the fiberboard is expected for typical storage conditions. It should be noted that the ultimate service life will be determined by the cumulative effect of degradation from all the conditions these packages might encounter. The assumptions and inputs behind the models in this report should be well understood before attempting to identify an actual service life in KAMS. Additional data continue to be collected to permit future refinements to the models and assumptions. For developing service life predictions, the ambient conditions within KAMS can be reasonably identified, and the temperature profiles within the various packages (with a range of heat loads and at varying locations within an array of packages) can be calculated. However, the humidity within the package is not as well characterized. While the outer drum does not provide an air-tight seal, it does greatly restrict the gain or loss of moisture in the fiberboard. Preliminary efforts have identified a relationship between the moisture content of fiberboard samples and the relative humidity of the surrounding air, but further work is needed in this area. Improvement in understanding this relationship might be realized with a change in the way humidity data are collected during field surveillances. It is recommended that the humidity be measured through a caplug hole before the package is removed from its storage location. The package would remain in thermal equilibrium, and anomalous humidity changes could be avoided. Further work should be performed to better define KAMS storage conditions and the environment within the 9975 shipping packages, and to identify appropriate limits for each property. This should be a joint effort by SRNL and NMM personnel. The results and model predictions presented in this report are applicable to 9975 packages with cane fiberboard overpack assemblies. A separate effort is underway to identify whether softwood fiberboard would behave similarly. In addition, the degradation models do not address the effects of non-conforming conditions such as the presence of excess moisture and mold, or beetle infestations.

Daugherty, W. L.

2013-01-31

387

TIDAL SIGNATURES IN THE FAINTEST MILKY WAY SATELLITES: THE DETAILED PROPERTIES OF LEO V, PISCES II, AND CANES VENATICI II  

SciTech Connect

We present deep wide-field photometry of three recently discovered faint Milky Way (MW) satellites: Leo V, Pisces II, and Canes Venatici II. Our main goals are to study the structure and star formation history of these dwarfs; we also search for signs of tidal disturbance. The three satellites have similar half-light radii ({approx}60-90 pc) but a wide range of ellipticities. Both Leo V and CVn II show hints of stream-like overdensities at large radii. An analysis of the satellite color-magnitude diagrams shows that all three objects are old (>10 Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx} -2), though neither the models nor the data have sufficient precision to assess when the satellites formed with respect to cosmic reionization. The lack of an observed younger stellar population ({approx}< 10 Gyr) possibly sets them apart from the other satellites at Galactocentric distances {approx}> 150 kpc. We present a new compilation of structural data for all MW satellite galaxies and use it to compare the properties of classical dwarfs to the ultra-faints. The ellipticity distribution of the two groups is consistent at the {approx}2{sigma} level. However, the faintest satellites tend to be more aligned toward the Galactic Center, and those satellites with the highest ellipticity ({approx}> 0.4) have orientations ({Delta}{theta}{sub GC}) in the range 20 Degree-Sign {approx}< {Delta}{theta}{sub GC} {approx}< 40 Degree-Sign . This latter observation is in rough agreement with predictions from simulations of dwarf galaxies that have lost a significant fraction of their dark matter halos and are being tidally stripped.

Sand, David J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Strader, Jay; McLeod, Brian; Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Willman, Beth [Department of Astronomy, Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Zaritsky, Dennis; Olszewski, Edward [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Seth, Anil, E-mail: dsand@lcogt.net [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

2012-09-01

388

D-Arabitol Production by Endomycopsis chodati  

PubMed Central

Endomycopsis chodati in an aerated fermentation produced d-arabitol in yields of 35 to 40% of the sugar supplied. Glucose, mannose, and sucrose were suitable substrates. A synthetic medium was developed for the fermentation that showed that nitrogen in the medium must be limiting to obtain high yields of arabitol. Excess phosphate also tended to lower arabitol yields, although the effect was not so great as with nitrogen. Pilot plant-size fermentations were made in which all the nutrients were supplied by blackstrap molasses and urea. Arabitol yields in these fermentations were about 40% of the sugar supplied.

Hajny, G. J.

1964-01-01

389

Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the sale of excess electricity and if the cost of enzymes continues to fall.

2012-01-01

390

Interactive effects of molasses by homofermentative and heterofermentative inoculants on fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation, nutritive value and aerobic stability of wilted alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) silage.  

PubMed

The effect of adding molasses (0, UM or 50 g/kg on DM basis, M) and two types of inoculant including homofermentative (HO) and a combination of homofermentative and propionate-producing bacterial (HOPAB) inoculants on silage fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation and aerobic stability of pre-bloom, wilted alfalfa (AS) was determined in laboratory silos. The HOPAB inoculant was more effective than HO in reducing the alfalfa silage pH but increased propionate content in the absence of M (p < 0.05). Inoculation of HOPAB reduced (p < 0.01) acid detergent fibre (ADF) and increased (p < 0.01) lactate to acetate ratio compared with uninoculated AS. Acetate concentration was lower (p < 0.01) in HOPAB-inoculated than other AS. This difference was more pronounced in M-added AS (inoculants × M interaction, p = 0.01). Both inoculants reduced (p < 0.01) ammonia-N content in AS added with M, whereas only HOPAB decreased (p < 0.01) ammonia-N concentration in silage without M. Inoculants increased (p < 0.01) B2 fraction in AS with M addition but had no effect on AS without M. Treating silages with HO-UM increased (p < 0.05) C fraction (acid-detergent insoluble-N) but HOPAB decreased C fraction at two levels of M. Treating alfalfa crop with M and HOPAB improved aerobic stability by increasing the concentration of acetate and propionate of AS respectively. Adding M tended (p < 0.10) to increase short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cumulative gas production (CGP). HOPAB alone increased DM disappearance at 24 h post-incubation and effective degradability assuming outflow rate of 8%/h relative to untreated AS (p < 0.05). It was concluded that adding M had no pronounced effects on AS fermentation quality, but increased aerobic stability. HOPAB-inoculated AS with no addition of M improved fermentation quality and increased DM degradability compared with HO. PMID:23692608

Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Taghizadeh, A; Kargar, S; Yang, W Z

2014-04-01

391

Host-parasite relationships during a biologic invasion: 75 years postinvasion, cane toads and sympatric Australian frogs retain separate lungworm faunas.  

