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1

Impact of molasses quality on ethyl alcohol fermentation by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

E-print Network

??Includes synopsis. The use of blackstrap cane molasses in industrial ethanol production is characterised by fluctuations in fermentation efficiency due to its compositional variation. Crucial… (more)

Sibanda, Mkhululi Benedict.

2009-01-01

2

Citric acid production by selected mutants of Aspergillus niger from cane molasses.  

PubMed

The present investigation deals with citric acid production by some selected mutant strains of Aspergillus niger from cane molasses in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks. For this purpose, a conidial suspension of A. niger GCB-75, which produced 31.1 g/l citric acid from 15% (w/v) molasses sugar, was subjected to UV-induced mutagenesis. Among the 3 variants, GCM-45 was found to be a better producer of citric acid (50.0 +/- 2a) and it was further improved by chemical mutagenesis using N-methyl, N-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG). Out of 3,2-deoxy-D-glucose resistant variants, GCMC-7 was selected as the best mutant, which produced 96.1 +/- 1.5 g/l citric acid 168 h after fermentation of potassium ferrocyanide and H2SO4 pre-treated blackstrap molasses in Vogel's medium. On the basis of kinetic parameters such as volumetric substrate uptake rate (Qs), and specific substrate uptake rate (qs), the volumetric productivity, theoretical yield and specific product formation rate, it was observed that the mutants were faster growing organisms and produced more citric acid. The mutant GCMC-7 has greater commercial potential than the parental strain with regard to citrate synthase activity. The addition of 2.0 x 10(-5) M MgSO4 x 5H2O into the fermentation medium reduced the Fe2+ ion concentration by counter-acting its deleterious effect on mycelial growth. The magnesium ions also induced a loose-pelleted form of growth (0.6 mm, diameter), reduced the biomass concentration (12.5 g/l) and increased the volumetric productivity of citric acid monohydrate (113.6 +/- 5 g/l). PMID:15051073

Ikram-Ul, Haq; Ali, Sikander; Qadeer, M A; Iqbal, Javed

2004-06-01

3

Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses  

SciTech Connect

Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29

4

Fungal invertase as an aid for fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.4, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40 degrees C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5. (Refs. 8).

Park, Y.K.; Sato, H.H.

1982-10-01

5

Cane molasses as a source of precursors in the bioproduction of tryptophan by Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives The essential amino acid L-tryptophan can be produced by a condensation reaction between indole and L-serine, catalyzed by B. subtilis with tryptophan synthase activity. Application of the tryptophan is widespread in the biotechnology domain and is sometimes added to feed products as a food fortifier. Materials and Methods The optimum concentration of the Iranian cane molasses was determined by measuring the amount of biomass after growth in 1 to 30 g/mL of molasses. The maximum amount of biomass was obtained in 10 g/mL molasses. Chromatographic methods, TLC and HPLC, were used to assay the amount of tryptophan produced in the presence of precursors of tryptophan production (indole and serine) and/or molasses. Results Our results indicate the importance of the Iranian cane molasses not only as carbon source, but also as a source of precursors for tryptophan production. Conclusion This report evaluates the potential of cane molasses as an economical source for tryptophan production by B. subtilis, hence eliminating the requirement for additional serine and indole as precursors. PMID:24475338

Shasaltaneh, Marzieh Dehghan; Moosavi-Nejad, Zahra; Gharavi, Sara; Fooladi, Jamshid

2013-01-01

6

Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by cane molasses fermentation wastewater: detection by electrical impedance spectroscopy techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical impedance as a function of frequency (electrical impedance spectroscopy [EIS]) of both clean and fouled reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was monitored under osmotic pressure-driven conditions to introduce a water flux through the membranes. RO membranes were fouled using a pilot-scale facility with cane molasses wastewater. Fouling was revealed via a diffusion polarization layer observed below 100?Hz. This fouling

Jie Cen; John Kavanagh; Hans Coster; Geoff Barton

2012-01-01

7

Cost-effective lignocellulolytic enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei on a cane molasses medium  

PubMed Central

Background Cane molasses, an important residue of the sugar industry, have the potential as a cost-effective carbon source that could serve as nutrients for industrial enzyme-producing microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi. However, the enzyme mixtures produced in such a complex medium are poorly characterized. In this study, the secretome of Trichoderma reesei grown on a cane molasses medium (CMM) as well as on a lactose-based conventional medium (LCM) were compared and analyzed by using proteomics. Results In this study we show that both the CMM and LCM can serve as excellent growth media for T. reesei. The enzyme expression patterns in the two media were similar and a considerable number of the identified proteins on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) gels were those involved in biomass degradation. The most abundant cellulolytic enzymes identified in both media were cellobiohydrolases (Cel7A/Cel6A) and endoglucanases (Cel7A/Cel5A) and were found to be more abundant in CMM. We also found that both media can serve as an inducer of xylanolytic enzymes. The main xylanases (XYNI/XYNIV) and xyloglucanase (Cel74A) were found at higher concentrations in the CMM than LCM. Conclusions We analyzed the prevalent proteins secreted by T. reesei in the CMM and LCM. Here, we show that hydrolytic enzymes are cost-effective and can be produced on cane molasses as a carbon source which can be used to digest lignocellulolytic biomass. PMID:24655817

2014-01-01

8

Butanol production from cane molasses by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864: batch and semicontinuous fermentation.  

PubMed

Clostridium acetobutylicum strains used in most Chinese ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) plants favorably ferment starchy materials like corn, cassava, etc., rather than sugar materials. This is one major problem of ABE industry in China and significantly limits the exploitation of cheap waste sugar materials. In this work, cane molasses were utilized as substrate in ABE production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. Under optimum conditions, total solvent of 19.80 g/L (13.40 g/L butanol) was reached after 72 h of fermentation in an Erlenmeyer flask. In a 5-L bioreactor, total solvent of 17.88 g/L was attained after 36 h of fermentation, and the productivity and yield were 0.50 g/L/h and 0.33 g ABE/g sugar consumption, respectively. To further enhance the productivity, a two-stage semicontinuous fermentation process was steadily operated for over 8 days (205 h, 26 cycles) with average productivity (stage II) of 1.05 g/L/h and cell concentration (stage I) of 7.43 OD(660), respectively. The average batch fermentation time (stage I and II) was reduced to 21-25 h with average solvent of 15.27 g/L. This study provides valuable process data for the development of industrial ABE fermentation process using cane molasses as substrate. PMID:22362519

Ni, Ye; Wang, Yun; Sun, Zhihao

2012-04-01

9

Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.  

PubMed

L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid. PMID:24333698

Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

2014-02-01

10

High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale.  

PubMed

A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300?L, 3?m(3), and 12?m(3) fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65?m(3) working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18%?(w/v), inoculum size of 20%?(v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 10(8)/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10?kg/65?m(3) working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4?g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

Fadel, M; Keera, Abeer A; Mouafi, Foukia E; Kahil, Tarek

2013-01-01

11

Economical production of poly(?-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.  

PubMed

Poly(?-L-lysine) (?-PL) and poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) co-production by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 from cane molasses and hydrolysate of strepyomyces cells (HSC) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimal initial total sugar concentration of the cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was determined to be 20 g L(-1), and HSC could substitute for yeast extract for ?-PL and PDAP co-production. When fed-batch fermentation was performed in 1t fermentor with pretreated cane molasses and HSC, 20.6 ± 0.5 g L(-1) of ?-PL and 5.2 ± 0.6 g L(-1) of PDAP were obtained. The amount of strepyomyces cells obtained in one fed-batch fermentation is sufficient to prepare the HSC to satisfy the demand of subsequent fermentations, thus the self-cycling of organic nitrogen source becomes available. These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and HSC can be used for the economical production of ?-PL and PDAP by S. albulus PD-1. PMID:24861999

Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai

2014-07-01

12

Economical production of poly(?-glutamic acid) using untreated cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.  

PubMed

The production of poly(?-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 from cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL) was studied for the first time in this work. When batch fermentation was carried out with untreated molasses, 33.6±0.37 g L(-1) PGA was obtained with a productivity of 0.46±0.006 g L(-1) h(-1). In order to minimize the substrate inhibition, fed-batch fermentation was performed with untreated or hydrolyzed molasses in 7.5 L bioreactor, giving 50.2±0.53 and 51.1±0.51 g L(-1) of PGA at 96 h, respectively. Further studies were carried out by using MGWL as another carbon source, resulting in a PGA concentration of 52.1±0.52 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.54±0.003 g L(-1) h(-1). These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and MGWL can be used for the environmental-friendly and economical production of PGA by B. subtilis NX-2. PMID:22465581

Zhang, Dan; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Hong

2012-06-01

13

The utilization of sugar cane molasses with/without the presence of lignosulfonate for the production of bacterial cellulose.  

PubMed

Production of bacterial cellulose (BC) using sugar cane molasses (MO) with/without the presence of lignosulfonate (MOL) as a sole carbon source in a Hestrin-Schramm medium (HS) was investigated. Six strains of Acetobacter xylinum [American Type Culture Collection 10245 and Institute of Fermentation in Osaka (IFO) 13693, 13772, 13773, 14815, and 15237] were screened for their BC production. The yield of the BC among all the strains from both the MO and MOL media was much higher than that from the HS medium. Acetobacter xylinum IFO 13772 was the best BC producer for all media. Furthermore, physical properties of these BC from the HS, MO, and MOL media were studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, and cross polarization/magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. There are no significant differences in the crystallinity and the recorded Ialpha fraction among the BC produced from the different media. A remarkable difference was only recorded in terms of viscosity. These results indicate that MO is a better carbon source than glucose for most of the strains investigated. PMID:16450110

Keshk, Sherif; Sameshima, Kazuhiko

2006-09-01

14

Comparative metabolomic-based metabolic mechanism hypothesis for microbial mixed cultures utilizing cane molasses wastewater for higher 2-phenylethanol production.  

PubMed

The mixed microbes coculture method in cane molasses wastewater (CMW) was adopted to produce 2-phenylethanol (2-PE). Comparative metabolomics combined with multivariate statistical analysis was performed to profile the differences of overall intracellular metabolites concentration for the mixed microbes cocultured under two different fermentation conditions with low and high 2-PE production. In total 102 intracellular metabolites were identified, and 17 of them involved in six pathways were responsible for 2-PE biosynthesis. After further analysis of metabolites and verification by feeding experiment, an overall metabolic mechanism hypothesis for the microbial mixed cultures (MMC) utilizing CMW for higher 2-PE production was presented. The results demonstrated that the branches of intracellular pyruvate metabolic flux, as well as the flux of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, glutamate, proline, leucine, threonine, and oleic acid, were closely related to 2-PE production and cell growth, which provided theoretical guidance for domestication and selection of species as well as medium optimization for MMC metabolizing CMW to enhance 2-PE yield. PMID:25199087

Pan, Xinrong; Qi, Haishan; Mu, Li; Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang

2014-10-01

15

Optimization of L-Tryptophan Biosynthesis From L-Serine of Processed Iranian Beet and Cane Molasses and Indole by Induced Escherichia coli ATCC 11303 Cells  

PubMed Central

Background: L-tryptophan is an important ingredient in medicines, especially in neuromedicines such as antidepressants. Many commercial processes employ various microorganisms with high tryptophan synthase activity to produce L-tryptophan from indole and L-serine, but these processes are very costly due to the costs of precursors, especially L-serine. Objectives: For this reason, we studied the ability to use processed Iranian cane and beet molasses as L-serine sources for L-tryptophan production, which enables us to reach a cost-effective process. Materials and Methods: Whole cells of Escherichia coli ATCC 11303 were induced for L-tryptophan synthase by addition of indole to the growth medium and bacterial cells harvested from the growth medium were used as biocatalysts in the production medium. Conditions of the production medium were optimized and Iranian cane and beet molasses were processed by solvent extraction with ethanol and n-butanol and used as L-serine sources of the production medium. Amount of L-tryptophan and theoretical yield of L-tryptophan production were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and by a colorimetrical method on the basis of the remaining indole assay, respectively. Results: L-tryptophan production increased by 15 folds, when indole was used as an inducer. L-tryptophan was produced from processed Iranian beet molasses in satisfactory amounts (0.53 mM) and no exogenous pyridoxal phosphate was required as a cofactor under our experimental conditions. Conclusions: The obtained results proved that Iranian beet molasses include significant amounts of L-serine that makes them a suitable substitution for L-serine. Findings of the present study give impetus to use of Iranian beet molasses for cost-effective L-Trp production in the amino acid industry. PMID:25371801

Sadeghiyan-Rizi, Tahereh; Fooladi, Jamshid; Momhed Heravi, Majid; Sadrai, Sima

2014-01-01

16

Chitin and L(+)-lactic acid production from crab (Callinectes bellicosus) wastes by fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source.  

PubMed

Crab wastes are employed for simultaneous production of chitin and L(+)-lactic acid by submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source. Response surface methodology was applied to design the culture media considering demineralization. Fermentations in stirred tank reactor (2L) using selected conditions produced 88% demineralization and 56% deproteinization with 34% yield of chitin and 19.5 gL(-1) of lactic acid (77% yield). The chitin purified from fermentation displayed 95% degree of acetylation and 0.81 and 1 ± 0.125% of residual ash and protein contents, respectively. PMID:22367529

Flores-Albino, Belem; Arias, Ladislao; Gómez, Jorge; Castillo, Alberto; Gimeno, Miquel; Shirai, Keiko

2012-09-01

17

High fructose formation from sugarcane syrup and molasses using Zymomonas mobilis mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High fructose recovery yields were obtained using sugarcane syrup and C-molasses (equal to blackstrap molasses) and a fructokinase negative mutant ofZymomonas mobilis. The fructose recovery was 95.7% with sugarcane syrup and 99.4% with 300 g\\/L C-molasses or mixtures of both. High fructose corn syrup of a 48\\/52 mixture of glucose and fructose gave only a 65–70% fructose recovery due to

Monica B. Doelle; Horst W. Doelle

1991-01-01

18

Evaluation of baker's yeast strains exhibiting significant growth on Japanese beet molasses and compound analysis of the molasses types.  

