These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

The comparative value of five types of molasses as feeds for fattening beef cattle  

E-print Network

pared to beet, and blackstrap molasses, Recently a dried molasses product canposed of 3 parts blackstrap molasses and 1 part finely ground sugar cane pulp has appeared cn the market, About 92 to 94 percent, of the moisture is rmuoved so... pared to beet, and blackstrap molasses, Recently a dried molasses product canposed of 3 parts blackstrap molasses and 1 part finely ground sugar cane pulp has appeared cn the market, About 92 to 94 percent, of the moisture is rmuoved so...

Blankenship, Albert Young

2012-06-07

2

Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses  

SciTech Connect

Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29

3

Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery.  

PubMed

Waste management involving bioresource recovery in a cane molasses-based distillery engaged in the manufacture of rectified spirit (alcohol) is described. The spentwash generated from the distillation of fermenter wash is highly acidic (pH 4.0-4.3) with high rates of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD: 52-58, COD: 92-100 kg/m3) and suspended solids (2.0-2.5 kg/m3). Biogas is recovered from high strength raw spentwash through the full-scale application of a biomethanation system as pretreatment option, comprising anaerobic fixed film reactors. This, combined with subsequent concentration through multiple effect evaporators (MEE), and utilization of concentrated effluent for biocomposting of pressmud (another by-product of the industry) for production of biomanure contributes to the elimination of effluent discharges. PMID:12173420

Nandy, Tapas; Shastry, Sunita; Kaul, S N

2002-05-01

4

Decolorization of molasses' wastewater using activated carbon prepared from cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decolorization of synthetic melanoidin was studied using activated carbon from cane bagasse obtained from Thailand and Brazil. Melanoidin, a nitrogenous brown polymer present in molasses' wastewater, is formed on the interaction between amino acids and carbohydrates. Bagasse, another by-product in the sugar industry, is a cheap material suitable for the preparation of activated carbon.Samples of cane bagasse were carbonized

E. C. Bernardo; R. Egashira; J. Kawasaki

1997-01-01

5

Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.  

PubMed

Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of ?-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity. PMID:23190112

Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

2012-12-26

6

Influence of Ammonium Salts and Cane Molasses on Growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus and Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate  

PubMed Central

The production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545 was studied in a synthetic medium with 3% glucose at pH 7.0 supplemented with several ammonium substrates and cane molasses. Growth was measured by dry cell weight, and the PHB content was measured by gas chromatography. The effects of ammonium sources such as sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and chloride salts and those of different ammonium sulfate concentrations were evaluated. The best growth and PHB production were obtained with ammonium sulfate; however, NH(inf4)(sup+) concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5 g/liter showed no significant difference. Ammonium sulfate was therefore used as the sole source of NH(inf4)(sup+) for experiments with cane molasses as the growth activator. Optimal growth and PHB production were obtained with 0.3% molasses. However, the yields of biomass (39 to 48%) and PHB (17 to 26%) varied significantly among the different ammonium substrates and cane molasses concentrations. PMID:16534900

Beaulieu, M.; Beaulieu, Y.; Melinard, J.; Pandian, S.; Goulet, J.

1995-01-01

7

AMMONIATION OR CANE MOLASSES SUPPLEMENTATION OF LOW QUALITY FORAGES 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three digestion and two cattle growth studies evaluated ammoniation level or the nutritional value of ammoniated forage relative to nontreated forage plus a molasses-urea supplement. In trial 1, mature limpograss (Hemarthria altissima) was treated with anhydrous ammonia at 0, 2, 3 or 4% of the dry matter (DM), and fed to steers (217 kg) in a digestion trial. Increases (P<.01)

W. F. Brown; J. D. Phillips; D. B. Jones

8

Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by cane molasses fermentation wastewater: detection by electrical impedance spectroscopy techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical impedance as a function of frequency (electrical impedance spectroscopy [EIS]) of both clean and fouled reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was monitored under osmotic pressure-driven conditions to introduce a water flux through the membranes. RO membranes were fouled using a pilot-scale facility with cane molasses wastewater. Fouling was revealed via a diffusion polarization layer observed below 100?Hz. This fouling

Jie Cen; John Kavanagh; Hans Coster; Geoff Barton

2012-01-01

9

Cost-effective lignocellulolytic enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei on a cane molasses medium  

PubMed Central

Background Cane molasses, an important residue of the sugar industry, have the potential as a cost-effective carbon source that could serve as nutrients for industrial enzyme-producing microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi. However, the enzyme mixtures produced in such a complex medium are poorly characterized. In this study, the secretome of Trichoderma reesei grown on a cane molasses medium (CMM) as well as on a lactose-based conventional medium (LCM) were compared and analyzed by using proteomics. Results In this study we show that both the CMM and LCM can serve as excellent growth media for T. reesei. The enzyme expression patterns in the two media were similar and a considerable number of the identified proteins on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) gels were those involved in biomass degradation. The most abundant cellulolytic enzymes identified in both media were cellobiohydrolases (Cel7A/Cel6A) and endoglucanases (Cel7A/Cel5A) and were found to be more abundant in CMM. We also found that both media can serve as an inducer of xylanolytic enzymes. The main xylanases (XYNI/XYNIV) and xyloglucanase (Cel74A) were found at higher concentrations in the CMM than LCM. Conclusions We analyzed the prevalent proteins secreted by T. reesei in the CMM and LCM. Here, we show that hydrolytic enzymes are cost-effective and can be produced on cane molasses as a carbon source which can be used to digest lignocellulolytic biomass. PMID:24655817

2014-01-01

10

Comparative analysis of different whole cell immobilized aspergillus niger catalysts for gluconic acid fermentation using pretreated cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the efficiency of various whole cell immobilization techniques for the production of gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger were investigated using potassium ferrocyanide-treated cane molasses as the substrate. The techniques followed were:(1)Calcium alginate entrapment,(2)cross-linking with glutaraldehyde after cell permeabilization with (a) acetone, (b) toluene and (c) isopropanol and(3)development of granular catalyst.

D. Subba Rao; T. Panda

1994-01-01

11

High-level production of heterologous proteins using untreated cane molasses and corn steep liquor in Escherichia coli medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop an economical industrial medium, untreated cane molasses (UCM) was tested as a carbon source for fermentation culturing\\u000a of Escherichia coli. To test the industrial application of this medium, we chose a strain co-expressing a carbonyl reductase (PsCR) and a glucose\\u000a dehydrogenase (BmGDH). Although corn steep liquor (CSL) could be used as an inexpensive nitrogen source to replace peptone,

Qi Ye; Ximu Li; Ming Yan; Hou Cao; Lin Xu; Yueyuan Zhang; Yong Chen; Jian Xiong; Pingkai Ouyang; Hanjie Ying

2010-01-01

12

High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale  

PubMed Central

A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300?L, 3?m3, and 12?m3 fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65?m3 working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18%?(w/v), inoculum size of 20%?(v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 108/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10?kg/65?m3 working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4?g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

Fadel, M.; Keera, Abeer A.; Mouafi, Foukia E.; Kahil, Tarek

2013-01-01

13

Lactic Acid Production from Cane Molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIM 2025 in Submerged Condition: Optimization of Medium Component by Taguchi DOE Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid production parameter optimization was performed using cane molasses by design of experiment (DOE) with the help of Qualitek-4 software with bigger is better as quality characteristics with eight media components at three levels in submerged culture condition. Eight factors with three levels studied were yeast extract, CaCO3, MnSO4, pH, Temperature, molasses, urea, and Tween 80. These factors were

S. M. Bhatt; S. K. Srivastava

2008-01-01

14

Economical production of poly(?-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.  

PubMed

Poly(?-L-lysine) (?-PL) and poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) co-production by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 from cane molasses and hydrolysate of strepyomyces cells (HSC) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimal initial total sugar concentration of the cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was determined to be 20 g L(-1), and HSC could substitute for yeast extract for ?-PL and PDAP co-production. When fed-batch fermentation was performed in 1t fermentor with pretreated cane molasses and HSC, 20.6 ± 0.5 g L(-1) of ?-PL and 5.2 ± 0.6 g L(-1) of PDAP were obtained. The amount of strepyomyces cells obtained in one fed-batch fermentation is sufficient to prepare the HSC to satisfy the demand of subsequent fermentations, thus the self-cycling of organic nitrogen source becomes available. These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and HSC can be used for the economical production of ?-PL and PDAP by S. albulus PD-1. PMID:24861999

Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai

2014-07-01

15

Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2  

PubMed Central

Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

2014-01-01

16

Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been\\u000a worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization\\u000a of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation\\u000a time) for ethanol production from sugar

Bodhisatta Maiti; Ankita Rathore; Saurav Srivastava; Mitali Shekhawat; Pradeep Srivastava

2011-01-01

17

Comparative metabolomic-based metabolic mechanism hypothesis for microbial mixed cultures utilizing cane molasses wastewater for higher 2-phenylethanol production.  

PubMed

The mixed microbes coculture method in cane molasses wastewater (CMW) was adopted to produce 2-phenylethanol (2-PE). Comparative metabolomics combined with multivariate statistical analysis was performed to profile the differences of overall intracellular metabolites concentration for the mixed microbes cocultured under two different fermentation conditions with low and high 2-PE production. In total 102 intracellular metabolites were identified, and 17 of them involved in six pathways were responsible for 2-PE biosynthesis. After further analysis of metabolites and verification by feeding experiment, an overall metabolic mechanism hypothesis for the microbial mixed cultures (MMC) utilizing CMW for higher 2-PE production was presented. The results demonstrated that the branches of intracellular pyruvate metabolic flux, as well as the flux of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, glutamate, proline, leucine, threonine, and oleic acid, were closely related to 2-PE production and cell growth, which provided theoretical guidance for domestication and selection of species as well as medium optimization for MMC metabolizing CMW to enhance 2-PE yield. PMID:25199087

Pan, Xinrong; Qi, Haishan; Mu, Li; Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang

2014-10-01

18

Optimization of L-Tryptophan Biosynthesis From L-Serine of Processed Iranian Beet and Cane Molasses and Indole by Induced Escherichia coli ATCC 11303 Cells  

PubMed Central

Background: L-tryptophan is an important ingredient in medicines, especially in neuromedicines such as antidepressants. Many commercial processes employ various microorganisms with high tryptophan synthase activity to produce L-tryptophan from indole and L-serine, but these processes are very costly due to the costs of precursors, especially L-serine. Objectives: For this reason, we studied the ability to use processed Iranian cane and beet molasses as L-serine sources for L-tryptophan production, which enables us to reach a cost-effective process. Materials and Methods: Whole cells of Escherichia coli ATCC 11303 were induced for L-tryptophan synthase by addition of indole to the growth medium and bacterial cells harvested from the growth medium were used as biocatalysts in the production medium. Conditions of the production medium were optimized and Iranian cane and beet molasses were processed by solvent extraction with ethanol and n-butanol and used as L-serine sources of the production medium. Amount of L-tryptophan and theoretical yield of L-tryptophan production were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and by a colorimetrical method on the basis of the remaining indole assay, respectively. Results: L-tryptophan production increased by 15 folds, when indole was used as an inducer. L-tryptophan was produced from processed Iranian beet molasses in satisfactory amounts (0.53 mM) and no exogenous pyridoxal phosphate was required as a cofactor under our experimental conditions. Conclusions: The obtained results proved that Iranian beet molasses include significant amounts of L-serine that makes them a suitable substitution for L-serine. Findings of the present study give impetus to use of Iranian beet molasses for cost-effective L-Trp production in the amino acid industry. PMID:25371801

Sadeghiyan-Rizi, Tahereh; Fooladi, Jamshid; Momhed Heravi, Majid; Sadrai, Sima

2014-01-01

19

Molasses for Fattening Cattle.  

E-print Network

of this experiment are reported on page 17, of Bulletin 7G. SOURCE OF FEEDING ~fo~~ss~s.--The cane molasses sold for feecl- ing purposes is the refuse after all the crystalized sugar obtainable has been taken from the concentratecl juice of the cane. "It is a... of this molasses. Of this amount 3,000 ~rrels were solcl to the cattle feeders of this State. COST OF IIOLASSES.-T~~ sugar refining companies offer feeding molasses in barrels at 6 cents per gallon. A barrel contains on an aver- age 50 gallons or 600 pounds...

Craig, John A. (John Alexander); Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert)

1906-01-01

20

High fructose formation from sugarcane syrup and molasses using Zymomonas mobilis mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High fructose recovery yields were obtained using sugarcane syrup and C-molasses (equal to blackstrap molasses) and a fructokinase negative mutant ofZymomonas mobilis. The fructose recovery was 95.7% with sugarcane syrup and 99.4% with 300 g\\/L C-molasses or mixtures of both. High fructose corn syrup of a 48\\/52 mixture of glucose and fructose gave only a 65–70% fructose recovery due to

Monica B. Doelle; Horst W. Doelle

1991-01-01

21

Microbial production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 using molasses or sugar.  

PubMed

With a cell concentration of 125 g dry biomass l-1 and a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1, Propionibacterium acidipropionici produces 30 g propionic acid l-1 from sugar with a productivity of 3 g l-1 h-1. The yield of propionic acid is approx. 0.36-0.45 g propionic acid g-1 sucrose and is independent of the dilution rate and cell concentration. Acetic acid is an unwanted by-product in the production of propionic acid. The concentration of acetic acid only increases slightly when the cell concentration is increased. A two-stage fermentation process was developed for the conversion of sugar or molasses of various types to propionic acid and vitamin B12. By fermentation of blackstrap molasses (from sugar beet and sugar cane) in the first fermentation stage 17.7 g propionic acid l-1 with a yield of 0.5 g propionic acid g-1 carbohydrate was produced with a dilution rate of 0.25 h-1. In the second stage 49 mg vitamin B12 1-1 was produced at a dilution rate of 0.03 h-1. PMID:7765100

Quesada-Chanto, A; Afschar, A S; Wagner, F

1994-06-01

22

Evaluation of baker's yeast strains exhibiting significant growth on Japanese beet molasses and compound analysis of the molasses types.  

PubMed

Cane molasses, most of which is imported, is used as a raw material for production of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Japan. On the other hand, beet molasses is scarcely used for this purpose, but it can be of great advantage to cane molasses because it is domestically produced in relatively high amounts as a by-product of beet sugar processing. However, the yield of baker's yeast is sometimes low with Japanese beet molasses compared to imported cane molasses. For the production of baker's yeast with Japanese beet molasses, we evaluated S. cerevisiae strains, including industrial and laboratory strains, to group them according to the growth profile on beet and cane molasses. To discuss the factors affecting growth, we further analyzed the major compounds in both types of molasses. Beet molasses seems to contain compounds that promote the growth of beet molasses-favoring strains rather than inhibit the growth of cane molasses-favoring strains. It was assumed that ?-amino acid was one of the growth promotion factors for beet molasses-favoring strains. PMID:24333188

Nakata, Hiroaki; Tamura, Masahiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

2014-06-01

23

Maufacture of raw cane sugar  

SciTech Connect

Procedures used at the Pepeekeo Sugar Factory in Hawaii for producing commercial sugar, molasses and bagasse from harvested sugar cane are described. The molasses is marketed, the sugar is refined elsewhere, and the bagasse is burned to produce steam and electric power for the Pepeekeo plant. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01

24

Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.  

PubMed

Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

2014-01-01

25

Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1  

PubMed Central

Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

Veana, F.; Martinez-Hernandez, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodriguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

2014-01-01

26

The effect of different levels of forage and fish meal on the live performance and rumen volatile fatty acid concentation of heifers fed high molasses diets  

E-print Network

of three levels of fish meal were fed in conjunction with free choice molasses-urea mixture to 24 heifers in an 84-day feedlot experiment to determine the effects on animal performance and rumen volatile fatty acid concen- tration. Sudangrass hay...- taining 93. 5/. blackstrap molasses (79. 5 Brix), 4'/. water, 2% urea (45/. Nitrogen) and 0. 5/. salt (NaC1), was fed free choice. The higher forage level significantly increased daily gain by 28/. over the lower level. Increasing fish meal levels also...

Estrada, Sergio

2012-06-07

27

Cultivation of the carotenoid-hyperproducing mutant 2A2N of the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) with molasses.  

PubMed

The carotenoid-hyperproducing mutant 2A2N of the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) was cultivated using sugar beet blackstrap molasses. This molasses was composed of 70% (w/v) total solid and 50% (w/v) total sugar. Biomass yield (biomass/carbohydrate) significantly decreased at >5% (v/v) molasses. Atomic emission spectrometry revealed that Na and P were the limiting nutrients when molasses was used. Molasses (5%, v/v) containing urea (30 g/l molasses) and sodium phosphate (NaH2PO4, 5 g/l molasses) was formulated for biomass production by the mutant. The optimal pH for carotenoid production was 4.9 during the growth phase and 2.6-3.5 during the stationary phase. The three main sugars in molasses (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) were assimilated by the mutant but fructose was consumed slowly. When the formulated medium with pH 4.5-5.5 was used, the maximal biomass yield was 36 g/l (0.18 g of yeast l(-1)h(-1) and 40 mg of carotenoid l(-1)) in fed-batch pilot-scale 100-l cultivation. PMID:16233070

An, G H; Jang, B G; Cho, M H

2001-01-01

28

Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.  

PubMed

Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose. PMID:17222551

Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

2007-11-01

29

Extraction of sucrose from molasses  

SciTech Connect

Sucrose is extracted from molasses by passing an aqueous molasses solution over an adsorbent, e.g., calcined Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-supported pyrolyzed C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Thus, 10 mL molasses (approximately 46% solids) was run through a column containing 70 cubic centimetres above adsorbent with sucrose retention volume 21.4 and selectivity for sucrose - betaine 23.8.

Landis, A.M.

1982-01-26

30

Production of PHB by a Bacillus megaterium strain using sugarcane molasses and corn steep liquor as sole carbon and nitrogen sources.  

PubMed

Poly(hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) and other biodegradable polyesters are promising candidates for the development of environment-friendly, totally biodegradable plastics. The use of cane molasses and corn steep liquor, two of the cheapest substrates available in Egypt, may help to reduce the cost of producing such biopolyesters. In this work, the effect of different carbon sources was studied. Maximum production of PHB was obtained with cane molasses and glucose as sole carbon sources (40.8, 39.9 per mg cell dry matter, respectively). The best growth was obtained with 3% molasses, while maximum yield of PHB (46.2% per mg cell dry matter) was obtained with 2% molasses. Corn steep liquor was the best nitrogen source for PHB synthesis (32.7 mg per cell dry matter), on the other hand, best growth was observed when ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphate, ammonium oxalate or ammonium phosphate were used as nitrogen sources. PMID:11716209

Gouda, M K; Swellam, A E; Omar, S H

2001-01-01

31

INAA and AAS of different products from sugar cane industry in Pakistan: Toxic trace elements for nutritional safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been used to determine As, Br, Hg, Sb and Se in combination with atomic\\u000a absorption spectrometry (AAS) as a complementary technique for the quantification of Cd and Pb in jaggery, brown sugar, white\\u000a sugar and molasses. All sugar cane products were collected from the local sugar cane industry of Pakistan. The highest concentration\\u000a of

S. Waheed; S. Rahman; K. P. Gill

2009-01-01

32

19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26 Customs Duties...and Molasses § 151.26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the port...

2014-04-01

33

Sugar Cane Magic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane

Mower, Nancy Alpert

34

Molasses Tail in Dense Hard Core Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long slow decaying potential part of the shear-stress autocorrelation function has been called the ``molasses tail'' to differentiate it from the hydrodynamic origin of the long time tail in the velocity autocorrelation function and to emphasize its relation to the highly viscous glassy state [1]. Some twenty years ago, the molasses tail in dense liquids near the solid-fluid transition point was speculated to be due to transient crystal nuclei formation [2].This slow decaying process of the OACF and its decomposition (pair, triplet, and quadruplet) is a key factor in understanding the onset of the glass transition. With additional computer power, we are now investigating the origin of the molasses tail using a modern fast algorithm based on event-driven Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation.We confirm the non-algebraic decay (stretched exponential) at intermediate times corresponding to the existence of various cluster sizes a solid cluster at high densities. The decay in dense systems thus consists of a three stage relaxation process, which are the kinetic regime, the molasses regime and the diffusional power regime[3]. [1] B. J. Alder, in Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Statistical-mechanical Systems, G. Ciccotti and W. G. Hoover, eds.(North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1986) 66. [2] A. J. C. Ladd, and B. J. Alder, J. Stat. Phys. 57, 473 (1989). [3] M. Isobe and B. J. Alder, Mol. Phys., 107, 609 (2009).

Isobe, Masaharu; Alder, Berni

2010-03-01

35

Molasses increases HDL cholesterol in rats research note.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to determine whether molasses might exert effects on serum lipoproteins. In experiment 1, 24 rats were divided into two groups and fed diets containing liquid molasses from sugar beet or sucrose (7.71 g of molasses dry matter or sucrose per kg of diet). The second experiment included four groups of rats (n = l2/group) and was conducted in a bifactorial design, with the factors being molasses (non-supplementation vs. supplementation of 77.1 g of molasses dry matter per kg of diet at the expense of sucrose) and dietary cholesterol (0 vs. 5 g/kg diet). In experiment 1, the ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration tended to be lower in rats fed the molasses diet than in rats fed the control diet (p < 0.15). In experiment 2, rats fed the molasses diet had higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol (+ 26%) than control rats fed diets without molasses (p < 0.05). This effect was independent of the dietary cholesterol concentration. Concentrations of cholesterol in LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and liver as well as concentrations of triacylglycerols in plasma and liver remained unaffected by molasses in both experiments. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that supplementation of molasses is effective at raising HDL cholesterol levels in rats. PMID:16028637

Schlegelmilch, Ulf; Brandsch, Corinna; Stangl, Gabriele I; Eder, Klaus

2005-05-01

36

Astaxanthin formation by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma on molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Phaffia rhodozyma grown on 7–10% B or C garde molasses contained 2 to 3 times more astaxanthin than reported earlier for this red yeast. Yield of astaxanthin with 10% molasses as fermentation substrate was 15.3 µg\\/ml which was about 3 times higher than with glucose and 2 times higher than with a sugar blend representative of the molasses.

N. F. Haard

1988-01-01

37

Bio-concentration of vinasse from the alcoholic fermentation of sugar cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concentration-incineration process of vinasse has been in use for several years in order to deal with pollution resulting from the industrial production of ethanol by fermentation and distillation. However, as vinasse concentration has a high energy demand, a bio-concentration method with no energy consumption is reported in this paper. Vinasses was used instead of water in the preparation of

A. R Navarro; M del C. Sepúlveda; M. C Rubio

2000-01-01

38

Pretreatment of beet molasses to increase pullulan production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of beet molasses with cation exchange resin, sulphuric acid, tricalcium phosphate, potassium ferrocyanide, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and disodium salt (EDTA) to increase the production of pullulan was investigated. Among the above techniques used for the removal of heavy metals, sulphuric acid treatment gave better results regarding polysaccharide concentration, polysaccharide yield, and sugar utilization. Aureobasidium pullulans grown on beet molasses

T. Roukas

1998-01-01

39

21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.  

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

2014-04-01

40

21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

2013-04-01

41

21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

2011-04-01

42

Processing of Total, Close-Spaced Cane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Limited tests were conducted in Audubon Sugar Factory during Fall, 1976, to determine the processibility of the whole cane plant (tops and leaves included). Also tested was the processibility of cane grown under special, close-spaced (12 inch) conditions....

J. A. Polack, H. S. Birkett

1977-01-01

43

Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder  

E-print Network

The Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder compresses carbonized sugar cane into charcoal briquettes. that are environmentally-friendly and comparable to wood charcoal in burn performance, cost, and durability. Originally developed ...

Ang, Dexter W

2005-01-01

44

Short communication: Effects of molasses products on productivity and milk fatty acid profile of cows fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that replacing up to 5% [of dietary dry matter (DM)] corn with cane molasses can partially alleviate milk fat depression when cows are fed high-concentrate, low-fiber rations containing dried distillers grains with solubles. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether dietary molasses alters milk fatty acid (FA) profile or improves solids-corrected milk yield in the context of a more typical lactation diet. A secondary objective was to assess production responses to increasing rumen-degradable protein supply when molasses was fed. Twelve primiparous and 28 multiparous Holstein cows (196 ± 39 d in milk) were blocked by parity and assigned to 4 pens. Pens were randomly allocated to treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, balanced for carryover effects. Treatment periods were 21 d, with 17 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for sample and data collection. Treatments were a control diet, providing 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DM basis), 35% neutral detergent fiber, 30% starch, and 5% ether extract; a diet with 4.4% cane molasses replacing a portion of the corn grain; a diet with 2.9% molasses supplement containing 32% crude protein on a DM basis; and a diet with 5.8% (DM basis) molasses supplement. Animal-level data were analyzed using mixed models, including the fixed effect of treatment and the random effects of period, pen, period × pen interaction, and cow within pen to recognize pen as the experimental unit. Diets did not alter DM intake, milk production, milk component concentration or yield, feed efficiency (DM intake/milk yield), body weight change, or milk somatic cell count. Milk stearic acid content was increased by the diet containing 5.8% molasses supplement compared with the control diet and the diet containing 2.9% molasses supplement, but the magnitude of the effect was small (12.27, 11.75, and 11.69 ± 0.29 g/100g of FA). Production data revealed a dramatic effect of period on milk fat content and yield. Milk fat content decreased during the course of the experiment (least squares means = 3.16, 2.81, 2.93, and 2.64 ± 0.09% for periods 1 to 4, respectively), as did milk fat yield (1.20, 1.03, 0.98, and 0.79 ± 0.05 kg/d). Exchanging molasses-based products for corn at 2.9 to 5.8% of dietary DM did not influence productivity and had minute effects on milk FA profile. The limited responses in this study may have been influenced by dietary unsaturated FA content or the advancing stage of lactation of cows in the study. PMID:24746128

Siverson, A; Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Bradford, B J

2014-06-01

45

Production of poly--hydroxybutyrate on molasses by recombinant  

E-print Network

in yeast fermentation. Reports on using molasses as the sole carbon source to produce PHB by Alcaligenes-PHB). The fermentation with molasses was cheaper than with glucose. The final dry cell weight, PHB content and PHB productivity were 39.5 g/L, 80% (w/w) and 1 g/Lh, respectively, in a 5 L stirred tank fermenter after 31.5 h

Gu, Tingyue

46

Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses  

PubMed Central

Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses. Results Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. Conclusion The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: ?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-?-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-?-D-glucopyranoside (named ?-planteose), ?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1)-?-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-?-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose), ?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-?-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose), and ?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-?-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose). 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time. PMID:22925105

2012-01-01

47

Biosurfactant production in sugar beet molasses by some Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed

In this study rhamnolipid biosurfactant production was investigated in eighteen strains of Pseudomonas spp.. Rhamnolipid by these strains was determined by a spectrophotometric method in nutrient broth medium (NB). From the 18 strains screened, two Pseudomonas strains (Pseudomonas luteola B17 and Pseudomonas putida B12) which had produced the highest percentage yield of rhamnolipid were examined for rhamnolipid production at different incubation times (24, 48 and 72 hr) and different sugar beet molasses concentrations [1-5% w/v concentration (1-5 g molasses/100 ml water)]. The rhamnolipid production increased with the increase in the concentration of molasses and maximum production occurred when 5 % (w/v) of molasses were used. At the same time, maximum rhamnolipid production occurred after 72 hr of incubation. When the amount of rhamnolipid produced at different incubation times (24, 48 and 72 hr) and with different concentrations of molasses [1-5 % w/v concentration (1-5 g molasses/100 ml water)] by Pseudomonas spp.; was compared, no significant difference in amount of production was seen. These studies show that the waste product from sugar industry may be suggested for important biotechnological processes such as rhamnolipid production. PMID:20112880

Onbasli, Dilsad; Aslim, Belma

2009-01-01

48

Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

2012-01-01

49

Molasses as fermentation substrate for levan production by Halomonas sp.  

PubMed

Levan is a homopolymer of fructose with many outstanding properties like high solubility in oil and water, strong adhesiveness, good biocompatibility, and film-forming ability. However, its industrial use has long been hampered by costly production processes which rely on mesophilic bacteria and plants. Recently, Halomonas sp. AAD6 halophilic bacteria were found to be the only extremophilic species producing levan at high titers in semi-chemical medium containing sucrose, and in this study, pretreated sugar beet molasses and starch molasses were both found to be feasible substitutes for sucrose. Five different pretreatment methods and their combinations were applied to both molasses types. Biomass and levan concentrations reached by the Halomonas sp. AAD6 cells cultivated on 30 g/L of pretreated beet molasses were 6.09 g dry cells/L and 12.4 g/L, respectively. When compared with literature, Halomonas sp. was found to stand out with its exceptionally high levan production yields on available fructose. Molecular characterization and monosaccharide composition studies confirmed levan-type fructan structure of the biopolymers. Rheological properties under different conditions pointed to the typical characteristics of low viscosity and pseudoplastic behaviors of the levan polymers. Moreover, levan polymer produced from molasses showed high biocompatibility and affinity with both cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. PMID:21161209

Küçüka?ik, Faruk; Kazak, Hande; Güney, Dilvin; Finore, Ilaria; Poli, Annarita; Yenigün, Orhan; Nicolaus, Barbara; Oner, Ebru Toksoy

2011-03-01

50

The utilization of beet molasses as a retarding and water-reducing admixture for concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molasses, a by-product of sugar industry, increases the fluidity of fresh concrete, and also delays the hardening time of cement paste. In this study, the molasses were determined from three different sugar production factories. A normal water-reducing admixture, based on lignosulphonate, has been used in the control mixture. Setting times of cement pastes prepared with molasses at three different dosages

Amanmyrat Jumadurdiyev; M. Hulusi Ozkul; Ali R. Saglam; Nazmiye Parlak

2005-01-01

51

Riboflavin production by Aspergillus terreus from beet-molasses.  

PubMed

Aspergillus terreus was used for riboflavin (vitamin B2) production in a medium containing beet molasses as the sole carbon source. Growth and the vitamin production of the fungus were markedly affected by the composition of the culture medium. A maximum riboflavin yield was achieved at the late exponential growth phase (16 day-old cultures) in the presence of (g/l): centrifuged beet-molasses, 90; L-asparagine, 1; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5; K2HPO4/kH2PO4 (1:1), 5; and the medium initially adjusted to pH 8. PMID:8172689

Sabry, S A; Ghanem, K M; Ghozlan, H A

1993-12-01

52

Processing of total, close-spaced cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited tests were conducted in Audubon Sugar Factory during Fall, 1976, to determine the processibility of the whole cane plant (tops and leaves included). Also tested was the processibility of cane grown under special, close-spaced (12 inch) conditions. These tests were part of the Energy from Crops program sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and coordinated by the

J. A. Polack; H. S. Birkett

1977-01-01

53

The Manufacture of Cane Syrup.  

E-print Network

,gment or discretion of the consumer. In Iowa, the .greatest corn producing State of the Union, the statute provides that "no person shall mix any glucose or grape sugar with syrup or sugar intended for human food." GLUCOSE SYRUP. I Before considering... the manufacture of cane syrup, it will be well to make an inquiry into the nature of glucose syrup. Glucose, or Dextrose, itself, is one of the sugars, commonly known as grape sugar. It occurs in sweet fruits and in honey. When pure it is perfectly white...

Harrington, H. H. (Henry Hill)

1903-01-01

54

Alcoholic Fermentation of beet molasses: study on stillage recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Stillage recycle in beet molasses alcoholic fermentation can be lower the production costs by a decrease of energy requirements for waste water treatment but it becomes necessary to optimise, separately, the sugar and non sugar contents of the wort. It is shown that the increase of the wort osmolality, linked to stillage recycle disturbs yeast metabolism above 1,5 osmol.

E. Wolniewicz; J. J. Essia Ngang; F. Letourneau; P. Villa

1990-01-01

55

Biohydrogen production from beet molasses by sequential dark and photofermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological hydrogen production using renewable resources is a promising possibility to generate hydrogen in a sustainable way. In this study, a sequential dark and photofermentation has been employed for biohydrogen production using sugar beet molasses as a feedstock. An extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was used for the dark fermentation, and several photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodobacter capsulatus wild type, R. capsulatus hup? mutant,

Ebru Özgür; Astrid E. Mars; Begüm Peksel; Annemarie Louwerse; Meral Yücel; Ufuk Gündüz; Pieternel A. M. Claassen; ?nci Ero?lu

2010-01-01

56

Aerobic–anaerobic biodegradation of beet molasses alcoholic fermentation wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the aerobic degradation of beet molasses alcoholic fermentation wastewater diluted to 50% (chemical oxygen demand, COD: 82 g\\/l) was carried out using the following fungi: Penicillium sp., Penicillium decumbens, Penicillium lignorum and Aspergillus niger. These four microorganisms produce a decolorization of the wastewater from the first day of incubation, achieving the maximum decolorization level at the fourth

Antonia M. Jiménez; Rafael Borja; Antonio Mart??n

2003-01-01

57

Cane River National Heritage Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tucked away in the northwestern corner of Louisiana, the Cane River winds its way through a primarily rural and agricultural landscape. Over the past several hundred years, the many groups of people who have lived and worked by the river have transformed this landscape. Created by the National Park Service, in partnership with the Louisiana Division of Historic Preservation and the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers, this website serves as a virtual tour guide to the Cane River National Heritage Area. First-time visitors should click on the interactive map offered here, as they can get the âÂÂlay of the landâÂÂ, and also utilize this feature to learn about historic landmarks in the area, such as the Cherokee Plantation and Fort Jesup. Along with this mélange of photos, maps, and descriptive passages, visitors can also take a look at three concise essays that provide answers to such questions as âÂÂWho are LouisianaâÂÂs Creoles?âÂÂ

58

IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE  

SciTech Connect

The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

Dr. Donal F. Day

2009-01-29

59

Ethanol fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 immobilized in Luffa cylindrica L. sponge discs and Ca-alginate matrices  

PubMed Central

Bio-ethanol production from cane molasses (diluted to 15 % sugar w/v) was studied using the bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 entrapped in luffa (Luffa cylindrica L.) sponge discs and Ca-alginate gel beads as the immobilizing matrices. At the end of 96 h fermentation, the final ethanol concentrations were 58.7 ± 0.09 and 59.1 ± 0.08 g/l molasses with luffa and Ca-alginate entrapped Z. mobilis cells, respectively exhibiting 83.25 ± 0.03 and 84.6 ± 0.02 % sugar conversion. There was no statistical significant difference (Fischer’s LSD) in sugar utilization (t = 0.254, p<0.801) and ethanol production (t =-0.663, p<0.513) between the two immobilization matrices used. Further, the immobilized cells in both the matrices were physiologically active for three more cycles of operation with less than 15 % decrease in ethanol yield in the 4th cycle, which was due to some leakage of cells. In conclusion, luffa sponge was found to be equally good as Ca-alginate as a carrier material for bacterial (Z. mobilis) cell immobilization for ethanol production. Further, it has added advantages such as it is cheap, non-corrosive and has no environmental hazard. PMID:24031981

Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama C.; Ray, Ramesh C.

2012-01-01

60

Detecting thermal anomalies within the Molasse Basin, southern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The groundwater flow regime at great depth within the Molasse Basin (SW Germany) was studied. Data relevant for a flow model\\u000a at 600–1,600 m depth are sparse in the western part of the basin. However, temperature measurements are available covering\\u000a much of the area at a wide range of depths. Therefore, a thermal 3D steady-state model was set up with the

Wolfram Rühaak; Volker Rath; Christoph Clauser

2010-01-01

61

Suitability of commercial beet molasses fractions as substrates fro polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Azotobacter vinelandii UWD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Beet molasses that had been fractionated commercially by ion exclusion resulted in two waste-streams: extract molasses (EM) and concentrated separator by-product (CSB). Only EM at 4–5% w\\/v contained sufficient sugar to promote polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) formation byAzotobacter vinelandii UWD, but the yield of PHB\\/protein was less than that obtained in unfractionated beet molasses. EM and especially CSB added at 0.5–2.0%

William J. Page

1992-01-01

62

Anaerobic co-digestion of desugared molasses with cow manure; focusing on sodium and potassium inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desugared molasses (DM), a syrup residue from beet-molasses, was investigated for biogas production in both batch and in continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments. DM contained 2–3 times higher concentration of ions than normal molasses, which could inhibit the biogas process. The effect of sodium and potassium concentration on biogas production from manure was also investigated. Fifty percent inhibition occurred at

Cheng Fang; Kanokwan Boe; Irini Angelidaki

2011-01-01

63

World Sugar and Molasses Situation and Outlook, May 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World centrifugal sugar production is forecast at a record 102.4 million tons (raw value) for 1987/88, 1 percent above 1986/87, and 3 percent more than 1985/86. World Production of sugar from cane is forecast at 65.4 million tons, up 3 percent; sugar from...