PubMed

Invasive species may carry with them parasites from their native range, differing from parasite taxa found in the invaded range. Host switching by parasites (either from the invader to native fauna or from native fauna to the invader) may have important consequences for the viability of either type of host (e.g., their survivorship, fecundity, dispersal ability, or geographic distribution). Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala (Nematoda) is a common parasite of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in the toad's native range (South and Central America) and also in its introduced Australian range. This lungworm can depress host viability and is capable of infecting Australian frogs in laboratory trials. Despite syntopy between toads and frogs for up to 75 yr, our analyses, based on DNA sequence data of lungworms from 80 frogs and 56 toads, collected from 2008 to 2011, did not reveal any cases of host switching in nature: toads and native frogs retain entirely different lungworm faunas. All lungworms in cane toads were the South and Central American species Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala, whereas Australian frogs contained at least four taxa (mostly undescribed and currently lumped under the name Rhabdias cf. hylae). General patterns of prevalence and intensity, based on the dissection of 1,315 frogs collected between 1989 and 2011 across the toads' Australian range, show that these Australian endemic Rhabdias spp. are widely distributed geographically and across host taxa but are more common in some frog species (especially, large-bodied species) than they are in others. PMID:23060496

Pizzatto, Lígia; Kelehear, Crystal; Dubey, Sylvain; Barton, Diane; Shine, Richard

2012-10-01

392

Diurnal and nocturnal measurements of PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH compounds in atmospheric particulate matter of a sugar cane burning region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs were studied in the atmospheric particulate matter of a subtropical rural region (São Paulo State, Brazil) affected by emissions from sugar cane burning. Diurnal and nocturnal samples were collected from May to June of 2010. In general, average PAH concentrations were significantly higher at night, suggesting that the compounds were predominantly emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning (which was mainly performed at night). The maximum average PAH concentration was found for benzo[b]fluoranthene at night (2.9 ± 5.4 ng m-3). Among the nitro-PAH compounds, the highest average concentrations were obtained for 9-nitrophenanthrene in diurnal and nocturnal samples (1.5 ± 1.2 and 1.3 ± 2.1 ng m-3, respectively). In contrast to the PAH and nitro-PAH compounds, the oxy-PAHs could not be directly associated with sugar cane burning. The most abundant oxy-PAH compound was benzanthrone (1.6 ± 1.3 ng m-3) at night, followed by 9,10-anthraquinone (1.1 ± 0.9 ng m-3) and 9-fluorenone (0.4 ± 0.1 ng m-3) during the day.

Souza, Kely F.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.; Allen, Andrew G.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.

2014-02-01

393

Preheating and incubation of cane juice prior to liming: a comparison of intermediate and cold lime clarification.  

PubMed

In the U.S., cold lime clarification remains the clarification process of choice in raw sugar manufacturing. A comparative study of cold vs intermediate lime clarification was undertaken at a factory that operated intermediate liming (approximately 30% mixed juice (MJ) of pH 5.2 +/- 0.3 was preheated to 87-93 degrees C to help maintain clean limed juice heaters, incubated at approximately 54 degrees C, and then limed) but still had the pipes to revert to cold liming (MJ incubated and limed at approximately 40 degrees C) for this study. Hourly samples were collected over a 6 h sampling period across cold and intermediate clarification processes on two consecutive days, respectively, and this was repeated three times across the 1999 grinding season. A total of 1.57% less sucrose was lost to inversion reactions across intermediate rather than cold liming. In intermediate liming, which required approximately 4.6% less lime, preheating of only 30% of the MJ markedly removed color (-29%), dextran (-10%), and starch (-24%) and caused large flocs to form that settled faster in the clarifiers. Faster settling led to an impressive 4.6% (season average) more turbidity removal across the clarifiers in intermediate rather than cold liming. Intermediate clarified juice (CJ) turbidity (season average 2028 ICU +/- 675) was approximately half of cold CJ turbidity (average 3952 ICU +/- 1450) with over 2-fold more CJ turbidity control. Subsequent turbidity values and control were significantly improved in the final evaporator syrup samples too. For both processes, juice incubation caused approximately 10% color removal, but this was offset by color formation on liming, because of the alkaline degradation of invert; however, overall, more color was removed than formed in intermediate liming. Starch was reduced in the incubator tank, for both processes, because added filtrate reduced the acidity enabling natural diastase from the cane to degrade starch. Some dextran occasionally formed in the incubator tank, in both processes. Summed across measured parameters, intermediate liming appears to offer several advantages over cold liming. PMID:11804517

Eggleston, Gillian; Monge, Adrian; Pepperman, Armand

2002-01-30

394

Lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of Sao Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of Sao Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol "echoes" and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatao) and others from urban sources (Sao Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to correlate with air quality and meteorological indicators and quantities. In this paper we should focus on the preliminary results of the Raman LIDAR system and its derived aerosol optical quantities.

Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; Dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio; Andre, Iara R.; Garcia, Gilberto; Lopes, F. J. S.; Mariano, Glauber L.; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.

2010-10-01

395

Landscape structure and live fences in Andes Colombian agrosystems: upper basin of the Cane-Iguaque River.  

PubMed

Changes in land use have generated a new landscape configuration in the Andino orobiome (mountain range) of the tropical Andes, resulting in a mosaic of cultivation and pastures interrupted by small fragments of forest and live fences. This has resulted in an ongoing decrease in the biodiversity of this biome. In the upper basin of the Cane-Iguaque River (Villa de Levya-Boyacá, Colombia), located 2,600-3,000 m above the Cordillera Oriental, over three time periods in 1960, 1984, and 2004, we characterized the structure, patterns, and evolution of the overall landscape and of the live fences (used as tools in biodiversity conservation and considered to be desirable alternatives to nonlive fences in farming production systems) within an agricultural landscape. To do this, we interpreted high-resolution satellite images using a landscape ecology approach and applied landscape map metrics. We found that the natural forests have been transformed by pastures and cultivation, and that although live fences cover only a small portion of the total landscape (4.6%), they have an important effect on landscape structure and biodiversity. There has been an increase in live fences, especially between 1960 and 1984, as well as an increase in their density. However, there has been a reduction in the average length of live fences over the periods that we studied. This could be due in part to changes in the types of agricultural products that have been cultivated in recent years, with an increase in potatoes and a decrease in other vegetables, and also by resource extraction of timber and fuel wood. In the studied area, agricultural production was sustained while biodiversity conservation was improved by the use of live fences. Therefore, live fences should be considered not only as part of an agriculturally productive area, but also as an important element of a multi-functional landscape that contributes to the maintenance of biodiversity and provides resources of economic and ecological interest, decreasing the pressure on natural forest. Improving the network of live fences constitutes an important strategy for the sustainable management of the rural landscape of the Andino orobiome of Colombia and similar areas in the tropics. PMID:20073343

