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Sample records for cane blackstrap molasses

  1. Simplified modeling of fed-batch alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane blackstrap molasses.

    PubMed

    Converti, Attilio; Arni, Saleh; Sato, Sunao; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro; Aquarone, Eugênio

    2003-10-01

    Simplified modeling based on material balances for biomass, ethanol and substrate was used to describe the kinetics of fed-batch alcohol fermentation of sugarcane blackstrap molasses. Maintenance requirements were previously shown to be of particular significance in this system, owing to the use of massive inoculum to minimize inhibitions; therefore, they were taken into consideration for kinetic modeling. Average values of biomass and ethanol yields, productivities, and substrate consumption rates, calculated at the end of runs performed either at constant or exponentially varying flow rates, demonstrated that all of these parameters were influenced by the initial sugar-feeding rate, F(o)S(o). Under conditions of substrate shortage (F(o)S(o)

  2. Economical succinic acid production from cane molasses by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Peng; Zheng, Pu; Sun, Zhi-Hao; Ni, Ye; Dong, Jin-Jun; Zhu, Lei-Lei

    2008-04-01

    In this work, production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC1593 using cane molasses as a low cost carbon source was developed. In anaerobic bottles fermentation, succinic acid concentration of 50.6+/-0.9 g l(-1) was attained at 60 h using an optimum medium containing molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 79.5+/-1.1% and sugar utilization of 97.1+/-0.6%. When batch fermentation was carried out in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with pretreated molasses, 46.4 g l(-1) of succinic acid was attained at 48 h and faster cells growth was also observed. Fed batch fermentation was performed to minimize the substrate (sugar) inhibition effect, giving 55.2 g l(-1) of succinic acid and 1.15 g l(-1)h(-1) of productivity at 48 h. The present study suggests that the inexpensive cane molasses could be utilized for the economical and efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes. PMID:17532626

  3. Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, P.

    1999-09-29

    Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.

  4. A novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses for production of prebiotic and functional bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Lata, Kusum; Singh, Umesh; Krishania, Meena; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the sugar industry by-product cane molasses was investigated as feedstock for acceptor reactions by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508, leading to the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. The starch industry corn fiber residue was used as a source for acceptor molecules, maltose, in the reaction. Production of approximately 124g oligosaccharides (DP3-DP6) per kg of fresh molasses was achieved. Further, cane molasses based medium was demonstrated as a sole carbon source for L. mesenteroides growth and dextransucrase production. d-Fructose released by dextransucrase activity as processing by-product was transformed into the functional monosaccharide with zero caloric value, d-psicose, by inducing its epimerization. Quantitative analysis approximated 37g d-psicose per kg of fresh molasses. Thus, the study established a novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses into prebiotic and functional food additives. PMID:27498012

  5. The effects of Saccharum officinarium (sugar cane) molasses on cytokine secretion by human blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Rahiman, Farzana; Pool, Edmund John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sugar cane molasses on the immune system, using cytokines as biomarkers. Whole blood cultures, stimulated in vitro with endotoxin or PHA, were incubated with various concentrations of molasses. No cell death occurred in whole blood cultures incubated with molasses samples. The addition of molasses (800 microg/mL) to unstimulated whole blood cultures resulted in increased levels of the biomarker of inflammation, Interleukin-6 (P < 0.001) and also the biomarker of humoral immunity, Interleukin-10 (P < 0.001). Molasses addition (800 microg/mL) to unstimulated whole blood cultures has no effect on the cell mediated immunity biomarker, Interferon gamma secretion. Molasses has no effect on Interleukin-6, Interleukin-10 and Interferon gamma secretion in stimulated whole blood cultures. Immunostimulation by molasses requires further investigation as it may have potential health impacts. PMID:20391026

  6. Batch ethanol fermentation of molasses: a correlation between the time necessary to complete the fermentation and the initial concentrations of sugar and yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Borzani, W; Gerab, A; De La Higuera, G A; Pires, M H; Piplovic, R

    1993-03-01

    Batch fermentations of sugar-cane blackstrap molasses to ethanol, using pressed yeast as inoculum, demonstrated an exponential relationship between the time necessary to complete the fermentation and the initial concentrations of sugar and yeast cells. The parameters of the derived exponential equations depended on the experimental conditions. PMID:24419962

  7. Fungal invertase as an aid for fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Sato, H.H.

    1982-10-01

    Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.4, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40 degrees C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5. (Refs. 8).

  8. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    PubMed

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of α-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity. PMID:23190112

  9. Influence of Ammonium Salts and Cane Molasses on Growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus and Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, M.; Beaulieu, Y.; Melinard, J.; Pandian, S.; Goulet, J.

    1995-01-01

    The production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545 was studied in a synthetic medium with 3% glucose at pH 7.0 supplemented with several ammonium substrates and cane molasses. Growth was measured by dry cell weight, and the PHB content was measured by gas chromatography. The effects of ammonium sources such as sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and chloride salts and those of different ammonium sulfate concentrations were evaluated. The best growth and PHB production were obtained with ammonium sulfate; however, NH(inf4)(sup+) concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5 g/liter showed no significant difference. Ammonium sulfate was therefore used as the sole source of NH(inf4)(sup+) for experiments with cane molasses as the growth activator. Optimal growth and PHB production were obtained with 0.3% molasses. However, the yields of biomass (39 to 48%) and PHB (17 to 26%) varied significantly among the different ammonium substrates and cane molasses concentrations. PMID:16534900

  10. Improved welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp. ATCC31555 from pretreated cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hongxia; Liu, Min; Yu, Pingru; Zhang, Shaozhi; Suo, Yukai; Luo, Ping; Li, Shuang; Wang, Jufang

    2015-09-20

    Welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp. ATCC31555 from cane molasses was studied in batch fermentation to reduce production costs and enhance gum production. The pretreatment of cane molasses, agitation speed and the addition of supplements were investigated to optimize the process. Sulfuric acid hydrolysis was found to be the optimal pretreatment, resulting in a maximum gum concentration of 33.5 g/L, which is 50.0% higher than those obtained from the molasses' mother liquor. Agitation at 600 rpm at 30°C and addition of 10% n-dodecane following fermentation for 36 h increased the maximum gum production up to 41.0 ± 1.41 g/L, which is 49.1% higher than the greatest welan gum concentration in the literature so far. The welan gum product showed an acceptable molecular weight, similar rheological properties and better thermal stability to that obtained from glucose. These results indicate that cane molasses may be a suitable and inexpensive substrate for cost-effective industrial-scale welan gum production. PMID:26050885

  11. Cauliflower waste incorporation into cane molasses improves ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Bansal, Sunil; Oberoi, Harinder Singh

    2007-12-01

    Diluted cane molasses having total sugar and reducing sugar content of 9.60 and 3.80% (w/v) respectively was subjected to ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178. Incorporation of dried Cauliflower Waste (CW) in molasses at the level of 15 % increased ethanol production by nearly 36 % compared to molasses alone. Addition of 0.2 % yeast extract improved ethanol production by nearly 49 % as compared to molasses alone. When the medium containing diluted molasses and 0.2 % yeast extract was supplemented with 15 % CW, 29 % more ethanol was produced compared to molasses with 0.2 % yeast extract. Cell biomass, ethanol production, final ethanol concentration and fermentation efficiency of 2.65 mg mL(-1), 41.2 gL(-1), 0.358 gg(-1) and 70.11 % respectively were found to be best at 15% CW supplementation level besides reduction in fermentation time but further increase in CW level resulted in decline on account of all the above parameters. This is probably the first report to our knowledge, in which CW was used in enhancing ethanol production significantly using a small quantity of yeast extract. PMID:23100689

  12. Butyric acid fermentation in a fibrous bed bioreactor with immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum from cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2009-07-01

    Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2 g l(-1) with yield of 0.47 g g(-1) and reactor productivity up to 4.13 g l(-1)h(-1) at pH 6.0. When repeated-batch fermentation was carried out, long-term operation with high butyrate yield, volumetric productivity was achieved. Several cane molasses pretreatment techniques were investigated, and it was found that sulfuric acid treatment gave better results regarding butyrate concentration (34.6+/-0.8 g l(-1)), yield (0.58+/-0.01 g g(-1)), and sugar utilization (90.8+/-0.9%). Also, fed-batch fermentation from cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was performed to further increase the concentration of butyrate up to 55.2 g l(-1). PMID:19297150

  13. Butanol production from cane molasses by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864: batch and semicontinuous fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ye; Wang, Yun; Sun, Zhihao

    2012-04-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum strains used in most Chinese ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) plants favorably ferment starchy materials like corn, cassava, etc., rather than sugar materials. This is one major problem of ABE industry in China and significantly limits the exploitation of cheap waste sugar materials. In this work, cane molasses were utilized as substrate in ABE production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. Under optimum conditions, total solvent of 19.80 g/L (13.40 g/L butanol) was reached after 72 h of fermentation in an Erlenmeyer flask. In a 5-L bioreactor, total solvent of 17.88 g/L was attained after 36 h of fermentation, and the productivity and yield were 0.50 g/L/h and 0.33 g ABE/g sugar consumption, respectively. To further enhance the productivity, a two-stage semicontinuous fermentation process was steadily operated for over 8 days (205 h, 26 cycles) with average productivity (stage II) of 1.05 g/L/h and cell concentration (stage I) of 7.43 OD(660), respectively. The average batch fermentation time (stage I and II) was reduced to 21-25 h with average solvent of 15.27 g/L. This study provides valuable process data for the development of industrial ABE fermentation process using cane molasses as substrate. PMID:22362519

  14. Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-02-01

    L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid. PMID:24333698

  15. Strategies for the development of a side stream process for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from sugar cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, M G E; Eiroa, M; Torres, C; Nunes, B R; Reis, M A M

    2007-07-15

    A three-stage process was developed to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from sugar cane molasses. The process includes (1) molasses acidogenic fermentation, (2) selection of PHA-accumulating cultures, (3) PHA batch accumulation using the enriched sludge and fermented molasses. In the fermentation step, the effect of pH (5-7) on the organic acids profile and productivity was evaluated. At higher pH, acetic and propionic acids were the main products, while lower pH favoured the production of butyric and valeric acids. PHA accumulation using fermented molasses was evaluated with two cultures selected either with acetate or fermented molasses. The effect of organic acids distribution on polymer composition and yield was evaluated with the acetate selected culture. Storage yields varied from 0.37 to 0.50Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA. A direct relationship between the type of organic acids used and the polymers composition was observed. Low ammonia concentration (0.1Nmmol/l) in the fermented molasses stimulated PHA storage (0.62Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA). In addition, strategies of reactor operation to select a PHA-accumulating culture on fermented molasses were developed. The combination of low organic loading with high ammonia concentration selected a culture with a stable storage capacity and with a storage yield (0.59Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA) similar to that of the acetate-selected culture. PMID:17602776

  16. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, M.; Keera, Abeer A.; Mouafi, Foukia E.; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300 L, 3 m3, and 12 m3 fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65 m3 working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18% (w/v), inoculum size of 20% (v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 108/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10 kg/65 m3 working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4 g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

  17. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale.

    PubMed

    Fadel, M; Keera, Abeer A; Mouafi, Foukia E; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300 L, 3 m(3), and 12 m(3) fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65 m(3) working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18% (w/v), inoculum size of 20% (v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 10(8)/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10 kg/65 m(3) working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4 g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

  18. Economical production of poly(ε-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai

    2014-07-01

    Poly(ε-L-lysine) (ε-PL) and poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) co-production by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 from cane molasses and hydrolysate of strepyomyces cells (HSC) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimal initial total sugar concentration of the cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was determined to be 20 g L(-1), and HSC could substitute for yeast extract for ε-PL and PDAP co-production. When fed-batch fermentation was performed in 1t fermentor with pretreated cane molasses and HSC, 20.6 ± 0.5 g L(-1) of ε-PL and 5.2 ± 0.6 g L(-1) of PDAP were obtained. The amount of strepyomyces cells obtained in one fed-batch fermentation is sufficient to prepare the HSC to satisfy the demand of subsequent fermentations, thus the self-cycling of organic nitrogen source becomes available. These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and HSC can be used for the economical production of ε-PL and PDAP by S. albulus PD-1. PMID:24861999

  19. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from fermented sugar cane molasses by a mixed culture enriched in glycogen accumulating organisms.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Simon; Pisco, Ana R; Reis, Maria A M; Lemos, Paulo C

    2010-02-01

    Batch production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under aerobic conditions by an open mixed culture enriched in glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) with fermented sugar cane molasses as substrate was studied. The produced polymers contained five types of monomers, namely 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate (3H2MB), 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate (3H2MV) and the medium chain length monomer 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx). With fermented molasses as substrate, PHA was produced under concurrent consumption of stored glycogen with yields of 0.47-0.66 C-mol PHA per C-mol of total carbon substrate and with rates up to 0.65 C-mol/C-molX h. In order to investigate the role of glycogen during aerobic PHA accumulation in GAOs, synthetic single volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were used as substrates and it was found that the fate of glycogen was dependent on the type of VFA being consumed. Aerobic PHA accumulation occurred under concurrent glycogen consumption with acetate as substrate and under minor concurrent glycogen production with propionate as substrate. With butyrate and valerate as substrates, PHA accumulation occurred with the glycogen pool unaffected. The composition of the PHA was dependent on the VFA composition of the fermented molasses and was 56-70 mol-% 3HB, 13-43 mol-% 3HV, 1-23 mol-% 3HHx and 0-2 mol-% 3H2MB and 3H2MV. The high polymer yields and production rates suggest that enrichment of GAOs can be a fruitful strategy for mixed culture production of PHA from waste substrates. PMID:19958801

  20. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2

    PubMed Central

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  1. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2.

    PubMed

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  2. Production of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase by a novel polyextremophilic Bacillus halodurans TSEV1 in cane molasses medium and its applicability in making whole wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikash; Satyanarayana, T

    2014-06-01

    A high titre of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase was attained in cane molasses medium. When the culture variables for endoxylanase production were optimized [cane molasses 7 %, soluble alkaline extract of wheat bran (SAE-WB) 37 % and ammonium chloride 0.30 %], a 4.5-fold enhancement in xylanase production (69 U ml(-1)) was achieved as compared to that in the unoptimized medium (15 U ml(-1)). The enzyme titre attained in shake flasks could be sustained in a 7-l laboratory bioreactor. An activity band corresponding to 40 kDa was visualized on SDS-PAGE zymogram analysis. The enzyme has broad range of pH and temperature for activity with optima at 9.0 and 80 °C, and stable between pH 4.0 and 11.0 with 85 % retention of activity. It has T 1/2 of 40 and 15 min at 70 and 80 °C. The enzyme is halotolerant since it displays activity in the presence of salt up to 15 %, and remains 100 % active in the absence of salt. The supplementation of whole wheat dough with xylanase improves antistaling property, reducing sugar content, bread volume with prebiotic xylooligosaccharides in bread. This is the first report on xylanase production in cane molasses medium with SAE-WB as the inducer and its applicability in whole wheat bread making that improves human health. PMID:24297158

  3. Lipid accumulation inRhodotorula glutinis on sugar cane molasses in single-stage continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R M; Rodríguez, B; Romano, J M; Díaz, A O; Gómez, E; Miró, D; Navarro, L; Saura, G; García, J L

    1992-03-01

    Microbial lipids produced byRhodotorula glutinis grown in continuous culture with molasses under nitrogen-limiting conditions were evaluated and the effects of growth rate on fatty acid composition were studied. As the growth rate decreased, cell biomass, lipid content and lipid yield gradually increased. The maximum lipid content recorded was 39% (w/w) of dry cell biomass at a dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1). The growth rate also affected fatty acid composition: oleic acid decreased with decreasing growth rate while stearic acid increased. PMID:24425415

  4. The utilization of sugar cane molasses with/without the presence of lignosulfonate for the production of bacterial cellulose.

    PubMed

    Keshk, Sherif; Sameshima, Kazuhiko

    2006-09-01

    Production of bacterial cellulose (BC) using sugar cane molasses (MO) with/without the presence of lignosulfonate (MOL) as a sole carbon source in a Hestrin-Schramm medium (HS) was investigated. Six strains of Acetobacter xylinum [American Type Culture Collection 10245 and Institute of Fermentation in Osaka (IFO) 13693, 13772, 13773, 14815, and 15237] were screened for their BC production. The yield of the BC among all the strains from both the MO and MOL media was much higher than that from the HS medium. Acetobacter xylinum IFO 13772 was the best BC producer for all media. Furthermore, physical properties of these BC from the HS, MO, and MOL media were studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, and cross polarization/magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. There are no significant differences in the crystallinity and the recorded Ialpha fraction among the BC produced from the different media. A remarkable difference was only recorded in terms of viscosity. These results indicate that MO is a better carbon source than glucose for most of the strains investigated. PMID:16450110

  5. Chitin and L(+)-lactic acid production from crab (Callinectes bellicosus) wastes by fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Flores-Albino, Belem; Arias, Ladislao; Gómez, Jorge; Castillo, Alberto; Gimeno, Miquel; Shirai, Keiko

    2012-09-01

    Crab wastes are employed for simultaneous production of chitin and L(+)-lactic acid by submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source. Response surface methodology was applied to design the culture media considering demineralization. Fermentations in stirred tank reactor (2L) using selected conditions produced 88% demineralization and 56% deproteinization with 34% yield of chitin and 19.5 gL(-1) of lactic acid (77% yield). The chitin purified from fermentation displayed 95% degree of acetylation and 0.81 and 1 ± 0.125% of residual ash and protein contents, respectively. PMID:22367529

  6. Filtered molasses concentrate from sugar cane: natural functional ingredient effective in lowering the glycaemic index and insulin response of high carbohydrate foods.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alison G; Ellis, Timothy P; Ilag, Leodevico L

    2014-12-01

    An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5-20%, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products. The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing formulations. Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and patented process, contains many naturally occurring compounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohydrate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of processed foods and beverages. PMID:25373842

  7. Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Bodhisatta; Rathore, Ankita; Srivastava, Saurav; Shekhawat, Mitali; Srivastava, Pradeep

    2011-04-01

    Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation time) for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using Box-Behnken experimental design and genetic algorithm (GA). An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to analyze the effects of the process parameters on ethanol production. The data obtained after performing the experiments based on statistical design was utilized for regression analysis and analysis of variance studies. The regression equation obtained after regression analysis was used as a fitness function for the genetic algorithm. The GA optimization technique predicted a maximum ethanol yield of 59.59 g/L at temperature 31 °C, pH 5.13, initial TRS concentration 216 g/L and fermentation time 44 h. The maximum experimental ethanol yield obtained after applying GA was 58.4 g/L, which was in close agreement with the predicted value. PMID:21336926

  8. Microbial production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 using molasses or sugar.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Chanto, A; Afschar, A S; Wagner, F

    1994-06-01

    With a cell concentration of 125 g dry biomass l-1 and a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1, Propionibacterium acidipropionici produces 30 g propionic acid l-1 from sugar with a productivity of 3 g l-1 h-1. The yield of propionic acid is approx. 0.36-0.45 g propionic acid g-1 sucrose and is independent of the dilution rate and cell concentration. Acetic acid is an unwanted by-product in the production of propionic acid. The concentration of acetic acid only increases slightly when the cell concentration is increased. A two-stage fermentation process was developed for the conversion of sugar or molasses of various types to propionic acid and vitamin B12. By fermentation of blackstrap molasses (from sugar beet and sugar cane) in the first fermentation stage 17.7 g propionic acid l-1 with a yield of 0.5 g propionic acid g-1 carbohydrate was produced with a dilution rate of 0.25 h-1. In the second stage 49 mg vitamin B12 1-1 was produced at a dilution rate of 0.03 h-1. PMID:7765100

  9. Modeling the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse: extension of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Ernesto L; Spanjers, Henri; Solon, Kimberly; Amerlinck, Youri; Nopens, Ingmar; Dewulf, Jo

    2015-03-15

    This research presents the modeling of the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse, hereby extending the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater. Based on a sensitivity analysis, four parameters of the original ADM1 and all sulfate reduction parameters were calibrated. Although some deviations were observed between model predictions and experimental values, it was shown that sulfates, total aqueous sulfide, free sulfides, methane, carbon dioxide and sulfide in the gas phase, gas flow, propionic and acetic acids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH were accurately predicted during model validation. The model showed high (±10%) to medium (10%-30%) accuracy predictions with a mean absolute relative error ranging from 1% to 26%, and was able to predict failure of methanogenesis and sulfidogenesis when the sulfate loading rate increased. Therefore, the kinetic parameters and the model structure proposed in this work can be considered as valid for the sulfate reduction process in the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse when sulfate and organic loading rates range from 0.36 to 1.57 kg [Formula: see text]  m(-3) d(-1) and from 7.66 to 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. PMID:25589435

  10. Evaluation of baker's yeast strains exhibiting significant growth on Japanese beet molasses and compound analysis of the molasses types.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroaki; Tamura, Masahiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2014-06-01

    Cane molasses, most of which is imported, is used as a raw material for production of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Japan. On the other hand, beet molasses is scarcely used for this purpose, but it can be of great advantage to cane molasses because it is domestically produced in relatively high amounts as a by-product of beet sugar processing. However, the yield of baker's yeast is sometimes low with Japanese beet molasses compared to imported cane molasses. For the production of baker's yeast with Japanese beet molasses, we evaluated S. cerevisiae strains, including industrial and laboratory strains, to group them according to the growth profile on beet and cane molasses. To discuss the factors affecting growth, we further analyzed the major compounds in both types of molasses. Beet molasses seems to contain compounds that promote the growth of beet molasses-favoring strains rather than inhibit the growth of cane molasses-favoring strains. It was assumed that α-amino acid was one of the growth promotion factors for beet molasses-favoring strains. PMID:24333188

  11. Maufacture of raw cane sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Procedures used at the Pepeekeo Sugar Factory in Hawaii for producing commercial sugar, molasses and bagasse from harvested sugar cane are described. The molasses is marketed, the sugar is refined elsewhere, and the bagasse is burned to produce steam and electric power for the Pepeekeo plant. (LCL)

  12. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1

    PubMed Central

    Veana, F.; Martínez-Hernández, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  13. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.

    PubMed

    Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  14. Modeling and optimization of poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) production from cane molasses by Azohydromonas lata MTCC 2311 in a stirred-tank reactor: effect of agitation and aeration regimes.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Mohd; Kumar, Shashi; Kumar, Surendra; Dhiman, Amit K

    2012-07-01

    The effects of agitation and aeration rates on copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] production by Azohydromonas lata MTCC 2311 using cane molasses supplemented with propionic acid in a bioreactor were investigated. The experiments were conducted in a three-level factorial design by varying the impeller (150-500 rev min(-1)) and aeration (0.5-1.5 vvm) rates. Further, the data were fitted to mathematical models [quadratic polynomial equation and artificial neural network (ANN)] and process variables were optimized by genetic algorithm-coupled models. ANN and hybrid ANN-GA were found superior for modeling and optimization of process variables, respectively. The maximum copolymer concentration of 7.45 g l(-1) with 21.50 mol% of 3HV was predicted at process variables: agitation speed, 287 rev min(-1); and aeration rate, 0.85 vvm, which upon validation gave 7.20 g l(-1) of P(3HB-co-3HV) with 21 mol% of 3HV with the prediction error (%) of 3.38 and 2.32, respectively. Agitation speed established a relative high importance of 72.19% than of aeration rate (27.80%) for copolymer accumulation. The volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (k (L) a) was strongly affected by agitation and aeration rates. The highest P(3HB-co-3HV) productivity of 0.163 g l(-1) h(-1) was achieved at 0.17 s(-1) of k (L) a value. During the early phase of copolymer production process, 3HB monomers were accumulated, which were shifted to 3HV units (9-21%) during the cultivation period of 24-42 h. The enhancement of 7.5 and 34% were reported for P(3HB-co-3HV) production and 3HV content, respectively, by hybrid ANN-GA paradigm, which revealed the significant utilization of cane molasses for improved copolymer production. PMID:22361743

  15. An Attractant for House Flies Based on Components Identified in Blackstrap Molasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early research on house flies demonstrated that flies are attracted to a variety of sweet and fermenting materials. Most of the research on fly attractants during the past 35 years, however, has concentrated on pheromones (z-9-tricosene) and products involved in the metabolism and breakdown of prot...

  16. Bioenergy systems report. Special issue: cane energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The report examines the use of cane to produce energy. It focuses primarily on two recent proposals for the production of electric power for the grid using cane residues and supplementary fuels. It also reviews use of cane juice or molasses to produce ethanol for blending with gasoline. In both types of cane energy systems, the objective is the production of energy as well as sugar or sugar products. The report is divided into sections on growing and harvesting biomass fuels in cane fields, producing power for the grid with these fuels, the uses of the cane juice produced in cane energy systems, the costs and revenues associated with these systems, and the national benefits derived from these systems.

  17. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose. PMID:17222551

  18. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... quantity of the refined and specialty sugar TRQ is established at 99,111 MTRV for certain sugars, syrups... sugars, syrups, and molasses that may be entered under the subheadings of the HTS subject to the...

  19. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and the Fiscal Year 2013... quantity of the refined and specialty sugar TRQ is established at 117,254 MTRV for certain sugars, syrups..., syrups, and molasses that may be entered under the subheadings of the HTS subject to the lower tier...

  20. General Subject 4, Molasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A report is given on the lastest international trends in the analysis of molasses for trade and processing, as well as recommendations for methods to study. A new enzymatic method to measure reducing sugars in molasses still needs work to stabilize the enzymes. There is a strong concern, worldwide...

  1. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... United States Trade Representative in Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 13, 2013...) in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar (syrups and molasses). Pursuant to...

  2. Utilization of molasses sugar for lactic acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii mutant Uc-3 in batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dumbrepatil, Arti; Adsul, Mukund; Chaudhari, Shivani; Khire, Jayant; Gokhale, Digambar

    2008-01-01

    Efficient lactic acid production from cane sugar molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii mutant Uc-3 in batch fermentation process is demonstrated. Lactic acid fermentation using molasses was not significantly affected by yeast extract concentrations. The final lactic acid concentration increased with increases of molasses sugar concentrations up to 190 g/liter. The maximum lactic acid concentration of 166 g/liter was obtained at a molasses sugar concentration of 190 g/liter with a productivity of 4.15 g/liter/h. Such a high concentration of lactic acid with high productivity from molasses has not been reported previously, and hence mutant Uc-3 could be a potential candidate for economical production of lactic acid from molasses at a commercial scale. PMID:17981933

  3. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the... announces the establishment of the FY 2014 in-quota aggregate quantity of certain sugars, syrups, and... sugars, syrups, and molasses that may be entered under the subheadings of the HTS subject to the...

  4. Fermentation of molasses by Zymomonas mobilis: effects of temperature and sugar concentration on ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Cazetta, M L; Celligoi, M A P C; Buzato, J B; Scarmino, I S

    2007-11-01

    Fermentations utilizing strains of Zymomonas mobilis, in place of the traditional yeasts, have been proposed due their ethanol yields being close to theoretical. Ethanol production from sugar cane molasses was analyzed under different culture conditions using Z. mobilis in batch fermentation. The total reducing sugars (TRS) concentrations in the molasses, temperature, agitation and culture time effects were studied simultaneously through factorial design. The best conditions for ethanol production were 200 g L(-1) of total reducing sugars in the molasses, temperature of 30 degrees C and static culture and time of fermentation of 48 h, achieving 55.8 g L(-1). The pH of the medium was kept constant during the experiments, showing that molasses presents a buffering effect. PMID:17420121

  5. Microbial decolorization and bioremediation of melanoidin containing molasses spent wash.

    PubMed

    Singh, K D; Sharma, S; Dwivedi, A; Pandey, P; Thakur, R L; Kumar, V

    2007-07-01

    Molasses spent wash from cane-molasses based distilleries contains a brown coloured recalcitrantpolymer melanoidin, which if disposed untreated poses a great threat to environment. Microbial decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction was found to be dependent on specific carbon and nitrogen source. Under optimal condition of pH, carbon and nitrogen concentration for each treatment, it was found that Bacillus sp isolated from soil was capable of removing COD (85. 35%) and colour (81.10%) from distillery waste to the maximum extent after 9 days atpH 7 in the medium containing 0.5% peptone, 2% glucose and 10% (v/v), followed by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and lowest reduction was obtained by using native microbial consortium. PMID:18380094

  6. Botryosphaeria Cane Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the more serious cane canker diseases of thornless blackberry plants in the eastern U.S. is caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. Cane canker disease is highly destructive, often killing canes and reducing fruit yields to uneconomic levels. Cankers generally develop around one or more buds on th...

  7. Molasses as a possible cause of an "endocrine disruptive syndrome" in calves.

    PubMed

    Masgoret, M S; Botha, C J; Myburgh, J G; Naudé, T W; Prozesky, L; Naidoo, V; Van Wyk, J H; Pool, E J; Swan, G E

    2009-06-01

    During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an "endocrine disruptive syndrome". The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1), which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches of molasses had no

  8. Ergosterol production from molasses by genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    He, Xiuping; Guo, Xuena; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Borun

    2007-05-01

    Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by fungi. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae YEH56(pHXA42) with increased capacity of ergosterol formation was constructed by combined overexpression of sterol C-24(28) reductase and sterol acyltransferase in the yeast strain YEH56. The production of ergosterol by this recombinant strain using cane molasses (CM) as an inexpensive carbon source was investigated. An ergosterol content of 52.6 mg/g was obtained with 6.1 g/l of biomass from CM medium containing 60 g/l of total sugar in 30 h in shake flask. The ergosterol yield was enhanced through the increasing cell biomass by supplementation of urea to a concentration of 6 g/l in molasses medium. Fermentation was performed in 5-l bioreactor using the optimized molasses medium. In batch fermentation, the effect of agitation velocity on ergosterol production was examined. The highest ergosterol yield was obtained at 400 rpm that increased 60.4 mg/l in comparison with the shake flask culture. In fed-batch fermentation, yeast cells were cultivated, firstly, in the starting medium containing molasses with 20 g/l of total sugar, 1.68 g/l of phosphate acid, and 6 g/l of urea (pH 5.4) for 5 h, then molasses containing 350 g/l of total sugar was fed exponentially into the bioreactor to keep the ethanol level in the broth below 0.5%. After 40 h of cultivation, the ergosterol yield reached 1,707 mg/l, which was 3.1-fold of that in the batch fermentation. PMID:17225097

  9. The energy cane alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the conceptual and theoretical background of Saccharum botany, which underlies the growing of cane as a total growth commodity. Management details are provided for energy cane planting, cultivation, harvest, and postharvest operations. Chapters on energy cane utilization stress new developments in lignocellulose conversion plus alternative options for fermentable solids usage. Chapters are also included for the management of alternative grasses to supplement energy cane, and the breeding of new hybrid canes with high biomass attributes at the intergeneric and interspecific levels.

  10. 21 CFR 131.170 - Eggnog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey;...

  11. 21 CFR 131.203 - Lowfat yogurt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose, maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey; maple...

  12. 21 CFR 131.200 - Yogurt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt...

  13. 21 CFR 131.206 - Nonfat yogurt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dired malt extract; malt...

  14. 21 CFR 131.170 - Eggnog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey;...

  15. 21 CFR 131.206 - Nonfat yogurt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dired malt extract; malt...

  16. 21 CFR 131.203 - Lowfat yogurt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose, maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey; maple...

  17. 21 CFR 131.203 - Lowfat yogurt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose, maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey; maple...

  18. 21 CFR 131.170 - Eggnog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey;...

  19. 21 CFR 131.206 - Nonfat yogurt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dired malt extract; malt...

  20. 21 CFR 131.170 - Eggnog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey;...

  1. 21 CFR 131.203 - Lowfat yogurt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose, maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey; maple...

  2. 21 CFR 131.200 - Yogurt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt...

  3. 21 CFR 131.170 - Eggnog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey;...

  4. 21 CFR 131.200 - Yogurt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt...

  5. 21 CFR 131.206 - Nonfat yogurt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dired malt extract; malt...

  6. 21 CFR 131.200 - Yogurt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt...

  7. Enhanced production of ligninolytic enzymes and decolorization of molasses distillery wastewater by fungi under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Adholeya, Alok

    2007-10-01

    Selected isolates of fungi were grown on wheat straw and corncob in the presence of different moistening agents such as water, molasses, potato dextrose broth and distillery effluent. All the fungal isolates responded differently with respect to growth and ligninolytic enzyme production. Fungal growth on different substrates was checked by calculating ergosterol content, which varied widely within a single species when grown on different substrates. The maximum laccase production was obtained for Aspergillus flavus TERI DB9 grown on wheat straw with molasses. For manganese peroxidase, highest production was in Aspergillus niger TERI DB20 grown on corncob with effluent. Among the two isolates positive for lignin peroxidase, the highest production was in Fusarium verticillioides ITCC 6140. This immobilized fungal biomass was then used for decolorization of effluent from a cane molasses based distillery. Maximum decolorization (86.33%) was achieved in Pleurotus ostreatus (Florida) Eger EM 1303 immobilized on corncob with molasses in a period of 28 days. PMID:17177104

  8. Improvement of erythromycin production by Saccharopolyspora erythraea in molasses based medium through cultivation medium optimization.