1987-01-01

64

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2012-01-01

65

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2014-01-01

66

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2010-01-01

67

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2013-01-01

68

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2011-01-01

69

Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Breads Supplemented with Sugar Beet Molasses-Based Ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic dehydration in sugar beet molasses as hypertonic medium was used to treat apples, plums, carrots and cabbage. Following the treatment, the fruits\\/vegetables were dried and ground. The obtained powders or pure beet molasses were incorporated into white wheat bread at 5 and 10% levels (flour basis). The results showed that the mineral content (K, Mg, Ca) and antioxidant potential

Bojana Filip?ev; Ljubinko Levi?; Marija Bodroža-Solarov; Nevena Mišljenovi?; Gordana Koprivica

2010-01-01

70

Optimization of lactic acid production from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of lactic acid from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130 in static and shake flask fermentation was investigated. Shake flasks proved to be a better fermentation system for this purpose. Substitution of yeast extract with other low cost protein sources did not improve lactic acid production. The maximum lactic acid concentration was achieved without treatment of molasses. A

Ch. Kotzamanidis; T. Roukas; G. Skaracis

2002-01-01

71

Improvement of the kinetics of anaerobic digestion of molasses by the removal of phenolic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of most of the phenolic compounds (88.5%) present in molasses by an aerobic pretreatment with Geotrichum candidum considerably increased the kinetics of anaerobic digestion of this wastewater. Inhibition phenomena were not observed in the range of COD studied (2.3–12.9 g\\/l). The yield coefficient of methane was 51 % higher than for untreated molasses.

R. Borja; A. Martín; R. Maestro; M. Luque; M. M. Durán

1993-01-01

72

Coagulation removal of melanoidins from biologically treated molasses wastewater using ferric chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pigments (melanoidins) in molasses wastewater are refractory to conventional biological treatment. Ferric chloride was used as coagulant to remove color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from molasses effluent. Using jar test procedure, main operating conditions such as pH and coagulant dosage were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, up to 86% and 96% of COD and color removal efficiencies were

Zhen Liang; Yanxin Wang; Yu Zhou; Hui Liu

2009-01-01

73

19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses...imported in bulk in tank vessels and is to be pumped or discharged into storage tanks, before the discharging is...

2010-04-01

74

19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses...imported in bulk in tank vessels and is to be pumped or discharged into storage tanks, before the discharging is...

2012-04-01

75

19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses...imported in bulk in tank vessels and is to be pumped or discharged into storage tanks, before the discharging is...

2011-04-01

76

19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.  

...Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses...imported in bulk in tank vessels and is to be pumped or discharged into storage tanks, before the discharging is...

2014-04-01

77

19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses...imported in bulk in tank vessels and is to be pumped or discharged into storage tanks, before the discharging is...

2013-04-01

78

Production of activated carbon from a new precursor molasses by activation with sulphuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon has been prepared from molasses, a natural precursor of vegetable origin resulting from the sugar industry in Morocco. The preparation of the activated carbon from the molasses has been carried out by impregnation of the precursor with sulphuric acid, followed by carbonisation at varying conditions (temperature and gas coverage) in order to optimize preparation parameters. The influence of

K. Legrouri; E. Khouya; M. Ezzine; H. Hannache; R. Denoyel; R. Pallier; R. Naslain

2005-01-01

79

The Estimation of Salt and Molasses in Mixed Feeds  

E-print Network

for estimating chlorides in feeds, calculated to salt, based upon the use of picric acid as a precipitant for interfering substances and titration with silver nitrate. It .also describes a method for molasses, based upon the estimation of sugars in the mixed...., adding an excess of 0.1 N silver nitrate to 50 cc., and titrating back with 0.1 N sulphocyanate, with ferric sulphate indi- cator. The volume of silver nitrate used by the salt (in cc.) X 0.4 equals the percentage of sodium chloride. The method...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1931-01-01

80

Japanese Sugar Cane as a Forage Crop.  

E-print Network

AND OTHER'_CROPS. WATER-FREE BASIS. Crop. Crude I N.-Free 1 Protein Fat ( Fiber , Extsyt Ash per cent per rent per cent per cent per cent Green Japanese Sugar Canc. No. 9174. . . . . Green Japanese Sugar Cane fro111 Angleton. No. 9522... AND OTHER'_CROPS. WATER-FREE BASIS. Crop. Crude I N.-Free 1 Protein Fat ( Fiber , Extsyt Ash per cent per rent per cent per cent per cent Green Japanese Sugar Canc. No. 9174. . . . . Green Japanese Sugar Cane fro111 Angleton. No. 9522...

Leidigh, A. H. (Arthur Henry); McNess, George Thomas; Laude, H. H. (Hilmer Henry)

1916-01-01

81

Microbial lipid production: screening with yeasts grown on Brazilian molasses.  

PubMed

Rhodotorula glutinis CCT 2182, Rhodosporidium toruloides CCT 0783, Rhodotorula minuta CCT 1751 and Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296 were evaluated for the conversion of sugars from Brazilian molasses into single-cell oil (SCO) feedstock for biodiesel. Pulsed fed-batch fermentations were performed in 1.65 l working volume bioreactors. The maximum specific growth rate (µmax), lipid productivity (Pr) and cellular lipid content were, respectively, 0.23 h(-1), 0.41 g l(-1) h(-1), and 41 % for Rsp. toruloides; 0.20 h(-1), 0.27 g l(-1) h(-1), and 36 % for Rta. glutinis; 0.115 h(-1), 0.135 g l(-1) h(-1), and 27 % for Rta. minuta; and 0.11 h(-1), 0.13 g l(-1) h(-1), and 32 % for L. starkeyi. Based on their microbial lipid productivity, content, and profile, Rsp. toruloides and Rta. glutinis are promising candidates for biodiesel production from Brazilian molasses. All the oils from the yeasts were similar to the composition of plant oils (rapeseed and soybean) and could be used as raw material for biofuels, as well as in food and nutraceutical products. PMID:25129045

Vieira, J P F; Ienczak, J L; Rossell, C E V; Pradella, J G C; Franco, T T

2014-12-01

82

ECOSTATIC CANE PROCESSING SYSTEM PROTOTYPE PHASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate a systems environmental management approach, from field to final product, for the processing of raw cane sugar. Specific sub-systems which were to be developed and demonstrated as part of this systems approach were: (a) har...

83

Novel strategy using an adsorbent-column chromatography for effective ethanol production from sugarcane or sugar beet molasses.  

PubMed

Molasses-based distilleries generate large volumes of a highly polluted and dark brown-colored wastewater. The present work describes the way in which an adsorbent-column chromatography can effectively remove the colorant and produce biomass ethanol from sugarcane or sugar beet molasses. It was found that the color and chemical oxygen demand of the resulting wastewater was respectively reduced by approximately 87% and 28% as compared with conventional molasses fermentation. Gas chromatography showed that the decolorized molasses maintained good ethanol productivity almost equal to that of the original molasses. Furthermore, it was revealed that the colorant concentrations of about 5 mg ml(-1) in the medium were the most favorable for ethanolic fermentation. In summary, we have concluded that this method is the most effective when the adsorbent chromatography is performed just before molasses fermentation and that the decolorized molasses is an ideal substrate for fuel ethanol production. PMID:19467586

Hatano, Ken-ichi; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yohei; Sakamoto, Hironobu; Takigami, Machiko; Kojima, Yasuyoshi

2009-10-01

84

Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

Rathod, K. D.; Singh, P. K.; Natarajan, Vasant

2014-09-01

85

21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.  

...2014-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section...Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a) Identification. Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads are rubber (or...

2014-04-01

86

21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section...Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a) Identification. Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads are rubber (or...

2012-04-01

87

21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section...Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a) Identification. Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads are rubber (or...

2011-04-01

88

21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section...Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a) Identification. Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads are rubber (or...

2013-04-01

89

40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.  

...true Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory....

2014-07-01

90

Engineered Enterobacter aerogenes for efficient utilization of sugarcane molasses in 2,3-butanediol production.  

PubMed

Sugarcane molasses is considered to be a good carbon source for biorefinery due to its high sugar content and low price. Sucrose occupies more than half of the sugar in the molasses. Enterobacter aerogenes is a good host strain for 2,3-butanediol production, but its utilization of sucrose is not very efficient. To improve sucrose utilization in E. aerogenes, a sucrose regulator (ScrR) was disrupted from the genomic DNA. The deletion mutation increased the sucrose consumption rate significantly when sucrose or sugarcane molasses was used as a carbon source. The 2,3-butanediol production from sugarcane molasses by the mutant was enhanced by 60% in batch fermentation compared to that by the wild type strain. In fed-batch fermentation, 98.69 g/L of 2,3-butanediol production was achieved at 36 h. PMID:23644066

Jung, Moo-Young; Park, Bu-Soo; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

2013-07-01

91

Production of pullulan from beet molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans in a stirred tank fermentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the aeration rate on pullulan production from beet molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans P56 in a stirred tank fermentor was investigated. A maximum polysaccharide concentration (23 g\\/l), biomass dry weight (22.5 g\\/l), polysaccharide yield (40%) and sugar utilization (96%) was achieved at an aeration rate of 1.0 vvm. A. pullulans grown on molasses produced a mixture of polysaccharides.

Triantafyllos Roukas; Maria Liakopoulou-Kyriakides

1999-01-01

92

Production of microbial levan from sucrose, sugarcane juice and beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bacillus polymyxa (NRRL-18475) produced a levan-type fructan (B, 2?6 fructofuranoside) when grown on sucrose, sugarcane juice, and sugarbeet molasses. The organism converted about 46% of the fructose moiety of sucrose to levan when grown on sucrose medium, however, the yields of levan from sugarcane juice and beet molasses were much less than sucrose solution. Such sugarcane juice and beet

Y. W. Han; M. A. Watson

1992-01-01

93

Optimization of xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris grown in molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 1395 using sugar beet molasses as carbon source was studied. The pre-treatment of sugar beet molasses and the supplementation of the medium were investigated in order to improve xanthan gum production. Addition of K2HPO4 to the medium had a significant positive effect on both xanthan gum and biomass production. The medium was subsequently

Stavros Kalogiannis; Gesthimani Iakovidou; Maria Liakopoulou-Kyriakides; Dimitrios A Kyriakidis; George N Skaracis

2003-01-01

94

Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses by formed nitrogen oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses was developed in a series of three reactors. Nitrogen oxides formed were used to manufacture oxalic acid in the second and third reactor. Parameters affecting the reaction were determined to be, air flow rate, temperature, the amount of V2O5 catalyst and the concentrations of molasses and H2SO4. The maximum yields in the

Metin Gürü; Ali Y. Bilgesü; Vecihi Pamuk

2001-01-01

95

Production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola grown on soy molasses as substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophorolipids (SLs) were produced from Candida bombicola using soy molasses and oleic acid as co-substrates. The purified SLs were obtained at 21 g l-1 and were 97% in lactone form. The major SL constituent (81% relative abundance) of the product mixture contains an oleoyl chain. The surface properties of the SLs obtained from the soy molasses\\/oleic acid fermentation had minimum surface-tension

Daniel K. Y. Solaiman; Richard D. Ashby; Alberto Nuñez; Thomas A. Foglia

2004-01-01

96

Determination of trace elements of Egyptian cane sugar (Naga Hammady factories) by neutron activation, atomic absorption spectrophotometric and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric analyses.  

PubMed

INAA, AAS and ICP-AES techniques are applied to the determination of trace amounts of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in the stalks of sugar cane plant after extracting juice, raw juice principal (mixed) juice, juice withdrawn from the successive stages of sugar industry, sirup, deposits from evaporators, molasse, A-? and B-sugar and in the soil samples (collected from the field supplying the factories by cane plants) taken from the immediate vicinity of the plant roots at surface, 30 and 60 cm depth. The results obtained are in a good agreement of the safety baselines of using juice as beverage, molasse derivatives (honey, sweets, ...) as diet for common people in the developed countries and in industry (methanol, ethanol, acetone & acetic acid, ...) and sugar sweeting for many purposes (in beverages, desserts, ...). Differences of trace elements concentrations in soil samples may be reasoned to geochemical and biogeochemical fractionation while those in juice may be due to the changes in the environmental conditions, chemical composition and botanic structures. Variations in trace element contents in the products formed during the successive stages of sugar industry may be a result of evaporation, filtration processes, chemical treatments or corrosion of vessels, containers or engines. Trace elements are very important where they are responsible for enzymatic and biochemical reactions, matabolism, health and diseases. PMID:6526566

Awadallah, R M; Sherif, M K; Mohamed, A E; Grass, F

1984-01-01

97

Production and characterization of pullulan from beet molasses using a nonpigmented strain of Aureobasidium pullulans in batch culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of pullulan from beet molasses by a pigment-free strain of Aureobasidium pullulans on shake-flask culture was investigated. Combined pretreatment of molasses with sulfuric acid and activated carbon to remove\\u000a potential fermentation inhibitors present in molasses resulted in a maximum pullulan concentration of 24 g\\/L, a biomass dry\\u000a wt of 14 g\\/L, a pullulan yield of 52.5%, and a

Athina Lazaridou; Costas G. Biliaderis; Triantafyllos Roukas; Marta Izydorczyk

2002-01-01

98

Kinetic study of the acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic interest in xylitol production can be enhanced if the needed xylose solutions can be obtained from the hydrolysis of low-cost lignocellulosic wastes. Sugar cane bagasse is a renewable, cheap and widely available waste in tropical countries. The hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to obtain xylose solutions has a double consequence, the elimination of a waste and the generation of

R Aguilar; J. A Ram??rez; G Garrote; M Vázquez

2002-01-01

99

Externalities in cane production and environmental best practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of environmental externalities of agricultural production has become a necessity to attain sustainable resource use and efficient use of resources. In this paper we identify sources of externalities in Australian sugar cane production and examine ways to enhance greater environmental compliance by canegrowers who have agreed to a voluntary Code of Practice for sustainable cane production. The rationale for

Thilak Mallawaarachchi; George Rayment; Freeman Cook; Mike Grundy

2001-01-01

100

Problems in breeding and cytology of sugar cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a survey is given on sugar cane breeding, as it was performed in Java during a period of about fifty years. When in the eighties of the nineteenth century sugar cane was heavily affected by the sereh disease it was Soltwedel, the first director of the Sugar Experiment Station “Midden Java”, who tried to obtain sereh resistant

G. Bremer

1961-01-01

101

A study on the wear of sugar cane rolls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wear on sugar cane roll shells is costly maintenance problem for sugar cane mills. This research was conducted to understand the wear process in roll shells made of steel. In this process, sugarcane fiber – commonly called bagasse – is squeezed between grooved roll shells to extract sugar. A new test apparatus, based on the ASTM-G65 test machine, was built

Fernando Casanova; Yesid Aguilar

2008-01-01

102

Histological Intestinal Recovery in Chickens Refed Dietary Sugar Cane Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane extract (SCE), the residue after removing glucose, fructose, and sucrose from sugar cane juice, has growth-promoting, antistress, and immunosti- mulation effects. The objective of this study was to investi- gate the effects of refeeding dietary SCE on recovery of BW and intestinal histology after withdrawing feed from chickens. Forty-eight male Sanuki Cochin chickens were assigned randomly to 6

K. Yamauchi; K. Koge; T. Ebashi

103

Older Homebound Women: Negotiating Reliance on a Cane or Walker  

PubMed Central

Canes and walkers are commonly characterized as assistive devices and as devices that serve the same purpose, as walking aides. These general views were reappraised and tempered in this descriptive phenomenological study with 40 older women (aged 85-98) who were unable to leave their homes without help. The purpose was to describe the phenomena of negotiating reliance on canes and walkers as walking devices and the lifeworld context underlying each phenomenon. Relative to lifeworld, there were differences between coming to terms with using a cane and coming to terms with using a walker. Data revealed similarities and distinctions between the basic intentions of relying on canes and on walkers and the associated purposes served by canes and walkers. Participants did not view either device as consistently assistive. Findings evoke opportunities for dialogue among older persons, scholars, practitioners, and designers of these devices about coming to terms with such devices and relying on them. PMID:21041520

Porter, Eileen J.; Benson, Jacquelyn J.; Matsuda, Sandy

2012-01-01

104

Separation and characterization of the colored material from sugarcane molasses.  

PubMed

The colored material (X) was effectively separated from sugarcane molasses using reversed-phase chromatography. Characterization of the molecular structure of sample X was performed using infrared absorption (IR) spectrometry, mass spectrometry (MS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The IR spectrum was similar to that of commercial humic acid, and the MS analysis showed that the sample possessed relatively small heterogeneous molecules with molecular masses around 234, 446, 657, 868, and 1079 Da. On the other hand, X sample showed an inhibitory activity toward the cysteine proteinase papain. Furthermore, the inhibitory (G-1) and weak inhibitory (G-2) fractions were separated from sample X using gel permeation chromatography. Samples G-1 and G-2 inhibited papain partial-noncompetitively and had the inhibition constants of 5.01 x 10(-5) and 1.08 x 10(-3)M, respectively. Interestingly, in the DLS experiment, the Stokes radius of sample G-1 was approximately 2 nm, about twice one of sample G-2. PMID:18267325

Hatano, Ken-ichi; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru; Kubota, Kenji

2008-04-01

105

Replacing dried fish with fresh water spinach for growing pigs fed whole sugar cane stalks or cane juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was conducted at CelAgrid (UTA, Cambodia), located in Kandal province. Whole sugar cane stalk and sugar cane juice were used as the sources of energy, and the protein source was the level of dry fish to provide 50, 100, 150 or 200 g protein per day. Fresh water spinach was chopped and fed ad libitum on the diets

Sorn Suheang; T R Preston

106

Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue—Part 2: gasification of cane trash  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part 1 of this two-part paper, results from gasification of bagasse in a cyclone gasifier have been reported. In this paper results from gasification of cane trash in the same cyclone gasifier are presented. The cane trash powder is injected into the cyclone with air as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and

Mohamed Gabra; Esbjörn Pettersson; Rainer Backman; Björn Kjellström

2001-01-01

107

Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge  

SciTech Connect

Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 29). PHB production yield (Y{sub p/s}) was highest (0.184 g g{sup -1} COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

Khardenavis, Anshuman A. [Environmental Genomics Unit, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India)], E-mail: aa_khardenavis@neeri.res.in; Vaidya, Atul N. [Solid Waste Management Unit, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India); Kumar, M. Suresh [Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India); Chakrabarti, Tapan [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India)

2009-09-15

108

A novel fall prevention scheme for intelligent cane robot by using a motor driven universal joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we propose a novel fall prevention scheme for an omni-direction type cane robot by using a DC motor driven universal joint. The cane robot which is driven by three omni-wheels is called Intelligent Cane Robot (iCane). It is designed for aiding the elderly and handicapped people walking as shown in Fig.1. The motion of cane robot is

Pei Di; Jian Huang; Kosuke Sekiyama; Toshio Fukuda

2011-01-01

109

Shallow high-resolution seismics and reprocessing of industry profiles in southern Bavaria: The Molasse and the northern Alpine front  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this seismic investigation in the Upper Bavarian Miesbach area, as part of the international TRANSALP project, was to study the tectonic contact between the autochthonous Foreland Molasse and the allochthonous Folded Molasse marking the tectonic front of the Alpine orogen. Another specific target was the dip of the frontal emerging main thrust of the tectonic units Helveticum\\/Ultrahelveticum

Rüdiger Thomas; Klaus Schwerd; Kurt Bram; Jürgen Fertig

2006-01-01

110

Kinetics of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses under cell recycle.  

PubMed

In this work, a kinetic model for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses was developed. A model previously developed for fermentation of pure molasses was modified by the inclusion of a new term for acetic acid inhibition on microorganism growth rate and the kinetic parameters were estimated as functions of temperature. The influence of the hydrolysate on the kinetic parameters is analyzed by comparing with the parameters from fermentation of pure molasses. The impact of cells recycling in the kinetic parameters is also evaluated, as well as on the ethanol yield and productivity. The model developed described accurately most of the fermentations performed in several successive batches for temperatures from 30 to 38°C. PMID:23313680

de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

2013-02-01

111

Collimation of a thulium atomic beam by two-dimensional optical molasses  

SciTech Connect

The number of laser cooled and trapped thulium atoms in a magneto-optical trap is increased by a factor of 3 using a two-dimensional optical molasses which collimated the atomic beam before entering a Zeeman slower. A diode laser operating at 410.6 nm was employed to form optical molasses: The laser was heated to 70 Degree-Sign C by a two-step temperature stabilisation system. The laser system consisting of a master oscillator and an injection-locked amplifier emitted more than 100 mW at 410 nm and had a spectral linewidth of 0.6 MHz. (extreme light fields and their applications)

Sukachev, D D; Kalganova, E S; Sokolov, A V; Savchenkov, A V; Vishnyakova, G A; Golovizin, A A; Akimov, A V; Kolachevsky, Nikolai N; Sorokin, Vadim N

2013-04-30

112

Nutrient digestibility and protein utilization by heifers and steers fed high molasses-urea diets  

E-print Network

OF NITROGEN FROM DIFFERENT FEEDS CONSUMED BY STEERS FED THREE LEVELS OF FISH MEAL. 34, Viii Table 12 Appendix Table NITROGEN BALANCE OF STEERS FED THREE LEVELS OF FISH MEAL WITH HIGH MOLASSES-UREA DIETS. . . . . . . . BLOOD UREA CONCENTRATION, RUMEN.... Blood urea concentrations are presented in Table 12. 36 TABLE 11. NITROGEN BALANCE OF STEERS FED THREE LEVELS OF I FISH MEAL WITH HIGH MOLASSES-UREA DIETS' Fish meal level, g/100. kg body weight. 80 120 180 ~Steer 2 N intake, g N output, gs...

Pina, Angel Modesto

2012-06-07

113

Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas are…

Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

114

VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

115

VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, BUMPER ROLLERS IN THE CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

116

By-products of the cane sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

Paturav, J.M.

1989-01-01

117

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar...mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and...

2014-04-01

118

Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea.  

PubMed Central

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1000370

Mella, C M; Perez-Oliva, O; Loew, F M

1976-01-01

119

Immobilized Sclerotinia sclerotiorum invertase to produce invert sugar syrup from industrial beet molasses by-product.  

PubMed

The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces invertase activity during cultivation on many agroindustrial residues. The molasses induced invertase was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated at 48 kDa. Optimal temperature was determined at 60 °C and thermal stability up to 65 °C. The enzyme was stable between pH 2.0 and 8.0; optimum pH was about 5.5. Apparent K(m) and V(max) for sucrose were estimated to be respectively 5.8 mM and 0.11 ?mol/min. The invertase was activated by ?-mercaptoethanol. Free enzyme exhibited 80 % of its original activity after two month's storage at 4 °C and 50 % after 1 week at 25 °C. In order to investigate an industrial application, the enzyme was immobilized on alginate and examined for invert sugar production by molasses hydrolysis in a continuous bioreactor. The yield of immobilized invertase was about 78 % and the activity yield was 59 %. Interestingly the immobilized enzyme hydrolyzed beet molasses consuming nearly all sucrose. It retained all of its initial activity after being used for 4 cycles and about 65 % at the sixth cycle. Regarding productivity; 20 g/l of molasses by-product gave the best invert sugar production 46.21 g/day/100 g substrate related to optimal sucrose conversion of 41.6 %. PMID:24142426

Mouelhi, Refka; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib

2014-03-01

120

Citric acid production from beet molasses by cell recycle of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Production of citric acid from beet molasses at a varying pH profile using cell recycle ofAspergillus niger was investigated. Best results in terms of citric acid concentration, yield, productivity and specific citric acid productivity were obtained with a substrate pH of 3.0.

T. Roukas; E. Alichanidis

1991-01-01

121

Unusual catalysts from molasses: synthesis, properties and application in obtaining biofuels from algae.  

PubMed

Acid catalysts were prepared by sulfonation of carbon materials obtained from the pyrolysis of sugar beet molasses, a cheap, viscous byproduct in the processing of sugar beets into sugar. Conditions for the pyrolysis of molasses (temperature and time) influenced catalyst performance; the best combination came from pyrolysis at low temperature (420 °C) for a relatively long time (8-15 h), which ensured better stability of the final material. The most effective molasses catalyst was highly active in the esterification of fatty acids with methanol (100 % yield after 3 h) and more active than common solid acidic catalysts in the transesterification of vegetable oils with 25-75 wt % of acid content (55-96 % yield after 8 h). A tandem process using a solid acid molasses catalyst and potassium hydroxide in methanol was developed to de-acidificate and transesterificate algal oils from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Nannochloropsis gaditana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, which contain high amounts of free fatty acids. The amount of catalyst required for the de-acidification step was influenced by the chemical composition of the algal oil, thus operational conditions were determined not only in relation to free fatty acids content in the oil, but according to the composition of the lipid extract of each algal species. PMID:22678658

Samorì, Chiara; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe; Faraloni, Cecilia; Galletti, Paola; Spera, Silvia; Tagliavini, Emilio; Torzillo, Giuseppe

2012-08-01

122

Production of Cerebroside from Beet Molasses by the Yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two strains classified as Saccharomyces kluyveri were grown on beet molasses as the principal carbon source to select a strain for the production of a glycosphingolipid cerebroside. Six strains accumulated relatively high amounts of cerebroside (> 0.40 mg [g dry weight]) and grew well in an Erlenmeyer flask. Thirty strains were isolated from single spores of strain CBS 4800 after

Masahiko Tamura; Osamu Matsumoto; Naoya Takakuwa; Yuji Oda; Masao Ohnishi

2005-01-01

123

Monitoring and control of industrial downstream processing of sugar beet molasses.  

PubMed

In present work the determination of several amino acids during the industrial chromatographic desugarisation of molasses is presented. The use of innovative biosensor systems for highly specific detection of serine is described. Using two-dimensional fluorescence spectrometry, a non-invasive method for the determination of several product fractions could be established in an industrial chromatographic procedure. PMID:10895955

Ulber, R; Faurie, R; Sosnitza, P; Fischer, L; Stärk, E; Harbeck, C; Scheper, T

2000-06-16

124

Improvement of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger with addition of phytate to beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytate is an important plant constituent and can be found in the seeds of cereals and legumes. Phytic acid has 12 replaceable protons in the phytic molecule, giving it the ability to complex with multivalent cations. In this study, the phytate was used as an additive to enhance citric acid production by Aspergillus niger from an untreated beet molasses. The

Jianlong Wang

1998-01-01

125

Monitoring and control of industrial downstream processing of sugar beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present work the determination of several amino acids during the industrial chromatographic desugarisation of molasses is presented. The use of innovative biosensor systems for highly specific detection of serine is described. Using two-dimensional fluorescence spectrometry, a non-invasive method for the determination of several product fractions could be established in an industrial chromatographic procedure.

Roland Ulber; Robert Faurie; Peter Sosnitza; Lutz Fischer; Egbert Stärk; Christian Harbeck; Thomas Scheper

2000-01-01

126

Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand  

SciTech Connect

The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

Mangmeechai, Aweewan, E-mail: aweewan.m@nida.ac.th [National Institute of Development Administration, International College (Major in Public Policy and Management) (Thailand)] [National Institute of Development Administration, International College (Major in Public Policy and Management) (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Thailand)] [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Thailand)

2013-12-15

127

Changes in dehydrogenases activity, number and ultrastructure of mitochondria in Aspergillus niger mycelium growing on molasses media.  

PubMed

Effects of toxic molasses compounds and of the antifoamer (Spumol BJ) on dehydrogenases activity, on the number and ultrastructure of mitochondria in A. niger mycelium of two strains characterized by different tolerance to toxic agents, were observed. In spite of significantly higher dehydrogenases activity in the intolerant strain (R-16) mycelia developing both on productive molasses in the presence of the defoamer and on non-productive molasses are characterized by marked reduction in the activity of these enzymes. Changes in respiratory enzymes activity are partly correlated with the number of mitochondria but mostly with abnormalities in their ultrastructure. PMID:7504876

Gabara, B; Zakowska, Z

1993-01-01

128

Sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources.  

PubMed

Research concerning the sensory properties of beet and cane sugars is lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine whether a sensory difference was perceivable between beet and cane sugar sources in regard to their (1) aroma-only, (2) aroma and taste without nose clips, and (3) taste-only with nose clips, and to characterize the difference between the sugar sources using descriptive analysis. One hundred panelists evaluated sugar samples using a tetrad test. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was identified between beet and cane sugar sources when evaluated by aroma-only and taste and aroma without nose clips. However, there was no difference when tasted with nose clips. To characterize the observed differences, ten trained panelists identified and quantified key sensory attributes of beet and cane sugars using descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) between sugar samples for 8 of the 10 attributes including: off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aroma, fruity and burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth, sweet aftertaste, and burnt sugar aftertaste. The sensory profile of beet sugar was characterized by off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aromas and by a burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth and aftertaste, whereas cane sugar was characterized by a fruity aroma-by-mouth and sweet aftertaste. This study shows that beet and cane sugar sources can be differentiated by their aroma and provides a sensory profile characterizing the differences. As sugar is used extensively as a food ingredient, sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources once incorporated into different product matrices should be studied as a next step. PMID:25124655

Urbanus, Brittany L; Cox, Ginnefer O; Eklund, Emily J; Ickes, Chelsea M; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

2014-09-01

129

40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

2010-07-01

130

40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

2011-07-01

131

40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

2011-07-01

132

40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

2012-07-01

133

40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

2013-07-01

134

40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

2012-07-01

135

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

2010-07-01

136

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

2013-07-01

137

40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

2012-07-01

138

40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

2010-07-01

139

40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

2011-07-01

140

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

2012-07-01

141

40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

2010-07-01

142

40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

2013-07-01

143

40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

2013-07-01

144

40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

2011-07-01

145

40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

2013-07-01

146

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

2011-07-01

147

40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

2012-07-01

148

40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

2010-07-01

149

Robust Feature Tracking Ben Galvin, Brendan McCane, and Kevin Novins  

E-print Network

Title: Robust Feature Tracking Authors: Ben Galvin, Brendan McCane, and Kevin Novins Email: mccane the dropout rate of a correspondence based system. #12; Robust Feature Tracking B. Galvin B. McCane K. Novins

McCane, Brendan

150

Novel strategy using an adsorbent-column chromatography for effective ethanol production from sugarcane or sugar beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molasses-based distilleries generate large volumes of a highly polluted and dark brown-colored wastewater. The present work describes the way in which an adsorbent-column chromatography can effectively remove the colorant and produce biomass ethanol from sugarcane or sugar beet molasses. It was found that the color and chemical oxygen demand of the resulting wastewater was respectively reduced by approximately 87% and

Ken-ichi Hatano; Satoshi Kikuchi; Yohei Nakamura; Hironobu Sakamoto; Machiko Takigami; Yasuyoshi Kojima

2009-01-01

151

Effect of the shear rate on pullulan production from beet molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans in an airlift reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the shear rate on pullulan production from beet molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans P56 in an airlift reactor was investigated. A maximum polysaccharide concentration (18.5 g\\/L), biomass dry weight (14.0 g\\/L),\\u000a polysaccharide yield (38.5%), and sugar utilization (96%) was achieved at a shear rate of 42 s?1. A. pullulans grown on beet molasses produced a mixture of pullulan

T. Roukas; G. Serris

1999-01-01

152

Production of Ethanol from Beet Molasses by Ca-Alginate Immobilized Yeast Cells in a Packed-Bed Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous production of ethanol from beet molasses by Ca-alginate immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a packed-bed bioreactor was investigated. The temperature was maintained at 30¡C and the dilution rate was 0.22 h-1. Maximum ethanol (4.62%), theoretical yield (82.9%) and volumetric productivity (10.16 gl-1h-1) were obtained from the beet molasses medium containing 10.90% total sugar with 2.0-2.4 mm diameter beads prepared

Yekta GÖKSUNGUR; Nefle ZORLU

2001-01-01

153

The Effect of Sugar Cane Chewing on the Development of Dental Caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Tanzania, the effect of sugar cane chewing on the development of caries was investigated. Two groups were selected; those who had easy access to sugar cane (sugar cane cutters) and those who did not (sisal plant workers). These groups had a similar socio-economic background, had similar levels of fluoride in drinking water, consumed similar amounts of refined sugar per

J. E. Frencken; P. Rugarabamu; J. Mulder

1989-01-01

154

Flysch to molasse transition in peripheral foreland basins: The role of the passive margin versus slab breakoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initiation of continental collision and the inception of peripheral foreland basins occur by the deformation and flexure, respectively, of the inherited passive margin of the foreland plate. During progressive plate convergence, peripheral foreland basins develop from an underfilled flysch stage to a filled or overfilled molasse stage. Classically, this flysch to molasse transition is interpreted as recording the migration of the thrust wedge and foreland basin over the hinge line of the inherited passive margin. It is demonstrated that during the development of the North Alpine foreland basin neither inherited paleobathymetry nor changing lithospheric strength of the underthrust European passive margin played a significant role in the flysch to molasse transition. Sediment supply from the Alps increased at least 30% from the time of flysch to molasse deposition. At about the same time as the flysch to molasse transition (mid-Oligocene), the inner parts of the mountain belt experienced accelerated exhumation, uplift of high-pressure metamorphic rocks, lower lithospheric melting, and the onset of major backthrusting, all of which have been linked via a model of slab breakoff. A further consequence of the model is isostatic surface uplift and erosion. It is proposed that slab breakoff may have been responsible for the increased sediment supply that resulted in the flysch to molasse transition in the North Alpine foreland basin, and that this provides an alternative to the passive margin model.

Sinclair, H. D.

1997-12-01

155

Process Integration of Bioethanol from Sugar Cane and Hydrogen Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study several alternatives for process integration of bioethanol from sugar cane and hydrogen production were evaluated. Bioethanol was produced above all in the fermentation of sweetened juice from sugar cane, stillage was removed. Stillage and bagasse are the process byproducts. The bioethanol steam reforming is an endothermic catalytic process when vaporized ethanol and steam are fed using a 1:6 molar ratio to reformer with a Ni-catalyst at atmospheric pressure and 350xC. Taking into account the processes properties mentioned above, it is possible to integrate the bioethanol production from sugar cane and its reforming by using byproducts like bagasse and stillage and to produce energy for steam reforming and bioethanol solution concentration by direct firing (for bagasse) or anaerobic digestion to get methane (for stillage).

Hernandez, L.; Kafarov, V.

156

Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative  

SciTech Connect

CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

Alexander, A.G.

1984-01-01

157

Production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola grown on soy molasses as substrate.  

PubMed

Sophorolipids (SLs) were produced from Candida bombicola using soy molasses and oleic acid as co-substrates. The purified SLs were obtained at 21 g l(-1) and were 97% in lactone form. The major SL constituent (81% relative abundance) of the product mixture contains an oleoyl chain. The surface properties of the SLs obtained from the soy molasses/oleic acid fermentation had minimum surface-tension values of 37 mN m(-1) (pH 6) and 38 mN m(-1) (pH 9), and critical micelle concentration values of 6 mg l(-1) (pH 6) and 13 mg l(-1) (pH 9). PMID:15289681

Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Ashby, Richard D; Nuñez, Alberto; Foglia, Thomas A

2004-08-01

158

Simplified soy molasses-based medium for reduced-cost production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola.  

PubMed

A simplified medium containing only soy molasses and oleic acid as ingredients was developed for the production of sophorolipids (SLs) from Candida bombicola. We achieved a product yield of 53 +/- 3 g of purified sophorolipids per liter of starting culture volume, which is 71 +/- 4% of the yield obtained with growth medium that also additionally contains the costly yeast extract and urea as nitrogen source. The large majority of the SL components existed in the lactone form (87%), and the predominant component is SL containing (omega-1)-hydroxyoleic acid as the lipid moiety. The study demonstrated for the first time the usefulness of the low-value soy molasses as a combined nitrogen- and carbon-source for SL production at a reduced cost. PMID:17541506

Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Ashby, Richard D; Zerkowski, Jonathan A; Foglia, Thomas A

2007-09-01

159

Quantum-interference-enhanced deep sub-Doppler cooling of 39K atoms in gray molasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report enhanced sub-Doppler cooling of the bosonic atoms of 39K facilitated by formation of dark states with the cooling and repumping lasers tuned to the Raman resonance in ? configuration near the D1 transition. A temperature of about 12 ?K and phase-space density >2×10-5 is achieved in the two-stage D2-D1 molasses and spans a very large parameter region where quantum interference persists robustly. We also present results on enhanced radiation heating with a subnatural linewidth (0.07?) and a signature Fano-like profile of a coherently driven three-level atomic system. The optical Bloch equations relevant for the three-level atom in a bichromatic light field are solved with the method of continued fractions to show that cooling occurs only for a small velocity class of atoms, emphasizing the need for precooling in the D2 molasses stage.

Nath, Dipankar; Easwaran, R. Kollengode; Rajalakshmi, G.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.