PubMed

Cane molasses, most of which is imported, is used as a raw material for production of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Japan. On the other hand, beet molasses is scarcely used for this purpose, but it can be of great advantage to cane molasses because it is domestically produced in relatively high amounts as a by-product of beet sugar processing. However, the yield of baker's yeast is sometimes low with Japanese beet molasses compared to imported cane molasses. For the production of baker's yeast with Japanese beet molasses, we evaluated S. cerevisiae strains, including industrial and laboratory strains, to group them according to the growth profile on beet and cane molasses. To discuss the factors affecting growth, we further analyzed the major compounds in both types of molasses. Beet molasses seems to contain compounds that promote the growth of beet molasses-favoring strains rather than inhibit the growth of cane molasses-favoring strains. It was assumed that ?-amino acid was one of the growth promotion factors for beet molasses-favoring strains. PMID:24333188

Nakata, Hiroaki; Tamura, Masahiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

2014-06-01

19

Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from cane molasses using Clostridium beijerinckii mutant obtained by combined low-energy ion beam implantation and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induction.  

PubMed

In order to obtain mutant strains showing higher solvent tolerance and butanol production than those of wild-type strains, the butanol-producing strain Clostridium beijerinckii L175 was subjected to mutagenesis using a combined method of low-energy ion beam implantation and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induction. With this effort, mutant strain MUT3 was isolated. When it was used for butanol fermentation in P2 medium, the production of butanol was 15.8±0.7 g/L 46% higher than the wild-type strain. Furthermore, after optimization of butanol production from cane molasses with MUT3, the maximum butanol production of 14.9±0.5 g/L were obtained in crew-capped bottles. When ABE production by MUT3 was carried out in a bioreactor, the production of butanol and total solvent were 15.1±0.8 g/L and 22.1±0.9 g/L, respectively. The remarkable butanol production and solvent tolerance of MUT3 make it promising for butanol production from cane molasses. PMID:23587827

Li, Han-guang; Luo, Wei; Gu, Qiu-ya; Wang, Qiang; Hu, Wen-jun; Yu, Xiao-bin

2013-06-01

20

Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1  

PubMed Central

Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

Veana, F.; Martínez-Hernández, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

2014-01-01

21

Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.  

PubMed

Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

2014-01-01

22

Modeling and optimization of poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) production from cane molasses by Azohydromonas lata MTCC 2311 in a stirred-tank reactor: effect of agitation and aeration regimes.  

PubMed

The effects of agitation and aeration rates on copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] production by Azohydromonas lata MTCC 2311 using cane molasses supplemented with propionic acid in a bioreactor were investigated. The experiments were conducted in a three-level factorial design by varying the impeller (150-500 rev min(-1)) and aeration (0.5-1.5 vvm) rates. Further, the data were fitted to mathematical models [quadratic polynomial equation and artificial neural network (ANN)] and process variables were optimized by genetic algorithm-coupled models. ANN and hybrid ANN-GA were found superior for modeling and optimization of process variables, respectively. The maximum copolymer concentration of 7.45 g l(-1) with 21.50 mol% of 3HV was predicted at process variables: agitation speed, 287 rev min(-1); and aeration rate, 0.85 vvm, which upon validation gave 7.20 g l(-1) of P(3HB-co-3HV) with 21 mol% of 3HV with the prediction error (%) of 3.38 and 2.32, respectively. Agitation speed established a relative high importance of 72.19% than of aeration rate (27.80%) for copolymer accumulation. The volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (k (L) a) was strongly affected by agitation and aeration rates. The highest P(3HB-co-3HV) productivity of 0.163 g l(-1) h(-1) was achieved at 0.17 s(-1) of k (L) a value. During the early phase of copolymer production process, 3HB monomers were accumulated, which were shifted to 3HV units (9-21%) during the cultivation period of 24-42 h. The enhancement of 7.5 and 34% were reported for P(3HB-co-3HV) production and 3HV content, respectively, by hybrid ANN-GA paradigm, which revealed the significant utilization of cane molasses for improved copolymer production. PMID:22361743

Zafar, Mohd; Kumar, Shashi; Kumar, Surendra; Dhiman, Amit K

2012-07-01

23

General Subject 4, Molasses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A report is given on the lastest international trends in the analysis of molasses for trade and processing, as well as recommendations for methods to study. A new enzymatic method to measure reducing sugars in molasses still needs work to stabilize the enzymes. There is a strong concern, worldwide...

24

Molasses for Fattening Cattle.  

E-print Network

thick, black mass, having somewhat the appearance of coal tar, but a pleasant odor and sweet taste."" It runs on an average about twelve pounds to the eallon, or 170 gallons to the ton. The Texas factories produced from le 1904 crop 32,500 barrels... of this molasses. Of this amount 3,000 ~rrels were solcl to the cattle feeders of this State. COST OF IIOLASSES.-T~~ sugar refining companies offer feeding molasses in barrels at 6 cents per gallon. A barrel contains on an aver- age 50 gallons or 600 pounds...

Craig, John A. (John Alexander); Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert)

1906-01-01

25

Microbial decolorization and bioremediation of melanoidin containing molasses spent wash.  

PubMed

Molasses spent wash from cane-molasses based distilleries contains a brown coloured recalcitrantpolymer melanoidin, which if disposed untreated poses a great threat to environment. Microbial decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction was found to be dependent on specific carbon and nitrogen source. Under optimal condition of pH, carbon and nitrogen concentration for each treatment, it was found that Bacillus sp isolated from soil was capable of removing COD (85. 35%) and colour (81.10%) from distillery waste to the maximum extent after 9 days atpH 7 in the medium containing 0.5% peptone, 2% glucose and 10% (v/v), followed by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and lowest reduction was obtained by using native microbial consortium. PMID:18380094

Singh, K D; Sharma, S; Dwivedi, A; Pandey, P; Thakur, R L; Kumar, V

2007-07-01

26

A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sa?dere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

27

Identification of genes whose expressions are enhanced or reduced in baker's yeast during fed-batch culture process using molasses medium by DNA microarray analysis.  

PubMed

Genes whose expression levels are enhanced or reduced during the cultivation process that uses cane molasses in baker's yeast production were identified in this study. The results showed that baker's yeast grown in molasses medium had higher fermentation ability and stress tolerance compared with baker's yeast grown in synthetic medium. Molasses apparently provided not only sugar as a carbon source but also provided functional components that enhanced or reduced expression of genes involved in fermentation ability and stress tolerance. To identify the genes whose expression is enhanced or reduced during cultivation in molasses medium, DNA microarray analysis was then used to compare the gene expression profile of cells grown in molasses with that of cells grown in synthetic medium. To simulate the commercial baker's yeast production process, cells were cultivated using a fed-batch culture system. In molasses medium, genes involved in the synthesis or uptake of vitamins (e.g., biotin, pyridoxine and thiamine) showed enhanced expression, suggesting that vitamin concentrations in molasses medium were lower than those in synthetic medium. Genes involved in formate dehydrogenase and maltose assimilation showed enhanced expression in molasses medium. In contrast, genes involved in iron utilization (e.g., siderophore, iron transporter and ferroxidase) showed enhanced expression in synthetic medium, suggesting that iron starvation occurred. The genes involved in the metabolism of amino acids also showed enhanced expression in synthetic medium. This identification of genes provides information that will help improve the baker's yeast production process. PMID:15925003

Shima, Jun; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Tanaka, Fumiko; Watanabe, Hajime; Yamamoto, Hideki; Nakajima, Ryoichi; Tokashiki, Tadaaki; Tamura, Hiromi

2005-06-25

28

OLIGOSACCHARIDES IN CANE AND THEIR FORMATION ON CANE DETERIORATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cane deterioration in the field, factory storage pile, or during factory milling processes has become a major technical concern in recent years, especially in those areas where mechanical harvesting of billeted sugar cane has increased. Not all deterioration products advocated as cane deterioratio...

29

19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26 Customs Duties...and Molasses § 151.26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the port...

2014-04-01

30

Application of kaolin to improve citric acid production by a thermophilic Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citric acid production by a thermophilic strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger IIB-6 in a medium containing blackstrap cane molasses was improved by the addition of kaolin to the fermentation medium. The fermentation was run in a 7.5-l stirred bioreactor (60% working volume). The optimal sugar concentration was found to be 150 g\\/l. Kaolin (1.0 ml) was added to the fermentation

Sikander Ali

2006-01-01

31

Smart Cane: Assistive Cane for Visually-impaired People  

E-print Network

This paper reports on a study that helps visually-impaired people to walk more confidently. The study hypothesizes that a smart cane that alerts visually-impaired people over obstacles in front could help them in walking with less accident. The aim of the paper is to address the development work of a cane that could communicate with the users through voice alert and vibration, which is named Smart Cane. T he development work involves coding and physical installation. A series of tests have been carried out on the smart cane and the results are discussed. This study found that the Smart Cane functions well as intended, in alerting users about the obstacles in front

Wahab, Mohd Helmy Abd; Kadir, Herdawatie A; Johari, Ayob; Noraziah, A; Sidek, Roslina M; Mutalib, Ariffin A

2011-01-01

32

Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant number in Brazil, manufacture most of their ethanol from molasses, a low value co-product of raw sugar. Several producers in these countries have the capacity to export ethanol to California, but the GREET (from: greenhouse gas, regulated emissions and energy use in transportation) model, which is the LCA (lifecycle assessment) model of choice for most biofuel regulators including California, does not currently include this production pathway. We develop a modification to GREET to account for this pathway. We use the upstream and process lifecycle results from the existing GREET model for Brazilian ethanol to derive lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for ethanol manufactured from any combination of molasses and fresh cane juice. We find that ethanol manufactured with only molasses as a feedstock with all other processes and inputs identical to those of the average Brazilian mill has a lifecycle GHG (greenhouse gas) rating of 15.1 gCO2- eq MJ-1, which is significantly lower than the current California-GREET assigned rating of 26.6 gCO2- eq MJ-1. Our model can be applied at any level of granulation from the individual factory to an industry-wide average. We examine some ways in which current sugarcane producers could inaccurately claim this molasses credit. We discuss methods for addressing this in regulation.

Gopal, Anand R.; Kammen, Daniel M.

2009-10-01

33

21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

2011-04-01

34

21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

2010-04-01

35

Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder  

E-print Network

The Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder compresses carbonized sugar cane into charcoal briquettes. that are environmentally-friendly and comparable to wood charcoal in burn performance, cost, and durability. Originally developed ...

Ang, Dexter W

2005-01-01

36

Ensiling olive cake with and without molasses for ruminant feeding.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current experiment was to study the ensiling properties of olive cake with and without added molasses at 2-6% (w/w). The results indicate that molasses enhanced the ensiling fermentation of olive cake, as evidenced from higher lactic acid content and higher lactic acid bacteria numbers at 4% and 6% added molasses. However, when applied at 4% and 6% molasses increased fermentation losses up to 9.4%, probably due to larger yeast population. Polyphenols which could interfere with protein utilization by ruminants, decreased during ensiling by about 40%. It is concluded that molasses added at 3% could improve the ensiling fermentation of olive cake without substantial losses. PMID:17543518

Weinberg, Z G; Chen, Y; Weinberg, P

2008-04-01

37

Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

2012-01-01

38

Wetland paradise lost: Miocene community dynamics in large herbivorous mammals from the German Molasse Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions: What was the distribution of fossil mammal taxa in the Miocene German Molasse Basin? Were there changes in community structure during the terrestrial development of the Molasse Basin? Were community dynamics similar in the Molasse Basin to those in the rest of Europe? Data: We gathered the available Miocene large mammal herbivore occurrences from the southern German Molasse Basin

Jussi T. Eronen; Gertrud E. Rössner

2007-01-01

39

Short communication: Effects of molasses products on productivity and milk fatty acid profile of cows fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that replacing up to 5% [of dietary dry matter (DM)] corn with cane molasses can partially alleviate milk fat depression when cows are fed high-concentrate, low-fiber rations containing dried distillers grains with solubles. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether dietary molasses alters milk fatty acid (FA) profile or improves solids-corrected milk yield in the context of a more typical lactation diet. A secondary objective was to assess production responses to increasing rumen-degradable protein supply when molasses was fed. Twelve primiparous and 28 multiparous Holstein cows (196 ± 39 d in milk) were blocked by parity and assigned to 4 pens. Pens were randomly allocated to treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, balanced for carryover effects. Treatment periods were 21 d, with 17 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for sample and data collection. Treatments were a control diet, providing 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DM basis), 35% neutral detergent fiber, 30% starch, and 5% ether extract; a diet with 4.4% cane molasses replacing a portion of the corn grain; a diet with 2.9% molasses supplement containing 32% crude protein on a DM basis; and a diet with 5.8% (DM basis) molasses supplement. Animal-level data were analyzed using mixed models, including the fixed effect of treatment and the random effects of period, pen, period × pen interaction, and cow within pen to recognize pen as the experimental unit. Diets did not alter DM intake, milk production, milk component concentration or yield, feed efficiency (DM intake/milk yield), body weight change, or milk somatic cell count. Milk stearic acid content was increased by the diet containing 5.8% molasses supplement compared with the control diet and the diet containing 2.9% molasses supplement, but the magnitude of the effect was small (12.27, 11.75, and 11.69 ± 0.29 g/100g of FA). Production data revealed a dramatic effect of period on milk fat content and yield. Milk fat content decreased during the course of the experiment (least squares means = 3.16, 2.81, 2.93, and 2.64 ± 0.09% for periods 1 to 4, respectively), as did milk fat yield (1.20, 1.03, 0.98, and 0.79 ± 0.05 kg/d). Exchanging molasses-based products for corn at 2.9 to 5.8% of dietary DM did not influence productivity and had minute effects on milk FA profile. The limited responses in this study may have been influenced by dietary unsaturated FA content or the advancing stage of lactation of cows in the study. PMID:24746128

Siverson, A; Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Bradford, B J

2014-06-01

40

Clean cane with nitrogen fixing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clean cane is sugarcane is free from all known sugarcane diseases. The importance of using disease-free clean cane as the\\u000a planting material in commercial production of sugarcane is well-known. The productivity increase could be more than 50% depending\\u000a on the disease and variety involved. An efficient way of producing clean cane involving the combination of hot water treatment\\u000a (HWT),

T. S. G. Lee; E. A. Bressan

2005-01-01

41

?-Carotene production in sugarcane molasses by a Rhodotorula glutinis mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Several wild strains and mutants of Rhodotorula spp. were screened for growth, carotenoid production and the proportion of -carotene produced in sugarcane molasses. A better\\u000a producer, Rhodotorula glutinis mutant 32, was optimized for carotenoid production with respect to total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration and pH. In shake\\u000a flasks, when molasses was used as the sole nutrient medium with 40 g

P Bhosale; R V Gadre

2001-01-01

42

The Estimation of Salt and Molasses in Mixed Feeds  

E-print Network

for estimating chlorides in feeds, calculated to salt, based upon the use of picric acid as a precipitant for interfering substances and titration with silver nitrate. It .also describes a method for molasses, based upon the estimation of sugars in the mixed... feeds. As practically all feeds contain sugars, allowance must be made for the quantity present in the other ingredients in mixed feeds besides the molasses. This is provided for in the method discussed. CONTENTS PAGE Introduction...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1931-01-01

43

Growing of sugar cane for energy  

SciTech Connect

The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

Humbert, R.P.