    PubMed

    El-Enshasy, H A; Mohamed, N A; Farid, M A; El-Diwany, A I

    2008-07-01

    In the present work, erythromycin production was carried out in submerged culture using Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Different experiments were conducted to optimize the cultivation medium through the change of carbon and nitrogen sources to cheaper one in order to reduce the cost of medium and to utilize sugar cane molasses as one of major sugar industry by-products in Egypt. It was found that the addition of sugar cane molasses a sole carbon source at a concentration of 60 g/l accompanied by corn steep liquor (as organic N-source) in combination with ammonium sulphate (as inorganic N-source) gave the maximal erythromycin production. The antibiotic production in this medium reached about 600 mg/l which is about 33% higher than the value obtained in glucose based medium. On the other hand, the addition of n-propanol in concentration of 1% (v/v) increased the antibiotic production reaching about 720 mg/l after 144 h. Concluding, the new medium formulation based on cheap carbon source, sugar cane molasses, was a good alternative solution for the production of erythromycin economically. PMID:17936622

  9. Molasses-based growth and production of oil and astaxanthin by Chlorella zofingiensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Junchao; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the industrial waste cane molasses as a carbon source for cell growth, lipid and astaxanthin production of Chlorella zofingiensis. Pretreated with cation exchange resin to remove the metal ions, cane molasses provided better productivities of biomass, lipid, and astaxanthin (1.55, 0.71 g L(-1)day(-1) and 1.7 mg L(-1)day(-1), respectively) than glucose. Using a strategy of semi-continuous cultures coupled with feeding at a low concentration, molasses without pretreatment has the same effect as pretreated one on supporting the algal cell growth, lipid and astaxanthin production. The efficient metabolism of molasses triggered the up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid and also astaxanthin biosynthesis, leading to the very high production of the two metabolites. This study highlights the possibility of using C. zofingiensis to deal with industrial wastes and to produce profitable biodiesel as well as the high-value astaxanthin. PMID:22221991

  10. Sugar cane stillage: a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Caderby, Emma; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Hoareau, William; Fargues, Claire; Decloux, Martine; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-27

    Biorefinery of sugar cane is the first economic activity of Reunion Island. Some sugar cane manufactured products (juice, syrup, molasses) have antioxidant activities and are sources of both phenolic compounds and Maillard Reaction Products (MRP). The study aimed to highlight the global antioxidant activity of sugar cane stillage and understand its identity. Chromatographic fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 resin allowed the recovery of a MRP-rich fraction, responsible for 58 to 66% of the global antioxidant activity according to the nature of the sugar cane stillage (DPPH test), and a phenolic compounds-rich fraction for 37 to 59% of the activity. A good correlation was recorded between the antioxidant activity of the sugar cane stillage and its content in total reducing compounds amount (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), among them 2.8 to 3.9 g/L of phenolic compounds (in 5-caffeoylquinic acid equivalent). Preliminary experiments by HPLC-DAD-MS allowed to identify several free phenolic acids and gave clues to identify esters of quinic acids. PMID:24228787

  11. A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

    The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sağdere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

  12. Free-Standing Canes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehresman, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A precane device, called the "free-standing cane," was developed to help children with blindness along with other disabilities. The cane detects obstacles; guides the user's hands into a relaxed, static position in front of the hips; facilitates postural security and control; and offers tactile and kinesthetic feedback. (JDD)

  13. Cane production for sugar and electric power in Jamaica

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The principal conclusion of the report is that the Jamaican sugar industry can be made profitable. Although sugar has been grown in Jamaica for centuries, a combination of circumstances, including declining world sugar prices and a severe shortage of foreign exchange, have undermined the economic viability of the government-owned sugar estates. As a result, they have become a burden to the economy. With proper management, cane can become a highly attractive source of fuel for the generation of electricity while at the same time producing sugar and molasses.

  14. Effect of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet summarizes the results of two continuous culture fermentor studies that evaluated the effects of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation of a pasture diet. The first study compared molasses with corn supplementation. Diets consisted of pasture only, molasses plus pasture, co...

  15. "Cane" as Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeever, Benjamin F.

    1970-01-01

    Cane...represents the apotheosis of one man's attempt to bear witness to the reality and the power of an idea . . . that the Negro is not an apprentice to equality but a journeyman in suffering." (Author)

  16. OLIGOSACCHARIDES IN CANE AND THEIR FORMATION ON CANE DETERIORATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cane deterioration in the field, factory storage pile, or during factory milling processes has become a major technical concern in recent years, especially in those areas where mechanical harvesting of billeted sugar cane has increased. Not all deterioration products advocated as cane deterioratio...

  17. Celebrating White Cane Awareness Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Judy; McGraw, Jane M.

    1995-01-01

    White Cane Awareness Month was created to teach the public that the long cane is a tool for maintaining independence and dignity and a symbol of freedom, not of pity or helplessness. Public relations materials were developed, including a demonstration for television stations on use of the long cane and a quiz to distribute at information booths.…

  18. From Wheelchair to Cane

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  19. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses...

  20. Sugarcane molasses and yeast powder used in the Fructooligosaccharides production by Aspergillus japonicus-FCL 119T and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611.

    PubMed

    Dorta, Claudia; Cruz, Rubens; de Oliva-Neto, Pedro; Moura, Danilo José Camargo

    2006-12-01

    Different concentrations of sucrose (3-25% w/v) and peptone (2-5% w/v) were studied in the formulation of media during the cultivation of Aspergillus japonicus-FCL 119T and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. Moreover, cane molasses (3.5-17.5% w/v total sugar) and yeast powder (1.5-5% w/v) were used as alternative nutrients for both strains' cultivation. These media were formulated for analysis of cellular growth, beta-Fructosyltransferase and Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) production. Transfructosylating activity (U ( t )) and FOS production were analyzed by HPLC. The highest enzyme production by both the strains was 3% (w/v) sucrose and 3% (w/v) peptone, or 3.5% (w/v) total sugars present in cane molasses and 1.5% (w/v) yeast powder. Cane molasses and yeast powder were as good as sucrose and peptone in the enzyme and FOS (around 60% w/w) production by studied strains. PMID:16835781

  1. Use of sugarcane molasses "B" as an alternative for ethanol production with wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 at high sugar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, C L; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Salgado-Cervantes, M A; García, P G Mendoza; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2012-05-01

    Molasses "B" is a rich co-product of the sugarcane process. It is obtained from the second step of crystallization and is richer in fermentable sugars (50-65%) than the final molasses, with a lower non-sugar solid content (18-33%); this co-product also contains good vitamin and mineral levels. The use of molasses "B" for ethanol production could be a good option for the sugarcane industry when cane sugar prices diminish in the market. In a complex medium like molasses, osmotolerance is a desirable characteristic for ethanol producing strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of molasses "B" for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 (a wild-type yeast isolated from sugarcane molasses) using different initial sugar concentrations (70-291 g L(-1)), two inoculum sizes and the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract, urea, and ammonium sulphate to the culture medium. The results obtained showed that the strain was able to grow at 291 g L(-1) total sugars in molasses "B" medium; the addition of nutrients to the culture medium did not produce a statistically significant difference. This yeast exhibits high osmotolerance in this medium, producing high ethanol yields (0.41 g g(-1)). The best conditions for ethanol production were 220 g L(-1) initial total sugars in molasses "B" medium, pH 5.5, using an inoculum size of 6 × 10(6) cell mL(-1); ethanol production was 85 g L(-1), productivity 3.8 g L(-1 )h(-1) with 90% preserved cell viability. PMID:21971607

  2. Mutagenesis and analysis of mold Aspergillus niger for extracellular glucose oxidase production using sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Singh, O V

    2006-10-01

    Aspergillus niger ORS-4.410, a mutant of A. niger ORS-4, was generated by repeated ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Analysis of the UV treatment dose on wild-type (WT) A. niger ORS-4, conidial survival, and frequency of mutation showed that the maximum frequency of positive mutants (25.5%) was obtained with a 57% conidial survival rate after the second stage of UV irradiation. The level of glucose oxidase (GOX) production from mutant A. niger ORS-4.410 thus obtained was 149% higher than that for WT strain A. niger ORS-4 under liquid culture conditions using hexacyanoferrate (HCF)-treated sugarcane molasses (TM) as a cheaper carbohydrate source. When subcultured monthly for 24 mo, the mutant strain had consistent levels of GOX production (2.62 +/- 0.51 U/mL). Mutant A. niger ORS-4.410 was markedly different from the parent strain morphologically and was found to grow abundantly on sugarcane molasses. The mutant strain showed 3.43-fold increases in GOX levels (2.62 +/- 0.51 U/mL) using HCF-TM compared with the crude form of cane molasses (0.762 +/- 0.158 U/mL). PMID:17057255

  3. Influence of molasses lignin-hemicellulose fractions in rat nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fahey, G C; Williams, J E; McLaren, G A

    1976-10-01

    Previous reports have shown that fractionation of the non-sugar, non-dialyzable components of cane molasses yielded a fraction designated as a black phenolic-carbohydrate complex. Incorporation of 0.03% of this complex into diets fed weanling male rats significantly increased the growth rate above that of rats fed the basal diet alone. This study was conducted to determine the chemical nature and growth stimulating action of the black phenol-carbohydrate complex. Alkaline cleavage under nitrogen yielded a mixture of phenols and a carbohydrate fraction which was recovered by precipitation at pH 6 in four volumes of ethanol. The alkaline cleaved, free hemicellulose was non-diayzable and stimulated growth when incorporated into rat diets at the 0.03% levels. Acid hydrolysis of the complex yielded an insoluble product identified as lignin and found to represent 18% to 20% of the entire complex. The chemical nature of this ligninhemicellulose fraction and the previously reported growth-enhancing acid resistant hemicellulose fraction isolated from various plant sources were found to be similar. PMID:9493

  4. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Anand R.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-10-01

    Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant number in Brazil, manufacture most of their ethanol from molasses, a low value co-product of raw sugar. Several producers in these countries have the capacity to export ethanol to California, but the GREET (from: greenhouse gas, regulated emissions and energy use in transportation) model, which is the LCA (lifecycle assessment) model of choice for most biofuel regulators including California, does not currently include this production pathway. We develop a modification to GREET to account for this pathway. We use the upstream and process lifecycle results from the existing GREET model for Brazilian ethanol to derive lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for ethanol manufactured from any combination of molasses and fresh cane juice. We find that ethanol manufactured with only molasses as a feedstock with all other processes and inputs identical to those of the average Brazilian mill has a lifecycle GHG (greenhouse gas) rating of 15.1 gCO2- eq MJ-1, which is significantly lower than the current California-GREET assigned rating of 26.6 gCO2- eq MJ-1. Our model can be applied at any level of granulation from the individual factory to an industry-wide average. We examine some ways in which current sugarcane producers could inaccurately claim this molasses credit. We discuss methods for addressing this in regulation.

  5. Phenolic compounds from sugarcane molasses possessing antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Takara, Kensaku; Ushijima, Kenji; Wada, Koji; Iwasaki, Hironori; Yamashita, Masatsugu

    2007-01-01

    During the course of our research into the use of cane by-products from sugar manufacturing, we have studied the isolation and structural determination of bioactive compounds present in sugarcane molasses. In this study, dehydrodiconiferylalcohol-9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and isoorientin-7, 3'-O-dimethyl ether (2) were isolated as antibacterial active compounds against cariogenic bacteria. Their structures were elucidated by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and ESI-MS. The activities of these isolated compounds against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were assessed by a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. The MICs of compounds 1 and 2 against both S. mutans and S. sobrinus were >4 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:17938552

  6. Sugar and energy cane date of planting effects on cane, sucrose, and fiber yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy cane is believed to have more vigor than sugar cane because energy cane contains a higher percentage of alleles from Saccharum spontaneum relative to Saccharum officinarum. This research was conducted to determine if planting date affects yields of both sugar and energy canes. Three sugar can...

  7. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the juice of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) or by solution in water of sugarcane concrete...

  8. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the juice of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) or by solution in water of sugarcane concrete...

  9. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the juice of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) or by solution in water of sugarcane concrete...

  10. 19 CFR 10.139 - Liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States. (b) Exception for blackstrap molasses. An entry covering blackstrap molasses, as hereinafter defined, may be accepted and liquidated with duty at... molasses is “final” molasses practically free from sugar crystals, containing not over 58 percent...

  11. 19 CFR 10.139 - Liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States. (b) Exception for blackstrap molasses. An entry covering blackstrap molasses, as hereinafter defined, may be accepted and liquidated with duty at... molasses is “final” molasses practically free from sugar crystals, containing not over 58 percent...

  12. Development of the Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, S.

    1995-01-01

    A travel cane was adapted for use by a 10-year-old boy with cortical blindness, severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy affecting his left arm and leg. The Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane utilizes the affected arm to hold the cane while leaving the other hand free for trailing walls, opening doors, carrying objects, and holding handrails.…

  13. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...

  14. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...

  15. Adsorption studies of recalcitrant compounds of molasses spentwash on activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Figaro, S; Louisy-Louis, S; Lambert, J; Ehrhardt, J-J; Ouensanga, A; Gaspard, S

    2006-10-01

    Due to high levels of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent of molasses spentwash (MSW) after anaerobic treatment, acceptable COD levels for discharge cannot be achieved without some form of post-treatment. In this study, the particulate composition of molasses spentwash after anaerobic digestion (MSWD), is characterised as to its particle size distribution, using micro- and ultrafiltration and three activated carbons are characterised as to their ability to reduce significantly the COD of MSWD effluent. The activated carbons tested as adsorbent, were characterised by XPS spectroscopy, elemental analysis, surface area, pore size distribution, and acid-base titration using the Boehm's method. Adsorption of phenol, used here as a reference compound, and of some organic compounds contained in MSWD (gallic acid, tannic acid, and melanoidin, respectively), was studied. It was clearly demonstrated that an activated carbon with a significant distribution of both micropores and mesopores and a significant amount of macropores that are assumed to act as conduits providing access to micro- and mesopores, have a good adsorption efficiency for compounds such as tannic acid and melanoidins. It is a good adsorbent for melanoidin and coloured compounds of MSWD, which represents a large source of the aqueous pollution in sugar cane industries. PMID:16987542

  16. Molasses versus grain: what the research says

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article summarizes the results of a three-tiered research approach (case study, two continuous culture fermenter studies, and two controlled research farm studies) to evaluate molasses as an alternative supplement source for grazing dairy cows. A two-year case study of a New York organic dairy ...

  17. Sugar Substrates for l-Lysine Fermentation by Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Marroquín, A.; Ledezma, M.; Carreño, R.

    1970-01-01

    The extracellular production of l-lysine in media with cane sugar, blackstrap molasses, or clarified sugar-cane juice by a previously obtained mutant of Ustilago maydis was studied. Enzymatically inverted clarified juice (medium J-3) gave 2.9 g of lysine per liter under the following conditions: inoculum, 5%; pH 5.8; temperature, 30 C; KLa in the fermentors, 0.41 mmoles of O2 per liter per min; fermentation time, 72 hr. The concentrate, obtained by direct evaporation and drying of the fermentation broth, could be used as a possible feed supplement because of its amino-acid and vitamin content. PMID:5485081

  18. Sugar substrates for L-lysine fermentation by Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Marroquín, A; Ledezma, M; Carreño, R

    1970-11-01

    The extracellular production of l-lysine in media with cane sugar, blackstrap molasses, or clarified sugar-cane juice by a previously obtained mutant of Ustilago maydis was studied. Enzymatically inverted clarified juice (medium J-3) gave 2.9 g of lysine per liter under the following conditions: inoculum, 5%; pH 5.8; temperature, 30 C; K(La) in the fermentors, 0.41 mmoles of O(2) per liter per min; fermentation time, 72 hr. The concentrate, obtained by direct evaporation and drying of the fermentation broth, could be used as a possible feed supplement because of its amino-acid and vitamin content. PMID:5485081

  19. Use of the UASB reactor for the anaerobic treatment of stillage from sugar cane molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez Riera, F.; Cordoba, P.; Sineriz, F.

    1985-12-01

    The feasibility of applying the UASB concept for the anaerobic treatment of stillage of distilleries in the sugar producing area of Argentina was subject to study. Results obtained in a 100-l UASB reactor treating stillages with COD values between 35 and 100 g COD/l are presented. Loading rates of up to 24 g COD/l/day, were applied with an average COD removal of 75% and a biogas production of more than 9 l/l/day, with an average methane content of 58%. The settling velocity distribution of sludge particles would indicate a good formation of biomass pellets. System interruptions of months without feed and at ambient temperature (20-24/sup 0/C) were well tolerated.

  20. Sugar Canes as Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugar cane crops currently being grown in the South can play a role in helping the United States meet its need for both renewable transportation fuel and food and feed. Research being conducted at the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service’s Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, Louisiana is g...

  1. Utilization of beet molasses for riboflavin production by Mycobacterium phlei.

    PubMed

    Ghozlan, H A

    1994-01-01

    Mycobacterium phlei was tested for its ability to utilize beet molasses as the sole carbon source and produce riboflavin. The crude beet molasses was analyzed and treated in various ways to reduce its heavy element content and to remove the muddy residue. Promising amounts of riboflavin were produced when the organism was cultivated on decationized (resin-treated) beet molasses. The highest vitamin productivity was achieved by incubating the inoculated medium containing 9% molasses and initially adjusted to pH 6 under shacked condition for 6 days in the dark. PMID:8071802

  2. The Preschool Blind Child Can Be a Cane User.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogrund, R. L.; Rosen, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    This article proposes the teaching of long cane mobility skills to blind preschool-age children. Traditional arguments against early cane use are refuted and possible advantages of early use identified. Strategies and techniques for cane introduction are specified. (DB)

  3. Handbook of cane sugar engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hugot, E.

    1986-01-01

    The handbook has included the description of cane sugar manufacture, mills, diffusers, boilers and other factory machinery, calculation methods of capacity for every piece of equipment, and process and manufacturing techniques. This new edition has been revised and information that is either obsolete or of little interest has been deleted or shortened. Additions have been made in chapters dealing with recently developed equipment and a completely new chapter covers automation and data processing. Numerous figures, graphs, drawings, photographs, tables and formulae are provided.

  4. Thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard was measured in two planes; parallel to the surface and perpendicular to the surface of the manufactured sheet. The information was necessary to better understand the thermal response of a loaded shipping container. The tests demonstrated that the thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard in the plane parallel to the surface of the sheet was nearly twice as great as the conductivity of the same material in a plane perpendicular to the sheet. There was no significant difference in the conductivity in different directions within the plane parallel to the surface, and the presence of glue between layers of fiberboard did not significantly change the conductivity of the assembly. The tests revealed that the thermal conductivity measured in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the surface of a stack of cane fiberboard sheets not bonded together, decreases with an increase in the mean temperature. This was determined to be the result of air gaps between the sheets of fiberboard, and not related to the properties of the material itself

  5. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses §...

  6. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses §...

  7. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses §...

  8. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses §...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  12. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  14. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  15. Development of energy cane cultivars in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy cane is a relatively new generation of energy crops being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and ethanol production. Current energy cane breeding strategies have focused on selecting high biomass hybrids from wide crosses between commercial sugarcane cultivars and S. spontaneum, which is ...

  16. Short communication: Effects of molasses products on productivity and milk fatty acid profile of cows fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Siverson, A; Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Bradford, B J

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that replacing up to 5% [of dietary dry matter (DM)] corn with cane molasses can partially alleviate milk fat depression when cows are fed high-concentrate, low-fiber rations containing dried distillers grains with solubles. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether dietary molasses alters milk fatty acid (FA) profile or improves solids-corrected milk yield in the context of a more typical lactation diet. A secondary objective was to assess production responses to increasing rumen-degradable protein supply when molasses was fed. Twelve primiparous and 28 multiparous Holstein cows (196 ± 39 d in milk) were blocked by parity and assigned to 4 pens. Pens were randomly allocated to treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, balanced for carryover effects. Treatment periods were 21 d, with 17 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for sample and data collection. Treatments were a control diet, providing 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DM basis), 35% neutral detergent fiber, 30% starch, and 5% ether extract; a diet with 4.4% cane molasses replacing a portion of the corn grain; a diet with 2.9% molasses supplement containing 32% crude protein on a DM basis; and a diet with 5.8% (DM basis) molasses supplement. Animal-level data were analyzed using mixed models, including the fixed effect of treatment and the random effects of period, pen, period × pen interaction, and cow within pen to recognize pen as the experimental unit. Diets did not alter DM intake, milk production, milk component concentration or yield, feed efficiency (DM intake/milk yield), body weight change, or milk somatic cell count. Milk stearic acid content was increased by the diet containing 5.8% molasses supplement compared with the control diet and the diet containing 2.9% molasses supplement, but the magnitude of the effect was small (12.27, 11.75, and 11.69 ± 0.29 g/100g of FA). Production data revealed a dramatic effect of period on milk fat

  17. 19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into... Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses is imported in bulk in tank vessels and is...

  18. 19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into... Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses is imported in bulk in tank vessels and is...

  19. 19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into... Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses is imported in bulk in tank vessels and is...

  20. 19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into... Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses is imported in bulk in tank vessels and is...

  1. 19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into... Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses is imported in bulk in tank vessels and is...

  2. Growing of sugar cane for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, R.P.

    1980-06-01

    The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

  3. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total of 325,000 short tons, raw value, of the cane sugar allotment. (b) A new entrant cane State...

  4. Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2012-01-01

    Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane…

  5. [Synthesis of microbial exopolysaccharide ethapolan on ethanol and molasses mix].

    PubMed

    Pyroh, T P; Korzh, Iu V; Lashchuk, N V; Zborovs'ka, B M

    2006-01-01

    A possibility to change glucose, when cultivating exopolysaccharide (EPS) producer etapolan Acinetobacter sp. B-7005 on a mix of C2-C6-compounds, by the inexpensive substrate--molasses has been shown. The highest indices of EPS synthesis were observed under the conditions of preliminary hydrolysis of molasses, availability of growth factors (yeast autholisate and calcium pantothenate) in the medium, lack of the mineral source of nitrogen nutrition and use of inoculation material grown on acetate. In such conditions of cultivation of bacteria on the mix of ethanol (0.75% in volume) and molasses (0.75 wt. % as to carbohydrates) the amount of synthesized EPS reached 10 g/l, EPS-synthesizing capacity--5 g of EPS/g of biomass, the EPS yield from substrate--74% that is 1.3-1.5 times more than in cultivation on molasses. The increase of EPS synthesis on molasses, as well as on etanol and molasses mix with the use of inoculate grown on C2--substrates (compared with the use of inoculate obtained on the medium with molasses) is determined by the induction of gluconeogenesis that was evidenced by the decrease of isocytrate dehydrogenase activity, increase of activity of enzymes of glyoxylate cycle and key enzyme of gluconeogenesis of phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase. PMID:16869140

  6. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology. PMID:24150836

  7. Continuous Ethanol Fermentation of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomasses, Waste Biomasses, Molasses and Syrup Using the Anaerobic, Thermophilic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter italicus Pentocrobe 411.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Karen Møller; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellosic ethanol production is now at a stage where commercial or semi-commercial plants are coming online and, provided cost effective production can be achieved, lignocellulosic ethanol will become an important part of the world bio economy. However, challenges are still to be overcome throughout the process and particularly for the fermentation of the complex sugar mixtures resulting from the hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Here we describe the continuous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose from non-detoxified pretreated wheat straw, birch, corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, cardboard, mixed bio waste, oil palm empty fruit bunch and frond, sugar cane syrup and sugar cane molasses using the anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter Pentocrobe 411. All fermentations resulted in close to maximum theoretical ethanol yields of 0.47-0.49 g/g (based on glucose, xylose, and arabinose), volumetric ethanol productivities of 1.2-2.7 g/L/h and a total sugar conversion of 90-99% including glucose, xylose and arabinose. The results solidify the potential of Thermoanaerobacter strains as candidates for lignocellulose bioconversion. PMID:26295944

  8. Continuous Ethanol Fermentation of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomasses, Waste Biomasses, Molasses and Syrup Using the Anaerobic, Thermophilic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter italicus Pentocrobe 411

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Karen Møller; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellosic ethanol production is now at a stage where commercial or semi-commercial plants are coming online and, provided cost effective production can be achieved, lignocellulosic ethanol will become an important part of the world bio economy. However, challenges are still to be overcome throughout the process and particularly for the fermentation of the complex sugar mixtures resulting from the hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Here we describe the continuous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose from non-detoxified pretreated wheat straw, birch, corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, cardboard, mixed bio waste, oil palm empty fruit bunch and frond, sugar cane syrup and sugar cane molasses using the anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter Pentocrobe 411. All fermentations resulted in close to maximum theoretical ethanol yields of 0.47–0.49 g/g (based on glucose, xylose, and arabinose), volumetric ethanol productivities of 1.2–2.7 g/L/h and a total sugar conversion of 90–99% including glucose, xylose and arabinose. The results solidify the potential of Thermoanaerobacter strains as candidates for lignocellulose bioconversion. PMID:26295944

  9. Community structure evolution and enrichment of glycogen-accumulating organisms producing polyhydroxyalkanoates from fermented molasses.

    PubMed

    Pisco, Ana R; Bengtsson, Simon; Werker, Alan; Reis, Maria A M; Lemos, Paulo C

    2009-07-01

    An open mixed culture was enriched with glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) by using a sequencing batch reactor and treating an agroindustrial waste (sugar cane molasses) under cyclic anaerobic-aerobic conditions. Over a 1-year operating period, the culture exhibited a very stable GAO phenotype with an average polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) content of 17% total suspended solids. However, the GAO microbial community evolved over the course of operation to a culture exhibiting unusual characteristics in producing PHAs comprised of short-chain-length monomers, namely, 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate, 3-hydroxyvalerate, and 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate, and also, up to 31 mol% of the medium-chain-length (MCL) monomer 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx). Microbial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed a concurrent long-term drift in the GAO community balance, from mainly "Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis" to mainly Defluviicoccus vanus-related organisms. The production of 3HHx was confirmed by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and appeared to be related to the increased presence of D. vanus-related GAOs. These results suggest a broadened spectrum of material, chemical, and mechanical properties that can be achieved for biopolymers produced by open mixed cultures from fermented waste. The increased spectrum of polymer properties brings a wider scope of potential applications. PMID:19465533

  10. Development of a Preschool "Kiddy Cane."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogrund, R. L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a "kiddy cane" for use with young children with blindness, aged 2-6, is described including development of the prototype, field testing, modifications resulting from feedback from specialists, and ongoing evaluation. (Author/DB)

  11. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  12. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses. Results Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. Conclusion The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (named β-planteose), α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose), α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose), and β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose). 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time. PMID:22925105

  13. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar....

  14. Activity monitor accuracy in persons using canes.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Deborah Michael; Sprigle, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    The StepWatch activity monitor has not been validated on multiple indoor and outdoor surfaces in a population using ambulation aids. The aims of this technical report are to report on strategies to configure the StepWatch activity monitor on subjects using a cane and to report the accuracy of both leg-mounted and cane-mounted StepWatch devices on people ambulating over different surfaces while using a cane. Sixteen subjects aged 67 to 85 yr (mean 75.6) who regularly use a cane for ambulation participated. StepWatch calibration was performed by adjusting sensitivity and cadence. Following calibration optimization, accuracy was tested on both the leg-mounted and cane-mounted devices on different surfaces, including linoleum, sidewalk, grass, ramp, and stairs. The leg-mounted device had an accuracy of 93.4% across all surfaces, while the cane-mounted device had an aggregate accuracy of 84.7% across all surfaces. Accuracy of the StepWatch on the stairs was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001) when comparing surfaces using repeated measures analysis of variance. When monitoring community mobility, placement of a StepWatch on a person and his/her ambulation aid can accurately document both activity and device use. PMID:23341318

  15. Drop-Off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection…

  16. Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, looking from the northeast (note Front Street in background) - Roque House, Between Front Street & Cane River, Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, LA

  17. Molasses as fermentation substrate for levan production by Halomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Küçükaşik, Faruk; Kazak, Hande; Güney, Dilvin; Finore, Ilaria; Poli, Annarita; Yenigün, Orhan; Nicolaus, Barbara; Oner, Ebru Toksoy

    2011-03-01

    Levan is a homopolymer of fructose with many outstanding properties like high solubility in oil and water, strong adhesiveness, good biocompatibility, and film-forming ability. However, its industrial use has long been hampered by costly production processes which rely on mesophilic bacteria and plants. Recently, Halomonas sp. AAD6 halophilic bacteria were found to be the only extremophilic species producing levan at high titers in semi-chemical medium containing sucrose, and in this study, pretreated sugar beet molasses and starch molasses were both found to be feasible substitutes for sucrose. Five different pretreatment methods and their combinations were applied to both molasses types. Biomass and levan concentrations reached by the Halomonas sp. AAD6 cells cultivated on 30 g/L of pretreated beet molasses were 6.09 g dry cells/L and 12.4 g/L, respectively. When compared with literature, Halomonas sp. was found to stand out with its exceptionally high levan production yields on available fructose. Molecular characterization and monosaccharide composition studies confirmed levan-type fructan structure of the biopolymers. Rheological properties under different conditions pointed to the typical characteristics of low viscosity and pseudoplastic behaviors of the levan polymers. Moreover, levan polymer produced from molasses showed high biocompatibility and affinity with both cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. PMID:21161209

  18. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol from sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian-Ying; Zhao, Pan; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2015-03-01

    2,3-Butanediol has been known as a platform green chemical, and the production cost is the key problem for its large-scale production in which the carbon source occupies a major part. Sugarcane molasses is a by-product of sugar industry and considered as a cheap carbon source for biorefinery. In this paper, the fermentation of 2,3-butanediol with sugarcane molasses was studied by reducing the medium ingredients and operation steps. The fermentation medium was optimized by response surface methodology, and 2,3-butanediol production was explored under the deficiency of sterilization, molasses acidification, and organic nitrogen source. Based on these experiments, the fermentation medium with sugarcane molasses as carbon source was simplified to five ingredients, and the steps of molasses acidification and medium sterilization were reduced; thus, the cost was reduced and the production of 2,3-butanediol was enhanced. Under fed-batch fermentation, 99.5 g/L of 2,3-butanediol and acetoin was obtained at 60 h with a yield of 0.39 g/g sugar. PMID:25586489

  19. Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslan, Mark M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

  20. Human Factor Analysis of Long Cane Design: Weight and Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2005-01-01

    In a series of experiments, canes of different lengths, weights, and weight distributions were assessed to determine the effect of these characteristics on various performance measures. The results indicate that the overall weight of a cane and the distribution of weight along a cane's shaft do not affect a person's performance, but accuracy does…

  1. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35 percent of the overall allotment quantity. (b) The allotment for cane sugar will be 45.65 percent of...

  2. Developments in beet and cane sugar extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, C.; Schwartzberg, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the various types of extractors used in the extraction of sugar from beet and sugar cane. The types of extractors described are as follows:- Countercurrent Screw - Conveyor Extractors, (Tower Extractors, Slope Extractors), Countercurrent Drag Chain Extractors, Multistage Cross-Flow Extractors, Trommel Extractors, Multistage Scroll Extractors, Diffustion Batteries. Reduced capital costs and power expenditures and slightly higher cane sugar yields can be obtained by combined milking and diffusion extraction as opposed to multi-stage milling. The mechanical reliability of the machinery is emphasized and special attention is given to extraction procedures. Nowadays the trend in beet and cane sugar extraction is toward the use of larger and larger units which helps minimize labor and capital costs per unit of product.

  3. Proposal for a hybrid 2D MOT/molasses configuration for potassium-41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, W. A.; Wrubel, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    We report a proposed design for a compact 2D MOT-optical molasses hybrid for potassium-41 atoms. Adding electromagnets to a previously-reported permanent-magnet based 2D MOT, we show it is possible to flatten the magnetic field at the trap's center, creating a region suitable for molasses. The remaining magnetic field at the fringes of the molasses provides a restoring force sufficient to keep the atoms trapped. This technique should reduce the rate of atom escape from the molasses and allow cooling times substantially longer than in a standard, un-trapped molasses. Research Corporation for Science Advancement, Cottrell College Science Award.

  4. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn.

    PubMed

    Oltramari, C E; Nápoles, G G O; De Paula, M R; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Pasetti, M H O; Bittar, C M M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p<0.05) total concentration of SCFAs, acetate and propionate than 0MO, and these treatments did not differ from 10MO and 5GS (p>0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen. PMID

  5. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn

    PubMed Central

    Oltramari, C. E.; Nápoles, G. G. O.; De Paula, M. R.; Silva, J. T.; Gallo, M. P. C.; Pasetti, M. H. O.; Bittar, C. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p<0.05) total concentration of SCFAs, acetate and propionate than 0MO, and these treatments did not differ from 10MO and 5GS (p>0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen. PMID

  6. A Cognitive Basis for Teaching Cane Travel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mettler, R.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for emphasizing discovery instruction over guided instruction in teaching cane travel skills to people with severe visual impairments. Discovery instruction is seen to facilitate the use of intrinsic feedback in developing perceptual-cognitive skills as well as promoting problem solving, retention, and transfer of…

  7. ECOSTATIC CANE PROCESSING SYSTEM PROTOTYPE PHASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate a systems environmental management approach, from field to final product, for the processing of raw cane sugar. Specific sub-systems which were to be developed and demonstrated as part of this systems approach were: (a) har...

  8. Development of New Energy Cane Culitvars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research into alternative energy sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral energy are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. Energy cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...

  9. Ethanol fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 immobilized in Luffa cylindrica L. sponge discs and Ca-alginate matrices.

    PubMed

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama C; Ray, Ramesh C

    2012-10-01

    Bio-ethanol production from cane molasses (diluted to 15 % sugar w/v) was studied using the bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 entrapped in luffa (Luffa cylindrica L.) sponge discs and Ca-alginate gel beads as the immobilizing matrices. At the end of 96 h fermentation, the final ethanol concentrations were 58.7 ± 0.09 and 59.1 ± 0.08 g/l molasses with luffa and Ca-alginate entrapped Z. mobilis cells, respectively exhibiting 83.25 ± 0.03 and 84.6 ± 0.02 % sugar conversion. There was no statistical significant difference (Fischer's LSD) in sugar utilization (t = 0.254, p<0.801) and ethanol production (t =-0.663, p<0.513) between the two immobilization matrices used. Further, the immobilized cells in both the matrices were physiologically active for three more cycles of operation with less than 15 % decrease in ethanol yield in the 4(th) cycle, which was due to some leakage of cells. In conclusion, luffa sponge was found to be equally good as Ca-alginate as a carrier material for bacterial (Z. mobilis) cell immobilization for ethanol production. Further, it has added advantages such as it is cheap, non-corrosive and has no environmental hazard. PMID:24031981

  10. Ethanol fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 immobilized in Luffa cylindrica L. sponge discs and Ca-alginate matrices

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama C.; Ray, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Bio-ethanol production from cane molasses (diluted to 15 % sugar w/v) was studied using the bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 entrapped in luffa (Luffa cylindrica L.) sponge discs and Ca-alginate gel beads as the immobilizing matrices. At the end of 96 h fermentation, the final ethanol concentrations were 58.7 ± 0.09 and 59.1 ± 0.08 g/l molasses with luffa and Ca-alginate entrapped Z. mobilis cells, respectively exhibiting 83.25 ± 0.03 and 84.6 ± 0.02 % sugar conversion. There was no statistical significant difference (Fischer’s LSD) in sugar utilization (t = 0.254, p<0.801) and ethanol production (t =-0.663, p<0.513) between the two immobilization matrices used. Further, the immobilized cells in both the matrices were physiologically active for three more cycles of operation with less than 15 % decrease in ethanol yield in the 4th cycle, which was due to some leakage of cells. In conclusion, luffa sponge was found to be equally good as Ca-alginate as a carrier material for bacterial (Z. mobilis) cell immobilization for ethanol production. Further, it has added advantages such as it is cheap, non-corrosive and has no environmental hazard. PMID:24031981

  11. Structural confirmation of novel oligosaccharides isolated from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Takata, Yusuke; Fukushi, Eri; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Kawabata, Jun; Ueno, Keiji; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio

    2016-07-01

    Eleven oligosaccharides were isolated from sugar beet molasses using carbon-Celite column chromatography and HPLC. The constituent sugars and linkage positions were determined using methylation analysis, MALDI-TOF-MS, and NMR measurements. The configurations of isolated oligosaccharides were confirmed based on detailed NMR analysis. Based on our results, three of the 11 oligosaccharides were novel. PMID:26920296

  12. Effect of molasses, corn meal or a combination of molasses plus corn meal on ruminal fermentation of orchardgrass pasture in continuous culture fermenters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although molasses is being used by organic dairy farmers as a lower-cost energy alternative to corn, little research currently exists evaluating the effects of molasses as the sole supplement on ruminal fermentation of grazing dairy cows. This study evaluated the effects of pasture supplementation w...