2013-11-01

160

Gray-molasses cooling of 39K to a high phase-space density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new techniques in cooling 39K atoms using laser light close to the D1 transition. First, a new compressed-MOT configuration is taking advantage of gray-molasses-type cooling induced by blue-detuned D1 light. It yields an optimized density of atoms. Then, we use pure D1 gray molasses to further cool the atoms to an ultra-low temperature of 6\\ \\mu\\text{K} . The resulting phase-space density is 2\\times 10^{-4} and will ease future experiments with ultracold potassium. As an example, we use it to directly load up to 3\\times 10^7 atoms in a far detuned optical trap, a result that opens the way to the all-optical production of potassium degenerate gases.

Salomon, G.; Fouché, L.; Wang, P.; Aspect, A.; Bouyer, P.; Bourdel, T.

2013-12-01

161

Production of Isoamyl Acetate from Sugar Beet Molasses by Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. Inst. Brew. 114(1), 34-38, 2008 Three strains of Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus were employed for the production of natural isoamyl acetate (the character im- pact compound of banana flavour) using sugar beet molasses as the carbon source and batch cultivation at 25°C under anaerobic conditions. Of the three strains, strain HUT 7087 was the best producer of isoamyl acetate,

Murat Yilmaztekin; Huseyin Erten; Turgut Cabaroglu

162

Comparison of the products of Kombucha fermentation on sucrose and molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation of 1.5g\\/L of Indian black tea, sweetened either with 70g\\/L of sucrose or an adequate quantity of three kinds of molasses, was conducted by domestic Kombucha (Acetobacter strains in symbiosis with Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bisporus, Torulopsis sp. and Zygosaccharomyces sp.). Inoculation was performed with 10% of fermentation broth from the previous process. The fermentation in cylindrical vessels

R. Malbaša; E. Lon?ar; M. Djuri?

2008-01-01

163

Effect of sucrose concentration on the products of Kombucha fermentation on molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation of 1.5g\\/l of Indian black tea, sweetened with adequate quantities of molasses (containing approx. 70g\\/l, 50g\\/l and 35g\\/l of sucrose), was conducted using domestic Kombucha. Inoculation was performed with 10% of fermentation broth from a previous process. The fermentation in cylindrical vessels containing 2l of liquid phase, was carried out at 22±1°C for 14 days, with periodical sampling, to

R. Malbaša; E. Lon?ar; M. Djuri?; I. Došenovi?

2008-01-01

164

Simplified soy molasses-based medium for reduced-cost production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified medium containing only soy molasses and oleic acid as ingredients was developed for the production of sophorolipids\\u000a (SLs) from Candida bombicola. We achieved a product yield of 53 ? 3 g of purified sophorolipids per liter of starting culture volume, which is 71 ? 4%\\u000a of the yield obtained with growth medium that also additionally contains the costly yeast extract and urea as

Daniel K. Y. Solaiman; Richard D. Ashby; Jonathan A. Zerkowski; Thomas A. Foglia

2007-01-01

165

Seismic stratigraphy and stratigraphic modelling of the South-eastern German Molasse Basin  

SciTech Connect

Although the German Molasse Basin can be regarded as a mature hydrocarbon province, no regional sequence stratigraphic analysis has been carried out so far. We have studied seismic lines and well data from the region between the Isar and Inn rivers (SE Germany) that have been generously supplied by German oil companies (DEE, BEB, Mobil, RWE-DEA and Wintershall). Initial work indicates that five major seismic sequences within three main depositional cycles are developed. The Alpine thrust belt to the south serves as the primary sediment source in the foreland basin. However, sedimentary infill mainly took place parallel to the basin axis. Our analysis suggests that the stratigraphic development of the Molasse Basin was mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level changes which caused the shoreline to shift in the W-E direction. The shifting of the depocenter axis in a N-S direction was controlled by the tectonic evolution of the thrust belt. The sea-level curve determined by seismic stratigraphy and well-derived subsidence curves have been used as input parameters for stratigraphic modelling, using the programs GeoMOD and PHIL. Basin-fill simulations with PHIL are in good agreement with the main features of the sequence stratigraphy and the distribution of the systems tracts observed in the study area. The qualitative sea-level curve for the German Molasse Basin derived from the seismostratigraphic analysis could be quantified by the stratigraphic exercises.

Aigner, T.; Jin, J.; Luterbacher, P. [Univerisitaet Tuebingen (Germany)

1995-08-01

166

Anaerobic co-digestion of desugared molasses with cow manure; focusing on sodium and potassium inhibition.  

PubMed

Desugared molasses (DM), a syrup residue from beet-molasses, was investigated for biogas production in both batch and in continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments. DM contained 2-3 times higher concentration of ions than normal molasses, which could inhibit the biogas process. The effect of sodium and potassium concentration on biogas production from manure was also investigated. Fifty percent inhibition occurred at sodium and potassium concentration of 11 and 28 g/L, respectively. The reactor experiments were carried out to investigate the biogas production from DM under different dilutions with water and co-digestion with manure. Stable operation at maximum methane yield of 300 mL-CH4/gVS-added was obtained at a mixture of 5% DM in cow manure. The biogas process was inhibited at DM concentrations higher than 15%. Manure was a good base substrate for co-digestion, and a stable anaerobic digestion could be achieved by co-digesting DM with manure at the concentration below 15% DM. PMID:20951579

Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

2011-01-01

167

Production of fructose and ethanol from sugar beet molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36858.  

PubMed

The production of enriched fructose syrups and ethanol from beet molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36858 was studied. In batch experiments with a total sugar concentration between 94.9 and 312.4 g/L, the fructose yield was above 93% of the theoretical value. The ethanol yield and volumetric productivity in the beet molasses media with sugar concentration below 276.2 g/L were in the range of 59-76% of theoretical value and between 0.48 and 2.97 g of ethanol/(L x h), respectively. The fructose fraction in the carbohydrates content of the produced syrups was more than 95% when the total initial sugar concentration in the medium was below 242.0 g/L. Some oligosaccharides and glycerol were also produced in all tested media. Raffinose and the produced oligosaccharides were completely consumed by the end of the fermentation process when the total initial sugar concentration was below 190.1 g/L. The glycerol concentration was below 16.1 g/L. The results could be useful for a potential industrial production of ethanol and high-fructose syrup from sugar beet molasses. PMID:11934290

Atiyeh, Hasan; Duvnjak, Zdravko

2002-01-01

168

Production of sophorolipid glycolipid biosurfactants from sugarcane molasses using Starmerella bombicola NBRC 10243.  

PubMed

Biosurfactants (BS) are produced by a variety of microorganisms from renewable resources, and have unique properties compared to chemical surfactants. In order to attain efficient production of BS from low-cost materials, we focused our attention on the use of sugarcane molasses. Fifteen yeast strains that are known as BS producers were examined for BS productivity from a culture medium consisting of only molasses and water. Among the strains tested, only Starmerella bombicola NBRC 10243 produced sophorolipids (SL), which are glycolipid BS. The culture conditions for the yeast were then investigated in a shake-flask culture. SL production was significantly affected by the pH of the medium and was highly accelerated at pH 6. Under the optimum conditions, the amount of SL reached 14.4 g/L after 120 h from a medium containing 150 g/L of total sugars. We tried to improve the production of SL further by feeding the molasses using a jar fermentor. Interestingly, the amount of SL increased up to 22.8 g/L after 120 h; the production rate was 1.6-fold higher than that in the shake-flask culture. These results suggest that the present yeast should have great potential for the low-cost production of SL, and facilitate the application of BS in various fields. PMID:21502725

Takahashi, Makoto; Morita, Tomotake; Wada, Koji; Hirose, Naoto; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

2011-01-01

169

Optimization of lipids production by Cryptococcus laurentii 11 using cheese whey with molasses  

PubMed Central

This study aimed the optimization of culture condition and composition for production of Cryptococcus laurentii 11 biomass and lipids in cheese whey medium supplemented with sugarcane molasses. The optimization of pH, fermentation time, and molasses concentration according to a full factorial statistical experimental design was followed by a Plackett-Burman experimental design, which was used to determine whether the supplementation of the culture medium by yeast extract and inorganic salts could provide a further enhancement of lipids production. The following conditions and composition of the culture medium were found to optimize biomass and lipids production: 360 h fermentation, 6.5 pH and supplementation of (g L?1): 50 molasses, 0.5 yeast extract, 4 KH2PO4, 1 Na2HPO4, 0.75 MgSO4·7H2O and 0.002 ZnSO4·H2O. Additional supplementation with inorganic salts and yeast extract was essential to optimize the production, in terms of product concentration and productivity, of neutral lipids by C. laurentii 11. Under this optimized condition, the production of total lipids increased by 133% in relation to control experiment (from 1.27 to 2.96 g L?1). The total lipids indicated a predominant (86%) presence of neutral lipids with high content of 16- and 18-carbon-chain saturated and monosaturated fatty acids. This class of lipids is considered especially suitable for the production of biodiesel.

Castanha, Rodrigo Fernandes; Mariano, Adriano Pinto; de Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado; Scramin, Shirlei; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

2014-01-01

170

Production of activated carbon from a new precursor molasses by activation with sulphuric acid.  

PubMed

Activated carbon has been prepared from molasses, a natural precursor of vegetable origin resulting from the sugar industry in Morocco. The preparation of the activated carbon from the molasses has been carried out by impregnation of the precursor with sulphuric acid, followed by carbonisation at varying conditions (temperature and gas coverage) in order to optimize preparation parameters. The influence of activation conditions was investigated by determination of adsorption capacity of methylene blue and iodine, the BET surface area, and the pore volume of the activated carbon were determined while the micropore volume was determined by the Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equation. The activated materials are mainly microporous and reveal the type I isotherm of the Brunauer classification for nitrogen adsorption. The activated carbons properties in this study were found for activation of the mixture (molasses/sulphuric acid) in steam at 750 degrees C. The samples obtained in this condition were highly microporous, with high surface area (> or =1200 m2/g) and the maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue and iodine were 435 and 1430 mg/g, respectively. PMID:15721553

Legrouri, K; Khouya, E; Ezzine, M; Hannache, H; Denoyel, R; Pallier, R; Naslain, R

2005-02-14

171

Potential for generation of public electricity in cane sugar factories  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane is the most efficient crop for the conversion of solar energy into biomass. The possibility of conservation of energy in cane sugar producing countries by substituting bagasse for imported oil, was studied in Guyana, South America and financed by the World Bank. The concept of cogeneration was considered, where the heat energy generated by burning bagasse of high fiber content is converted into steam and used both for electricity generation and generation of internal power. Several methods of achieving energy efficiency in this process were discussed such as efficient generation and use of the steam by using high pressure boilers, drying and pelletization of bagasse, and using sugar cane trash as fuel. About 40% of the bagasse could be available for the generation of electric energy. A method for evaluation of the power potential showed that the quantity of public electricity produced, depended on certain important process parameters, fiber content, steam conditions and process steam. The cost effectiveness of the project increases with increasing fiber content in the sugar cane.

Torisson, T.

1984-04-01

172

Structured Discovery in Cane Travel: Constructivism in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a general sense today that constructivist teaching is not up to the task of preparing students for high-stakes exams. In this article, the authors describe a highly effective constructivist approach used to teach students in a learning situation that takes the meaning of "high stakes" to another level. They talk about teachers of "cane

Maurer, Matthew M.; Bell, Edward C.; Woods, Eric; Allen, Roland

2006-01-01

173

Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

2014-07-01

174

Persons using crutches, canes or walkers: Disabled Persons  

E-print Network

Persons using crutches, canes or walkers: Disabled Persons In emergency evacuations a chair with arms, and follow the procedure for non- ambulatory persons discussed below. Non-ambulatory persons: Evacuation may not be necessary or advisable. Many stairwells are designed to provide temporary

Meyers, Steven D.

175

Sugar Cane Cultivation and Rural Misery: Northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar plantations were the basis of settlement by the Portuguese of northeastern Brazil. The legacies of monoculture agriculture include a highly stratified society controlled by a small group of elites, concentrated land ownership, and great inequities in income distribution. Agricultural modernization has caused these legacies to become more firmly entrenched. The government's program to produce alcohol from sugar cane to

John DeWitt

1989-01-01

176

Role of sugar cane in Brazil's history and economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history and evolution of the sugar-cane culture in Brazil is reviewed. An econometric model is constructed to explain the economic relationships of supply and demand of sugar, hydrous ethanol (ethyl alcohol), and anhydrous ethanol in Brazil overtime. Estimates of the parameters in the model are obtained using the methods of ordinary least squares and three stages least squares. Because

Nastari

1983-01-01

177

Beet sugar syrup and molasses as low-cost feedstock for the enzymatic production of fructo-oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Sugar syrup and molasses from beet processing containing 620 and 570 mg/mL sucrose, respectively, were assayed as low-cost and available substrates for the enzymatic synthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs). A commercial pectinase (Pectinex Ultra SP-L, from Aspergillus aculeatus) characterized by the presence of a transfructosylating activity was used as a biocatalyst. The FOS production increased when lowering the initial pH value of syrup (7.5) and molasses (8.9) to 5.5. Sugar syrup and molasses were diluted in order to reduce substrate viscosity; interestingly, the percentage of FOS with regards to total sugars remained almost constant, which indicated a high transferase-to-hydrolase ratio for this enzyme. Kinetics of FOS production was analyzed. Using approximately 10 U transfructosylating activity per g sucrose, the FOS concentration reached a maximum of 388 mg/mL after 30 h using syrup and 235 mg/mL in 65 h with molasses. These values corresponded to approximately 56 and 49% (w/w), respectively, of the total amount of carbohydrates in the mixture. The enzyme was also covalently immobilized on an epoxy-activated polymethacrylate-based polymer (Sepabeads EC-EP5). We found that immobilized Pectinex Ultra SP-L can be efficiently applied to the synthesis of FOS using syrup and molasses as substrates. PMID:16608216

Ghazi, Iraj; Fernandez-Arrojo, Lucia; Gomez De Segura, Aranzazu; Alcalde, Miguel; Plou, Francisco J; Ballesteros, Antonio

2006-04-19

178

19 CFR 10.139 - Liquidation.  

...compliance with §§ 10.136, 10.137, and 10.138. Blackstrap molasses is “final” molasses practically free from sugar crystals, containing not over 58 percent total sugars and having a ratio of total sugars × 100/Brix not in excess of...

2014-04-01

179

19 CFR 10.139 - Liquidation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...compliance with §§ 10.136, 10.137, and 10.138. Blackstrap molasses is “final” molasses practically free from sugar crystals, containing not over 58 percent total sugars and having a ratio of total sugars × 100/Brix not in excess of...

2012-04-01

180

Production of alcohol from sugar beet molasses without heat or filter sterilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Among three esters of p-hydroxybenzoate, n-butyl p-hydroxybenzoate was selected as the best antimicrobial substance. Molasses medium sterilized by this ester was used as\\u000a a substrate for ethanol production. n-Butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (0.15%?w\\/v) completely inhibited the growth of free yeast cell inoculum, Ca-alginate immobilized yeast \\u000a inoculum and bacterial contaminants. Immobilization of the yeast cell inoculum in Ca-alginate with castor oil (6%?v\\/v) offered

G Zayed

1997-01-01

181

Erosion processes in molassic cliffs: the role of the rock surface temperature and atmospheric conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology of the Swiss Plateau is modeled by numerous steep cliffs of Molasse. These cliffs are mainly composed of sub-horizontal alternated layers of sandstone, shale and conglomerates deposed in the Alps foreland basin during the Tertiary period. These Molasse cliffs are affected by erosion processes inducing numerous rockfall events. Thus, it is relevant to understand how different external factors influence Molasse erosion rates. In this study, we focus on analyzing temperature variation during a winter season. As pilot study area we selected a cliff which is formed by a sub-horizontal alternation of outcropping sandstone and shale. The westward facing test site (La Cornalle, Vaud, Switzerland), which is a lateral scarp of a slow moving landslide area, is currently affected by intense erosion. Regarding data acquisition, we monitored both in-situ rock and air temperatures at 15 minutes time-step since October 2013: (1) on the one hand we measured Ground Surface Temperature (GST) at near-surface (0.1 meter depth) using a GST mini-datalogger M-Log5W-Rock model; (2) On the other hand we monitored atmospheric conditions using a weather station (Davis Vantage pro2 plus) collecting numerous parameters (i.e. temperature, irradiation, rain, wind speed, etc.). Furthermore, the area was also seasonally monitored by Ground-Based (GB) LiDAR since 2010 and monthly monitored since September 2013. In order to understand how atmospheric conditions (such as freeze and thaw effect) influence the erosion of the cliff, we modeled the temperature diffusion through the rock mass. To this end, we applied heat diffusion and radiation equation using a 1D temperature profile, obtaining as a result both temperature variations at different depths together with the location of the 0°C isotherm. Our model was calibrated during a given training set using both in-situ rock temperatures and atmospheric conditions. We then carried out a comparison with the rockfall events derived from the 3D GB-LiDAR datasets in order to quantify the erosion rates and to correlate it with atmospheric conditions, aiming to analyze which parameters influence Molasse erosion process.

Carrea, Dario; Abellán, Antonio; Guerin, Antoine; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Voumard, Jérémie

2014-05-01

182

Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40 degrees C. After 72 h, the lactic acid from 13% (w/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l(-1)) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l(-1)) was 107 g l(-1) and 120 g l(-1), respectively. With 10% (w/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l(-1)), 84 g lactic acid l(-1) was produced. The optical purities of D: -lactic acid from the feedstocks ranged from 97.2 to 98.3%. PMID:17541505

Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Tokiwa, Yutaka

2007-09-01

183

Production of d -lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40?C. After 72 h,\\u000a the lactic acid from 13% (w\\/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l?1) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l?1) was 107 g l?1 and 120 g l?1, respectively. With 10% (w\\/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l?1), 84 g lactic

Buenaventurada P. Calabia; Yutaka Tokiwa

2007-01-01

184

Synthesis and characterization of methylcellulose from sugar cane bagasse cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, methylcellulose was produced from cellulose extracted of sugar cane bagasse, using dimethyl sulfate in heterogeneous conditions. The infrared spectra of the cellulose and of the methylcellulose present significant differences at the regions from 3600 to 2700cm?1 and from 1500 to 800cm?1. The ratio between the absorption intensities of the OH stretching band (?3400cm?1) and the CH

Rose G. P. Viera; Guimes Rodrigues Filho; Rosana M. N. de Assunção; Carla da S. Meireles; Júlia G. Vieira; Grasielle S. de Oliveira

2007-01-01

185

The behavioral ecology of cannibalism in cane toads ( Bufo marinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies show that predatory cane toads (Bufo marinus) exhibit specialized toe-luring behavior that attracts smaller conspecifics, but field surveys of toad diet rarely record\\u000a cannibalism. Our data resolve this paradox, showing that cannibalism is common under specific ecological conditions. In the\\u000a wet–dry tropics of Australia, desiccation risk constrains recently metamorphosed toads to the edges of the natal pond. Juvenile

Lígia Pizzatto; Richard Shine

2008-01-01

186

Stilbenoid profiles of canes from Vitis and Muscadinia species.  

PubMed

We present stilbenoid profiles of canes from 16 grapevines. Fifteen stilbenoids were obtained through isolation and structure identification using MS, NMR, and [?](D) or as commercial standards. An HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous quantification of nine of these stilbenoids was developed and applied to canes of Vitis amurensis, Vitis arizonica, Vitis berlandieri, Vitis betulifolia, Vitis cinerea, Vitis × champini, Vitis × doaniana, Vitis labrusca, Vitis candicans (syn. Vitis mustangensis), Vitis riparia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis vinifera, Muscadinia rotundifolia, and a V. vinifera × M. rotundifolia hybrid. In these species, E-ampelopsin E, E-amurensin B, E-piceid, E-piceatannol, E-resveratrol, E-resveratroloside, E-?-viniferin, E-?-viniferin, and E-vitisin B were quantified, when found in sufficient amounts. Total concentrations ranged from ~2.2 to 19.5 g/kg of dry weight. Additional stilbenoids, E-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 2-C-glucoside, Z-ampelopsin E, Z-trans-miyabenol C, E-trans-miyabenol C, scirpusin A, and Z-vitisin B, were identified but not quantified. Our results indicate that canes, particularly those of non-vinifera species, have substantial quantities of valuable, health-promoting stilbenoids. PMID:23270496

Pawlus, Alison D; Sahli, Ramla; Bisson, Jonathan; Rivière, Céline; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Richard, Tristan; Gomès, Eric; Bordenave, Louis; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

2013-01-23

187

Ethanol from Sugar Cane: Flask Experiments Using the EX-FERM Technique  

PubMed Central

Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. Two types of cane treatments were used: chips and shredded pith, either fresh or dried. A mother culture of the yeast was prepared in enriched cane juice and then added to the cane-water mixture. After static fermentation for 40 h at 30°C, the cane was removed, and fresh cane was added to the yeast-alcohol broth. After an additional 24 h, the cane was again removed and the liquor was analyzed. After the first 40-h cycle, sugar consumption was above 99% with 10 of the 37 yeast strains tested, and ethanol reached levels of 1.29 to 4.00 g per 100 ml, depending on the yeast strain. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37 g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level. PMID:16345626

Rolz, Carlos; de Cabrera, Sheryl

1980-01-01

188

The fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Dekkera bruxellensis and the mobilization of reserve carbohydrates.  

PubMed

The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is considered to be very well adapted to industrial environments, in Brazil, USA, Canada and European Countries, when different substrates are used in alcoholic fermentations. Our previous study described its fermentative profile with a sugarcane juice substrate. In this study, we have extended its physiological evaluation to fermentation situations by using sugarcane molasses as a substrate to replicate industrial working conditions. The results have confirmed the previous reports of the low capacity of D. bruxellensis cells to assimilate sucrose, which seems to be the main factor that can cause a bottleneck in its use as fermentative yeast. Furthermore, the cells of D. bruxellensis showed a tendency to deviate most of sugar available for biomass and organic acids (lactic and acetic) compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when calculated on the basis of their respective yields. As well as this, the acetate production from molasses medium by both yeasts was in marked contrast with the previous data on sugarcane juice. Glycerol and ethanol production by D. bruxellensis cells achieved levels of 33 and 53 % of the S. cerevisiae, respectively. However, the ethanol yield was similar for both yeasts. It is worth noting that this yeast did not accumulate trehalose when the intracellular glycogen content was 30 % lower than in S. cerevisiae. The lack of trehalose did not affect yeast viability under fermentation conditions. Thus, the adaptive success of D. bruxellensis under industrial fermentation conditions seems to be unrelated to the production of these reserve carbohydrates. PMID:24370978

Pereira, Luciana Filgueira; Lucatti, Elisa; Basso, Luiz Carlos; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

2014-03-01

189

Two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy for online monitoring of chromatographic separation of molasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring and control of industrial or biotechnological processes invariably require reliable and fast analytical systems. Two-dimensional spectral fluorescence allows real time automatic measurements directly inside the process and provides a continuous stream of information compared to discrete information available from repeated sampling and offline analysis. Normally, chromatographic molasses desugarization processes are typically monitored with a combination of an online-refractometer, polarimeter and the measurement of density and conductivity. Additional information of the separation profile could be obtained by multiple sampling during the separation cycle followed by offline laboratory analysis. An optical sensor (BioViewR) allows online fluorescence measurements for a continuous monitoring directly at the outlet of the separation columns. It was the aim to predict the amino acid serine during the chromatographic cycle. Based on fluorescence, it was possible to monitor a fluorophor, which eluted a few minutes before the serine fraction during molasses desugarization. The application of fluorescence measurements for monitoring and control of chromatographic separation process may improve yield and purity of the separating fractions and can lower the costs for the next downstream processing of by-products.

Staerk, Egbert; Harbeck, C.; Faurie, R.; Lindemann, Carsten; Scheper, Thomas-Helmut

1999-12-01

190

Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses by formed nitrogen oxides.  

PubMed

Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses was developed in a series of three reactors. Nitrogen oxides formed were used to manufacture oxalic acid in the second and third reactor. Parameters affecting the reaction were determined to be, air flow rate, temperature, the amount of V2O5 catalyst and the concentrations of molasses and H2SO4. The maximum yields in the second and third reactors were 78.9% and 74.6% of theoretical yield, respectively. Also, kinetic experiments were performed and the first-order rate constants were determined for the glucose consumption rate. Nitrogen oxides in off-gases from the final reactor were absorbed in water and concentrated sulphuric acid and reused in the following reactors giving slightly lower yields under similar conditions. In this novel way, it was possible to recover NO(x) and to prevent air pollution. Meanwhile, it was possible to reduce the unit cost of reactant for oxalic acid production. A maximum 77.5% and 74.1% of theoretical yield was obtained by using the absorption solutions with NO(x). PMID:11211079

Gürü, M; Bilgesü, A Y; Pamuk, V

2001-03-01

191

Hydrochemistry and hydrogen sulfide generating processes in the Malm aquifer, Bavarian Molasse Basin, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge about the hydrochemical conditions of deep groundwater is crucial for the design and operation of geothermal facilities. In this study, the hydrochemical heterogeneity of the groundwaters in the Malm aquifer, Germany, is assessed, and reasons for the extraordinarily high H2S concentrations in the central part of the Bavarian Molasse Basin are proposed. Samples were taken at 16 sites, for a total of 37 individual wells, to analyze cations, anions, gas loading and composition. The hydrochemical characteristics of the Malm groundwater in the center of the Molasse Basin are rather heterogeneous. Although the groundwater in the central basin is dominated by meteoric waters, there is a significant infiltration of saline water from higher strata. Care has to be taken in the interpretation of data from geothermal sites, as effects of chemical stimulation of the boreholes may not be fully removed before the final analyses. The distribution of H2S in the gas phase is correlated to the gas loading of the water which increases in the central basin. Temperatures, isotopic data and the sulfur mass balance indicate that H2S in the central basin is related to thermochemical sulfate reduction (south of Munich) and bacterial sulfate reduction (north of Munich).

Mayrhofer, Christina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

2013-12-01

192

Two-stage biogas production by co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

We evaluated the feasibility of co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge in a two-stage hydrogen- and methane-producing system. The highest energy was recovered at the 21-h hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the first hydrogenic reactor and at 56-h HRT of the secondary methanogenic reactor. Hence, the two-stage system recovered 1,822 kJ from 1 L of the mixed wastes (19.7: hydrogenic reactor plus, 1,802 kJ L(-1): methanogenic reactor). Despite the overloaded VFA-run with a short HRT of 56 h, the GAC-CH4 reactor increased methane production rate and yields due to enhanced pH buffer capacity. An RNA-based community analysis showed that the Ethanoligenens and Methanosaeta dominated the hydrogen and methane bioreactor, respectively. The two-stage system of co-digesting molasses and sewage sludge is particularly cost-effective due to non-pretreatment of sewage sludge. PMID:24871275

Lee, Jung-Yeol; Yun, Jeonghee; Kim, Tae Gwan; Wee, Daehyun; Cho, Kyung-Suk

2014-12-01

193

Decolorization of molasses wastewater by yeast strain, Issatchenkia orientalis No. SF9-246.  

PubMed

Among 2,402 strains of yeast isolated from various sources in Thailand, a strain No. SF9-246 identified as Issatchenkia orientalis, showed the highest potential for use in decolorization of molasses wastewater. In a malt extract-glucose-peptone broth (MYGP) culture containing melanoidin pigment (MP) at 30 degrees C a 60.2% decolorization was obtained within 7 days. The strain appeared to enhance both MP-degradation and MP-adsorption. The strain showed MP, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) removal efficiencies of 91.2%, 80.0% and 77.4%, respectively from anaerobic-treated molasses wastewater solution (T-MWW), collected from an anaerobic pond. The wastewater contained 2.5% glucose, 0.1% NH(4)Cl, and 0.1% KH(2)PO(4). The pH was adjusted to 5.0 at 30 degrees C for 7 days batch type culture system. The strain showed almost constant decolorization yield of 75-80% over 7 days in a periodical feeding system of 10% fresh T-MWW with the culture system. The strain provided a constant decolorization yield about 70% during 3 replacement cycles. Gel filtration chromatography showed that larger molecular weight fraction of MP solution was rapidly removed, while the smaller molecular weight fraction remained in the effluent. PMID:18068358

Tondee, Tusanee; Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Ohmomo, Sadahiro

2008-09-01

194

29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...  

...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...

2014-07-01

195

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

2010-07-01

196

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

2012-07-01

197

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

2013-07-01

198

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

2011-07-01

199

Eocene-Pliocene time scale and stratigraphy of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a general stratigraphic synthesis for the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB) from Eocene to Pliocene times. The stratigraphic data were compiled both from literature and from research carried out by the authors during the past 6 years ; an index of the stratigraphically most important localitites is provided. We distinguish 14 geographical areas from

Jean-Pierre Berger; Bettina Reichenbacher; Damien Becker; Matthias Grimm; Kirsten Grimm; Laurent Picot; Andrea Storni; Claudius Pirkenseer; Andreas Schaefer

2005-01-01

200

WOOD MOLASSES IN THE NUTRITION OF RUMINANTS I. ZELENAK K. BODA, J. BUCKO D. JALC T. WALKO I. BESEDA  

E-print Network

WOOD MOLASSES IN THE NUTRITION OF RUMINANTS I. ZELENAK K. BODA, J. BUCKO D. JALC T. WALKO I. BESEDA of Forestry and Wood Processing, Zvo%n, Czechoslovakia Recently, due to a deficient food and fodder balance. Regarding waste, wood processing by pro- ducts seem to be a practically inexhaustible source of energy food

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

201

The response of sheep to big bale grass silage ensiled with, or supplemented separately with, molassed sugar beet feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second cut big bale grass silage was prepared with grass ensiled alone or with added pelleted, molassed sugar beet feed (MSBF) at 32 or 64 g MSBF kg?1 fresh weight of grass. Addition of MSBF at ensilage increased silage dry matter (DM), water soluble carbohydrate and lactic acid concentrations and decreased ammonia concentration. When fed to wether lambs, MSBF addition,

Y. Rouzbehan; H. Galbraith; J. H. Topps; J. A. Rooke

1996-01-01

202

Supplementation of zero-grazed dairy cows with molassed sugar beet pulp, maize or a cereal-rich concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of different carbohydrate sources on food intake, milk yield, composition of the milk and its urea content. The experimental design was a complete randomised block with four treatments per block. The treatments were: herbage only (OS), herbage plus molassed sugar beet pulp (MSB), herbage plus maize (M) and herbage plus a mixture

F. J. Schwarz; J. Haffner; M. Kirchgessner

1995-01-01

203

Production and characterization of pullulan from beet molasses using a nonpigmented strain of Aureobasidium pullulans in batch culture.  

PubMed

The production of pullulan from beet molasses by a pigment-free strain of Aztreobasidium pullulans on shake-flask culture was investigated. Combined pretreatment of molasses with sulfuric acid and activated carbon to remove potential fermentation inhibitors present in molasses resulted in a maximum pullulan concentration of 24 g/L, a biomass dry wt of 14 g/L, a pullulan yield of 52.5%, and a sugar utilization of 92% with optimum fermentation conditions (initial sugar concentration of 50 g/L and initial pH of 7.0). The addition of other nutrients as carbon and nitrogen supplements (olive oil, ammonium sulfate, yeast extract) did not further improve the production of the exopolysaccharides. Structural characterization of the isolated polysaccharides from the fermentation broths by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and pullulanase digestion combined with size-exclusion chromatography confirmed the identity of pullulan and the homogeneity (>93% dry basis) of the elaborated polysaccharides by the microorganism. Using multiangle laser light scattering and refractive index detectors in conjunction with high-performance size-exclusion chromatography molecular size distributions and estimates of the molecular weight (Mw = 2.1-4.1 x 10(5)), root mean square of the radius of gyration (R = 30-38 nm), and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn = 1.4-2.4) were obtained. The fermentation products of molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid and/or activated carbon were more homogeneous and free of contaminating proteins. In the concentration range of 2.8-10.0 (w/v), the solution's rheologic behavior of the isolated pullulans was almost Newtonian (within 1 and 1200 s(-1) at 20 degrees C); a slight shear thinning was observed at 10.0 (w/v) for the high molecular weight samples. Overall, beet molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid and activated carbon appears as an attractive fermentation medium for the production of pullulan by A. pullulans. PMID:11900113

Lazaridou, Athina; Biliaderis, Costas G; Roukas, Triantafyllos; Izydorczyk, Marta

2002-01-01

204

77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country...

2012-04-26

205

75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: May 11, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

2010-05-11

206

76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country...

2011-04-15

207

75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: July 9, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d) (3) of the...

2010-07-09

208

75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: March 25, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

2010-03-25

209

76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. USTR is also reallocating a portion of...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

2011-07-18

210

ECONOMIC PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF CANE BASED FURNITURE ENTERPRISES AS FAMILY BUSINESS AND THEIR BUSINESS TRENDS IN BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cane based enterprise is one of the most flourished business in the northeastern region of Bangladesh. The purpose of the present study is to observe the pattern of production of cane based furniture in Sylhet city, identify the prospects and problems, and recommend solutions. The study reveals that most of the cane furniture enterprises (57%) is small and 36% is

Kamrul Hasan; Prodip Dey

2013-01-01

211

A Reduction in Rainfall Associated with Smoke from SugarCane Fires--An Inadvertent Weather Modification?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of 60 years of rainfall during three months of the cane-harvesting season has shown a reduction of rainfall at inland stations coinciding with increasing cane production; no such reduction occurred at a `control' station upwind of smoke from the cane fires. The reduction is consistent with the hypothesis that through their activity as condensation nuclei the smoke particles

J. Warner

1968-01-01

212

Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry  

SciTech Connect

This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

1988-05-01

213

Use of sugar cane fibre\\/pig excreta as substrate for cultivation of earthworms (Eisenia foetida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out at the Ecological Farm of CelAgrid (UTA, Cambodia), located Kandal province, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to evaluate the feasibility of growing earthworms on the feed residues from pigs fed whole sugar cane stalks, dried fish and fresh water spinach (mainly the sugar cane fibre discarded by the pigs after chewing to extract the juice, some uneaten

Sorn Suheang; T R Preston

214

Hatchling Australian freshwater crocodiles rapidly learn to avoid toxic invasive cane toads  

E-print Network

Hatchling Australian freshwater crocodiles rapidly learn to avoid toxic invasive cane toads Ruchira the ecological impacts of invasive species on native fauna is a formidable chal- lenge for conservation freshwater crocodiles (Crocody- lus johnstoni). To predict the impact of cane toads on crocodiles, we need

Shine, Rick

215

Microwave modification of sugar cane to enhance juice extraction during milling.  

PubMed

Sugar extraction from cane requires shredding and crushing, both of which are energy intensive activities. Cane shredders account for almost 30% of the total power requirements for the juice extraction train in a sugar mill with four mills. Shredder hammers also wear quickly during the crushing season and need to be regularly maintained or replaced. Microwave pre-treatment of other plant based materials has resulted in significant reductions in total processing energy. This paper briefly reviews the underlying structure of sugar cane and how microwave pre-treatment may interact with sugar cane. Microwave treatment reduced the strength of sugar cane samples to 20% of its untreated value. This strength reduction makes it easier to crush the cane and leads to a 320% increase in juice yield compared with untreated cane when cane samples were crushed in a press. There was also a 68% increase in Brix %, a 58% increase in total dissolved solids, a 58% reduction in diffusion time, a 39% increase in Pol%, and a 7% increase in juice purity compared with the control samples after 60 minutes of diffusion in distilled water. PMID:24428107

Brodie, Graham; Harris, Gerard; Jacob, Mohan V; Sheehan, Madoc; Yin, Ling

2011-01-01

216

Fishes of the Cane Creek Watershed in Southeast Missouri and Northeast Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asurvey of the fishes of Cane Creek in southeast Missouri and northeast Arkansas was made between 25 August 1974 and 16 July 1975. Field collections, literature records, fisherman reports, and museum specimens showed the fishes of Cane Creek to be composed of 90species distributed among 20 families. Records of Lampetra aepyptera (Abbott), Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque), Etheostoma histrio Jordan and Gilbert,

JOHN K. BEADLES

217

Motion control of intelligent cane robot under normal and abnormal walking condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present an omni-directional cane robot for aiding the elderly and handicapped people walking. The motion control problem is investigated for both normal and abnormal walking conditions. In the case of the user's normal walking aided by the cane robot, a concept called \\

Pei Dil; Jian Huang; Kosuke Sekiyama; Toshio Fukudal

2011-01-01

218

Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis of biomass: differences between sugar cane bagasse and cane trash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse and cane trash were pyrolysed in a novel quartz fluidised-bed\\/fixed-bed reactor. Quantification of the Na, K, Mg and Ca in chars revealed that pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, valence and biomass type were important factors influencing the volatilisation of these alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species. Pyrolysis at a slow heating rate (?10Kmin?1) led to minimal (often

Daniel M. Keown; George Favas; Jun-ichiro Hayashi; Chun-Zhu Li

2005-01-01

219

Determination of sugar cane herbicides in soil and soil treated with sugar cane vinasse by solid-phase extraction and HPLC-UV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on the development and validation of a small-scale and efficient SPE-HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous determination of the most used herbicides (diuron, hexazinone, and tebuthiuron) applied to soil and soil treated with sugar cane vinasse (soil-vinasse) in areas where sugar cane crops are grown in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The analytical procedure was optimized for

Carolina Lourencetti; Mary Rosa Rodrigues de Marchi; Maria Lúcia Ribeiro

2008-01-01

220

Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

Han, Wei; Li, Yong-feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

2010-11-01

221

Geothermal field development in foreland basins: Case study Mauerstetten, Bavarian Molasse Basin (Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreland basins with their increasing depth towards the orogenic front are ideal geologic systems for geothermal resources. The Bavarian Molasse Basin is an example where geothermal energy is being successfully developed mainly by industry. However, the predicted productivity is not achieved in all project sites because either temperature or flow rate or both are lower than expected. The case study Mauerstetten in the southwestern Bavarian Molasse Basin is one of the industry triggered projects where high temperature of over 150°C but insufficient flow rate dragged the overall project performance down. As research project, Mauerstetten is revived aiming to gain the relevant knowledge to develop a strategy to increase reservoir productivity. Within this framework structural geological and biostratigraphical analysis were combined with geomechanical tests. The structural geological analysis on 2D seismic sections revealed fossil normal faults in a strike slip to transpressional stress regime. Biostratigraphical analysis was undertaken on thin sections from wellbore cuttings to delineate appropriate analog outcrops for geomechanical tests to predict reservoir behavior under injection and production. Remarkably, the upper Jurassic Malm formation exhibits extremely high rock strength if Tubiphytes dominate the carbonate rock. Tubiphytes are encrusting and branching organisms associated with shallow-water sponge reefs rimmed along the continental margin of Laurasia towards the Tethys during Upper Jurassic. Other than coral dominated reef limestone, Tubiphyte-dominated limestone is expected to trigger a high self-propping effect along shear fractures due to its brittleness, and a low reactivation potential due to its high rock strength. Natural and artificial shear fractures are expected to be preferential flow pathways. Abnormal high injection pressure is necessary to induce slip in Tubiphytes limestone in the present-day stress field. Our study exemplifies that exploration of geothermal reservoirs is site-specific with distinct selection of appropriate methods as in this case structural geology, biostratigraphy and geomechanics. This approach should be considered for geothermal field development in foreland basins where facies and fractures control geoenergy systems in general.