Otero, Javier; Onaindia, Miren

2009-12-01

396

"Cane" and Its Discontents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how the issue of race is enmeshed in a complex web of social relations that also include love, sex, gender, economics, and violence. Suggests how a consideration of modernist primitivism and Sigmund Freud's ideas on the individual's relationship to society can provide frameworks for further analysis of two of the stories in Jean Toomer's…

Dyck, Reginald

2000-01-01

397

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) or fragment NPY 13-36, but not NPY 18-36, inhibit retinotectal transfer in cane toads Bufo marinus.  

PubMed

Previous work suggests that retinotectal information processing is influenced by pretectotectal ipsilateral projections. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) participates in the pretectotectal transmission. The present investigation demonstrates that administration of porcine NPY to the tectal surface causes a profound and prolonged attenuation of the initial excitatory N1 wave of the summated tectal surface field potential (FP) evoked by diffuse light off stimulation. The FP's on response was affected as well, but was less sensitive to NPY. Administration of the fragment NPY 13-36, a Y2 receptor agonist, had a smaller effect than did NPY. Fragment NPY 18-36, however, showed no comparable influences. The data suggest that NPY in the cane toad's pretectotectal pathway controls retinotectal transmission in an inhibitory manner via a Y2 receptor mechanism. PMID:9754798

Schwippert, W W; Röttgen, A; Ewert, J P

1998-08-28

398

Absence of evidence for isolation by distance in an expanding cane toad (Bufo marinus) population: an individual-based analysis of microsatellite genotypes.  

PubMed

The cane toad (Bufo marinus) was introduced in 1935 in Australia, where it spread rapidly. We have tested for isolation by distance by analysing at a local geographical scale a continuous population using seven microsatellite markers and an individual-based method. The matrix of pairwise individual differentiation was not significantly correlated with that of geographical distance. Regression analyses gave a low positive slope of 0.00072 (all individuals) or a negative slope of 0.0017 (individuals with a distance higher than the previously estimated mean dispersal distance). The absence of evidence for isolation by distance favours the hypothesis that the substantial differentiation and autocorrelation previously observed at enzyme loci, mainly results from discontinuities in the colonization process with founder effects occurring at the time of the establishment of new populations. PMID:11091326

Leblois, R; Rousset, F; Tikel, D; Moritz, C; Estoup, A

2000-11-01

399

Social epidemiology of a large outbreak of chickenpox in the Colombian sugar cane producer region: a set theory-based analysis.  

PubMed

There are few social epidemiologic studies on chickenpox outbreaks, although previous findings suggested the important role of social determinants. This study describes the context of a large outbreak of chickenpox in the Cauca Valley region, Colombia (2003 to 2007), with an emphasis on macro-determinants. We explored the temporal trends in chickenpox incidence in 42 municipalities to identify the places with higher occurrences. We analyzed municipal characteristics (education quality, vaccination coverage, performance of health care services, violence-related immigration, and area size of planted sugar cane) through analyses based on set theory. Edwards-Venn diagrams were used to present the main findings. The results indicated that three municipalities had higher incidences and that poor quality education was the attribute most prone to a higher incidence. Potential use of set theory for exploratory outbreak analyses is discussed. It is a tool potentially useful to contrast units when only small sample sizes are available. PMID:21808823

Idrovo, Alvaro J; Albavera-Hernández, Cidronio; Rodríguez-Hernández, Jorge Martín

2011-07-01

400

Long-term Effects of Pre-harvest Burning and Nitrogen and Vinasse Applications on Yield of Sugar Cane and Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stockson a Plantation in Pernambuco, N.E. Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970s the area under sugarcane in Brazil has increased from 2 million to over 5 million ha (M ha), and it is expected\\u000a to pass the 7 M ha mark in 2007. More than half of the cane is harvested to produce bioethanol as a fuel for light vehicles.\\u000a The distilleries produce approximately 13 L of distillery waste (vinasse) for

Alexander S. de Resende; Rogério P. Xavier; Octávio C. de Oliveira; Segundo Urquiaga; Bruno J. R. Alves; Robert M. Boddey

2006-01-01

401

Effects of D-003, a mixture of high-molecular-weight sugar cane wax acids, on lipid peroxidation markers in older individuals: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aging is associated with increased lipid peroxidation (LP). D-003, a mixture of long-chain aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax, has been found to inhibit LP in experimental models and in healthy subjects.Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of D-003 on LP markers and the lipid profile of older individuals.Methods: This randomized, double-blind,

Yohani Pérez; Roberto Menéndez; José I. Ferrer; Ernesto Lopez; Gladys Castaño; Julio Fernández; Rosa M. Ferreiro; Lilia Fernández; Sarahí Mendoza; Rosa González; Melbis Mesa