1980-06-01

44

Japanese Sugar Cane as a Forage Crop.  

E-print Network

BULLETIN NO. 195 AUGUST, 1916 DIVISION OF AGRONOMY JAPANESE SUGAR CANE AS A FORAGE CROP .".: . COLLEGE POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION,. BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS AUSTIN, TEXAS VON BOECKMANN-JONES CO 1916 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] TEXAS... AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STAT10 N BULLETIN NO. 195 AUGUST, 1916 DIVISION OF AGRONOMY JAPANESE SUGAR CANE AS A FORAGE CROP BY A. H. LEIDIGH, B. S., Agronomist, IN CONSULTATION WITH G. T. McNESS, Superintendent, Substation No. 11, Nacogdoches, and H. H...

Leidigh, A. H. (Arthur Henry); McNess, George Thomas; Laude, H. H. (Hilmer Henry)

1916-01-01

45

Neutron activation analysis of final molasses from Cuban sugar industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal and epithermal non-destructive activation analyses have been performed on samples of final molasses from 14 different sugar factories, covering the most important regions in Cuba. From the first measurement after irradiation at the Triga Mark reactor (VTT), the concentration of more than 15 elements is reported. The almost constant elemental composition shows that they can be used equally for

J. Griffith; R. J. Rosenberg; O. Díaz-Rizo; E. González

1996-01-01

46

7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

2012-01-01

47

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2012-01-01

48

7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

2014-01-01

49

7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

2013-01-01

50

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2013-01-01

51

Ethanol fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 immobilized in Luffa cylindrica L. sponge discs and Ca-alginate matrices.  

PubMed

Bio-ethanol production from cane molasses (diluted to 15 % sugar w/v) was studied using the bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 entrapped in luffa (Luffa cylindrica L.) sponge discs and Ca-alginate gel beads as the immobilizing matrices. At the end of 96 h fermentation, the final ethanol concentrations were 58.7 ± 0.09 and 59.1 ± 0.08 g/l molasses with luffa and Ca-alginate entrapped Z. mobilis cells, respectively exhibiting 83.25 ± 0.03 and 84.6 ± 0.02 % sugar conversion. There was no statistical significant difference (Fischer's LSD) in sugar utilization (t = 0.254, p<0.801) and ethanol production (t =-0.663, p<0.513) between the two immobilization matrices used. Further, the immobilized cells in both the matrices were physiologically active for three more cycles of operation with less than 15 % decrease in ethanol yield in the 4(th) cycle, which was due to some leakage of cells. In conclusion, luffa sponge was found to be equally good as Ca-alginate as a carrier material for bacterial (Z. mobilis) cell immobilization for ethanol production. Further, it has added advantages such as it is cheap, non-corrosive and has no environmental hazard. PMID:24031981

Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama C; Ray, Ramesh C

2012-10-01

52

ECOSTATIC CANE PROCESSING SYSTEM PROTOTYPE PHASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate a systems environmental management approach, from field to final product, for the processing of raw cane sugar. Specific sub-systems which were to be developed and demonstrated as part of this systems approach were: (a) har...

53

[Improving ergosterol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae].  

PubMed

Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by yeast. To improve the production of ergosterol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae YEH56 (pHXA42) from molasses, a cheap and regenerative material, different strategies were applied. First, Plackett-Burman design and central composite design were applied to screen the significant factors in fermentation medium using ergosterol yield (g/L) as the response value. Ergosterol yield reached 371.56 mg/L by using the optimal fermentation medium in shake-flask culture (total sugar in molasses 40 g/L, KH2PO4 1 g/L, K2HPO4 1.86 g/L, CuSO4 x 5H2O 17.5 mg/L, FeSO4 x 7H2O 13.9 mg/L, MgSO4 x 5H2O 12.3 mg/L, corn steep liquor 10 mL/L), which was increased by 29.5% compared with the initial culture. Second, ergosterol yield was increased by 62.1% using a pH-control strategy in a 5-L bioreactor. Third, ergosterol production was improved further by using molasses feeding strategy. After 38 h fermentation, ergosterol yield reached 1 953.85 mg/L, which was 3.2 times of that in batch fermentation. Meanwhile, ergosterol production rate was increased by 42.7% compared with that in the batch culture. PMID:24701833

Wang, Shaojie; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun

2013-11-01

54

Nutrient digestibility and protein utilization by heifers and steers fed high molasses-urea diets  

E-print Network

in both experiments were fed a molasses mixture containing 93. 5f. molasses (79. 5 Brix), go water, 0 2' urea (45/o Nitrogen) and 0. 5' salt (NaC1) free choice. In the first experiment 12 heifers were divided into two groups of six and assigned... the high roughage group). Both groups had access ad libitum to a mixture of molasses-urea containing 93 ' 5g molasses, + water, 2' urea and 0. 5' salt, and received a protein supplement (fish meal) at a rate of 120 g per 100 kg body weight per day...

Pina, Angel Modesto

2012-06-07

55

Invitro Digestion and Fermentation Characteristics of Temulose Molasses, a Co-Product of Fiberboard Production, and Select Temulose Fractions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is of interest to discover new fermentable carbohydrates sources that function as prebiotics. This study evaluated the hydrolytic digestibility, fermentative capacity, and microbiota modulating properties of temulose molasses, four hydrolyzed fractions of temulose molasses, short-chain fructooli...

56

21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a) Identification. Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads are...

2012-04-01

57

21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a) Identification. Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads are...

2013-04-01

58

21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a) Identification. Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads are...

2014-04-01

59

BIOSYNTHESIS OF MEDIUM-CHAIN-LENGTH POLY(HYDROXYALKANOATES) FROM SOY MOLASSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas corrugata was selected from a screening process for use in the bioconversion of inexpensive soy molasses into medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHA). We obtained cell-mass yields of 1.5 g cell-dry-weight (CDW)/l culture with growth medium supplemented with 2% soy molasses...

60

Optimization of lactic acid production from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of lactic acid from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130 in static and shake flask fermentation was investigated. Shake flasks proved to be a better fermentation system for this purpose. Substitution of yeast extract with other low cost protein sources did not improve lactic acid production. The maximum lactic acid concentration was achieved without treatment of molasses. A

Ch. Kotzamanidis; T. Roukas; G. Skaracis

2002-01-01

61

Case study: molasses as the primary energy source on an organic grazing dairy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic dairies face many challenges, one of which is the high cost of purchased organic grains. Molasses may be a less expensive energy alternative. However, anecdotal results have been mixed for farms that used molasses as the sole energy source. This research project quantified animal performance...

62

Dietary molasses increases ruminal pH and enhances ruminal biohydrogenation during milk fat depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding high-concentrate diets has the potential to cause milk fat depression, but several studies have suggested that dietary sugar can increase milk fat yield. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of dietary molasses to prevent milk fat depression in the presence of a 65% concentrate diet. In trial 1, molasses replaced corn grain at 0, 2.5, or 5%

C. A. Martel; E. C. Titgemeyer; L. K. Mamedova; B. J. Bradford

2011-01-01

63

Modeling the compressive strength of molasses–cement sand system using design of experiments and back propagation neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molasses, an eco-friendly and relatively cheap binder may be used as a substitute for chemical binders. For commercial exploitation of the molasses–cement sand system it is essential to generate models for predicting the properties of the sand mix from the composition. Central composite design is used to develop regression equations for predicting compressive strength of the sand mix when molasses

A. Mandal; P. Roy

2006-01-01

64

Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of ?-amylase, ?-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

2009-09-01

65

Ergonomic Factors Related to Drop-Off Detection With the Long Cane: Effects of Cane Tips and Techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane. Background Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user’s ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies have examined such effect. Method A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study. Participants were 17 adults who were legally blind and had no other disabilities. Participants attempted to detect the drop-offs of varied depths using different cane tips and cane techniques. Results Drop-off detection rates were similar between the marshmallow tip (77.0%) and the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) when both tips were used with the constant contact technique, p = .294. However, participants detected drop-offs at a significantly higher percentage when they used the constant contact technique with the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) than when they used the two-point touch technique with the marshmallow tip (63.2%), p < .001. Conclusion The constant contact technique used with a marshmallow roller tip (perceived as a less advantageous tip) was more effective than the two-point touch technique used with a marshmallow tip (perceived as a more advantageous tip) in detecting drop-offs. Application The findings of the study may help cane users and orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques and cane tips in accordance with the cane user’s characteristics and the nature of the travel environment. PMID:21077566

Kim, Dae Shik; Wall Emerson, Robert S.; Curtis, Amy B.

2010-01-01

66

Drop-off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance  

PubMed Central

This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection threshold. The findings may help an orientation and mobility instructor select an appropriate technique for a particular client or training situation. PMID:21209791

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

2010-01-01

67

Feasibility of using constructed wetland treatment for molasses wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) with Cyperus involucratus, Typha augustifolia and Thalia dealbata J. Fraser was applied to treat anaerobic treated-molasses wastewater (An-MWW) under the organic loading rates (OLRs) of 612, 696, 806, 929 and 1,213 kg BOD(5)ha(-1)day(-1). The results showed that both removal efficiency and plant growth rate were increased with the decrease of organic loading rate (OLR). All tested-plant species could not grow under OLR of higher than 696 kg BOD(5)mg l(-1) (p>0.05). Also, the plant-biomass of the systems was reduced by 10.4%, 26.5%, and 64.7% of initial plant-biomass under the OLR of 806, 929 and 1,213 kg BOD(5)ha(-1)day(-1), respectively. However, all tested-plant species showed the same pattern on the plant-biomass production yield and removal efficiency. The highest SS, BOD, COD, total phosphorus, NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-) and molasses pigments (MP) removal efficiencies of 90-93%, 88-89%, 67%, 70-76%, 77-82%, 94-95% and 72-77%, respectively were detected under the OLR of 612 kg BOD(5)ha(-1)day. PMID:18060771

Sohsalam, Prapa; Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud

2008-09-01

68

Biological sulfate reduction using molasses as a carbon source.  

PubMed

The feasibility of using a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process for sulfate reduction with molasses as a carbon source was demonstrated. Competition between methane-producing bacteria (MPB) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was influenced by the chemical oxygen demand-to-sulfur (COD:S) ratio in the feed. Sulfate removal greater than 80% could be achieved at COD:S greater than 10 when MPB predominated. Activity of MPB and SRB was inhibited at a dissolved sulfide concentration of approximately 200 mg/L. Competition between MPB and SRB was intense as the COD:S was reduced from 5 to 2. Further reduction in the COD:S to 0.7 led to the formation of sulfidogenic granules. The COD removal decreased to approximately 30% at a COD:S less than 2 because of accumulation of sulfurous precipitates and the nonbiodegradable portion of molasses in the sludge. Reduced gas production rates further imposed limitations on diffusion of the organic substrate into granules. Sulfidogenic process operation yielded sulfate removal as great as 70% at a COD:S of approximately 3.5. PMID:11558296

Annachhatre, A P; Suktrakoolvait, S

2001-01-01

69

Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.  

PubMed

The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves. PMID:24420892

Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

1994-01-01

70

Microbial lipid production: screening with yeasts grown on Brazilian molasses.  

PubMed

Rhodotorula glutinis CCT 2182, Rhodosporidium toruloides CCT 0783, Rhodotorula minuta CCT 1751 and Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296 were evaluated for the conversion of sugars from Brazilian molasses into single-cell oil (SCO) feedstock for biodiesel. Pulsed fed-batch fermentations were performed in 1.65 l working volume bioreactors. The maximum specific growth rate (µmax), lipid productivity (Pr) and cellular lipid content were, respectively, 0.23 h(-1), 0.41 g l(-1) h(-1), and 41% for Rsp. toruloides; 0.20 h(-1), 0.27 g l(-1) h(-1), and 36% for Rta. glutinis; 0.115 h(-1), 0.135 g l(-1) h(-1), and 27 % for Rta. minuta; and 0.11 h(-1), 0.13 g l(-1) h(-1), and 32% for L. starkeyi. Based on their microbial lipid productivity, content, and profile, Rsp. toruloides and Rta. glutinis are promising candidates for biodiesel production from Brazilian molasses. All the oils from the yeasts were similar to the composition of plant oils (rapeseed and soybean) and could be used as raw material for biofuels, as well as in food and nutraceutical products. PMID:25129045

Vieira, J P F; Ienczak, J L; Rossell, C E V; Pradella, J G C; Franco, T T

2014-12-01

71

Novel strategy using an adsorbent-column chromatography for effective ethanol production from sugarcane or sugar beet molasses.  

PubMed

Molasses-based distilleries generate large volumes of a highly polluted and dark brown-colored wastewater. The present work describes the way in which an adsorbent-column chromatography can effectively remove the colorant and produce biomass ethanol from sugarcane or sugar beet molasses. It was found that the color and chemical oxygen demand of the resulting wastewater was respectively reduced by approximately 87% and 28% as compared with conventional molasses fermentation. Gas chromatography showed that the decolorized molasses maintained good ethanol productivity almost equal to that of the original molasses. Furthermore, it was revealed that the colorant concentrations of about 5 mg ml(-1) in the medium were the most favorable for ethanolic fermentation. In summary, we have concluded that this method is the most effective when the adsorbent chromatography is performed just before molasses fermentation and that the decolorized molasses is an ideal substrate for fuel ethanol production. PMID:19467586

Hatano, Ken-ichi; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yohei; Sakamoto, Hironobu; Takigami, Machiko; Kojima, Yasuyoshi

2009-10-01

72

Histological Intestinal Recovery in Chickens Refed Dietary Sugar Cane Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane extract (SCE), the residue after removing glucose, fructose, and sucrose from sugar cane juice, has growth-promoting, antistress, and immunosti- mulation effects. The objective of this study was to investi- gate the effects of refeeding dietary SCE on recovery of BW and intestinal histology after withdrawing feed from chickens. Forty-eight male Sanuki Cochin chickens were assigned randomly to 6

K. Yamauchi; K. Koge; T. Ebashi

73

Invasive Cane Toads have been featured prominently in  

E-print Network

Invasive Cane Toads have been featured prominently in the news this summer, and were responsible failed. Experts believe that the invasive Cane Toads found in Florida today were introduced when a shipment of 100 toads from Colombia, intended for the pet trade, escaped at the Miami Air- port in 1955

Jawitz, James W.