Moeck, Inga; Jensch, Anna; Steiger, Thorsten; Stiller, Manfred; Tondera, Detlef; Blöcher, Guido

2013-04-01

222

Effect of molassed sugar beet pulp on nutrient utilisation and metabolic parameters during exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of partly replacing oats with molassed sugar beet pulp in a traditional hay/oat diet on nutrient utilisation and metabolic parameters in exercising horses. In a change-over experiment, 4 Standardbred geldings were fed a hay and oat-based diet (Oat diet) and a hay and oat-based diet where oats was partially replaced with molassed sugar beet pulp (MSBP diet). Each experimental period was 21 days during which total collection of faeces and urine was made and an exercise test (ET) performed. The crude fat digestibility was lower on the MSBP diet (P<0.05), while there were no differences in digestibility of other nutrients and energy and in the urinary excretion of nitrogen and energy. At rest plasma insulin were lower (P<0.05) 60 and 90 min postprandially on the MSBP diet, while no differences were found in plasma glucose and insulin between the diets during the ET. The peak plasma and muscle lactate values were lower (P<0.05) on the MSBP diet and the content of muscle glycogen was higher (P<0.05) after the ET on the MSBP diet. In conclusion, the metabolic response differed between diets giving a lower lactate response and a higher glycogen content in muscle after exercise on the MSBP diet. This suggests that the dietary carbohydrate composition may influence the rate of glycogenolysis with lactate production and support the hypothesis that MSBP can replace oats in a hay based diet without impairing nutrient utilisation and metabolic response in exercising horses. PMID:12405658

Palmgren Karlsson, C; Jansson, A; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Lindberg, J E

2002-09-01

223

A low-energy continuous reactor-separator for ethanol from starch, whey permeate, permeate mother liquor, molasses or cellulosics. Project final report, April 1, 1994--February 28, 1997  

SciTech Connect

In this project, a novel bio-reactor technology in which reaction is coupled with product separation was developed to pilot/demonstration scale. Combining reaction with separation during a fermentation allows the fermentation of highly concentrated feeds and allows the fermentation of streams with high levels of salts/non-fermentable inhibitors. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose can also be combined with ethanol separation in the Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS). Application of the bio-reactor to various substrates was investigated on a lab scale with fermentation of raw starch, cane molasses, xylose, whey permeate and permeate mother liquor. Flocculating yeast strains for high density sucrose/glucose fermentation were selected and adapted to form fast settling pellets. A strain of K marxianus capable of fermenting high salt permeate mother liquor was also selected and adapted. A low energy solvent ethanol recovery system was developed for ethanol recovery from the vapors leaving the reactor/separator. This Solvent Absorption/Extractive Distillation (SAED) process gives a low energy method for purifying the ethanol to an anhydrous product. The amount of energy needed to recover an anhydrous ethanol product from a CSRS stage running at 8% ethanol was calculated to be under 8,000 BTU/gallon. This process may also have further application in VOC (volatile organic carbon compounds) removal from air streams. During this project, a 24,000 Liter CSRS was designed, fabricated, installed, and operated at a small batch ethanol plant (Permeate Refining Inc) in NE Iowa. The reactor was operated on a semi-continuous basis over a period of 18 months. A Solvent Absorption Extractive Distillation (SAED) system was also recently completed and installed at the Permeate Refining Inc. site for ethanol recovery/dehydration.

Dale, M.C.; Moelhman, M.

1997-04-14

224

Production of ethanol from the mixture of beet molasses and cheese whey by a 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutant of Kluyveromyces marxianus.  

PubMed

Fourteen lactose-fermenting strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus, including its anamorph, Candida kefyr, were grown in two media containing 20% (w/v) sugar as either beet molasses or cheese whey. Strain NBRC 1963 of K. marxianus converted sucrose and lactose to ethanol in both media most efficiently. However, ethanol was produced from sucrose and not from lactose by strain NBRC 1963 in the medium containing equal amounts of sugar from beet molasses and cheese whey. The spontaneous mutants resistant to 2-deoxyglucose in the minimal medium composed of galactose as the sole carbon source were isolated from strain NBRC 1963. Among them, strain KD-15 vigorously produced ethanol in the media containing beet molasses, cheese whey, or both. The mutant strain KD-15 was insensitive to catabolite repression, as shown by the observation that beta-galactosidase was not repressed in the presence of sucrose from beet molasses. PMID:19456875

Oda, Yuji; Nakamura, Kenji

2009-08-01

225

Pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a model for cattle feeding  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment under mild conditions in the presence of water (solvolysis) or aqueous orthophosphoric acid (phosphorolysis) was used to increase the nutritional value of sugar cane bagasse for cattle feeding. The best pretreatment conditions were defined as those in which the highest in situ degradability rates (ruminal digestion) were achieved with the least energy consumption and/or production of inhibitory products. Heating sugar cane bagasse up to 197{degrees}C (13.5 atm) at a 4:1 (w/w) water ratio was shown to be a compromised condition for solvolysis, as higher temperatures would require more energy consumption without adding too much to the already high 60% ruminal degradability of the residue in relation to its dry weight. These rates of degradability were shown to be further enhanced to almost 70% by adding 2.9% (w/w) orthophosphoric acid as an acid catalyst. A mathematical treatment of the kinetic data describing ruminal digestion of each of the pretreated residues was also developed in this study.

Fontana, J.D.; Ramos, L.P. [Federal Univ. of Parana (Brazil); Deschamps, F.C. [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

1995-12-31

226

Anaerobic digestion of solid wastes of cane sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

The cane sugar manufacturing industry generates large quantities of lignocellulosic solid wastes, namely bagasse and cachaza. Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane after extracting the juice. Cachaza is the filter cake of the precipitated insoluble sugars. This research investigates the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of bagasse and cachaza to produce methane. Two rations of bagasse-cachaza mix as substrates were investigated. The first one was 8:1 which represents the average ratio of bagasse and cachaza produced in a raw sugar mill. The second ratio investigated was 2.4:1 which represents the proportion of bagasse and cachaza wastes after 70% of the bagasse is burned in sugar mill boilers. An acclimated microbial culture for this substrate was developed. Organic Loading-Detention Time relationships were established for an optimum system. Pre-treatment techniques of the substrate were investigated as a means of enhancing the digestibility of the cellulosic substrate. Recirculation of the filtrate was evaluated as a method for increasing solids retention time without increasing hydraulic detention time. The kinetics of the digestion process for bagasse-cachaza mixed substrate was investigated and growth constants were determined. The bionutritional characteristics of the substrate used for the digestion were evaluated. Based on the results obtained, mass balances and preliminary economic analysis of the digestion system were developed.

Dasgupta, A.

1983-01-01

227

Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water  

SciTech Connect

Sugar-cane bagasse and leaves (10--15 g oven-dry basis) were fractionated without size reduction by a rapid (45 s to 4 min), immersed percolation using only hot (190--230 C), compressed (P > P{sub sat}), liquid water (0.6--1.2 kg). Over 50% of the biomass could be solubilized. All of the hemicellulose, together with much of the acid-insoluble lignin in the bagasse (>60%), was solubilized, while less than 10% of the cellulose entered the liquid phase. Moreover, recovery of the hemicellulose as monomeric sugars (after a mild posthydrolysis) exceeded 80%. Less than 5% of the hemicellulose was converted to furfural. Percolation beyond that needed to immerse the biomass in hot liquid water did not result in increased solubilization. The yield of lignocellulosic residue was also not sensitive to the form of the sugar cane used (bagasse or leaves) or its moisture content (8--50%). Commercial applications for this fractionation process include the pretreatment of lignocellulosics for bioconversion to ethanol and the production of pulp and paper products.

Allen, S.G.; Kam, L.C.; Zemann, A.J.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1996-08-01

228

Antiatherosclerotic function of Kokuto, Okinawan noncentrifugal cane sugar.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the effect of phenolic compounds (PCs) and policosanol of Kokuto, Okinawan noncentrifugal cane sugar, on the development of atherosclerosis. A total of 67 male Japanese quail were divided into eight dietary groups in trial 1. The dietary groups were fed the atherosclerotic diet (AD) containing 5% corn oil, 2% cholesterol, and 30% sucrose or seven different types of Kokuto. Dietary intakes of Kokuto notably prevented the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the serum radical scavenging activity and the degree of atherosclerosis in the dietary groups. In trial 2, a total of 63 Japanese quail were fed AD with sucrose, Kokuto, PC extracts from Kokuto, wax extracts from sugar cane, octacosanol, vitamin C, and vitamin E. As a result, the supplementation of the diet with Kokuto and PCs significantly reduced the development of atherosclerosis as compared with the ingestion of AD with sucrose. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, among various components of Kokuto, PCs play a central role for the prevention of experimental atherosclerosis in Japanese quail. PMID:19072226

Okabe, Takafumi; Toda, Takayoshi; Inafuku, Masashi; Wada, Koji; Iwasaki, Hironori; Oku, Hirosuke

2009-01-14

229

Spectrophotometric determination of urea in sugar cane distilled spirits.  

PubMed

Urea is an important precursor in the formation of ethyl carbamate, a known carcinogen in alcoholic beverages. Ethyl carbamate has recently been detected at high concentrations in sugar cane distilled spirits, but little is known about the concentration of urea in these beverages. The objectives of this study were to validate methodology for the determination of urea in sugar cane distilled spirits, to determine the levels in 68 samples from different regions within the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to examine the relationship between the concentrations of urea and ethyl carbamate. The method, based on the reaction of urea with 1-phenyl-1,2-propanodione-2-oxime and spectrophotometric quantification at 540 nm, provided linear response from 0.5 to 15.0 mg/L. No purification of the sample was required. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Urea was detected in 69% of the samples at levels varying from 0.50 to 5.10 mg/L. There was no significant difference on the levels of urea in samples from different regions of the state. No significant correlation between the levels of urea and ethyl carbamate was observed for the samples analyzed. PMID:18553892

Labanca, Renata A; Glória, M Beatriz A

2008-07-01

230

Effect of urea molasses mineral granules (UMMG) on rumen fermentation pattern and blood biochemical constituents in goat kids fed sola (Aeschonomene indica Linn) grass-based diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on twenty graded jamunapari goat kids fed on four different groups. Group I was fed solely on roughage, i.e. sola (Aeschonomene indica Linn) grass hay and rice straw (70:30). Groups II, III and IV were fed on de-oiled rice bran (100 g\\/d), urea molasses mineral granules (50 g\\/d) and urea molasses mineral granules (50 g\\/d) plus

Nisha Jain; Sita Prasad Tiwari; Pushpraj Singh

231

Effects of the level of sugarcane molasses on growth and carcass performance of Caribbean growing pigs reared under a ground sugarcane stalks feeding system.  

PubMed

The influence of the level of sugarcane (SC) molasses on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in Creole (CR) growing pigs fed with ground sugarcane stalks (GCS)-based diet was studied in a mixed farming system context. The aim of the study was to optimize the growth performance of CR pigs with SC-molasses as an energy source in this unconventional feeding. A total of 32 CR pigs were used from 30 to 60 kg of body weight (BW). The experimental dietary treatments consisted of four levels of inclusion of SC-molasses (200, 400, 600, and 800 g DM/d/pig) into a GCS diet, for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The GCS allowance was based on live BW (170 g/kg BW/d) and the diets were supplemented with a soya-bean meal supplement (350 g/d of a 49.2% CP and 16.6 MJ DE/kg). All the pigs were slaughtered at 60 kg BW. Increasing the level of molasses did not affect (p > 0.05) average BW gain (254 g/d), CP intake (154 g/d) and sugar extraction rate from the total ration (85%). A gradual inclusion of molasses in a GCS-based diet did not affect the carcass and meat quality of CR pigs. In conclusion, molasses supplementation does not allow the increase of growth performance in GCS fed pigs. PMID:19544006

Xandé, X; Archimède, H; Gourdine, J L; Anais, C; Renaudeau, D

2010-01-01

232

Analysis of user characteristics related to drop-off detection with long cane  

PubMed Central

This study examined how user characteristics affect drop-off detection with the long cane. A mixed-measures design with block randomization was used for the study, in which 32 visually impaired adults attempted to detect the drop-offs using different cane techniques. Younger cane users detected drop-offs significantly more reliably (mean +/? standard deviation = 74.2% +/? 11.2% of the time) than older cane users (60.9% +/? 10.8%), p = 0.009. The drop-off detection threshold of the younger participants (5.2 +/? 2.1 cm) was also statistically significantly smaller than that of the older participants (7.9 +/? 2.2 cm), p = 0.007. Those with early-onset visual impairment (78.0% +/? 9.0%) also detected drop-offs significantly more reliably than those with later-onset visual impairment (67.3% +/? 12.4%), p = 0.01. No interaction occurred between examined user characteristics (age and age at onset of visual impairment) and the type of cane technique used in drop-off detection. The findings of the study may help orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques in accordance with the cane user’s age and onset of visual impairment. PMID:20665349

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

2010-01-01

233

Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

1981-01-01

234

Application of a statistical technique to the production of ethanol from sugar beet molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a statistical model which can be used to describe the rate of ethanol production from sugar beet molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed. Total sugar concentration, pH, and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) concentration were chosen as a 23-factorial experimental design and the effects of these factors on ethanol production were examined in repeated shake flask cultures according

Mübeccel Ergun; S Ferda Mutlu

2000-01-01

235

Ethanol production from sugar beet molasses by S. cerevisiae entrapped in an alginate–maize stem ground tissue matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new alginate–maize stem ground tissue matrix was developed as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrier for ethanol fermentation from sugar beet molasses. There were several fermentation procedures in the present study: using free cells and alginate-entrapped cells with and without maize stem ground tissue supplementation (F; F+C; AB; AB+C), and using a new combined alginate–maize stem ground tissue carrier (ABC). It

R. Razmovski; V. Vu?urovi?

2011-01-01

236

The value of malt distillers' grains ensiled with molassed sugar beet pellets as a feed for dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

In one experiment twenty-four Holstein Friesian cows, average 43 d post-partum, were used in a changeover design experiment to evaluate the replacement of a cereal-based concentrate supplement (C) by an ensiled mixture (MGBP) of malt distillers' grains and molassed sugar beet pellets. The cows were offered grass silage ad libitum (dry matter (DM) content 170 g kg)1, crude protein (CP)

E. J. McKendrick; D. J. Roberts; N. W. Offer

2003-01-01

237

Characterization of pullulan produced from beet molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans in a stirred tank reactor under varying agitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular characteristics of pullulan produced from beet molasses, following their pretreatment with sulfuric acid and activated carbon, by Aureobasidium pullulans P56 (a melanin-deficient strain) in a stirred tank fermentor under varying agitation conditions have been examined. A maximum pullulan concentration of 49gl?1, biomass dry weight of 25gl?1, pullulan yield of 50% and sugar utilization of 97% were achieved at

A Lazaridou; T Roukas; C. G Biliaderis; H Vaikousi

2002-01-01

238

Production of ?-carotene from beet molasses by Blakeslea trispora in stirred-tank and bubble column reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of aeration rate and agitation speed on ?-carotene production from molasses by Blakeslea trispora in a stirred-tank fermentor and optimization of the production of the pigment in a bubble column reactor were investigated.\\u000a In addition, a central composite design was employed to determine the maximum ?-carotene concentration at optimum values for\\u000a the process variables (aeration rate, sugar concentration,

Yekta Goksungur; Fani Mantzouridou; Triantafyllos Roukas; Parthena Kotzekidou

2004-01-01

239

Ethanol production from non-sterilized beet molasses by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using fed-batch culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of ethanol from non-sterilized beet molasses by free and immobilized S. cerevisiae cells in batch and fed-batch culture was investigated. Fed-batch culture proved to be a better fermentation system for the production of ethanol than batch culture. In fed-batch culture, both free and immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave the same maximum ethanol concentration (53 g\\/litre) at an initial

T. Roukas

1996-01-01

240

Enhanced production of ligninolytic enzymes and decolorization of molasses distillery wastewater by fungi under solid state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected isolates of fungi were grown on wheat straw and corncob in the presence of different moistening agents such as water,\\u000a molasses, potato dextrose broth and distillery effluent. All the fungal isolates responded differently with respect to growth\\u000a and ligninolytic enzyme production. Fungal growth on different substrates was checked by calculating ergosterol content, which\\u000a varied widely within a single species

Deepak Pant; Alok Adholeya

2007-01-01

241

Depositional and structural evolution of a foreland basin margin in a magnetostratigraphic framework: the eastern Swiss Molasse Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This integrated study of the sedimentology, magnetostratigraphic chronology and petrography of the mostly continental clastics\\u000a of the Oligocene to Miocene Swiss Molasse Basin underpins a reconstruction of facies architecture and delineates relationships\\u000a between the depositional evolution of a foreland-basin margin and exhumation phases and orogenic events in the adjacent orogen.\\u000a A biostratigraphically based high-resolution magnetostratigraphy provides a detailed temporal framework

O. Kempf; A. Matter; D. W. Burbank; M. Mange

1999-01-01

242

Effect of supplementing urea treated rice straw and molasses with different forage species on the performance of lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weaned lambs of the Phan Rang breed with an initial weight of 14.9kg and 3.5 months of age were used to study the effect of supplementing urea treated rice straw (UTRS) and molasses with different forage species as protein sources compared to a commercial concentrate with respect to digestibility, growth performance and number of gastro-intestinal parasite eggs. Eight males were

Khuc Thi Hue; Do Thi Thanh Van; Inger Ledin

2008-01-01

243

Use of urea–molasses–multinutrient block and urea-treated rice straw for improving dairy cattle productivity in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

After conducting a preliminary survey, a feeding trial was carried out to determine the effect of urea–molasses–multinutrient block (UMMB) and urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) as a feed supplement on the productivity of dairy cows. Sixty Holstein–Friesian crossbred cows on 11 smallholder farms were divided equally into control, UMMB and UTRS supplementation groups. Milk yield and feed intake were recorded daily.

Doan Duc Vu; Le Xuan Cuong; Chung Anh Dung; Pham Ho Hai

1999-01-01

244

Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose, and molasses.  

PubMed

The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by the enzyme invertase. The fungus efficiently grew on glucose and fructose and produced ethanol in synthetic media or from molasses. The cultivations were carried out aerobically and anaerobically, and manipulated toward filamentous or yeast-like morphology. Ethanol was the major metabolite in all the experiments. The ethanol yield in anaerobic cultivations was between 0.35 and 0.48 g/g sugars consumed, depending on the carbon source and the growth morphology, while a yield of as low as 0.16 g/g was obtained during aerobic cultivation. The yeast-like form of the fungus showed faster ethanol production with an average productivity of 0.90 g/l h from glucose, fructose and inverted sucrose, than the filamentous form with an average productivity of 0.33 g/l h. The biomass of the fungus was also analyzed with respect to alkali-insoluble material (AIM), chitin, and chitosan. The biomass of the fungus contained per g maximum 0.217 g AIM and 0.042 g chitosan in yeast-like cultivation under aerobic conditions. PMID:18712551

Sharifia, Mahnaz; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2008-11-01

245

Changes in development and ultrastructure of Aspergillus niger mycelium, strain with increased tolerance to toxic substances from beet molasses.  

PubMed

Effects of a defoamer and toxic molasses compounds on development and ultrastructure of A. niger mycelium, strain Z, characterized by high tolerance to these substances and producing citric acid in surface fermentation on proper molasses media with 70% yield were presented. Spumol BJ in concentration of 5 microliters/100 cm3 as well as toxic molasses compounds stimulated the process of swelling and germinating of conidia. Moreover, giant conidia, unable to germinate, appeared. Developing mycelium with dispersed hyphae became mucilaginous after 17-20 h culture, which indicated the process of sinking but after 24 h some part of the mycelium developed normally. Electron microscopic observations of mycelium developing in the presence of the toxic substances showed along with electron-transparent cytoplasm in a consequence of decrease in ribosome number, changes in ultrastructure of mitochondria. It may be assumed that one of the reasons of the above described abnormalities in development and ultrastructure of mycelium was a disturbance of respiration processes. The appearance of deposits of electron-dense material in mitochondria suggested the existence of a defence mechanism, eliminating toxic substances. PMID:1726624

Zakowska, Z; Gabara, B

1991-01-01

246

Improvement of whole crop rice silage nutritive value and rumen degradability by molasses and urea supplementation.  

PubMed

Whole crop rice was harvested 120 days after planting and chopped to 2-3-cm length for silage making. The whole crop rice silage (WCRS) was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 6?×?5 factorial arrangement, in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplementation at M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 %, and the second was urea (U) supplementation at U0, U0.5, U1.0, U1.5, and U2.0 % of the crop dry mater (DM), respectively. After 45 days of ensiling, temperature, pH, chemical composition, and fermentation end products of the silages were measured. Ten U and M treatment combinations of WCRS were subsequently selected to study rumen degradability by nylon bag technique. The results showed that temperature and pH of the silages linearly increased with U supplementation level, while total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), acetic acid (C2) and propionic acid (C3) decreased. In contrast, increasing level of M supplementation decreased WCRS temperature and pH, whereas TVFA, C2, and C3 concentrations increased dramatically. Both M and U supplementation increased concentration of butyric acid (C4). Dry matter, organic matter (OM), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the silages were not influenced by either M or U supplementation. Increasing U supplementation increased crude protein (CP) content, while M level did not show any effect. Furthermore, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content in silage was decreased by both M and U supplementation. The results of the in situ study showed that M and U supplementation increased both ruminal DM and OM degradation. The water-soluble fraction (a) was the highest in WCRS U1.5M3 and lowest in U0M0. Increasing M and U supplementation levels increased the potentially degradable fraction (b) of both DM and OM. Total rumen degradable fraction (a?+?b) was highest in WCRS U1.5M3, whereas OM degradability was highest in U0M3. However, effective degradation of both DM and OM were the highest in WCRS U1.5M3 and the lowest in U0M0. We conclude that supplementation of U and M increases WCRS quality and rumen degradability. Supplementation of U at 1.5 and M at 3-4 % of the crop DM is recommended for lactating dairy cows and fattening beef cattle. PMID:23771776

Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote

2013-11-01

247

Distances to five resolved galaxies in the Canes Venatici cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of CCD imaging in B, V of five late-type galaxies with radial velocities V_0 < 350 km/s in the Canes Venatici cloud. Based on the photometry of their brightest blue stars we derived the following distances to the galaxies: 9.7 Mpc for NGC 4144, 4.5 Mpc for NGC 4244, 4.2 Mpc for NGC 4395, 2.9 Mpc for NGC 4449, and 8.2 Mpc for UGC 8331. Tables 3 to 7 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Karachentsev, I. D.; Drozdovsky, I. O.

1998-07-01

248

Effect of copper source and level on performance and copper status of cattle consuming molasses-based supplements.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to evaluate the availability of dietary Cu offered to growing beef cattle consuming molasses-based supplements. In Exp. 1, 24 Braford heifers were assigned randomly to bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pastures (two heifers/pasture). Heifers were provided 1.5 kg of TDN and 0.3 kg of supplemental CP/heifer daily using a molasses-cottonseed meal slurry. Three treatments were randomly assigned to pastures (four pastures/treatment), providing 100 mg of supplemental Cu daily in the form of either CuSO4 (inorganic Cu) or organic-Cu. A third treatment offered no supplemental Cu (negative control). Heifer BW was collected at the start and end of the study. Jugular blood and liver samples were collected on d 0, 29, 56, and 84. In Exp. 2, 24 Brahman-crossbred steers were fed the same molasses-cottonseed meal supplement at the same rates used in Exp. 1. Steers were housed in individual pens (15 m2) with free-choice access to stargrass (Cynodon spp.) hay. Four Cu treatments were assigned to individual steers (six pens/treatment) providing 1) 10 ppm of Cu from an organic source; 2) 10 ppm Cu from Tri-basic Cu chloride (TBCC); 3) 30 ppm of Cu from TBCC; or 4) 30 ppm of Cu, a 50:50 ratio of TBCC and organic Cu. Body weights and jugular blood and liver samples were collected on d 0, 24, 48, and 72. In Exp. 1, liver Cu concentrations did not differ between heifers supplemented with inorganic and organic Cu. Each source resulted in increased (P < 0.05) liver Cu concentrations compared with the unsupplemented control. Plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for Cu-supplemented heifers, independent of Cu source. Heifer ADG tended (P = 0.11) to increase with Cu supplementation compared with the unsupplemented control. In Exp. 2, liver Cu was greater (P < 0.05) on d 24, 48, and 72 for steers consuming 30 vs. 10 ppm of Cu. Steers supplemented with organic Cu had lower DMI than steers supplemented with 10 or 30 ppm of TBCC. These data suggest that the inorganic and organic Cu sources evaluated in these studies were of similar availability when offered in molasses supplements. A dietary Cu concentration greater than 10 ppm might be necessary to ensure absorption in beef cattle fed molasses-based supplements. PMID:12817481

Arthington, J D; Pate, F M; Spears, J W

2003-06-01

249

3 CFR 8588 - Proclamation 8588 of October 15, 2010. White Cane Safety Day, 2010  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Proclamation The white cane, in addition to being...accessible to all students in the classroom. Blindness and visual...both full participation in our society and full opportunity...people to work, learn, play, and live. By...

2011-01-01

250

Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

2007-01-01

251

Fructooligosaccharides metabolism and effect on bacteriocin production in Lactobacillus strains isolated from ensiled corn and molasses.  

PubMed

Fructo- (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides have been used to promote the growth of probiotics, mainly those from Lactobacillus genus. However, only few reports have evaluated the effect of prebiotics on bacteriocins activity and production. In this work, we characterized the effect of FOS supplementation on the growth, lactic and acetic acids production, and antimicrobial activity of crude extracts obtained from Lactobacillus strains isolated from ensiled corn and molasses. Seven out of 28 isolated Lactobacillus, belonging to Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis, showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua. Among them, the strain L. plantarum LE5 showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Enteroccocus faecalis; while the L. plantarum LE27 strain showed antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes, E. faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. This antimicrobial activity in most of the cases was obtained only after FOS supplementation. In summary, these results show the feasibility to increase the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus bacteriocins by supplementing the growth medium with FOS. PMID:22342961

Muñoz, M; Mosquera, A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Melendez, A P; Sánchez, O F

2012-06-01

252

Environmental Evaluation of Metals in Sediments and Dragonflies Due to Sugar Cane Cultivation in Neotropical Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of fertilizers, containing different metals ions such as lead(II), chromium(III), cadmium(II), copper(II) and zinc(II),\\u000a in the soil, for sugar cane cultivation, may cause impacts on the hydric resources of the adjacent areas. The scope of this\\u000a study was to evaluate the impacts of sugar cane cultivation based on metal concentrations in sediments and dragonflies (Odonata).\\u000a The bioavailability of

Juliano José Corbi; Susana Trivinho-Strixino; Ademir dos Santos

2008-01-01

253

Horizontal drilling potential of the Cane Creek Shale, Paradox Formation, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cane Creek shale of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation is a well-defined target for horizontal drilling. This unit is naturally fractures and consists of organic-rich marine shale with interbedded dolomitic siltstone and anhydrite. Six fields have produced oil from the Cane Creek shale in the Paradox basin fold-and-fault belt. The regional structural trend is north-northwest with productive fractures occurring along

T. C. Chidsey

1991-01-01

254

Evaluation of the washing system efficiency in sugar cane mills by neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of industrial washing operation in minimizing soil in sugar cane delivered to mills is evaluated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was the nuclear analytical technique chosen for this work, with Fe, Hf, Sc, and Th selected as soil tracers. On the basis of differences between elemental concentration of integral and prepared cane, that is before and after washing, the feasibility of the method for evaluation of the washing efficiency is demonstrated. PMID:7710885

Bacchi, M A; Fernandes, E A

1994-01-01

255

Ethanol from sugar cane: flask experiments using the EX-FERM technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98%

C. Rolz; S. Cabrera

1980-01-01

256

Life-history of Neurospora intermedia in a sugar cane field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life-history ofNeurospora in nature has remained largely unknown. The present study attempts to remedy this. The following conclusions are based on\\u000a observation ofNeurospora on fire-scorched sugar cane in agricultural fields, and reconstruction experiments using a colour mutant to inoculate sugar\\u000a cane burned in the laboratory. The fungus persists in soil as heat- resistant dormant ascospores. These are activated by

Alka Pandit; Ramesh Maheshwari

1996-01-01

257

Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating sustainable bioenergy policies.

Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

2013-12-01

258

Do invasive cane toads affect the parasite burdens of native Australian frogs??  

PubMed Central

One of the most devastating impacts of an invasive species is the introduction of novel parasites or diseases to native fauna. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia contain several types of parasites, raising concern that the toads may increase rates of parasitism in local anuran species. We sampled cane toads and sympatric native frogs (Limnodynastes peronii, Litoria latopalmata, and Litoria nasuta) at the southern invasion front of cane toads in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW). We dissected and swabbed these anurans to score the presence and abundance of nematodes (Rhabdias lungworms, and gastric encysting nematodes), myxozoans, and chytrid fungus. To determine if cane toad invasion influences rates of parasitism in native frogs, we compared the prevalence and intensity of parasites in frogs from areas with toads, to frogs from areas without toads. Contrary to the situation on the (rapidly-expanding) tropical invasion front, cane toads on the slowly-expanding southern front were heavily infected with rhabditoid lungworms. Toads also contained gastric-encysting nematodes, and one toad was infected by chytrid fungus, but we did not find myxozoans in any toads. All parasite groups were recorded in native frogs, but were less common in areas invaded by toads than in nearby yet to be invaded areas. Contrary to our predictions, toad invasion was associated with a reduced parasite burden in native frogs. Thus, cane toads do not appear to transfer novel parasites to native frog populations, or act as a reservoir for native parasites to ‘spill-back’ into native frogs. Instead, cane toads may reduce frog-parasite numbers by taking up native parasites that are then killed by the toad’s immune defences. PMID:24533330

Lettoof, Damian C.; Greenlees, Matthew J.; Stockwell, Michelle; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

259

Ecological sustainability of energy cane as a biofuel feedstock Assess the ecological sustainability of deploying energy cane on land previously used for  

E-print Network

Ecological sustainability of energy cane as a biofuel feedstock Objective Assess the ecological to the ecological sustainability of the wide-scale deployment of biofuel feedstocks. Key among these issues are how replacing current land use with biofuel feedstocks will affect the fluxes of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N20

DeLucia, Evan H.

260

Cell wall analysis in Aspergillus niger strains characterized by different tolerance to toxic compounds of beet molasses.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger strains, sensitive or resistant to toxic compounds of beet molasses, were the object of the present studies. Between the studied strains differences existed in the cell wall dry mass and wall components content, chitin synthesis, activity of enzymes involved in cell wall synthesis, and in the wall ultrastructure. Higher content of proteins and lipids but lower of glucan and chitin; less or lack of fibrillar components, thinner cell wall as well as lower level of glucanase and chitinase, diminished [3H] glucosamine incorporation into cytoplasm and cell wall characterized the sensitive strains of A. niger. PMID:9271845

Zakowska, Z; Gabara, B; Kusewicz, D

1997-01-01

261

Co-production of ice nuclei and xanthan gum by transformed Xanthomonas campestris grown in sugar beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recombinant plasmids, expressing ice nucleation activity, were constructed and named pCPP30inaZ and pCPP38inaZ. They were transferred to the ice-negative, xanthan-producing Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris by electroporation. The transformants were used for co-production of xanthan gum and ice nuclei from sugar beet molasses. The highest values obtained were 20 g l-1 and 1018 ice nuclei ml-1, respectively. The above values fulfil the criteria

Amalia S. Afendra; Efthalia E. Yiannaki; Maria A. Palaiomylitou; Dimitrios A. Kyriakidis; Constantin Drainas

2002-01-01

262

Role of sugar cane in Brazil's history and economy  

SciTech Connect

The history and evolution of the sugar-cane culture in Brazil is reviewed. An econometric model is constructed to explain the economic relationships of supply and demand of sugar, hydrous ethanol (ethyl alcohol), and anhydrous ethanol in Brazil overtime. Estimates of the parameters in the model are obtained using the methods of ordinary least squares and three stages least squares. Because the number of exogenous variables is larger than the number of observations, principal components of the exogenous variables is used. The model estimated using three stages least squares with seven principal components has the best performance among the alternatives considered. Using the estimated model, the level of a number of policy variables is determined in consistency with the objectives of ethanol production established by the Brazilian government for 1985. It is estimated that in 1985 the proportion of anhydrous ethanol added to gasoline must be 16.5%. Analysis of the net income accrued by producers and the government since the creation of the National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) in 1975 reveals that producers of sugar have been able to triple their net annual income. Independent producers of ethanol have also been able to accrue positive net results during this period. It is concluded that the Proalcool has been beneficial to the Brazilian economy, largely because of the savings in oil imports and the internal creation of jobs, while at the same time it has contributed to a superavit in the government's budget.

Nastari, P.M.

1983-01-01

263

Decolourization and removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with energy recovery: Treatment of biodigester effluent of a molasses-based alcohol distillery using inorganic coagulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of molasses-derived colour and chemical oxygen demand from the biodigester effluent of a molasses-based alcohol distillery effluent treatment plant was studied using inorganic coagulants—FeCl3, AlCl3 and polyaluminium chloride (PAC). The coagulation\\/flocculation yield about 55, 60 and 72% COD reductions and about 83, 86 and 92% colour reductions, with the use of 60mM\\/l AlCl3, 60mM\\/l FeCl3 and 30ml\\/l of

Parmesh Kumar Chaudhari; Indra Mani Mishra; Shri Chand

2007-01-01

264

Accumulation of recombinant cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase in the leaves of mature transgenic sugar cane.  