2008-01-01

402

A new small-mammal biostratigraphy and high-resolution chronostratigraphic model for the Upper Freshwater Molasse of the eastern part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (Bavaria, Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed integrated stratigraphic study (lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, 40Ar/39Ar dating) was carried out on twelve sections from the eastern part of the Upper Freshwater Molasse of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB), improving greatly the chronostratigraphy and the temporal resolution (up to 100 kyr) of these sediments. The sections contain 19 new small-mammal bearing levels. Based on this material and 24 already published localities we propose a new taxon-range-zonation for the Late Ottnangian to the Early Badenian, consisting of nine zones or subzones respectively. Radiometric ages obtained for glass shards from tuff horizons are used together with the new biostratigraphic information for confirming the magnetostratigraphic correlation to the Astronomical Tuned Time Scale (ANTS04). This correlation implies that the Brackish- to Freshwater Molasse transition already occurred during the latest Ottnangian. The pre-Riesian hiatus, a remarkable feature in both the central and eastern part of the basin and the southern Bohemian Massif, occurred during the latest Karpatian and lower Early Badenian in Eastern Bavaria and Bohemia and during the Late Karpatian and earliest Badenian in Western Bavaria. The geochemical and Ar-Ar data of volcanic ashes suggest that highly evolved silicic magmas from a single volcano or volcanic centre, characterized by a uniform Nd isotopic composition, erupted repetitively over the course of at least 1.6 myr. Four phases of eruptive activity were identified at 16.1 ± 0.2 Ma, 15.6 ± 0.4 Ma, 14.9 Ma, and 14.5 ± 0.2 Ma. The correlation of the local biostratigraphic zonation to the ANTS04 enables further the characterization of both the Ottnangian-Karpatian and Karpatian-Badenian boundaries in the NAFB by mammals. According to these results the Ottnangian-Karpatian boundary is contemporaneous with the last appearance dates of Ligerimys florancei, Melissiodon dominans and Prodeinotherium bavaricum and the first appearance date of Megacricetodon cf. bavaricus. The Karpatian-Badenian boundary is characterized by a further size increase of the large Megacricetodon lineage and possibly a re-immigration of Prodeinotherium bavaricum.

Boehme, M.; Aziz, H. Abdul; Bachtadse, V.; Prieto, J.; Rocholl, A.; Ulbig, A.; Wijbrans, J. R.

2009-04-01

403

Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input parameters on a continental scale across the large regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Ten parameters driving most of the uncertainty in the ORCHIDEE-STICS modeled biomass at the 7 sites are identified by the screening procedure. We found that the 10 most sensitive parameters control phenology (maximum rate of increase of LAI) and root uptake of water and nitrogen (root profile and root growth rate, nitrogen stress threshold) in STICS, and photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients) in ORCHIDEE. We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in harvested biomass simulations at site scale. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and modeled biomass at harvest is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting climate-mediated different sensitivities of modeled sugar cane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil. This study reveals the spatial and temporal patterns of uncertainty variability for a highly parameterized agro-LSM and calls for more systematic uncertainty analyses of such models.

Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

2014-01-01

404

Sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol wastewater treatment by two-phase multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) combination with up-flow UASB and down-flow hanging sponge.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate a treatment system for high strength wastewater (vinasse) from a sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol plant in Thailand. A laboratory-scale two-phase treatment system composed of a sulfate reducing (SR) tank and multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (MS-UASB) reactor was used as the pre-treatment unit. Conventional UASB and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors were used as the post-treatment unit. The treatment system was operated for 300 days under ambient temperature conditions (24.6-29.6 °C). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) in each unit was kept at 25 h for the two-phase system and 23 h for the UASB&DHS. The influent concentration was allowed to reach up to 15,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. COD removal efficiency (based on influent COD) of the two-phase MS-UASB and the UASB&DHS was 54.9 and 18.7%, respectively. Due to the effective removal of sulfide in the SR tank, the MS-UASB achieved a high methane conversion ratio of up to 97%. In DHS, nitrification occurred at the outside portion of the sponge media while denitrification occurred at the inside. Consequently, 27% of the total nitrogen (TN) was removed. An amount of 32% of residual nitrogen (28 mgN/L) was in the form of nitrate, a better nitrogen state for fertilizer. PMID:24647181

Choeisai, P; Jitkam, N; Silapanoraset, K; Yubolsai, C; Yoochatchaval, W; Yamaguchi, T; Onodera, T; Syutsubo, K

2014-01-01

405

Effects of ORP, recycling rate, and HRT on simultaneous sulfate reduction and sulfur production in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors under micro-aerobic conditions for treating molasses distillery wastewater.  

PubMed

An expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was adopted to incubate the sludge biogranule that could simultaneously achieve sulfate reduction and sulfide reoxidization to elemental sulfur for treating molasses distillery wastewater. The EGSB reactor was operated for 175 days at 35 °C with a pH value of 7.0, chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 4.8 kg COD/(m³ d), and sulfate loading rate of 0.384 kg SO(4)(2-)/(m³ d). The optimal operation parameters, including the oxidation reduction potential (ORP), recycling rate, and hydraulic retention time (HRT), were established to obtain stable and acceptable removal efficiencies of COD, sulfate, and higher elemental sulfur production. With an ORP of -440 mV, a recycling rate of 300%, and HRT of 15 h, the COD and sulfate removal efficiencies were 73.4 and 61.3%, respectively. The elemental sulfur production ratio reached 30.1% when the elemental sulfur concentration in the effluent was 48.1 mg/L. The performance results were also confirmed by the mass balance calculation of sulfate, sulfide, and elemental sulfur over the EGSB reactor. PMID:22828303

Qinglin, Xie; Yanhong, Li; Shaoyuan, Bai; Hongda, Ji

2012-01-01

406

Saccharification and fermentation of sugar cane bagasse by Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse is essential for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process which uses recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 and Genencor Spezyme CE. Strain P2 has been genetically engineered to express Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding the ethanol pathway and retains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose (minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase). In SSF studies with this organism, both the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield were limited by saccharification at 10 and 20 filter paper units (FPU) g[sup [minus]1] acid-treated bagasse. Dilute slurries of biomass were converted to ethanol more efficiently (over 72% of theoretical yield) in simple batch fermentations than slurries containing high solids, albeit with the production of lower levels of ethanol. With high solids (i.e., 160 g acid-treated bagasse L[sup [minus]1]), a combination of 20 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse, preincubation under saccharification conditions, and additional grinding (to reduce particle size) were required to produce ca. 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1]. Alternatively, almost 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1] was produced with 10 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse by incorporating a second saccharification step (no further enzyme addition) followed by a second inoculation and short fermentation. In this way, a theoretical ethanol yield of over 70% was achieved with the production of 20 g ethanol 800 FPU[sup [minus]1] of commercial cellulase.