74

Anaerobic digestion of solid wastes of cane sugar industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cane sugar manufacturing industry generates large quantities of lignocellulosic solid wastes, namely bagasse and cachaza. Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane after extracting the juice. Cachaza is the filter cake of the precipitated insoluble sugars. This research investigates the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of bagasse and cachaza to produce methane. Two rations of bagasse-cachaza

Dasgupta

1983-01-01

75

1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

76

Evaluation of new energy cane varieties for Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Renewed interest in U.S bioenergy markets may offer an alternative source of income for Louisiana sugarcane growers. High-fiber sugarcane or energy cane varieties are currently being developed. As with traditional sugarcane varieties, energy-cane varieties need to be evaluated across the sugarca...

77

Recent Geology of Cane Wash, Monument Valley, Arizona.  

PubMed

In the article "Recent Geology of Cane Wash, Monument Valley, Arizona," by Charles B. Hunt, in the issue of 30 September, page 584, a line of type was unfortunately misplaced at the last moment. The next to the last sentence in the third column should read: "Upstream from the lake beds (Fig. 2) Cane Wash is aggrading the valley floor." PMID:17820213

Hunt, C B

1955-10-21

78

Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum BPR2001 using molasses medium in a jar fermentor.  

PubMed

Bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Acetobacter xylinum subsp. sucrofermentans BPR2001 using molasses medium was carried out in a jar fermentor. When molasses was subjected to H(2)SO(4)-heat treatment, the maximum BC concentration increased to 76% more than that achieved using untreated molasses, and the specific growth rate increased 2-fold. When the initial sugar concentrations in the H(2)SO(4)-heat treated molasses were varied from 23 g/l to 72 g/l, BC concentration, production rate, and yield were maximum at sugar concentrations of 23 g/l and 37 g/l, and production of by-products, such as polysaccharides and CO(2), was lower than at sugar concentrations of 48 g/l and 72 g/l, indicating that maintaining a lower molasses concentration is essential for efficient BC production in jar fermentors, this being due mainly to the complex nature of molasses. Molasses has a clear advantage over pure sugars as a carbon source from an economic viewpoint. PMID:15338079

Bae, S O; Shoda, M

2005-04-01

79

Lightweight Acoustic Classification for Cane-Toad Thanh Dang and Nirupama Bulusu  

E-print Network

Lightweight Acoustic Classification for Cane-Toad Monitoring Thanh Dang and Nirupama Bulusu.hu@csiro.au Abstract--We propose a light weight algorithm to classify cane- toads, a non-native invasive amphibian application motivating our work is the detection of cane-toads in northern Australia. The cane-toad, a non

Bulusu, Nirupama

80

Decolorization of anaerobically digested molasses spent wash by Pseudomonas putida.  

PubMed

The distillery wastewater (spent wash) contains dark-brown colored recalcitrant organic compounds that are not amenable to conventional biological treatment. The characteristic recalcitrance to decolorization is due to the presence of brown melanoidin polymers. In the present study, feasibility of using Pseudomonas putida strain U for decolorization of spent wash was demonstrated. Batch cultures of P. putida decolourized spent wash by 24%, 2- fold higher decolorization was achieved following immobilization in calcium alginate beads. Glucose concentration was critical for decolourization and improved color removal efficiency was obtained by periodic replenishment of glucose. Decolourization was also observed with lactose or whey as alternative carbon sources. The results of our study suggest that P. putida could be used for biological decolorization of molasses spent washes and that supplementation with whey (a by-product from cheese industry) can offer economical viability to the process. PMID:19235513

Ghosh, M; Ganguli, A; Tripathi, A K

2009-01-01

81

Engineered Enterobacter aerogenes for efficient utilization of sugarcane molasses in 2,3-butanediol production.  

PubMed

Sugarcane molasses is considered to be a good carbon source for biorefinery due to its high sugar content and low price. Sucrose occupies more than half of the sugar in the molasses. Enterobacter aerogenes is a good host strain for 2,3-butanediol production, but its utilization of sucrose is not very efficient. To improve sucrose utilization in E. aerogenes, a sucrose regulator (ScrR) was disrupted from the genomic DNA. The deletion mutation increased the sucrose consumption rate significantly when sucrose or sugarcane molasses was used as a carbon source. The 2,3-butanediol production from sugarcane molasses by the mutant was enhanced by 60% in batch fermentation compared to that by the wild type strain. In fed-batch fermentation, 98.69 g/L of 2,3-butanediol production was achieved at 36 h. PMID:23644066

Jung, Moo-Young; Park, Bu-Soo; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

2013-07-01

82

Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried

Anshuman A. Khardenavis; Atul N. Vaidya; M. Suresh Kumar; Tapan Chakrabarti

2009-01-01

83

Bacterial cellulose production by fed-batch fermentation in molasses medium.  

PubMed

Batch and fed-batch fermentations for bacterial cellulose (BC) production using molasses as a carbon source by Acetobacter xylinum BPR2001 were carried out in a jar fermentor. For improvement of BC production, molasses was subjected to H2SO4-heat treatment. The maximum BC concentration by this treated molasses increased 76%, and the specific growth rate increased 2-fold compared with that by untreated molasses. In batch fermentation, when the initial sugar concentrations of H2SO4-heat-treated molasses were varied from 20 to 70 g/L, the highest value of maximum BC concentration of 5.3 g/L was observed at 20 g/L. BC production in intermittent fed-batch (IFB) fermentation was conducted referring to the data in batch fermentation, and the highest BC production of 7.82 g/L was obtained when 0.2 L of molasses medium was added five times. When continuous fed-batch (CFB) fermentations were conducted, maximum BC concentration was obtained with a feeding rate of 6.3 g-sugar/h, which was derived from the optimal IFB experiment. PMID:15458319

Bae, Sangok; Shoda, Makoto

2004-01-01

84

10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

85

10. View of cane mill with reduction gears and steam ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. View of cane mill with reduction gears and steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Concepcion, Sugar Mill Ruins, .3 Mi. W. of Junction of Rts. 418 & 111, Victoria, Agaudilla Municipio, PR

86

Dietary molasses increases ruminal pH and enhances ruminal biohydrogenation during milk fat depression.  

PubMed

Feeding high-concentrate diets has the potential to cause milk fat depression, but several studies have suggested that dietary sugar can increase milk fat yield. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of dietary molasses to prevent milk fat depression in the presence of a 65% concentrate diet. In trial 1, molasses replaced corn grain at 0, 2.5, or 5% of diet dry matter in diets fed to 12 second-lactation Holstein cows (134±37 d in milk) in a 3×3 Latin square design. Trial 1 demonstrated that replacing up to 5% of dietary dry matter from corn with molasses had positive effects on de novo fatty acid synthesis, increasing the yield of short- and medium-chain fatty acids during diet-induced milk fat depression. Increasing inclusion rate of molasses increased milk fat concentration, but decreased milk yield and milk protein yield. Trial 2 used 7 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, late-lactation Holstein cows (220±18 d in milk) to evaluate effects of dietary molasses on ruminal parameters and milk composition, and also to assess whether increased metabolizable protein supply would alter these responses. Cows were randomly assigned to a dietary treatment sequence in a crossover split plot design with 0 and 5% molasses diets. Dietary treatments were fed for 28 d, with 16 d for diet adaptation, and the final 12 d for 2 abomasal infusion periods in a crossover arrangement. Abomasal infusions of water or AA (5 g of l-Met/d+15 g of l-Lys-HCl/d+5 g of l-His-HCl-H(2)O/d) were administered 3 times daily for 5 d, with 2 d between infusion periods. Administration of AA had no effect on concentration or yield of any milk components. Addition of molasses increased milk fat concentration (2.71 vs. 2.94±0.21%), but had no effect on yields of milk fat or protein. Dietary molasses decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration (141 vs. 133±4.6mM), decreased the molar proportion of propionate, and increased the molar proportion of butyrate in ruminal fluid. Molasses also increased ruminal pH (5.73 vs. 5.87±0.06), decreased the yield of trans-10 C18:1, and increased the yield of trans-11 C18:1 in milk fat. These data provide evidence that molasses may promote mammary de novo fatty acid synthesis in cows fed high-energy rations by moderating ruminal pH and altering ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation pathways. PMID:21787935

Martel, C A; Titgemeyer, E C; Mamedova, L K; Bradford, B J

2011-08-01

87

By-products of the cane sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

Paturav, J.M.

1989-01-01

88

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

2014-07-01

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40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

2012-07-01

90

40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

2012-07-01

91

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

2013-07-01

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40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

2013-07-01

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40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

2014-07-01

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40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

2013-07-01

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40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

2014-07-01

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40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

2013-07-01

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40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

2012-07-01

98

40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

2012-07-01

99

40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

2014-07-01

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The El Mayah molasse basin in the Eastern Desert of Egypt A. Shalaby a,b,*, K. Stuwe a,*, H. Fritz a  

E-print Network

The El Mayah molasse basin in the Eastern Desert of Egypt A. Shalaby a,b,*, K. Stu¨we a,*, H. Fritz: Molasse basin; Eastern Desert of Egypt; Pan-African evolution 1. Introduction Molasse basins occur of kilometres of the East- ern Desert of Egypt. Its sedimentary record shows that deposition occurred in two

Fritz, Harald

101

Kinetics of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses under cell recycle.  

PubMed

In this work, a kinetic model for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses was developed. A model previously developed for fermentation of pure molasses was modified by the inclusion of a new term for acetic acid inhibition on microorganism growth rate and the kinetic parameters were estimated as functions of temperature. The influence of the hydrolysate on the kinetic parameters is analyzed by comparing with the parameters from fermentation of pure molasses. The impact of cells recycling in the kinetic parameters is also evaluated, as well as on the ethanol yield and productivity. The model developed described accurately most of the fermentations performed in several successive batches for temperatures from 30 to 38°C. PMID:23313680

de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

2013-02-01

102

The GuideCane-applying mobile robot technologies to assist the visually impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GuideCane is a novel device designed to help blind or visually impaired users navigate safely and quickly among obstacles and other hazards. During operation, the user pushes the lightweight GuideCane forward. When the GuideCane's ultrasonic sensors detect an obstacle, the embedded computer determines a suitable direction of motion that steers the GuideCane and the user around it. The steering

Iwan Ulrich; Johann Borenstein

2001-01-01

103

Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Brazilian sugar cane expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil is the leading producer of sugar cane in the world with roughly half used for ethanol production. Because of suitable climatic growing conditions, the majority of biofuel production is derived from sugar plantations in southeastern states. Anticipated increases in global demand for biofuels are expected to lead to future sugar cane expansion extending into Brazilian pasturelands and native cerrado. Prior to undergoing large-scale expansion an evaluation of impacts on the region's hydroclimate is warranted. Using a suite of multi-year ensemble-based simulations with the WRF modeling system, we quantify hydroclimatic consequences of sugar cane expansion across portions of south-central Brazil. Conversion from current land use to sugar cane causes opposing seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature. Proggresively greater cooling is simulated during the course of the growing season, followed by an abrupt warming shift post-harvest. Although seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature are significant, with cooling of 1C occurring during the peak of the growing season followed by warming of similar magnitude, impacts are small when annually averaged. Ensemble mean differences between the imposed sugar cane expansion and non-expansion scenario are suggestive of a drying precipitation trend, yet large uncertainty among individual members precludes definitive statements about impacts on the region's rainfall.

Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

2012-12-01

104

Sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek, Lauderdale County, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of the sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek in Lauderdale County, Tennessee, was conducted from 1985-88 to evaluate the potential for channel erosion induced by modifications (realignment and enlargement) and the potential ability of different flows to move bed and bank stabilizing material. Frequently occurring flows in Cane Creek are capable of moving sand-size material (0.0625 - 4.0 millimeters). During floods that equal or exceed the 2-year flood, Cane Creek is capable of moving very coarse gravel (32 - 64 millimeters). Boundary-shear values at bridges, where flow contractions occur, correspond to critical diameters in excess of 100 millimeters. Thus, the areas near bridges, where channel stability is most critical, are the areas where erosive power is greatest. Deepening and widening of Cane Creek has exposed large areas of channel boundary that are a significant source of raindrop-detached sediment during the early stages of a storm before stream flow increases signifi- cantly. This causes suspended-sediment concentration to peak while the flow hydrograph is just beginning to rise. For basins like Cane Creek, where runoff events commonly last less than a day and where variation in discharge and sediment concentrations are large, an estimate of sediment yield based on periodic observations of instantaneous values is subject to considerable uncertainty.

Carey, W.P.