  13. Sugar beet molasses as an ingredient to enhance the nutritional and functional properties of gluten-free cookies.

    PubMed

    Filipčev, Bojana; Mišan, Aleksandra; Šarić, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet molasses is a raw material with high potential to be a functional ingredient in baked goods. This paper investigated the nutritional and functional properties of gluten-free cookies enriched with sugar beet molasses. At all enrichment levels and forms tested (liquid and dry), the addition of beet molasses improved the micronutrient pattern and antioxidative status of gluten-free cookies. The cookies prepared with molasses were significantly higher in potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, betaine, total phenolics and DPPH radical scavenging abilities. Molasses contributed to wider spectra of phenolic compounds. The dominating phenolic compounds in the molasses-enriched cookies were catechin, ferulic, syringic and vanillic acid. Molasses also contributed to the presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the cookies. Addition of molasses increased the content of hydroxymethyfurfural in the cookies, but not above values commonly reported for this product type. Molasses addition improved the overall acceptance of gluten-free cookies up to 30% enrichment level. PMID:26947667

  14. Production of ethanol from sugar cane

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, F.W.

    1982-04-20

    An integrated process is provided for producing ethanol from sugar cane. Harvested cane is chopped and shredded to provide a mass of fiber and juice which is digested in a first digester with a hemicellulase enzyme. Fibrous residue is separated by centrifuge and passed to a second digester for digestion with a mixed culture of a cellulase enzyme and an ethanol-producing culture. Fibrous residue from is pressed to provide a recycle juice extract and then burned to provide at least part of the heat energy requirement of the process. Juice extracts from digesters separated by centrifuges are combined, sterilized, flashed and passed to a fermentor for fermentation with an ethanol-producing microorganism. Ethanol is recovered from the process by separation utilizing a membrane.

  15. Sugar cane. Positive energy source for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Polack, J.A.; Birkett, H.S.; West, M.D.

    1981-06-01

    Sugar cane stands out as a renewable resource for fuel alcohol production, thanks to its unique, highly positive energy balance. It supplies its own processing fuel, bagasse. Net liquid fuel usage is only that consumed on the farm, amounting to a maximum of 0.3 volume per volume of ethanol produced. In some locations, the net liquid fuel consumption of the farm is as low as 0.12 volume/volume produced. This small debit may be offset by generating electric power and by foreseeable processing improvements. In view of the very favorable fuel balance for sugar cane, a decision to employ it as a renewable source of ethanol depends wholly on economic and political factors, which in turn are highly location-dependent.

  16. Integrated treatment of molasses distillery wastewater using microfiltration (MF).

    PubMed

    Basu, Subhankar; Mukherjee, Sangeeta; Kaushik, Ankita; Batra, Vidya S; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2015-08-01

    To achieve zero-liquid discharge, high pressure reverse osmosis (RO) of effluent is being employed by molasses based alcohol distilleries. Low pressure and thus less energy intensive microfiltration (MF) is well established for particulate separation but is not suitable for removal of dissolved organics and color. This work investigates two schemes incorporating MF for molasses distillery wastewater (a) chemical coagulation followed by treatment in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) using MF and (b) electrocoagulation followed by MF. The performance was assessed in terms of COD and color reduction; the conversion of the generated sludge into a zeolite desiccant was also examined. A comparison of the schemes indicates electrocoagulation followed by MF through a 0.1 μm membrane to be most effective. By hydrothermal treatment, electrocoagulated sludge can be transformed into a porous NaX zeolite with a surface area of 86 m(2)/g, which is comparable to commercial desiccants. PMID:25956444

  17. Sub-Doppler cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colzi, Giacomo; Durastante, Gianmaria; Fava, Eleonora; Serafini, Simone; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    We report on the realization of sub-Doppler laser cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses using the D1 optical transition (3 s 1/2 2S →3 p 1/2 2P) at 589.8 nm. The technique is applied to samples containing 3 ×109 atoms, previously cooled to 350 μ K in a magneto-optical trap, and it leads to temperatures as low as 9 μ K and phase-space densities in the range of 10-4. The capture efficiency of the gray molasses is larger than 2/3, and we observe no density-dependent heating for densities up to 1011cm-3 .

  18. Screening of different fungi for decolorization of molasses

    PubMed Central

    Seyis, Isil; Subasioglu, Tugba

    2009-01-01

    The decolorization of molasses by 17 different fungi in 2 media was studied. Trichoderma viride showed the highest decolorization yield (53.5%) when cultivated at 30ºC for 7 days in Medium 1 which contained the molasses which was diluted to 40 g/L in distilled water. The other Trichoderma species and Penicillium sp. also gave similar results of 40-45%. Decolorization yield was increased by adding peptone and yeast extract to the production medium except Penicillium sp. Growth rate was not related to decolorization yet pH value was. When the pH decreased below 5.0 after the incubation, the decolorization yield increased. Although reducing sugar in culture broth decreased with decreasing color intensity, there was no connection between protein utilization and decolorizing activity. PMID:24031318

  19. Insights to the clarification of sugar cane juice expressed from sugar cane stalk and trash.

    PubMed

    Thai, C C D; Bakir, H; Doherty, W O S

    2012-03-21

    Processing of juice expressed from green sugar cane containing all the trash (i.e., tops and leaves, the nonstalk component) of the sugar cane plant during sugar manufacture has been reported to lead to poor clarified juice (CJ) quality. Studies of different liming techniques have been conducted to identify which liming technique gives the best clarification performance from juice expressed from green cane containing half of all trash extracted (GE). Results have shown that lime saccharate addition to juice at 76 °C either continuous or batchwise gives satisfactory settling rates of calcium phosphate flocs (50-70 cm/min) and CJ with low turbidity and minimal amounts of mineral constituents. Surprisingly, the addition of phosphoric acid (≤ 300 mg/kg as P₂O₅), prior to liming to reduce juice turbidity (≤ 80%), increased the Mg (≤ 101%) and Si (≤ 148%) contents particularly for clarified GE juices. The increase was not proportional with increasing phosphoric acid dose. The nature of the flocs formed, including the zeta potential of the particles by the different liming techniques, has been used to account for the differences in clarification performance. Differences between the qualities of the CJ obtained with GE juice and that of burnt cane juices with all trash extracted (BE) have been discussed to provide further insights into GE processing. PMID:22364593

  20. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  1. The Connecticut Pre-Cane: Case Study and Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, C. J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the history and characteristics of the Connecticut Pre-cane, designed to protect young blind children and teach them early mobility techniques. A case study illustrates typical uses, and 12 step-by-step lessons in cane travel are provided for use with young children by the mobility instructor. (DB)

  2. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Caning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on chair caning is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of caning; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  3. Can high quality cane be delivered to the mill economically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cane quality is becoming increasingly important to the Louisiana sugarcane industry, with some processors offering premiums for high quality cane. Using a Cameco® 3500, we tested ground speeds of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 mph and fan speeds of 650, 850, and 1050 rpm. Ground speed had no effect on can...

  4. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  5. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  6. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  12. Evaluation of new energy cane varieties for Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in U.S bioenergy markets may offer an alternative source of income for Louisiana sugarcane growers. High-fiber sugarcane or energy cane varieties are currently being developed. As with traditional sugarcane varieties, energy-cane varieties need to be evaluated across the sugarca...

  13. Rotating cross arm trellis and cane training for brambles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in winter to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in 'Apache', 'Boysenberry', 'Siskiyou', and 'Triple Crown' blackberry. After tying p...

  14. Invitro Digestion and Fermentation Characteristics of Temulose Molasses, a Co-Product of Fiberboard Production, and Select Temulose Fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is of interest to discover new fermentable carbohydrates sources that function as prebiotics. This study evaluated the hydrolytic digestibility, fermentative capacity, and microbiota modulating properties of temulose molasses, four hydrolyzed fractions of temulose molasses, short-chain fructooli...

  15. An experimental study on target recognition using white canes.

    PubMed

    Nunokawa, Kiyohiko; Ino, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    To understand basic tactile perception using white canes, we compared tapping (two times) and pushing (two times) methods using the index finger and using a white cane, with and without accompanying auditory information. Participants were six visually impaired individuals who used a white cane to walk independently in their daily lives. For each of the tapping and pushing and sound or no sound conditions, participants gave magnitude estimates for the hardness of rubber panels. Results indicated that using a white cane produces sensitivity levels equal to using a finger when accompanied by auditory information, and suggested that when using a white cane to estimate the hardness of a target, it is most effective to have two different modalities of tactile and auditory information derived from tapping. PMID:21096512

  16. Older Homebound Women: Negotiating Reliance on a Cane or Walker

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Eileen J.; Benson, Jacquelyn J.; Matsuda, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Canes and walkers are commonly characterized as assistive devices and as devices that serve the same purpose, as walking aides. These general views were reappraised and tempered in this descriptive phenomenological study with 40 older women (aged 85-98) who were unable to leave their homes without help. The purpose was to describe the phenomena of negotiating reliance on canes and walkers as walking devices and the lifeworld context underlying each phenomenon. Relative to lifeworld, there were differences between coming to terms with using a cane and coming to terms with using a walker. Data revealed similarities and distinctions between the basic intentions of relying on canes and on walkers and the associated purposes served by canes and walkers. Participants did not view either device as consistently assistive. Findings evoke opportunities for dialogue among older persons, scholars, practitioners, and designers of these devices about coming to terms with such devices and relying on them. PMID:21041520

  17. Determination of trace elements of Egyptian cane sugar (Naga Hammady factories) by neutron activation, atomic absorption spectrophotometric and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric analyses.

    PubMed

    Awadallah, R M; Sherif, M K; Mohamed, A E; Grass, F

    1984-01-01

    INAA, AAS and ICP-AES techniques are applied to the determination of trace amounts of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in the stalks of sugar cane plant after extracting juice, raw juice principal (mixed) juice, juice withdrawn from the successive stages of sugar industry, sirup, deposits from evaporators, molasse, A-? and B-sugar and in the soil samples (collected from the field supplying the factories by cane plants) taken from the immediate vicinity of the plant roots at surface, 30 and 60 cm depth. The results obtained are in a good agreement of the safety baselines of using juice as beverage, molasse derivatives (honey, sweets, ...) as diet for common people in the developed countries and in industry (methanol, ethanol, acetone & acetic acid, ...) and sugar sweeting for many purposes (in beverages, desserts, ...). Differences of trace elements concentrations in soil samples may be reasoned to geochemical and biogeochemical fractionation while those in juice may be due to the changes in the environmental conditions, chemical composition and botanic structures. Variations in trace element contents in the products formed during the successive stages of sugar industry may be a result of evaporation, filtration processes, chemical treatments or corrosion of vessels, containers or engines. Trace elements are very important where they are responsible for enzymatic and biochemical reactions, matabolism, health and diseases. PMID:6526566

  18. "RecognizeCane" : The new concept of a cane which recognizes the most common objects and safety clues.

    PubMed

    Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Dumas, Jean Claude; Guedj, Benjamin; Vignot, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the new concept of an electronic cane for blind people. While some systems inform the subject only of the presence of the object and its relative distance, RecognizeCane is also able to recognize most common objects and environment clues to increase the safety and confidence of the navigation process. The originality of RecognizeCane is the use of simple sensors, such as infrared, brilliance or water sensors to inform the subject of the presence, for example, of a stairway, a water puddle, a zebra crossing or a trash can. This cane does not use an embedded vision system. RecognizeCane is equipped with several sensors and microprocessors to collect sensor data and extract the desired information about the close environment by means of a dynamic analysis of output signals. PMID:18003475

  19. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  20. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  1. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  2. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  3. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  4. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar... processing of raw cane sugar into crystalline refined sugar....

  5. Molasses as the primary energy supplement on an organic grazing dairy farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to increasing organic grain costs, organic dairy farmers are looking for less expensive ingredients that can be reasonably fed to lactating dairy cows. Molasses seems to be a less expensive source of supplemental energy and vitamins. Organic dairy farmers inquire about molasses as an alternative...

  6. Case study: molasses as the primary energy source on an organic grazing dairy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic dairies face many challenges, one of which is the high cost of purchased organic grains. Molasses may be a less expensive energy alternative. However, anecdotal results have been mixed for farms that used molasses as the sole energy source. This research project quantified animal performance...

  7. Current Research on Molasses as an Alternative Energy Source for Organic Dairy Herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As organic grain prices have increased and organic milk prices have decreased, dairy farmers are seeking lower-cost supplementation strategies. Sugarcane molasses, a rich source of sucrose, seems to be a viable option as a source of energy. Molasses frequently costs less per pound of dry matter than...

  8. Alpha-galactosidase Gene Expression for Fermentative Utilization of Soy Molasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy molasses is a carbohydrate-rich coproduct stream generated from the manufacturing of soy-protein concentrates and isolates. Our on-going research has demonstrated the potential of using soy molasses as a carbon source for the microbial production of poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHA). Optimal utili...

  9. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of α-amylase, β-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  10. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-08-01

    Sugarcane grown as energy cane presents a new potential to the Caribbean countries to provide their own energy needs and to reduce or eliminate fuel oil imports. The use of proper agronomic techniques can convert conventional sugarcane growing to a crop capable of giving energy feedstocks in the form of fiber for boiler fuel for electricity and fermentable solids for alcohol for motor fuel. Sugarcane can still be obtained from the energy cane for domestic consumption and export if desired. The aerable land now devoted to sugarcane can utilized for energy-cane production without causing any serious imbalance in food crop production.

  11. Microbial lipid production: screening with yeasts grown on Brazilian molasses.

    PubMed

    Vieira, J P F; Ienczak, J L; Rossell, C E V; Pradella, J G C; Franco, T T

    2014-12-01

    Rhodotorula glutinis CCT 2182, Rhodosporidium toruloides CCT 0783, Rhodotorula minuta CCT 1751 and Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296 were evaluated for the conversion of sugars from Brazilian molasses into single-cell oil (SCO) feedstock for biodiesel. Pulsed fed-batch fermentations were performed in 1.65 l working volume bioreactors. The maximum specific growth rate (µmax), lipid productivity (Pr) and cellular lipid content were, respectively, 0.23 h(-1), 0.41 g l(-1) h(-1), and 41% for Rsp. toruloides; 0.20 h(-1), 0.27 g l(-1) h(-1), and 36% for Rta. glutinis; 0.115 h(-1), 0.135 g l(-1) h(-1), and 27 % for Rta. minuta; and 0.11 h(-1), 0.13 g l(-1) h(-1), and 32% for L. starkeyi. Based on their microbial lipid productivity, content, and profile, Rsp. toruloides and Rta. glutinis are promising candidates for biodiesel production from Brazilian molasses. All the oils from the yeasts were similar to the composition of plant oils (rapeseed and soybean) and could be used as raw material for biofuels, as well as in food and nutraceutical products. PMID:25129045

  12. Fractionation of orange peel phenols in ultrafiltered molasses and mass balance studies of their antioxidant levels.

    PubMed

    Manthey, John A

    2004-12-15

    Orange peel molasses, a byproduct of juice production, contains high concentrations of phenols, including numerous flavanone and flavone glycosides, polymethoxylated flavones, hydroxycinnamates, and other miscellaneous phenolic glycosides and amines. Extensive fractionation of these phenols was achieved by adsorption, ion exchange, and size exclusion chromatography. Size exclusion chromatography effectively separated the different classes of flavonoids in ultrafiltered molasses, including the polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone-O-trisaccharides, flavanone- and flavone-O-disaccharides, and, finally, flavone-C-glycosides. Mass spectral analysis of the early-eluting flavonoid fractions off the size exclusion column revealed a broad collection of minor-occurring flavone glycosides, which included, in part, glycosides of limocitrin, limocitrol, and chrysoeriol. Most hydroxycinnamates in the molasses were recovered by ion exchange chromatography, which also facilitated the recovery of fractions containing many other miscellaneous phenols. Total antioxidant levels and total phenolic contents were measured for the separate categories of phenols in the molasses. Inhibition of the superoxide anion reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium showed that a significant amount of the total antioxidant activity in orange peel molasses was attributable to minor-occurring flavones. The miscellaneous phenolic-containing fractions, in which a large portion of the total phenolic content in molasses occurred, also constituted a major portion of the total antioxidants in ultrafiltered molasses. PMID:15675808

  13. Method for producing tip-layered, long-cane blackberry plants using the rotating cross-arm trellis and cane training system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rotating cross-arm trellis and a unique cane training technique was used to produce 5- to 6-ft-long tall-cane plants of semi-erect (cv. Triple Crown) and trailing (cv. Siskiyou) blackberries. The primocanes were bent to grow horizontally at 18 in height and the lateral canes that developed on th...

  14. Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

    This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas are…

  15. Clastogenicity of landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse.

    PubMed

    da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Hencklein, Fabiana Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The addition of nutrients and/or soil bulking agents is used in bioremediation to increase microbial activity in contaminated soils. For this purpose, some studies have assessed the effectiveness of vinasse in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum waste. The present study was aimed at investigating the clastogenic/aneugenic potential of landfarming soil from a petroleum refinery before and after addition of sugar cane vinasse using the Allium cepa bioassay. Our results show that the addition of sugar cane vinasse to landfarming soil potentiates the clastogenic effects of the latter probably due the release of metals that were previously adsorbed into the organic matter. These metals may have interacted synergistically with petroleum hydrocarbons present in the landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse. We recommend further tests to monitor the effects of sugar cane vinasse on soils contaminated with organic wastes. PMID:22580848

  16. 10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  17. 10. View of cane mill with reduction gears and steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of cane mill with reduction gears and steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Concepcion, Sugar Mill Ruins, .3 Mi. W. of Junction of Rts. 418 & 111, Victoria, Agaudilla Municipio, PR

  18. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322224

  19. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  20. VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, BUMPER ROLLERS IN THE CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  1. 17. Photocopy of c. 1922 photograph of cane field tractor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of c. 1922 photograph of cane field tractor developed and patented by Mr. Arsenaud of Laurel Valley Plantation; Claiborne Toups, overseer, is standing on the left. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  2. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.

  3. Inhibition of osteoporosis in rats fed with sugar cane wax.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Hajime; Man, Sun Li; Ohta, Yutaka; Katsuyama, Naofumi; Chinen, Isao

    2003-02-01

    Rats fed on a restricted, semi-purified diet containing a 50%-reduced level of carbohydrate and oil, but normal levels of protein, minerals and vitamins, exhibited osteoporosis. However, rats fed on this restricted diet, but containing sugar cane wax, did not exhibit this bone disease. Sugar cane wax, containing a long-chain carbohydrate with an OH radical, prevented the development of osteoporosis via a non-estrogenic mechanism. PMID:12729013

  4. By-products of the cane sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Paturav, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

  5. Plant for getting more sugar out of a cane crop

    SciTech Connect

    Perdomo, R.E.; Despradel, J.O.; Arceneaux, G.

    1982-04-01

    A crop of sugar cane consists of several important varieties, each with different qualities affecting vegetative growth and maturity. A study recently conducted at Central Romana in the Dominican Republic has revealed differences between yield curves of sugar cane varieties in local culture and a method has been developed for a practical application of results. This paper briefly summarizes the essential findings and outlines its practical applications.

  6. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathod, K. D.; Singh, P. K.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  7. Grey-molasses cooling of an optically trapped Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Ryan; Jervis, Dylan; Edge, Graham; Anderson, Rhys; Trotzky, Stefan; Thywissen, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Robust sub-Doppler cooling has recently been demonstrated at the D1 (nS1/2 to nP1/2) transition of potassium and lithium, atoms that are challenging to cool on the D2 cycling transition. Two mechanisms are at work: first, Sisyphus cooling in the standing-wave dipole potential, at least partially due to polarization gradients; second, velocity-selective coherent population trapping (VSCPT) in a superposition of the two hyperfine ground states. We extend this technique to the cooling of dense clouds in optical traps. Since the VSCPT dark state relies only on ground-state coherences, it is insensitive to optical shifts from far-detuned optical traps. We also observe that the molasses has sufficient cooling power to withstand light scattering on the 4S-5P transition. Together these observations indicate that D1 cooling is a promising approach to fluorescent imaging of single fermions in an optical lattice.

  8. Molasses enhanced phyto and bioremediation treatability study of explosives contaminated Hawaiian soils.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Krishna M; Babcock, Roger W; Turnbull, Steve J; Schenck, Susan

    2012-12-01

    A 15-week treatability study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential effects of molasses on the bioremediation and phytoremediation potential of Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum) for treating energetic contaminated soil from the open burn/open detonation area of the Makua Military Reservation, Oahu, HI (USA). The energetics in the soil were royal demolition explosive (RDX) and high-melting explosive (HMX). Among the 6 treatments employed in this study, enhanced removal of RDX was observed from treatments that received molasses and went to completion. The RDX degradation rates in treatments with molasses diluted 1:20 and 1:40 were comparable suggesting that the lower dose worked as well as the higher dose. Treatments without molasses degraded RDX slowly and residuals remained after 15 weeks. The bacterial densities in molasses-treated units were much greater than those without molasses. Phytoremediation alone seems to have little effect on RDX disappearance. For HMX, neither bioremediation nor phytoremediation was found to be useful in reducing the concentration within the experimental period. The concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous in the soil did not change significantly during the experiment, however, a slight increase in soil pH was observed in all treatments. The study showed that irrigating with diluted molasses is effective at enhancing RDX degradation mainly in the root zone and just below it. The long term sustainability of active training ranges can be enhanced by bioremediation using molasses treatments to prevent RDX deposited by on-going operations from migrating through the soil to groundwater and off-site. PMID:23164624

  9. The last erosional stage of the Molasse Basin and the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Mosar, Jon

    2011-07-01

    We present a synoptic overview of the Miocene-present development of the northern Alpine foreland basin (Molasse Basin), with special attention to the pattern of surface erosion and sediment discharge in the Alps. Erosion of the Molasse Basin started at the same time that the rivers originating in the Central Alps were deflected toward the Bresse Graben, which formed part of the European Cenozoic rift system. This change in the drainage direction decreased the distance to the marine base level by approximately 1,000 km, which in turn decreased the average topographic elevation in the Molasse Basin by at least 200 m. Isostatic adjustment to erosional unloading required ca. 1,000 m of erosion to account for this inferred topographic lowering. A further inference is that the resulting increase in the sediment discharge at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary reflects the recycling of Molasse units. We consider that erosion of the Molasse Basin occurred in response to a shift in the drainage direction rather than because of a change in paleoclimate. Climate left an imprint on the Alpine landscape, but presumably not before the beginning of glaciation at the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary. Similar to the northern Alpine foreland, we do not see a strong climatic fingerprint on the pattern or rates of exhumation of the External Massifs. In particular, the initiation and acceleration of imbrication and antiformal stacking of the foreland crust can be considered solely as a response to the convergence of Adria and Europe, irrespective of erosion rates. However, the recycling of the Molasse deposits since 5 Ma and the associated reduction of the loads in the foreland could have activated basement thrusts beneath the Molasse Basin in order to restore a critical wedge. In conclusion, we see the need for a more careful consideration of both tectonic and climatic forcing on the development of the Alps and the adjacent Molasse Basin.

  10. 19 CFR 10.139 - Liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determination may be made. An ash content of not less than 7 percent indicates a blackstrap molasses within the... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Rate of Duty Dependent...

  11. 19 CFR 10.139 - Liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... determination may be made. An ash content of not less than 7 percent indicates a blackstrap molasses within the... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Rate of Duty Dependent...

  12. Use of the C-5 Laser Cane by School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldie, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    The use of the Laser Cane with four blind students attending public school is discussed with emphasis on modifications in technique needed to integrate the cane's use into each student's travel system. (Author)

  13. Advanced Augmented White Cane with obstacle height and distance feedback.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Rosali; Kim, Yeongmi; Wespe, Pascal; Gassert, Roger; Schneller, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The white cane is a widely used mobility aid that helps visually impaired people navigate the surroundings. While it reliably and intuitively extends the detection range of ground-level obstacles and drop-offs to about 1.2 m, it lacks the ability to detect trunk and head-level obstacles. Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) have been proposed to overcome these limitations, but have found minimal adoption due to limitations such as low information content and low reliability thereof. Although existing ETAs extend the sensing range beyond that of the conventional white cane, most of them do not detect head-level obstacles and drop-offs, nor can they identify the vertical extent of obstacles. Furthermore, some ETAs work independent of the white cane, and thus reliable detection of surface textures and drop-offs is not provided. This paper introduces a novel ETA, the Advanced Augmented White Cane, which detects obstacles at four vertical levels and provides multi-sensory feedback. We evaluated the device in five blindfolded subjects through reaction time measurements following the detection of an obstacle, as well as through the reliability of dropoff detection. The results showed that our aid could help the user successfully detect an obstacle and identify its height, with an average reaction time of 410 msec. Drop-offs were reliably detected with an intraclass correlation > 0.95. This work is a first step towards a low-cost ETA to complement the functionality of the conventional white cane. PMID:24187177

  14. Sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek, Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek in Lauderdale County, Tennessee, was conducted from 1985-88 to evaluate the potential for channel erosion induced by modifications (realignment and enlargement) and the potential ability of different flows to move bed and bank stabilizing material. Frequently occurring flows in Cane Creek are capable of moving sand-size material (0.0625 - 4.0 millimeters). During floods that equal or exceed the 2-year flood, Cane Creek is capable of moving very coarse gravel (32 - 64 millimeters). Boundary-shear values at bridges, where flow contractions occur, correspond to critical diameters in excess of 100 millimeters. Thus, the areas near bridges, where channel stability is most critical, are the areas where erosive power is greatest. Deepening and widening of Cane Creek has exposed large areas of channel boundary that are a significant source of raindrop-detached sediment during the early stages of a storm before stream flow increases signifi- cantly. This causes suspended-sediment concentration to peak while the flow hydrograph is just beginning to rise. For basins like Cane Creek, where runoff events commonly last less than a day and where variation in discharge and sediment concentrations are large, an estimate of sediment yield based on periodic observations of instantaneous values is subject to considerable uncertainty.

  15. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Brazilian sugar cane expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2012-12-01

    Brazil is the leading producer of sugar cane in the world with roughly half used for ethanol production. Because of suitable climatic growing conditions, the majority of biofuel production is derived from sugar plantations in southeastern states. Anticipated increases in global demand for biofuels are expected to lead to future sugar cane expansion extending into Brazilian pasturelands and native cerrado. Prior to undergoing large-scale expansion an evaluation of impacts on the region's hydroclimate is warranted. Using a suite of multi-year ensemble-based simulations with the WRF modeling system, we quantify hydroclimatic consequences of sugar cane expansion across portions of south-central Brazil. Conversion from current land use to sugar cane causes opposing seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature. Proggresively greater cooling is simulated during the course of the growing season, followed by an abrupt warming shift post-harvest. Although seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature are significant, with cooling of 1C occurring during the peak of the growing season followed by warming of similar magnitude, impacts are small when annually averaged. Ensemble mean differences between the imposed sugar cane expansion and non-expansion scenario are suggestive of a drying precipitation trend, yet large uncertainty among individual members precludes definitive statements about impacts on the region's rainfall.

  16. Dietary molasses increases ruminal pH and enhances ruminal biohydrogenation during milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Martel, C A; Titgemeyer, E C; Mamedova, L K; Bradford, B J

    2011-08-01

    Feeding high-concentrate diets has the potential to cause milk fat depression, but several studies have suggested that dietary sugar can increase milk fat yield. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of dietary molasses to prevent milk fat depression in the presence of a 65% concentrate diet. In trial 1, molasses replaced corn grain at 0, 2.5, or 5% of diet dry matter in diets fed to 12 second-lactation Holstein cows (134±37 d in milk) in a 3×3 Latin square design. Trial 1 demonstrated that replacing up to 5% of dietary dry matter from corn with molasses had positive effects on de novo fatty acid synthesis, increasing the yield of short- and medium-chain fatty acids during diet-induced milk fat depression. Increasing inclusion rate of molasses increased milk fat concentration, but decreased milk yield and milk protein yield. Trial 2 used 7 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, late-lactation Holstein cows (220±18 d in milk) to evaluate effects of dietary molasses on ruminal parameters and milk composition, and also to assess whether increased metabolizable protein supply would alter these responses. Cows were randomly assigned to a dietary treatment sequence in a crossover split plot design with 0 and 5% molasses diets. Dietary treatments were fed for 28 d, with 16 d for diet adaptation, and the final 12 d for 2 abomasal infusion periods in a crossover arrangement. Abomasal infusions of water or AA (5 g of l-Met/d+15 g of l-Lys-HCl/d+5 g of l-His-HCl-H(2)O/d) were administered 3 times daily for 5 d, with 2 d between infusion periods. Administration of AA had no effect on concentration or yield of any milk components. Addition of molasses increased milk fat concentration (2.71 vs. 2.94±0.21%), but had no effect on yields of milk fat or protein. Dietary molasses decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration (141 vs. 133±4.6mM), decreased the molar proportion of propionate, and increased the molar proportion of butyrate in ruminal fluid

  17. Assessment of canes used by older adults in senior living communities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao Howe; Eaves, Joshua; Wang, Wen; Womack, Jill; Bullock, Paige

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to provide basic but essential information about how older cane users obtain their canes and how they use these canes for their daily mobility, since there is still lack of information on these areas. Ninety-three older (≥65 years old) subjects who use canes for daily activities were recruited from four assisted living facilities and five retirement centers for this cross-sectional study. The assessment involved interviewing cane users with a questionnaire, examining their canes, and investigating how these canes were used by their owners during ambulation. The commonly used canes are (from most to least): adjustable single-tip, un-adjustable (wooden), small quad, and large quad. Five major problems from data analysis were identified: lack of medical consultation for device selection/use, incorrect cane height/maintenance, placement of cane in improper hand, inability to maintain the proper reciprocal gait pattern, and improper posture during ambulation. Only forward-leaning posture during ambulation might be associated with increased falls among the older cane users. Knowledge of these problems could assist health professionals to implement appropriate interventions in clinical settings and to provide community service to address all problems related to cane use. PMID:20416960

  18. USE OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY TO MONITOR TRASH DECOMPOSITON IN THE SUGAR CANE INDUSTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post harvested cane trash, if left unburnt, impedes the growth of emerging ratoons and reduces sugar yields in comparison to unhindered ratoons. Approximately 75% of dry cane trash is decomposable fibre--36% Cellulose, 21%Hemicellulose, 16% Lignin. One alternative for the removal of cane trash wou...

  19. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  20. Screening for tolerance to saturated soil conditions for cane grown for sugar and biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana cane (Saccharum spp.) is often produced on heavy-textured soils which often remain saturated for extended periods during the growing and harvest season. The objective of this research was to identify commercial sugar cane and energy cane varieties that exhibit tolerance to periodic satura...

  1. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  2. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  3. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  4. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  5. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  6. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  7. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  8. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  9. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  10. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  11. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  12. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CAS Reg. No. 10222-01-2). Limitations: Byproduct molasses, bagasse, and pulp containing residues of 2....32±0.032 Limitations. Byproduct molasses, bagasse, and pulp containing residues of these...

  13. Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  14. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane... used in the control of microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph...) Combination for cane-sugar mills: Parts per million Disodium cyanodithioimidocarbonate 2.5 Ethylenediamine...

  15. The last erosional stage of the Molasse Basin and the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Mosar, Jon

    2010-05-01

    The search for the controls on the Alpine increase in sediment discharge at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary has received much attention recently. Here, we present a synoptic overview of the Miocene to present development of the north Alpine foreland basin in view of the contemporaneous increase in sediment discharge. Inversion and erosion of the Molasse Basin started at the same time that the Alpine rivers were deflected towards the Rhone-Bresse Graben which is the southern continuation of the European rift system. This change in the dispersion direction decreased the distance to baselevel by approximately 1000 m, which in turn decreased the average topographic elevation in the Molasse Basin by at least 200 m. Isostatic adjustment to erosional unloading requires at least 1000 m of erosion to account for this inferred topographic lowering. A further implication is that the resulting increase in the sediment discharge at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary reflects the recycling of Molasse units. We consider that erosion and inversion of the Molasse Basin appears to have occurred in response to a shift in the drainage direction rather than because of a paleoclimate change. We do find, however, that climate has imprinted on the Alpine landscape, but presumably not earlier than at the initiation of glaciation at the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary. Similar to the foreland, we do not see a strong climate fingerprint on the pattern or rates of exhumation of the External Massifs. In particular, the initiation and acceleration of antiformal stacking due to underplating can be considered solely as a response to the convergence of Adria and Europe irrespective of erosion rates. However, the recycling of the Molasse deposits since 5 Ma and the associated reduction of the loads in the foreland could have activated basement thrusts beneath the Molasse Basin in order to restore the critical wedge. This mechanism could explain the deep-seated earthquakes beneath the Molasse Basin and the

  16. Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A. Vaidya, Atul N.; Kumar, M. Suresh; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2009-09-15

    Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 29). PHB production yield (Y{sub p/s}) was highest (0.184 g g{sup -1} COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

  17. Production of L-ornithine from sucrose and molasses by recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Bu, Yi-Fan; Liu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Sucrose and molasses are attractive raw materials for industrial fermentation. Although Corynebacterium glutamicum shows sucrose-utilizing activity, sucrose or molasses is only a fraction of carbon source used in the fermentation medium in most works. An engineered C. glutamicum strain was constructed for producing L-ornithine with sucrose or molasses as a sole carbon source by transferring Mannheimia succiniciproducens β-fructofuranosidase gene (sacC). The engineered strain, C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 (pEC-sacC), produced 22.0 g/L of L-ornithine with sucrose as the sole carbon source, which is on par with that obtained by the parent strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 with glucose as the sole carbon. The resulting strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 (pEC-sacC) produced 27.0 g/L of L-ornithine with molasses as the sole carbon source, which is higher than that obtained by the parent strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 with glucose as the sole carbon. This strategy can be applied for developing sucrose- or molasses-utilizing industrial strains. PMID:25527174

  18. Quantification of long cane usage characteristics with the constant contact technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeongmi; Moncada-Torres, Arturo; Furrer, Jonas; Riesch, Markus; Gassert, Roger

    2016-07-01

    While a number of Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) have been developed over the past decades, the conventional long cane remains the most widely utilized navigation tool for people with visual impairments. Understanding the characteristics of long cane usage is crucial for the development and acceptance of ETAs. Using optical tracking, cameras and inertial measurement units, we investigated grasp type, cane orientation and sweeping characteristics of the long cane with the constant contact technique. The mean cane tilt angle, sweeping angle, and grip rotation deviation were measured. Grasp type varied among subjects, but was maintained throughout the experiments, with thumb and index finger in contact with the cane handle over 90% of the time. We found large inter-subject differences in sweeping range and frequency, while the sweeping frequency showed low intra-subject variability. These findings give insights into long cane usage characteristics and provide critical information for the development of effective ETAs. PMID:26965194

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of a Computer Simulation of Long Cane Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chubon, Robert A.; Keith, Ashley D.