PubMed

A major strategic goal in making ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel is to reduce the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars. Current production systems for these enzymes, namely microbes, are not economic. One way to substantially reduce production costs is to express cellulolytic enzymes in plants at levels that are high enough to hydrolyse lignocellulosic biomass. Sugar cane fibre (bagasse) is the most promising lignocellulosic feedstock for conversion to ethanol in the tropics and subtropics. Cellulolytic enzyme production in sugar cane will have a substantial impact on the economics of lignocellulosic ethanol production from bagasse. We therefore generated transgenic sugar cane accumulating three cellulolytic enzymes, fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), CBH II and bacterial endoglucanase (EG), in leaves using the maize PepC promoter as an alternative to maize Ubi1 for controlling transgene expression. Different subcellular targeting signals were shown to have a substantial impact on the accumulation of these enzymes; the CBHs and EG accumulated to higher levels when fused to a vacuolar-sorting determinant than to an endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal, while EG was produced in the largest amounts when fused to a chloroplast-targeting signal. These results are the first demonstration of the expression and accumulation of recombinant CBH I, CBH II and EG in sugar cane and represent a significant first step towards the optimization of cellulolytic enzyme expression in sugar cane for the economic production of lignocellulosic ethanol. PMID:21356003

Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, Jason; Coleman, Heather D; Shand, Kylie; Kinkema, Mark; Palupe, Anthony; Hassall, Rachael; Sainz, Manuel; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Dale, James L

2011-10-01

265

DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES  

SciTech Connect

Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

2008-05-27

266

CANE AND ERC YIELDS OF TEN SUGARCANE VARIETIES IRRIGATED BY SUBSURFACE DRIP AT THE ZIMBABWE SUGAR ASSOCIATION EXPERIMENT STATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, when drip irrigation was introduced into the Zimbabwe sugar industry, there were no guidelines on layouts of drip systems. An experiment was thus set up to assess cane and sugar yields and longevity of 10 sugarcane varieties that were planted using the standard and tramline layouts and irrigated by subsurface drip. In the standard layout, cane rows were

C T NYATI

267

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fiber Paper  

E-print Network

3.8 Life-cycle 12 4.0 SOCIAL 13 4.1 Employment and Labour Conditions 13 4.2 Health Effects 13 4 into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fiber Paper Ryan Carniato, Shariful Islam, Chun-Jiun Wang, Wilson Yeung Investigation into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fibre Paper Ryan Carniato Shariful Islam Chun-Jiun Wang Wilson Yeung

268

The cane toad's (Bufo marinus) increasing ability to invade Australia is revealed by a dynamically updated range model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species threaten biological diversity throughout the world. Understanding the dynamics of their spread is critical to mitigating this threat. In Australia, efforts are underway to control the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus). Range models based on their native bioclimatic envelope suggest that the cane toad is nearing the end of its invasion phase. However, such models assume a conserved

Mark C. Urban; Ben L. Phillips; David K. Skelly; Richard Shine

2007-01-01

269

Effect of the shear rate on pullulan production from beet molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans in an airlift reactor.  

PubMed

The effect of the shear rate on pullulan production from beet molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans P56 in an airlift reactor was investigated. A maximum polysaccharide concentration (18.5 g/L), biomass dry weight (14.0 g/L), polysaccharide yield (38.5%), and sugar utilization (96%) was achieved at a shear rate of 42 s(-1). A. pullulans grown on beet molasses produced a mixture of pullulan and other polysaccharides. The highest value of pullulan proportion (30% of total polysaccharide) was obtained at a low shear rate (42 s(-1)). The apparent viscosity of the fermentation broth increased as the shear rate increased up to 42 s(-1) and then decreased. On the other hand, the dissolved oxygen concentration and the volumetric mass transfer coefficient increased with the increase of the shear rate from 21 to 84 s(-1). The external addition of L-glutamic acid, olive oil, and Tween-80 improved significantly the production of crude polysaccharide (27.0 g/L), but the pullulan content of the polysaccharide was low (20%). PMID:15304678

Roukas, T; Serris, G

1999-04-01

270

Slowly released molasses barrier system for controlling nitrate plumes in groundwater: a pilot-scale tank study.  

PubMed

A well-type barrier system containing solidified molasses as a reactive medium was developed to promote the indigenous denitrifying activity and to treat nitrate plumes in groundwater. Three slowly released molasses (SRM) barrier systems harboring 60, 120, and 120 SRM rods, which were named System A, B, and C, respectively, were operated to examine nitrate removal efficiency in a pilot-scale sandy tank. These SRM systems induced a consistent removal of nitrate without pore clogging and hydraulic disturbance during the test period. The initial nitrate concentration was 142mgL(-1), and the concentrations decreased by 80%, 84%, and 79% in System A, B, and C, respectively. In particular, System C was inoculated with heterotrophic denitrifiers, but the nitrate removal efficiency was not enhanced compared to System B, probably due to the prior existence of indigenous denitrifiers in the sandy tank. The presence of nitrite reductase-encoding gene (i.e. nirK) at the site was confirmed by denatured gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. PMID:24280052

Lee, Byung Sun; Lee, Kyuyeon; Um, Jae Yeon; Nam, Kyoungphile

2014-02-01

271

Oxygen isotope evidence of climate change from pedogenic clay minerals in the Himalayan molasse  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we examine the oxygen isotope ratios of smectite and kaolinite in a stratigraphic sequence of paleosols in the Siwalik Himalayan molasse on the Potwar Plateau, northern Pakistan. There is a 3-4{per_thousand} increase in the smectite {delta}{sup 18}O values synchronous with a {approximately}3.5{per_thousand} increase in {delta}{sup 18}O values of pedogenic calcite at 8.5-6.5 Ma. The covariation of the {delta}{sup 18}O values of smectite with calcite {delta}{sup 18}O values through time strongly suggests a pedogenic origin of smectite and that its {delta}{sup 18}O values reflect the oxygen isotope ratio of the soil water present during pedogenesis. These data show that the {delta}{sup 18}O values of clay minerals in paleosols in aggrading sedimentary sequences are viable paleoclimate indicators. Kaolinite {delta}{sup 18}O values are similar to smectite {delta}{sup 18}O values, as would be expected for pedogenic kaolinite, but there is greater variation in these data which we attribute to incomplete mineral separation. The measured permil oxygen isotope fractionation between calcite and smectite within individual paleosols is, on average, {approximately}3{per_thousand} higher than the equilibrium fractionation. This isotopic disequilibrium can be explained by the calcite forming predominantly during the dry winter season and the smectite forming predominantly during the wet summer season. The synchronous 3.5{per_thousand} increase in oxygen isotope ratios of smectite and calcite at 8.5-6.5 Ma indicates that this {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O increase is not due to diagenesis, but rather results from a climate change. The most likely causes of the {sup 18}O/ {sup 16}O increase in smectite and calcite are either increased aridity resulting in increased soil water evaporation (thus {sup 18}O enrichment) and/or a change from more continental to more marine-sourced precipitation. 83 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Stern, L.A.; Chamberlain, C.P.; Reynolds, R.C.; Johnson, G.D. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)] [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)

1997-02-01

272

Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most of hemicellulose content of can bagasse was solubilized, by 2% alkaline hydrogen peroxide at 30{sup 0}C within 8 h. The cellulose content was consequently increased from 42% in the original cane bagasse to 75% in the oxidized pulp. Saccharification of this pulp residue with cellulase from Trichorderma viride at 45{sup 0}C for 24 h, yielded glucose with 95% efficiency. The efficiency of ethanol production from the insoluble fraction with S. cervisiae was 90% compared to about 50% for untreated cane bagasse.

Azzam, A.M. (National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt))

1989-01-01

273

Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Cear?, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates. PMID:23227051

Pereira, Regina F. R.; Vidal, Carla B.; de Lima, Ari C. A.; Melo, Diego Q.; Dantas, Allan N. S.; Lopes, Gisele S.; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F.; Gomes, Clerton L.; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

2012-01-01

274

Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

2005-12-01

275

A blind HI survey in the Canes Venatici region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out a blind HI survey using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope to make an inventory of objects with small HI masses (between 106 and 108Msolar) and to constrain the low-mass end of the HI mass function. The survey has been conducted in a part of the volume containing the nearby Canes Venatici groups of galaxies. The surveyed region covers an area on the sky of about 86 deg2 and a range in velocity from about -450 to about 1330kms-1. We find 70 sources in the survey by applying an automated searching algorithm. Two of the detections have not been catalogued previously, but they can be assigned an optical counterpart, based on visual inspection of the second-generation Digital Sky Survey images. Only one of the HI detections is without an optical counterpart. This object is detected in the vicinity of NGC 4822, and it has been already detected in previous HI studies. 19 of the objects have been detected for the first time in the 21-cm emission line in this survey. The distribution of the HI properties of our detections confirms our ability to find low-mass objects. 86 per cent of the detections have profile widths less than 130kms-1, and they can be considered dwarf galaxy candidates. The HI fluxes measured imply that this survey goes about 10 times deeper than any previous blind HI survey. The HI mass function and the optical properties of the detected sources will be discussed in future papers.

Kova?, K.; Oosterloo, T. A.; van der Hulst, J. M.

2009-12-01

276

CANE FIBERBOARD DEGRADATION WITHIN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION  

SciTech Connect

The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.

2013-06-19

277

AGING MODEL FOR CANE FIBERBOARD OVERPACK IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect

Many radioactive material shipping packages incorporate a cane fiberboard overpack for thermal insulation and impact resistance. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard following thermal aging in several temperature/humidity environments. Several of the measured properties change significantly over time in the more severe environments, while other properties are relatively constant. Changes in each of the properties have been fit to a model to allow predictions of degradation under various storage scenarios. Additional data continue to be collected to provide for future refinements to the model.

Daugherty, W.; Harris, S.

2010-03-05

278

The El Mayah molasse basin in the Eastern Desert of Egypt A. Shalaby a,b,*, K. Stuwe a,*, H. Fritz a  

E-print Network

The El Mayah molasse basin in the Eastern Desert of Egypt A. Shalaby a,b,*, K. Stu¨we a,*, H. Fritz Mayah basin is one of several Pan-African, sedimentary basins that formed across several hundreds clasts indicates that this part of the basin formed mostly after intrusion of what is known

Fritz, Harald

279

The Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Sensor Network For Cane-toad Monitoring  

E-print Network

The Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Sensor Network For Cane-toad Monitoring Wen Hu, Van Nghia network application -- monitoring amphibian populations in the monsoonal woodlands of northern Australia. Our goal is to use automatic recognition of animal vocalizations to census the populations of native

Bulusu, Nirupama

280

Pesticide Contamination of Surface Waters by Sugar Cane Farming in Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural, hyrological, and water quality studies were conducted in Louisiana during the years 1961, 1962, and in 1964 to determine the methods, extent, and duration of surface water contamination by endrin used in sugar cane agriculture. In 1961, a maximum of 360 parts per trillion (ppt) of endrin was recovered from water by carbon adsorption (sample volumes of 1,000 to

Gerald J. Lauer; H. Page Nicholson; William S. Cox; John I. Teasley

1966-01-01

281

Production of compost with bagasse and vinasses for cane crop in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a mixture of bagasse, animal manure and vinasse can be transformed into compost suitable for agriculture. The factors necessary for good composting are discussed, these include the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture, aeration and temperature. A mixture of 300 kg cane bagasse and 38 kg poultry manure moistened with vinasse gave the best results.

Park, Y.K.; Castro Gomez, R.J.H.

1982-10-01

282

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of thermal degradation of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal degradation of sugar cane bagasse has been studied between 200 and 800 °C under a nitrogen gas flow. Different experimental parameters of the pyrolysis have been investigated, including holding temperature, time duration of pyrolysis, and heating rate. The solid residues obtained were then analyzed by classical elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.The most important structure modifications appeared

Ketty Bilba; Alex Ouensanga

1996-01-01

283

Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most

A. M. Azzam

1989-01-01

284

Adapting to an invasive species: Toxic cane toads induce morphological change in Australian snakes  

E-print Network

Adapting to an invasive species: Toxic cane toads induce morphological change in Australian snakes natural ecosystems, but the long-term effects of invasion are less clear. If native organisms can adapt (Bufo marinus) are highly toxic to most snakes that attempt to eat them. Because snakes are gape

Shine, Rick

285

Adapting to an invasive species: Toxic cane toads induce morphological change in Australian snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arrival of invasive species can devastate natural ecosystems, but the long-term effects of invasion are less clear. If native organisms can adapt to the presence of the invader, the severity of impact will decline with time. In Australia, invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) are highly toxic to most snakes that attempt to eat them. Because snakes are gape-limited predators

Ben L. Phillips; Richard Shine

2004-01-01

286

Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spiritsB  

E-print Network

Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

287

Cane Toads on Cowpats: Commercial Livestock Production Facilitates Toad Invasion in Tropical Australia  

PubMed Central

Habitat disturbance and the spread of invasive organisms are major threats to biodiversity, but the interactions between these two factors remain poorly understood in many systems. Grazing activities may facilitate the spread of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia by providing year-round access to otherwise-seasonal resources. We quantified the cane toad’s use of cowpats (feces piles) in the field, and conducted experimental trials to assess the potential role of cowpats as sources of prey, water, and warmth for toads. Our field surveys show that cane toads are found on or near cowpats more often than expected by chance. Field-enclosure experiments show that cowpats facilitate toad feeding by providing access to dung beetles. Cowpats also offer moist surfaces that can reduce dehydration rates of toads and are warmer than other nearby substrates. Livestock grazing is the primary form of land use over vast areas of Australia, and pastoral activities may have contributed substantially to the cane toad’s successful invasion of that continent. PMID:23145158

Gonzalez-Bernal, Edna; Greenlees, Matthew; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

2012-01-01

288

Invasive cane toads ( Bufo marinus) cause mass mortality of freshwater crocodiles ( Crocodylus johnstoni) in tropical Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species are frequently blamed for faunal declines, but there is little direct evidence about the pathways, magnitude and size-selectivity of mortality induced by invaders. Top predators are of particular interest in this context, because their removal can generate substantial cascades of secondary effects on community composition. Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are large South American anurans currently spreading rapidly through

Mike Letnic; Jonathan K. Webb; Richard Shine

2008-01-01

289

Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. PMID:20493626

Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

2010-09-01

290

Biodegradation of heavy crude oil Maya using spent compost and sugar cane bagasse wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to evaluate the use of some agroindustrial wastes as supports in solid state cultures for the biodegradation of crude oil Maya in static column reactors over 15–20 days periods. Spent compost and cane bagasse wastes showed superior qualities over peat moss waste as support candidates with the advantage that they contain appreciable densities of autochthonous microorganisms

M. R. Trejo-Hernández; A. Ortiz; A. I. Okoh; D. Morales; R. Quintero

2007-01-01

291

Resistance to cane and foliar diseases in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and related species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of resistance to fungal pathogens of cane fruits have been identified by controlled infection procedures and incorporated into the UKRubus breeding programme. These are reviewed with a description of the biology of the pathogens involved. Some of them take the form of a mechanical barrier associated with the position and rate of development of suberised periderms. For example,

B. Williamson; D. L. Jennings

1992-01-01

292

Teaching the Use of a Long Cane Step by Step: Suggestions for Progressive, Methodical Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fundamental part of the orientation and mobility curriculum is the acquisition and retention of skills in using a long cane automatically and proficiently to detect and negotiate obstacles and drop-offs. Using practitioners' experiences and the principles of learning theory, instructors can monitor students' advancement and adapt teaching…

Sauerburger, Dona; Bourquin, Eugene

2010-01-01

293

Structural and physicochemical characteristics of starch from sugar cane and sweet sorghum stalks.  

PubMed

The starch present in sugar cane and sorghum juice has been considered a problem to the sugar industry. The objective of this work was to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the starch present in sugar cane and sweet sorghum. Sugar cane and sweet sorghum starches presented small granules (maximum 5.9 and 7.9 ?m), A-type diffraction pattern, high degree of relative crystallinity (44.4 and 42.0%), and low amylose content (17.5 and 16.4%), respectively. Sugar cane starch presented more uniformity in granule shape and size, more homogeneity in amylose chain length, higher number of long lateral chains of amylopectin, and higher susceptibility to enzymatic digestion. Besides being in higher amount in the juice, sweet sorghum starch presented lower values for thermal properties of gelatinization, as well as higher swelling factor, which can cause more problems during processing. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the variety and maturity influence on these properties. PMID:25037392

Alves, Fernanda Viginotti; Polesi, Luís Fernando; Aguiar, Cláudio Lima; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira

2014-10-13

294

Changes in an Inceptisol of Mauritius after rock removal for sugar cane production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane (Saccharum hybrid sp.) cropping in the rocky soils of Mauritius requires the prior removal of rocks to enable the implementation of mechanized operations, particularly harvesting. The effects of such operations on the soil are unknown, particularly the extent to which soil properties could be affected. A study was conducted at a sugar estate on the sub-humid western coast

L. R. Ng Cheong; K. F. Ng Kee Kwong; P. D. Ah Koon; C. C. Du Preez

2009-01-01

295

Comparison of the acute effects of sugar cane distillates and ethanol in mice.  

PubMed

The acute effects of 4 different brands of the most popular Brazilian alcoholic beverage, the so called "cachaças" (distilled product of sugar cane), were measured through the loss of the righting reflex and the rotarod test. The effects induced by the cachaças were greater than it could be predicted through the ethanol content alone. PMID:7202322

Masur, J; Boerngen, R

1980-01-01

296

Deposition and Leaching of Tebuthiuron on Sugar Cane Straw Applied with and Without Alkyl Polyglycoside Adjuvant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory experiment was carried out aiming to study the effects of an alkyl polyglycoside adjuvant (APG) on deposition and leaching of the herbicide tebuthiuron applied on sugar cane straw. Tebuthiuron, at concentration of 1200 mg L, was applied separately and in tank mix with the APG adjuvant, at concentrations of 0.07 and 0.09% (wt v), using a spraying volume

Eduardo Negrisoli; Eduardo Antonio Drolhe da Costa; Edivaldo Domingues Velini; Anderson Luis Cavenaghi; Gustavo Radomille Tofoli

2005-01-01

297

Increased estimates of air-pollution emissions from Brazilian sugar-cane ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse-gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels on air quality and climate. Sugar-cane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here we use a life-cycle approach to produce spatially and temporally explicit estimates of air-pollutant emissions over the whole life cycle of sugar-cane ethanol in Brazil. We show that even in regions where pre-harvest field burning has been eliminated on half the croplands, regional emissions of air pollutants continue to increase owing to the expansion of sugar-cane growing areas, and burning continues to be the dominant life-cycle stage for emissions. Comparison of our estimates of burning-phase emissions with satellite estimates of burning in São Paulo state suggests that sugar-cane field burning is not fully accounted for in satellite-based inventories, owing to the small spatial scale of individual fires. Accounting for this effect leads to revised regional estimates of burned area that are four times greater than some previous estimates. Our revised emissions maps thus suggest that biofuels may have larger impacts on regional climate forcing and human health than previously thought.

Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J. E.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Chen, Y.

2012-01-01

298

Assessment of the Effects of Sugar Cane Plantation Burning on Daily Counts of Inhalation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to evaluate the association between sugar cane plantation burning and hospital visits in Araraquara in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. From June 1 to August 31, 1995, the daily number of visits of patients who needed inhalation therapy in one of the main hospitals of the city was recorded and used as health impairment estimation.

Marcos A. Arbex; Gyorgy M. Böhm; Paulo H. N. Saldiva; Gleice M. S. Conceição; Arden C. Pope III; Alfesio L. F. Braga

2000-01-01

299

Antioxidant Activity of Phenolics Compounds From Sugar Cane ( Saccharum officinarum L.) Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice were identified and quantified by analytical high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection, showing the predominance of flavones (apigenin, luteolin and tricin derivatives), among flavonoids, and of hydroxycinnamic, caffeic and sinapic acids, among phenolic acids, representing a total content of around 160 mg\\/L. A tricin derivative was present in the highest

Joaquim Maurício Duarte-Almeida; Alexis Vidal Novoa; Adyary Fallarero Linares; Franco M. Lajolo; Maria Inés Genovese

2006-01-01

300

WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING  

SciTech Connect

Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex{trademark} manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex{trademark}. The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package.

Varble, J

2007-11-20

301

Measuring Energetics and Behaviour Using Accelerometry in Cane Toads Bufo marinus  

PubMed Central

Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration), to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R2?=?0.74). Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species. PMID:20422048

Halsey, Lewis G.; White, Craig R.

2010-01-01

302

Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

2012-04-01

303

Efficient all-optical production of large Li6 quantum gases using D1 gray-molasses cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a gray molasses operating on the D1 atomic transition to produce degenerate quantum gases of Li6 with a large number of atoms. This sub-Doppler cooling phase allows us to lower the initial temperature of 109 atoms from 500 to 40 ?K in 2 ms. We observe that D1 cooling remains effective into a high-intensity infrared dipole trap where two-state mixtures are evaporated to reach the degenerate regime. We produce molecular Bose-Einstein condensates of up to 5 × 105 molecules and weakly interacting degenerate Fermi gases of 7×105 atoms at T /TF<0.1 with a typical experimental duty cycle of 11 s.

Burchianti, A.; Valtolina, G.; Seman, J. A.; Pace, E.; De Pas, M.; Inguscio, M.; Zaccanti, M.; Roati, G.

2014-10-01

304

Improved ethanol production from cheese whey, whey powder, and sugar beet molasses by "Vitreoscilla hemoglobin expressing" Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

This work investigated the improvement of ethanol production by engineered ethanologenic Escherichia coli to express the hemoglobin from the bacterium Vitreoscilla (VHb). Ethanologenic E. coli strain FBR5 and FBR5 transformed with the VHb gene in two constructs (strains TS3 and TS4) were grown in cheese whey (CW) medium at small and large scales, at both high and low aeration, or with whey powder (WP) or sugar beet molasses hydrolysate (SBMH) media at large scale and low aeration. Culture pH, cell growth, VHb levels, and ethanol production were evaluated after 48 h. VHb expression in TS3 and TS4 enhanced their ethanol production in CW (21-419%), in WP (17-362%), or in SBMH (48-118%) media. This work extends the findings that "VHb technology" may be useful for improving the production of ethanol from waste and byproducts of various sources. PMID:25036968

Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Sar, Taner; Ozcelik, Busra

2014-01-01

305

Ethanol fermentation from molasses at high temperature by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 and energy assessment for recovery.  

PubMed

High temperature ethanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses B using thermophilic Crabtree-positive yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 was carried out in batch bioreactor system. Strain was found to have a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.688 g/g/h with 92 % theoretical ethanol yield. Aeration and initial sugar concentration were tuning parameters to regulate metabolic pathways of the strain for either cell mass or higher ethanol production during growth with an optimum sugar to cell ratio 33:1 requisite for fermentation. An assessment of ethanol recovery from fermentation broth via simulation study illustrated that distillation-based conventional recovery was significantly better in terms of energy efficiency and overall mass recovery in comparison to coupled solvent extraction-azeotropic distillation technique for the same. PMID:24682264

Dasgupta, Diptarka; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Debashish; Suman, Sunil Kumar; Khan, Rashmi; Agrawal, Deepti; Adhikari, Dilip K

2014-10-01

306

A controlled-release molasses barrier system for controlling nitrate plume in groundwater: A large flow-tank study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well-type permeable barrier system containing controlled-release molasses as a reactive material to promote the indigenous denitrifying activity (termed CRM system hereafter) has been developed for controlling nitrate plume in groundwater. To control the release of molasses as an extra carbon and energy source, CRM rod (OD x L = 4 cm x 30 cm) was manufactured using molding technique by dispersing molasses in paraffin wax-cellulose-silica matrix. A large scale flow-tank (L x W x D = 8 m x 4 m x 1 m, 95 m3 of sands, porosity of 0.45) was prepared to test the CRM system (L x W x D = 3 m x 4 m x 1 m) in destroying nitrate, which was consisted of three layers of discrete barriers installed at 1-m interval. Nitrate plume (1.2 m/d of velocity, 142 mg/L of nitrate) was generated by introducing both tap water (1.1 m3/d) and diluted nitrate solution (0.5 m3/d, 312 mg/L of nitrate) daily. Changes in nitrate concentrations were monitored at 30 monitoring points across the flow-tank. For 14 (i.e., the first test), 21 (i.e., the second test), and 42 (i.e., the third test) days, 80, 140, and 140 CRM rods were placed into the barriers to construct the CRM system, respectively. An indigenous microorganism Ensifer adhaerens (97% similarity) was identified from the flow-tank sands, which was probably the main denitrifier in the system. After the second test, a heterotrophic denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. KY1 was inoculated to increase destruction efficiency into the flow-tank sands for the third test. For the first test, nitrate concentrations decreased by 29, 59, and 80% after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd barriers, respectively. For the second and third tests, nitrate concentrations decreased by 32 and 26% for the 1st, 68 and 74% for the 2nd, and 84 and 81% for the 3rd barrier, indicating little effects of inoculating KY1 on destruction efficiencies. At 5.5 m downstream (i.e., 1.75 m behind the 3rd barrier), nitrate concentrations decreased by 81, 90, and 90% at the first, second, and third tests, respectively. COD values were determined as an indirect indication of molasses concentrations ranging from 161 to 329 mg/L for the 1st, 81 to 287 mg/L for the 2nd, and 105 to 377 mg/L for the 3rd barrier. Incomplete destruction of nitrate plume could be attributed to the lack of transverse dispersion in flow-tank sands. The present study suggests that the CRM system may provide a practical tool for a long-term treatment option of nitrate plume in groundwater.

Lee, B. S.; Um, J. Y.; Lee, K. Y.; Kim, Y. B.; Nam, K.; Woo, N. C.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. M.

2009-04-01

307

Molecular characterization and molasses fermentation performance of a wild yeast strain operating in an extremely wide temperature range.  

PubMed

Molasses fermentation performance by both a cryotolerant and a thermophilic yeast (strain AXAZ-1) isolated from grapes in Greece was evaluated in an extremely wide temperature range (3-40 degrees C). Sequence analysis of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 ribosomal DNA (rDNA) regions assigned isolate to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the mitochondrial DNA showed that strain AXAZ-1 is genetically divergent compared to other wild strains of Greek origin or commercial yeast starters. Yeast cells growing planktonically were capable of fermentation in a wide temperature spectrum, ranging from 3 degrees C to 38 degrees C. Immobilization of yeast on brewer's spent grains (BSG) improved the thermo-tolerance of the strain and enabled fermentation at 40 degrees C. Time to complete fermentation with the immobilized yeast ranged from 20 days at 3 to 38 h at 40 degrees C. The daily ethanol productivity reached maximum (58.1 g/L) and minimum (2.5 g/L) levels at 30 and 3 degrees C, respectively. The aroma-related compounds' profiles of immobilized cells at different fermentation temperatures were evaluated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Molasses fermentation resulted in a high quality fermentation product due to the low concentrations of higher and amyl alcohols at all temperatures tested. Strain AXAZ-1 is very promising for the production of ethanol from low cost raw materials, as it was capable to perform fermentations of high ethanol concentration and productivities in both low and high temperatures. PMID:19520567

Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Nisiotou, Aspasia; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Panas, Panayiotis; Nychas, George J-E; Kanellaki, Maria

2009-10-01

308

75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

2010-08-30

309

Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area reached values above 200 t ha-1, with higher values of productivity are concentrated in the region northern terrain. The maps of soil electrical conductivity (ECa-V and ECa-H) showed behavior similar to the productivity of cane sugar. The linear correlation showed values of 0.74 (yield x ECa-H) and 0.85 (yield x ECa-V). The adjusted semivariograms showed no similarity in the spatial pattern of pairs of semivariance. The electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction has been shown as an important tool for predicting the productivity of sugar cane, however more studies are needed to determine the magnitude of the differences between such attributes.

Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

2013-04-01

310

Stilbene levels in grape cane of different cultivars in southern Chile: determination by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method.  

PubMed

Health benefits of trans-resveratrol and other stilbenes in grapes, must, and wine have been pointed out by numerous authors. Less attention has been paid to the presence of stilbene derivatives in viticultural residues, such as grape canes. The present work reports the first results of a systematic study of stilbene levels in different grape varieties and cultivation areas in Chile, to evaluate their potential as an alternative source of bioactive stilbenes. In all cane samples, the predominant stilbene is trans-resveratrol, followed by ?-viniferin and piceatannol. In canes of Pinot noir up to 5590 ± 172 mg kg(-1) of trans-resveratrol and up to 6915 ± 175 mg kg(-1) of total stilbenes were detected. The observed concentrations of stilbenes in canes of Pinot noir from southern Chile until now are higher than those reported previously for this red variety. However, the highest concentration of total stilbenes observed in the analyzed samples was in the canes of white variety Gewürztraminer with 7857 ± 498 mg kg(-1). Preliminary results indicate that these levels can evolve if canes are left for some months on the vineyard after pruning, observing an increase during the first 2 months and a decrease after this period. PMID:22224931

Vergara, Carola; von Baer, Dietrich; Mardones, Claudia; Wilkens, Andrea; Wernekinck, Katerina; Damm, Anika; Macke, Sebastian; Gorena, Tamara; Winterhalter, Peter

2012-02-01

311

The Influence of Supplementation with Urea–Molasses Blocks on Weight Gain and Nematode Parasitism of Dairy Calves in Central Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of feeding urea–molasses blocks (UMB) on the growth and gastrointestinal nematode parasitism of dairy weaner calves grazing on the same pasture was investigated on a farm in Thika District, central Kenya. Twenty-six female calves, with an average age of 9 months, were initially treated orally with albendazole (10 mg\\/kg body weight) and assigned into two groups: animals in

R. M. Waruiru

2004-01-01

312

Determination of antimicrobial activity and production of some metabolites by Pseudomonas aeruginosa B1 and B2 in sugar beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, exopolysaccharide (EPS), pyocyanin, rhamnolipid productions, total cell proteins and antimicrobial activities were investigated in two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (B1 and B2). Exopolysaccharide, pyocyanin and rhamnolipid production of strains were determined in nutrient broth medium (NB) as control and different sugar beet molasses concentrations (1-5 % w\\/v) at different periods (24, 48 and 72 h) by

Dilsad Onbasli; Belma Aslim

2008-01-01

313

Effects of the inclusion of dried molassed sugar beet pulp in a low-forage diet on the digestive process and blood biochemical parameters of Holstein steers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of substituting various concentrations of dried molassed sugar beet pulp (SBP) for barley grain in low-forage diets on chewing behavior, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibilities and blood biochemical parameters using four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers in a 4×4 Latin square design over 28-day periods. Steers (368±8kg initial body weight) were fed 9.5kg of dietary dry matter (DM)

M. Mojtahedi; M. Danesh Mesgaran

2011-01-01

314

Effects of formaldehyde treated mustard cake and molasses supplementation on nutrient utilization, microbial protein supply and feed efficiency in growing kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty healthy growing male kids (Sannen×Beetal and Alpine×Beetal) of 2–3 months of age, weighing 12±0.61kg, were randomly assigned to one to four dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial design. Two types of isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate mixtures were fed to kids in four treatments being: untreated mustard cake, untreated mustard cake with molasses, formaldehyde treated mustard cake and formaldehyde treated

B. Sahoo; T. K. Walli

2008-01-01

315

Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate  

SciTech Connect

Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A. [Faculty of Chemical Enginering of Lorena (Brazil); Vitolo, M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1997-12-31

316

Characterisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I in the Australian Cane Toad, Rhinella marina  

PubMed Central

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I is a highly variable gene family that encodes cell-surface receptors vital for recognition of intracellular pathogens and initiation of immune responses. The MHC class I has yet to be characterised in bufonid toads (Order: Anura; Suborder: Neobatrachia; Family: Bufonidae), a large and diverse family of anurans. Here we describe the characterisation of a classical MHC class I gene in the Australian cane toad, Rhinella marina. From 25 individuals sampled from the Australian population, we found only 3 alleles at this classical class I locus. We also found large number of class I alpha 1 alleles, implying an expansion of class I loci in this species. The low classical class I genetic diversity is likely the result of repeated bottleneck events, which arose as a result of the cane toad's complex history of introductions as a biocontrol agent and its subsequent invasion across Australia. PMID:25093458

Lillie, Mette; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

2014-01-01

317

Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate.  

PubMed

Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K(L)a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. PMID:18576110

Silva, S S; Ribeiro, J D; Felipe, M G; Vitolo, M

1997-01-01

318

Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants  

PubMed Central

Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from ‘floor dump sediment’, ‘cooling tower water’, and ‘bagasse leachate’. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as ‘lactic acid bacteria’, capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

2013-01-01

319

Mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of Trichoderma reesei with Aspergillus niger on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma reesei LM-UC4, the parent strain, and its hypercellulolytic mutant LM-UC4E1 were co-cultured with Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 in solid substrate fermentation on alkali-treated sugar cane for cellulolytic enzyme production. Bagasse was supplemented with either soymeal or with ammonium sulfate and urea, and fermented at 80% moisture content and 30°C. Mixed culturing produced better results with the inorganic supplement. The

Marcel Gutierrez-Correa; Leticia Portal; Patricia Moreno; Robert P. Tengerdy

1999-01-01

320

Study of the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse using phosphoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, samples of sugar cane bagasse were hydrolysed with phosphoric acid under mild conditions (H3PO4 2–6%, time 0–300min and 122°C) to study the feasibility of using the liquid phase as fermentation media. Solid yield, sugar concentrations and decomposition product concentrations were measured. The composition of hydrolysates, their purity and the ratio sugars\\/inhibitors were analyzed. Kinetic models were

Sara Gámez; Juan Jose González-Cabriales; José Alberto Ramírez; Gil Garrote; Manuel Vázquez

2006-01-01

321

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate for ethanol production by yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate was prepared by dilute sulfuric acid (3% w\\/v) hydrolysis with a high-solid, low-liquid\\u000a ratio followed by leaching. The hydrolyzate contains 11% (w\\/v) of fermentable sugars with xylose as the major component, which\\u000a comprises up to 75% of the total reducing sugars. The neutralized hydrolyzate exhibited strong inhibition toward cell growth\\u000a and ethanol production by yeasts.

C. S. Gong; C. S. Chen; L. F. Chen

1993-01-01

322

Lack of cholesterol-lowering efficacy of Cuban sugar cane policosanols in hypercholesterolemic persons13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: More than 50 studies have reported substantial re- ductions in plasma lipid concentrations in response to 2-40 mg Cuban sugar cane policosanol (SCP) mixtures\\/d. However, several animal and human trials conducted outside of Cuba that used non- Cubanmixtureshavefailedtoreproducetheefficacyofpolicosanols observed in earlier studies. Objective: The objective was to evaluate lipid-modulating actions of the authentic Cuban SCPs on plasma lipids in

Amira N Kassis; Peter JH Jones

323

Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

1983-01-01

324

Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1982-01-01

325

Cadmium stress in sugar cane callus cultures: Effect on antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are antioxidant enzymes which are important in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and can be induced by environmental stresses including cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal toxic to living organisms. Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarumL.) in vitro callus cultures were exposed to CdCl2 and the activities of CAT and SOD were analysed. Lower concentrations

Ricardo F. Fornazier; Renato R. Ferreira; Guilherme J. G. Pereira; Silvia M. G. Molina; R. John Smith; Peter J. Lea; Ricardo A. Azevedo

2002-01-01

326

Variable Stars in the Newly Discovered Milky Way Dwarf Spheroidal Satellite Canes Venatici I  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified 23 RR Lyrae stars and three possible anomalous Cepheids (ACs) among 84 candidate variables in the recently discovered Canes Venatici I (CVn I) dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The mean period of 18 RRab type stars, =0.60+\\/-0.01 days, and the location of these stars in the period-amplitude diagram suggest that CVn I is likely an Oosterhoff-intermediate system. The average

Charles Kuehn; Karen Kinemuchi; Vincenzo Ripepi; Gisella Clementini; Massimo Dall'Ora; Luca Di Fabrizio; Christopher T. Rodgers; Claudia Greco; Marcella Marconi; Ilaria Musella; Horace A. Smith; Márcio Catelan; Timothy C. Beers; Barton J. Pritzl

2008-01-01

327

On the Newly Discovered Canes Venatici II dSph Galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the detection of variable stars in the Canes Venatici II (CVn II) dwarf spheroidal galaxy, a new satellite of the Milky Way recently discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We also present a V, B-V color-magnitude diagram that reaches V~25.5 mag, showing the galaxy's main-sequence turnoff at V~24.5 mag and revealing several candidate blue straggler stars.

Claudia Greco; Massimo Dall'Ora; Gisella Clementini; Vincenzo Ripepi; Luca Di Fabrizio; Karen Kinemuchi; Marcella Marconi; Ilaria Musella; Horace A. Smith; Christopher T. Rodgers; Charles Kuehn; Timothy C. Beers; Márcio Catelan; Barton J. Pritzl

2008-01-01

328

An isotopic method for quantifying sweeteners derived from corn and sugar cane1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, as well as cane sugar, has been implicated in the rise of the obesity and diabetes epidemics. To date, however, no reliable biomarker for the con- sumption of these sweeteners is available. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the natural abundance stable-carbon-isotope signature of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. Design:

A Hope Jahren; Christopher Saudek; Edwina H Yeung; Linda Kao; Rebecca A Kraft; Benjamin Caballero

329

Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, ?-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should\\u000a be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase,\\u000a ?-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g

Bernard A. Prior; Donal F. Day

330

Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, ?-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should\\u000a be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase,\\u000a ?-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a

Bernard A. Prior; Donal F. Day

2008-01-01

331

Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, beta-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, beta-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g

Bernard A. Prior; Donal F. Day

2008-01-01

332

Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range  

SciTech Connect

Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degree sign C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Jordan, Kevin J. [Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada)

2009-04-15

333

Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.

1979-01-01

334

The effect of fire retardants on combustion and pyrolysis of sugar-cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimetry to measure the affect of three fire retardants (ammonium sulphate, boric acid and borax) on the mass-loss rate and combustion characteristics of sugar-cane bagasse. Compared with untreated bagasse, bagasse impregnated with aqueous solutions of 0.1–0.5M fire retardants exhibited an increase in char mass production from 16% up to 41%

G. J. Griffin

2011-01-01

335

Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.  