1993-01-01

105

Hatchling Australian freshwater crocodiles rapidly learn to avoid toxic invasive cane toads  

E-print Network

Hatchling Australian freshwater crocodiles rapidly learn to avoid toxic invasive cane toads Ruchira freshwater crocodiles (Crocody- lus johnstoni). To predict the impact of cane toads on crocodiles, we need to know whether crocodiles will attack cane toads, and whether predators that survive the toads' poisons

Shine, Rick

106

Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits. Emeric Bouin  

E-print Network

Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits. Emeric Bouin Vincent Calvez June describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia [30]. The population of toads is structured by a space phenomena in a model for the invasion of cane toads in Australia, proposed in [5]. It is a structured

Calvez, Vincent

107

Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits. Emeric Bouin  

E-print Network

Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits. Emeric Bouin Vincent Calvez-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia [28]. The population of toads is structured phenomena in a model for the invasion of cane toads in Australia, proposed in [4]. It is a structured

Boyer, Edmond

108

Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Sensor Network for Cane Toad Monitoring  

E-print Network

4 Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Sensor Network for Cane Toad Monitoring WEN HU Commonwealth the populations of native frogs and the invasive introduced species, the cane toad. This is a challenging on improving the lifetime of the sensor network for cane toad monitoring through harvesting-aware sensor duty

Bulusu, Nirupama

109

The Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Sensor Network For Cane-toad Monitoring  

E-print Network

The Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Sensor Network For Cane-toad Monitoring Wen Hu, Van Nghia frogs and the invasive introduced species, the Cane Toad (see Fig. 1). This is a challenging application complexity. Fig. 1. The Cane Toad and its 2003 Australian distribution. I. INTRODUCTION This paper explores

Bulusu, Nirupama

110

Assessment of Virally Vectored Autoimmunity as a Biocontrol Strategy for Cane Toads  

E-print Network

Assessment of Virally Vectored Autoimmunity as a Biocontrol Strategy for Cane Toads Jackie A Background: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. Methodology

Gray, Matthew

111

Cane-toad Monitoring in Kakadu National Park Using Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Cane-toad Monitoring in Kakadu National Park Using Wireless Sensor Networks Saurabh Shukla School This paper considers the problem of monitoring cane toads in Kakadu National Park using a large scale wireless sen- sor network deployment. Cane toads were mistakenly intro- duced in Australia in 1935

Bulusu, Nirupama

112

USE OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY TO MONITOR TRASH DECOMPOSITON IN THE SUGAR CANE INDUSTRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Post harvested cane trash, if left unburnt, impedes the growth of emerging ratoons and reduces sugar yields in comparison to unhindered ratoons. Approximately 75% of dry cane trash is decomposable fibre--36% Cellulose, 21%Hemicellulose, 16% Lignin. One alternative for the removal of cane trash wou...

113

Cytokinins in the xylem sap of grape vine canes: Changes in activity during cold-storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylem sap extracted under suction from dormant grape vine canes (one-year-old woody stems) had only slight cytokinin activity compared with sap from growing canes when tested on soybean callus. Highest activity was detected in sap from canes harvested whilst dormant and subsequently stored for six months in sealed plastic bags at 1°. The significance of the findings is discussed.

K. G. M. Skene

1972-01-01

114

A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

Plain-Switzer, Karen

1993-01-01

115

Process Integration of Bioethanol from Sugar Cane and Hydrogen Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study several alternatives for process integration of bioethanol from sugar cane and hydrogen production were evaluated. Bioethanol was produced above all in the fermentation of sweetened juice from sugar cane, stillage was removed. Stillage and bagasse are the process byproducts. The bioethanol steam reforming is an endothermic catalytic process when vaporized ethanol and steam are fed using a 1:6 molar ratio to reformer with a Ni-catalyst at atmospheric pressure and 350xC. Taking into account the processes properties mentioned above, it is possible to integrate the bioethanol production from sugar cane and its reforming by using byproducts like bagasse and stillage and to produce energy for steam reforming and bioethanol solution concentration by direct firing (for bagasse) or anaerobic digestion to get methane (for stillage).

Hernandez, L.; Kafarov, V.

116

Fermentative production of butanol from sorghum molasses as a potential agricultural fuel. Final report, June 26, 1981-September 25, 1982  

SciTech Connect

A strain, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 4259, suitable for butanol-acetone fermentation of sorghum molasses was selected from several strains of the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It was cultivated in the composition-optimized sorghum molasses medium. The microbial growth and sugar consumption pattern in the sorghum molasses medium exhibited a typical diauxie phenomenon. The results strongly suggest that the difficulty encountered by the Weizmann type of organisms in butanol-acetone fermentation of molasses is due to the diauxie phenomenon causing a significant decrease in the solvent production rate. Acid hydrolysis of sorghum molasses minimizes the occurrence of the phenomenon, thereby remarkably increasing the solvent yield. The final solvent concentrations in the inverted molasses medium were butanol, 1.0% (w/v); acetone, 0.37% (w/v); ethanol, 0.18% (w/v); and total solvent, 1.55% (w/v). The total solvent yield in the inverted sorghum molasses medium was 30.3% based on the weight of sugar consumed. Effects of the temperature, agitation and heat-shocking were also investigated.

Fan, L.T.

1982-12-01

117

Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

"Temulose" is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in south-eastern Texas. Becaus...

118

Gray molasses cooling of 39 K to a high phase-space density  

E-print Network

compressed-MOT configuration is taking advantage of gray molasses type cooling induced by blue-detuned D1 atoms in a far detuned optical trap, a result that opens the way to the all-optical production from efficient subdoppler cooling with light far red-detuned from the cy- cling transition [10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

119

ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS EXTRACTED FROM MOLASSES FOR EVALUATION AS CANDIDATE FLY ATTRACTANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: House flies and other fly species can wound or injure farm animals causing weight loss or other deleterious effects resulting in a loss of revenue to farmers. Farm grade molasses used for cattle feed is a strong attractant to many species of flies seeking the sugars contained in the m...

120

Ensilage characteristics of three tropical grasses as influenced by stage of growth and addition of molasses.  

PubMed

When molasses was added during ensilage of three tropical grasses [hamil grass (Panicum maximum cv. Hamil), pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) and setaria (Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula)] the final pH, concentration of fermentation acids (except lactic acid) and NH3-N content were all similar after 100 days of incubation. Pangola grass silage had significantly higher lactic acid content (66 g/kg dry matter) than the other two. Adding either 4 or 8% (w/w) molasses reduced NH3-N, volatile fatty acid content and pH but increased lactic acid content in the final silages. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria remained approximately constant during the course of the fermentation, although large differences were noted in the species composition of the populations. At the time of ensiling, only Pediococcus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. were detected. By 5 days, the homo-fermentative population, notably Lactobacillus plantarum, dominated (43%) and remained dominant. Hetero-fermentative rods were only detected in the 100-day silage, where they represented 29% of the strains isolated. Homo-fermenters were more abundant in pangola (60%) and setaria (47%) silages than hamil (27%) silages. Homo-fermenter populations were lowest in the 12-week forage. Molasses additions increased homo-fermenter populations. Pangola grass gave the best quality silage but, since the water-soluble carbohydrate content in the grasses was insufficient to promote a strong lactic fermentation, the addition of 20 to 30 kg molasses/tonne should achieve satisfactory preservation. PMID:24420891

Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

1994-01-01

121

Stabilization of returned dairy products by ensiling with straw and molasses for animal feeding.  

PubMed

Returned dairy products which are transferred to landfills might add to the environmental pollution. Such products have a high nutritional value for ruminants, but they should be stabilized to enable their use as cattle feed. The purpose of the current study was to examine stabilization of returned dairy products by ensiling in combinations with straw and molasses for animal feeding. Treatments included combinations of milk and cottage cheese with straw and molasses. Results indicate that such products ensile well with straw, and after 3 d of ensiling the pH decreased to around 4.0. It was necessary to supplement cottage cheese with molasses, to supply a carbohydrate source for the lactic acid fermentation. The major fermentation product was lactic acid. Percentage of ammonia N (of total N) was generally higher in the silages made with cottage cheese than in those made with milk; the highest percentage (16%) was measured in the second experiment in the silages prepared with cottage cheese and straw. The study indicates the potential of stabilizing returned dairy products for animal feeding along with straw and molasses. There may also be potential for large dairy farms, or groups of smaller farms, to ensile waste milk with straw for later use as feed. PMID:12741558

Weinberg, Z G; Ashbell, G; Chen, Y

2003-04-01

122

MOLASSES NEURO-TOXICITY AND HIGHER VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS R.H. DUNLOP L. BUENO  

E-print Network

- dings for 2 days and nights allowed characteri- zation of the electro-encephalogram and of the sleep by the per- manent control of electrical activity of the cor- tex and sleep patterns. Since final molasses cannula and with electrodes to allow continuous recording of the electrocorticogram, electro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Comparitive study of copper reduction, chromatographic and enymatic methods to determine reducing sugars in molasses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With more processing of sugarcane or sugarbeet for fuel alcohol production, there is an increasing emphasis on the minimizing of losses from fermentable reducing sugars to improve alcohol yields. Consequently, methods to measure reducing sugars in molasses and other sugar products have become more ...

124

MOLASSES AS THE PRIMARY ENERGY SUPPLEMENT ON AN ORGANIC GRAZING DAIRY FARM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic dairies in New York face challenges, including the high cost of purchasing organic feed grains. Many of these farms are looking for alternative ingredients to use that can be reasonably fed to lactating dairy cows, and that are less costly. Molasses seems to be a viable, less expensive, so...

125

Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea.  

PubMed Central

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1000370

Mella, C M; Perez-Oliva, O; Loew, F M

1976-01-01

126

Seismic stratigraphy and stratigraphic modelling of the South-eastern German Molasse Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the German Molasse Basin can be regarded as a mature hydrocarbon province, no regional sequence stratigraphic analysis has been carried out so far. We have studied seismic lines and well data from the region between the Isar and Inn rivers (SE Germany) that have been generously supplied by German oil companies (DEE, BEB, Mobil, RWE-DEA and Wintershall). Initial work

T. Aigner; J. Jin; P. Luterbacher

1995-01-01

127

The effect of Urea-Molasses-Mineral Blocks on rumen parameters and growth performance of buffaloes  

E-print Network

The effect of Urea-Molasses-Mineral Blocks on rumen parameters and growth performance of buffaloes on growing buffaloes in order to study the effect of UMMB supplementation on rumen parameters and growth 3 kg. The OM content of UMMB was 68.2 % and CP 35.9 % on the DM basis. Rumen fistulated buffaloes (4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

128

Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

“Temulose” is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in southeastern Texas. Because...

129

Two-in-one fuel combining sugar cane with low rank coal and its CO? reduction effects in pulverized-coal power plants.  

PubMed

Coal-fired power plants are facing to two major independent problems, namely, the burden to reduce CO(2) emission to comply with renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and cap-and-trade system, and the need to use low-rank coal due to the instability of high-rank coal supply. To address such unresolved issues, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested, and low rank coal has been upgraded by high-pressure and high-temperature processes. However, IGCC incurs huge construction costs, and the coal upgrading processes require fossil-fuel-derived additives and harsh operation condition. Here, we first show a hybrid coal that can solve these two problems simultaneously while using existing power plants. Hybrid coal is defined as a two-in-one fuel combining low rank coal with a sugar cane-derived bioliquid, such as molasses and sugar cane juice, by bioliquid diffusion into coal intrapores and precarbonization of the bioliquid. Unlike the simple blend of biomass and coal showing dual combustion behavior, hybrid coal provided a single coal combustion pattern. If hybrid coal (biomass/coal ratio = 28 wt %) is used as a fuel for 500 MW power generation, the net CO(2) emission is 21.2-33.1% and 12.5-25.7% lower than those for low rank coal and designed coal, and the required coal supply can be reduced by 33% compared with low rank coal. Considering high oil prices and time required before a stable renewable energy supply can be established, hybrid coal could be recognized as an innovative low-carbon-emission energy technology that can bridge the gulf between fossil fuels and renewable energy, because various water-soluble biomass could be used as an additive for hybrid coal through proper modification of preparation conditions. PMID:23286316

Lee, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Hong, Jai-Chang; Lee, Byoung-Hwa; Jeon, Chung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Chan

2013-02-01

130

Molasses as a source of carbon dioxide for attracting the malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus  

PubMed Central

Background Most odour baits for haematophagous arthropods contain carbon dioxide (CO2). The CO2 is sourced artificially from the fermentation of refined sugar (sucrose), dry ice, pressurized gas cylinders or propane. These sources of CO2 are neither cost-effective nor sustainable for use in remote areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, molasses was evaluated as a potential substrate for producing CO2 used as bait for malaria mosquitoes. Methods The attraction of laboratory-reared and wild Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes to CO2 generated from yeast-fermentation of molasses was assessed under semi-field and field conditions in western Kenya. In the field, responses of wild Anopheles funestus were also assessed. Attraction of the mosquitoes to a synthetic mosquito attractant, Mbita blend (comprising ammonia, L-lactic acid, tetradecanoic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol) when augmented with CO2 generated from yeast fermentation of either molasses or sucrose was also investigated. Results In semi-field, the release rate of CO2 and proportion of An. gambiae mosquitoes attracted increased in tandem with an increase in the quantity of yeast-fermented molasses up to an optimal ratio of molasses and dry yeast. More An. gambiae mosquitoes were attracted to a combination of the Mbita blend plus CO2 produced from fermenting molasses than the Mbita blend plus CO2 from yeast-fermented sucrose. In the field, significantly more female An. gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were attracted to the Mbita blend augmented with CO2 produced by fermenting 500 g of molasses compared to 250 g of sucrose or 250 g of molasses. Similarly, significantly more An. funestus, Culex and other anopheline mosquito species were attracted to the Mbita blend augmented with CO2 produced from fermenting molasses than the Mbita blend with CO2 produced from sucrose. Augmenting the Mbita blend with CO2 produced from molasses was associated with high catches of blood-fed An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes. Conclusion Molasses is a suitable ingredient for the replacement of sucrose as a substrate for the production of CO2 for sampling of African malaria vectors and other mosquito species. The finding of blood-fed malaria vectors in traps baited with the Mbita blend and CO2 derived from molasses provides a unique opportunity for the study of host-vector interactions. PMID:24767543

2014-01-01

131

Design of a Hot Object Detector for Smart Mobility Cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main concerns of the visually challenged person is to locate the surrounding obstacles. A white cane is the primary device that is used to help navigation. However, it would not be the best assistive device in terms of providing information to the user. The aim of the team project is to design a device that could enhance

Alireza Akbari

2009-01-01

132

Structured Discovery in Cane Travel: Constructivism in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a general sense today that constructivist teaching is not up to the task of preparing students for high-stakes exams. In this article, the authors describe a highly effective constructivist approach used to teach students in a learning situation that takes the meaning of "high stakes" to another level. They talk about teachers of "cane

Maurer, Matthew M.; Bell, Edward C.; Woods, Eric; Allen, Roland

2006-01-01

133

Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

2014-07-01

134

Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 highly produces mannitol from sugarcane molasses as carbon source.  