Doran, J.B.; Aldrich, H.C.; Ingram, L.O. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)

1994-06-20

407

Contribution of cane bagasse used as a fuel in the sugar industry to changes in outdoor and indoor air quality in middle Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present one-year study is concerned with the degree of relationship between the changes in quantity and quality of outdoor and indoor settled dust in Abu Qurqas town in Middle Egypt and the combustion of cane bagasse in boiler furnaces in a sugar factory located in the same town. It can be suggested that this process is responsible for increasing the rate of outdoor and indoor deposition of combustible matter by 2-8 and 2-7 times, respectively, during the period of December-April. However, it can be suggested also that the same process has a limited role, as it is a source of ash content of both outdoor and indoor settled dust and is ineffective in polluting the two environments with calcium, chloride and sulphate ions and tar fraction. Indoor levels of settled dust and its constituents were found to be lowest during cold months. This causes the indoor levels of combustible matter resulting from the sugar factory to be lower than the outdoor levels by 41-45% during December-March and by 28% during April which is a relatively warm month in Middle Egypt.

Hindy, K. T.

408

Photosynthetic and Canopy Characteristics of Different Varieties at the Early Elongation Stage and Their Relationships with the Cane Yield in Sugarcane  

PubMed Central

During sugarcane growth, the Early Elongation stage is critical to cane yield formation. In this study, parameters of 17 sugarcane varieties were determined at the Early Elongation stage using CI-301 photosynthesis measuring system and CI-100 digital plant canopy imager. The data analysis showed highly significant differences in leaf area index (LAI), mean foliage inclination angle (MFIA), transmission coefficient for diffused light penetration (TD), transmission coefficient for solar beam radiation penetration (TR), leaf distribution (LD), net photosynthetic rate (PN), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (GS) among sugarcane varieties. Based on the photosynthetic or canopy parameters, the 17 sugarcane varieties were classified into four categories. Through the factor analysis, nine parameters were represented by three principal factors, of which the cumulative rate of variance contributions reached 85.77%. A regression for sugarcane yield, with relative error of yield fitting less than 0.05, was successfully established: sugarcane yield = ?27.19 ? 1.69 × PN + 0.17 ×??E + 90.43 × LAI ? 408.81 × LD + 0.0015 × NSH + 101.38 ×??D (R2 = 0.928**). This study helps provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the screening of new sugarcane varieties with high net photosynthetic rate and ideal canopy structure.

Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Yuye; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Rukai

2014-01-01

409

Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Bayou Grand Cane, De Soto Parish, Louisiana. Topical report, August 1991--July 1993  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipeline on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and night of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 12-13, 1991, at the Bayou Grand Cane crossing in De Soto Parish, Louisiana, where a pipeline constructed three years prior to the survey crosses the bayou through mature bottomland hardwoods. The sit was not seeded or fertilized after construction activities. At the time of sampling, a dense herb stratum (composed of mostly native species) covered the 20-m-wide ROW, except within drainage channels. As a result of the creation of the ROW, new habitat was created, plant diversity increased, and forest habitat became fragmented. The ROW must be maintained at an early stage of succession to allow access to the pipeline however, impacts to the wetland were minimized by decreasing the width of the ROW to 20 m and recreating the drainage channels across the ROW. The canopy trees on the ROW`s edge shaded part of the ROW, which helped to minimize the effects of the ROW.

Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Hayes, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, IL (United States)

1994-12-01

410

Short term responses of nitrogen trace gas emissions to nitrogen fertilization in tropical sugar cane: Variations due to soils and management practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitrogen (N) fertilization of agricultural systems is thought to be a major source of the increase in atmospheric N2O; NO emissions from soils have also been shown to increase due to N fertilization. While N fertilizer use is increasing rapidly in the developing world and in the tropics, nearly all of our information on gas emissions is derived from studies of temperate zone agriculture. Using chambers, we measured fluxes of N2O and NO following urea fertilization in tropical sugar cane systems growing on a variety of soil types in the Hawaiian Islands, USA. On the island of Maui, where urea is applied in irrigation lines and soils are mollisols and inceptisols, N2O fluxes were elevated for a week or less following fertilization; maximum average fluxes were typically less than 30 ng cm(exp -2)/ h. NO fluxes were often an order of magnitude less than N2O. Together, N2O and NO represented from 0.01 - 0.5% of the applied N. In fields on the island of Hawaii, where urea is broadcast on the surface and soils are andisols, N2O fluxes were similar in magnitude to Maui but remained elevated for much longer periods after fertilization. NO emissions were 2-5 times higher than N2O through most of the sampling periods. Together the gases loss represented approximately 1. 1 - 3% of the applied N. Laboratory studies indicate that denitrification is a critical source of N2O in Maui, but that nitrification is more important in Hawaii. Experimental studies suggest that differences in the pattern of N2O/NO and the processes producing them are a result of both carbon availability and placement of fertilizer, and that the more information-intensive fertilizer management practice results in lower emissions.

Matson, P. A.; Billow, C.; Hall, S.; Zachariassen, J.

1994-01-01

411

Effects of multiple chemical, physical, and biological stressors on the incidence and types of abnormalities observed in Bermuda's cane toads (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

The interactive effects of contaminants and ultraviolet light (UV)-exposure on the incidence and types of abnormalities observed were measured in newly metamorphosed cane toads (Rhinella marina) from four Bermuda ponds contaminated with petrochemicals and metals. Abnormalities were compared in toadlets that were field-collected, reared in predator exclusion cages, reared in laboratory microcosms exposed to control media or corresponding pond media, and reared in laboratory microcosms exposed to UV-light and control media or media from two ponds. Percent abnormal for field-collected, cage-reared, and microcosm-reared toadlets were equivalent per site and ranged between 14% and 63%. All treatments produced similar limb abnormalities but the percentage of hind versus forelimb defects was statistically greater only in field-collected toadlets. UV-exposed control media did not induce abnormalities in larvae exhibiting no maternal effect, and did not alter the types of abnormalities observed in larvae exhibiting a maternal or latent effect. Site media treatments without UV exposure induced significant cephalic and limb abnormalities, proved additive to the observed maternal/latent effect, and produced limb defects predominantly in forelimbs. Concurrent exposure to site media and UV-light induced similar types of abnormalities but a significantly higher percentage of hind limb abnormalities (68-89%) than exposure to site media alone (7-13%). Our results suggest that the types of abnormalities expressed were principally determined by direct and/or transgenerational contaminant exposure, but that UV-light exposure caused limb abnormalities to occur primarily in the hind limbs, mirroring field observations. Our field observations also suggest that ectromelia and brachydactyly in some field-collected specimens may be predator-induced. PMID:23526808