PubMed

Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg. PMID:20133118

Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

2010-05-01

336

Properties of aerosols from sugar-cane burning emissions in Southeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influences of biomass burning emissions in the composition of aerosol have been studied during 1 year around the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil). Inhalable particles, separated in PM 2.5 and coarse particulate mode (CPM, with size in the range (2.5< dp<10 ?m)), were sampled from April 1997 to March 1998 and analyzed for BC, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pb. The average concentrations of PM 2.5, CPM, BC and chemical elements were statistically higher in the dry season than in the wet season. The results of absolute principal component analysis showed four and three different sources for PM 2.5 and CPM, respectively. Sugar-cane burning is the main source of PM 2.5 representing 60% of PM 2.5, soil dust accounted for 14%, and industries and oil combustion contributed with 12% each one. Resuspended soil is the main source of CPM followed by industrial emissions and sugar-cane burning. The sampling and analytical procedures applied in this study showed that sugar-cane burning and agricultural practices are the main sources of inhalable particles, possibly altering the aerosol composition around the city of Piracicaba.

Lara, L. L.; Artaxo, P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Camargo, P. B.; Victoria, R. L.; Ferraz, E. S. B.

337

Advancing energy cane cell wall digestibility screening by near-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Breeding energy cane for cellulosic biofuel production involves manipulating various traits. An important trait to optimize is cell wall degradability as defined by enzymatic hydrolysis. We investigated the feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with multivariate calibration to predict energy cane cell wall digestibility based upon fiber samples from a range of sugarcane genotypes and related species. These samples produced digestibility values ranging between 6 and 31%. To preserve the practicality of the technique, spectra obtained from crudely prepared samples were used. Various spectral pre-processing methods were tested, with the best NIRS calibration obtained from second derivative, orthogonal signal-corrected spectra. Model performance was evaluated by cross-validation and independent validation. Large differences between the performance results from the two validation approaches indicated that the model was sensitive to the choice of test data. This may be remedied by using a larger calibration training set containing diverse sample types. The best result was obtained through independent validation which produced a R(2) value of 0.86, a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.59, and a ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) of 2.7. This study has demonstrated that it is feasible and practical to use NIRS to predict energy cane cell wall digestibility. PMID:24067572

Chong, Barrie Fong; O'Shea, Michael G

2013-10-01

338

Design, development, and clinical evaluation of the electronic mobility cane for vision rehabilitation.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a new electronic mobility cane (EMC) for providing obstacle detection and way-finding assistance to the visually impaired people. The main feature of this cane is that it constructs the logical map of the surrounding environment to deduce the priority information. It provides a simplified representation of the surrounding environment without causing any information overload. It conveys this priority information to the subject by using intuitive vibration, audio or voice feedback. The other novel features of the EMC are staircase detection and nonformal distance scaling scheme. It also provides information about the floor status. It consists of a low power embedded system with ultrasonic sensors and safety indicators. The EMC was subjected to series of clinical evaluations in order to verify its design and to assess its ability to assist the subjects in their daily-life mobility. Clinical evaluations were performed with 16 totally blind and four low vision subjects. All subjects walked controlled and the real-world test environments with the EMC and the traditional white cane. The evaluation results and significant scores of subjective measurements have shown the usefulness of the EMC in vision rehabilitation services. PMID:24860035

Bhatlawande, Shripad; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Biswas, Mukul; Das, Debabrata; Gupta, Somedeb

2014-11-01

339

Use of urea-molasses-multinutrient block and urea-treated rice straw for improving dairy cattle productivity in Vietnam.  

PubMed

After conducting a preliminary survey, a feeding trial was carried out to determine the effect of urea-molasses-multinutrient block (UMMB) and urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) as a feed supplement on the productivity of dairy cows. Sixty Holstein-Friesian crossbred cows on 11 smallholder farms were divided equally into control, UMMB and UTRS supplementation groups. Milk yield and feed intake were recorded daily. Milk fat content, body weight and body condition score (BSC) of each cow were determined at two week intervals. Milk samples for progesterone analysis were collected once a week commencing one month after parturition. Data were recorded for date of onset of ovarian activity, estrus, insemination, and conception rate. Milk production increased by 10.3-11.9% and milk fat content increased by 3-5%, therefore, profit for farmers increased by US $0.55-0.73 per cow per day (exchange rate US $1 = VN $11,000). The intervals from calving to onset of ovarian activity (91-94 days), to estrus (110-114 days), to conception (121-122 days) and the calving interval (13.4-13.6 months) in the trial groups were significantly shorter than those in the control group (112, 135, 152 days and 14.4 months, respectively. PMID:10081798

Vu, D D; Cuong, L X; Dung, C A; Hai, P H

1999-01-27

340

Optimization of continuous hydrogen production from co-fermenting molasses with liquid swine manure in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.  

PubMed

This study investigated and optimized the operational conditions for continuous hydrogen production from sugar beet molasses, co-fermented with liquid swine manure in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor. Results indicated that pH, HRT and total solids content in the swine manure (TS) had significant impact on all the responses such as biogas production rate (BPR), hydrogen content (HC), hydrogen production rate (HPR), and hydrogen yield (HY), although the highest level of each response was achieved at different combination of the three variables. The maximum BPR, HC, HPR and HY of 32.21 L/d, 30.51%, 2.23 L/d/L and 1.57 mol-H2/mol-sugar were estimated at the optimal pH, HRT, and TS of 5.55, 15.78 h, and 0.71% for BPR; 5.22, 12.04, and 0.69 for HC; 5.32, 15.62, and 0.78% for HPR; and 5.36, 17.56, and 0.74% for HY, respectively. Good linear relationships of the predicted and tested results for all the parameters were observed. PMID:23567702

Wu, Xiao; Lin, Hongjian; Zhu, Jun

2013-05-01

341

Ethanol production from sugar beet molasses by S. cerevisiae entrapped in an alginate-maize stem ground tissue matrix.  

PubMed

A new alginate-maize stem ground tissue matrix was developed as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrier for ethanol fermentation from sugar beet molasses. There were several fermentation procedures in the present study: using free cells and alginate-entrapped cells with and without maize stem ground tissue supplementation (F; F+C; AB; AB+C), and using a new combined alginate-maize stem ground tissue carrier (ABC). It was found that addition of maize stem ground tissue meal (C), with honeycomb configuration, provided high surface areas for cell attachment and biofilm growth, and also increased alginate matrix porosity, enabling better mass transfer characteristic, better physical strength and stability of beads. The highest values of process parameters were obtained in the case of new carrier (ABC): the ethanol concentration of 60.36 g/l, percentage of the theoretical ethanol yield of 96.56%, ethanol yield of 0.493 g/g and the volumetric ethanol productivity of 2.51 g/lh. The medium supplementation with maize stem ground tissue significantly decreased acetaldehyde and acetic acid content, did not affect fusel alcohol and ethylacetate content of the distillate. PMID:22112953

Razmovski, R; Vu?urovi?, V

2011-04-01

342

Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in time ourselves, we investigated whether material at the museum of natural history could be used to retrieve parasites, and whether they were infected at the time of their collection (specifically prior to and after the cane toad translocation to Australia in 1935). Results Using the herpetological collection at the Australian Museum we showed that no myxospores were found in any animals (n = 115) prior to the cane toad invasion (1879-1935). The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea), the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) and the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) were all negative for the presence of the parasite using microscopy of the gallbladder content and its histology. These results were sufficient to conclude that the population was free from this disease (at the expected minimum prevalence of 5%) at 99.7% confidence level using the 115 voucher specimens in the Australian Museum. Similarly, museum specimens (n = 29) of the green and golden bell frog from New Caledonia, where it was introduced in 19th century, did not show the presence of myxospores. The earliest specimen positive for myxospores in a gallbladder was a green tree frog from 1966. Myxospores were found in eight (7.1%, n = 112) frogs in the post cane toad introduction period. Conclusion Australian wildlife is increasingly under threat, and amphibian decline is one of the most dramatic examples. The museum material proved essential to directly support the evidence of parasite emergence in Australian native frogs. This parasite can be considered one of the luckiest parasites, because it has found an empty niche in Australia. It now flourishes in > 20 endemic and exotic frog species, but its consequences are yet to be fully understood. PMID:20537137

2010-01-01

343

Clay Cane is a New York City-based, award-winning writer and media consultant. His work covers various topics such as pop culture, sexuality, race, religion, social net-  

E-print Network

Clay Cane Clay Cane is a New York City-based, award-winning writer and media consultant. His work covers various topics such as pop culture, sexuality, race, religion, social net- working and personal

Miami, University of

344

Potential and costs for the production of electrolytic hydrogen in alcohol and sugar cane plants in the central and south regions of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project verified the potential for the production of hydrogen via water electrolysis by using the exceeding electrical energy resultant from alcohol and sugar plants that use sugar cane bagasse as fuel. The studies were carried out in cogeneration plants authorized by the Electrical Energy National Agency (ANEEL). The processing history of sugar cane considered was based on the 2006\\/2007

Maria Cristina Rodrigues Halmeman; Samuel Nelson Melegari de Souza; Paulo Takashi Oyama

2008-01-01

345

Impact of cultivation and sugar-cane green trash management on carbon fractions and aggregate stability for a Chromic Luvisol in Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advances in sugar-cane harvesting and processing is bringing about rapid changes in production systems which could impact on soil physical conditions. An increasing incidence of soil structural decline and depletion of soil carbon levels has increased the risk of soil erosion and crop yield reductions. Soil carbon (C) and aggregate stability were studied on a sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

Nelly Blair

2000-01-01

346

STELLAR POPULATIONS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA FAINT DWARF GALAXIES, CANES VENATICI I, BOOeTES I, CANES VENATICI II, AND LEO IV  

SciTech Connect

We take deep images of four ultra faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Canes Venatici I (CVn I), Booetes I (Booe I), Canes Venatici II (CVn II), and Leo IV, using the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend below main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) and yield measurements of the ages of stellar populations. The stellar populations of three faint galaxies, the Booe I, CVn II, and Leo IV dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), are estimated to be as old as the Galactic globular cluster M92. We confirm that Booe I dSph has no intrinsic color spread in the MSTO and no spatial difference in the CMD morphology, which indicates that Booe I dSph is composed of an old single stellar population. One of the brightest UFDs, CVn I dSph, shows a relatively younger age ({approx}12.6 Gyr) with respect to Booe I, CVn II, and Leo IV dSphs, and the distribution of red horizontal branch (HB) stars is more concentrated toward the center than that of blue HB stars, suggesting that the galaxy contains complex stellar populations. Booe I and CVn I dSphs show the elongated and distorted shapes. CVn II dSph has the smallest tidal radius of a Milky Way satellite and has a distorted shape, while Leo IV dSph shows a less concentrated spherical shape. The simple stellar population of faint UFDs indicates that the gases in their progenitors were removed more effectively than those of brighter dSphs at the occurrence of their initial star formation. This is reasonable if the progenitors of UFDs belong to less massive halos than those of brighter dSphs.

Okamoto, Sakurako [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Arimoto, Nobuo; Yamada, Yoshihiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Onodera, Masato, E-mail: okamoto@pku.edu.cn [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2012-01-10

347

Beet-vinasse (condensed molasses solubles) as an ingredient in diets for cattle and pigs - nutritive value and limitations.  

PubMed

Sugar beet vinasse, originating as the condensed molasses residue from yeast production, was fed to bulls and pigs to determine the feed value. It contained, per kg dry matter (DM content 66.8%), 293 g crude protein, 305 g N-free extract (therefrom 34.4 g total sugar), and 395 g crude ash. The experiment was carried out with three fattening bulls (German Holstein) and four adult pigs (Gottingen Minipig). In bulls, two balance trials lasting 20 days each (10 days adaptation; 10 days collection) were conducted in which subsequently a basal ration without and with vinasse (14% in DM) was fed. In pigs, the experiment consisted of three 12-day balance trials with the final 5 days as collection period. In the first trial, pigs received a basal diet without vinasse and in the following, a mixed diet with 16 and 43% vinasse (in DM) respectively. Digestibilities of components in vinasse in bulls were: organic matter 73.5%, crude protein 72.6%, and N-free extract 52.3%. In bulls, no influence on faeces quality could be detected while feeding 14% vinasse in DM. While feeding 16% vinasse in DM to pigs, the digestibility of organic matter amounted to 72.3% (crude protein 71.8%; NfE 74.6%). Feeding higher amounts of vinasse (43% in DM) in the diet of pigs, digestibilities were reduced (organic matter: 61.6%), which might be a result of a reduced retention time of the chyme as a result of an osmotically driven diarrhoea because of unexpectedly high sulphate (136 g/kg DM) content in the vinasse. It is concluded that because of organic matter digestibility >70% for cattle and pigs, the use of vinasse in these species in small proportions is reasonable. PMID:15787991

Stemme, K; Gerdes, B; Harms, A; Kamphues, J

2005-01-01

348

3-D seismic analysis of a carbonate platform in the Molasse Basin - reef distribution and internal separation with seismic attributes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate platforms differ from clastic sedimentary environments by a greater heterogeneity, so that key horizons for mapping and compartmentalisation of the reservoir are generally missing. We show that different seismic attributes help to compete with these difficulties and to identify different carbonate facies within the platform. The Upper Jurassic carbonate platform in Southern Germany in the Molasse Basin is a main exploration target for hydrogeothermal projects. Knowledge about the distribution of different carbonate facies within the platform, which is overprinted by faults, is important for a realistic reservoir simulation. The platform with an average thickness of 600 meters was artificially divided into four layers of equal thickness. Within each layer the characteristic seismic pattern was visualized by different attributes (travel time mapping, spectral decomposition), allowing additionally for further depositional classification. Within the uppermost layer the coral reef distribution could be mapped. The reefs form several complexes of up to 12 square kilometres in size. The surrounding slope and trough areas are identified as well. Within the platform , the distribution of sponge reefs could be visualized. They form either amalgamations in distinct areas, or are spread as small singular structures with diameters of approximately less than hundred meters. Comparing tectonic elements and reef distribution within the whole platform reveals that the early topography triggered the reef distribution, while these lithologic inhomogenities influenced later on the local shape of tectonic lineaments. The fault system which dominates the structural style in the area is visible in the different transformations but does not obscure the facies distribution, which hindered former interpretations of the data set. In this way a reservoir model can incorporate now the first time the reef distribution within an area.

von Hartmann, Hartwig; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Schulz, Rüdiger

2012-10-01

349

A cross-sectional study on the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis among sugar cane cutters in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity survey was carried out among sugar cane cutters of Hippo Valley and Triangle, the two largest irrigated sugar estates in Zimbabwe. Urine and stool specimens were collected for determination of schistosomiasis infection from 1995 cane cutters. A total of 315 (15.8pc) cutters were found to be infected with Schistosoma mansoni while 163 (8.2pc) were found to be positive for S. haematobium. The arithmetic mean egg count (AMEC) and geometric mean egg count (GMEC) for the different age groups into which the cane cutters were divided was calculated. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni increased with age while the opposite was true for S. haematobium. The factors contributing to this observation are discussed. PMID:1790561

Ndamba, J; Makaza, N; Kaondera, K C; Gomo, E

1991-06-01

350

Selection of bacteria capable of dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) from a long-term continuous culture on molasses and their use in a microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

Ferric ion-respiring microorganisms (FRMs) are a group of prokaryotes that use Fe(III) as well as other metals as terminal electron acceptors in the process of anaerobic respiration. Special attention is paid to a biotechnological significance of FRMs because of their potential role in electricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) where the terminal acceptor of the electrons during anaerobic respiration is not a ferric ion but the anode. One of the best known FRMs is the Shewanellaceae family. Most of the Shewanella species have been isolated from marine environments. In this report, sugar beet molasses and ferric oxide were successfully used in the selection of a bacterial consortium capable of dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction in a long-term continuous culture. The inoculum was a sample of eutrophic lake bottom sediment. Among the bacteria present in this culture were representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Pseudomonas, Arcobacter, and Shewanella. Two non-marine Fe(III)-reducing Shewanella-related clones named POL1 and POL2 were isolated. The abilities of the POL1 and POL2 isolates to metabolize a panel of 190 carbon sources were examined using a BIOLOG assay. The results confirmed the abilities of the shewanellas to utilize a broad range of carbon substrates. The utility of the POL1 and POL2 isolates in H-type MFCs operating on pyruvate or molasses was demonstrated. The operation of the MFC with shewanellas cultured on molasses was shown for the first time. A two-stage character of the fuel cell polarization curves, not previously noted in Shewanella MFC studies, was observed. PMID:21464603

Sikora, Anna; Wójtowicz-Sie?ko, Justyna; Piela, Piotr; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Tomczyk-Zak, Karolina; Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Sikora, Rados?aw; Kowalczyk, Pawe?; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; B?aszczyk, Mieczys?aw

2011-03-01

351

Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p<0.05) LA content and higher dry matter (DM) recovery than the control and P silages. P silage had lower (p<0.05) LA content than the control silage. During aerobic exposure, lactic acid contents decreased gradually in the control and M silages, while that of P and PM silages increased, and the peak values were observed after 9 d. M silage had similar yeast counts with the control silage (>105 cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage. PMID:25049961

Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

2014-01-01

352

Assessment of Virally Vectored Autoimmunity as a Biocontrol Strategy for Cane Toads  

PubMed Central

Background The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. Methodology/Principal Findings The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs), developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin) and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels) measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. Conclusions/Significance While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach. PMID:21283623

Robinson, Anthony J.; Venables, Daryl; Voysey, Rhonda D.; Boyle, Donna G.; Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Hardy, Christopher M.; Siddon, Nicole A.; Hyatt, Alex D.

2011-01-01

353

Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

2014-05-01

354

Method for processing whole cane and sweet sorghum into fuel alcohol and electric power  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for fermenting whole cane in situ to ethanol, rather than extracting the sugar and fermenting it separately. An energy efficient way of obtaining dehydrated ethanol is the employment of a molecular sieve using bagasse as a desicant. The remaining bagasse is recovered and dried prior to gasification. The producer gas is used to fuel a spark ignition engine which may be geared either to a generating unit or a hydraulic pump. The economics of the process are discussed briefly. (Refs. 3).

le Grand, F.

1983-10-01

355

Production of ethanol from sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate by Pichia stipitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability ofPichia stipitis to fermentd-xylose andd-glucose in the acid-hydrolyzed hemicellulose component of sugar cane bagasse depends on the alkali used to neutralize the\\u000a hydrolyzate to pH 6.5. With NH4OH and NaOH no fermentation occurred, whereas neutralization with Ca(OH)2 gave the best results (Qpmax=0.25 g\\/L-h; Yp\\/s =0.38 g\\/g sugar). However, the volumetric productivity was still considerably less than observed in

Carina Van Zyl; Bernard A. Prior; James C. Du Preez

1988-01-01

356

Biofiltration of volatile ethanol using sugar cane bagasse inoculated with Candida utilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candidautilis (C.utilis) growing on sugar cane bagasse complemented with a mineral salt solution was studied for gaseous ethanol removal in a biofilter. Ethanol loads from 93.7 to 511.9g\\/hm3 were used, by varying both inlet ethanol concentration (9.72 to 52.4g\\/m3) and air flow rate (1.59×10?3 to 2.86×10?3m3\\/h). At a loading rate of 93.7g\\/hm3, a steady-state was maintained for 300h. Ethanol removal

P. Christen; F. Domenech; G. Michelena; R. Auria; S. Revah

2002-01-01

357

Single-mode quantum cascade lasers employing a candy-cane shaped monolithic coupled cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate single-mode quantum cascade lasers emitting at ˜4.5 ?m by employing a monolithic "candy-cane" shaped coupled-cavity consisting of a straight section connecting at one end to a spiral section. The fabrication process is identical to those for simple Fabry-Perot-type ridge lasers. Continuously tunable single-mode emission across ˜8 cm-1 with side mode suppression ratio up to ˜25 dB and a single-mode operating current range of more than 70% above the threshold current is achieved when the lasers are operated in pulsed-mode from 80 K to 155 K.

Liu, Peter Q.; Sladek, Kamil; Wang, Xiaojun; Fan, Jen-Yu; Gmachl, Claire F.

2011-12-01

358

Development and application of a thermophysical property model for cane fiberboard subjected to high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A thermophysical property model has been developed to analytically determine the thermal response of cane fiberboard when exposed to temperatures and heat fluxes associated with the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident condition (HAC) and associated post fire cooling. The complete model was developed from high temperature cane fiberboard 1-D test results and consists of heating and cooling sub-models. The heating property model accounts for the enhanced heat transfer of the hot gases in the fiberboard, the loss of energy via venting, and the loss of mass from venting during the heating portion of the test. The cooling property model accounts for the degraded material effects and the continued heat transfer associated with the hot gases after removal of the external heating source. Agreement between the test results of a four inch thick fiberboard sample with the analytical application of the complete property model is quite good and will be presented. A comparison of analysis results and furnace test data for the 9966 package suggests that the property model sufficiently accounts for the heat transfer in an actual package.

Hensel, S.J.; Gromada, R.J.

1994-06-01

359

Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 9: Catalytic liquefaction in ethanol  

SciTech Connect

This article presents the results of a study on the process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, using ethanol as solvent. A systematic study with 12 different types of commercially available catalysts was accomplished. For each catalyst, the conversion yield of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products, which are useful as liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks, was determined. The highest conversion yield was observed when a nickel catalyst on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used. The liquefied products were fractionated into oils, asphaltenes, and asphaltols. The oil samples were separated and then fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography. The highest proportion of light-oils (F1 to F5) was obtained with the potassium fluoride catalyst on silica gel. High proportions of resins (F6) were obtained with three types of catalysts: nickel on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ruthenium, or platinum on activated carbon powder. The highest proportion of asphaltenes (F7) and of asphaltols (F8) were obtained with the niobium oxide catalyst.

Lancas, F.M.; Rezemini, A.L. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry; Donate, P.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1999-05-01

360

Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 10: Catalytic liquefaction in aqueous medium  

SciTech Connect

This work presents the results of a study of a process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, in aqueous medium, using different pH values. The experiments were conducted in the absence as well as in the presence of commercial catalysts. In the absence of catalyst, the results showed that the conversion of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products is not influenced by the pH of the reaction mixture. An increase in the temperature augments the yield of liquefied products. The utilization of different commercial catalysts permits an increase in the yields of liquefied products up to 92.4%, obtained with 10% palladium on activated carbon powder as catalyst. The liquefied products were fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography (PLC-8 method). In the absence of catalyst, high conversion yields into light-oils and resins (fractions F1 to F6) was observed only at pH = 9. When the catalysts were used (at pH = 9 and at 370 C), an important increase (from 29 to 78%) of resins (fraction F6) was observed. Under this condition, the proportion of asphaltenes and asphaltols (fractions F7 and F8) decreases from 70 to 20%.

Lancas, F.M.; Ruggiero, M.A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry; Donate, P.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1999-05-01

361

Larger Body Size at Metamorphosis Enhances Survival, Growth and Performance of Young Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)  

PubMed Central

Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans) with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors). To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran’s body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water), and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual’s long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species. PMID:23922930

Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

362

Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1?10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

363

Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw  

SciTech Connect

The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of a rudimentary incinerator where sugar cane straw is burnt in order to obtain a reactive ash. The incinerator is designed and constructed according to state-of-the-art recommendations for this kind of device. Various burning trials were performed in order to obtain ash for the experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on powdered ash shows significant presence of amorphous (glassy) material. Lime-pozzolana pastes were prepared. The pastes were subjected to X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, chemical titration, and SEM observation, as a means to examine the pozzolanicity of the ash via the progress with time of calcium hydroxide consumption, and changes in the pore size distribution and strength. Calcium silicate hydrate phases are the main reaction product of the pozzolanic reaction. The long residence time of the ash in the burning chamber seems to be the reason for the fairly low reactivity of the ash; the reactivity of the ash was not significantly improved in comparison with that of the ash burnt in uncontrolled conditions in the open air.

Martirena, Fernando [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba)]. E-mail: f.martirena@enet.cu; Middendorf, Bernhard [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Department of Structural Materials, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Day, Robert L. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Gehrke, Matthias [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Department of Structural Materials, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Roque, Pablo [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Martinez, Lesday [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Betancourt, Sergio [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba)

2006-06-15

364

Comparative respiratory toxicity of particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.  

PubMed

The impact of particle emissions by biomass burning is increasing throughout the world. We explored the toxicity of particulate matter produced by sugar cane burning and compared these effects with equivalent mass of traffic-derived particles. For this purpose, BALB/c mice received a single intranasal instillation of either distilled water (C) or total suspended particles (15 microg) from an urban area (SP group) or biomass burning-derived particles (Bio group). Lung mechanical parameters (total, resistive and viscoelastic pressures, static elastance, and elastic component of viscoelasticity) and histology were analyzed 24h after instillation. Trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolites of the two sources of particles were determined. All mechanical parameters increased similarly in both pollution groups compared with control, except airway resistive pressure, which increased only in Bio. Both exposed groups showed significantly higher fraction area of alveolar collapse, and influx of polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma than C. The composition analysis of total suspended particles showed higher concentrations of PAHs and lower concentration of metals in traffic than in biomass burning-derived particles. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a single low dose of ambient particles, produced by traffic and sugar cane burning, induced significant alterations in pulmonary mechanics and lung histology in mice. Parenchymal changes were similar after exposure to both particle sources, whereas airway mechanics was more affected by biomass-derived particles. Our results indicate that biomass particles were at least as toxic as those produced by traffic. PMID:18606401

Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Magalhães, Clarissa Bichara; Malm, Olaf; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Zin, Walter Araujo; Faffe, Débora Souza

2008-09-01

365

Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, ?-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, ?-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and ?-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

366

Long-term prospects for the environmental profile of advanced sugar cane ethanol.  

PubMed

This work assessed the environmental impacts of the production and use of 1 MJ of hydrous ethanol (E100) in Brazil in prospective scenarios (2020-2030), considering the deployment of technologies currently under development and better agricultural practices. The life cycle assessment technique was employed using the CML method for the life cycle impact assessment and the Monte Carlo method for the uncertainty analysis. Abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, photochemical oxidation, acidification, and eutrophication were the environmental impacts categories analyzed. Results indicate that the proposed improvements (especially no-til farming-scenarios s2 and s4) would lead to environmental benefits in prospective scenarios compared to the current ethanol production (scenario s0). Combined first and second generation ethanol production (scenarios s3 and s4) would require less agricultural land but would not perform better than the projected first generation ethanol, although the uncertainties are relatively high. The best use of 1 ha of sugar cane was also assessed, considering the displacement of the conventional products by ethanol and electricity. No-til practices combined with the production of first generation ethanol and electricity (scenario s2) would lead to the largest mitigation effects for global warming and abiotic depletion. For the remaining categories, emissions would not be mitigated with the utilization of the sugar cane products. However, this conclusion is sensitive to the displaced electricity sources. PMID:25275890

da Silva, Cinthia R U; Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira; Junqueira, Tassia Lopes; van Oers, Lauran; van der Voet, Ester; Seabra, Joaquim E A

2014-10-21

367

Biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse by a mixed culture of micro organisms: effect of aeration conditions and pH control.  

PubMed

The effect of aeration conditions and pH control on the progress and efficiency of beet molasses vinasse biodegradation was investigated during four batch processes at 38 degrees C with the mixed microbial culture composed of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Rhodopseudomonas, and Saccharomyces. The four processes were carried out in a shake flask with no pH control, an aerobic bioreactor without mixing with no pH control, and a stirred-tank reactor (STR) with aeration with and without pH control, respectively. All experiments were started with an initial pH 8.0. The highest efficiency of biodegradation was achieved through the processes conducted in the STR, where betaine (an organic pollutant occurring in beet molasses in very large quantities) was completely degraded by the microorganisms. The process with no pH control carried out in the STR produced the highest reduction in the following pollution measures: organic matter expressed as chemical oxygen demand determined by the dichromatic method + theoretical COD of betaine (COD(sum), 85.5%), total organic carbon (TOC, 78.8%) and five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5, 98.6%). The process conditions applied in the shake flask experiments, as well as those used in the aerobic bioreactor without mixing, failed to provide complete betaine assimilation. As a consequence, reduction in COD(sum), TOC and BOD5 was approximately half that obtained with STR. PMID:22432306

Lutos?awski, Krzysztof; Ryznar-Luty, Agnieszka; Cibis, Edmund; Krzywonos, Ma?gorzata; Mi?kiewicz, Tadeusz

2011-01-01

368

Recovery of purified lactonic sophorolipids by spontaneous crystallization during the fermentation of sugarcane molasses with Candida albicans O-13-1.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have focused on how to obtain high yield of sophorolipids using low-cost materials as substrates, and there has been various work on the experimental methods for purifying lactonic sophorolipids. These studies have not yet obtained satisfied results in combining a low-cost fermentation process and the purification of lactonic sophorolipids. This study establishes a fed-batch fermentation process of purifying sophorolipids from Candida albicans O-13-1 using low-cost sugarcane molasses as the substrate. In the optimized conditions of this research, using sugarcane molasses as a substrate and product synthesis based on the temperature stage-controlled fermentation, our result indicates that sophorolipids production could reach 108.7 g/L. More importantly, lactonic sophorolipids can crystallize and precipitate during our established fermentation process. The structures and content of sophorolipids separated from the fermentation broth and sophorolipids crystallized in the fermentation broth were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The fermentation process produced 90.5 g/L crystallized lactonic sophorolipids with 90.51% purity. This is an energy-saving and low-cost method to obtain such pure lactonic sophorolipids. PMID:23040390

Yang, Xue; Zhu, Lingqing; Xue, Chaoyou; Chen, Yu; Qu, Liang; Lu, Wenyu

2012-12-10

369

A comparison of liquid hot water and steam pretreatments of sugar cane bagasse for bioconversion to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated with either liquid hot water (LHW) or steam using the same 25 l reactor. Solids concentration ranged from 1% to 8% for LHW pretreatment and was ?50% for steam pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time ranged from 170 to 230 °C and 1 to 46 min, respectively. Key performance metrics included fiber reactivity, xylan recovery, and

Mark Laser; Deborah Schulman; Stephen G Allen; Joseph Lichwa; Michael J Antal; Lee R Lynd

2002-01-01

370

On the Creation of Dense Depth Fields From Long Image Sequences Ben Galvin and Brendan McCane  

E-print Network

Cane Department of Computer Science University of Otago, Dunedin New Zealand E-mail: bgalvin@atlas that the multi-frame method was much more accurate than the two frame approach [7]. Shah et. al. described a segmentation algorithm which grouped trajectories that appeared to belong to the same object [8]. Williams et

McCane, Brendan

371

Wastewater use in agriculture: Irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Valle del Cauca, south?west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater

C. A. Madera; J. Silva; D. D. Mara; P. Torres

2009-01-01

372

Feed intake and behaviour of kids and lambs fed sugar cane as the sole roughage with or without concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out to examine effects of physical form of whole sugar cane (WSC) and different proportions of WSC offered with or without a concentrate on feed intake, selection and behaviour of weaned kids and lambs. Both experiments were 14 days long with a 7 days adaptation period and the following 7 days for data collection. In Experiment

Do Thi Thanh Van; Inger Ledin; Nguyen Thi Mui

2002-01-01

373

Soil chemical and physical properties as indicators of sustainable land management under sugar cane in Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of land management was assessed for a sugar cane plantation using soil chemical and physical properties as indicators. The plantation (6000 ha) was established in 1979 on a broad alluvial plain and the majority of the soils are classified as Eutric and Mollic Fluvisols (73%) and Eutric Vertisols (23%). Average annual rainfall is about 2000 mm with a

Alfred E. Hartemink

1998-01-01

374

The Interacting Effects of Ungulate Hoofprints and Predatory Native Ants on Metamorph Cane Toads in Tropical Australia  

PubMed Central

Many invasive species exploit the disturbed habitats created by human activities. Understanding the effects of habitat disturbance on invasion success, and how disturbance interacts with other factors (such as biotic resistance to the invaders from the native fauna) may suggest new ways to reduce invader viability. In tropical Australia, commercial livestock production can facilitate invasion by the cane toad (Rhinella marina), because hoofprints left by cattle and horses around waterbody margins provide distinctive (cool, moist) microhabitats; nevertheless the same microhabitat can inhibit the success of cane toads by increasing the risks of predation or drowning. Metamorph cane toads actively select hoofprints as retreat-sites to escape dangerous thermal and hydric conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, hoofprint geometry is important: in hoofprints with steep sides the young toads are more likely to be attacked by predatory ants (Iridomyrmex reburrus) and are more likely to drown following heavy rain. Thus, anthropogenic changes to the landscape interact with predation by native taxa to affect the ability of cane toads in this vulnerable life-history stage to thrive in the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical Australia. PMID:24255703

Cabrera-Guzman, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; Gonzalez-Bernal, Edna; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

375

LAND REFORM AND SOCIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF FAMILY FARMING: THE CASE OF SUGAR CANE AREA IN THE NORTHEAST OF BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article analyses the advances and main challenges to the family farming originated from land reform in the sugar cane area in the Northeast of Brazil. This area has been historically characterized by large properties, monoculture and high levels of labour exploitation. It draws on four main sources are: a) secondary data; b) primary data from 25 Settlement Projects spread

Marilda Aparecida de Menezes

376

The cane toad's (Chaunus [Bufo] marinus) increasing ability to invade Australia is revealed by a dynamically updated range model  

PubMed Central

Invasive species threaten biological diversity throughout the world. Understanding the dynamics of their spread is critical to mitigating this threat. In Australia, efforts are underway to control the invasive cane toad (Chaunus [Bufo] marinus). Range models based on their native bioclimatic envelope suggest that the cane toad is nearing the end of its invasion phase. However, such models assume a conserved niche between native and invaded regions and the absence of evolution to novel habitats. Here, we develop a dynamically updated statistical model to predict the growing extent of cane toad range based on their current distribution in Australia. Results demonstrate that Australian cane toads may already have the ability to spread across an area that almost doubles their current range and that triples projections based on their native distribution. Most of the expansion in suitable habitat area has occurred in the last decade and in regions characterized by high temperatures. Increasing use of extreme habitats may indicate that novel ecological conditions have facilitated a broader realized niche or that toad populations at the invasion front have evolved greater tolerance to extreme abiotic conditions. Rapid evolution to novel habitats combined with ecological release from native enemies may explain why some species become highly successful global invaders. Predicting species ranges following invasion or climate change may often require dynamically updated range models that incorporate a broader realization of niches in the absence of natural enemies and evolution in response to novel habitats. PMID:17389221

Urban, Mark C; Phillips, Ben L; Skelly, David K; Shine, Richard

2007-01-01

377

Radiation and NRSP effect on protein, filtration efficiency and crude fiber degradation after sugar cane bagasse fermentation by mushroom fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upgrading of sugar cane bagasse with natural rubber waste by irradiation and three mushroom fungi was studied in order to produce economical animal feed and mushrooms. The protein concentrations changed a little at 0, 1% of NRSP but greatly increased at 5% NRSP concentration with irradiation and nonirradiation in liquid fermentation. The filtration rate decreased at 5% NRSP concentration

H.-S. Shin; J.-H. Lee; E.-J. Hwang; J.-S. Shon; G.-N. Kim; S. Matsuhashi; T. Kume

1998-01-01

378

Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific phenology of sugar cane. The calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS on several sites and for different technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of land use change related to bioenergy crops.

Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

2010-12-01

379

Experimental variables effects on the direct liquefaction of lignin sugar cane bagasse  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane bagasse lignin was submitted to a liquefaction process with the aim of obtaining light oils. In order to increase the yields of light oils a study of the influence of experimental variables in the liquefaction process was performed. A 2{sup 4} factorial design was used, involving two levels and four variables: temperature, pressure, solute/solvent ratio, and time. It was observed that the variables time, temperature, and solute/solvent ratio influenced an increase in yield, and the variable solute/solvent ratio was independent, while the second-order effect among t {times} T, t {times} P was observed, and third-order among T {times} t {times} P occurs.

Celeghini, R.M.S.; Lancas, F.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry

1998-08-01

380

Pyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse in a wire-mesh reactor  

SciTech Connect

Improved experimental techniques are described, using a wire mesh reactor; for determining the pyrolysis yields of lignocellulosic materials. In this apparatus pyrolysis tars are rapidly swept from the hot zone of the reactor and quenched, secondary reactions are thereby greatly diminished. Particular emphasis is placed upon the measurement of the pyrolysis yields for sugar cane bagasse, an abundant agricultural waste product. The role of the important pyrolysis parameters, peak temperature and heating rate, in defining the ultimate tar yield is investigated, with the value for bagasse being 54.6% at 500 C and 1,000 C/s. The pyrolysis yields, under similar conditions, of another biomass material, silver birch, are also reported and compared to those of bagasse.