PubMed

Mannitol is a natural polyol extensively used in the food industry as low-calorie sugar being applicable for diabetic food products. We aimed to evaluate mannitol production by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 using sugarcane molasses as low-cost energy source. Mannitol formation was studied in free-pH batch cultures using 3-10% (w/v) molasses concentrations at 37 °C and 30 °C under static and agitated conditions during 48 h. L. reuteri CRL 1101 grew well in all assayed media and heterofermentatively converted glucose into lactic and acetic acids and ethanol. Fructose was used as an alternative electron acceptor and reduced it to mannitol in all media assayed. Maximum mannitol concentrations of 177.7?±?26.6 and 184.5?±?22.5 mM were found using 7.5% and 10% molasses, respectively, at 37 °C after 24-h incubation. Increasing the molasses concentration from 7.5% up to 10% (w/v) and the fermentation period up to 48 h did not significantly improve mannitol production. In agitated cultures, high mannitol values (144.8?±?39.7 mM) were attained at 8 h of fermentation as compared to static ones (5.6?±?2.9 mM), the highest mannitol concentration value (211.3?±?15.5 mM) being found after 24 h. Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was measured during growth in all fermentations assayed; the highest MDH values were obtained during the log growth phase, and no correlation between MDH activities and mannitol production was observed in the fermentations performed. L. reuteri CRL 1101 successfully produced mannitol from sugarcane molasses being a promising candidate for microbial mannitol synthesis using low-cost substrate. PMID:22350320

Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Fornaguera, María José; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

2012-08-01

135

[Screening and identification of microorganisms for decolorization of molasses spent wash].  

PubMed

Microorganisms were screened from the natural environment for decolorization of molasses spent wash, and the isolated strains were then employed in the treatment of actual wastewater. The primary screening was carried out on agar plates supplemented with synthesized melanoidin as the target substrate, since melanoidin is one of the most refractory pigments in wastewater. Promising microorganisms were further selected through secondary screening by decolorization of untreated actual wastewater in shaking flask cultures. Gel filtration chromatography was used to determine the molecular weight distribution of pigments in molasses spent wash before and after decolorization. A strain named A5P1 was isolated from the soil samples collected, showing a good ability of decolorizing molasses spent wash, and was later identified as Aspergillus flavus by morphology and ITS sequence analysis. Experimental study of factors affecting the decolorization performance of strain A5P1 gave the optimal conditions as follows: 4.3 x 10(4) mL(-1) of inoculum size, medium with initial pH of 4.5 and cultivation at 39 degrees C. It could decolorize 53.0% of the pigments in the untreated molasses spent wash and decreased 80% of chemical oxygen demand after four-day incubation. The result of gel filtration chromatography demonstrated that both the large and small molecular weight fractions of pigments in the molasses spent wash could be removed by strain A5P1. Based on the measurement of enzyme activities, at least three different kinds of enzymes, i. e. the enzyme with H2O2-producing activity, laccase and manganese peroxidase were involved in the decolorization process. Therefore, the decolorization mechanism of strain A5P1 was preliminarily considered to be mainly biodegradation, with bioadsorption as a minor reaction. PMID:23243885

Li, Bi-Jin; Liu, You-Yan; He, Kai; Teng, Fang-Ming; He, Xi-Pu; Li, Qing-Yun

2012-09-01

136

77 FR 25382 - Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...sugar cane syrup, sugar cane molasses, or other sugar cane by-products...corn or corn syrup in the fermentation process. Since these products...corn or corn syrup in the fermentation process would not meet the...sugar cane syrup, sugar cane molasses, or other sugar cane...

2012-04-30

137

Novel strategy using an adsorbent-column chromatography for effective ethanol production from sugarcane or sugar beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molasses-based distilleries generate large volumes of a highly polluted and dark brown-colored wastewater. The present work describes the way in which an adsorbent-column chromatography can effectively remove the colorant and produce biomass ethanol from sugarcane or sugar beet molasses. It was found that the color and chemical oxygen demand of the resulting wastewater was respectively reduced by approximately 87% and

Ken-ichi Hatano; Satoshi Kikuchi; Yohei Nakamura; Hironobu Sakamoto; Machiko Takigami; Yasuyoshi Kojima

2009-01-01

138

Short communication: Effects of molasses supplementation on performance of lactating cows fed high-alfalfa silage diets.  

PubMed

Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated Latin square experiment to determine the effect of adding dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets on dairy cow performance. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated with a 68:32 forage:concentrate ratio, with alfalfa silage as the only forage source. Dietary treatments were a control diet with no added molasses and 3 and 6% dried molasses diets. Three lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation. Dietary treatments had no effect on dry matter (average 23.3 kg/d), crude protein (average 4.4 kg/d), or neutral detergent fiber (average 7.4 kg/d) intake. Milk yield, energy-corrected milk (average 35.4 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (average 33.8 kg/d) were not influenced by dietary treatments. Cows fed the control diet produced milk with less milk urea nitrogen concentration than those fed molasses-supplemented diets. Ruminal pH, NH3-N concentration, and total volatile fatty acids were not different among dietary treatments. The molar proportion of acetate linearly increased, whereas the molar proportion of propionate linearly decreased as the level of dried molasses increased. It was concluded that addition of dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets at 6% of the diet (dry matter basis) increased milk urea nitrogen but had no effect on animal performance. PMID:24315324

Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A

2014-02-01

139

Waste molasses alone displaces glucose-based medium for microalgal fermentation towards cost-saving biodiesel production.  

PubMed

The by-product of sugar refinery-waste molasses was explored as alternative to glucose-based medium of Chlorella protothecoides in this study. Enzymatic hydrolysis is required for waste molasses suitable for algal growth. Waste molasses hydrolysate was confirmed as a sole source of full nutrients to totally replace glucose-based medium in support of rapid growth and high oil yield from algae. Under optimized conditions, the maximum algal cell density, oil content, and oil yield were respectively 70.9 g/L, 57.6%, and 40.8 g/L. The scalability of the waste molasses-fed algal system was confirmed from 0.5L flasks to 5L fermenters. The quality of biodiesel from waste molasses-fed algae was probably comparable to that from glucose-fed ones. Economic analysis indicated the cost of oil production from waste molasses-fed algae reduced by 50%. Significant cost reduction of algal biodiesel production through fermentation engineering based on the approach is expected. PMID:21474303

Yan, Dong; Lu, Yue; Chen, Yi-Feng; Wu, Qingyu

2011-06-01

140

Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses. PMID:24956474

Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

141

Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.  

PubMed

Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses. PMID:24956474

Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

142

Production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola grown on soy molasses as substrate.  

PubMed

Sophorolipids (SLs) were produced from Candida bombicola using soy molasses and oleic acid as co-substrates. The purified SLs were obtained at 21 g l(-1) and were 97% in lactone form. The major SL constituent (81% relative abundance) of the product mixture contains an oleoyl chain. The surface properties of the SLs obtained from the soy molasses/oleic acid fermentation had minimum surface-tension values of 37 mN m(-1) (pH 6) and 38 mN m(-1) (pH 9), and critical micelle concentration values of 6 mg l(-1) (pH 6) and 13 mg l(-1) (pH 9). PMID:15289681

Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Ashby, Richard D; Nuñez, Alberto; Foglia, Thomas A

2004-08-01

143

Simplified soy molasses-based medium for reduced-cost production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola.  

PubMed

A simplified medium containing only soy molasses and oleic acid as ingredients was developed for the production of sophorolipids (SLs) from Candida bombicola. We achieved a product yield of 53 +/- 3 g of purified sophorolipids per liter of starting culture volume, which is 71 +/- 4% of the yield obtained with growth medium that also additionally contains the costly yeast extract and urea as nitrogen source. The large majority of the SL components existed in the lactone form (87%), and the predominant component is SL containing (omega-1)-hydroxyoleic acid as the lipid moiety. The study demonstrated for the first time the usefulness of the low-value soy molasses as a combined nitrogen- and carbon-source for SL production at a reduced cost. PMID:17541506

Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Ashby, Richard D; Zerkowski, Jonathan A; Foglia, Thomas A

2007-09-01

144

Effect of fruiting cane origin on fruitfulness of hardy kiwifruit, Actinidia arguta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphology of Actinidia arguta ‘Ananasnaya’ vines was studied at two sites in Oregon, United States in 1998 and at one site in 1999. One?year?old fruiting wood was divided into five types\\/origins: spurs borne from the cordon; 1?year?old canes from the cordon; 1?year?old canes which grew as a result of summer pruning of last year's growth (1?year?old tipped); 1?year?old canes borne

Chantalak Tiyayon; Bernadine Strik

2003-01-01

145

Enhancing of sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis by Annulohypoxylon stygium glycohydrolases.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess for the production of ?-glucosidase and pectinase from the fungus Annulohypoxylon stygium DR47. Media optimization and bioreactor cultivation using citrus bagasse and soybean bran were explored and revealed a maximum production of 6.26U/mL of pectinase at pH 4.0 and 10.13U/mL of ?-glucosidase at pH 5.0. In addition, the enzymes extracts were able to replace partially Celluclast 1.5L in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis. Proteomic analysis from A. stygium cultures revealed accessory enzymes, mainly belong to the families GH3 and GH54, that would support enhancement of commercial cocktail saccharification yields. This is the first report describing bioreactor optimization for enzyme production from A. stygium with a view for more efficient degradation of sugar cane bagasse. PMID:25496945

Robl, Diogo; Dos Santos Costa, Patrícia; Büchli, Fernanda; da Silva Lima, Deise Juliana; da Silva Delabona, Priscila; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval; Padilla, Gabriel; da Cruz Pradella, José Geraldo

2015-02-01

146

Moisture in Molasses as a Factor in the Heating of Feeds.  

E-print Network

Moisture in Molasses as a Factor in the Heating of Feeds DIGEST Large losses occur in mixed feeds because of heating and the accompanying deterioration. Investigators are agreed that the heating is caused by the growth of molds.... The differences between the levels of moisture which are safe from the growth of molds and those which are unsafe are very small, In many instances this difference is less than 1.0 percent. Surveys by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station show...

Halick, John V.; Richardson, L. R.

1952-01-01

147

Optimization of lipids production by Cryptococcus laurentii 11 using cheese whey with molasses.  

PubMed

This study aimed the optimization of culture condition and composition for production of Cryptococcus laurentii 11 biomass and lipids in cheese whey medium supplemented with sugarcane molasses. The optimization of pH, fermentation time, and molasses concentration according to a full factorial statistical experimental design was followed by a Plackett-Burman experimental design, which was used to determine whether the supplementation of the culture medium by yeast extract and inorganic salts could provide a further enhancement of lipids production. The following conditions and composition of the culture medium were found to optimize biomass and lipids production: 360 h fermentation, 6.5 pH and supplementation of (g L(-1)): 50 molasses, 0.5 yeast extract, 4 KH2PO4, 1 Na2HPO4, 0.75 MgSO4 · 7H2O and 0.002 ZnSO4 · H2O. Additional supplementation with inorganic salts and yeast extract was essential to optimize the production, in terms of product concentration and productivity, of neutral lipids by C. laurentii 11. Under this optimized condition, the production of total lipids increased by 133% in relation to control experiment (from 1.27 to 2.96 g L(-1)). The total lipids indicated a predominant (86%) presence of neutral lipids with high content of 16- and 18-carbon-chain saturated and monosaturated fatty acids. This class of lipids is considered especially suitable for the production of biodiesel. PMID:25242919

Castanha, Rodrigo Fernandes; Mariano, Adriano Pinto; de Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado; Scramin, Shirlei; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

2014-01-01

148

Optimization of lipids production by Cryptococcus laurentii 11 using cheese whey with molasses  

PubMed Central

This study aimed the optimization of culture condition and composition for production of Cryptococcus laurentii 11 biomass and lipids in cheese whey medium supplemented with sugarcane molasses. The optimization of pH, fermentation time, and molasses concentration according to a full factorial statistical experimental design was followed by a Plackett-Burman experimental design, which was used to determine whether the supplementation of the culture medium by yeast extract and inorganic salts could provide a further enhancement of lipids production. The following conditions and composition of the culture medium were found to optimize biomass and lipids production: 360 h fermentation, 6.5 pH and supplementation of (g L?1): 50 molasses, 0.5 yeast extract, 4 KH2PO4, 1 Na2HPO4, 0.75 MgSO4·7H2O and 0.002 ZnSO4·H2O. Additional supplementation with inorganic salts and yeast extract was essential to optimize the production, in terms of product concentration and productivity, of neutral lipids by C. laurentii 11. Under this optimized condition, the production of total lipids increased by 133% in relation to control experiment (from 1.27 to 2.96 g L?1). The total lipids indicated a predominant (86%) presence of neutral lipids with high content of 16- and 18-carbon-chain saturated and monosaturated fatty acids. This class of lipids is considered especially suitable for the production of biodiesel. PMID:25242919

Castanha, Rodrigo Fernandes; Mariano, Adriano Pinto; de Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado; Scramin, Shirlei; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

2014-01-01

149

Improvement production of bacterial cellulose by semi-continuous process in molasses medium.  

PubMed

Bacterial cellulose (BC) has unique properties such as structural, functional, physical and chemical. The mass production of BC for industrial application has recently become attractive to produce more economical and high productive cellulose. In this study, to improve the productivity of bacterial cellulose (BC), BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus FC01 was investigated in molasses medium with static semi-continuous operation mode. Cell dry weight, polysaccharide, sugar and cellulose concentrations were monitored and cellulose was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest cellulose yield (1.637 g/L) was obtained in SCP50-7d, which molasses of 1/2 ratio for 7 days by static semi-continuous operation mode. The results show that BC can be highly produced by G. xylinus in molasses with static semi-continuous process than batch process. We claimed that low-cost medium with semi-continuous operation mode in static culture is a good candidate for industrial scale BC productions. PMID:24721044

Cakar, Fatih; Ozer, I??lay; Aytekin, A Özhan; Sahin, Fikrettin

2014-06-15

150

Production of sophorolipid glycolipid biosurfactants from sugarcane molasses using Starmerella bombicola NBRC 10243.  