    1989-01-01

    Developed and evaluated long cane mobility computer simulation as visual rehabilitation training device and research tool in graduate students assigned to instruction (BI) (N=10) or enhanced instruction (EI) (N=9). Found higher percentage of EI students completed simulation task. Concluded that students registered positive understanding changes,…

  20. Attitudes of Visually Impaired Persons toward Cane Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainapel, S. F.

    1989-01-01

    Semistructured telephone interviews with 10 visually impaired adult cane users found that early negative attitudes of stigma were usually replaced by more positive attitudes and that there was a mean of 1 3/4 years between the onset of severe visual impairment and commencement of orientation and mobility training. (Author/DB)

  1. Mechanical planter update: 2007 Bayou Teche test plant cane results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanization of cane planting has been somewhat limited, due to the fact that the entire 4-5 ft stalk must be planted horizontally in the seedbed. Several modifications were made to mechanical planters by a grower cooperator. To test the modifications, a replicated field trial was planted on Augus...

  2. GREEN CANE TRASH BLANKETS: INFLUENCE ON RATOON CROPS IN LOUISIANA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 75% of Louisiana's 2000 sugarcane crop was harvested with a chopper harvester. A significant portion of the chopper-harvested sugarcane was harvested green, especially early in the season. Information on the impact of the post-harvest, green-cane residue blankets on subsequent ratoo...

  3. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  4. Methods of alcohol production available to the cane sugar refiner

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.C.

    1981-11-01

    The three methods of fermenting sugar feedstocks, namely, batch, batch recycle and continuous culture are described. With the current emphasis on fuel alcohol from sugar cane products, new techniques for dealing with the effuent stillage are required. Other areas for improvement include the fermentation process itself and the various distillation methods. New technology in these areas together with the economic considerations involved are reviewed.

  5. Potential for generation of public electricity in cane sugar factories

    SciTech Connect

    Torisson, T.

    1984-04-01

    Sugar cane is the most efficient crop for the conversion of solar energy into biomass. The possibility of conservation of energy in cane sugar producing countries by substituting bagasse for imported oil, was studied in Guyana, South America and financed by the World Bank. The concept of cogeneration was considered, where the heat energy generated by burning bagasse of high fiber content is converted into steam and used both for electricity generation and generation of internal power. Several methods of achieving energy efficiency in this process were discussed such as efficient generation and use of the steam by using high pressure boilers, drying and pelletization of bagasse, and using sugar cane trash as fuel. About 40% of the bagasse could be available for the generation of electric energy. A method for evaluation of the power potential showed that the quantity of public electricity produced, depended on certain important process parameters, fiber content, steam conditions and process steam. The cost effectiveness of the project increases with increasing fiber content in the sugar cane.

  6. Two-in-one fuel combining sugar cane with low rank coal and its CO₂ reduction effects in pulverized-coal power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Hong, Jai-Chang; Lee, Byoung-Hwa; Jeon, Chung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Chan

    2013-02-01

    Coal-fired power plants are facing to two major independent problems, namely, the burden to reduce CO(2) emission to comply with renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and cap-and-trade system, and the need to use low-rank coal due to the instability of high-rank coal supply. To address such unresolved issues, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested, and low rank coal has been upgraded by high-pressure and high-temperature processes. However, IGCC incurs huge construction costs, and the coal upgrading processes require fossil-fuel-derived additives and harsh operation condition. Here, we first show a hybrid coal that can solve these two problems simultaneously while using existing power plants. Hybrid coal is defined as a two-in-one fuel combining low rank coal with a sugar cane-derived bioliquid, such as molasses and sugar cane juice, by bioliquid diffusion into coal intrapores and precarbonization of the bioliquid. Unlike the simple blend of biomass and coal showing dual combustion behavior, hybrid coal provided a single coal combustion pattern. If hybrid coal (biomass/coal ratio = 28 wt %) is used as a fuel for 500 MW power generation, the net CO(2) emission is 21.2-33.1% and 12.5-25.7% lower than those for low rank coal and designed coal, and the required coal supply can be reduced by 33% compared with low rank coal. Considering high oil prices and time required before a stable renewable energy supply can be established, hybrid coal could be recognized as an innovative low-carbon-emission energy technology that can bridge the gulf between fossil fuels and renewable energy, because various water-soluble biomass could be used as an additive for hybrid coal through proper modification of preparation conditions. PMID:23286316

  7. Lateral cane lengths affect yield components in 'Triple Crown' blackberry on rotating cross-arm trellis and cane training system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three primocanes of mature ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry plants were trained on the rotating cross-arm trellis (RCA) trellis. By the end of the summer, as many as 30 lateral canes with lengths greater than 3.5 m had developed on three primocanes that had been bent at a 0.50-m height and allowed to exte...

  8. Collimation of a thulium atomic beam by two-dimensional optical molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sukachev, D D; Kalganova, E S; Sokolov, A V; Savchenkov, A V; Vishnyakova, G A; Golovizin, A A; Akimov, A V; Kolachevsky, Nikolai N; Sorokin, Vadim N

    2013-04-30

    The number of laser cooled and trapped thulium atoms in a magneto-optical trap is increased by a factor of 3 using a two-dimensional optical molasses which collimated the atomic beam before entering a Zeeman slower. A diode laser operating at 410.6 nm was employed to form optical molasses: The laser was heated to 70 Degree-Sign C by a two-step temperature stabilisation system. The laser system consisting of a master oscillator and an injection-locked amplifier emitted more than 100 mW at 410 nm and had a spectral linewidth of 0.6 MHz. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  9. Collimation of a thulium atomic beam by two-dimensional optical molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukachev, D. D.; Kalganova, E. S.; Sokolov, A. V.; Savchenkov, A. V.; Vishnyakova, G. A.; Golovizin, A. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Kolachevsky, Nikolai N.; Sorokin, Vadim N.

    2013-04-01

    The number of laser cooled and trapped thulium atoms in a magneto-optical trap is increased by a factor of 3 using a two-dimensional optical molasses which collimated the atomic beam before entering a Zeeman slower. A diode laser operating at 410.6 nm was employed to form optical molasses: The laser was heated to 70 °C by a two-step temperature stabilisation system. The laser system consisting of a master oscillator and an injection-locked amplifier emitted more than 100 mW at 410 nm and had a spectral linewidth of 0.6 MHz.

  10. Response Surface Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Molasses by Pichia veronae Strain HSC-22

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Hamed I.; Nassar, Hussein N.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Abu Amr, Salem S.; El-Gendy, Nour Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Pichia veronae strain HSC-22 (accession number KP012558) showed a good tolerance to relatively high temperature, ethanol and sugar concentrations. Response surface optimization based on central composite design of experiments predicted the optimal values of the influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses to be as follows: initial pH 5, 25% (w : v) initial molasses concentration, 35°C, 116 rpm, and 60 h. Under these optimum operating conditions the maximum bioethanol production on a batch fermenter scale was recorded as 32.32 g/L with 44% bioethanol yield. PMID:26779347

  11. Wearable Virtual White Cane Network for navigating people with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yabiao; Chandrawanshi, Rahul; Nau, Amy C; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-09-01

    Navigating the world with visual impairments presents inconveniences and safety concerns. Although a traditional white cane is the most commonly used mobility aid due to its low cost and acceptable functionality, electronic traveling aids can provide more functionality as well as additional benefits. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is an electronic traveling aid that utilizes ultrasound sonar technology to scan the surrounding environment for spatial information. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is composed of four sensing nodes: one on each of the user's wrists, one on the waist, and one on the ankle. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network employs vibration and sound to communicate object proximity to the user. While conventional navigation devices are typically hand-held and bulky, the hands-free design of our prototype allows the user to perform other tasks while using the Wearable Virtual Cane Network. When the Wearable Virtual Cane Network prototype was tested for distance resolution and range detection limits at various displacements and compared with a traditional white cane, all participants performed significantly above the control bar (p < 4.3 × 10(-5), standard t-test) in distance estimation. Each sensor unit can detect an object with a surface area as small as 1 cm(2) (1 cm × 1 cm) located 70 cm away. Our results showed that the walking speed for an obstacle course was increased by 23% on average when subjects used the Wearable Virtual Cane Network rather than the white cane. The obstacle course experiment also shows that the use of the white cane in combination with the Wearable Virtual Cane Network can significantly improve navigation over using either the white cane or the Wearable Virtual Cane Network alone (p < 0.05, paired t-test). PMID:26334037

  12. Interaction Effects of the Amount of Practice, Preferred Cane Technique, and Type of Cane Technique Used on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effects of the amount of practice and the cane technique used in drop-off detection with a sample of 32 adults who were blind. The advantage of the constant contact technique over the two-point touch technique was significantly greater for the less experienced cane users than for the more experienced ones.…

  13. Fermentative production of butanol from sorghum molasses as a potential agricultural fuel. Final report, June 26, 1981-September 25, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, L.T.

    1982-12-01

    A strain, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 4259, suitable for butanol-acetone fermentation of sorghum molasses was selected from several strains of the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It was cultivated in the composition-optimized sorghum molasses medium. The microbial growth and sugar consumption pattern in the sorghum molasses medium exhibited a typical diauxie phenomenon. The results strongly suggest that the difficulty encountered by the Weizmann type of organisms in butanol-acetone fermentation of molasses is due to the diauxie phenomenon causing a significant decrease in the solvent production rate. Acid hydrolysis of sorghum molasses minimizes the occurrence of the phenomenon, thereby remarkably increasing the solvent yield. The final solvent concentrations in the inverted molasses medium were butanol, 1.0% (w/v); acetone, 0.37% (w/v); ethanol, 0.18% (w/v); and total solvent, 1.55% (w/v). The total solvent yield in the inverted sorghum molasses medium was 30.3% based on the weight of sugar consumed. Effects of the temperature, agitation and heat-shocking were also investigated.

  14. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Temulose” is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in southeastern Texas. Because...

  15. Effect of molasses in anaerobic soil disinfestation: Focus on the soil microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers in Florida have begun to apply molasses to increase the soil microbial biodiversity. Previous reports have indicated that a greater microbial diversity could cause disease suppressive soils. Furthermore, it has been shown that under moderate temperature, 15-20° C, an increase of carbon could...

  16. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan; Pavasant, Prasert

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  17. Comparitive study of copper reduction, chromatographic and enymatic methods to determine reducing sugars in molasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With more processing of sugarcane or sugarbeet for fuel alcohol production, there is an increasing emphasis on the minimizing of losses from fermentable reducing sugars to improve alcohol yields. Consequently, methods to measure reducing sugars in molasses and other sugar products have become more ...

  18. Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea.

    PubMed Central

    Mella, C M; Perez-Oliva, O; Loew, F M

    1976-01-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1000370

  19. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Temulose" is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in south-eastern Texas. Becaus...

  20. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of functional components from sugar beet molasses. The central composite design (CCD) was used for the optimisation of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and anthocyanins. Result suggested the optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from sugar beet molasses were as follows: HCl concentration 1.55-1.72 mol/L, ethanol concentration 57-63% (v/v), extraction temperature 41-48 °C, and extraction time 66-73 min. In the optimal conditions, the experimental total phenolic contents were 17.36 mg GAE/100mL, antioxidant activity was 16.66 mg TE/g, and total anthocyanins were 31.81 mg/100g of the sugar beet molasses extract, which were well matched the predicted values. Teen compounds, i.e. gallic acid, vanillin, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucuronide and ferulic acid were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS in sugar beet molasses. PMID:25442590

  1. Immobilized Sclerotinia sclerotiorum invertase to produce invert sugar syrup from industrial beet molasses by-product.

    PubMed

    Mouelhi, Refka; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2014-03-01

    The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces invertase activity during cultivation on many agroindustrial residues. The molasses induced invertase was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated at 48 kDa. Optimal temperature was determined at 60 °C and thermal stability up to 65 °C. The enzyme was stable between pH 2.0 and 8.0; optimum pH was about 5.5. Apparent K(m) and V(max) for sucrose were estimated to be respectively 5.8 mM and 0.11 μmol/min. The invertase was activated by β-mercaptoethanol. Free enzyme exhibited 80 % of its original activity after two month's storage at 4 °C and 50 % after 1 week at 25 °C. In order to investigate an industrial application, the enzyme was immobilized on alginate and examined for invert sugar production by molasses hydrolysis in a continuous bioreactor. The yield of immobilized invertase was about 78 % and the activity yield was 59 %. Interestingly the immobilized enzyme hydrolyzed beet molasses consuming nearly all sucrose. It retained all of its initial activity after being used for 4 cycles and about 65 % at the sixth cycle. Regarding productivity; 20 g/l of molasses by-product gave the best invert sugar production 46.21 g/day/100 g substrate related to optimal sucrose conversion of 41.6 %. PMID:24142426

  2. Simplified soy molasses-based medium for reduced-cost production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simplified medium containing only soy molasses and oleic acid as ingredients was developed for the production of sophorolipids (SLs) from Candida bombicola. We achieved a product yield of 53 plus/minus 3 g of purified sophorolipids per liter of starting culture volume, which is 71 plus/minus 4% o...

  3. Chromatographic detection of sugar cane samples via polarimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Juan Carlos; Fajer, Victor; Rodríguez, Carlos W.; Naranjo, Salvador; Mora, Luis; Ravelo, Justo; Cossio, Gladys; Avila, Norma

    2004-03-01

    The combination of molecular exclusion cromatography with the laser polarimetry has become a powerful technique to separate and evaluate some carbohydrates of sugar cane plants. In the following work it has been obtained chromatograms of carbohydrates standards, which has been used as comparison patterns in the studies of the juice quality in different cane varieties of different physiological stadiums and stress conditions. By means of the employment of this technique, it has also been determined the influence of carbohydrates of medium molecular mass in the determination of the apparent sucrose in the routine sugar analysis. On the other hand, discreet determination of the fractions causes time consuming and a troublesome manipulation. In the present work some modifications to the system are shown, obtaining a small volume sample (less than 1 ml) and angular readings on line, avoiding the employment of fraction collectors.

  4. Enhancing of sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis by Annulohypoxylon stygium glycohydrolases.

    PubMed

    Robl, Diogo; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos; Büchli, Fernanda; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval; Padilla, Gabriel; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess for the production of β-glucosidase and pectinase from the fungus Annulohypoxylon stygium DR47. Media optimization and bioreactor cultivation using citrus bagasse and soybean bran were explored and revealed a maximum production of 6.26 U/mL of pectinase at pH 4.0 and 10.13 U/mL of β-glucosidase at pH 5.0. In addition, the enzymes extracts were able to replace partially Celluclast 1.5L in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis. Proteomic analysis from A. stygium cultures revealed accessory enzymes, mainly belong to the families GH3 and GH54, that would support enhancement of commercial cocktail saccharification yields. This is the first report describing bioreactor optimization for enzyme production from A. stygium with a view for more efficient degradation of sugar cane bagasse. PMID:25496945

  5. Molasses as a source of carbon dioxide for attracting the malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most odour baits for haematophagous arthropods contain carbon dioxide (CO2). The CO2 is sourced artificially from the fermentation of refined sugar (sucrose), dry ice, pressurized gas cylinders or propane. These sources of CO2 are neither cost-effective nor sustainable for use in remote areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, molasses was evaluated as a potential substrate for producing CO2 used as bait for malaria mosquitoes. Methods The attraction of laboratory-reared and wild Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes to CO2 generated from yeast-fermentation of molasses was assessed under semi-field and field conditions in western Kenya. In the field, responses of wild Anopheles funestus were also assessed. Attraction of the mosquitoes to a synthetic mosquito attractant, Mbita blend (comprising ammonia, L-lactic acid, tetradecanoic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol) when augmented with CO2 generated from yeast fermentation of either molasses or sucrose was also investigated. Results In semi-field, the release rate of CO2 and proportion of An. gambiae mosquitoes attracted increased in tandem with an increase in the quantity of yeast-fermented molasses up to an optimal ratio of molasses and dry yeast. More An. gambiae mosquitoes were attracted to a combination of the Mbita blend plus CO2 produced from fermenting molasses than the Mbita blend plus CO2 from yeast-fermented sucrose. In the field, significantly more female An. gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were attracted to the Mbita blend augmented with CO2 produced by fermenting 500 g of molasses compared to 250 g of sucrose or 250 g of molasses. Similarly, significantly more An. funestus, Culex and other anopheline mosquito species were attracted to the Mbita blend augmented with CO2 produced from fermenting molasses than the Mbita blend with CO2 produced from sucrose. Augmenting the Mbita blend with CO2 produced from molasses was associated with high catches of blood-fed An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus

  6. [New technologies and workers' health: mechanization of sugar cane harvesting].

    PubMed

    Scopinho, R A; Eid, F; Vian, C E; Silva, P R

    1999-01-01

    In the context of reorganization of production in the sugar and alcohol industry, mechanization of sugar cane harvesting has been justified as a protective measure for the environment and workers. This article focuses on the consequences of organization of work in mechanization of sugar cane harvesting with regard to the harvester operators' health. Based on data gathered through interviews and direct observation at the workplace, changes implemented in the technological base and division of labor and organization were analyzed, identifying the work load inherent to the process and how it affects workers' health. While harvesters help decrease the physical, chemical, and mechanical work load, they increase the physiological and psychological work load. There is evidence of significant change in the pattern of work-related accidents, entailing a decrease in their frequency and increase in severity. The pattern of illness among harvester operators is similar to that of manual sugar cane cutters, with a highlight on psychosomatic illness related to the organization of work in shifts and increased tempo due to use of machinery. PMID:10203455

  7. Surficial geology of the Cane Creek basin, Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The surficial geology of the Cane Creek basin, in Lauderdale County, West Tennessee, was studied from 1985-88. Peoria Loess is the parent material from which soils in the Cane Creek drainage basin were derived. In general, a brown silt grades into a gray silt from 5 to I7 feet below ground surface. This color change probably represents depth to water table prior to the channelization of Cane Creek. Only at river mile 11.9 does rock outcrop near the main channel. Lower reaches of major tributaries have surficial geology similar to the main channel. In upper reaches of Hyde Creek and Fain Spring Creek, the sequence from the St&ace is sand and gravels, red-brown sandstone, sand and clay layers, and then, an orange sand layer. Coarse-grained deposits are found most often along the northern boundary of the basin and only occasionally in areas to the west and south of the main channel. Depth to sand or gravel ranges from about 0 to 158 feet in the uplands, and generally deeper than 40 feet near the main channel.

  8. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used. PMID:26530907

  9. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, H. B.; Sculaccio, S. A.; Thiemann, O. H.; Oliva, G.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals of recombinant sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) and analysis has revealed its quaternary structure, localizing this PRS into the class of enzymes forming an hexameric oligomer of 223 kDa. Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthases (PRS; EC 2.7.6.1) are enzymes that are of central importance in several metabolic pathways in all cells. The sugar cane PRS enzyme contains 328 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36.6 kDa and represents the first plant PRS to be crystallized, as well as the first phosphate-independent PRS to be studied in molecular detail. Sugar cane PRS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Using X-ray diffraction experiments it was determined that the crystals belong to the orthorhombic system, with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 and unit-cell parameters a = 213.2, b = 152.6, c = 149.3 Å. The crystals diffract to a maximum resolution of 3.3 Å and a complete data set to 3.5 Å resolution was collected and analysed.

  10. Ethanol from Sugar Cane: Flask Experiments Using the EX-FERM Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rolz, Carlos; de Cabrera, Sheryl

    1980-01-01

    Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. Two types of cane treatments were used: chips and shredded pith, either fresh or dried. A mother culture of the yeast was prepared in enriched cane juice and then added to the cane-water mixture. After static fermentation for 40 h at 30°C, the cane was removed, and fresh cane was added to the yeast-alcohol broth. After an additional 24 h, the cane was again removed and the liquor was analyzed. After the first 40-h cycle, sugar consumption was above 99% with 10 of the 37 yeast strains tested, and ethanol reached levels of 1.29 to 4.00 g per 100 ml, depending on the yeast strain. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37 g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level. PMID:16345626

  11. Geometry, amount, and sequence of thrusting in the Subalpine Molasse of western Austria and southern Germany, European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Hugo; Aichholzer, Silvia; Zerlauth, Michael; Pilser, Roland; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we review the structure of the most external thrust belt of the Alps between the Rhein valley and Salzburg based on a new tectonic map and the (re)interpretation of seismic sections. Specifically we address the correlation between deformation in the Subalpine Molasse and the Alpine thrust belt in general and focus on the control of sedimentary facies on the structural style. A dramatic change in architecture from a ramp-flat structure to buckle folding is related to a change from coarse-grained fans to fine-grained deposits within the Subalpine Molasse. Additionally the interaction of escape tectonics with postcollisional shortening controls the decrease of late Early Miocene and younger shortening within the Subalpine Molasse from 50 km near the Rhine valley to almost zero near Salzburg. Transfer of shortening into the hinterland, which is the zone of lateral escape, ended foreland propagation of the Alpine thrusts and initiated a general break-back sequence of thrusting. Throughout this time the thrusts remained active. In such a scenario, tectonic units on top of the Subalpine Molasse are expected to undergo clockwise rotation around vertical axes. As thrusting in the Subalpine Molasse is closely related to contemporaneous transport and shortening within the tectonically higher Helvetic thrust sheets, amounts of Miocene differential shortening and related clockwise vertical axis rotation are minimum amounts. True clockwise vertical axis rotation is probably larger than the 12° deduced from the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt.

  12. Enhanced L-lysine production from pretreated beet molasses by engineered Escherichia coli in fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Chen, Kequan; Li, Yan; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Hong; Qian, Juan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-08-01

    Faster sugar consumption rate and low-cost nitrogen source are required for the chemical biosynthesis using molasses. Five pretreatment methods were applied to beet molasses prior to fermentation through engineered Escherichia coli, respectively, and corn steep liquid was used as an organic nitrogen source to replace expensive yeast extract. Furthermore, the effects of different feeding strategy in fed-batch fermentation on L-lysine production were investigated. The experimental results showed that combined tricalcium phosphate, sulfuric acid, and activated carbon pretreatment method (TPSA) pretreatment could improve the sugar consumption rate most greatly, and the initial total sugar concentration of 35 g/L from TPSA-pretreated beet molasses gave the best results with respect to L-lysine production, dry cell weight concentration, and L-lysine yield in batch fermentation. Moreover, a mixture of low-cost corn steep liquid and yeast extract containing equal amount of nitrogen could be used as the organic nitrogen source for effective L-lysine fermentation, and constant speed feeding strategy of TPSA-pretreated beet molasses promoted L-lysine production by engineered E. coli. The TPSA-pretreated beet molasses had a sugar consumption rate of 1.75 g/(L h), and a L-lysine yield of 27.81% was achieved, compared with the theoretical yield of 62% by glucose. It was clarified that the pretreatment significantly enhanced the conversion of sugars in beet molasses to L-lysine. PMID:25899726

  13. Short communication: Effects of molasses supplementation on performance of lactating cows fed high-alfalfa silage diets.

    PubMed

    Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A

    2014-02-01

    Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated Latin square experiment to determine the effect of adding dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets on dairy cow performance. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated with a 68:32 forage:concentrate ratio, with alfalfa silage as the only forage source. Dietary treatments were a control diet with no added molasses and 3 and 6% dried molasses diets. Three lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation. Dietary treatments had no effect on dry matter (average 23.3 kg/d), crude protein (average 4.4 kg/d), or neutral detergent fiber (average 7.4 kg/d) intake. Milk yield, energy-corrected milk (average 35.4 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (average 33.8 kg/d) were not influenced by dietary treatments. Cows fed the control diet produced milk with less milk urea nitrogen concentration than those fed molasses-supplemented diets. Ruminal pH, NH3-N concentration, and total volatile fatty acids were not different among dietary treatments. The molar proportion of acetate linearly increased, whereas the molar proportion of propionate linearly decreased as the level of dried molasses increased. It was concluded that addition of dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets at 6% of the diet (dry matter basis) increased milk urea nitrogen but had no effect on animal performance. PMID:24315324

  14. Waste molasses alone displaces glucose-based medium for microalgal fermentation towards cost-saving biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; Lu, Yue; Chen, Yi-Feng; Wu, Qingyu

    2011-06-01

    The by-product of sugar refinery-waste molasses was explored as alternative to glucose-based medium of Chlorella protothecoides in this study. Enzymatic hydrolysis is required for waste molasses suitable for algal growth. Waste molasses hydrolysate was confirmed as a sole source of full nutrients to totally replace glucose-based medium in support of rapid growth and high oil yield from algae. Under optimized conditions, the maximum algal cell density, oil content, and oil yield were respectively 70.9 g/L, 57.6%, and 40.8 g/L. The scalability of the waste molasses-fed algal system was confirmed from 0.5L flasks to 5L fermenters. The quality of biodiesel from waste molasses-fed algae was probably comparable to that from glucose-fed ones. Economic analysis indicated the cost of oil production from waste molasses-fed algae reduced by 50%. Significant cost reduction of algal biodiesel production through fermentation engineering based on the approach is expected. PMID:21474303

  15. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  16. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  17. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  18. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  19. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined...

  20. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  1. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES... States (HTS), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar...

  2. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  3. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES... tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional...

  4. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  5. How to manage sugar cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season....

  6. How to manage cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season. ...

  7. Opinions of Orientation and Mobility Instructors about Using the Long Cane with Preschool-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykes, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Responses of 25 mobility instructors to a survey concerning long cane instruction with preschool children with severe visual impairments found that 80 percent favored introduction of cane skills during the preschool years, that 90 percent or more agreed with almost all listed advantages, and that no particular training technique was favored. (DB)

  8. Travel Performance of Preschoolers: The Effects of Mobility Training with a Long Cane versus a Precane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, K. L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a long cane and a precane device as initial protective devices for preschool children with blindness. The precane device was found to be easier for the children to use, and it protected the children from body contact with travel obstacles better than did the long cane. (Author/DB)

  9. Variables of the Touch Technique that Influence the Safety of Cane Walkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bongers, Raoul M.; Schellingerhout, Roelef; van Grinswen, Roland; Smitsman, Ad W.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated variables that determined the safety of 15 cane users who were using the touch technique. The results showed that none of the walkers used a touch technique as described and recommended in the literature, that the detection of obstacles was related mainly to the height of the cane tip during the sweep, and that the early…

  10. Knowledge of and Preferences for Long Cane Components: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose-Zaken, Grace

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the various components of long canes and reports on a study of the knowledge and preferences of 100 adults with visual impairments regarding the various components and types of canes. Results indicated that the terrain of a route, weather conditions, mobility demand, and purpose of an outing are important…

  11. Modifications of the Long Cane for Use by a Multiply Impaired Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Kathleen Ann

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a case study of a 14-year-old deaf/blind girl who was taught to use a modified cane. With the use of the cane, the S learned to walk more swiftly and with more confidence and was able to travel without the frustration she had previously felt. (PHR)

  12. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

  13. Computer simulation of combine harvesting and handling of sugar cane in Barbados

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    The broad objective of this study was to improve the efficiency of combine harvesting of sugar cane in Barbados. The harvesting process was broken down into two subsystems: a field subsystem and a factory yard subsystem. Two computer simulation models structured in GASP IV simulation language, were developed to model the operations involved in these systems. Model FIELDOP simulated the activities involved in the harvesting and loading of cane in the field, and in its transportation to the factory for processing. Model FACYARD simulated the weighing and unloading activities performed on cane transport units at the factory. Output from the models included utilization factors for the various component machines, daily cane delivery from the field system, and daily amounts of cane handled by the factory yard system. This output was fed into a cost program which calculated unit harvesting costs and total annual cane delivery for the equipment combinations simulated. Results indicated that a second scale at the factory can reduce the factory residence time of transport units by 88%, increase combine harvester utilization efficiency by 50-60%, increase daily cane receipts at the factory by more than 30%, and eliminate milling lost time due to lack of cane. The economic analysis demonstrated that harvesting cost per tonne can be significantly reduced.

  14. Microwave modification of sugar cane to enhance juice extraction during milling.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Graham; Harris, Gerard; Jacob, Mohan V; Sheehan, Madoc; Yin, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Sugar extraction from cane requires shredding and crushing, both of which are energy intensive activities. Cane shredders account for almost 30% of the total power requirements for the juice extraction train in a sugar mill with four mills. Shredder hammers also wear quickly during the crushing season and need to be regularly maintained or replaced. Microwave pre-treatment of other plant based materials has resulted in significant reductions in total processing energy. This paper briefly reviews the underlying structure of sugar cane and how microwave pre-treatment may interact with sugar cane. Microwave treatment reduced the strength of sugar cane samples to 20% of its untreated value. This strength reduction makes it easier to crush the cane and leads to a 320% increase in juice yield compared with untreated cane when cane samples were crushed in a press. There was also a 68% increase in Brix %, a 58% increase in total dissolved solids, a 58% reduction in diffusion time, a 39% increase in Pol%, and a 7% increase in juice purity compared with the control samples after 60 minutes of diffusion in distilled water. PMID:24428107

  15. Materials Testing in Long Cane Design: Sensitivity, Flexibility, and Transmission of Vibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2005-01-01

    Different materials that are used in manufacturing long cane shafts were assessed for their ability to transmit vibration and their sensitivity to tactile information, flexibility, and durability. It was found that the less flexible a cane shaft is, the better it transmits vibrations that are useful for discriminating surface textures and that…

  16. Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

    1988-05-01

    This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

  17. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  18. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  19. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  20. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  1. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  2. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  3. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  4. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  5. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  6. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  7. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  8. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  9. Adrenocortical function in cane toads from different environments.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Sandra E; Sernia, Conrad; Bradley, Adrian J

    2016-05-01

    The adrenocortical function of cane toads (Rhinella marina) exposed to different experimental procedures, as well as captured from different environments, was assessed by challenging the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It was found that restriction stress as well as cannulation increased plasma corticosterone (B) levels for up to 12h. A single dose of dexamethasone (DEX 2mg/kg) significantly reduced B levels demonstrating its potential for use in the evaluation of the HPA axis in amphibia. We also demonstrate that 0.05 IU/g BW (im) of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) significantly increased plasma B levels in cane toads. Changes in size area of the cortical cells were positively associated with total levels of B after ACTH administration. We also found differences in adrenal activity between populations. This was assessed by a DEX-ACTH test. The animals captured from the field and maintained in captivity for one year at the animal house (AH) present the highest levels of total and free B after ACTH administration. We also found that animals from the front line of dispersion in Western Australia (WA) present the weakest adrenal response to a DEX-ACTH test. The animals categorized as long established in Queensland Australia (QL), and native in Mexico (MX), do not shown a marked difference in the HPA activity. Finally we found that in response to ACTH administration, females reach significantly higher levels of plasma B than males. For the first time the adrenocortical response in cane toads exposed to different experimental procedures, as well as from different populations was assessed systematically. PMID:26877241

  10. Engineering of Bacillus subtilis for the Production of 2,3-Butanediol from Sugarcane Molasses.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Apoorva Nandkumar; Nipanikar-Gokhale, Padmaja; Jain, Rishi

    2016-05-01

    2,3-butanediol is known to be a platform chemical with several potential industrial applications. Sustainable industrial scale production can be attained by using a sugarcane molasses based fermentation process using Bacillus subtilis. However, the accumulation of acetoin needs to be reduced to improve process efficiency. In this work, B. subtilis was genetically modified in order to increase the yield of 2,3-butanediol. Metabolic engineering strategies such as cofactor engineering and overexpression of the key enzyme butanediol dehydrogenase were attempted. Both the strategies individually led to a statistically significant increase in the 2,3-butanediol yields for sugarcane molasses based fermentation. Cofactor engineering led to a 26 % increase in 2,3-butanediol yield and overexpression of bdhA led to a 11 % increase. However, the combination of the two strategies did not lead to a synergistic increase in 2,3-butanediol yield. PMID:26825987

  11. Gray-molasses cooling of 39K to a high phase-space density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, G.; Fouché, L.; Wang, P.; Aspect, A.; Bouyer, P.; Bourdel, T.

    2013-12-01

    We present new techniques in cooling 39K atoms using laser light close to the D1 transition. First, a new compressed-MOT configuration is taking advantage of gray-molasses-type cooling induced by blue-detuned D1 light. It yields an optimized density of atoms. Then, we use pure D1 gray molasses to further cool the atoms to an ultra-low temperature of 6\\ \\mu\\text{K} . The resulting phase-space density is 2\\times 10^{-4} and will ease future experiments with ultracold potassium. As an example, we use it to directly load up to 3\\times 10^7 atoms in a far detuned optical trap, a result that opens the way to the all-optical production of potassium degenerate gases.

  12. Quantum-interference-enhanced deep sub-Doppler cooling of 39K atoms in gray molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Dipankar; Easwaran, R. Kollengode; Rajalakshmi, G.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    We report enhanced sub-Doppler cooling of the bosonic atoms of 39K facilitated by formation of dark states with the cooling and repumping lasers tuned to the Raman resonance in Λ configuration near the D1 transition. A temperature of about 12 μK and phase-space density >2×10-5 is achieved in the two-stage D2-D1 molasses and spans a very large parameter region where quantum interference persists robustly. We also present results on enhanced radiation heating with a subnatural linewidth (0.07Γ) and a signature Fano-like profile of a coherently driven three-level atomic system. The optical Bloch equations relevant for the three-level atom in a bichromatic light field are solved with the method of continued fractions to show that cooling occurs only for a small velocity class of atoms, emphasizing the need for precooling in the D2 molasses stage.