Drummond, A.R.F.; Drummond, I.W. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of London (United Kingdom)

1996-04-01

381

Cane Creek flood-flow characteristics at State Route 30 near Spencer, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tennessee Department of Transportation has constructed a new bridge and approaches on State Route 30 over Cane Creek near Spencer, Tennessee. The old bridge and its approaches were fairly low, permitting considerable flow over the road during high floods. The new bridge and its approaches are considerably higher, causing different flow conditions at the site. Analysis of the effects of the new bridge, as compared to the old bridge, on floods of the magnitude of the May 27, 1973, flood is presented. The May 27, 1973, flood was greater than a 100-year flood. Analysis of the 50- and 100-year floods for the new bridge are also presented. Results of the study indicate that the new construction will increase the water-surface elevation for a flood equal to the May 27, 1973, flood by approximately 1 foot upstream from bridge. (USGS)

Gamble, Charles R.

1983-01-01

382

Distribution of prokaryotic organisms in a tropical estuary influenced by sugar cane agriculture in northeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

In a joint Brazilian-German case study, distribution patterns of microorganisms were compared with environmental variables in the tropical coastal Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil, which is situated downstream of several sugar cane processing plants . 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gene fingerprinting were used to follow the composition and distribution of microorganisms throughout the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Potentially abundant microorganisms were identified by sequencing representative SSCP bands. It could be demonstrated that the distribution of microbes was in close relation to the physico-chemical environmental settings and followed a common scheme. In the in- and outlet areas of the lagoon rather transient microbial communities were found, whereas in the central part a stable, diverse community was encountered, that due to the long residence time of the water, had ample time for development and adaptation. PMID:24031568

Wolf, Lars; Schwalger, Berit; Knoppers, Bastiaan A.; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter; Pollehne, Falk

2010-01-01

383

Canes Venatici I cloud of galaxies seen in the H? line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of H? imaging for 42 galaxies in the nearby low-density cloud Canes Venatici I, populated mainly by late-type objects. Estimates of the H? flux and integrated star formation rate ({SFR}) are now available for all 78 known members of this scattered system, spanning a large range in luminosity, surface brightness, HI content and {SFR}. Distributions of the CVnI galaxies versus their {SFR}, blue absolute magnitude and total hydrogen mass, are given in comparison with those for a population of the nearby virialized group around M 81. We found no essential correlation between star formation activity in a galaxy and its density environment. The bulk of CVnI galaxies had enough time to generate their baryon mass with the observed {SFR}. Most of them also possess a supply of gas that is sufficient to maintain their observed {SFR}s during the next Hubble time.

Kaisin, S. S.; Karachentsev, I. D.

2008-02-01

384

Aspects of the cell growth of Candida guilliermondii in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate.  

PubMed

In this work the behavior of the growth of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 in sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate on various oxygen transfer rates was investigated. The yeast was able to grow and produced xylitol at different performance levels. At 1.0 vvm (volume of air per volume of medium per minute) the highest growth with 24.4 g/l was observed, but no xylitol was produced. At aeration rate of 0.5 vvm the growth was lower, but therefore slight amounts of xylitol (xylitol yield factor-Yp/s = 0.15 g/g) were observed. The lowest cell concentration (10.7 g/l) and the highest xylitol yield (Yp/s = 0.46 g/g) was observed when aeration was changed from 0.5 vvm to 0.05 vvm after 14 h. PMID:8663902

Molwitz, M; Silva, S S; Ribeiro, J D; Roberto, I C; Felipe, M G; Prata, A M; Mancilha, I M

1996-01-01

385

Electric power from sugar cane in Costa Rica. A technical and economic analysis  

SciTech Connect

A team of specialists visited Costa Rica in May 1988 to analyze the potential for production and sale of electricity by the sugar-cane industry. Focusing on three sugar mills, the team made technical projections at four levels of investment, ranging from the simplest sale of surplus power to the installation of new turbogenerator systems. For each level, capital costs, electricity production and sales, and fuel options were estimated. Associated risks were assessed through sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the possible impacts of varying interest rates, fuel costs, and electricity sales prices. The team concluded that production and sale of electricity for the national grid could be an excellent investment opportunity for the sugar industry and would provide important economic benefits, including creation of additional jobs in rural areas, diversification of the sugar industry, and (in the short term) displacement of the need for imported fuels.

Tugwell, F.; Gowen, M.; Kenda, W.; Cohen, A.

1988-07-01

386

A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120-140°C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1-3 days. PMID:23711947

Kallioinen, Anne; Hakola, Maija; Riekkola, Tiina; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; von Weymarn, Niklas; Siika-aho, Matti

2013-07-01

387

The effect of fire retardants on combustion and pyrolysis of sugar-cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimetry to measure the affect of three fire retardants (ammonium sulphate, boric acid and borax) on the mass-loss rate and combustion characteristics of sugar-cane bagasse. Compared with untreated bagasse, bagasse impregnated with aqueous solutions of 0.1-0.5M fire retardants exhibited an increase in char mass production from 16% up to 41% when pyrolysed and up to a 41% reduction in total heat release (THR) during combustion. Char mass production was only a weak function of additive concentration over the range of concentrations (0.1-0.5M) used. Combining the additives did not show any synergistic effects for char production or heat release rate (HRR). Treatment of bagasse by these chemicals could be useful to enhance biochar yields in pyrolysis processes or to reduce flammability risk in composites containing bagasse. PMID:21680181

Griffin, G J

2011-09-01

388

Improved sugar cane juice clarification by understanding calcium oxide-phosphate-sucrose systems.  

PubMed

It is accepted that the efficiency of sugar cane clarification is closely linked with sugar juice composition (including suspended or insoluble impurities), the inorganic phosphate content, the liming condition and type, and the interactions between the juice components. These interactions are not well understood, particularly those between calcium, phosphate, and sucrose in sugar cane juice. Studies have been conducted on calcium oxide (CaO)/phosphate/sucrose systems in both synthetic and factory juices to provide further information on the defecation process (i.e., simple liming to effect impurity removal) and to identify an effective clarification process that would result in reduced scaling of sugar factory evaporators, pans, and centrifugals. Results have shown that a two-stage process involving the addition of lime saccharate to a set juice pH followed by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a final juice pH or a similar two-stage process where the order of addition of the alkalis is reversed prior to clarification reduces the impurity loading of the clarified juice compared to that of the clarified juice obtained by the conventional defecation process. The treatment process showed reductions in CaO (27% to 50%) and MgO (up to 20%) in clarified juices with no apparent loss in juice clarity or increase in residence time of the mud particles compared to those in the conventional process. There was also a reduction in the SiO2 content. However, the disadvantage of this process is the significant increase in the Na2O content. PMID:21322558

Doherty, William O S

2011-03-01

389

Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii.  

PubMed

Arsenical herbicides were used extensively for emergent weed control in Hawaiian sugar cane cultivation from 1913 to about 1950. As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern portion of the Island of Hawaii. This study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and arsenic bioaccessibility in the iron-rich volcanic soils. Soils are predominantly Andisols, formed by weathering of basaltic lava and tephra, with pedogenic solid phases consisting of short-range order iron oxyhydroxides, allophane-like aluminosilicates, and metal-humus compounds. These reactive solid phases strongly adsorb oxyanions, such as phosphate and arsenite/arsenate. High arsenic sorption capacity limits desorption and vertical migration within the soil column and prevents contamination of the underlying groundwater aquifer, despite high arsenic loading and precipitation rates. In vitro arsenic bioaccessibility, as measured by the SBRC gastric-phase test, ranges from 2% to 35% and averages 9% of total arsenic. Bioaccessible arsenic is higher in less weathered soils (Udifolists, Typic and Lithic Hydrudands) and lower in more weathered ash-dominant soils (Acrudoxic Hydrudands). Soil weathering indicators, such as reactive iron content, are strong predictors of arsenic bioaccessibility. Based on evidence from soil mineralogy, geochemistry and arsenic speciation, as well as limited soil arsenic bioavailability/bioaccessibility comparisons, risks to human health from direct contact (soil ingestion) are significantly reduced by low arsenic bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, some soils within former sugar cane cultivation areas contain bioaccessible arsenic concentrations exceeding Hawaii Department of Health risk-based action levels, and will require mitigating actions. Even higher levels of soil arsenic contamination have been identified at former pesticide storage and mixing areas, but are generally of localized extent. PMID:23178778

Cutler, William G; Brewer, Roger C; El-Kadi, Aly; Hue, Nguyen V; Niemeyer, Patrick G; Peard, John; Ray, Chittaranjan

2013-01-01

390

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Economic Influence of Sugar Cane and Wheat Waste Paper on  

E-print Network

that have occurred within the pulp and paper industry. #12;ii After thorough analysis on both the sugar cane, increasing GDP. However, the disadvantage of making this switch is that the Canadian pulp and paper industry

391

Produções agrícola e industrial de cana-de-açúcar submetida a doses de vinhaça1 Agricultural and industrial yields of sugar cane submitted to vinasse rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to assess the influence of vinasse rates on the agricultural and industrial yields of sugar cane. The experiment was set up at the School Farm of the State University of Londrina, in \\

Aline Fagote Paulino; Cristiane de Conti Medina; Carla Renata; Pazotti Robaina; Raffael Alberto Laurani

392

A suspected parasite spill-back of two novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) causing disease in Australian endemic frogs found in the invasive Cane toad.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence. PMID:21541340

Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirk?, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N; Šlapeta, Jan

2011-01-01

393

A Suspected Parasite Spill-Back of Two Novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) Causing Disease in Australian Endemic Frogs Found in the Invasive Cane Toad  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence. PMID:21541340

Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dykova, Iva; Jirku, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N.; Slapeta, Jan

2011-01-01

394

Developing capacities in aging studies in the Middle East: Implementation of an Arabic version of the CANE IV among community-dwelling older adults in Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the feasibility, reliability, and construct validity of the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) in identifying needs among community-dwelling older adults in South Lebanon with a view towards expanding ageing research in the country.Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 322 individuals, using the CANE, the EQ5d and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Reliability was determined through

Laurie E. AbiHabib; Hiam S. Chemaitelly; Lina Y. Jaalouk; Nadim E. Karam

2011-01-01

395

Grape cane waste as a source of trans-resveratrol and trans-viniferin: High-value phytochemicals with medicinal and anti-phytopathogenic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape cane waste was investigated as a potential source of high-value phytochemicals with medicinal and anti-phytopathogenic applications. Extraction yields of trans-resveratrol and trans-?-viniferin from Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir grape cane were 3.45±0.04 and 1.30±0.07mgg?1dw, respectively. The analyte extraction efficiencies were investigated using protic and aprotic solvents. Yields varied 22-fold over the range of solvent systems investigated, demonstrating the importance

Sierra Rayne; Erkan Karacabey; G. Mazza

2008-01-01

396

Effect of Spumol K on cell wall of Aspergillus niger strains characterized by different tolerance to toxic compounds of beet molasses.  

PubMed

Cell walls in the mycelium of Aspergillus niger strains sensitive or resistant to toxic molasses compounds growing in the presence of Spumol K were the object of the present studies. Although the inhibitory effect of Spumol K on the cell wall was noticed in studied mycelia the sensitive strains reacted more strongly. In sensitive strains in Spumol K presence lower content of cell wall was accomplished by higher amount of proteins but lower of lipids as well as structural polymers i.e. of glucans and chitin in this wall. A weaker synthesis of chitin and lower level of cell wall enzymes, especially chitinase, were observed in these strains. The described changes seem to be responsible for the growth inhibition and mycelium sinking in sensitive strains of A. niger. PMID:9429292

Gabara, B; Zakowska, Z

1997-01-01

397

Combined electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops. Features of the method, technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper summarizes the results obtained from the study on combined electron-beam and coagulation method for purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of grain, potato, beet and some other plant materials. The method consists in preliminary mixing of industrial wastewater with municipal wastewater, electron-beam treatment of the mixture and subsequent coagulation. Technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility (output of 7000 m 3 day -1) with two powerful cascade electron accelerators (total maximum beam power of 400 kW) for treatment of the wastewater by the above method was carried out. It was calculated that the cost of purification of the wastes is equal to 0.25 US$ m -3 that is noticeably less than in the case of the existing method.

Pikaev, A. K.; Ponomarev, A. V.; Bludenko, A. V.; Minin, V. N.; Elizar'eva, L. M.

2001-04-01

398

Effects of Nutrient Additives and Sodium Hydroxide on Ensiling Characteristics and In Vitro Fiber Digestion Kinetics of Dairy Cattle Waste-Energy Feedstuff Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy waste fiber was mixed in ratio 1:1 (dry matter basis) with ground alfalfa hay, chopped cornstalks, chopped whole corn plant, or ground corn. Prior to ensiling, mixtures received either no additive, dry cane molasses at 5% of dry matter, urea at 1% of dry matter, dry cane molasses at 5% plus urea at 1% of dry matter, sodium hydroxide

C. R. Staples; R. L. Fernando; G. C. Fahey Jr.; L. L. Berger; E. H. Jaster

1985-01-01

399

Production of beta-carotene from beet molasses by Blakeslea trispora in stirred-tank and bubble column reactors: development of a mathematical modeling.  

PubMed

The effect of aeration rate and agitation speed on beta-carotene production from molasses by Blakeslea trispora in a stirred-tank fermentor and optimization of the production of the pigment in a bubble column reactor were investigated. In addition, a central composite design was employed to determine the maximum beta-carotene concentration at optimum values for the process variables (aeration rate, sugar concentration, linoleic acid, kerosene). By image analysis of the morphology of the fungus, a quantitative characterization of the hyphae and zygospores formed was obtained. The hyphae were differentiated to intact hyphae, vacuolated hyphae, evacuated cells and degenerated hyphae. An increased proportion of zygospores was correlated to high beta-carotene production. In the stirred-tank fermentor, the highest concentration of the carotenoid pigment (92.0 mg/L) was obtained at an aeration rate of 1.5 vvm and agitation speed of 60 rpm. In the bubble column reactor, the aeration rate and concentration of sugars, linoleic acid, kerosene, and antioxidant significantly affected the production of beta-carotene. In all cases, the fit of the model was found to be good. Aeration rate, sugar concentration, linoleic acid, and kerosene had a strong positive linear effect on beta-carotene concentration. Moreover, the concentration of the pigment was significantly influenced by the negative quadratic effects of the given variables and by their positive or negative interactions. Maximum beta-carotene concentration (360.2 mg/L) was obtained in culture grown in molasses solution containing 5% (w/v) sugar supplemented with linoleic acid (37.59 g/L), kerosene (39.11 g/L), and antioxidant (1.0 g/L). PMID:14734837

Goksungur, Yekta; Mantzouridou, Fani; Roukas, Triantafyllos; Kotzekidou, Parthena

2004-01-01

400

Development of a simple thermophysical property model for cane fiberboard packages subjected to a hypothetical accident fire  

SciTech Connect

A simple thermophysical property model has been developed to analytically determine the thermal response of cane fiberboard when exposed to temperatures and heat fluxes associated with the hypothetical aident condition and the post fire cooling. The complete model was developed from high temperature cane fiberboard 1-D test results and consists of heating and cooling sub-models. The heating property model accounts for the enhanced heat transfer of the hot gases in the fiberboard, the loss of energy via venting, and the loss of mass from venting during the heating portion of the test. The cooling property model accounts for the degraded material effects and the continued heat transfer associated with the hot gases after removal of the external heating source. Agreement between the test results of a four inch thick fiberboard sample with the analytical application of the complete property model is quite good and will be presented.

Hensel, S.J.; Gromada, R.J.

1994-04-01

401

Co-firing of sugar cane bagasse with rice husk in a conical fluidized-bed combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental results on co-firing of ‘as-received’ sugar cane bagasse and rice husk in a conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using silica sand as the bed material. Axial temperature, O2, CO2, CO and NO concentration profiles in the conical FBC operated at 82.5–82.8kg\\/h fuel feed rate and various values of excess air (of about 40, 60, 80 and 100%)

V. I. Kuprianov; K. Janvijitsakul; W. Permchart

2006-01-01

402

The structure of the penis with the associated baculum in the male greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus).  

PubMed

In this study, the structures of penises of eight sexually mature male greater cane rats were examined at both macroscopic and histological levels. Each animal was sacrificed after anaesthesia with ether and then dissected open with the penis exposed from its root. The penises were first grossly examined, measured, and then prepared for histological examination. From this study it was observed that the body size has no allometry with penile size, but the testicular weight correlated with Os penis length in the greater cane rat. Grossly, the penis which was whitish in colour, with a mean length of 5.46 ± 0.36 cm, has no obvious collum penis but a flexura that turns it caudo-ventral and separates the corpus and glans penis. There was the presence of cornified papillae covering parts of the corpus and glans penis as well as a blind sac sacculus urethralis under the urethra on the glans penis. Histologically, the corpora cavernosa penis were completely separated by a connective tissue septum which sent the trabeculae network into the cavernous tissues and replaced the caverns as it moves from corpus to glans penis. The Os penis formed through endochondral ossification after 42 months of age in this animal. Therefore, from a histological standpoint, the cane rat penis belongs to the intermediate type. In conclusion, these findings provide vital information on the penile anatomy of the greater cane rat, which will serve as a basis for comparing penile morphology among the suborder hystricomorpha and expand knowledge of the reproductive biology in this animal. PMID:21866532

Adebayo, A O; Akinloye, A K; Olurode, S A; Anise, E O; Oke, B O

2011-08-01

403

Fermentation of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate to l(+)-lactic acid by a thermotolerant acidophilic Bacillus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose, hydrolyzed by dilute H2SO4, supplemented with mineral salts and 0.5% corn steep liquor, was fermented to l(+)-lactic acid using a newly isolated strain of Bacillus sp. In batch fermentations at 50 °C and pH 5, over 5.5% (w\\/v) l(+)-lactic acid was produced (89% theoretical yield; 0.9 g lactate per g sugar) with an optical purity of 99.5%.

Milind Patel; Mark Ou; L. O. Ingram; K. T. Shanmugam

2004-01-01

404

Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Grenada, West Indies, and their antimicrobial susceptibility.  

PubMed

Cloacal swabs and caecal contents sampled from 58 cane toads (Bufo marinus) in St George's parish, Grenada, during a 7-month period in 2011 were examined by an enrichment and selective culture method for presence of Salmonella spp. Twenty-four (41%) toads were positive for Salmonella spp. of which eight were Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana, and eight were S. enterica serovar Rubislaw. The other serovars were as follows: Montevideo, 6; Arechavaleta, 1; and serovar: IV:43:-:-, 1. The high frequency of isolation of serovar Javiana, an emerging human pathogen associated with several outbreaks in the recent years in the eastern United States, suggests a possible role for cane toads in transmission of this serovar. Although S. Rubislaw has been isolated from lizards, bats and cases of some human infections, there is no report of its carriage by cane toads, and in such high frequency. The rate of carriage of S. Montevideo, a cause for human foodborne outbreaks around the world was also over 10% in the 58 toads sampled in this study. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal and is of little concern. Antimicrobial resistance was limited to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in one isolate of S. Javiana and one isolate of S. Rubislaw. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars not identified previously in cane toads in Grenada, West Indies. PMID:23035820

Drake, M; Amadi, V; Zieger, U; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

2013-09-01

405

[Microbiological contamination and antimicrobial activity of cristalised cane sugar on some medically important microorganisms in Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Microbiological contamination and antimicrobial activity of cristalised cane sugar on some medically important microorganisms in Costa Rica. Unrefined cristalised cane sugar, obtained after the filtration and evaporation of sugar cane juice, is a nutritional product of traditional consumption in Costa Rica and other Neotropical countries. It has been used in the topic treatment of infected wounds, with satisfactory results even with some antibiotic-ressistant bacteria. We studied the microbiological quality of 50 commercial samples. The analyses included total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria plate count; aerobic and anaerobic spore count; mold and yeast count; total and fecal coliforms; and presence of Clostridium botulinum. The antimicrobial effect was tested for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), S. epidermidis (UCR 2902), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 13076), Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Aspergillus niger (Asni 06). Most of the samples (76%) presented counts lower than 100 CFU/g especially for sporulated forms (90% lower than 20 CFU/g), the mold and yeast count was higher (38% higher than 10(2) CFU/g), demonstrating the importance of these microorganisms in the spoilage of the product; 76% of the samples presented fecal contamination; C. botulinum was not isolated with the methodology employed. No inhibitory effect was observed for A. niger, but all samples han an inhibitory effect over the other species, especially for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. PMID:19256417

Pujol, Verónica; Diaz, Jendry; Rodríguez, Evelyn; Arias, María Laura

2008-06-01

406

Interrelationship between the raspberry cane midge, Resseliella theobaldi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and its parasitoid, Aprostocetus epicharmus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  

PubMed

The raspberry cane midge Resseliella theobaldi (Barnes) is one of the most important pests of cultivated red raspberry Rubus idaeus L. throughout Europe. For the last 50 years several studies have been made on the biology, life cycle and control of the pest. Some data can also be found on its natural enemies, but among these species only the chalcidoid Tetrastichus inunctus Nees turned out to be important in controlling raspberry cane midge populations. However, this species name is now ambiguous as the type is lost. In the present study, Aprostocetus epicharmus Walker was the chalcidoid species that parasitized the larvae of the raspberry cane midge, and its biology seems to be very similar to that of T. inunctus. It is therefore probable that the eulophid species earlier referred to as T. inunctus in the literature is A. epicharmus. Besides discussing this problem, particular consideration and detailed data are given on the biology and life cycle of A. epicharmus in relation to R. theobaldi. Different factors having effect on the population dynamics of both species are also discussed as results of a survey on several red raspberry cultivars, carried out in Hungary between 2002 and 2005. PMID:16923204

Vétek, G; Thuróczy, C; Pénzes, B

2006-08-01

407

Parameters-related uncertainty in modeling sugar cane yield with an agro-Land Surface Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the coupling of specific crop models and large-scale generic vegetation models. They aim at accounting for the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum with a particular emphasis on how crop phenology and agricultural management practice influence the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty in these models is related to the many parameters included in the models' equations. In this study, we quantify the parameter-based uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS on a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Reunion and Brazil. First, the main source of uncertainty for the output variables NPP, GPP, and sensible heat flux (SH) is determined through a screening of the main parameters of the model on a multi-site basis leading to the selection of a subset of most sensitive parameters causing most of the uncertainty. In a second step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the parameters selected from the screening analysis at a regional scale. For this, a Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used. First, we quantify the sensitivity of the output variables to individual input parameters on a regional scale for two regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Then, we quantify the overall uncertainty in the simulation's outputs propagated from the uncertainty in the input parameters. Seven parameters are identified by the screening procedure as driving most of the uncertainty in the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS model output at all sites. These parameters control photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), root uptake of water (root profile), and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients). We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and optimal photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in NPP and GPP simulations whereas stomatal conductance is the most sensitive parameter controlling SH, followed by optimal photosynthesis temperature and optimal carboxylation rate. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and output variables is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting that climate mediated regionally different sensitivities of modeled sugarcane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil.

Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ruget, F.; Gabrielle, B.

2012-12-01

408

Interplay among nocturnal activity, melatonin, corticosterone and performance in the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marinus).  

PubMed

Most animals conduct daily activities exclusively either during the day or at night. Here, hormones such as melatonin and corticosterone, greatly influence the synchronization or regulation of physiological and behavioral cycles needed for daily activity. How then do species that exhibit more flexible daily activity patterns, responses to ecological, environmental or life-history processes, regulate daily hormone profiles important to daily performance? This study examined the consequences of (1) nocturnal activity on diel profiles of melatonin and corticosterone and (2) the effects of experimentally increased acute melatonin levels on physiological and metabolic performance in the cane toad (Rhinella marinus). Unlike inactive captive toads that had a distinct nocturnal melatonin profile, nocturnally active toads sampled under field and captive conditions, exhibited decreased nocturnal melatonin profiles with no evidence for any phase shift. Nocturnal corticosterone levels were significantly higher in field active toads than captive toads. In toads with experimentally increased melatonin levels, plasma lactate and glucose responses following recovery post exercise were significantly different from control toads. However, exogenously increased melatonin did not affect resting metabolism in toads. These results suggest that toads could adjust daily hormone profiles to match nocturnal activity requirements, thereby avoiding performance costs induced by high nocturnal melatonin levels. The ability of toads to exhibit plasticity in daily hormone cycles, could have broad implications for how they and other animals utilize behavioral flexibility to optimize daily activities in response to natural and increasingly human mediated environmental variation. PMID:25063397

Jessop, Tim S; Dempster, Tim; Letnic, Mike; Webb, Jonathan K

2014-09-15

409

Environmental repercussions of cane-sugar industries on the Chhoti Gandak river basin, Ganga Plain, India.  

PubMed

Chhoti Gandak river basin, situated in the Ganga Plain, is one of India's most productive cane-sugar industrial belts. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to investigate the impacts of these industries on the environment of the Chhoti Gandak river basin with special reference to soil and water. The results show that concentration of most metals are affected by industrial activities and surrounding agricultural practices. It is evidenced by increased heavy metal concentration in the soils as well as in the aquifers. Metals such as Pb, Cu, and Zn in the soil around the industrial sets are found significantly higher than their normal values in the soil. Metals like Fe and Mn in the groundwater are more than the permissible limit prescribed by the World Health Organization. In this study, an attempt was made to distinguish between the naturally occurring and anthropogenically induced metals in the soil. Analysis of geochemical properties, disposal of industrial wastes, inadequate application of agrochemicals, and their impact on environment indicate the sustainable implementation of integrated wastewater management plan in these industrial sets and also in similar situations. PMID:20041344

Bhardwaj, Vikram; Singh, Dhruv Sen; Singh, Abhay K

2010-12-01

410

Inferring population history from microsatellite and enzyme data in serially introduced cane toads, Bufo marinus.  

PubMed Central

Much progress has been made on inferring population history from molecular data. However, complex demographic scenarios have been considered rarely or have proved intractable. The serial introduction of the South-Central American cane toad Bufo marinus in various Caribbean and Pacific islands involves four major phases: a possible genetic admixture during the first introduction, a bottleneck associated with founding, a transitory population boom, and finally, a demographic stabilization. A large amount of historical and demographic information is available for those introductions and can be combined profitably with molecular data. We used a Bayesian approach to combine this information with microsatellite (10 loci) and enzyme (22 loci) data and used a rejection algorithm to simultaneously estimate the demographic parameters describing the four major phases of the introduction history. The general historical trends supported by microsatellites and enzymes were similar. However, there was a stronger support for a larger bottleneck at introductions for microsatellites than enzymes and for a more balanced genetic admixture for enzymes than for microsatellites. Very little information was obtained from either marker about the transitory population boom observed after each introduction. Possible explanations for differences in resolution of demographic events and discrepancies between results obtained with microsatellites and enzymes were explored. Limits of our model and method for the analysis of nonequilibrium populations were discussed. PMID:11779806

Estoup, A; Wilson, I J; Sullivan, C; Cornuet, J M; Moritz, C

2001-01-01

411

Respiratory toxicity of repeated exposure to particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.  

PubMed

We compared the toxicity of subchronic exposure to equivalent masses of particles from sugar cane burning and traffic. BALB/c mice received 3 intranasal instillations/week during 1, 2 or 4 weeks of either distilled water (C1, C2, C4) or particles (15?g) from traffic (UP1, UP2, UP4) or biomass burning (BP1, BP2, BP4). Lung mechanics, histology and oxidative stress were analyzed 24h after the last instillation. In all instances UP and BP groups presented worse pulmonary elastance, airway and tissue resistance, alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction and macrophage influx into the lungs than controls. UP4, BP2 and BP4 presented more alveolar collapse than UP1 and BP1, respectively. UP and BP had worse bronchial and alveolar lesion scores than their controls; BP4 had greater bronchial lesion scores than UP4. Catalase was higher in UP4 and BP4 than in C4. In conclusion, biomass particles were more toxic than those from traffic after repeated exposures. PMID:24280381

Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Carvalho, Giovanna M C; Lanzetti, Manuella; Valença, Samuel S; Silva, Luiz F F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Zin, Walter A; Faffe, Débora S

2014-01-15

412

Integrated stratigraphy and 40Ar/39Ar chronology of the early to middle Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse in western Bavaria (Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed integrated stratigraphic study (biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy) was carried out on five sections from the western part of the Bavarian Upper Freshwater Molasse of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB), greatly improving the chronostratigraphy of these sediments. The sections belong to the lithostratigraphic units Limnische Untere Serie (UL) and Fluviatile Untere Serie (UF) and contain 19 (mostly new) small-mammal bearing levels, significantly refining the local biostratigraphy. Radiometric ages obtained from glass shards from tuff horizons are used together with the biostratigraphic information for constructing and confirming the magnetostratigraphic correlation of the studied sections to the Astronomical Tuned Time Scale (ANTS04; Lourens et al. in Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press, 2004). This correlation implies that the UL lithostratigraphic unit corresponds to the latest Ottnangian and the Early Karpatian, whereas the UF corresponds to the Karpatian and the Early Badenian. This indicates that the Brackish- to Freshwater Molasse transition already occurred during the late Ottnangian. The pre-Riesian hiatus occurred in the latest Karpatian and lower Early Badenian in Eastern Bavaria and Bohemia and in the Late Karpatian and earliest Badenian in Western Bavaria. The geochemical and Ar-Ar data of volcanic ashes suggest that highly evolved silicic magmas from a single volcano or volcanic center, characterized by a uniform Nd isotopic composition, erupted repetitively over the course of at least 1.6 Myr. Three phases of eruptive activity were identified at 16.1 ± 0.2 Ma (Zahling-2), 15.6 ± 0.4 Ma (Krumbad), and 14.5 ± 0.2 Ma (Heilsberg, Hegau). The correlation of the local biostratigraphic zonation to the ANTS04 enables further the characterization of both the Ottnangian-Karpatian and Karpatian-Badenian boundaries in the NAFB by small-mammal biostratigraphy. According to these results the Ottnangian-Karpatian boundary is contemporaneous with the first appearance datum of Megacricetodon bavaricus (in the size of the type population) and the first common occurrence of Keramidomys thaleri, whereas Ligerimys florancei, Melissiodon dominans and Prodeinotherium aff. bavaricum have been already disappeared during the late Ottnangian. The Karpatian-Badenian boundary is characterized by a significant size increase of the large Megacricetodon lineage and possibly a (re-)immigration of Prodeinotherium bavaricum.

Aziz, Hayfaa Abdul; Böhme, Madelaine; Rocholl, Alexander; Prieto, Jerome; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Bachtadse, Valerian; Ulbig, Albert

2010-12-01

413

Increasing Accessibility to the Blind of Virtual Environments, Using a Virtual Mobility Aid Based On the "EyeCane": Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Virtual worlds and environments are becoming an increasingly central part of our lives, yet they are still far from accessible to the blind. This is especially unfortunate as such environments hold great potential for them for uses such as social interaction, online education and especially for use with familiarizing the visually impaired user with a real environment virtually from the comfort and safety of his own home before visiting it in the real world. We have implemented a simple algorithm to improve this situation using single-point depth information, enabling the blind to use a virtual cane, modeled on the “EyeCane” electronic travel aid, within any virtual environment with minimal pre-processing. Use of the Virtual-EyeCane, enables this experience to potentially be later used in real world environments with identical stimuli to those from the virtual environment. We show the fast-learned practical use of this algorithm for navigation in simple environments. PMID:23977316

Maidenbaum, Shachar; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Amedi, Amir

2013-01-01

414

Study of Sugarcane Pieces as Yeast Supports for Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Juice and Molasses Using Newly Isolated Yeast from Toddy Sap  

PubMed Central

A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:22783132

Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

2012-01-01

415

The Impact of Sugar Cane-Burning Emissions on the Respiratory System of Children and the Elderly  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the influence of emissions from burning sugar cane on the respiratory system during almost 1 year in the city of Piracicaba in southeast Brazil. From April 1997 through March 1998, samples of inhalable particles were collected, separated into fine and coarse particulate mode, and analyzed for black carbon and tracer elements. At the same time, we examined daily records of children (< 13 years of age) and elderly people (> 64 years of age) admitted to the hospital because of respiratory diseases. Generalized linear models were adopted with natural cubic splines to control for season and linear terms to control for weather. Analyses were carried out for the entire period, as well as for burning and nonburning periods. Additional models were built using three factors obtained from factor analysis instead of particles or tracer elements. Increases of 10.2 ?g/m3 in particles ? 2.5 ?m/m3 aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and 42.9 ?g/m3 in PM10 were associated with increases of 21.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.3–38.5] and 31.03% (95% CI, 1.25–60.21) in child and elderly respiratory hospital admissions, respectively. When we compared periods, the effects during the burning period were much higher than the effects during nonburning period. Elements generated from sugar cane burning (factor 1) were those most associated with both child and elderly respiratory admissions. Our results show the adverse impact of sugar cane burning emissions on the health of the population, reinforcing the need for public efforts to reduce and eventually eliminate this source of air pollution. PMID:16675427

Cancado, Jose E.D.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.; Pereira, Luiz A.A.; Lara, Luciene B.L.S.; Artaxo, Paulo; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Arbex, Marcos A.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Braga, Alfesio L.F.

2006-01-01

416

Physiology of invasion: cane toads are constrained by thermal effects on physiological mechanisms that support locomotor performance.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms that constrain the invasiveness of introduced animals is essential for managing invasions and for predicting their limits. In most vertebrate species, the capacity for invasion relies upon the physiological systems that support locomotion, and oxygen transport and metabolism may become limiting as environmental temperatures increase as predicted by the oxygen limitation hypothesis. Here we test the oxygen limitation hypothesis and propose the alternative hypothesis that within-individual plasticity will compensate for thermal variation. We show that during exercise in the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) oxygen transport by the cardiovascular system was maximised in warm-acclimated toads at high (30°C) temperatures, and that oxygen content of arterial blood was not affected by temperature. Resting oxygen consumption remained stable across a 10°C temperature range (20-30°C) when toads were allowed to acclimate, so that there was no increase in resting oxygen demand that could lead to a decrease in aerobic scope at high temperatures. Additionally, temperature acclimation had no effect on arterial-venous differences in oxygen partial pressures. Toads relied more on glycolytic ATP production at low temperatures to support locomotor activity. Mitochondrial capacities (citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities) were greatest at warmer temperatures. Interestingly, the metabolic cost of exercise increased at low temperatures. In contradiction to predictions by the oxygen limitation hypothesis, aerobic performance was not limited by high temperatures. On the contrary, the relatively slow advance of cane toads to cooler climates can be explained by the constraints of low temperatures on the physiological systems supporting locomotion. It is likely that human-induced global warming will facilitate invasions of environments that are currently too cool to support cane toads. PMID:21490252

Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E

2011-05-01

417

Detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method: collaborative study.  

PubMed

Results of a collaborative study are reported for the detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific natural isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method. The method is based on the fact that the deuterium content at specific positions of the sugar molecules is different in maple syrup from that in beet or cane sugar. The syrup is diluted with pure water and fermented; the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield and analyzed with a high-field NMR spectrometer fitted with a deuterium probe and fluorine lock. The proportion of ethanol molecules monodeuterated at the methyl site is recorded. This parameter (D/H)I is decreased when beet sugar is added and increased when cane sugar is added to the maple syrup. The precision of the method for measuring (D/H)I was found to be in good agreement with the values already published for the application of this method to fruit juice concentrates (AOAC Official Method 995.17). An excellent correlation was found between the percentage of added beet sugar and the (D/H)I isotopic ratio measured in this collaborative study. Consequently, all samples in which exogenous sugars were added were found to have a (D/H)I isotopic ratio significantly different from the normal value for an authentic maple syrup. By extension of what is known about plants having the C4 cycle, the method can be applied to corn sweeteners as well as to cane sugar. One limitation of the method is its reduced sensitivity when applied to specific blends of beet and cane sugars or corn sweeteners. In such case, the C13 ratio measurement (see AOAC Official Method 984.23, Corn Syrup and Cane Sugar in Maple Syrup) may be used in conjunction. PMID:11601471

Martin, Y L

2001-01-01

418

Changes in cholesterol kinetics following sugar cane policosanol supplementation: a randomized control trial  

PubMed Central

Background Sugar cane policosanols (SCP) have been shown to exert cholesterol-modulating properties in various studies conducted in Cuba by substantially reducing cholesterol synthesis. Independent research examining changes in cholesterol kinetics in response to SCP is limited to few studies, none of which was able to replicate findings of the original research. Moreover, no data are available on the effect of SCP on cholesterol absorption to date. The present study was undertaken to determine effects on cholesterol kinetics, namely synthesis and absorption, within hypercholesterolemic individuals consuming a SCP treatment. Twenty-one otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic subjects participated in a randomized double-blind crossover study where they received 10 mg/day of policosanols or a placebo incorporated in margarine as an evening snack for a period of 28 days. The last week of the study phase, subjects were given 13C labelled cholesterol and deuterated water for the measurement of cholesterol absorption and synthesis respectively. Blood was collected on the first two and last five days of the trial. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis were determined by measuring red cell cholesterol 13C and deuterium enrichment, respectively. Results There was no significant change in LDL cholesterol levels as compared to control. In addition, the area under the curve for red cell cholesterol 13C enrichment across 96 hours was not significantly different in the SCP group as compared to control. Similarly, no difference was observed in the fractional rate of cholesterol synthesis over the period of 24 hours between the two treatment groups. Conclusion The findings of the present study fail to support previous research concerning efficacy and mechanism of action for policosanols. PMID:18447941

Kassis, Amira N; Jones, Peter JH

2008-01-01

419

Geology of the Cane Branch and Helton Branch watershed areas, McCreary County, Kentucky  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cane Branch and Helton Branch in McCreary County, Kentucky, are about 1.4 miles apart (fig. 1). Can Branch, which is about 2.1 miles long, emptied into Hughes Fork of Beaver Creek. Its watershed area of about 1.5 square miles lies largely in the Wiborf 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (SW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle), but the downstream part of the area extends northward into the Hail 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (NW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle). Helton Branch, which is about 1.1 miles long, has two tributaries and empties into Little Hurricane Fork of Beaver Creek. It drains an area of about 0.8 square mile of while about 0.5 square mile is in the Hail quadrangle and the remainder in the Wilborg quadrangle. The total relief in the Can Branch area is about 500 feet and in the Helton Branch area about 400 feet. Narrow, steep-sided to canyon-like valley and winding ridges, typical of the Pottsville escarpment region, are characteristic of both areas. Thick woods and dense undergrowth cover much of the two areas. Field mapping was done on U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2-minute maps having a scale of 1:24,000 and a contour interval of 20 feet. Elevations of lithologic contacts were determined with a barometer and a hand level. Aerial photographs were used principally to trace the cliffs formed by sandstone and conglomerate ledges. Exposures, except for those of the cliff- and ledge-forming sandstone and conglomerates, are not abundant. The most complete stratigraphic sections (secs. 3 and 4, fig. 2) in the two areas are exposed in cuts of newly completed Forest Service roads, but the rick in the upper parts of the exposures is weathered. To supplement these sections, additional sections were measured in cuts along the railroad and main highways in nor near the watersheds.