PubMed

Biosurfactants (BS) are produced by a variety of microorganisms from renewable resources, and have unique properties compared to chemical surfactants. In order to attain efficient production of BS from low-cost materials, we focused our attention on the use of sugarcane molasses. Fifteen yeast strains that are known as BS producers were examined for BS productivity from a culture medium consisting of only molasses and water. Among the strains tested, only Starmerella bombicola NBRC 10243 produced sophorolipids (SL), which are glycolipid BS. The culture conditions for the yeast were then investigated in a shake-flask culture. SL production was significantly affected by the pH of the medium and was highly accelerated at pH 6. Under the optimum conditions, the amount of SL reached 14.4 g/L after 120 h from a medium containing 150 g/L of total sugars. We tried to improve the production of SL further by feeding the molasses using a jar fermentor. Interestingly, the amount of SL increased up to 22.8 g/L after 120 h; the production rate was 1.6-fold higher than that in the shake-flask culture. These results suggest that the present yeast should have great potential for the low-cost production of SL, and facilitate the application of BS in various fields. PMID:21502725

Takahashi, Makoto; Morita, Tomotake; Wada, Koji; Hirose, Naoto; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

2011-01-01

151

Seismic stratigraphy and stratigraphic modelling of the South-eastern German Molasse Basin  

SciTech Connect

Although the German Molasse Basin can be regarded as a mature hydrocarbon province, no regional sequence stratigraphic analysis has been carried out so far. We have studied seismic lines and well data from the region between the Isar and Inn rivers (SE Germany) that have been generously supplied by German oil companies (DEE, BEB, Mobil, RWE-DEA and Wintershall). Initial work indicates that five major seismic sequences within three main depositional cycles are developed. The Alpine thrust belt to the south serves as the primary sediment source in the foreland basin. However, sedimentary infill mainly took place parallel to the basin axis. Our analysis suggests that the stratigraphic development of the Molasse Basin was mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level changes which caused the shoreline to shift in the W-E direction. The shifting of the depocenter axis in a N-S direction was controlled by the tectonic evolution of the thrust belt. The sea-level curve determined by seismic stratigraphy and well-derived subsidence curves have been used as input parameters for stratigraphic modelling, using the programs GeoMOD and PHIL. Basin-fill simulations with PHIL are in good agreement with the main features of the sequence stratigraphy and the distribution of the systems tracts observed in the study area. The qualitative sea-level curve for the German Molasse Basin derived from the seismostratigraphic analysis could be quantified by the stratigraphic exercises.

Aigner, T.; Jin, J.; Luterbacher, P. [Univerisitaet Tuebingen (Germany)

1995-08-01

152

Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a molasses byproduct of pine ( Pinus taeda ) fiberboard production.  

PubMed

"Temulose" is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300-400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for Temulose is predominantly a single species of pine ( Pinus taeda ) grown and harvested in stands in southeastern Texas. Because of the method of production, the molasses was predicted to consist of water-soluble hemicelluloses, mainly arabinoxylan-type and galactoglucomannan-type oligosaccharides, plus minor components of lignin, but no detailed structural study had been reported. The structure and composition of the molasses has now been deduced by a combination of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, size exclusion chromatography, proton and (13)C NMR techniques, and classic carbohydrate analysis. Limited acid hydrolysis released a series of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMO) that were selectively recovered from the acid-labile arabinogalactan by precipitation with ethanol. The precipitate was named "Temulose brown sugar" because of its appearance, and is shown to consist of GGMO with a degree of polymerization (DP) from 4 to 13, with the major component being DP 5-8. The structure of these oligosaccharides is a ?-1,4-linked backbone of Man and Glc residues, with occasional ?-1,6 branching by single galactosyl units. PMID:21288026

Price, Neil P J; Hartman, Trina M; Faber, Trevor A; Vermillion, Karl E; Fahey, George C

2011-03-01

153

Stilbenoid profiles of canes from Vitis and Muscadinia species.  

PubMed

We present stilbenoid profiles of canes from 16 grapevines. Fifteen stilbenoids were obtained through isolation and structure identification using MS, NMR, and [?](D) or as commercial standards. An HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous quantification of nine of these stilbenoids was developed and applied to canes of Vitis amurensis, Vitis arizonica, Vitis berlandieri, Vitis betulifolia, Vitis cinerea, Vitis × champini, Vitis × doaniana, Vitis labrusca, Vitis candicans (syn. Vitis mustangensis), Vitis riparia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis vinifera, Muscadinia rotundifolia, and a V. vinifera × M. rotundifolia hybrid. In these species, E-ampelopsin E, E-amurensin B, E-piceid, E-piceatannol, E-resveratrol, E-resveratroloside, E-?-viniferin, E-?-viniferin, and E-vitisin B were quantified, when found in sufficient amounts. Total concentrations ranged from ~2.2 to 19.5 g/kg of dry weight. Additional stilbenoids, E-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 2-C-glucoside, Z-ampelopsin E, Z-trans-miyabenol C, E-trans-miyabenol C, scirpusin A, and Z-vitisin B, were identified but not quantified. Our results indicate that canes, particularly those of non-vinifera species, have substantial quantities of valuable, health-promoting stilbenoids. PMID:23270496

Pawlus, Alison D; Sahli, Ramla; Bisson, Jonathan; Rivière, Céline; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Richard, Tristan; Gomès, Eric; Bordenave, Louis; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

2013-01-23

154

29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime...18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially...

2013-07-01

155

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

2013-07-01

156

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

2012-07-01

157

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

2014-07-01

158

29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime...18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially...

2014-07-01

159

EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF DOMESTIC CACHAA (SUGAR-CANE SPIRITS) FROM MINAS GERAIS APPLYING PRINCIPAL  

E-print Network

EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF DOMESTIC CACHA�A (SUGAR-CANE SPIRITS) FROM MINAS GERAIS APPLYING@iqm.unicamp.br The increasing in the consumption of sugar cane spirits ­ the cachaça ­ with good quality and the possibility

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

160

Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spiritsB  

E-print Network

Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar. Keywords: Coffee; Sugar-cane spirit; Chemometrics; Pattern recognition 1. Introduction Globalization has

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

161

How to manage sugar cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season....

162

How to manage cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season. ...

163

Electronic long cane for locomotion improving on visual impaired people. A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abst ract –– This paper presents the assistive technology device called ELC (Electronic Long Cane), which was developed as a mobility aid for blind or visual impaired people. This approach comprises an ergonomic design along with an embedded electronics inside the grip of a traditional long cane, which, by mean of haptics, spreads human spatial and tactile perception. The device

A. R. Garcia; R. Fonseca; A. Duran

2011-01-01

164

Invasion, stress, and spinal arthritis in cane toads Gregory P. Brown*, Cathy Shilton  

E-print Network

Invasion, stress, and spinal arthritis in cane toads Gregory P. Brown*, Cathy Shilton , Benjamin L on individual organisms, with consequent health problems. Our studies on invasive cane toads in Australia reveal severe spinal arthritis in 10% of large adult toads, asso- ciated with the same factors (large body size

Shine, Rick

165

Fishes of the Cane Creek Watershed in Southeast Missouri and Northeast Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asurvey of the fishes of Cane Creek in southeast Missouri and northeast Arkansas was made between 25 August 1974 and 16 July 1975. Field collections, literature records, fisherman reports, and museum specimens showed the fishes of Cane Creek to be composed of 90species distributed among 20 families. Records of Lampetra aepyptera (Abbott), Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque), Etheostoma histrio Jordan and Gilbert,

JOHN K. BEADLES

166

Computer simulation of combine harvesting and handling of sugar cane in Barbados  

SciTech Connect

The broad objective of this study was to improve the efficiency of combine harvesting of sugar cane in Barbados. The harvesting process was broken down into two subsystems: a field subsystem and a factory yard subsystem. Two computer simulation models structured in GASP IV simulation language, were developed to model the operations involved in these systems. Model FIELDOP simulated the activities involved in the harvesting and loading of cane in the field, and in its transportation to the factory for processing. Model FACYARD simulated the weighing and unloading activities performed on cane transport units at the factory. Output from the models included utilization factors for the various component machines, daily cane delivery from the field system, and daily amounts of cane handled by the factory yard system. This output was fed into a cost program which calculated unit harvesting costs and total annual cane delivery for the equipment combinations simulated. Results indicated that a second scale at the factory can reduce the factory residence time of transport units by 88%, increase combine harvester utilization efficiency by 50-60%, increase daily cane receipts at the factory by more than 30%, and eliminate milling lost time due to lack of cane. The economic analysis demonstrated that harvesting cost per tonne can be significantly reduced.

Harvey, W.O.

1983-01-01

167

SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

168

Design and Optimization of a Process for Sugarcane Molasses Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Response Surface Methodology.  

PubMed

A statistical model was developed in this study to describe bioethanol production through a batch fermentation process of sugarcane molasses by locally isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-39. Response surface methodology RSM based on central composite face centered design CCFD was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for maximum bioethanol production and study the significance and interaction of incubation period, initial pH, incubation temperature, and molasses concentration on bioethanol yield. With the use of the developed quadratic model equation, a maximum ethanol production of 255?g/L was obtained in a batch fermentation process at optimum operating conditions of approximately 71?h, pH 5.6, 38°C, molasses concentration 18%?wt.%, and 100?rpm. PMID:24222769

El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Madian, Hekmat R; Amr, Salem S Abu

2013-01-01

169

Sweetpotato vines hydrolysate promotes single cell oils production of Trichosporon fermentans in high-density molasses fermentation.  

PubMed

This study investigated the co-fermentation of molasses and sweetpotato vine hydrolysate (SVH) by Trichosporon fermentans. T. fermentans showed low lipid accumulation on pure molasses; however, its lipid content increased by 35% when 10% SVH was added. The strong influence of SVH on lipid production was further demonstrated by the result of sensitivity analysis on effects of factors based on an artificial neural network model because the relative importance value of SVH dosage for lipid production was only lower than that of fermentation time. Scanning electron microscope observation and flow cytometry of yeast cells grown in culture with and without SVH showed that less deformation cells were involved in the culture with SVH. The activity of malic enzyme, which plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis, increased from 2.4U/mg to 3.7U/mg after SVH added. All results indicated SVH is a good supplement for lipid fermentation on molasses. PMID:25461010

Shen, Qi; Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Fan, Xiaoping; Yang, Yuyi; Zhao, Yuhua

2015-01-01

170

Design and Optimization of a Process for Sugarcane Molasses Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

A statistical model was developed in this study to describe bioethanol production through a batch fermentation process of sugarcane molasses by locally isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-39. Response surface methodology RSM based on central composite face centered design CCFD was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for maximum bioethanol production and study the significance and interaction of incubation period, initial pH, incubation temperature, and molasses concentration on bioethanol yield. With the use of the developed quadratic model equation, a maximum ethanol production of 255?g/L was obtained in a batch fermentation process at optimum operating conditions of approximately 71?h, pH 5.6, 38°C, molasses concentration 18%?wt.%, and 100?rpm. PMID:24222769

El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Amr, Salem S. Abu

2013-01-01

171

Effect of dietary levels of decorticated cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) supplemented with molasses on broiler chicks performance and carcass traits.  

PubMed

Manny legumes are used extensively as animal feed. This study was conducted to look at the effects of decorticated cow pea seeds based diets supplemented with molasses on broiler performance and carcass traits. A total of 240 unsexed one-day old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used .The birds were randomly divided into six equal groups (treatments) and each group consisted of 8 (replicates). Six experimental diets (starter and finisher) were formulated to be approximately isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The cow pea was included at three levels (0, 10 and 20%) with two levels of molasses at (0, 3%). Decorticated cowpea and raw cowpea contain 25.86 vs. 24.78% crude protein, 1.41 vs. 0.91% ether extract, 3.36 vs. 3.33% ash and 2.64 vs. 3.46% crude fiber on dry matter basis. Methionine content was high in decorticated cowpea (0.40%) compared with raw cowpea (0.35%), the vice versa hold true for lysine, 1.74 in raw seeds vs. 1.62% in decorticated seeds. Decorticated cowpea seed at 10 or 20% without molasses significantly (p<0.05) improved final body weight (1999.50-2051.32 g vs. 1986.32 in the control group). Whereas, the molasses addition at 3% significantly decreased final body weight (1838.42-1900.79 g vs. 1986.32 in the control group) and total feed intake (3150.75- 3300.75 vs. 3318.00 +/- 26.45 g in the control group). The inclusion of 20% cowpea with 3% molasses significantly improved feed conversion ratio in 20 cow pea with 3% molasses It is concluded that cow pea seeds is a good source of protein that can be used in broiler feeds safely to give satisfactory results. PMID:24163943

Musa, Muamer M; Elamin, Khalid M; Ati, Khadiga A Abdel; Elagib, Hind A A; Musa, Ahmed M

2012-11-01

172

Molasses and microbial inoculants improve fermentability and silage quality of cotton waste-based spent mushroom substrate.  

PubMed

A small-silo study was conducted to develop an effective ensiling storage method for the use of cotton waste-based spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as an animal feed. The SMS was ensiled with 5% molasses (DM basis), 0.5% (v/w) lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus plantarum) inoculant or 0.5% (v/w) yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inoculant. The treatments included 100% SMS (control), 95% SMS+5% molasses (T1), 95% SMS+5% molasses+0.5% LAB (T2) and 95% SMS+5% molasses+5% LAB+0.5% yeast (T3). The treatments were ensiled for 10. Change in chemical compositions was little (P>0.05) according to the ensiling process and treatments. Compared with those before ensiling, 100% SMS (control) after ensiling showed unstable fermentative properties with high pH (5.2) and little lactic acid production. Compared with the ensiled control, treatments (T1, T2 and T3) resulted in decreased pH, 18-20 times higher concentrations of lactic acid, and greater populations of total bacteria (P<0.07), LAB and yeast (P<0.07). The addition of 5% molasses, 0.5% LAB and 0.5% yeast (T3) to the SMS resulted in the lowest pH (4.25) and the greatest microbial populations. Treatment T3 was selected for a large scale silo study which was ensiled for 10, 20 and 30 d. As in the small-silo study, the T3 treatment showed favorable fermentative and microbial parameters, compared with the control, by decreasing pH and increasing lactic acid concentrations, LAB and yeast populations. The minimum ensiling period was 20 d, when pH was reasonably low and LAB and yeast populations were greatest. In conclusion, molasses and microbial inoculation improved silage quality of SMS. PMID:18789681

Kwak, W S; Kim, Y I; Seok, J S; Oh, Y K; Lee, S M

2009-02-01

173

Correlation studies on crude oils and source-rocks in the German Molasse Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of oils can be distinguished in the German Molasse Basin according to their distributions of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons. GC-MS investigations, which till now have been restricted mainly to the analysis of steranes, have revealed the presence of only 2 oil families for which 2 different source-rocks must be assumed. We have tentatively concluded that the Tertiary oils have originated from Jurassic source-rocks of the “Germanic” facies, whereas the Triassic oils show some resemblance to Jurassic rocks of the “Helvetian” facies. The Tertiary foreland sediments have not yet been heated sufficiently to have generated oil.

Hufnagel, H.; Teschner, M.; Wehner, H.