Bacon, Jamie P; Fort, Chelsea E; Todhunter, Brian; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Douglas J

2013-06-01

412

STATISTICAL MEDIA OPTIMIZATION FOR THE BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF POSTHARVEST BIOCONTROL YEAST Rhodosporidium paludigenum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cane molasses-based medium for the biomass production of biocontrol agent Rhodosporidium paludigenum was statistically optimized. Molasses concentration (after pretreatment), yeast extract, and initial pH were identified by the Plackett–Burman design to show significant influence on the biomass production. The three factors were further optimized by central composite design and response-surface methodology. The statistical analysis indicated the optimum values of

Peng Wang; Xia Liu; Yifei Wang; Hui Ruan; XiaoDong Zheng

2011-01-01

413

o sup 14C como tracador do fluxo do carbono assimilado pelas plantas (milho, cana-de-acucar, feijao) e sua liberacao ao solo. ((14)C as tracer in the carbon flow assimilated by the plants (maize, sugar cane, bean) and it liberation to the soil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flow of carbon in three different crops, maize, beans and sugar cane was studied by use of (sup 14)V. The plants were exposed to an atmosphere with a constant concentration of the tracer for 12 hours in a biosynthesis chamber. The detection of the iso...

B. J. F. Paula Eduardo

1987-01-01

414

DSC study of curing in smokeless briquetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Briquettes potentially suited for smokeless fuel were successfully prepared from mixtures of previously pyrolyzed coal and biomass, and mixed with sugar cane molasses as binder. Briquettes were cured at 200°C in air for different times, and the physical performance of the cured briquettes were studied using the water and impact resistance tests (WRI and IRI). Since curing was an exothermic

M. C Mayoral; M. T Izquierdo; M. J Blesa; J. M Andres; B Rubio; J. L Miranda

2001-01-01

415

Continuous ethanol production by immobilized yeast reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads was employed in packed-bed column reactors for continuous ethanol production from glucose or cane molasses, and for beer fermentation from barley malt wort. With properly balanced nutrient content or periodical regeneration of cells by nutrient addition and aeration, ethanol production could be maintained for several months. About 7 percent (w\\/v) ethanol

Yu-Yen Linko; P. Linko

1981-01-01

416

Use of activated carbon and natural zeolite as support materials, in an anaerobic fluidised bed reactor, for vinasse treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Cuba, the alcohol distillation process from cane sugar molasses, produces a final waste (vinasse), with an enormous polluting potential and a high sulfate content. Applying the anaerobic technology, most of the biodegradable organic matter can turn into biogas, rich in methane but with concentrations of sulfide above 1%. The present work develops two experiences with anaerobic fluidized bed reactors

N. Fernández; F. Fdz-Polanco; S. J. Montalvo; D. Toledano

2001-01-01

417

21 CFR 573.920 - Selenium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...per head per day. (3) In salt-mineral mixtures for free-choice...incorporated into each ton of salt-mineral mixture for sheep...provide a complete and accurate history of product production. Production...of cane molasses and selenium salts in a manner which...

2011-04-01

418

21 CFR 573.920 - Selenium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...per head per day. (3) In salt-mineral mixtures for free-choice...incorporated into each ton of salt-mineral mixture for sheep...provide a complete and accurate history of product production. Production...of cane molasses and selenium salts in a manner which...

2012-04-01

419

77 FR 66781 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...urea, calculated as the stoichiometric equivalent of saflufenacil, in or on sugarcane, cane at 0.03 ppm; sugarcane, molasses at 0.075 ppm; and sugarcane, refined sugar at 0.045 ppm . Adequate enforcement methodology (LC/MS/MS methods...

2012-11-07

420

Sugar-cane newsprint comes to market  

SciTech Connect

Process Evaluation and Development Corp. (Peadco of Mexico City) are making commercially available a process that will for the first time produce fine-grade newsprint from bagasse with the required tear-strength and opaqueness. Various countries are showing an interest in the process, which produces newsprint 20% more cheaply than wood-pulp newsprint. In addition, sugar producers receive as much as $1.50 per ton more than the fuel-oil value of bagasse.

Not Available

1982-06-09

421

Major new U. S. source of gasohol  

SciTech Connect

Agri-Fuels Refining Corporation has begun work on a major alcohol plant that will use sugar by-products to produce ethanol for gasohol blending. The $40 million refinery will be operational in 1982 and will be expected to produce 34.6 million gallons of ethanol a year. The main feedstock is reported to be bagasse, but will include final molasses, cane syrup and sweet sorghum.

Not Available

1980-12-01

422

Amino acid composition of processed fish silage using different raw materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to evaluate amino acid composition of silages produced from three raw materials. Commercial marine fish waste, commercial freshwater fish waste, and tilapia filleting residue were used to produce fish silage by acid digestion (20ml\\/kg formic acid and 20ml\\/kg sulfuric acid) and anaerobic fermentation (50g\\/kg Lactobacillus plantarum, 150g\\/kg sugar cane molasses). Protein content and amino acid composition were

Rose Meire Vidotti; Elisabete Maria Macedo Viegas; Dalton José Carneiro

2003-01-01

423

Ethanol production in a multimembrane bioreactor: Cell and reactor modeling and continuous fermentation  

SciTech Connect

A novel bioreactor, in which hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes segregate cells, nutrient, and solvent, has been previously described. The model system studied has been ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with tributyl phosphate as the extractive solvent. A structured, nonsegregated model of model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar in philosophy to the E. coli models extensively developed at Cornell, has been constructed. The model establishes a basis for a realistic model of multi-membrane bioreactor fermentations as well as lays the groundwork for an increasingly detailed description of the cell. A model of a pressure cycled reactor has been constructed around the model of the cells. Tested against actual reactor fermentations, the model's predictions were in quantitative agreement. The model was used to computationally survey the relative utility of variations in system design and operating strategy, suggesting that increased mixing between the cell and nutrient layers and the use of a solvent with a distribution coefficient much higher than that of TBP would significantly improve productivity. The reactor has been operated continuously without failure for over 3000 hours, demonstrating that it can be run for the periods dictated by process economics. Two natural substrates were fermented in the reactor. Corn starch hydrolysate appears to be a highly suitable substrate, blackstrap molasses does not. Zymomonas mobilis was a less effective catalyst than Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Steinmeyer, D.E.