  13. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps and evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2015-10-01

    The stratigraphies of foreland basins have been related to orogeny, where continent-continent collision causes the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been inferred for the Molasse basin, stretching along the northern margin of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5-10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models because paleoaltimetry estimates suggest that the topography has not increased since 20 Ma. Here we show that a rollback mechanism for the European plate is capable of explaining the construction of thick sedimentary successions in the Molasse foreland basin where the extra slab load has maintained the Alpine surface at low, but constant, elevations.

  14. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps and evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    PubMed Central

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2015-01-01

    The stratigraphies of foreland basins have been related to orogeny, where continent–continent collision causes the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been inferred for the Molasse basin, stretching along the northern margin of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5–10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models because paleoaltimetry estimates suggest that the topography has not increased since 20 Ma. Here we show that a rollback mechanism for the European plate is capable of explaining the construction of thick sedimentary successions in the Molasse foreland basin where the extra slab load has maintained the Alpine surface at low, but constant, elevations. PMID:26472498

  15. Escape tectonics and foreland basin evolution: The Austrian-German Molasse basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The Alpine peripheral foreland basin formed during Eocene collision of the lower, European plate and the upper, Adriatic plate. Two marine to continental megasequences fill the basin. The transition form deep marine to continental deposits of the first megasequence at the Early - Late Oligocene boundary has been related to a change from predominant horizontal to vertical movements in the core of the orogenic wedge. The second megasequence is, however, poorly understood, and different models have been put forward. I present an alternative explanation for the development of this second megacycle, based on an analysis of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt east of the Rhine river (Ortner et al., 2015). The main characteristics of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt are: 1) A frontal anticline/thrust started to develop during deposition of the older, marine portion of the second megasequence. Structures continued to grow throughout deposition of the younger, continental part of the megasequence. Structural growth is documented by growth strata. 2) The thrusts in the Subalpine Molasse evolved in a break-back sequence. 3) The amount of shortening during depositon of the second megasequence reduces from 40-50 km near the Rhine valley to zero in the east in the Salzburg area. The onset of the second megasequence in the foreland north of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt is characterized by an angular unconformity documenting a tilt of the foreland toward the orogen, and therefore ongoing flexure of the lower plate. East of the eastern end of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt, the deposits of the second megasequence are in a horizontal position, lower plate flexure had stopped. In the internal part of the Alpine orogenic wedge, shortening, exhumation and E-directed stretching of the Tauern Window as a consequence of escape tectonics was active. Most probably shortening was transferred from the Alpine front into the zone of lateral escape, causing the break-back thrust sequence

  16. Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses. PMID:24956474

  17. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps and evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin.

    PubMed

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2015-01-01

    The stratigraphies of foreland basins have been related to orogeny, where continent-continent collision causes the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been inferred for the Molasse basin, stretching along the northern margin of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5-10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models because paleoaltimetry estimates suggest that the topography has not increased since 20 Ma. Here we show that a rollback mechanism for the European plate is capable of explaining the construction of thick sedimentary successions in the Molasse foreland basin where the extra slab load has maintained the Alpine surface at low, but constant, elevations. PMID:26472498

  18. A ring galaxy in Canes Venatici and related ring galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, Ken-ichi; Nishida, M.T. Kobe Women's University )

    1991-04-01

    A spectroscopic observation was made of a ring-shaped object in Canes Venatici. A bright knot at the edge of the ring has a recession velocity of 10,960 + or - 30 km/s and so is confirmed as an extragalactic object. It shows no sign of nuclear activity but appears to be an H II region of intermediate excitation class. The linear diameter of the ring is 14.2 + or - 0.8 kpc, a typical size for ring galaxies. Recession velocities of several other ring galaxies are also given. 24 refs.

  19. Mark A. Cane Receives 2013 Maurice Ewing Medal: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philander, S. George

    2014-01-01

    Mark Cane started his career when theories for the ocean circulation were "dreamlike" (in the words of Henry Stommel). He made major contributions to a complete change in those perceptions by producing theoretical results that explain and by developing computer models that simulate realistically the variability of the complex system of tropical currents, undercurrents, and countercurrents. His results served as the basis for the design of several international field programs in the three tropical oceans whose different dimensions and different surface winds provide stringent tests for the results concerning the interactions between the waves and currents that determine how the oceans adjust to changing winds.

  20. Sugar cane as an energy resource for the Caribbean area

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, J.E.

    1982-09-01

    Sugar cane presents tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil-producing, developing countries of the Caribbean basin. The analysis presented here, finds the overall energy balance to be extremely favorable. The economics are also favorable, even though capital investment requirements are high. Potential for improvement, in both the energy balance and the economic aspects, is very great. Such improvement is attainable by the development of new technology, which could be available in the short term and at moderate cost. (Refs. 8).

  1. Monitoring Freeze Injury and Evaluating Losingto Sugar-Cane Using RS and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zongkun; Ding, Meihua; Wang, Longhe; Yang, Xin; Ou, Zhaorong

    From Jan 12th to Feb 12th 2008, the most severity cold chilling and freeze injury weather took place during the last 50 years in the southern of China.Sugar-cane was suffered injury severity. However, the losing of sugar-cane which it was aroused by thisweather disaster had not been exactitude evaluated till on Apr 1st, 2008. It was not only affected the sugar-cane ordinary harvesting and crushing, but also affected reserving sugar-cane seed for planting. Freeze injury is common disaster for sugar-cane in southern of China and monitoring freeze injury using RS and GIS are of great economic significance but little research work about it has been done in China Freeze injuring is not only related to crop growth stage and the cold air intension from northern to southern and weather types, but also consanguineous related to land form and physiognomy and geographical latitude and height above sea level etc and crop planting spatial distribution. The case study of Guangxi province which is the biggest region of sugar-cane planting in China in this paper, the values of sugar-cane NDVI among the freeze injury occur former and after in early 2008 and without freeze injury occur in the same term 2007 were analyzed and compared based on the sugar-cane planting spatial distribution information which were carried out by using multi-phase EOS/MODIS data. The result showed that it was not only commendably reflected the spatial distribution of freeze injury but also reflected the sugarcane suffered from degree using the values of sugar-cane NDVIof freeze injury occur former and after. The field sample investigation data of using GPS was integrated with the NDVI, the evaluation of region sugar-cane suffer from freeze injury losing could quickly and exactly realize.

  2. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens growing on molasses and its application in phenol degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryantia, Venty; Marliyana, Soerya Dewi; Wulandari, Astri

    2015-12-01

    A molasses based medium for the biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens was developed, where the effect of pre-treated of molasses and medium composition were evaluated. Biosurfactant production was followed by measuring optical density (OD), surface tension and emulsifying index (E24) over 12 days of fermentation. The optimum condition for the biosurfactant production was obtained when a medium containing of 8 g/L nutrient broth, 5 g/L NaCl, 1 g/L NH4NO3 and 5% v/v pre-treated molasses with centrifugation was used as media with 3 days of fermentation. The biosurfactant was identified as a rhamnolipid type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 801 mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of the water from 80 mN/m to 51 mN/m. The biosurfactants had water in oil (w/o) emulsion type. Biosurfactant was able to emulsify various hydrocarbons, which were able to decrase the interfacial tension about 50-75% when benzyl chloride, anisaldehyde and palm oil were used as immiscible compounds. The biosurfactant exhibited the E24 value of about 50% and the stable emulsion was reached up to 30 days when lubricant was used as an immiscible compound. Up to 68% of phenol was degraded in the presence of biosurfactant within 15 days, whereas only 56% of phenol was degraded in the absence of biosurfactant. Overall, the results exhibited that molasses are recommended for the rhamnolipids production which possessed good surface-active properties and had potential application in the enhancement of phenol degradation.

  3. Single cell oil production on molasses by Yarrowia lipolytica strains overexpressing DGA2 in multicopy.

    PubMed

    Gajdoš, Peter; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Rossignol, Tristan; Čertík, Milan

    2015-10-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising platform for single cell oil production. It is well-known for its metabolism oriented toward utilization of hydrophobic substrates and accumulation of storage lipids. Multiple copies of DGA2 under constitutive promoter were introduced into the Q4 strain, a quadruple mutant deleted for the four acyltransferases (Δdga1, Δdga2, Δlro1, and Δare1) to improve lipid accumulation. The Q4-DGA2 x3 strain contains three copies of DGA2. Further increase in accumulation was accomplished by blocking the β-oxidation pathway through MFE1 gene deletion yielding Q4-Δmfe DGA2 x3. In order to use molasses as a substrate for single cell oil production, sucrose utilization was established by expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUC2 gene yielding Q4-SUC2 DGA2 x3 and Q4-Δmfe SUC2 DGA2 x3. During cultivation on sucrose medium with a carbon to nitrogen ratio of 80, both strains accumulated more than 40 % of lipids, which was a 2-fold increase in lipid storage. Q4-Δmfe SUC2 DGA2 x3 accumulated more lipids than Q4-SUC2 DGA2 x3 (49 vs. 43 %) but yielded less biomass (13.7 vs. 15 g/L). When grown on 8 % (v/v) molasses, both strains accumulated more than 30 % of lipids after 3 days, while biomass yield was higher in Q4-SUC2 DGA2 x3 (16.4 vs. 14.4 g/L). Further addition of molasses at 72 h resulted in higher biomass yield, 26.6 g/L for Q4-SUC2 DGA2 x3, without modification of lipid content. This work presents genetically modified strains of Y. lipolytica as suitable tools for direct conversion of industrial molasses into value added products based on single cell oils. PMID:26078110

  4. Steady, dynamic, creep/recovery, and textural properties of yoghurt/molasses blends: Temperature sweep tests and applicability of Cox-Merz rule.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Ali; Bayrambaş, Kadir; Eroglu, Zeynep; Toker, Omer S; Yilmaz, Mustafa T; Karaman, Safa; Dogan, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    In this study, physicochemical, rheological (steady, dynamic, and creep/recovery), and textural properties of yoghurt/molasses blends (0, 5, 10, and 15% molasses) were investigated. The blends showed shear thinning behavior, as described by Ostwald de Waele model (R(2) ( )≥ 0.955). Consistency coefficient value (K) of the blends decreased with increasing molasses concentration in the sample. Storage modulus (G') of blends was higher than loss modulus (G″), exhibiting weak gel-like behavior. Molasses addition decreased G' and G″ values. Temperature sweep tests indicated that blends followed Arrhenius relationship. A modified Cox-Merz rule was applicable using shift factors. Compliance values (J(t)) increased as molasses concentration increased, revealing that deformation stability and internal viscosity (η1) decreased with concentration. Creep behavior was characterized using Burger model. Obtained J data as a function of time could be satisfactorily fitted to Burger model (R(2) ( )≥ 0.994). The final percentage recovery of blends remarkably decreased with the increase of molasses concentration. Firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index values decreased with molasses addition. According to the results of the current study, molasses amount to be added to the yoghurt should be determined regarding rheological properties since resistance of the sample to deformation decreased with increase in molasses concentration. PMID:25614154

  5. Molasses as an efficient low-cost carbon source for biological Cr(VI) removal.

    PubMed

    Michailides, Michail K; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Akratos, Christos S; Coles, Sandra; Pavlou, Stavros; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, indigenous microorganisms from industrial sludge were used to reduce the activity of Cr(VI). Molasses, a by-product of sugar processing, was selected as the carbon source (instead of sugar used in a previous work) as it is a low-cost energy source for bioprocesses. Initially, experiments were carried out in suspended growth batch reactors for Cr(VI) concentrations of 1.5-110 mg/L. The time required for complete Cr(VI) reduction increased with initial Cr(VI) concentration. Initial molasses concentration was also found to influence the Cr(VI) reduction rate. The optimal concentration for all initial Cr(VI) concentrations tested was 0.8 gC/L. Experiments were also carried out in packed-bed reactors. Three different operating modes were used to investigate the optimal performance and efficiency of the filter, i.e. batch, continuous and SBR with recirculation. The latter mode with a recirculation rate of 0.5L/min lead to significantly high Cr(VI) reduction rates (up to 135 g/m(2)d). The results of this work were compared with those of a similar work using sugar as the carbon source and indicate that molasses could prove a feasible technological solution to a serious environmental problem. PMID:25160055

  6. High organic loading treatment for industrial molasses wastewater and microbial community shifts corresponding to system development.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kyohei; Chosei, Tomoaki; Nakahara, Nozomi; Hatamoto, Masashi; Wakabayashi, Takashi; Kawai, Toshikazu; Araki, Nobuo; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Molasses wastewater contains high levels of organic compounds, cations, and anions, causing operational problems for anaerobic biological treatment. To establish a high organic loading treatment system for industrial molasses wastewater, this study designed a combined system comprising an acidification tank, a thermophilic multi-stage (MS)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, mesophilic UASB reactor, and down-flow hanging sponge reactor. The average total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand removal rates were 85%±3% and 95%±2%, respectively, at an organic loading rate of 42kgCODcrm(-3)d(-1) in the MS-UASB reactor. By installation of the acidification tank, the MS-UASB reactor achieved low H2-partial pressure. The abundance of syntrophs such as fatty acid-degrading bacteria increased in the MS-UASB and 2nd-UASB reactors. Thus, the acidification tank contributed to maintaining a favorable environment for syntrophic associations. This study provides new information regarding microbial community composition in a molasses wastewater treatment system. PMID:26241842

  7. [Succinic acid production from sucrose and sugarcane molasses by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Ma, Jiangfeng; Wu, Mingke; Ji, Yaliang; Chen, Wufang; Ren, Xinyi; Jiang, Min

    2015-04-01

    Sugarcane molasses containing large amounts of sucrose is an economical substrate for succinic acid production. However, Escherichia coli AFP111 cannot metabolize sucrose although it is a promising candidate for succinic acid production. To achieve sucrose utilizing ability, we cloned and expressed cscBKA genes encoding sucrose permease, fructokinase and invertase of non-PTS sucrose-utilization system from E. coli W in E. coli AFP111 to generate a recombinant strain AFP111/pMD19T-cscBKA. After 72 h of anaerobic fermentation of the recombinant in serum bottles, 20 g/L sucrose was consumed and 12 g/L succinic acid was produced. During dual-phase fermentation comprised of initial aerobic growth phase followed by anaerobic fermentation phase, the concentration of succinic acid from sucrose and sugarcane molasses was 34 g/L and 30 g/L, respectively, at 30 h of anaerobic phase in a 3 L fermentor. The results show that the introduction of non-PTS sucrose-utilization system has sucrose-metabolizing capability for cell growth and succinic acid production, and can use cheap sugarcane molasses to produce succinic acid. PMID:26380410

  8. Optimization of lipids production by Cryptococcus laurentii 11 using cheese whey with molasses.

    PubMed

    Castanha, Rodrigo Fernandes; Mariano, Adriano Pinto; de Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado; Scramin, Shirlei; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed the optimization of culture condition and composition for production of Cryptococcus laurentii 11 biomass and lipids in cheese whey medium supplemented with sugarcane molasses. The optimization of pH, fermentation time, and molasses concentration according to a full factorial statistical experimental design was followed by a Plackett-Burman experimental design, which was used to determine whether the supplementation of the culture medium by yeast extract and inorganic salts could provide a further enhancement of lipids production. The following conditions and composition of the culture medium were found to optimize biomass and lipids production: 360 h fermentation, 6.5 pH and supplementation of (g L(-1)): 50 molasses, 0.5 yeast extract, 4 KH2PO4, 1 Na2HPO4, 0.75 MgSO4 · 7H2O and 0.002 ZnSO4 · H2O. Additional supplementation with inorganic salts and yeast extract was essential to optimize the production, in terms of product concentration and productivity, of neutral lipids by C. laurentii 11. Under this optimized condition, the production of total lipids increased by 133% in relation to control experiment (from 1.27 to 2.96 g L(-1)). The total lipids indicated a predominant (86%) presence of neutral lipids with high content of 16- and 18-carbon-chain saturated and monosaturated fatty acids. This class of lipids is considered especially suitable for the production of biodiesel. PMID:25242919

  9. Optimization of lipids production by Cryptococcus laurentii 11 using cheese whey with molasses

    PubMed Central

    Castanha, Rodrigo Fernandes; Mariano, Adriano Pinto; de Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado; Scramin, Shirlei; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed the optimization of culture condition and composition for production of Cryptococcus laurentii 11 biomass and lipids in cheese whey medium supplemented with sugarcane molasses. The optimization of pH, fermentation time, and molasses concentration according to a full factorial statistical experimental design was followed by a Plackett-Burman experimental design, which was used to determine whether the supplementation of the culture medium by yeast extract and inorganic salts could provide a further enhancement of lipids production. The following conditions and composition of the culture medium were found to optimize biomass and lipids production: 360 h fermentation, 6.5 pH and supplementation of (g L−1): 50 molasses, 0.5 yeast extract, 4 KH2PO4, 1 Na2HPO4, 0.75 MgSO4·7H2O and 0.002 ZnSO4·H2O. Additional supplementation with inorganic salts and yeast extract was essential to optimize the production, in terms of product concentration and productivity, of neutral lipids by C. laurentii 11. Under this optimized condition, the production of total lipids increased by 133% in relation to control experiment (from 1.27 to 2.96 g L−1). The total lipids indicated a predominant (86%) presence of neutral lipids with high content of 16- and 18-carbon-chain saturated and monosaturated fatty acids. This class of lipids is considered especially suitable for the production of biodiesel. PMID:25242919

  10. Oil removal from petroleum sludge using bacterial culture with molasses substrate at temperature variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni'matuzahroh, Puspitasari, Alvin Oktaviana; Pratiwi, Intan Ayu; Fatimah, Sumarsih, Sri; Surtiningsih, Tini; Salamun

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to reveal the potency of biosurfactant-producing bacterial culture with molasses as substrate growth in releasing oil from the petroleum sludge at temperature variations. Bacteria used consisted of (Acinetobacter sp. P2(1), Pseudomonas putida T1(8), Bacillus subtilis 3KP and Micrococcus sp. L II 61). The treatments were tested at 40°C, 50°C and 60 °C for 7 days of incubation. Synthetic surfactant (Tween 20) was used as a positive control and molasses as a negative control. Release of petroleum hydrocarbons from oil sludge was expressed in percentage of oil removal from oil sludge (%). Data were analyzed statistically using the Analysis of Variance (α = 0.05) and continued with Games-Howell test. The kinds of bacterial cultures, incubation temperature and combination of both affected the percentage of oil removal. The abilities of Bacillus subtilis 3KP and Micrococcus sp. LII 61cultures in oil removal from oil sludge at the temperature exposure of 60°C were higher than Tween 20. Both of bacterial cultures grown on molasses can be proposed as a replacement for synthetic surfactant to clean up the accumulation of oil sludge in a bottom of oil refinery tank.

  11. Seismic stratigraphy and stratigraphic modelling of the South-eastern German Molasse Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, T.; Jin, J.; Luterbacher, P.

    1995-08-01

    Although the German Molasse Basin can be regarded as a mature hydrocarbon province, no regional sequence stratigraphic analysis has been carried out so far. We have studied seismic lines and well data from the region between the Isar and Inn rivers (SE Germany) that have been generously supplied by German oil companies (DEE, BEB, Mobil, RWE-DEA and Wintershall). Initial work indicates that five major seismic sequences within three main depositional cycles are developed. The Alpine thrust belt to the south serves as the primary sediment source in the foreland basin. However, sedimentary infill mainly took place parallel to the basin axis. Our analysis suggests that the stratigraphic development of the Molasse Basin was mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level changes which caused the shoreline to shift in the W-E direction. The shifting of the depocenter axis in a N-S direction was controlled by the tectonic evolution of the thrust belt. The sea-level curve determined by seismic stratigraphy and well-derived subsidence curves have been used as input parameters for stratigraphic modelling, using the programs GeoMOD and PHIL. Basin-fill simulations with PHIL are in good agreement with the main features of the sequence stratigraphy and the distribution of the systems tracts observed in the study area. The qualitative sea-level curve for the German Molasse Basin derived from the seismostratigraphic analysis could be quantified by the stratigraphic exercises.

  12. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing... the processing of sugar cane into a raw sugar product for those cane sugar factories located on...

  13. Efficiency and daily work effort in sugar cane cutters.

    PubMed

    Spurr, G B; Barac-Nieto, M; Maksud, M G

    1977-05-01

    Productivity (metric tons (tonnes)/day), efficiency (kg cane cut/litre Vo2), and effort (percent Vo2 max sustained during an 8-hour workday) have been measured in 54 Colombian sugar cane cutters. In workers who sustained less than 40% Vo2 max during the workday, the effort expended was related to productivity (4 = 0-71) but efficiency and productivity were not significantly correlated. In 16 workers sustaining a greater than 40% Vo2 max during the workday, productivity and effort were not related and efficiency was significantly reduced. Subjects using less than 40% Vo2 max were divided into good, average and poor producers and compared with the men with low efficiencies. In general, these inefficient men had the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of low productivity workers (smaller stature, weight and Vo2 max). However, the frequency of good, average, and poor cutters in the inefficient group did not differ from that of the men expending less than 40% of their maximum effort nor was their average productivity different. No obvious reasons for the differences in efficiency and effort of these men were found. PMID:871445

  14. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a model for cattle feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Ramos, L.P.; Deschamps, F.C.

    1995-12-31

    Pretreatment under mild conditions in the presence of water (solvolysis) or aqueous orthophosphoric acid (phosphorolysis) was used to increase the nutritional value of sugar cane bagasse for cattle feeding. The best pretreatment conditions were defined as those in which the highest in situ degradability rates (ruminal digestion) were achieved with the least energy consumption and/or production of inhibitory products. Heating sugar cane bagasse up to 197{degrees}C (13.5 atm) at a 4:1 (w/w) water ratio was shown to be a compromised condition for solvolysis, as higher temperatures would require more energy consumption without adding too much to the already high 60% ruminal degradability of the residue in relation to its dry weight. These rates of degradability were shown to be further enhanced to almost 70% by adding 2.9% (w/w) orthophosphoric acid as an acid catalyst. A mathematical treatment of the kinetic data describing ruminal digestion of each of the pretreated residues was also developed in this study.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of solid wastes of cane sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    The cane sugar manufacturing industry generates large quantities of lignocellulosic solid wastes, namely bagasse and cachaza. Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane after extracting the juice. Cachaza is the filter cake of the precipitated insoluble sugars. This research investigates the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of bagasse and cachaza to produce methane. Two rations of bagasse-cachaza mix as substrates were investigated. The first one was 8:1 which represents the average ratio of bagasse and cachaza produced in a raw sugar mill. The second ratio investigated was 2.4:1 which represents the proportion of bagasse and cachaza wastes after 70% of the bagasse is burned in sugar mill boilers. An acclimated microbial culture for this substrate was developed. Organic Loading-Detention Time relationships were established for an optimum system. Pre-treatment techniques of the substrate were investigated as a means of enhancing the digestibility of the cellulosic substrate. Recirculation of the filtrate was evaluated as a method for increasing solids retention time without increasing hydraulic detention time. The kinetics of the digestion process for bagasse-cachaza mixed substrate was investigated and growth constants were determined. The bionutritional characteristics of the substrate used for the digestion were evaluated. Based on the results obtained, mass balances and preliminary economic analysis of the digestion system were developed.

  16. Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.G.; Kam, L.C.; Zemann, A.J.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    Sugar-cane bagasse and leaves (10--15 g oven-dry basis) were fractionated without size reduction by a rapid (45 s to 4 min), immersed percolation using only hot (190--230 C), compressed (P > P{sub sat}), liquid water (0.6--1.2 kg). Over 50% of the biomass could be solubilized. All of the hemicellulose, together with much of the acid-insoluble lignin in the bagasse (>60%), was solubilized, while less than 10% of the cellulose entered the liquid phase. Moreover, recovery of the hemicellulose as monomeric sugars (after a mild posthydrolysis) exceeded 80%. Less than 5% of the hemicellulose was converted to furfural. Percolation beyond that needed to immerse the biomass in hot liquid water did not result in increased solubilization. The yield of lignocellulosic residue was also not sensitive to the form of the sugar cane used (bagasse or leaves) or its moisture content (8--50%). Commercial applications for this fractionation process include the pretreatment of lignocellulosics for bioconversion to ethanol and the production of pulp and paper products.

  17. Post-treatment of molasses wastewater by electrocoagulation and process optimization through response surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsioptsias, C; Petridis, D; Athanasakis, N; Lemonidis, I; Deligiannis, A; Samaras, P

    2015-12-01

    Molasses wastewater is a high strength effluent of food industry such as distilleries, sugar and yeast production plants etc. It is characterized by a dark brown color and exhibits a high content in substances of recalcitrant nature such as melanoidins. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was studied as a post treatment step for biologically treated molasses wastewater with high nitrogen content obtained from a baker's yeast industry. Iron and copper electrodes were used in various forms; the influence and interaction of current density, molasses wastewater dilution, and reaction time, on COD, color, ammonium and nitrate removal rates and operating cost were studied and optimized through Box Behnken's response surface analysis. Reaction time varied from 0.5 to 4 h, current density varied from 5 to 40 mA/cm(2) and dilution from 0 to 90% (v/v expressed as water concentration). pH, conductivity and temperature measurements were also carried out during each experiment. From preliminary experiments, it was concluded that the application of aeration and sample dilution, considerably influenced the kinetics of the process. The obtained results showed that COD removal varied between 10 and 54%, corresponding to an operation cost ranging from 0.2 to 33 euro/kg COD removed. Significant removal rates were obtained for nitrogen as nitrate and ammonium (i.e. 70% ammonium removal). A linear relation of COD and ammonium to the design parameters was observed, while operation cost and nitrate removal responded in a curvilinear function. A low ratio of electrode surface to treated volume was used, associated to a low investment cost; in addition, iron wastes could be utilized as low cost electrodes i.e. iron fillings from lathes, aiming to a low operation cost due to electrodes replacement. In general, electrocoagulation proved to be an effective and low cost process for biologically treated molasses-wastewater treatment for additional removal of COD and nitrogen content and

  18. Judging hardness of an object from the sounds of tapping created by a white cane.

    PubMed

    Nunokawa, K; Seki, Y; Ino, S; Doi, K

    2014-01-01

    The white cane plays a vital role in the independent mobility support of the visually impaired. Allowing the recognition of target attributes through the contact of a white cane is an important function. We have conducted research to obtain fundamental knowledge concerning the exploration methods used to perceive the hardness of an object through contact with a white cane. This research has allowed us to examine methods that enhance accuracy in the perception of objects as well as the materials and structures of a white cane. Previous research suggest considering the roles of both auditory and tactile information from the white cane in determining objects' hardness is necessary. This experimental study examined the ability of people to perceive the hardness of an object solely through the tapping sounds of a white cane (i.e., auditory information) using a method of magnitude estimation. Two types of sounds were used to estimate hardness: 1) the playback of recorded tapping sounds and 2) the sounds produced on-site by tapping. Three types of handgrips were used to create different sounds of tapping on an object with a cane. The participants of this experiment were five sighted university students wearing eye masks and two totally blind students who walk independently with a white cane. The results showed that both sighted university students and totally blind participants were able to accurately judge the hardness of an object solely by using auditory information from a white cane. For the blind participants, different handgrips significantly influenced the accuracy of their estimation of an object's hardness. PMID:25571333

  19. Industrial-hygiene survey report, worker exposures during sugar cane harvesting, Florida Sugar Cane League, Clewiston, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Boeniger, M.

    1986-12-01

    Literature dealing with commercially important plant species that contain amorphous silica was reviewed. Specifically, results were presented of a field survey of sugar cane field workers in Florida. Determinations were made of the airborne concentration of amorphous silica fibers to which these workers were exposed. The airborne fibers ranged in size from 3.5 to 65 micrometers long with an average diameter of 0.6 micrometers. The concentration of these fibers in the air was as high as 300,000 fibers per cubic meter during cane-cutting activities. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were detected in the burnt leaf, but the concentrations in air were well below the limit of detection. The author recommends that comprehensive monitoring be considered for exposure to biogenic fibers among field workers, as well as refinery workers. The author also suggests that exposure to biogenic silicates in other industries which involve processing of agricultural commodities should be investigated. Solubility and persistence of these particular fibers in biological fluids should be considered.

  20. Ethanol from sugar cane: flask experiments using the EX-FERM technique

    SciTech Connect

    Rolz, C.; Cabrera, S.

    1980-09-01

    Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level.

  1. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  2. Lipid Production of Heterotrophic Chlorella sp. from Hydrolysate Mixtures of Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residues and Molasses.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongli; Ma, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhen; Wan, Yiqin; Min, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yun; Liu, Yuhuan; Huang, He; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of lipid production of Chlorella sp. from waste materials. Lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) and molasses were hydrolyzed, and their hydrolysates were analyzed. Five different hydrolysate mixture ratios (w/w) of LMBRs/molasses (1/0, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, and 0/1) were used to cultivate Chlorella sp. The results showed that carbohydrate and protein were the two main compounds in the LMBRs, and carbohydrate was the main compound in the molasses. The highest biomass concentration of 5.58 g/L, Y biomass/sugars of 0.59 g/g, lipid productivity of 335 mg/L/day, and Y lipids/sugars of 0.25 g/g were obtained at the hydrolysate mixture ratio of LMBRs/molasses of 1/4. High C/N ratio promoted the conversion of sugars into lipids. The lipids extracted from Chlorella sp. shared similar lipid profile of soybean oil and is therefore a potential viable biodiesel feedstock. These results showed that Chlorella sp. can utilize mixed sugars and amino acids from LMBRs and molasses to accumulate lipids efficiently, thus reducing the cost of microalgal biodiesel production and improving its economic viability. PMID:26234438

  3. Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis of biomass: differences between sugar cane bagasse and cane trash.

    PubMed

    Keown, Daniel M; Favas, George; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2005-09-01

    Sugar cane bagasse and cane trash were pyrolysed in a novel quartz fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor. Quantification of the Na, K, Mg and Ca in chars revealed that pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, valence and biomass type were important factors influencing the volatilisation of these alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species. Pyrolysis at a slow heating rate (approximately 10 K min(-1)) led to minimal (often <20%) volatilisation of AAEM species from these biomass samples. Fast heating rates (>1000 K s(-1)), encouraging volatile-char interactions with the current reactor configuration, resulted in the volatilisation of around 80% of Na, K, Mg and Ca from bagasse during pyrolysis at 900 degrees C. Similar behaviour was observed for monovalent Na and K with cane trash, but the volatilisation of Mg and Ca from cane trash was always restricted. The difference in Cl content between bagasse and cane trash was not sufficient to fully explain the difference in the volatilisation of Mg and Ca. PMID:15978989

  4. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouin, Emeric; Calvez, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study propagation in a non-local reaction-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia (Phillips et al 2006 Nature 439 803). The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed c* of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait variable. An eigenvector arising from this eigenvalue problem gives the flavour of the profile at the edge of the front. The major difficulty is to obtain uniform L∞ bounds despite the combination of non-local terms and a heterogeneous diffusivity.

  5. Design and Optimization of a Process for Sugarcane Molasses Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Amr, Salem S. Abu

    2013-01-01

    A statistical model was developed in this study to describe bioethanol production through a batch fermentation process of sugarcane molasses by locally isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-39. Response surface methodology RSM based on central composite face centered design CCFD was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for maximum bioethanol production and study the significance and interaction of incubation period, initial pH, incubation temperature, and molasses concentration on bioethanol yield. With the use of the developed quadratic model equation, a maximum ethanol production of 255 g/L was obtained in a batch fermentation process at optimum operating conditions of approximately 71 h, pH 5.6, 38°C, molasses concentration 18% wt.%, and 100 rpm. PMID:24222769

  6. Sweetpotato vines hydrolysate promotes single cell oils production of Trichosporon fermentans in high-density molasses fermentation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Fan, Xiaoping; Yang, Yuyi; Zhao, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the co-fermentation of molasses and sweetpotato vine hydrolysate (SVH) by Trichosporon fermentans. T. fermentans showed low lipid accumulation on pure molasses; however, its lipid content increased by 35% when 10% SVH was added. The strong influence of SVH on lipid production was further demonstrated by the result of sensitivity analysis on effects of factors based on an artificial neural network model because the relative importance value of SVH dosage for lipid production was only lower than that of fermentation time. Scanning electron microscope observation and flow cytometry of yeast cells grown in culture with and without SVH showed that less deformation cells were involved in the culture with SVH. The activity of malic enzyme, which plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis, increased from 2.4U/mg to 3.7U/mg after SVH added. All results indicated SVH is a good supplement for lipid fermentation on molasses. PMID:25461010

  7. Molecular characterization of MHC class II in the Australian invasive cane toad reveals multiple splice variants.

    PubMed

    Lillie, Mette; Cui, Jian; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The cane toad has gained notoriety for its invasion across the Australian landscape, with significant impacts on the native Australian fauna. The invasion has accelerated over time, with invading cane toads adapted for highly dispersive traits. This, however, has come at the cost of the immune system, with lower investment in some immune functions. To investigate the cane toad's immunogenetics, we characterized four major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIA and three MHC class IIB loci. Preliminary observations suggest very low allelic diversity at all loci. We also observed various splice isoforms. One isoform seen at one class IIA and two class IIB loci was missing exon 2, which is essential to peptide binding and presentation. The other isoform, observed at a class IIA locus, is likely to be a soluble MHC product. These results may suggest a significant role of alternative splicing of MHC loci in the Australian cane toad. PMID:27233954

  8. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

  9. Chemistry based on renewable raw materials: perspectives for a sugar cane-based biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

  10. Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

  11. Proteomic analysis of Herbaspirillum seropedicae cultivated in the presence of sugar cane extract.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Fabio Aparecido; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Zibetti; Huergo, Luciano Fernandes; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Monteiro, Rose Adele; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial endophytes of the genus Herbaspirillum colonize sugar cane and can promote plant growth. The molecular mechanisms that mediate plant- H. seropedicae interaction are poorly understood. In this work, we used 2D-PAGE electrophoresis to identify H. seropedicae proteins differentially expressed at the log growth phase in the presence of sugar cane extract. The differentially expressed proteins were validated by RT qPCR. A total of 16 differential spots (1 exclusively expressed, 7 absent, 5 up- and 3 down-regulated) in the presence of 5% sugar cane extract were identified; thus the host extract is able to induce and repress specific genes of H. seropedicae. The differentially expressed proteins suggest that exposure to sugar cane extract induced metabolic changes and adaptations in H. seropedicae presumably in preparation to establish interaction with the plant. PMID:23331092

  12. Molasses supplementation for dual-purpose cows during the dry season in subtropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Loreto, Isela; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Estrada-Flores, Julieta Gertrudis; Vicente-Mainar, Fernando; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito

    2016-03-01

    The effect of including 9 % of molasses in supplements offered to dual purpose cows, during dry season in subtropical Mexico was determined. Forage availability in pastures during the dry season is reduced and of low quality. Molasses is a readily available source of energy that may improve forage utilization and could have a positive effect on cow's milk production and calves daily weight gain (CDWG). Twelve multiparous Brown Swiss cows (409 ± 33 kg of body weight and 136 ± 73 days in milk), and their calves were randomly assigned to two supplements (six cows per treatment). Control supplement (COS) consisted of cracked maize ears (CME), soybean meal and urea (14 % CP), and experimental supplement in which 9 % of CME was replaced by molasses (MOS). Cows received 4.5 kg/cow/day dry matter (DM) of supplement. Experiment lasted 10 weeks divided in five experimental periods (EP). Animal responses (milk yield, milk composition, body weight, body condition score and CDWG) were recorded at the end of every EP. A linear mixed model was used to analyse the data as a complete random design. Net profits from milk and beef due to supplements were estimated using partial budget approach. Average milk yield was 7 (kg/cow/day) with 30.6, 30.4 and 42.5 (g/kg milk) of fat, protein and lactose, respectively. Average cow weight was 422 kg and CDWG was 0.8 kg/day. No significant responses on animal production variables were found when 9 % of MOS was included in the supplement; however, total net income increased on 4 %, due to higher CDWG. PMID:26885986

  13. 3-D fault development in a geothermal system in the German Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziesch, Jennifer; Tanner, David C.; Wawerzinek, Britta; Lüschen, Ewald; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Buness, Hermann; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    The southern German Molasse Basin is one of the most promising areas for geothermal exploration in Germany. We aim for an optimized reservoir exploration for deep geothermal facilities in the Bavarian realm. To do this, we analyse seismic faults to characterise potential pathways between the Malm and its overburden, which consists of Molasse sediments. A 3-D seismic survey (27 km_2) was interpreted as part of the research project GeoParaMoL (Geophysical Parameters for facies interpretation and Modelling of Long-term behaviour), in the study area at Unterhaching, Munich, Germany. GeoParaMoL is a partner project of GRAME, which aims to explore the hydrothermal Malm carbonate reservoir (at a depth of ca. 3 km) as a source for deep geothermal energy. First, we interpreted five seismic horizons and over 20 major faults. Here we present preliminary results of the derived 3-D structural model. We determined fault geometries and displacement profiles using isopach and juxtaposition maps. We observe two different tectonic events: The faults within the Molasse sediments are unrelated to the faults of the underlying Malm carbonate platform. The faults within the Malm carbonate platform propagated up to the Top Eocene horizon (Lithothamien carbonates). The faults within the younger Miocene sediments developed subsequently. They dip, in part, with opposing dip direction, but mostly with the same strike. This basic information will be further used to predict fluid pathways by carrying out retro-deformation in the study area to help understand the structural development and regional tectonics. This work will support exploration of geothermal reservoirs in general. This project is funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi).