Lyons, Erwin J.

1957-01-01

420

A Deep Large Binocular Telescope View of the Canes Venatici I Dwarf Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first deep color-magnitude diagram of the Canes Venatici I (CVn I) dwarf galaxy from observations with the wide-field Large Binocular Camera on the Large Binocular Telescope. Reaching down to the main-sequence turnoff of the oldest stars, it reveals a dichotomy in the stellar populations of CVn I: it harbors an old (>~10 Gyr), metal-poor ([Fe/H]~-2.0), and spatially extended population along with a much younger (~1.4-2.0 Gyr), 0.5 dex more metal-rich, and spatially more concentrated population. These young stars are also offset by 64+40-20 pc to the east of the galaxy center. The data suggest that this young population, which represents ~3%-5% of the stellar mass of the galaxy within its half-light radius, should be identified with the kinematically cold stellar component found in a recent spectroscopic survey. CVn I therefore follows the behavior of the other remote MW dwarf spheroidals, which all contain intermediate-age and/or young populations: a complex star formation history is possible in extremely low mass galaxies. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; Ohio State University, and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Virginia.

Martin, Nicolas F.; Coleman, Matthew G.; De Jong, Jelte T. A.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bell, Eric F.; Sand, David J.; Hill, John M.; Thompson, David; Burwitz, Vadim; Giallongo, Emanuele; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Gasparo, Federico; Grazian, Andrea; Pedichini, Fernando; Bechtold, Jill

2008-01-01

421

Vector transmission studies of Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV) with the yellow sugar-cane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes)  

E-print Network

was considered synomous with the johnsongrass strain of Sugar- cane Mosaic Virus (SMV-Jg). In recent years the MDMV has been reported in most of the corn and sorghum producing states. Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus observed in Burleson county, Texas, for the fi. rst... the Ohio River. The signi. ficance of the disease was realized in 1963. It spread to an estimated 15, 000 acres in 12 counties along the Ohio and Scioto Rivers. Yie1d losses with this virus-like disease were suspected, but similarities to corn stunt...

Su, Shu-Hua

2012-06-07

422

Simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in grape canes by HPLC-DAD-UV using wavelength switching detection.  

PubMed

The paper described a novel chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds such as gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric and salicylic acid, (+)-catechin, (?)-epicatechin, rutin, morin, quercetin, coumarin and trans-resveratrol at their maximum absorbance wavelengths (MAW) employing reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography combined with DAD and UV detection via detection wavelength switching. The method was based on MAW acquisition by DAD and quantification by UV. The separation process was performed on a Shim-Pack VP-ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) held at 30 °C, utilizing 3.0% acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in the gradient elution mode. The method was fully validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.9990, 10?350 mg/L), precision (both intra-day and inter-day RSD < 4.22%), accuracy (97.31%?104.66%), specificity, robustness (0.59% < RSD < 2.86%), limit of detection and quantification. The switching method significantly improved the sensitivities of most phenolics studied in comparison with the standard constant wavelength detection (280 nm). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of 14 phenolic compounds in 89 varieties of one-year-old Chinese grape one-year-canes. Grape canes contain many phenolics, especially trans-resveratrol, (?)-epicatechin, and (+)-catechin. PMID:24252994

Zhang, Ang; Wan, Li; Wu, Cuiyun; Fang, Yulin; Han, Guomin; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

2013-01-01

423

Nançay ``blind'' 21 CM line survey of the Canes Venatici group region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radio spectroscopic driftscan survey in the 21 cm line with the Nançay decimetric radio telescope of 0.08 steradians of sky in the direction of the constellation Canes Venatici covering a heliocentric velocity range of -350 < V_hel < 2350 km s(-1) produced 53 spectral features, which was further reduced to a sample of 33 reliably detected galaxies by extensive follow-up observations. With a typical noise level of rms = 10 mJy after Hanning smoothing, the survey is - depending on where the detections are located with regard to the centre of the beam - sensitive to M_HI = 1-2x10(8) {h}(-2) {M_sun} at 23 {h}(-1) Mpc and to M_HI = 4-8x10(7) {h}(-2) {M_sun} throughout the CVn groups. The survey region had been previously examined on deep optical plates by \\cite[Binggeli et al. (1990)]{bin90} and contains loose groups with many gas-rich galaxies as well as voids. No galaxies that had not been previously identified in these deep optical surveys were uncovered in our H{sigma c i} survey, neither in the groups nor the voids. The implication is that no substantial quantity of neutral hydrogen contained in gas-rich galaxies has been missed in these well-studied groups. All late-type members of our sample are listed in the \\cite[Fisher & Tully (1981b)]{fis81b} optically selected sample of nearby late-type galaxies; the only system not contained in Fisher and Tully's Catalog is the S0 galaxy NGC 4203. Within the well-sampled CVn group volume with distances corrected for flow motions, the H {sigma c i} mass function is best fitted with the \\cite[Zwaan et al. (1997)]{zwa97} H{sigma c i} mass function (alpha =-1.2) scaled by a factor of f=4.5 in account of the locally overdense region.

Kraan-Korteweg, R. C.; van Driel, W.; Briggs, F.; Binggeli, B.; Mostefaoui, T. I.

1999-03-01

424

The effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on nutrient intake, digestibility and finishing performance of lambs fed a diet based on dried molasses sugar beet-pulp.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SC47) on finishing performance, digestibility, some blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of male lambs fed a diet based on dried Molasses Sugar Beet-Pulp (MSBP). Eighteen Sanjabi male lambs (20.95 +/- 2.7 kg initial body weight and 3 month of age) were used in a completely randomized design. Animals were assigned to one of the two dietary treatments (with or without yeast). Digestibility and nitrogen balance experiment was carried out using six mature rams on finishing diet with and without yeast. Serum metabolites were determined in samples taken from lambs at the end of finishing period. Dry matter digestibility of finishing diet was significantly increased by yeast addition. However, yeast did not have any significant effect on apparent digestibility of OM, NDF, CP and energy. Nitrogen retention was also not affected by yeast addition. Yeast resulted in a significant increase in the average daily gain, dry matter and organic matter intake. However, feed conversion ratio was not significantly affected by addition of yeast. The concentration of the serum metabolites including glucose, urea, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous and cratinine were not affected significantly by yeast supplementation, but triglyceride concentrations increased significantly when yeast was fed. Addition of yeast to the diet did not have any significant effect on the carcass characteristics. Results of this study suggest that feeding saccharomyces cerevisiae with a diet based on MSBP can improve the performance of fattening lambs without any change in carcass characteristics or cuts. PMID:19093506

Payandeh, S; Kafilzadeh, F

2007-12-15

425

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into the Technology Behind the Manufacturing of Sugar Cane and Wood  

E-print Network

. To compensate for the increasing demand in paper and wood fibre pulp, sugar cane paper, which uses bagasse, has been introduced to the market. Bagasse is a by-product that remains after sugarcane and sorghum stalks worldwide has come from agricultural crops, such as bagasse. Currently, an increasing number of companies

426

Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.  

PubMed

Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate. PMID:24295691

Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

2014-04-15

427

A Suspected Parasite SpillBack of Two Novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) Causing Disease in Australian Endemic Frogs Found in the Invasive Cane Toad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo

Ashlie Hartigan; Ivan Fiala; Iva Dyková; Miloslav Jirku; Ben Okimoto; Karrie Rose; David N. Phalen; Jan Slapeta; Anastasia P. Litvintseva

2011-01-01

428

UPGRADING OF SUGAR CANE BAGASSE BY THERMAL PROCESSES. 3. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PRODUCTS OBTAINED FROM THE CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BAGASSE WITH MONOETHANOLAMINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The products obtained from liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse with monoethanolamine were characterized using a variety of methods: elemental analysis and UV-visible, FTIR, HNMR and CNMR spectrometries. The oils were separated by conventional solubility techniques and were further fractionated into eight fractions (saturated, monoaromatic, diaromatic, triaromatic and poliaromatic hydrocarbons, resins, asphaltenes and pre-asphaltenes). These fractions were characterized by capillary gas

Fernando M. Lanças; Sandra R. Rissato

1995-01-01

429

Beware of Invasive Cane Toads: Huge Toad is a Dog and Koi Killer Doug Caldwell, Ph.D. U.F. Commercial Landscape Horticulture Extension, Collier County  

E-print Network

collected a dozen in an hour! So, I had to see if my dog's exercise habitat was a toad gauntlet. I wentBeware of Invasive Cane Toads: Huge Toad is a Dog and Koi Killer Doug Caldwell, Ph.D. U walking your dogs in South Florida. Don't let them stray into the bushes or nose around without

Florida, University of

430

Influence of Electron Beam Irradiation and Coupling Agents on the Thermal Stability of Sugar Cane Bagasse Fiber-Thermoplastics Scrape Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of blending of sugar cane bagasse with thermoplastics scrape as well as incorporation of some coupling agents has been conducted using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the effect of electron beam preirradiation of low density polyethylene on the properties of the bagasse-LDPE composite was also studied. Simulation of TGA data reveals that the presence of bagasse fiber accelerates

H. A. Youssef; M. A. M. Ali; M. R. Ismail; A. H. Zahran

2007-01-01

431

40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The...located on the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii in the State of Hawaii. [40 FR 8504, Feb. 27,...

2010-07-01

432

Pipeline Corridors through Wetlands, Impacts on Plant Communities: Bayou Grand Cane, De Soto Parish, Louisiana. Topical Report, August 1991-July 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 12-13, 1991, at the Bayou Grand Cane crossing in De Soto Parish, Louisiana, where a pipeline constructed three years prior to the survey crosses the bayou through mature bott...

1994-01-01

433

Usefulness and acceptability of a standardised orientation and mobility training for partially-sighted older adults using an identification cane  

PubMed Central

Background Orientation and mobility (O&M) training in using an identification (ID) cane is provided to partially-sighted older adults to facilitate independent functioning and participation in the community. Recently, a protocolised standardised O&M-training in the use of the ID cane was developed in The Netherlands. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and acceptability of both the standardised training and the regular training for participants and O&M-trainers in a randomised controlled trial (NCT00946062). Methods The standardised O&M-training consists of two structured face-to-face sessions and one telephone follow-up, in which, in addition to the regular training, self-management and behavioural change techniques are applied. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data on the training’s usefulness, e.g. the population reached, self-reported benefits or achievements, and acceptability, e.g. the performance of the intervention according to protocol and participants’ exposure to and engagement in the training. Results Data was collected from 29 O&M-trainers and 68 participants. Regarding the self-reported benefits, outcomes were comparable for the standardised training and the regular training according the trainers and participants e.g., about 85% of the participants in both groups experienced benefits of the cane and about 70% gained confidence in their capabilities. Participants were actively involved in the standardised training. Nearly 40% of the participants in the standardised training group was not exposed to the training according to protocol regarding the number of sessions scheduled and several intervention elements, such as action planning and contracting. Conclusions The standardised and regular O&M-training showed to be useful and mostly acceptable for the partially-sighted older adults and trainers. Yet, a concern is the deviation from the protocol of the standardised O&M-training by the O&M-trainers regarding distinguishing elements such as action planning. Overall, participants appreciated both trainings and reported benefit. PMID:22681932

2012-01-01

434

Radiation and NRSP effect on protein, filtration efficiency and crude fiber degradation after sugar cane bagasse fermentation by mushroom fungi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upgrading of sugar cane bagasse with natural rubber waste by irradiation and three mushroom fungi was studied in order to produce economical animal feed and mushrooms. The protein concentrations changed a little at 0, 1% of NRSP but greatly increased at 5% NRSP concentration with irradiation and nonirradiation in liquid fermentation. The filtration rate decreased at 5% NRSP concentration after liquid fermentation but it increased by 2.7, 10.2, 11.1 times with irradiation for P. sajor-caju, C. phlytidosprorus and P. flavellatus. The amounts of crude fiber were decreased due to the irradiation and the different concentration of NRSP after 42 days of solid fermentation by P. sajor-caju.

Shin, Hang-Sik; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Hwang, Eung-Ju; Shon, Jong-Sik; Kim, Gye-Nam; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Kume, Tamikazu

1998-11-01

435

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

Not Available

1994-08-01

436

A new fossil thryonomyid from the Late Miocene of the United Arab Emirates and the origin of African cane rats.  

PubMed

Cane rats (Thryonomyidae) are represented today by two species inhabiting sub-Saharan Africa. Their fossil record is predominately African, but includes several Miocene species from Arabia and continental Asia that represent dispersal events from Africa. For example, Paraulacodus indicus, known from the Miocene of Pakistan, is closely related to living Thryonomys. Here we describe a new thryonomyid, Protohummus dango, gen. et sp. nov., from the late Miocene Baynunah Formation of the United Arab Emirates. The new thryonomyid is less derived than "Thryonomys" asakomae from the latest Miocene of Ethiopia and clarifies the origin of crown Thryonomys and the evolutionary transition from Paraulacodus. A phylogenetic analysis shows Protohummus dango to be morphologically intermediate between Paraulacodus spp. and extinct and living Thryonomys spp. The morphological grade and phylogenetic position of Protohummus dango further supports previous biochronological estimates of the age of the Baynunah Formation (ca. 6-8 Ma). PMID:23625517

Kraatz, Brian P; Bibi, Faysal; Hill, Andrew; Beech, Mark

2013-05-01

437

An invasive species induces rapid adaptive change in a native predator: cane toads and black snakes in Australia  

PubMed Central

Rapid environmental change due to human activities has increased rates of extinction, but some species may be able to adapt rapidly enough to deal with such changes. Our studies of feeding behaviour and physiological resistance to toxins reveal surprisingly rapid adaptive responses in Australian black snakes (Pseudechis porphyriacus) following the invasion of a lethally toxic prey item, the cane toad (Bufo marinus). Snakes from toad-exposed localities showed increased resistance to toad toxin and a decreased preference for toads as prey. Separate laboratory experiments suggest that these changes are not attributable to learning (we were unable to teach naive snakes to avoid toxic prey) or to acquired resistance (repeated sub-lethal doses did not enhance resistance). These results strongly suggest that black snake behaviour and physiology have evolved in response to the presence of toads, and have done so rapidly. Toads were brought to Australia in 1935, so these evolved responses have occurred in fewer than 23 snake generations. PMID:16777750

Phillips, Ben L; Shine, Richard

2006-01-01

438

Seasonal dynamics of the lungworm, Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala, in recently colonised cane toad (Rhinella marina) populations in tropical Australia.  

PubMed

The impact of parasites on host populations depend upon parasite prevalence and intensity. Understanding how infection dynamics change through time following a host population's initial exposure to the parasite is fundamental to host-parasite biology. We studied an invasive host (the cane toad, Rhinella marina) currently undergoing range expansion - a process through which this host's range is expanding faster than that of its lung parasites (the nematode, Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala), such that hosts at the expanding range edge remain parasite-free for several years. It was predicted that parasite intensity and prevalence would be affected by host characteristics (e.g., size, sex), environmental conditions (e.g., seasons, habitat type), and time since parasite arrival in the newly established invading host population. Over 2,400 cane toads were sampled at 10 sites in recently established toad populations in the highly seasonal monsoonal tropics of northern Australia. The sampling spanned 14 consecutive 3 month seasons commencing in the early stages of lungworm establishment in those toad populations. Both parasite prevalence and intensity increased with host body size but were unaffected by host sex. Prevalence and intensity were highest during drier times of year and in drier habitats (i.e., sites lacking permanent waterbodies). These changes in parasite prevalence may reflect a trend for saturated soil to reduce parasite survival during the free-living infective stage, and to allow anuran hosts to disperse widely (thus reducing the transfer of directly transmitted parasites between hosts). Conversely, dry conditions induce toads to aggregate in moist dry-season refugia where conditions may be more conducive to direct transmission of infective parasitic larvae between hosts. PMID:23747925

Pizzatto, Lígia; Kelehear, Crystal; Shine, Richard

2013-08-01

439

Structural evaluation of sugar cane bagasse steam pretreated in the presence of CO2 and SO2  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies on the use of SO2 and CO2 as impregnating agent for sugar cane bagasse steam treatment showed comparative and promising results concerning the cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis and the low formation of the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural for the use of CO2 at 205°C/15 min or SO2 at 190°C/5 min. In the present study sugar cane bagasse materials pretreated as aforementioned were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy) aiming a better understanding of the structural and chemical changes undergone by the pretreated materials. Results SEM and TEM data showed that the structural modifications undergone by the pretreatment with CO2 were less pronounced in comparison to that using SO2, which can be directly related to the combined severity of each pretreatment. According to XRD data, untreated bagasse showed, as expected, a lower crystallinity index (CI = 48.0%) when compared to pretreated samples with SO2 (CI = 65.5%) or CO2 (CI = 56.4%), due to the hemicellulose removal of 68.3% and 40.5%, respectively. FTIR spectroscopy supported SEM, TEM and XRD results, revealing a more extensive action of SO2. Conclusions The SEM, TEM, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy techniques used in this work contributed to structural and chemical analysis of the untreated and pretreated bagasse. The images from SEM and TEM can be related to the severity of SO2 pretreatment, which is almost twice higher. The crystallinity index values obtained from XRD showed that pretreated materials have higher values when compared with untreated material, due to the partial removal of hemicellulose after pretreatment. FTIR spectroscopy supported SEM, TEM and XRD results. CO2 can actually be used as impregnating agent for steam pretreatment, although the present study confirmed a more extensive action of SO2. PMID:22616648

2012-01-01

440

Effects of betaine and condensed molasses solubles on nitrogen balance and nutrient digestibility in piglets fed diets deficient in methionine and low in compatible osmolytes.  

PubMed

A balance experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of betaine monohydrate (BET) or betaine derived from condensed molasses solubles (CMS) as a substitute for methionine and choline on nitrogen (N) balance and total tract nutrient digestibility in weaned piglets. The experiment included four treatments with 32 barrows with an average initial body weight (BW) of 13.5 kg. The supplementation of DL-methionine and choline (positive control = PC) to the basal diet, which was deficient in methionine and low in compatible osmolytes in the form of betaine or its precursor choline (negative control = NC) resulted in a significant increase in N retention of 0.8 g/d. The substitution of DL-methionine and choline with BET or CMS did not affect N retention compared to the PC and the NC treatment either. Feeding the PC diet increased the digestibilities of organic matter, NDF, ADF, NFE, crude ash, Ca, P, methionine, tryptophan and cystine by 1.9%, 7.3%, 9.7%, 1.1%, 6.3%, 13.9%, 7.7%, 15.9%, 4.3% and 2.8%, respectively, and tended (p < 0.20) to increase the digestibilities of most other amino acids by 1.6-3.4%. Digestibility of CP, EE (HCl), Mg and Na was 3.1% (p=0.09), 5.1% (p=0.09), 5.1% (p= 0.06) and 3.3% (p= 0.17) higher, respectively, when compared to the NC treatment. BET and CMS supplementation increased most nutrient digestibilities in the same magnitude as for the PC treatment. In summary, the supplementation of betaine, originating from different sources, to a diet with low contents of compatible osmolytes increased in particular the fermentation of fibre and enhanced mineral absorption. The supplementation of the NC with DL-methionine was more efficient in improving N retention than the replacement of DL-methionine by betaine originating from BET or CMS. PMID:16921926

Eklund, Meike; Mosenthin, Rainer; Tafaj, Myqerem; Wamatu, Jane

2006-08-01

441

Interactive effects of molasses by homofermentative and heterofermentative inoculants on fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation, nutritive value and aerobic stability of wilted alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) silage.  

PubMed

The effect of adding molasses (0, UM or 50 g/kg on DM basis, M) and two types of inoculant including homofermentative (HO) and a combination of homofermentative and propionate-producing bacterial (HOPAB) inoculants on silage fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation and aerobic stability of pre-bloom, wilted alfalfa (AS) was determined in laboratory silos. The HOPAB inoculant was more effective than HO in reducing the alfalfa silage pH but increased propionate content in the absence of M (p < 0.05). Inoculation of HOPAB reduced (p < 0.01) acid detergent fibre (ADF) and increased (p < 0.01) lactate to acetate ratio compared with uninoculated AS. Acetate concentration was lower (p < 0.01) in HOPAB-inoculated than other AS. This difference was more pronounced in M-added AS (inoculants × M interaction, p = 0.01). Both inoculants reduced (p < 0.01) ammonia-N content in AS added with M, whereas only HOPAB decreased (p < 0.01) ammonia-N concentration in silage without M. Inoculants increased (p < 0.01) B2 fraction in AS with M addition but had no effect on AS without M. Treating silages with HO-UM increased (p < 0.05) C fraction (acid-detergent insoluble-N) but HOPAB decreased C fraction at two levels of M. Treating alfalfa crop with M and HOPAB improved aerobic stability by increasing the concentration of acetate and propionate of AS respectively. Adding M tended (p < 0.10) to increase short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cumulative gas production (CGP). HOPAB alone increased DM disappearance at 24 h post-incubation and effective degradability assuming outflow rate of 8%/h relative to untreated AS (p < 0.05). It was concluded that adding M had no pronounced effects on AS fermentation quality, but increased aerobic stability. HOPAB-inoculated AS with no addition of M improved fermentation quality and increased DM degradability compared with HO. PMID:23692608

Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Taghizadeh, A; Kargar, S; Yang, W Z

2014-04-01

442

A CANE FOR THE MARS ROVER, K.F.Bickert, Max-Planck-Insitute for Extraterrestrial Physics,D-8046 Garching,Germany  

E-print Network

To support short distance navigation especially during blinding dust storms [Habe86,Loev86] or foggy athmospheric conditions [Brig77,Mart86] and to continuously measure surface parameters essential for rover safety [Chic891 or sampling preanalysis, we propose a two joint extendable stick with a multi-sensor head and a feathering of contact wires. The cane detects size and position of obstacles in or near the rovers path [Fren86], empty or dust filled holes (quicksand), sandy surfaces not fitted to bear the weight of the rover or keep it from sliding, and measures inclination. The cane's tip holds active and passive sensors for measuring surface hardness, grain size and weight, shear resistance, temperatures, thermal and electrical resistance, evtl. dielectric constant and magnetic susceptibility too. Optional strap-ons support analysis of composition by laser or highvoltage spark spectroscopy, and other rover bound instruments using

unknown authors

443

Complete Genome Sequence of the Sugar Cane Endophyte Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2, a Disease-Suppressive Bacterium with Antifungal Activity toward the Plant Pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum.  

PubMed

The endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2 exhibits antifungal activity and represents a biocontrol agent to suppress red rot disease of sugar cane. Here, we report the completely sequenced 6.6-Mb genome of P. aurantiaca PB-St2. The sequence contains a repertoire of biosynthetic genes for secondary metabolites that putatively contribute to its antagonistic activity and its plant-microbe interactions. PMID:24459254

Mehnaz, Samina; Bauer, Judith S; Gross, Harald

2014-01-01

444

Complete Genome Sequence of the Sugar Cane Endophyte Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2, a Disease-Suppressive Bacterium with Antifungal Activity toward the Plant Pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum  

PubMed Central

The endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2 exhibits antifungal activity and represents a biocontrol agent to suppress red rot disease of sugar cane. Here, we report the completely sequenced 6.6-Mb genome of P. aurantiaca PB-St2. The sequence contains a repertoire of biosynthetic genes for secondary metabolites that putatively contribute to its antagonistic activity and its plant-microbe interactions. PMID:24459254

Bauer, Judith S.

2014-01-01

445

Toad’s tongue for breakfast: exploitation of a novel prey type, the invasive cane toad, by scavenging raptors in tropical Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although interest in the ecological impacts of invasive species has largely focused on negative effects, some native taxa\\u000a may benefit from invader arrival. In tropical Australia, invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) have fatally poisoned many native predators (e.g., marsupials, crocodiles, lizards) that attempt to ingest the toxic anurans,\\u000a but birds appear to be more resistant to toad toxins. We quantified

Christa Beckmann; Richard Shine

2011-01-01

446

Effect of tillage and field condition on soil physical properties, cane and sugar yields in Vertisols of Kenana Sugar Estate, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of heavy disc harrowing in combination with chisel ploughing to depths of 10, 20, and 30cm, on soil physical properties, cane yield, and sugar yield. The experiment was executed in two non-fallow, two semi-fallow and one fallow field conditions, in Kenana Sugar Estate, Sudan.Results showed that the final surfaces for all tillage

E. A Hammad; M. I Dawelbeit

2001-01-01

447

Adaptation or preadaptation: why are keelback snakes ( Tropidonophis mairii ) less vulnerable to invasive cane toads ( Bufo marinus ) than are other Australian snakes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological invasions can expose native predators to novel prey which may be less nutritious or detrimental to predators. The\\u000a introduction and subsequent spread of cane toads (Bufo marinus) through Australia has killed many anuran-eating snakes unable to survive the toad’s toxins. However, one native species,\\u000a the keelback snake (Tropidonophis mairii), is relatively resistant to toad toxins and remains common in

John Llewelyn; Ben L. Phillips; Greg P. Brown; Lin Schwarzkopf; Ross A. Alford; Richard Shine

2011-01-01

448

An approach to the utilisation of CO2 as impregnating agent in steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves for ethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min) and temperature (190 to 220°C). The pretreatment was assessed in terms of glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitor formation (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) in the pretreatment. Results from pretreatment using SO2 as impregnating agent was used as reference. Results For sugar cane bagasse, the highest glucose yield (86.6% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 205°C for 15 min. For sugar cane leaves the highest glucose yield (97.2% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 220°C for 5 min. The reference pretreatment, using impregnation with SO2 and performed at 190°C for 5 min, resulted in an overall glucose yield of 79.7% and 91.9% for bagasse and leaves, respectively. Conclusions Comparable pretreatment performance was obtained with CO2 as compared to when SO2 is used, although higher temperature and pressure were needed. The results are encouraging as some characteristics of CO2 are very attractive, such as high availability, low cost, low toxicity, low corrosivity and low occupational risk. PMID:20384996

2010-01-01

449

21 CFR 558.128 - Chlortetracycline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...medicated articles containing either chlortetracycline calcium complex equivalent to chlortetracycline hydrochloride...5-01-625 Trace Mineral/Vitamin Premix1 3.80 Calcium Carbonate 3.50 6-01-069 Dried Cane Molasses...

2010-04-01

450

21 CFR 558.128 - Chlortetracycline.  

...medicated articles containing either chlortetracycline calcium complex equivalent to chlortetracycline hydrochloride...5-01-625 Trace Mineral/Vitamin Premix1 3.80 Calcium Carbonate 3.50 6-01-069 Dried Cane Molasses...

2014-04-01

451

21 CFR 558.128 - Chlortetracycline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...medicated articles containing either chlortetracycline calcium complex equivalent to chlortetracycline hydrochloride...5-01-625 Trace Mineral/Vitamin Premix1 3.80 Calcium Carbonate 3.50 6-01-069 Dried Cane Molasses...

2013-04-01

452

21 CFR 558.128 - Chlortetracycline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...medicated articles containing either chlortetracycline calcium complex equivalent to chlortetracycline hydrochloride...5-01-625 Trace Mineral/Vitamin Premix1 3.80 Calcium Carbonate 3.50 6-01-069 Dried Cane Molasses...

2011-04-01

453

21 CFR 558.128 - Chlortetracycline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...medicated articles containing either chlortetracycline calcium complex equivalent to chlortetracycline hydrochloride...5-01-625 Trace Mineral/Vitamin Premix1 3.80 Calcium Carbonate 3.50 6-01-069 Dried Cane Molasses...

2012-04-01

454

40 CFR 180.396 - Hexazinone; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...n) and which excludes use of hexazinone on sugarcane in Florida, are established for the combined...commodities: Commodity Parts per milliom Sugarcane, cane 0.6 Sugarcane, molasses 4.0 (d) Indirect or...

2010-07-01

455

Influence of sugar cane vinasse on the sorption and degradation of herbicides in soil under controlled conditions.  

PubMed

This study reports the influence of sugar cane vinasse on the persistence, sorption and leaching potential of diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea), hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dione) and tebuthiuron (1-(5-tert-butyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1,3-dimethylurea) in both a clay and sandy soil from a tropical area of Brazil. The experiments were conducted out under controlled laboratory conditions. The addition of sugarcane vinasse to soil influenced the persistence and sorption of the herbicides in both the studied clay and sandy soils, with a considerable decrease in the diuron DT?? values in clay soil. The Ground Water Ubiquity Score (GUS) Index classifies the herbicides as leachers in both soils and treatments, with the exception of diuron, which is classified as a non-leacher in clay soil-vinasse and as a transient herbicide in sandy soil. These results suggest that special attention should be given to areas such as those where the sandy soil was collected in this study, which is a recharge area of the Guarani Aquifer and is likely to experience groundwater contamination due to the high leaching potential of the applied pesticides. PMID:22938579

Lourencetti, Carolina; De Marchi, Mary R R; Ribeiro, Maria L

2012-01-01

456

Nonlinear forcing singular vector -type tendency errors of the Zebiak-Cane model and its effect on ENSO predictability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the Zebiak-Cane model, the nonlinear forcing singular vector (NFSV) approach is used to explore the constant tendency error that has the largest effect on prediction uncertainties for El Niño events. The results showed only one NFSV to exist for each of the predictions for the predetermined model El Niño events. It was found that the NFSVs often present large-scale zonal dipolar structures and are insensitive to the intensities of El Niño events, but are dependent on the prediction period. In particular, the NFSVs associated with the predictions crossing through the growth phase of El Niño tend to exhibit a zonal dipolar pattern with positive anomalies in the equatorial central-western Pacific and negative anomalies in the equatorial eastern Pacific (denoted as "type-1 NFSVs"). Meanwhile, those associated with the predictions through the decaying phase of El Niño are inclined to present another zonal dipolar pattern (denoted as "type-2 NFSVs"), which is almost opposite to the type-1 NFSVs. The FSVs, i.e. the linear counterpart of the NFSVs, can also be classified into two types, which are of almost the same signs as in type-1 NFSVs and type-2 NFSVs, and which we similarly denoted as "type-1 FSVs" and "type-2 FSVs", respectively. We found that both type-1 FSVs and type-1 NFSVs often cause negative prediction errors for Niño-3 SSTA of the El Niño events, while the type-2 FSVs and type-2 NFSVs usually yield positive prediction errors. However, due to the effect of nonlinearities, the NFSVs usually have the western pole of the zonal dipolar pattern much farther west, and covering much broader region. Correspondingly, the NFSVs cause much larger prediction errors than the FSVs and show themselves to be much more applicable in describing the optimal tendency errors in the nonlinear Zebiak-Cane model. Our results also show that the nonlinearities have a suppression effect on the growth of the prediction errors caused by the FSVs. Furthermore, the particular structure of the NFSVs tends to reduce the suppression effect of nonlinearities on prediction errors for Niño-3 SSTA of El Niño events. It is clear that the effect of nonlinearities on ENSO predictability is significant and cannot be neglected. The NFSV-type tendency errors, compared to the FSV-type tendency errors, is much potential for revealing the effect of nonlinearity. The NFSV-type tendency errors may also provide information concerning the sensitive areas in which the model errors, compared to those in other areas, are much more likely to yield large prediction errors for El Niño events. Therefore, if we improve the ability of the model simulating the states in the sensitive areas, the ENSO forecast skill may in turn be greatly improved.

Duan, Wansuo; Zhao, Peng

2014-05-01

457

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

NONE

1996-03-01

458

Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) Using differente polyclonal antibodies  

PubMed Central

The species Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN) Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 105 cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques. PMID:24031435

da Silva-Froufe, Lucia Gracinda; Boddey, Robert Michael; Reis, Veronica Massena

2009-01-01

459

TIDAL SIGNATURES IN THE FAINTEST MILKY WAY SATELLITES: THE DETAILED PROPERTIES OF LEO V, PISCES II, AND CANES VENATICI II  

SciTech Connect

We present deep wide-field photometry of three recently discovered faint Milky Way (MW) satellites: Leo V, Pisces II, and Canes Venatici II. Our main goals are to study the structure and star formation history of these dwarfs; we also search for signs of tidal disturbance. The three satellites have similar half-light radii ({approx}60-90 pc) but a wide range of ellipticities. Both Leo V and CVn II show hints of stream-like overdensities at large radii. An analysis of the satellite color-magnitude diagrams shows that all three objects are old (>10 Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx} -2), though neither the models nor the data have sufficient precision to assess when the satellites formed with respect to cosmic reionization. The lack of an observed younger stellar population ({approx}< 10 Gyr) possibly sets them apart from the other satellites at Galactocentric distances {approx}> 150 kpc. We present a new compilation of structural data for all MW satellite galaxies and use it to compare the properties of classical dwarfs to the ultra-faints. The ellipticity distribution of the two groups is consistent at the {approx}2{sigma} level. However, the faintest satellites tend to be more aligned toward the Galactic Center, and those satellites with the highest ellipticity ({approx}> 0.4) have orientations ({Delta}{theta}{sub GC}) in the range 20 Degree-Sign {approx}< {Delta}{theta}{sub GC} {approx}< 40 Degree-Sign . This latter observation is in rough agreement with predictions from simulations of dwarf galaxies that have lost a significant fraction of their dark matter halos and are being tidally stripped.

Sand, David J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Strader, Jay; McLeod, Brian; Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Willman, Beth [Department of Astronomy, Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Zaritsky, Dennis; Olszewski, Edward [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Seth, Anil, E-mail: dsand@lcogt.net [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

2012-09-01

460

Qualitative and quantitative high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of aldehydes in Brazilian sugar cane spirits and other distilled alcoholic beverages.  

PubMed

A study is presented on the high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of eighteen aldehydes in Brazilian sugar cane spirits and other international brandies. The aldehydes were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography as 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones (DNPHs). A very good chromatographic separation was achieved for eighteen different aldehyde-DNPHs. The proposed methodology is quite simple and not very time-consuming. Ten aldehydes were identified in 75 beverages and quantified using the external standard method with UV detection at 365 nm. A detailed knowledge of the aldehyde content should significantly contribute to improving the quality control of distilled spirits. PMID:9368404

Nascimento, R F; Marques, J C; Lima Neto, B S; De Keukeleire, D; Franco, D W

1997-10-01

461

Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the sale of excess electricity and if the cost of enzymes continues to fall. PMID:22502801

2012-01-01

462

Direct Zinc Determination in Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit by Solid-Phase Extraction Using Moringa oleifera Husks in a Flow System with Detection by FAAS  

PubMed Central

This paper reports a method for the determination of zinc in Brazilian sugar cane spirit, (cachaça in Portuguese), using solid-phase extraction with a flow injection analysis system and detection by FAAS. The sorbent material used was activated carbon obtained from Moringa oleifera husks. Flow and chemical variables of the proposed system were optimized through multivariate designs. The factors selected were sorbent mass, sample pH, sample flow rate, and eluent concentration. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 4.0, a sample flow rate of 6.0?mL?min?1, 30.0?mg of sorbent mass, and 1.0?mol?L?1 HNO3 as the eluent at a flow rate of 4.0?mL?min?1. The limit of detection for zinc