1990-01-01

424

Biological activity of phenolic compounds. Hepatic cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b/sub 5/ and NADPH cytochrome c reductase in chicks and rats fed phenolic monomers, polymers, and glycosides  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to determine effects of a phenolic polymer (Kraft wood lignin, Indulin), phenolic glycosides (cane molasses and wood molasses), and phenolic monomers (vanillin, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid) on liver cytochromes P-450, cytochrome b/sub 5/, and NADPH cytochrome c reductase in chicks and rats. Chicks fed 6.0% lignin had a higher cytochromes P-450 content than did chicks fed 0% fiber, 6.0% wood cellulose, or 6.0% arenaceous flour. Chicks fed 12.0% wood molasses had a higher cytochromes P-450 level than did chicks fed 0% fiber or 6.0% wood molasses. Cane molasses incorporated at both 6.0 and 12.0% of the diet induced cytochromes P-450 content over those of control-fed birds. Chicks fed 6.0% lignin, with or without antibiotic, had a higher cytochromes P-450 level than did chicks fed control diets, with or without antibiotic. Additionally, chicks fed 6.0% lignin had lower intestinal diaminopimelic acid (DAP) levels than did chicks fed 0% fiber. Rats fed 0% fiber, 6.0% wood cellulose, 6.0% arenaceous flour, or 6.0% lignin exhibited no difference in cytochrome level or activity among treatments. Chicks fed 0.5% vanillin, 0.5% vanillic acid, 0.5% ferulic acid, or 0.5% p-coumaric acid had comparable cytochromes level and activity compared with chicks fed no phenolics. Chicks fed 0.5% p-coumaric acid had lower rates of gain than did chicks fed control or other phenolic-containing diets. Rats fed these phenolics had similar cytochromes P-450 content among treatments.

Klasing, S.A.; Mora, M.I.; Wilson, W.C.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.; Garst, J.E.

1985-09-01

425

Volatile constituents of fermented sugar baits and their attraction to lepidopteran species.  

PubMed

The volatile compounds emanating from four fermented sugar baits, palm sugar, golden cane syrup, port wine, and molasses, were isolated by headspace sampling and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three classes of compounds including esters, alcohols, and aromatic compounds were identified in the headspace of the four fermented sugar baits. There was a high degree of qualitative similarity between the headspace contents of the four fermented sugar baits, although quantitatively they varied considerably. Ethyl acetate, 3-methylbutanol, ethyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl octanoate, ethyl (E)-4-decenoate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate were the major compounds identified in the headspace of the four fermented sugar baits. The efficacy of the four fermented sugar baits was investigated in field trapping experiments. Fermented palm sugar and golden cane syrup were superior in attracting significant numbers of moths as compared to port wine and molasses. Fermented molasses was the least attractive among the four baits. Over 90% of the insects caught were noctuids with Graphania mutans and Tmetolophota spp. being the main noctuids captured (over 55%) in the four fermented sugar baits. Male and female G. mutans were equally attracted to the four sugar baits. A number of tortricid species were also trapped. PMID:15713004

El-Sayed, A M; Heppelthwaite, V J; Manning, L M; Gibb, A R; Suckling, D M

2005-02-23

426

Spray Nozzles, Pressures, Additives and Stirring Time on Viability and Pathogenicity of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) for Greenhouses  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004), three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa), four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin) and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae) viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed.

Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; Batista, Elder Simoes de Paula; Campos, Henrique Borges Neves; Lemos, Raphael Emilio; Ferreira, Marcelo da Costa

2013-01-01

427

Degradation of toxaphene by Bjerkandera sp. strain BOL13 using waste biomass as a cosubstrate.  

PubMed

The white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOL13 was capable of degrading toxaphene when supplied with wood chips, wheat husk or cane molasses as cosubstrates in batch culture experiments. Approximately 85% of toxaphene was removed when wheat husk was the main substrate. The production of lignin peroxidase was only stimulated when wheat husk was present in the liquid medium. Although xylanase was always detected, wheat husk supported the highest xylanase production. A negligible amount of beta-glucosidase and cellulase were found in the batch culture medium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of toxaphene degradation by white-rot fungi. PMID:16283301

Lacayo Romero, Martha; Terrazas, Enrique; van Bavel, Bert; Mattiasson, Bo

2006-07-01

428

Molecular Structure of Sucrose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sucrose is the chemical name of table sugar. It is found in granulated, powdered and brown sugar and molasses, as well as, in a variety of fruits and vegetables. Sucrose is a disaccharide that can be made from the combination of two monosaccarides, glucose and fructose. For production use, sucrose is generally extracted from a sugar cane and then purified and crystallized. Sucrose is the most common sweetener in the modern world, however, including too much of it in a diet does have adverse health effects such obesity caused by the high calorie content.