  14. Sensory differences between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Although beet and cane sugar sources have nearly identical chemical compositions, the sugars differ in their volatile profiles, thermal behaviors, and minor chemical components. Scientific evidence characterizing the impact of these differences on product quality is lacking. The objective of this research was to determine whether panelists could identify a sensory difference between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources. Sixty-two panelists used the R-index by ranking method to discern whether there was a difference between 2 brands of beet and 2 brands of cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor, along with a difference in pavlova, simple syrup, sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea made with beet and cane sugars. R-index values and Friedman's rank sum tests showed differences (P < 0.05) between beet and cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor. Significant differences between the sugar sources were also identified when incorporated into the pavlova and simple syrup. No difference was observed in the sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea. Possible explanations for the lack of difference in these products include: (1) masking of beet and cane sensory differences by the flavor and complexity of the product matrix, (2) the relatively small quantity of sugar in these products, and (3) variation within these products being more influential than the sugar source. The findings from this research are relevant to sugar manufacturers and the food industry as a whole, because it identifies differences between beet and cane sugars and product matrices in which beet and cane sugars are not directly interchangeable. PMID:25308166

  15. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcarde, A. R.; Walder, J. M. M.; Horii, J.

    2003-04-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased.

  16. Diffusion of moisture in drying of sugar cane fibers and bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Ramirez, J.; Quintana-Hernandez, P.A.; Mendez-Lagunas, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, G.; Gonzalez-Alatorre, G.

    2000-05-01

    Sugar cane fibers and arrangements of fibers in cylindrical bundles were dried in a thermoanalyzer and their diffusive coefficients were calculated using the slope method. The effect of temperature, moisture content as well as structural changes were analyzed. Diffusion coefficients changed nonlinearly with moisture content and followed an Arrhenius-like functionality with temperature. The analysis of these effects suggested a liquid diffusion transport mechanism of moisture transfer inside sugar cane fibers and bundles.

  17. Nitrogen-containing corrosion inhibitors for metals based on sugar cane wax

    SciTech Connect

    Ledovskykh, V.M.; Gonzales Rigotty, H.D.; Shapovalova, Yu.P.

    1988-05-01

    Requirements have been developed, reactions have been studied, and synthesis has been carried out for inhibitors of the carbonic acid amide and 2-alkylimidazoline classes from sugar cane wax. The efficiency of their inhibition on corrosion of metals in two phase media has been demonstrated in laboratory and pilot tests. The research was conducted to assess the feasibility of generating corrosion inhibitors from the waste products of sugar cane treatment for use in the Cuban oil production and refining industry.

  18. Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating

  19. Systematically investigating the polarization gradient cooling in an optical molasses of ultracold cesium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhong-Hua; Yuan, Jin-Peng; Zhao, Yan-Ting; Chang, Xue-Fang; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2014-11-01

    We systematically investigate the polarization gradient cooling (PGC) process in an optical molasses of ultracold cesium atoms. The SR mode for changing the cooling laser, which means that the cooling laser frequency is stepped to the setting value while its intensity is ramped, is found to be the best for the PGC, compared with other modes studied. We verify that the heating effect of the cold atoms, which appears when the cooling laser intensity is lower than the saturation intensity, arises from insufficient polarization gradient cooling. Finally, an exponential decay function with a statistical explanation is introduced to explain the dependence of the cold atom temperature on the PGC interaction time.

  20. Erosion processes in molassic cliffs: the role of the rock surface temperature and atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrea, Dario; Abellán, Antonio; Guerin, Antoine; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Voumard, Jérémie

    2014-05-01

    The morphology of the Swiss Plateau is modeled by numerous steep cliffs of Molasse. These cliffs are mainly composed of sub-horizontal alternated layers of sandstone, shale and conglomerates deposed in the Alps foreland basin during the Tertiary period. These Molasse cliffs are affected by erosion processes inducing numerous rockfall events. Thus, it is relevant to understand how different external factors influence Molasse erosion rates. In this study, we focus on analyzing temperature variation during a winter season. As pilot study area we selected a cliff which is formed by a sub-horizontal alternation of outcropping sandstone and shale. The westward facing test site (La Cornalle, Vaud, Switzerland), which is a lateral scarp of a slow moving landslide area, is currently affected by intense erosion. Regarding data acquisition, we monitored both in-situ rock and air temperatures at 15 minutes time-step since October 2013: (1) on the one hand we measured Ground Surface Temperature (GST) at near-surface (0.1 meter depth) using a GST mini-datalogger M-Log5W-Rock model; (2) On the other hand we monitored atmospheric conditions using a weather station (Davis Vantage pro2 plus) collecting numerous parameters (i.e. temperature, irradiation, rain, wind speed, etc.). Furthermore, the area was also seasonally monitored by Ground-Based (GB) LiDAR since 2010 and monthly monitored since September 2013. In order to understand how atmospheric conditions (such as freeze and thaw effect) influence the erosion of the cliff, we modeled the temperature diffusion through the rock mass. To this end, we applied heat diffusion and radiation equation using a 1D temperature profile, obtaining as a result both temperature variations at different depths together with the location of the 0°C isotherm. Our model was calibrated during a given training set using both in-situ rock temperatures and atmospheric conditions. We then carried out a comparison with the rockfall events derived from the

  1. Precise intensity correlation measurement for atomic resonance fluorescence from optical molasses.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kazuyuki; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Hisatoshi; Torii, Yoshio; Kuga, Takahiro

    2010-03-29

    We measured the intensity correlation of true thermal light scattered from cold atoms in an optical molasses. Using a single-mode fiber as a transverse mode filter, measurement with maximally high spatial coherence was realized, allowing us to observe ideal photon bunching with unprecedented precision. The measured intensity correlation functions showed a definite bimodal structure with fast damped oscillation from the maximum value of 2.02(3) and slow monotonic decay toward unity. The oscillation can be understood as an interference between elastic and inelastic scattering fields in resonance fluorescence. PMID:20389684

  2. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps inferred from the stratigraphic evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2016-04-01

    The stratigraphic development of foreland basins have been related to orogenic processes, where continent- continent collision resulted in the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been used to explain the Oligocene to Miocene evolution of the Molasse basin, situated on the northern side of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5-10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models. In particular, the use of empirical relationships between the spacing of alluvial megafans, orogen width and morphometric properties of stream channels feeding the fans imply a general trend towards an increasing total fluvial relief until 1,900±1,000 m at ca. 20 Ma, followed by a prolonged period of time during which this variable has remained nearly constant. Accordingly, larger topographic loads cannot be invoked to explain the continuous deflection of the foreland plate. Alternatively, a scenario where horizontal forces cause a downward dragging of the foreland plate would offer a valuable explanation for the decoupling between basin depth and topographic loads. However, such a scenario would be associated with the occurrence of compressional forces within the foreland plate, which is not in agreement with observations in the Molasse Basin, at least for the present, where focal mechanisms of current seismic events imply the occurrence of extensional forces at work. We suggest that rollback orogeny, driven by the gravitational pull of the European slab, provides a mechanism to explain the increasing deflection of the foreland in the absence of larger topographic forcing, and it agrees with the geologic record that the subducting European plate did not

  3. A detachable electronic device for use with a long white cane to assist with mobility.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Emily E; Mohtar, Aaron A; Diment, Laura E; Reynolds, Karen J

    2014-01-01

    Vision-impaired individuals often use a long white cane to assist them with gathering information about their surroundings. However, these aids are generally not used to detect obstacles above knee height. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a low-cost, custom-built electronic device clipped onto a traditional cane can provide adequate vibratory warning to the user of obstacles above knee height. Sixteen normally sighted blindfolded individuals participated in two mobility courses which they navigated using a normal white cane and a white cane with the electronic device attached. Of the 16 participants, 10 hit fewer obstacles, and 12 covered less ground with the cane when the electronic device was attached. Ten participants found navigating with the electronic device easier than just the white cane alone. However, the time taken on the mobility courses, the number of collisions with obstacles, and the area covered by participants using the electronic device were not significantly different (p > 0.05). A larger sample size is required to determine if the trends found have real significance. It is anticipated that additional information provided by this electronic device about the surroundings would allow users to move more confidently within their environment. PMID:25771607

  4. The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Carbon Budget of Land Use Conversion from Pasture to Energy Cane Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, B.; Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S. P.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The United States is committed to produce 140 billion liters of ethanol by 2022. To meet this goal, and mitigate concerns about the "fuel versus food" conundrum, there is a pressing need for a second generation of sustainable biofuel feedstocks. Energy cane is a high yield, cold-tolerant C4 grass that can be efficiently used to produce bio-ethanol via existing cellulo-lignosic conversion technologies. There is exciting promise for Energy cane as an ethanol feedstock, however the climate implications of large-scale land use change from pasture (a significant use of land in the Southeastern USA) to production of an energy grass has not been fully explored. Furthermore, the soil type on which Energy cane will be grown will likely have a significant impact on greenhouse gases (GHG). We use DAYCENT, a process based biogeochemical model, to forecast how land use change from pasture to Energy cane production influences ecosystem level GHG flux and soil carbon flux. Because Energy cane is not widely cultivated, we use the available sugar cane literature to validate our in silico experiments. DAYCENT simulations suggest that soil type and fertilization rates have a strong control on the GHG and soil C dynamics after changing land from pasture to Energy cane. Our model results show net losses of ecosystem level C when Energy cane is grown on Histosols (organic matter rich soils), and a net gain of ecosystem C when that crop is grown on Spodosols (sandy soils). Respired CO2, N2O and total GHG efflux is significantly higher on Histosols compared to Spodosols in cane production. We conclude that the soil type on which Energy cane is grown determines the climatic impact of changing a landscape from pasture to Energy cane, and the greatest long-term climate benefit comes from growing cane on Spodosols.

  5. Two-stage biogas production by co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Yeol; Yun, Jeonghee; Kim, Tae Gwan; Wee, Daehyun; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge in a two-stage hydrogen- and methane-producing system. The highest energy was recovered at the 21-h hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the first hydrogenic reactor and at 56-h HRT of the secondary methanogenic reactor. Hence, the two-stage system recovered 1,822 kJ from 1 L of the mixed wastes (19.7: hydrogenic reactor plus, 1,802 kJ L(-1): methanogenic reactor). Despite the overloaded VFA-run with a short HRT of 56 h, the GAC-CH4 reactor increased methane production rate and yields due to enhanced pH buffer capacity. An RNA-based community analysis showed that the Ethanoligenens and Methanosaeta dominated the hydrogen and methane bioreactor, respectively. The two-stage system of co-digesting molasses and sewage sludge is particularly cost-effective due to non-pretreatment of sewage sludge. PMID:24871275

  6. Production of succinic acid from sucrose and sugarcane molasses by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sitha; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn; Jantama, Kaemwich

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose-utilizing genes (cscKB and cscA) from Escherichia coli KO11 were cloned and expressed in a metabolically engineered E. coli KJ122 to enhance succinate production from sucrose. KJ122 harboring a recombinant plasmid, pKJSUC, was screened for the efficient sucrose utilization by growth-based selection and adaptation. KJ122-pKJSUC-24T efficiently utilized sucrose in a low-cost medium to produce high succinate concentration with less accumulation of by-products. Succinate concentrations of 51 g/L (productivity equal to 1.05 g/L/h) were produced from sucrose in anaerobic bottles, and concentrations of 47 g/L were produced in 10L bioreactor within 48 h. Antibiotics had no effect on the succinate production by KJ122-pKJSUC-24T. In addition, succinate concentrations of 62 g/L were produced from sugarcane molasses in anaerobic bottles, and concentrations of 56 g/L in 10 L bioreactor within 72 h. These results demonstrated that KJ122-pKJSUC-24T would be a potential strain for bio-based succinate production from sucrose and sugarcane molasses. PMID:22023966

  7. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production by Bacillus cereus SPV using sugarcane molasses as the main carbon source.

    PubMed

    Akaraonye, Everest; Moreno, Catalina; Knowles, Jonathan C; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Roy, Ipsita

    2012-02-01

    The main hindrance in the use of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as a replacement for existing petroleum-based plastics is their high production cost. The carbon source accounts for 50% of the cost for PHA production. Thus, increasing the yield and productivity of PHAs on cheap substrates is an important challenge for biotechnologists to support the commercialization and further applications of these polymers. In this study, we have investigated the use of an agricultural raw material, sugarcane molasses, as the main carbon source for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) production by Bacillus cereus SPV. These studies were carried out in both shaken flasks and 2 L bioreactors. Various conditions were evaluated for their effects on biomass and P(3HB) accumulation. A high polymer yield was obtained, 61.07% dry cell weight (DCW) in a 1 L shaken flask study and 51.37% DCW in a 2 L fermenter study. These yields are 50% higher than previously observed with Bacillus cereus SPV. Hence, the results are encouraging and show that sugarcane molasses are a promising carbon source for an economical and commercially viable production of P(3HB). PMID:22147642

  8. Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses by formed nitrogen oxides.

    PubMed

    Gürü, M; Bilgesü, A Y; Pamuk, V

    2001-03-01

    Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses was developed in a series of three reactors. Nitrogen oxides formed were used to manufacture oxalic acid in the second and third reactor. Parameters affecting the reaction were determined to be, air flow rate, temperature, the amount of V2O5 catalyst and the concentrations of molasses and H2SO4. The maximum yields in the second and third reactors were 78.9% and 74.6% of theoretical yield, respectively. Also, kinetic experiments were performed and the first-order rate constants were determined for the glucose consumption rate. Nitrogen oxides in off-gases from the final reactor were absorbed in water and concentrated sulphuric acid and reused in the following reactors giving slightly lower yields under similar conditions. In this novel way, it was possible to recover NO(x) and to prevent air pollution. Meanwhile, it was possible to reduce the unit cost of reactant for oxalic acid production. A maximum 77.5% and 74.1% of theoretical yield was obtained by using the absorption solutions with NO(x). PMID:11211079

  9. The fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Dekkera bruxellensis and the mobilization of reserve carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciana Filgueira; Lucatti, Elisa; Basso, Luiz Carlos; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is considered to be very well adapted to industrial environments, in Brazil, USA, Canada and European Countries, when different substrates are used in alcoholic fermentations. Our previous study described its fermentative profile with a sugarcane juice substrate. In this study, we have extended its physiological evaluation to fermentation situations by using sugarcane molasses as a substrate to replicate industrial working conditions. The results have confirmed the previous reports of the low capacity of D. bruxellensis cells to assimilate sucrose, which seems to be the main factor that can cause a bottleneck in its use as fermentative yeast. Furthermore, the cells of D. bruxellensis showed a tendency to deviate most of sugar available for biomass and organic acids (lactic and acetic) compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when calculated on the basis of their respective yields. As well as this, the acetate production from molasses medium by both yeasts was in marked contrast with the previous data on sugarcane juice. Glycerol and ethanol production by D. bruxellensis cells achieved levels of 33 and 53 % of the S. cerevisiae, respectively. However, the ethanol yield was similar for both yeasts. It is worth noting that this yeast did not accumulate trehalose when the intracellular glycogen content was 30 % lower than in S. cerevisiae. The lack of trehalose did not affect yeast viability under fermentation conditions. Thus, the adaptive success of D. bruxellensis under industrial fermentation conditions seems to be unrelated to the production of these reserve carbohydrates. PMID:24370978

  10. Evolution of the eastern Austrian Molasse Basin: The Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) as a key to the understanding of the Eastern Alps - Molasse Basin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palzer, Markus; Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Wagreich, Michael; Meszar, Maria E.; Gier, Susanne; Soliman, Ali; -Elena Kallanxhi, Mǎdǎlina

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Austrian Molasse Basin is situated between the Bohemian Massif, the Waschberg-Zone and the Alps. There, sands of the Lower Miocene (Upper Ottnangian) Traisen Formation represent a clastic interval at the top of pelitic Schlier successions, which is correlated with the global sea level drop Bur3 (Burdigalian). North of the Danube River, the continuation of the Traisen-Formation is overlain by the Karpatian Laa-Formation. Drill cores from OMV-wells predominantly from the continuation of the Traisen Formation in deep parts in the NE of the basin show hundreds of meters of pelites with intersections of sands. Contrary to the exposed, mainly brackish TF, a turbiditic and predominantly fully marine deep-water environment is inferred from the cores. Profiles of carbonate content, XRD, XRF, whole rock chemistry, clay minerals, calcareous nannoplankton and dinoflagellate cysts of 7 wells were investigated representing a NE-SW transect through the LAMB. Based on these data, a new stratigraphy for the Burdigalian distal parts of the LAMB can be defined and correlated with the proximal units. The Traisen Formation and its equivalents are characterized at their base by an increased clastic input in the south and by increasing mica content in the northern parts. The complete interval is characterized by the decreased carbonate content. The XRD data show strongly reduced calcite contents which goe hand in hand with the absence of nannoplankton. Whether the signal is related to a crisis in primary production or to carbonate dissolution remains unclear. The absence of dinoflagellate cysts and the chemical data (reduced B/Al* ratios indicate reduced salinity) are considered as an argument for an environmental crisis. However, the absence of resedimented Cretaceous to Paleocene nannofossils, which usually occur together with the autochthonous NN4-nannofossils, indicates carbonate dissolution. These results enable us to define a basinal interval as equivalent to the

  11. Effects of cornmeal or molasses supplemented with different protein sources on milk production and nitrogen utilization of organic dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen lactating organic Jersey cows were assigned to four replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare the effects of feeding cornmeal (CM) or molasses (MOL) with either flaxseed meal (Flax) or a protein mix [(PM = 11% soybean meal (SB) + 5% sunflower ...

  12. Effect of microbial inoculant or molasses on fermentative quality and aerobic stability of sawdust-based spent mushroom substrate.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Lee, Y H; Kim, Y I; Ahmadi, F; Oh, Y K; Park, J M; Kwak, W S

    2016-09-01

    In the first experiment, the effect of two novel Lactobacillus plantarum strains was studied on the fermentation of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) through 10d of ensiling. Based on lactic acid production and lactic acid bacteria population, L. plantarum KU5 was identified as the best strain for fermentation with a 5-L bag silo. Spent mushroom substrate was ensiled with 0.5% (v/w) L. plantarum KU5 without or with 5% molasses. Silages treated with microbial inoculant and molasses had the lowest pH and the highest fermentative odors. In a second set of experiments similar to the above 5-L silo study, the simultaneous application of L. plantarum KU5 inoculant and molasses to 80-L silos improved fermentability and aerobic stability of SMS silages. For similar treatment using ton-bag silos, aerobic stability decreased and NH3-N content increased dramatically. In conclusion, sawdust-based SMS for animal use was successfully ensiled with L. plantarum KU5 inoculant and molasses. PMID:27240234

  13. Molasses supplementation of grazing dairy cows: summary of case study, continuous culture fermenter trials, and controlled research farm study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet summarizes the results of a three-tiered research approach (case study, two continuous culture fermenter studies, and a controlled research farm study) to evaluate molasses as an alternative supplement source for grazing dairy cows. A two-year case study of a New York organic dairy f...

  14. A two-stage fermentation process of erythritol production by yeast Y. lipolytica from molasses and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Mirończuk, Aleksandra M; Rakicka, Magdalena; Biegalska, Anna; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Dobrowolski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a two-stage fermentation process of erythritol production based on molasses and glycerol was investigated. During the first stage, the biomass of Yarrowia lipolytica was grown on medium containing sucrose as the sole carbon source. In the second stage, production of erythritol was initiated by glycerol addition. To use molasses as a substrate for erythritol synthesis, sucrose utilization was established by expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUC2 gene. In this study, cultivation of yeast Y. lipolytica could produce 52-114 g/L of erythritol. The productivity was 0.58-1.04 g/L/h, and yield was 0.26-0.57 g/g; the final biomasses yield ranged 17-41 g/L. This is the first report describing erythritol production via industrial raw molasses and glycerol by Y. lipolytica. This work uses genetically modified strains of Y. lipolytica as tool for the direct conversion of affordable raw industrial molasses and glycerol into the value-added erythritol product. PMID:26409857

  15. Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Boddey, R.M.

    1995-05-01

    The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric CO{sub 2} or, consequently, to global warming. However, these advantages are negated if large quantities of fossil fuels need to be used to grow or process the biofuel crop. In this regard, the Brazilian bioethanol program, based on the fermentation/distillation of sugar cane juice, is particularly favorable, not only because the crop is principally hand harvested, but also because of the low nitrogen fertilizer use on sugar cane in Brazil. Recent {sup 15}N and N balance studies have shown that in some Brazilian cane varieties, high yields are possible without N fertilization because the plants are able to obtain large contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated biological N{sub 2} fixation (BNF). The N{sub 2}-fixing acid-tolerant bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus was first found to occur within roots, stems, and leaves of sugar cane. Subsequently, two species of Herbaspirillum also have been found to occur within the interior of all sugar cane tissues. The discovery of these, and other N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria that survive poorly in soil but thrive within plant tissue (endophytic bacteria), may account for the high BNF contributions observed in sugar cane. Further study of this system should allow the gradual elimination of N fertilizer use on sugar cane, at least in Brazil, and opens up the possibility of the extension of this efficient N{sub 2}-fixing system to cereal and other crops with consequent immense potential benefits to tropical agriculture. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Saccharibacillus sacchari gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Raúl; García-Fraile, Paula; Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Sánchez-Raya, Juan; Velázquez, Encarna

    2008-08-01

    A bacterial strain designated GR21T was isolated from apoplastic fluid of Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate forms a separate branch within the family 'Paenibacillaceae', with Paenibacillus as the closest related genus. Within this genus, the closest related species is Paenibacillus xylanilyticus, with 93.4 % similarity to the sequence of the type strain. The isolate has Gram-variable, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped cells, motile by polar and subpolar flagella. Round, non-ornamented, central or subterminal spores are formed in unswollen sporangia. The strain is catalase-positive and oxidase-negative on nutrient agar medium. Cellulose and aesculin were hydrolysed, whereas xylan, starch and gelatin were not. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates as carbon sources. Strain GR21T displayed a lipid profile consisting of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophospholipid, two unknown glycolipids and an unknown phosphoglycolipid. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15: 0 was the major fatty acid. The DNA G+C content was 57.8 mol%. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, including assimilation of carbon sources and exoenzyme production commonly used for classification within the family 'Paenibacillaceae', showed that strain GR21T belongs to a new genus within this family, for which the name Saccharibacillus sacchari gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Saccharibacillus sacchari is GR21T (=LMG 24085T =DSM 19268T). PMID:18676467

  17. Role of sugar cane in Brazil's history and economy

    SciTech Connect

    Nastari, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    The history and evolution of the sugar-cane culture in Brazil is reviewed. An econometric model is constructed to explain the economic relationships of supply and demand of sugar, hydrous ethanol (ethyl alcohol), and anhydrous ethanol in Brazil overtime. Estimates of the parameters in the model are obtained using the methods of ordinary least squares and three stages least squares. Because the number of exogenous variables is larger than the number of observations, principal components of the exogenous variables is used. The model estimated using three stages least squares with seven principal components has the best performance among the alternatives considered. Using the estimated model, the level of a number of policy variables is determined in consistency with the objectives of ethanol production established by the Brazilian government for 1985. It is estimated that in 1985 the proportion of anhydrous ethanol added to gasoline must be 16.5%. Analysis of the net income accrued by producers and the government since the creation of the National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) in 1975 reveals that producers of sugar have been able to triple their net annual income. Independent producers of ethanol have also been able to accrue positive net results during this period. It is concluded that the Proalcool has been beneficial to the Brazilian economy, largely because of the savings in oil imports and the internal creation of jobs, while at the same time it has contributed to a superavit in the government's budget.

  18. Improvement of cell growth and L-lysine production by genetically modified Corynebacterium glutamicum during growth on molasses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Junlan; Guo, Yanfeng; Zai, Yugui; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-12-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and fructokinase (ScrK) have important roles in regenerating glucose-6-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and thus increasing L-lysine production. This article focuses on the development of L-lysine high-producing strains by heterologous expression of FBPase gene fbp and ScrK gene scrK in C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) with molasses as the sole carbon source. Heterologous expression of fbp and scrK lead to a decrease of residual sugar in fermentation broth, and heterologous expression of scrK prevents the fructose efflux. Heterologous expression of fbp and scrK not only increases significantly the activity of corresponding enzymes but also improves cell growth during growth on molasses. FBPase activities are increased tenfold by heterologous expression of fbp, whereas the FBPase activity is only increase fourfold during co-expression of scrK and fbp. Compared with glucose, the DCW of heterologous expression strains are higher on molasses except co-expression of fbp and scrK strain. In addition, heterologous expression of fbp and scrK can strongly increase the L-lysine production with molasses as the sole carbon source. The highest increase (88.4 %) was observed for C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-fbp-scrK, but the increase was also significant for C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-fbp (47.2 %) and C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-scrK (36.8 %). By-products, such as glycerol and dihydroxyacetone, are decreased by heterologous expression of fbp and scrK, whereas trehalose is only slightly increased. The strategy for enhancing L-lysine production by regeneration of glucose-6-phosphate in PPP may provide a reference to enhance the production of other amino acids during growth on molasses or starch. PMID:24029876

  19. Lithofacies Associations and Depositional Environments of the Neogene Molasse succession, Pishin Belt, northwestern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasi, A.; Kassi, A.; Friis, H.; Umar, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pishin Belt is a NE-SW trending mixed flysch and molasse basin, situated at the northwestern part of Pakistan, bordered by Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate in the west and Indian Plate in the east. Western boundary of the belt is marked by the well-known Chaman Transform Fault, whereas the Zhob Valley Thrust and Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite mark the eastern boundary. The Belt is divisible into six tectono-stratigraphic zones bounded by major thrusts. Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite is the base and Zone-I of this belt. Zone-II comprises shallow marine and flysch successions of the Eocene Nisai Formation and Oligocene Khojak Formation. The Early to Middle Miocene Dasht Murgha group comprises Zone-III, the Late Miocene-Pliocene Malthanai formation comprises Zone-IV, the Pleistocene Bostan Formation makes Zone-V, and the flat-laying Holocene deposits of the Zhob Valley comprise Zone-VI. The Neogene molasse successions of the Pishin Belt include the Dasht Murgha group, Malthanai formation and Bostan Formation; these are mostly composed of sandstone, claystone and conglomerate lithologies. Sandstones have been classified as lithic arenites and their QFL values suggest quartzolithic composition. Twelve distinct lithofacies have been recognized in the succession and thus grouped into four types of facies associations. Lithofacies include clast-supported massive gravel (Gcm), clast-supported crudely bedded gravel (Gh), cross-stratified conglomerate (Gt and Gp), trough cross-stratified sandstone (St), planar cross-stratified sandstone (Sp), ripple cross-laminated sandstone (Sr), horizontally stratified sandstone (Sh), low-angle cross-stratified sandstone (Sl), massive sandstones (Sm), massive mudstone and siltstone (Fm) and paleosol carbonate (P). The lithofacies associations include channel facies association (CHA), crevasse-splay facies association (CSA), natural-levee facies association (LVA) and floodplain facies association (FPA). The lithofacies associations suggest

  20. The impact of invasive cane toads on native wildlife in southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Christopher J; Shine, Richard; Greenlees, Matthew J

    2015-09-01

    Commonly, invaders have different impacts in different places. The spread of cane toads (Rhinella marina: Bufonidae) has been devastating for native fauna in tropical Australia, but the toads' impact remains unstudied in temperate-zone Australia. We surveyed habitat characteristics and fauna in campgrounds along the central eastern coast of Australia, in eight sites that have been colonized by cane toads and another eight that have not. The presence of cane toads was associated with lower faunal abundance and species richness, and a difference in species composition. Populations of three species of large lizards (land mullets Bellatorias major, eastern water dragons Intellagama lesueurii, and lace monitors Varanus varius) and a snake (red-bellied blacksnake Pseudechis porphyriacus) were lower (by 84 to 100%) in areas with toads. The scarcity of scavenging lace monitors in toad-invaded areas translated into a 52% decrease in rates of carrion removal (based on camera traps at bait stations) and an increase (by 61%) in numbers of brush turkeys (Alectura lathami). The invasion of cane toads through temperate-zone Australia appears to have reduced populations of at least four anurophagous predators, facilitated other taxa, and decreased rates of scavenging. Our data identify a paradox: The impacts of cane toads are at least as devastating in southern Australia as in the tropics, yet we know far more about toad invasion in the sparsely populated wilderness areas of tropical Australia than in the densely populated southeastern seaboard. PMID:26445649

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-05-27

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

  2. Substitution of sugar cane bagasse in the chicken diet and immune response.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, R A; el-Faramawy, A A

    2001-10-01

    Total proteins and protein electrophoresis were made in the sera of broiler chicken (Arber Acres) to evaluate the effect of substitution of basal diet for 4 weeks by either 8% sugar cane bagasse +2% wheat germ or 16% sugar cane bagasse +4% wheat germ whether untreated or incubated with rumen liquor for 72 h and then sterilized with 2 Mrad gamma-irradiation (treated). Both levels of untreated sugar can bagasse (8 and 16%) showed significant decrease in gamma globulins but this decrease had no effect on broiler chicken (45 days) while there was significant increase in total proteins in treated sugar cane bagasse 8% with concomitant increase in alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2 and gamma globulins. These results denoted that addition of rumen liquor to 8% sugar cane bagasse diet have resulted in an improvement in the transportation of micro nutrients and immune response most probably due to its high content of microorganisms constituting high quality animal protein; also more vaccines were recommended in feeding of chicken with sugar cane bagasse for a longer period e.g. laying hens to overcome its suppressive effect on the gamma globulins. PMID:11715352

  3. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    PubMed

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation. PMID:25930125

  4. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils.

    PubMed

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC), which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry. PMID:25251191

  5. 75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: July 9, 2010. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or... (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d) (3... Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On July 6, 2010, the Secretary of Agriculture announced a second additional...

  6. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  7. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  8. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  9. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  10. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  11. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  12. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  13. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may... microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) They...

  14. Molasse of the Belskii depression of the Cis-Uralian foredeep: Modern data about provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizens, G. A.; Maslov, A. V.; Badida, L. V.; Vovna, G. M.; Kiselev, V. I.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Hiller, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    The crystallochemical characteristics of Cr-spinels and tourmalines in combination with U-Pb isotope data on detrital zircons from the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic sandstones of the Belskii Depression showed that the main provenances of the molasse sequence in the southern part of the Cis-Uralian foredeep were Lower Paleozoic (Sakmara zone) and Precambrian (Uraltau zone) complexes. The absence of Late Paleozoic zircons in the Tatarian (Upper Permian) sandstones, as well as their small amount in the Lower Triassic psammites together with geochemical and petrographic data, suggest that granite massifs of the Main Granitic Axis of the Urals, as Middle-Upper Paleozoic magmatic complexes of the Magnitogorsk Megazone, were not involved in erosion. At the same time, the significant amount of Precambrian zircons is indicative of the presence of metamorphic complexes in the provenance of the Uraltau zone.

  15. Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Li, Yong-feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

  16. Design development of an electrocoagulation reactor for molasses process wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Gadd, A S; Ryan, D R; Kavanagh, J M; Barton, G W

    2010-01-01

    The impact of electrode corrosion behaviour, reactor geometry and current density on electrocoagulation efficiency were investigated for the treatment of molasses process wastewater. Two laboratory-scale vertical plate electrocoagulation reactors were used for this investigation: the first being a low aspect ratio bath reactor with a low specific electrode area, while the other was a high aspect ratio column reactor with a high specific electrode area. Anomalous anodic dissolution and cathodic corrosion of the aluminium electrodes both contributed significantly to overall metal consumption. Increasing specific electrode area and aspect ratio each led to improved treatment efficiency, whereas the impact of current density was more complicated involving the combined influences of several competing effects. The space-time yields of coagulant and bubbles (both functions of specific electrode area, current density and current efficiency) were found to influence mixing within the reactor and thus treatment efficiency. PMID:20555220

  17. Stability of Molasse: TLS for structural analysis in the valley of Gotteron-Fribourg, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Hammouda, Mariam; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc Henri; Bouaziz, Samir; Mazotti, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    The marine molasses of Fribourg (Switzerland) is an area where the cliff collapses and rockfalls are quite frequent and difficult to predict due to this particular lithology, a poorly consolidated greywacke. Because of some recent rockfall events, the situation became critical especially in the valley of Gotteron where a big block has slightly moved down and might destroy a house in case of rupture. The cliff made of jointed sandstone and thin layers of clay and siltstone presents many fractures, joints and massive cross bedding surfaces which increases the possibility of slab failure. This paper presents a detailed structural analysis of the cliff and the identification of the potential failure mechanisms. The methodology is about combining field observation and terrestrial LiDAR scanning point cloud in order to assess the stability of potential slope instabilities of molasses. Three LiDAR scans were done i) to extract discontinuity families depending to the dip and the dip direction of joints and ii) to run kinematic tests in order to identify responsible sets for each potential failure mechanisms. Raw point clouds were processed using IMAlign module of Polyworks and CloudCompare software. The structural analysis based on COLTOP 3D (Jaboyedoff et al. 2007) allowed the identification of four discontinuity sets that were not measured in the field. Two different failure mechanisms have been identified as critical: i) planar sliding which is the main responsible mechanism of the present fallen block and ii) wedge sliding. The planar sliding is defined by the discontinuity sets J1 and J5 with a direction parallel to the slope and with a steep dip angle. The wedges, defined by couples of discontinuity sets, contribute to increase cracks' opening and to the detachment of slabs. The use of TLS combined with field survey provides us a first interpretation of instabilities and a very promising structural analysis.

  18. An introduced pentastomid parasite (Raillietiella frenata) infects native cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Panama.

    PubMed

    Kelehear, Crystal; Saltonstall, Kristin; Torchin, Mark E

    2015-04-01

    The pentastomid parasite, Raillietiella frenata, is native to Asia where it infects the Asian House gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus. This gecko has been widely introduced and recently R. frenata was found in introduced populations of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia, indicating a host-switch from introduced geckos to toads. Here we report non-native adult R. frenata infecting the lungs of native cane toads in Panama. Eight of 64 toads were infected (median = 2.5, range = 1-80 pentastomids/toad) and pentastomid prevalence was positively associated with the number of buildings at a site, though further sampling is needed to confirm this pattern. We postulate that this pattern is likely due to a host shift of this parasite from an urban-associated introduced gecko. This is the first record of this parasite infecting cane toads in their native range, and the first instance of this parasite occurring in Central America. PMID:25394910

  19. Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Michael R.; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A.; Capon, Robert J.; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control. PMID:22696528

  20. Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Azzam, A.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most of hemicellulose content of can bagasse was solubilized, by 2% alkaline hydrogen peroxide at 30{sup 0}C within 8 h. The cellulose content was consequently increased from 42% in the original cane bagasse to 75% in the oxidized pulp. Saccharification of this pulp residue with cellulase from Trichorderma viride at 45{sup 0}C for 24 h, yielded glucose with 95% efficiency. The efficiency of ethanol production from the insoluble fraction with S. cervisiae was 90% compared to about 50% for untreated cane bagasse.

  1. Intentional synthesis of corrosion inhibitors based on secondary products of sugar cane processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ledovskykh, V.M.

    1988-07-01

    Secondary products of sugar cane processing (mosto, wax, furfurol) were studied as starting raw materials for creating inhibitors for different purposes and temporary means of protecting metals from corrosion. In order to protect metals in different corrosive media the following inhibitors have been developed: an inhibitor for acid solutions (pickling metals, acid washing of the equipment) based on high-tonnage water-soluble waste mosto and combined synergistic inhibitors based on mixtures of it with cation- and anion-active surfactants, including nitrogen- and sulfur-containing substances obtained by intentional synthesis of another secondary product, furfurol; inhibitors for two-phase media (oil recovery and refining) of the carbonic acid amide and 2-alkylimidazoline classes from sugar cane wax; and inhibitors comprised of Li-, Na-, Ca-, and Al-plastic greases from sugar cane wax for atmospheric conditions.

  2. Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Crossland, Michael R; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A; Capon, Robert J; Shine, Richard

    2012-09-01

    If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control. PMID:22696528

  3. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  4. Nitrous oxide emissions in giant cane in the Cache River watershed, southern Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. M.; Williard, K. W.; Schoonover, J.

    2013-12-01

    Large stands of Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhl, called canebrakes, were vital to wildlife and lowland ecosystem functions and historically covered millions of acres in the southeastern United States. Since European settlement, human disturbances (e.g., clearing for agriculture and fire suppression) have caused giant cane to decline to approximately 2% of its historic range. Cane's ecological importance has led to an increased interest in canebrake restoration in riparian zones. Giant cane is a good candidate to include in multispecies riparian buffers designs, as it promotes infiltration of surface runoff and deposition of sediment and associated nutrients through its high density culms and extensive shallow rooting network. In addition, nitrous oxide is produced naturally in the soil during the microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification. To examine the role that cane plays in nutrient cycling, we have designed a research strategy to determine physical and chemical properties of existing riparian stands of native giant cane and their associated soils. We collected data on soil carbon/nitrogen ratios and monthly nitrous oxide release in both canebrakes and nearby forested riparian areas. Soil in the canebrakes had significantly higher C:N ratios (10.9) than that in cropfields (9.8), but showed no significant difference than that in the forest (10.8). Nitrous oxide emissions had a strong correlation with soil water content (r2 = 24%), but no relation with soil temperature (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in N2O releases between forest and cane, nor among the monthly samples.

  5. CANE FIBERBOARD DEGRADATION WITHIN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.

    2013-06-19

    The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

  6. AGING MODEL FOR CANE FIBERBOARD OVERPACK IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Harris, S.

    2010-03-05

    Many radioactive material shipping packages incorporate a cane fiberboard overpack for thermal insulation and impact resistance. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard following thermal aging in several temperature/humidity environments. Several of the measured properties change significantly over time in the more severe environments, while other properties are relatively constant. Changes in each of the properties have been fit to a model to allow predictions of degradation under various storage scenarios. Additional data continue to be collected to provide for future refinements to the model.

  7. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  8. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  9. Comparative study of the effect of ferrocyanide and EDTA on the production of ethyl alcohol from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Oderinde, R.A.; Ngoka, L.C.; Adesogan, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of potassium ferrocyanide and EDTA on ethyl alcohol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated on simulated batch pilot-plant-scale conditions for alcoholic fermentation of molasses. Ethyl alcohol production was more sensitive to ferrocyanide than to EDTA. When ferrocyanide was introduced into the cultures at the time of inoculation, there was stimulation of ethyl alcohol production, with 261 ppm ferrocyanide producing the maximum effect, which was 3.0% more than n control cultures. When added during the propagation of the yeast, ferrocyanide depressed ethyl alcohol production by 4.0% maximum whereas EDTA stimulated ethyl alcohol production by 2.0%. Addition of ferrocyanide during the fermentation stage produced no significant effect on alcohol production, whereas over a wide range of EDTA concentration there was a steady increase in alcohol yield.

  10. Sub-Doppler laser cooling of fermionic 40K atoms in three-dimensional gray optical molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio Fernandes, D.; Sievers, F.; Kretzschmar, N.; Wu, S.; Salomon, C.; Chevy, F.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate sub-Doppler cooling of 40K on the D1 atomic transition. Using a gray-molasses scheme, we efficiently cool a compressed cloud of 6.5 × 108 atoms from ˜4 mK to 20 μK in 8 ms. After transfer to a quadrupole magnetic trap, we measure a phase space density of ˜10-5. This technique offers a promising route for fast evaporation of fermionic 40K.

  11. The northern coast of the Ottnangian (middle Burdigalian, early Miocene) Molasse Sea in Germany: sediments, foraminiferal assemblages and biostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippèrr, Martina; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Doppler, Gerhard; Hagmaier, Mischa; Jung, Dietmar

    2016-04-01

    This study provides new data on the litho- and biostratigraphy of the middle Burdigalian (Ottnangian) marine sediments at or close to the former northern coastline of the German Molasse Basin, based on cores from three boreholes (Burgau, Hamlar 2 and Lutzingen) and two outcrops (Haunsheim and Dattenhausen). Methods include quantitative analysis of benthic foraminiferal assemblages (90 samples), studies of planktonic foraminifers and ostracods and investigations of lithofacies. The data indicate that the transgressive-regressive marine sediments of the Upper Marine Molasse (OMM) at Burgau and Hamlar 2 can be subdivided into the well-known lower and middle Ottnangian sedimentation cycles, with the first cycle being represented by the "OMM-Basisschichten" and Kalkofen Formation and the second by the Baltringen and Steinhöfe Formations. We show for the first time that also the northernmost marginal-marine OMM facies (Lutzingen, Haunsheim and Dattenhausen) can be correlated with the lower and middle Ottnangian sedimentation cycles. Consequently, our results do not support the presence of a previously suggested third sedimentation cycle within the OMM sediments. Our micropaleontological data reveal regionally diverse depositional environments, reflecting different water depths and co-varying environmental variables. Significant differences in abundance, diversity and species composition of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages demonstrate marginal-marine facies for Lutzingen, Haunsheim and Dattenhausen, nearshore facies for Hamlar 2 and shallow marine basin facies for Burgau. The characteristic lower Ottnangian benthic foraminiferal species exhibit restricted ecological tolerances. Hence, the absence or scarcity of these species in nearshore to marginal-marine deposits has no stratigraphic significance. The presence of two sedimentation cycles in the western German Molasse Basin alone may have resulted from the interplay of regional tectonics and basin development that

  12. Quality of gingernut type biscuits as affected by varying fat content and partial replacement of honey with molasses.

    PubMed

    Filipčev, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera; Bodroža-Solarov, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Gingernut type biscuits were prepared with varying fat content (10, 20, and 30 % w/w flour basis) and with sugar beet molasses replacing 0, 25, and 50 % w/w of the honey in the formulation. To evaluate the effects of these modifications, dough properties, and the physical, and sensory properties, and chemical composition of the biscuits were determined. Dough properties were significantly affected by the fat content; higher fat gave softer dough with reduced adhesiveness, cohesiveness and springiness. Biscuit height and diameter were also significantly affected only by the fat content. The tested biscuit variants showed no difference with respect to hardness and fracturability. During storage, hardness, fracturability and brittleness of the biscuits significantly increased but significant differences within the biscuits variants were observed after two months of storage in terms of fracturability which was least impaired in the biscuits with 30 % fat. Higher fat content also contributed to better flavour keeping during storage. Substitution of honey with molasses resulted in products with darker colour, less yellow and more red tone. Molasses also contributed to better nutritive value of biscuits by increasing significantly the content of proteins, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. PMID:26396308

  13. The Effects of Freezing and Supplementation of Molasses and Inoculants on Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Sunflower Silage

    PubMed Central

    Konca, Y.; Beyzi, S. Buyukkilic; Ayaşan, T.; Kaliber, M.; Kiraz, A. Bozkurt

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of freezing and supplementation of molasses (M), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and LAB+enzyme mixture on chemical and nutritional composition of sunflower silage (SF). Sunflower crops were harvested (at about 29.2%±1.2% dry matter) and half of fresh sunflower was ensiled alone and half was frozen (F) at −20°C for 7 days. Silage additives were admixed into frozen SF material. All samples were ensiled in glass jars with six replicates for 90 days. The treatments were as follows: i) positive control (non-frozen and no additives, NF), ii) negative control (frozen, no additives, F), iii) F+5% molasses (FM), iv) F+LAB (1.5 g/tons, Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium, FLAB); v) F+LAB+enzyme (2 g/tons Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium and cellulase and amylase enzymes, FLEN). Freezing silage increased dry matter, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin. The organic matter, total digestible nutrient, non-fiber carbohydrate, metabolizable energy and in vitro dry matter digestibility were negatively influenced by freezing treatments (p<0.05). In conclusion, freezing sunflower plants prior to ensiling may negatively affect silage quality, while molasses supplementation improved some quality traits of frozen silage. Lactic acid bacteria and LAB+enzyme inoculations did not effectively compensate the negative impacts of freezing on sunflower silage. PMID:26954197

  14. Continuous separation of sugarcane molasses with a simulated moving-bed adsorber. Adsorption equilibria, kinetics, and application

    SciTech Connect

    Saska, M.; Mei Di Wu; Clarke, S.J.; Iqbal, K. )

    1992-10-01

    Fundamental chromatographic properties are reported that are related to the industrial separation of sugarcane molasses in a simulated moving-bed adsorber. The distribution coefficients of KCL, sucrose, glucose, and fructose on XUS-40166.00 (K[sup +]) cation exchanger were determined by pulse testing to be 0.00, 0.22, 0.45, and 0.50 at infinite dilution at 70 C. The adsorption isotherm of KCl is quadratic; those of the sugars only slightly nonlinear and dependent on KCl concentration. HETP was found to be independent of fluid velocity for KCl in the range of the interstitial velocity of 5 to 35 cm/min, and increasing with v for sucrose. At high fluid velocities the broadening of the sucrose band in a packed bed comes primarily from intraparticle mass transfer, with axial dispersion and film diffusion playing minor roles. The process for separation of sugarcane molasses was demonstrated on a 47 liter, eight-column simulated moving-bed adsorber. A theoretical, staged model of the simulated moving-bed adsorber with one inert totally excluded and three linearly adsorbing components was found to give an excellent representation of the transient and steady-state behavior of the continuous separation of sugarcane molasses.

  15. The Effects of Freezing and Supplementation of Molasses and Inoculants on Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Sunflower Silage.

    PubMed

    Konca, Y; Beyzi, S Buyukkilic; Ayaşan, T; Kaliber, M; Kiraz, A Bozkurt

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of freezing and supplementation of molasses (M), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and LAB+enzyme mixture on chemical and nutritional composition of sunflower silage (SF). Sunflower crops were harvested (at about 29.2%±1.2% dry matter) and half of fresh sunflower was ensiled alone and half was frozen (F) at -20°C for 7 days. Silage additives were admixed into frozen SF material. All samples were ensiled in glass jars with six replicates for 90 days. The treatments were as follows: i) positive control (non-frozen and no additives, NF), ii) negative control (frozen, no additives, F), iii) F+5% molasses (FM), iv) F+LAB (1.5 g/tons, Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium, FLAB); v) F+LAB+enzyme (2 g/tons Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium and cellulase and amylase enzymes, FLEN). Freezing silage increased dry matter, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin. The organic matter, total digestible nutrient, non-fiber carbohydrate, metabolizable energy and in vitro dry matter digestibility were negatively influenced by freezing treatments (p<0.05). In conclusion, freezing sunflower plants prior to ensiling may negatively affect silage quality, while molasses supplementation improved some quality traits of frozen silage. Lactic acid bacteria and LAB+enzyme inoculations did not effectively compensate the negative impacts of freezing on sunflower silage. PMID:26954197

  16. Production of compost with bagasse and vinasses for cane crop in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Castro Gomez, R.J.H.

    1982-10-01

    Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a mixture of bagasse, animal manure and vinasse can be transformed into compost suitable for agriculture. The factors necessary for good composting are discussed, these include the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture, aeration and temperature. A mixture of 300 kg cane bagasse and 38 kg poultry manure moistened with vinasse gave the best results.

  17. Biotic Resistance to an Alien Amphibian: Larval Competition between Japanese Frogs and Invasive Cane Toads

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Understanding negative effects of native species on introduced taxa may suggest novel ways to control the invasive species by enhancing such effects. Previous studies have reported that the larvae of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) are suppressed by competition with the larvae of native anurans in Australia, but not in North America. We conducted laboratory trials to measure the effect of exposure to the larvae of Japanese frogs (Microhyla ornata, Fejervarya sakishimensis, Rhacophorus owstoni) on rates of survival, growth and development of cane toad tadpoles in Ishigaki Island, in southern Japan. Survival rates were not affected by native species, but competition with Dicroglossids and Rhacophorids (but not Microhylids) strongly reduced rates of growth and development in the tadpoles of cane toads. Dicroglossid tadpoles also reduced the body condition to toad tadpoles in addition to effects on SVL and mass. Encouraging populations of native frogs in toad-invaded areas of Japan thus may help to reduce the numbers of invasive cane toads. PMID:27253973

  18. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  2. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on fresh weight and sugar yield of sugar cane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed-piece shoots of four cultivars of sugar cane were transplanted on March 21, 1977 to containers 1.2 m long X 0.6 m wide X 0.6 m deep) in four temperature zones of two temperature-gradient greenhouses at Gainesville, Florida. Each temperature zone had 8 containers. Four containers of each zone ...

  3. Breeding Energy Cane Cultivars as a Biomass Feedstock for Coal Replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research and advanced breeding have demonstrated that energy cane possesses all of the attributes desirable in a biofuel feedstock: extremely good biomass yield in a small farming footprint; negative/neutral carbon footprint; maximum outputs from minimum inputs; well-established growing model for fa...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  5. Green-cane harvest of sugarcane effects on biomass and energy yields and nutrient removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yields in Louisiana can approach 40 dry Mg ha-1, making sugarcane an attractive biofuel feedstock as well as a profitable sugar crop. Existing technology used in green-cane harvesting can be used to allow chopper harvester extractor fans to remove variable amounts of extraneous leaf materi...

  6. Modification of the Two-Point Touch Cane Technique: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, William H.; Ehresman, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Four blind adults were observed to determine the extent of the natural movement of their centers of gravity in relation to arc height during the two-point touch technique for long cane travel. The Ss learned and practiced a modified technique using their center of gravity as much as possible. (Author)

  7. Current Practices and Considerations Regarding Long Cane Instruction with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skellenger, A. C.; Hill, E. W.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a survey of 37 orientation and mobility specialists who serve preschool-age visually impaired children. It presents demographics of the children and the specialists involved in long cane instruction and identifies the factors related to the decision to begin this instruction. (Author/DB)

  8. Biomedical Substrates of the Two-Point Cane Technique: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews research on the biomechanical elements related to the most commonly used long cane technique, the two-point touch, by individuals with blindness or low vision. The use of several natural biomechanical tendencies supports the contention that the technique is inherently efficient. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  9. Use of the Sonicguide and Laser Cane in Obtaining or Keeping Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, William H.; Smith, Tom E. C.

    1983-01-01

    Owners of laser canes and Sonicguides were surveyed to determine whether these devices were used in employment settings. Of the 94 respondents, 74 were still using their electronic travel aids: 36 percent used the devices to travel to and from work, and 49 percent used them on the job. (SEW)

  10. Biomechanical Movements in Experienced Cane Users with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Robert S.; Ashmead, Daniel H.

    2002-01-01

    Travelers with visual impairments and orientation and mobility (O&M) instructors were assessed in their performance of the two-point touch cane technique. Both groups deviated similarly from classical stipulations of the technique, having wider arc widths and hand positions off of midline. Measures of body coverage and rhythm were less than ideal.…

  11. TESTING FOR A TRAIL FOLLOWING PHEROMONE ON THE SILKY CANE WEEVIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The silky cane weevil (SCW), Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of sugarcane, and palms, and was introduced into Florida in the mid-1980s. In laboratory tests it was observed that weevils followed tracks already walked by other co-specifics and experiments...

  12. WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Varble, J

    2007-11-20

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex{trademark} manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex{trademark}. The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package.

  13. Cane Toads on Cowpats: Commercial Livestock Production Facilitates Toad Invasion in Tropical Australia

    PubMed Central

    González-Bernal, Edna; Greenlees, Matthew; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Habitat disturbance and the spread of invasive organisms are major threats to biodiversity, but the interactions between these two factors remain poorly understood in many systems. Grazing activities may facilitate the spread of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia by providing year-round access to otherwise-seasonal resources. We quantified the cane toad’s use of cowpats (feces piles) in the field, and conducted experimental trials to assess the potential role of cowpats as sources of prey, water, and warmth for toads. Our field surveys show that cane toads are found on or near cowpats more often than expected by chance. Field-enclosure experiments show that cowpats facilitate toad feeding by providing access to dung beetles. Cowpats also offer moist surfaces that can reduce dehydration rates of toads and are warmer than other nearby substrates. Livestock grazing is the primary form of land use over vast areas of Australia, and pastoral activities may have contributed substantially to the cane toad’s successful invasion of that continent. PMID:23145158

  14. Measuring Energetics and Behaviour Using Accelerometry in Cane Toads Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Lewis G.; White, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration), to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R2 = 0.74). Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species. PMID:20422048

  15. Immunotherapeutic effects of some sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) extracts against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, M Irfan

    2011-06-01

    Present paper reports the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice and bagasse, respectively on protective immune responses in industrial broiler chickens against coccidiosis. Immunotherapeutic efficacies of the extracts were measured by evaluating their effect on body weight gain, oocyst shedding, lesion score, anti-coccidial indices, per cent protection and elicited serum antibody responses against coccidiosis. Results revealed a significantly lower (P<0.05) oocyst shedding and mortality in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to control. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05) body weight gains and antibody responses were detected in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to chickens of control group. Moreover, ethanolic extract showed higher anti-coccidia index (227.61) as compared to aqueous extract (192.32). The organ body weight ratio of the lymphoid organs of experimental and control groups were statistically non-significant (P>0.01). These results demonstrated that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of sugar cane possess immune enhancing properties and their administration in chickens augments the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:21354144

  16. Production of energy cane and elephantgrass on marginal soils using winter covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher) and energy cane (Saccharum sp.) are tall tropical bunch grasses that produce very high biomass yields and are considered an excellent bio-energy feedstock for the lower South. However, previous studies have shown that production is not sustainable wit...

  17. A review of the 2006 International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists' Pathology Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists’ (ISSCT) Pathology Workshop was held on January 23-27, 2006, at the INRA Research Center in Petit Bourg, Guadeloupe, French West Indies and was hosted by CIRAD and organized by Jean Heinrich Daugrois and the CIRAD staff. There were 30 delegates ...

  18. Biotic Resistance to an Alien Amphibian: Larval Competition between Japanese Frogs and Invasive Cane Toads.

    PubMed

    Haramura, Takashi; Takeuchi, Hirohiko; Crossland, Michael R; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Understanding negative effects of native species on introduced taxa may suggest novel ways to control the invasive species by enhancing such effects. Previous studies have reported that the larvae of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) are suppressed by competition with the larvae of native anurans in Australia, but not in North America. We conducted laboratory trials to measure the effect of exposure to the larvae of Japanese frogs (Microhyla ornata, Fejervarya sakishimensis, Rhacophorus owstoni) on rates of survival, growth and development of cane toad tadpoles in Ishigaki Island, in southern Japan. Survival rates were not affected by native species, but competition with Dicroglossids and Rhacophorids (but not Microhylids) strongly reduced rates of growth and development in the tadpoles of cane toads. Dicroglossid tadpoles also reduced the body condition to toad tadpoles in addition to effects on SVL and mass. Encouraging populations of native frogs in toad-invaded areas of Japan thus may help to reduce the numbers of invasive cane toads. PMID:27253973

  19. Advanced Breeding, Development, and Release of High Biomass Energy Cane Cultivars in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research into alternative energy sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral energy are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. Energy cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...

  20. Teaching the Use of a Long Cane Step by Step: Suggestions for Progressive, Methodical Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerburger, Dona; Bourquin, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental part of the orientation and mobility curriculum is the acquisition and retention of skills in using a long cane automatically and proficiently to detect and negotiate obstacles and drop-offs. Using practitioners' experiences and the principles of learning theory, instructors can monitor students' advancement and adapt teaching…

  1. 3 CFR 8439 - Proclamation 8439 of October 15, 2009. White Cane Safety Day, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and equal opportunities for those among us who are blind or have low vision. As Americans, we must.... Individuals who are blind or have low vision are less constrained and better integrated in our country than... low vision, a white cane is just one of a wide range of tools that sustain independence...

  2. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  3. Improvement of whole crop rice silage nutritive value and rumen degradability by molasses and urea supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote

    2013-11-01

    Whole crop rice was harvested 120 days after planting and chopped to 2-3-cm length for silage making. The whole crop rice silage (WCRS) was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 6 × 5 factorial arrangement, in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplementation at M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 %, and the second was urea (U) supplementation at U0, U0.5, U1.0, U1.5, and U2.0 % of the crop dry mater (DM), respectively. After 45 days of ensiling, temperature, pH, chemical composition, and fermentation end products of the silages were measured. Ten U and M treatment combinations of WCRS were subsequently selected to study rumen degradability by nylon bag technique. The results showed that temperature and pH of the silages linearly increased with U supplementation level, while total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), acetic acid (C2) and propionic acid (C3) decreased. In contrast, increasing level of M supplementation decreased WCRS temperature and pH, whereas TVFA, C2, and C3 concentrations increased dramatically. Both M and U supplementation increased concentration of butyric acid (C4). Dry matter, organic matter (OM), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the silages were not influenced by either M or U supplementation. Increasing U supplementation increased crude protein (CP) content, while M level did not show any effect. Furthermore, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content in silage was decreased by both M and U supplementation. The results of the in situ study showed that M and U supplementation increased both ruminal DM and OM degradation. The water-soluble fraction (a) was the highest in WCRS U1.5M3 and lowest in U0M0. Increasing M and U supplementation levels increased the potentially degradable fraction (b) of both DM and OM. Total rumen degradable fraction (a + b) was highest in WCRS U1.5M3, whereas OM degradability was

  4. Impacts of energy cane expansion on ecosystem services: A Florida case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagley, J. E.; VanLoocke, A.; Jaiswal, D.; Bernacchi, C. J.; Long, S.

    2012-12-01

    There is a rising demand for sustainable and secure sources of energy. This demand is driving the development of second-generation biofuel crops across the United States. However, in a changing climate the capability of these crops to meet energy demands are uncertain. Additionally, the impacts of energy crop adoption on biophysical and biochemical ecosystem services need to be refined. Central Florida has been identified as a test bed for energy cane in anticipation of increased investment for energy crop production in the southeastern United States. Currently, the land cover in this region is characterized by pasturelands with relatively low rates of productivity and evapotranspiration. By replacing these lands with highly productive and irrigated energy cane significant perturbations to the local and regional budgets of water, energy, and carbon are anticipated. In this study, we extend the Agro-IBIS LSM with a mechanistic multilayer canopy model of biofuel crops to simulate inter-canopy fluxes of energy, moisture, and carbon. We validate the model using published leaf area, surface flux, and yield observations taken from studies that encompassed variable soil types, climatic conditions, and management decisions. This extended Agro-IBIS model is used to simulate the growth of energy cane in central Florida. Using this model we assess the potential impacts of large-scale changes in land cover on future ecosystem services for the region. In particular, we focus on how changes in atmospheric CO2 and temperature influence energy cane's regulation of surface fluxes and storage. Using a series of simulations that represent a range of climatic regimes we test how increased atmospheric carbon concentrations may enhance or diminish stresses associated with changes in regional climate, and how the physiological plant responses feedback on fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. This allows us to quantitatively evaluate how large-scale energy cane production

  5. [Phosphorus removal characteristics by aerobic granules in normal molasses wastewater after anaerobic treatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Yu, Shui-Li; Shi, Wen-Xin; Bao, Rui-Ling; Yi, Xue-Song; Li, Jian-Zheng

    2012-04-01

    COD decreased obviously in normal molasses wastewater after anaerobic treatment, however, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were still higher in the effluent which seriously damaged the ecological balance. In this study, aerobic granules cultivated in sequencing batch airlift reactor (SBAR) were carried out for treating the effluent; phosphorus removal processes and characteristics were discussed as well. The mean diameter of aerobic granules cultivated by multiple carbon sources (acetate, propionate and butyrate) was 1.7 mm. The average phosphorus removal efficiency was 90.9% and the level of phosphorus in effluent was only 1.3 mg x L(-1); TP released per COD consumed was 0.571 and the specific rate of TP released was 5.73 mg x (g x h)(-1). NO3(-) -N usage of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) improved during denitrifying process because the concentration of propionate and butyrate increased in multiple carbon sources which means the phosphorus uptake efficiency increased when per NO3(-) -N consumed. Phosphorus content represented a stronger correlation with magnesium, calcium and ferrum contents in aerobic granules and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the phosphorus adsorption by EPS could enhance phosphorus removal. 61.9% of phosphorus accumulating organisms were denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms in aerobic granules and TP uptake per NO3(-) -N consumed was 1.14 which was higher than that of aerobic granules only cultivated by acetate. PMID:22724155

  6. Structural analysis of novel kestose isomers isolated from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Norio; Abe, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Takata, Yusuke; Fukushi, Eri; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Kawabata, Jun; Ueno, Keiji; Onodera, Shuichi

    2016-04-01

    Eight kestose isomers were isolated from sugar beet molasses by carbon-Celite column chromatography and HPLC. GC-FID and GC-MS analyses of methyl derivatives, MALD-TOF-MS measurements and NMR spectra were used to confirm the structural characteristics of the isomers. The (1)H and (13)C NMR signals of each isomer saccharide were assigned using COSY, E-HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY, HMBC and H2BC techniques. These kestose isomers were identified as α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 2)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 < ->2)-β-D-fructofuranoside, α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 3)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 < ->1)-α-D-glucopyranoside, α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 4)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 < ->1)-α-D-glucopyranoside, β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 4)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 < ->1)-α-D-glucopyranoside, β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 3)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 < ->2)-β-D-fructofuranoside, α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 < ->1)-α-D-glucopyranoside, α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 < ->2)-β-D-fructofuranoside, and α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 < ->1)-α-D-glucopyranoside. The former five compounds are novel saccharides. PMID:26918514

  7. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 23.21 ± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G₀/G₁ phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. PMID:27347927

  8. Molasses melanoidin promotes copper uptake for radish sprouts: the potential for an accelerator of phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Ken-Ichi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Tomura, Hiroki; Yamatsu, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Kin-Ichi; Kubota, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Phytoextraction has been proposed as an alternative remediation technology for heavy metal contamination, and it is well known that chelators may alter the toxicity of heavy metals and the bioavailability in plants. Our previous work demonstrated that an adsorbent-column chromatography can effectively separate melanoidin-like product (MLP) from sugarcane molasses. The aim of this study was to examine the chelating property of MLP and to evaluate the facilitatory influence on the phytoextraction efficiency of Japanese radish. The result showed that MLP binds to all the metal ions examined and the binding capacity of MLP toward Cu(2+) seems to be the highest among them. The metal detoxification by MLP followed the order of Pb(2+) > Zn(2+) > Ni(2+) > Cu(2+) > Fe(2+) > Cd(2+) > Co(2+). Furthermore, in the phytoextraction experiment using copper sulfate, the application of MLP accelerated the detoxification of copper and the bioavailability in radish sprouts. Thus, these results suggest that MLP possesses the potential for an accelerator of phytoextraction in the copper-contaminated media. PMID:27239675

  9. Preliminary magnetostratigraphic dating of the South-Pyrenean Molasse (Uncastillo Fm, Oligocene-Miocene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Beamud, Elisabet; Soto, Ruth; Arenas, Concha; Garcés, Miguel; Pueyo, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The Uncastillo Fm crops out along the southern boundary of the External Sierras, which represents the southernmost limit of the Pyrenean Range. Three sedimentary units (genetic units) related to tectonic pulses have been previously differentiated in this formation. The sedimentary evolution of the Uncastillo Fm is mainly related to the tightening of the WNW-ESE Santo Domingo anticline in the External Sierras during Chattian-Aquitanian times and records the younger tectonic movement of the south Pyrenean sole thrust. These Oligocene-Miocene molasse deposits record the change to overall southward-flowing alluvial and fluvial systems (Uncastillo Fm) as an abrupt transition from overall west-northwest-flowing fluvial systems (Campodarbe Fm). Recent magnetostratigraphic results from the underlying Campodarbe Fm shift to younger ages (from chron 10r to 7r) the base of the Uncastillo Fm in the proximal area of the fluvial system (Luesia fan). In order to check that reassignment and refine the age of the Uncastillo Fm a new magnetostratigraphic study has been conducted in laterally equivalent deposits that represent middle-distal areas located to the east of the Luesia fan. These deposits consist of thick brown to orange mudstones with interbedded brown to grey sandstones. These finer grain size sediments allow for a magnetostratigraphic study. The ~ 1300m long Fuencalderas section comprises 130 new paleomagnetic sites. The new results will yield a complete chronostratigraphic frame to constrain the last tectonic pulses of the Pyrenean Mountain Range building.

  10. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 23.21 ± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. PMID:27347927

  11. Secondary fermentation in the runen of a sheep given a diet based on molasses.

    PubMed

    Rowe, J B; Loughnan, M L; Nolan, J V; Leng, R A

    1979-03-01

    1. The extent of conversion of acetate-carbon to carbon dioxide in the rumen of a 40 kg wether consuming 1 kg molasses/d was estimated using isotope-tracer-dilution techniques. 2. There was a high rate of conversion of acetate to CO2 (6.0 g C/d) in the rumen. There were high concentrations in the rumen of Methanosarcina approximately 6 x 10(9)/ml which represents a significant proportion of the rumen bacterial biomass. These organisms are usually found in mud and sludge and are capable of oxidizing acetate. 3. The most likely explanation of these results was that there was an extensive secondary or sludge-type fermentation occurring in the rumen which results in volatile fatty acids being converted to CO2 and methane. In similar studies with sheep given lucerne (Medicago sativa) diets, conversion of acetate-C to CO2 within the rumen was not evident. 4. It is suggested that a major effect of the presence of secondary fermentation processes in the rumen may be to reduce availability of energy nutrients to the animal, and to alter the ratio protein:energy in the absorbed nutrients. PMID:427091

  12. Chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of potato-wheat straw silage treated with molasses and lactic acid bacteria and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Babaeinasab, Y; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of molasses and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of an ensiled potato-wheat straw mixture in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Wheat straw was harvested at full maturity and potato tuber when the leaves turned yellowish. The potato-wheat straw (57:43 ratio, DM basis) mixture was treated with molasses, LAB, or a combination. Lalsil Fresh LB (Lallemand, France; containing NCIMB 40788) or Lalsil MS01 (Lallemand, France; containing MA18/5U and MA126/4U) were each applied at a rate of 3 × 10 cfu/g of fresh material. Treatments were mixed potato-wheat straw silage (PWSS) without additive, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01, PWSS + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01 + 5% molasses, and corn silage (CS). The compaction densities of PWSS treatments and CS were approximately 850 and 980 kg wet matter/m, respectively. After anaerobic storage for 90 d, chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vitro gas production (GP), estimated OM disappearance (OMD), ammonia-N, VFA, microbial CP (MCP) production, and cellulolytic bacteria count were determined. Compared to CS, PWSS had greater ( < 0.001) values of DM, ADL, water-soluble carbohydrates, pH, and ammonia-N but lower ( < 0.05) values of CP, ash free-NDF (NDFom), ash, nitrate, and lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids concentrations. When PWSS was treated with molasses, LAB, or both, the contents of CP and lactic and acetic acids increased, whereas NDFom, ammonia-N, and butyric acid decreased ( < 0.05). Based on in vitro ruminal experiments, PWSS had greater ( < 0.05) values of GP, OMD, and MCP but lower ( < 0.05) VFA and acetic acid compared to CS. With adding molasses alone or in combination with LAB inoculants to PWSS, the values of GP

  13. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is providing notice of country-by-country allocations of additional fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane...