2002-08-29

429

Separation, identification, and quantification of amino acids in L-lysine fermentation potato juices by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The amino acid composition of L-lysine fermentation juices from potatoes and cane molasses from a green biorefinery has been determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. N-Methyl-N-tert(butyldimethylsilyl)tri-fluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) was used as derivatization reagent to prepare the t-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives of the amino acids present in the juices. The amino acids in these derivatives were identified from both their EI and CI mass spectra and their retention times in the gas chromatogram, and they were quantified employing the GC response signals relative to cycloleucine as internal standard. PMID:11688654

Starke, I; Kleinpeter, E; Kamm, B

2001-10-01

430

Sugar Cane Water Foot Print for Brazilian Major Varietes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water productivity (PA) into biomass, sugar and energy for 24 brazilian sugarcane varieties under drip irrigation, subjected to full and deficit irrigation treatments during growing stage. Two experiments were established under greenhouse conditions at the Biosystems Engineering Department, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP. Experiment 1: ten varieties on a clay soil (RB835054, RB855453, RB855536, RB925211, RB867515, SP89-1115, SP81-3250, CTC14, CTC8 e CTC6) and Experiment 2: fourteen varieties on a sandy-loam soil (RB925345, RB855156, RB966928, RB72454, RB92579, IACSP95-5000, Caiana, SP83-2847, SP90-3414, SP79-1011, CTC17, CTC15, CTC9 e CTC2). In both experiments it was adopted two irrigation treatments: T100 - full irrigation with 100% crop evapotranspiration replacement, maintaining soil moisture near field capacity, and T70 - irrigation with 70% of water depth applied to T100 treatment. Irrigation treatments were initiated at 101 days of crop cycle, corresponding to the end of tillering and the beginning of intense stalk growth phase (first ratoon). It was observed variation in the water productivity into fresh stalk biomass (PABFC) from 16.22 to 29.21 kg m-3, according of the varieties and irrigation treatments applied. The highest values were observed for varieties CTC6, CTC14, RB867515, SP81-3250 and RB92579, under full irrigation treatment (T100), and CTC6, CTC14 and SP90-3414, under deficit irrigation treatment (T70). Water productivity into sugar (PABATR) ranged from 1.95 to 3.84 kg m-3, highest values were observed for varieties CTC6 and RB92579 (T100), as well as RB835054 e RB966928 (T70). Water productivity into total energy (PAETOT) varied from 101.17 to 174.65 MJ m-3, with highest values for varieties:SP81-3250, CTC6, CTC17 and RB92579 (T100 treatment), as well as SP90-3414, SP81-3250 and CTC6 (T70 treatment).

Coelho, R. D.; Maschio, R.; Leal, D. P.; Barbosa, F. D.; Mauri, R.

2012-12-01

431

Bowman and CANEs: Implementation of an Active Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In parallel with active networks research, efforts have been underway to defineand standardize an architectural framework. The framework divides the functionalityof an active network node into two components: an Execution Environment(EE) defines a programming interface that allows users to control the active network,a NodeOS defines a set of basic functions to access and manage the resourcesof the active node. EEs

S. Merugu; S. Bhattacharjee; Y. Chae; M. Sanders; K. Calvert; E. Zegura

1999-01-01

432

iCane - A Partner for the Visually Impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Any modern society should be concerned over the well-being of the visually impaired citizen. It is the responsibility of the\\u000a society to lessen the inconvenience and anxiety experienced by the handicapped. In addition to helping one to avoid obstacles\\u000a on the sidewalks, technology can further help in navigating to places. In this paper we attempt to create a supportive environment

Tsung-hsiang Chang; Chien-ju Ho; David Chawei Hsu; Yuan-hsiang Lee; Min-shieh Tsai; Mu-chun Wang; Jane Yung-jen Hsu

2005-01-01

433

Power generation using sugar cane bagasse: A heat recovery analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugar industry is facing the need to improve its performance by increasing efficiency and developing profitable by-products. An important possibility is the production of electrical power for sale. Co-generation has been practiced in the sugar industry for a long time in a very inefficient way with the main purpose of getting rid of the bagasse. The goal of this research was to develop a software tool that could be used to improve the way that bagasse is used to generate power. Special focus was given to the heat recovery components of the co-generation plant (economizer, air pre-heater and bagasse dryer) to determine if one, or a combination, of them led to a more efficient co-generation cycle. An extensive review of the state of the art of power generation in the sugar industry was conducted and is summarized in this dissertation. Based on this models were developed. After testing the models and comparing the results with the data collected from the literature, a software application that integrated all these models was developed to simulate the complete co-generation plant. Seven different cycles, three different pressures, and sixty-eight distributions of the flue gas through the heat recovery components can be simulated. The software includes an economic analysis tool that can help the designer determine the economic feasibility of different options. Results from running the simulation are presented that demonstrate its effectiveness in evaluating and comparing the different heat recovery components and power generation cycles. These results indicate that the economizer is the most beneficial option for heat recovery and that the use of waste heat in a bagasse dryer is the least desirable option. Quantitative comparisons of several possible cycle options with the widely-used traditional back-pressure turbine cycle are given. These indicate that a double extraction condensing cycle is best for co-generation purposes. Power generation gains between 40 and 100% are predicted for some cycles with the addition of optimum heat recovery systems.

Seguro, Jean Vittorio

434

NON-STARCH, SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDES OF SUGA'R CANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-starch polysaccharides of sugarcane include the cel­ lulose and hemicellulose fractions, and several water-soluble compounds: cellwall polysaccharides, indigenous sugarcane polysaccharide (I.S.P.), sarkaran and sarkaran-like polysac­ charides, and other glucans. Emphasis in this paper is on the soluble species. Structures of the compounds, including the recently identified low molecular weight glucan, are re­ viewed. Roles of the soluble polysaccharides in plant

FREDERICK W. PARRISH

435

The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse  

PubMed Central

Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and ?-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, ?-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated.

Ribeiro, Daniela A.; Cota, Junio; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Bruchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Murakami, Mario T.; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Squina, Fabio M.

2012-01-01

436

Sugar cane as an alternative energy source for Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of various energy resources in the world since the beginning of industrial revolution has changed due to several causes, such as the economy, availability, transportation and environmental effects as well as climate change phenomena. The use of fossil fuels has become rather harmful for the environment in which human beings live, especially in the urban areas of the

I. Kilicaslan; H. I. Sarac; E. Özdem; K. Erm

1999-01-01

437

Value of cane trash in nitrogen nutrition of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of trash containing 0.3 to 0.5% N in the N nutrition of sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid sp.) was investigated in pot- and field experiments using15N-labelled trash. The data obtained from the pot study with 2 silty-clay loams (a Humic Nitosol and a Humic Acrisol) showed\\u000a that surface-applied trash (10 tonnes\\/ha), although ground to pass a 1-mm sieve, contributed less

K. F. NG Kee Kwong; J. Deville; P. C. Cavalot; V. Riviere