  14. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico. PMID:26245813

  15. Co-digestion of molasses or kitchen waste with high-rate activated sludge results in a diverse microbial community with stable methane production.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Plovie, Kristof; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2015-04-01

    Kitchen waste and molasses are organic waste streams with high organic content, and therefore are interesting substrates for renewable energy production by means of anaerobic digestion. Both substrates, however, often cause inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process, when treated separately, hence, co-digestion with other substrates is required to ensure stable methane production. In this research, A-sludge (sludge harvested from a high rate activated sludge system) was used to stabilize co-digestion with kitchen waste or molasses. Lab-scale digesters were fed with A-sludge and kitchen waste or molasses for a total period of 105 days. Increased methane production values revealed a stabilizing effect of concentrated A-sludge on kitchen waste digestion. Co-digestion of molasses with A-sludge also resulted in a higher methane production. Volumetric methane production rates up to 1.53 L L(-1) d(-1) for kitchen waste and 1.01 L L(-1) d(-1) for molasses were obtained by co-digestion with A-sludge. The stabilizing effect of A-sludge was attributed to its capacity to supplement various nutrients. Microbial community results demonstrated that both reactor conditions and substrate composition determined the nature of the bacterial community, although there was no direct influence of micro-organisms in the substrate itself, while the methanogenic community profile remained constant as long as optimal conditions were maintained. PMID:25617871

  16. Effect of sugarcane molasses extract on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a model system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Di; Chen, Ming-Shun; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2016-04-15

    Molasses, the main by-product of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study, sugarcane molasses extract was investigated for its total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant capacity. The experimental total phenolic content was 101.3 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) in 1 g of extract, IC50 of Trolox and sugarcane molasses extract were 125.33 μg/ml and 126.0 μg/ml, respectively. A chemical model system showed that the sugarcane molasses extract effectively reduced the formation of phenylacetaldehyde and the aldol condensation product, meanwhile, the amount of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) also decreased. This could be due to the reaction between the phenolic compounds of sugarcane molasses extract and the carbonyl group of phenylacetaldehyde inhibiting the aldol condensation product formation, and this would suppress the formation of PhIP. A pathway that phenolic compounds inhibited the formation of PhIP is proposed. This pathway also suggested a mechanism for how the sugarcane affects the formation of PHIP. PMID:26617035

  17. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey; maple sugar; or any of the sweeteners listed...

  18. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey; maple sugar; or any of the sweeteners listed...

  19. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey; maple sugar; or any of the sweeteners listed...

  20. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey; maple sugar; or any of the sweeteners listed...

  1. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  2. Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

    2013-04-01

    The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area

  3. New energy crop giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops increasing biogas yield and reducing costs.

    PubMed

    Luca, Corno; Pilu, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Giant cane is a promising non-food crop for biogas production. Giant cane and corn silages coming from full-scale fields were tested, in mixtures with pig slurry, for biomethane production by a continuous stirred tank lab-scale-reactor (CSTR) approach. Results indicated that giant cane produced less biomethane than corn, i.e. 174±10 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1) and 245±26 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1), respectively. On the other hand, because of its high field biomass production, the biogas obtainable per Ha was higher for giant cane than for corn, i.e. 12,292 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1) and 4549 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1), respectively. Low energetic and agronomic inputs for giant cane cultivation led to a considerable reduction in the costs of producing both electricity and biomethane, i.e. 0.50 € N m(-3) CH4(-1) and 0.81 € N m(-3) CH4(-1), and 0.10 € kW hEE(-1) and 0.19 € kW hEE(-1) for biomethane and electricity production, and for giant cane and corn mixtures respectively. PMID:25997008

  4. [Effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit under low nitrogen condition].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-bo; Peng, Dong-hai; Qin, Liu-dong; Xing, Yong-xiu; Li, Yang-rui; Yang, Li-tao

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit, three sugarcane cultivars (B8, ROC22 and GT21) planted under sugarcane monoculture and sugarcane-soybean intercropping with low nitrogen fertilization (urea application of 150 kg · hm(-2)). The field design was a split-plot with the cropping pattern being the principal factor and the sugarcane cultivar being the secondary factor. The results showed that the millable stalks, stalk diameter, cane yield and sugar production were significantly affected by sugarcane-soybean intercropping while the cane quality wasn' t changed obviously. Compared with sugarcane monoculture, the stalk diameter, millable stalks, cane yield and sugar production in the intercropping system were increased by 5.1%-8.7%, 7.9%-31.0%, 9.0%-40.5% and 5.6%-39.5%, respectively. The total incomes of cane and soybean, and sugar and soybean were increased by 58900-79300 yuan · hm(-2) and 58300-77200 yuan · hm(-2), respectively. Among the three sugarcane cultivars in the sugarcane-soybean intercropping pattern, the economic benefit was the highest in ROC22, while the ratoon cane yields of GT21 and B8 were higher than that of ROC22. The results also indicated that sugarcane-soybean intercropping is an effective planting method to reduce nitrogen fertilizer application and increase economic income in sugarcane production. PMID:26571661

  5. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil-brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or without nitrate to boost microbial growth. Growth of the indigenous microbes was stimulated by addition of molasses. Pyrosequencing showed that specifically Anaerobaculum, Petrotoga, and Methanothermococcus were enriched. Addition of nitrate favored the growth of Petrotoga over Anaerobaculum. The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil-brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil-brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs. PMID:25894951

  6. From Wheelchair to Cane: Elective Transtibial Amputations in a Patient with Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-11-01

    Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  7. Characterisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I in the Australian Cane Toad, Rhinella marina

    PubMed Central

    Lillie, Mette; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I is a highly variable gene family that encodes cell-surface receptors vital for recognition of intracellular pathogens and initiation of immune responses. The MHC class I has yet to be characterised in bufonid toads (Order: Anura; Suborder: Neobatrachia; Family: Bufonidae), a large and diverse family of anurans. Here we describe the characterisation of a classical MHC class I gene in the Australian cane toad, Rhinella marina. From 25 individuals sampled from the Australian population, we found only 3 alleles at this classical class I locus. We also found large number of class I alpha 1 alleles, implying an expansion of class I loci in this species. The low classical class I genetic diversity is likely the result of repeated bottleneck events, which arose as a result of the cane toad's complex history of introductions as a biocontrol agent and its subsequent invasion across Australia. PMID:25093458

  8. Nonlinear dynamics approach to the predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, L.; Kirtman, B.

    2014-01-01

    The predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model is investigated using nonlinear dynamics analysis. Newer theoretical concepts are applied to the coupled model in order to help quantify maximal prediction horizons for finite amplitude perturbations on different scales. Predictability analysis based on the maximum Lyapunov exponent considers infinitesimal perturbations, which are associated with errors in the smallest fastest-evolving scales of motion. However, these errors become irrelevant for the predictability of larger scale motions. In this study we employed finite-size Lyapunov exponent analysis to assess the predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model as a function of scale. We demonstrate the existence of fast and slow timescales, as noted in earlier studies, and the expected enhanced predictability of the anomalies on large scales. The final results and conclusions clarify the applicability of these new methods to seasonal forecasting problems.

  9. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from 'floor dump sediment', 'cooling tower water', and 'bagasse leachate'. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as 'lactic acid bacteria', capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

  10. Characterisation of sugar cane straw waste as pozzolanic material for construction: Calcining temperature and kinetic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Frias, Moises

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports on the influence of calcining temperature (800 and 1000 deg. C) on the pozzolanic activation of sugar cane straw (SCS). The reaction kinetics of SCS ash-lime mixtures were inferred from physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetry analysis. The fitting of a kinetic-diffusive model to the experimental data (fixed lime versus time) allowed the computing of the kinetic parameters (reaction rate constant) of the pozzolanic reaction. Results obtained confirm that the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) calcined at 800 and 1000 deg. C have properties indicative of very high pozzolanic activity. No influence of calcining temperature on the pozzolanic activity was observed. Also, no crystalline compounds during the pozzolanic reaction were identified up to 90 days of reaction. Environmental durability and strength of the consequential mortars remain to be assessed.

  11. Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Vitolo, M.

    1997-12-31

    Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  12. [The sugar cane blight of the 1860s: science applied to agriculture].

    PubMed

    Bediaga, Begonha

    2012-12-01

    The Imperial Instituto Fluminense de Cultura (Fluminense Imperial Institute of Agriculture) encouraged debate with a view to eradicating the blight that devastated sugar cane plantations in the State of Bahia. Rural landowners, government officials and men of science participated in the discussions. The article presents the context of the sciences applied to agriculture, especially agricultural chemistry and the repercussions of the 'discoveries' of Justus Liebig in Brazil. The debate at the Imperial Instituto about the sugar cane blight was analyzed, together with the ideas espoused there and the characters involved in the issue. The procedures and solutions presented are studied, as well as the formation of knowledge networks around the agricultural sciences, which was in the process of institutionalization at the time. PMID:23184239

  13. Scalings at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer (Bavarian Molasse Baisin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhl, Bernhard; Herbrich, Moritz; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Scalings at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer (Bavarian Molasse Basin) (Herbrich, M., Köhl, B., Baumann, T.) Scalings are a widespread problem among geothermal plants which exploit the Malm Aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Zone. They effect the technical and economic efficiency of geothermal plants and cause costly revisions of the geothermal cycle. Scalings observed at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer mainly consist of different CaCO3 polymorphs and are found at the motor, in the pumps and pipes and throughout the groundlevel facilities including the heat exchangers. There are two main processes leading to a disruption of the carbonate equilibrium and causing these CaCO3 scalings: local temperature peaks and degassing of less soluble gases due to local pressure drops. While the increase of the temperature leads to a local supersaturation at the hot surface of e.g. the motor, the formation of gas bubbles strips all soluble gases from the solution according to the Henry equilibrum constants, thus shifting the carbonate-equilibrium towards less soluble CaCO3. In order to prevent the formation of scalings, these processes have to be quantified. Therefore, we investigated the scalings in all sections of the geothermal cycle at geothermal plants in the Malm Aquifer. So far, we have sampled scalings from the pumps and the production pipes after three exchanges of the pump, scalings collected in the particle filters, scalings from the ground level geothermal facilities, and scalings from the injection pipes. The samples were characterized by REM-EDX, XRD, and image processing to assess the mineralogical features and the elemental composition. The porosity and bulk density were measured to assess the mass of the deposits and to calculate the kinetics of the formation. All together, this generated a unique quantitative dataset with a spatial resolution of 9 m along the production tubes. The thickness of the scalings first decreases from the

  14. Thermal and exhumation histories from borehole thermochronometer samples in the Swiss Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillon, Charlotte; Ehlers, Todd; Enkelmann, Eva; Becker, Jens K.; Schnellmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, significant interest has emerged to better understand the links between the foreland basin evolution and the erosion history of the Alps. For this, the European Alps are indeed a well-suited study region since the hinterland and the Swiss Molasse basin erosion rates and timing were extensively studied using basin analysis, and low-temperature thermochronology 1-4,5,6. However, the driving mechanisms for the post-Miocene erosion of the Swiss Molasse basin remains controversial, and several papers discuss whether global climatic changes1 or local variations of base level7,8,9 have controlled the erosion of the basin. With this study, we add quantitative constraints on the late-stage history of the basin by presenting new AFT and AHe dataset (respectively 16 and 19 samples) from two boreholes located ~30 km apart from each other, one located close to the center (Sonnengarten, depth of 3500 m) and one located to the North (Benken, depth of 100 m) of the basin. The data are derived from Triassic to Pliocene sand deposits as well as the underlying gneissic basement rocks and both AFT and AHe results are ranging from Pliocene to Triassic ages. The two dataset present very different age patterns which make the direct interpretation difficult. Therefore, thermal models using the QTQt software10,11 have been performed. This software is capable to evaluate cooling rates and timing using multiple samples from a single borehole. To test the robustness of the simulations, several runs for each borehole based on different data sets were performed, and showed some discrepancies between the resulting thermal histories. We provide, based on the simulations results, the most probable erosion estimates which are in the same range as the ones proposed in previous studies in the basin. For the borehole Benken, we reproduce a long and slow erosion phase starting at 23 Ma, with an overall estimate of the amount of eroded sediments ranging between 1.2 to 2 km. For the

  15. Noteworthy Facts about a Methane-Producing Microbial Community Processing Acidic Effluent from Sugar Beet Molasses Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Szczęsny, Paweł; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław K.; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Detman, Anna; Salamon, Agnieszka; Sikora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a complex process involving hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The separation of the hydrogen-yielding (dark fermentation) and methane-yielding steps under controlled conditions permits the production of hydrogen and methane from biomass. The characterization of microbial communities developed in bioreactors is crucial for the understanding and optimization of fermentation processes. Previously we developed an effective system for hydrogen production based on long-term continuous microbial cultures grown on sugar beet molasses. Here, the acidic effluent from molasses fermentation was used as the substrate for methanogenesis in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. This study focused on the molecular analysis of the methane-yielding community processing the non-gaseous products of molasses fermentation. The substrate for methanogenesis produces conditions that favor the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methane synthesis. Methane production results from syntrophic metabolism whose key process is hydrogen transfer between bacteria and methanogenic Archaea. High-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of total DNA isolated from the methanogenic microbial community and bioinformatic sequence analysis revealed that the domain Bacteria was dominated by Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), Bacteroidetes, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, Cloacimonetes and Spirochaetes. In the domain Archaea, the order Methanomicrobiales was predominant, with Methanoculleus as the most abundant genus. The second and third most abundant members of the Archaeal community were representatives of the Methanomassiliicoccales and the Methanosarcinales. Analysis of the methanogenic sludge by scanning electron microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that it was composed of small highly heterogeneous mineral-rich granules. Mineral components of methanogenic granules probably modulate syntrophic metabolism and methanogenic

  16. Thermal history of the westernmost Eastern Alps (Penninic Rhenodanubian Flysch nappes, Helvetic nappes, and Subalpine Molasse thrust sheets)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerlauth, Michael; Bertrand, Audrey; Rantitsch, Gerd; Groß, Doris; Ortner, Hugo; Pomella, Hannah; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    The frontal part of the westernmost Eastern Alps comprises from top to bottom of the Austroalpine and Penninic nappes, Ultrahelvetic slices, and two Helvetic thrust sheets, thrust upon the northern Alpine Molasse Basin. The thermal evolution of the Penninic Rhenodanubian Flysch nappes, the Helvetic nappes, and the allochthonous part of the Alpine Molasse Basin is constrained by vitrinite reflectance measurements and apatite fission track dating and implemented in a tectonic evolution scheme. Within the Helvetic nappes, vitrinite reflectance increases regionally from north to south and stratigraphically from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Wang Formation to the Toarcian Mols Member. Apatite fission track ages from Penninic and Subalpine Molasse units are consistently younger than the deposition age. They indicate therefore a post-depositional thermal overprint exceeding approximately 120 °C, the upper temperature limit of the apatite partial annealing zone. 1D thermal modelling suggests that the Penninic nappes attained deepest burial between the latest Cretaceous and Early Palaeocene with the Penninic basal thrust being located at approximately 8 km in the north compared to approximately 12 km in the south. Deepest burial of the upper Helvetic nappe occurred between the latest Eocene and Early Miocene. Its base was buried down to approximately 10.5 km in the north compared to 11.5 km in the south. Exhumation of the entire nappe stack started in the Early to Middle Miocene. For both Penninic and Helvetic models, a heatflow minimum during the Cenozoic deformation (max. 27-32 mW/m2), followed by an increase from the Middle Miocene onwards (up to 60 mW/m2), was assumed.

  17. Development and application of a new biotechnology of the molasses in-situ method; detailed evaluation for selected wells in the Romashkino carbonate reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.; Lungerhausen, D.; Murtada, H.; Rosenthal, G.

    1995-12-31

    On the basis of different laboratory studies, by which special strains of the type Clostridium tyrobutyricum were found, the application of molasses in-situ method for the enhanced recovery of oil in Romashkino oil field was executed. In an anaerobic, 6%-molasses medium the strains produce about 11,400 mg/l of organic acids (especially butyric acid), 3,200 mg/l ethanol, butanol, etc., and more than 350 ml/g of molasses biogas with a content of 80% C0{sub 2} and 20% H{sub 2}. The metabolics of Clostridium tyrobutyricum depress the growth of SRB, whereas methanogenic bacteria grow in an undiluted fermented molasses medium very well. In this way the dominant final fermentation process is methanogenesis. By laboratory studies with original cores under the conditions of the carbonate reservoir in Bashkir, the recovery of oil increased from 15% after waterflooding to 29% OOIP during the treatment with molasses and bacteria. We developed a new biotechnological method for a self-regulated, automatic continuous culture and constructed a special pilot plant with a high technical standard. The plant produced during the pilot on Romashkino field (September 1992 to August 1994) about 1,000 m{sup 3} of clean inoculum with a content of 3-4 billion cells per ml. This inoculum was injected in slugs together with 15,000 m{sup 3} of molasses medium, first in one, later in five wells. We will demonstrate for two example wells the complex microbiological and chemical changes in the oil, gas, and water phases, and their influences on the recover of oil.

  18. Provenance Analysis of Lower Miocene Sediments in the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Palzer, Markus; Wagreich, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In the Early Miocene (Late Ottnangian) a global drop of the sea level and the continuous rise of the Alps caused a regression of the Paratethys. During this time interval the Traisen Formation (formerly Oncophora beds) was deposited in the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin. These yellowish-brownish to greyish mica-rich and carbonate-free sands and silts with clayish interlayers were originally named after a brackish water bivalve ("Oncophora"- now Rzehakia). The southeastern part of the TF partly interfingers with finer sands of the Dietersdorf Formation (DF). The Pixendorf Group combines the TF and the DF [coarse sands, conglomerates, blocks] of the Upper Ottnangian lithostratigraphic units in Lower Austria. West to the Waschberg Zone a deeper-water environment (so called Oncophora beds in former literature, herein [informally] renamed to Wildendürnbach Member) with sediment gravity flows (turbidites, muddy/sandy slumps) is inferred from OMV well data. Examinations of these fine sandstones, silts and laminated pelites have been carried out on the basis of the Wildendürnbach-4 OMV drilling core. Analyses of the TF revealed rather homogenous heavy mineral assemblages, dominated by high amounts of garnet (~65%) and relatively high amounts of epidote/zoisite (~10%) and amphiboles (~10%). Conducted surveys point towards a primary influence of metamorphic (metapelitic) source rocks of Austroalpine Crystalline Complexes of the rising Eastern Alps. Heavy mineral analysis of the WDK-4 drilling core showed even higher amounts of garnet (~80%) combined with minor amounts of rutile, staurolite, apatite, epidote/zoisite, tourmalines, zircon and amphiboles. Consistent heavy mineral assemblages and chemical data (EMPA) suggest a stratigraphical correlation with the Křepice Formation and the Ždánice-Hustopeče Formation in the Czech Republic and sedimentary influence from the Western Carpathian Flysch Belt.

  19. The Tiddiline Formation: An Enigmatic Pan African Molasse of the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefferan, K. P.; Inglis, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Tiddiline Formation, once regarded as a post-Pan African Orogeny rift basin unit, is now recognized as a syn-collisional molasse unit recording important regional compression between the Bou Azzer ophiolite and the West African Craton. This coarsening upwards sequence records the uplift and unroofing of a foreland basin and cannabalization of those clasts in an intraformational conglomerate. Over the past ten years, precise U-Pb radiometric dates have provided constraints on the ages of plutonism and metamorphism in the Anti-Atlas Mountains. However, the age of the Tiddiline Formation - and the cessation of the Pan African Orogeny-- continues to elude researchers. Published reports suggest that the Tiddiline Formation may be >650 Ma (Saghro Group) or younger than 560 Ma (Ouarzazate Group). Basin development appears to post-date a regional metamorphism event traditionally associated with arc-continent collision, which is marked by an apparent unconformity between the Tiddiline and deformed metasediments and syn-tectonic intrusions. Subsequent folding and faulting of the Tiddiline Formation indicates that the region underwent renewed shortening after collisional metamorphism. Currently our understanding of the wider tectonic implications associated with the development of the Tiddiline basin and its subsequent deformation is limited. In particular, questions remain about whether the formation records i) a continuum of collision and exhumation of the colliding arc following regional metamorphism; or ii) extension, then, rejuvenation of shortening associated with final oblique suturing. Therefore, understanding the evolution and age of basin development and deformation is of critical importance to our understanding of Latest Neoproterozoic Pan African tectonic events. This study examines field mapping and geochronologic data and proposes that the Tiddiline Formation is a distinct rock Formation, the age of which must be verified through a careful U-Pb analysis of

  20. [Natural presence of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin in the sugar cane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Estrada, María Elena; Romero, Maritza; Rivero, María Julia; Barroso, Francisco

    2004-03-01

    The natural presence of Beauveria bassiana was determined (Balsamo) Vuillemin from insects with mycotic symptoms collected in leaves and in the stalks of sugar cane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) in Pinar del Río, Ciudad de la Habana, Habana, Matanzas, Villa Clara, Cienfuegos and Camagüey. The results obtained demonstrate the natural presence of the entomopathogen fungus in larvae and chrysalises of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) and they suggest the basis for the strategy of biological control against this borer. PMID:15458363

  1. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  2. Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

  3. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  4. Differentially delayed root proteome responses to salt stress in sugar cane varieties.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Cinthya Mirella; Pestana-Calsa, Maria Clara; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Mansur Custodio Nogueira, Rejane Jurema; Menossi, Marcelo; Calsa, Tercilio

    2013-12-01

    Soil salinity is a limiting factor to sugar cane crop development, although in general plants present variable mechanisms of tolerance to salinity stress. The molecular basis underlying these mechanisms can be inferred by using proteomic analysis. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify differentially expressed proteins in sugar cane plants submitted to salinity stress. For that, a greenhouse experiment was established with four sugar cane varieties and two salt conditions, 0 mM (control) and 200 mM NaCl. Physiological and proteomics analyses were performed after 2 and 72 h of stress induction by salt. Distinct physiological responses to salinity stress were observed in the varieties and linked to tolerance mechanisms. In proteomic analysis, the roots soluble protein fraction was extracted, quantified, and analyzed through bidimensional electrophoresis. Gel images analyses were done computationally, where in each contrast only one variable was considered (salinity condition or variety). Differential spots were excised, digested by trypsin, and identified via mass spectrometry. The tolerant variety RB867515 showed the highest accumulation of proteins involved in growth, development, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species metabolization, protein protection, and membrane stabilization after 2 h of stress. On the other hand, the presence of these proteins in the sensitive variety was verified only in stress treatment after 72 h. These data indicate that these stress responses pathways play a role in the tolerance to salinity in sugar cane, and their effectiveness for phenotypical tolerance depends on early stress detection and activation of the coding genes expression. PMID:24251627

  5. Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2009-04-15

    Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degree sign C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  6. Augmenting white cane reliability using smart glove for visually impaired people.

    PubMed

    Bernieri, Giuseppe; Faramondi, Luca; Pascucci, Federica

    2015-08-01

    The independent mobility problem of visually impaired people has been an active research topic in biomedical engineering: although many smart tools have been proposed, traditional tools (e.g., the white cane) continue to play a prominent role. In this paper a low cost smart glove is presented: the key idea is to minimize the impact in using it by combining the traditional tools with a technological device able to improve the movement performance of the visually impaired people. PMID:26738160

  7. Controls of erosional denudation in the orogen on foreland basin evolution: The Oligocene central Swiss Molasse Basin as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Jordan, Teresa E.; Klaper, Eva Maria

    1997-10-01

    A high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction of the 25-m.y.-old central Swiss Molasse Basin reveals two sedimentary domains separated by a ˜5-km-wide flood-plain. The proximal domain of the basin attained a width of 20 km, and its basement is steeply flexed (6°-7° dip). Petrographic data indicate that it was filled by sediment from the Rigi dispersal system derived from the central Alps of eastern Switzerland and by locally sourced bajadas. In contrast, the distal sedimentary domain, located farther north, was gently dipping (<2°) and was filled by the meandering Lac Léman and Honegg dispersal systems. Chronological data reveal that sedimentation in the northern proximal part of the basin started at ˜27 Ma, when sediment supply to the basin started to increase. Deflection of the foreland plate at ˜25 Ma is successfully simulated by flexural modeling of the thrust load and the sediment load. The model reveals that the Lac Léman and Honegg dispersal systems are located on a buried flexural bulge. Furthermore, it shows that burial and suppression of the flexural bulge at ˜27 Ma as well as an increase of the basin wavelength were controlled by the contemporaneous increase in the sediment supply rate of the Rigi system. The model presented suggests that the tectonic subsidence of the Molasse Basin was mainly controlled by tectonic events in the northern part of the orogen, within ˜70 km distance from the tip of the orogenic wedge. Crustal thickening in this part of the orogen is reflected in the proximal Molasse by sedimentary cycles characterized by an increase in the sediment accumulation rates up section and by the presence of locally sourced bajada fans at the top of each cycle. Although south vergent back thrusting along the Insubric Line ˜150 km south of the foreland basin contributed little to flexure, it resulted in an increase of the sediment supply to the foreland basin. This is reflected in the Molasse by coarsening and thickening upward

  8. Comparative Tertiary stratigraphy of the Rhine Graben, Bresse Graben and Molasse Basin: correlation of Alpine foreland events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissingh, W.

    1998-12-01

    Comparative tectonostratigraphic analysis of the Tertiary (Middle Eocene-Pliocene) of the Rhine-Bresse graben system and the western Molasse Basin demonstrates the occurrence of eleven correlative sequences (CRF I-XI). These show a close relationship between intra-basinal tectonics and depositional history. Their punctuated sediment accumulation can be related to phases of extra-Alpine taphrogenesis and Alpine orogenesis, and to coeval eustatic changes in sea-level. Apparent simultaneity in rift and foredeep sequence development, structural deformation and global change in sea-level suggests a common causal control in which the development of the Alps played an important role.

  9. Beyond optical molasses: 3D raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density

    PubMed

    Kerman; Vuletic; Chin; Chu

    2000-01-17

    We demonstrate a simple, general purpose method to cool neutral atoms. A sample containing 3x10(8) cesium atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap is cooled and simultaneously spin polarized in 10 ms at a density of 1.1x10(11) cm (-3) to a phase space density nlambda(3)(dB) = 1/500, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than attainable in free space with optical molasses. The technique is based on 3D degenerate Raman sideband cooling in optical lattices and remains efficient even at densities where the mean lattice site occupation is close to unity. PMID:11015933

  10. Design, development, and clinical evaluation of the electronic mobility cane for vision rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Bhatlawande, Shripad; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Biswas, Mukul; Das, Debabrata; Gupta, Somedeb

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a new electronic mobility cane (EMC) for providing obstacle detection and way-finding assistance to the visually impaired people. The main feature of this cane is that it constructs the logical map of the surrounding environment to deduce the priority information. It provides a simplified representation of the surrounding environment without causing any information overload. It conveys this priority information to the subject by using intuitive vibration, audio or voice feedback. The other novel features of the EMC are staircase detection and nonformal distance scaling scheme. It also provides information about the floor status. It consists of a low power embedded system with ultrasonic sensors and safety indicators. The EMC was subjected to series of clinical evaluations in order to verify its design and to assess its ability to assist the subjects in their daily-life mobility. Clinical evaluations were performed with 16 totally blind and four low vision subjects. All subjects walked controlled and the real-world test environments with the EMC and the traditional white cane. The evaluation results and significant scores of subjective measurements have shown the usefulness of the EMC in vision rehabilitation services. PMID:24860035

  11. Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs

    PubMed Central

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax. PMID:16348144

  12. Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

    2010-05-01

    Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg. PMID:20133118

  13. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  14. Fate of Tebuthiuron and Hexazinone in Green-Cane Harvesting System.

    PubMed

    Toniêto, Thiago Antônio Pinheiro; de Pierri, Letícia; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2016-05-25

    In Brazil, fire prior to sugar cane harvesting has to be phased out by 2017, but it has already been phased out in up to 85-90% of the cropped area. The new system is called green cane and has entirely changed weed management practices. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of the straw presence as well as humic acid (HA), formulation, soil type, and aging on the sorption and leaching of (14)C-tebuthiuron and hexazinone. Both herbicides presented low sorption for all treatments (Kd,app ≤ 3.25 L kg(-1)), but it was higher for tebuthiuron in the clayer soil (LVd). Straw and aging only slightly enhanced sorption. The HA effects were not clear. Sorption was mostly affected by herbicide and soil type. Straw may promote physical trapping (∼40% of applied amount), which cannot be accessed by "batch" sorption (∼15% of the applied amount is sorbed), attenuating leaching of highly mobile herbicides in green-cane systems. To properly assess leaching through straw residues under laboratory condition, rainfall distribution is very important. PMID:26731582

  15. Wearable Gait Measurement System with an Instrumented Cane for Exoskeleton Control

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Modar; Kadone, Hideki; Suzuki, Kenji; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    In this research we introduce a wearable sensory system for motion intention estimation and control of exoskeleton robot. The system comprises wearable inertial motion sensors and shoe-embedded force sensors. The system utilizes an instrumented cane as a part of the interface between the user and the robot. The cane reflects the motion of upper limbs, and is used in terms of human inter-limb synergies. The developed control system provides assisted motion in coherence with the motion of other unassisted limbs. The system utilizes the instrumented cane together with body worn sensors, and provides assistance for start, stop and continuous walking. We verified the function of the proposed method and the developed wearable system through gait trials on treadmill and on ground. The achievement contributes to finding an intuitive and feasible interface between human and robot through wearable gait sensors for practical use of assistive technology. It also contributes to the technology for cognitively assisted locomotion, which helps the locomotion of physically challenged people. PMID:24445417

  16. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of sugar cane renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marcelo; Gurgel, Angelo C; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-12-16

    This study evaluated the life cycle GHG emissions of a renewable jet fuel produced from sugar cane in Brazil under a consequential approach. The analysis included the direct and indirect emissions associated with sugar cane production and fuel processing, distribution, and use for a projected 2020 scenario. The CA-GREET model was used as the basic analytical tool, while Land Use Change (LUC) emissions were estimated employing the GTAP-BIO-ADV and AEZ-EF models. Feedstock production and LUC impacts were evaluated as the main sources of emissions, respectively estimated as 14.6 and 12 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case. However, the renewable jet fuel would strongly benefit from bagasse and trash-based cogeneration, which would enable a net life cycle emission of 8.5 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case, whereas Monte Carlo results indicate 21 ± 11 g CO2eq/MJ. Besides the major influence of the electricity surplus, the sensitivity analysis showed that the cropland-pasture yield elasticity and the choice of the land use factor employed to sugar cane are relevant parameters for the biofuel life cycle performance. Uncertainties about these estimations exist, especially because the study relies on projected performances, and further studies about LUC are also needed to improve the knowledge about their contribution to the renewable jet fuel life cycle. PMID:25419647

  17. A genetic perspective on rapid evolution in cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Rollins, Lee A; Richardson, Mark F; Shine, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The process of biological invasion exposes a species to novel pressures, in terms of both the environments it encounters and the evolutionary consequences of range expansion. Several invaders have been shown to exhibit rapid evolutionary changes in response to those pressures, thus providing robust opportunities to clarify the processes at work during rapid phenotypic transitions. The accelerating pace of invasion of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia during its 80-year history has been well characterized at the phenotypic level, including common-garden experiments that demonstrate heritability of several dispersal-relevant traits. Individuals from the invasion front (and their progeny) show distinctive changes in morphology, physiology and behaviour that, in combination, result in far more rapid dispersal than is true of conspecifics from long-colonized areas. The extensive body of work on cane toad ecology enables us to place into context studies of the genetic basis of these traits. Our analyses of differential gene expression from toads from both ends of this invasion-history transect reveal substantial upregulation of many genes, notably those involved in metabolism and cellular repair. Clearly, then, the dramatically rapid phenotypic evolution of cane toads in Australia has been accompanied by substantial shifts in gene expression, suggesting that this system is well suited to investigating the genetic underpinnings of invasiveness. PMID:25894012

  18. An improved chemically inducible gene switch that functions in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, R Jason; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; De Lucca, Paulo C; Palupe, Anthony; Harrison, Mark D; Jepson, Ian; Dale, James L; Sainz, Manuel B

    2014-03-01

    Chemically inducible gene switches can provide precise control over gene expression, enabling more specific analyses of gene function and expanding the plant biotechnology toolkit beyond traditional constitutive expression systems. The alc gene expression system is one of the most promising chemically inducible gene switches in plants because of its potential in both fundamental research and commercial biotechnology applications. However, there are no published reports demonstrating that this versatile gene switch is functional in transgenic monocotyledonous plants, which include some of the most important agricultural crops. We found that the original alc gene switch was ineffective in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane, and describe a modified alc system that is functional in this globally significant crop. A promoter consisting of tandem copies of the ethanol receptor inverted repeat binding site, in combination with a minimal promoter sequence, was sufficient to give enhanced sensitivity and significantly higher levels of ethanol inducible gene expression. A longer CaMV 35S minimal promoter than was used in the original alc gene switch also substantially improved ethanol inducibility. Treating the roots with ethanol effectively induced the modified alc system in sugar cane leaves and stem, while an aerial spray was relatively ineffective. The extension of this chemically inducible gene expression system to sugar cane opens the door to new opportunities for basic research and crop biotechnology. PMID:24142380

  19. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol. PMID:25856060

  20. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter. PMID:26621111