174

Erosion processes in molassic cliffs: the role of the rock surface temperature and atmospheric conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology of the Swiss Plateau is modeled by numerous steep cliffs of Molasse. These cliffs are mainly composed of sub-horizontal alternated layers of sandstone, shale and conglomerates deposed in the Alps foreland basin during the Tertiary period. These Molasse cliffs are affected by erosion processes inducing numerous rockfall events. Thus, it is relevant to understand how different external factors influence Molasse erosion rates. In this study, we focus on analyzing temperature variation during a winter season. As pilot study area we selected a cliff which is formed by a sub-horizontal alternation of outcropping sandstone and shale. The westward facing test site (La Cornalle, Vaud, Switzerland), which is a lateral scarp of a slow moving landslide area, is currently affected by intense erosion. Regarding data acquisition, we monitored both in-situ rock and air temperatures at 15 minutes time-step since October 2013: (1) on the one hand we measured Ground Surface Temperature (GST) at near-surface (0.1 meter depth) using a GST mini-datalogger M-Log5W-Rock model; (2) On the other hand we monitored atmospheric conditions using a weather station (Davis Vantage pro2 plus) collecting numerous parameters (i.e. temperature, irradiation, rain, wind speed, etc.). Furthermore, the area was also seasonally monitored by Ground-Based (GB) LiDAR since 2010 and monthly monitored since September 2013. In order to understand how atmospheric conditions (such as freeze and thaw effect) influence the erosion of the cliff, we modeled the temperature diffusion through the rock mass. To this end, we applied heat diffusion and radiation equation using a 1D temperature profile, obtaining as a result both temperature variations at different depths together with the location of the 0°C isotherm. Our model was calibrated during a given training set using both in-situ rock temperatures and atmospheric conditions. We then carried out a comparison with the rockfall events derived from the 3D GB-LiDAR datasets in order to quantify the erosion rates and to correlate it with atmospheric conditions, aiming to analyze which parameters influence Molasse erosion process.

Carrea, Dario; Abellán, Antonio; Guerin, Antoine; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Voumard, Jérémie

2014-05-01

175

The role of the Najd Fault System in the tectonic evolution of the Hammamat molasse sediments, Eastern Desert, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hammamat molasse sediments of the Eastern Desert of Egypt were deposited in isolated basins formed during an initial stage\\u000a of orogen parallel N–S extension (650–580 Ma) in the Neoproterozoic time. Supply of sediments to the molasse basins began\\u000a after the eruption of Dokhan volcanics (602–593 Ma), exhumation of core complexes (650–550 Ma), and intrusion of late tectonic\\u000a granites (610–550 Ma). The late Neoproterozoic

Mohamed A. Abd El-Wahed

2010-01-01

176

Diets Based on Sugar Cane Treated with Calcium Oxide for Lambs  

PubMed Central

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa Inês castrated male lambs with a 16.6±1.8 kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2 m2 individual pens, and the intake and digestibility evaluations were performed during the last four days of each period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 14% crude protein (CP), and presenting 70% sugar cane treated with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% of CaO (as-fed basis), corrected with 1% urea, and 30% concentrate. The sugar cane with added CaO was chopped, treated, and offered to the animals after 24 h of storage. The sugar cane with CaO increased the DM, OM, CP, NDF, NDFap, TC, NFCap and TDN intake (kg/d), when compared to natural sugar cane, and produced the same intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (% BW). The NFCap digestibility of the CaO-treated sugar cane was inferior to the NFCap digestibility in natural sugar cane. There was a linear increase in the DM intake with the CaO-added sugar cane, but the DM and NDF digestibility and the TDN content decreased linearly. The chemical treatment of sugar cane with CaO increases the intake but does not improve the nutrient digestibility. Two days of total fecal collection were found to be sufficient to estimate the total apparent digestibility in lambs. PMID:25049779

Carvalho, G. G. P.; Garcia, R.; Pires, A. J. V.; Silva, R. R.; Detmann, E.; Filho, A. Eustaquio; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Carvalho, L. M.

2013-01-01

177

Molasses as a whole medium for biosurfactants production by Bacillus strains and their application.  

PubMed

Two types of biosurfactant (BS)-producing bacteria, Bacillus licheniformis TR7 and Bacillus subtilis SA9, were isolated from mangrove sediment in the south of Thailand. The BS production was done by using only molasses as a whole medium for growth and production. Under optimized conditions, the yields of TR7 and SA9 BS were found to be 3.30 and 3.78 g/l, respectively. It could reduce the surface tension of pure water to 28.5 and 29.5 mN/m, with the critical micelle concentrations of about 10 and 30 mg/l, respectively. Good thermal, pH, and salt stability were exhibited. Both BSs could recover oil more effectively than the two synthetic surfactants. In addition, TR7 and SA9 BS could enhance the solubility of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Thus, these BSs have the potential for the removal of oil and PAHs from the combined contaminated environment and facilitate its bioremediation. These studies indicate that molasses, as a renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resource, can be used for important biotechnological processes. PMID:21509601

Saimmai, Atipan; Sobhon, Vorasan; Maneerat, Suppasil

2011-09-01

178

The fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Dekkera bruxellensis and the mobilization of reserve carbohydrates.  

PubMed

The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is considered to be very well adapted to industrial environments, in Brazil, USA, Canada and European Countries, when different substrates are used in alcoholic fermentations. Our previous study described its fermentative profile with a sugarcane juice substrate. In this study, we have extended its physiological evaluation to fermentation situations by using sugarcane molasses as a substrate to replicate industrial working conditions. The results have confirmed the previous reports of the low capacity of D. bruxellensis cells to assimilate sucrose, which seems to be the main factor that can cause a bottleneck in its use as fermentative yeast. Furthermore, the cells of D. bruxellensis showed a tendency to deviate most of sugar available for biomass and organic acids (lactic and acetic) compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when calculated on the basis of their respective yields. As well as this, the acetate production from molasses medium by both yeasts was in marked contrast with the previous data on sugarcane juice. Glycerol and ethanol production by D. bruxellensis cells achieved levels of 33 and 53 % of the S. cerevisiae, respectively. However, the ethanol yield was similar for both yeasts. It is worth noting that this yeast did not accumulate trehalose when the intracellular glycogen content was 30 % lower than in S. cerevisiae. The lack of trehalose did not affect yeast viability under fermentation conditions. Thus, the adaptive success of D. bruxellensis under industrial fermentation conditions seems to be unrelated to the production of these reserve carbohydrates. PMID:24370978

Pereira, Luciana Filgueira; Lucatti, Elisa; Basso, Luiz Carlos; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

2014-03-01

179

Hydrochemistry and hydrogen sulfide generating processes in the Malm aquifer, Bavarian Molasse Basin, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge about the hydrochemical conditions of deep groundwater is crucial for the design and operation of geothermal facilities. In this study, the hydrochemical heterogeneity of the groundwaters in the Malm aquifer, Germany, is assessed, and reasons for the extraordinarily high H2S concentrations in the central part of the Bavarian Molasse Basin are proposed. Samples were taken at 16 sites, for a total of 37 individual wells, to analyze cations, anions, gas loading and composition. The hydrochemical characteristics of the Malm groundwater in the center of the Molasse Basin are rather heterogeneous. Although the groundwater in the central basin is dominated by meteoric waters, there is a significant infiltration of saline water from higher strata. Care has to be taken in the interpretation of data from geothermal sites, as effects of chemical stimulation of the boreholes may not be fully removed before the final analyses. The distribution of H2S in the gas phase is correlated to the gas loading of the water which increases in the central basin. Temperatures, isotopic data and the sulfur mass balance indicate that H2S in the central basin is related to thermochemical sulfate reduction (south of Munich) and bacterial sulfate reduction (north of Munich).

Mayrhofer, Christina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

2013-12-01

180

Rim15p-mediated regulation of sucrose utilization during molasses fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.  

PubMed

Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the Rim15p-mediated stress-response pathway contribute to the high fermentation rate of sake yeast strains. In the present study, we found that disruption of the RIM15 gene in ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2 accelerated molasses fermentation through enhanced sucrose utilization following glucose starvation. PMID:23757382

Inai, Tomomi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Fukada, Rie; Akao, Takeshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

2013-11-01

181

WOOD MOLASSES IN THE NUTRITION OF RUMINANTS I. ZELENAK K. BODA, J. BUCKO D. JALC T. WALKO I. BESEDA  

E-print Network

WOOD MOLASSES IN THE NUTRITION OF RUMINANTS I. ZELENAK K. BODA, J. BUCKO D. JALC T. WALKO I. BESEDA of Forestry and Wood Processing, Zvo%n, Czechoslovakia Recently, due to a deficient food and fodder balance. Regarding waste, wood processing by pro- ducts seem to be a practically inexhaustible source of energy food

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Distances to five resolved galaxies in the Canes Venatici cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of CCD imaging in B, V of five late-type galaxies with radial velocities V_0 < 350 km/s in the Canes Venatici cloud. Based on the photometry of their brightest blue stars we derived the following distances to the galaxies: 9.7 Mpc for NGC 4144, 4.5 Mpc for NGC 4244, 4.2 Mpc for NGC 4395, 2.9 Mpc for NGC 4449, and 8.2 Mpc for UGC 8331. Tables 3 to 7 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Karachentsev, I. D.; Drozdovsky, I. O.

1998-07-01

183

Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study propagation in a non-local reaction-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia (Phillips et al 2006 Nature 439 803). The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed c* of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait variable. An eigenvector arising from this eigenvalue problem gives the flavour of the profile at the edge of the front. The major difficulty is to obtain uniform L? bounds despite the combination of non-local terms and a heterogeneous diffusivity.

Bouin, Emeric; Calvez, Vincent

2014-09-01

184

Improvement of cell growth and L-lysine production by genetically modified Corynebacterium glutamicum during growth on molasses.  

PubMed

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and fructokinase (ScrK) have important roles in regenerating glucose-6-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and thus increasing L-lysine production. This article focuses on the development of L-lysine high-producing strains by heterologous expression of FBPase gene fbp and ScrK gene scrK in C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) with molasses as the sole carbon source. Heterologous expression of fbp and scrK lead to a decrease of residual sugar in fermentation broth, and heterologous expression of scrK prevents the fructose efflux. Heterologous expression of fbp and scrK not only increases significantly the activity of corresponding enzymes but also improves cell growth during growth on molasses. FBPase activities are increased tenfold by heterologous expression of fbp, whereas the FBPase activity is only increase fourfold during co-expression of scrK and fbp. Compared with glucose, the DCW of heterologous expression strains are higher on molasses except co-expression of fbp and scrK strain. In addition, heterologous expression of fbp and scrK can strongly increase the L-lysine production with molasses as the sole carbon source. The highest increase (88.4 %) was observed for C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-fbp-scrK, but the increase was also significant for C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-fbp (47.2 %) and C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-scrK (36.8 %). By-products, such as glycerol and dihydroxyacetone, are decreased by heterologous expression of fbp and scrK, whereas trehalose is only slightly increased. The strategy for enhancing L-lysine production by regeneration of glucose-6-phosphate in PPP may provide a reference to enhance the production of other amino acids during growth on molasses or starch. PMID:24029876

Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Junlan; Guo, Yanfeng; Zai, Yugui; Zhang, Weiguo

2013-12-01

185

Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

2011-01-01

186

21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

2011-04-01

187

21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

2010-04-01

188

Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

2007-01-01

189

Interaction of Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix in Sugar Cane Roots.  

PubMed

Fifteen-day-old variety NA 56-79 sugar cane seedlings were inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix. This article aims at examining changes in sugar cane root seedlings inoculated with Glomus intrarradix and Azospirillum brasilense, the increase in microbial biomass and the acetylene reduction process as well. The internal root colonization was studied 20 days after inoculation using scanning and a transmission electron microscope. Both microorganisms entered the sugar cane root through the emergent lateral roots. The microorganisms were capable of coexisting both intra and intercellularly, producing changes in the cell wall, thus allowing colonization and interaction between the organisms. These changes increased the number of microorganisms inside the root as well as acetylene nitrogen reduction. Sugar cane plant biomass increased with joint-inoculation. The number of endophytic microorganisms and nitrogen fixing activity increased when they were colonized by Azospirillum and Glomus together. PMID:23449160

Bellone, Carlos H; de Bellone Silvia, Carrizo

2012-03-01

190

Sensory differences between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources.  

PubMed

Although beet and cane sugar sources have nearly identical chemical compositions, the sugars differ in their volatile profiles, thermal behaviors, and minor chemical components. Scientific evidence characterizing the impact of these differences on product quality is lacking. The objective of this research was to determine whether panelists could identify a sensory difference between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources. Sixty-two panelists used the R-index by ranking method to discern whether there was a difference between 2 brands of beet and 2 brands of cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor, along with a difference in pavlova, simple syrup, sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea made with beet and cane sugars. R-index values and Friedman's rank sum tests showed differences (P < 0.05) between beet and cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor. Significant differences between the sugar sources were also identified when incorporated into the pavlova and simple syrup. No difference was observed in the sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea. Possible explanations for the lack of difference in these products include: (1) masking of beet and cane sensory differences by the flavor and complexity of the product matrix, (2) the relatively small quantity of sugar in these products, and (3) variation within these products being more influential than the sugar source. The findings from this research are relevant to sugar manufacturers and the food industry as a whole, because it identifies differences between beet and cane sugars and product matrices in which beet and cane sugars are not directly interchangeable. PMID:25308166

Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

2014-11-01

191

Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating sustainable bioenergy policies.

Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

2013-12-01

192

Gait and long cane kinematics: a comparison of sighted and visually impaired subjects.  

PubMed

Although visually impaired individuals have used the long cane to increase mobility for many years, few empirical studies have examined the effectiveness of this tool. The purposes of this research were to determine if these cane procedures provide adequate protection for visually impaired individuals and to compare sighted and visually impaired gait mechanics. Seven sighted (four females, three males) and five visually impaired subjects (two females, three males) were videotaped at 60 Hz by two cameras situated at opposite 45 degrees angles to the subjects' frontal plane so that three-dimensional coordinates could be calculated via direct linear transformation. One-way analyses of variance were calculated on 17 variables to determine if there was a significant biomechanical difference between sighted and visually impaired gait at an adjusted alpha = .003. The results showed that for both groups the cane tip touched outside where the foot landed and that the only variable significantly different between the two groups was resultant cane velocity. The major conclusion of this research was that present cane techniques may not provide adequate protection for visually impaired individuals since the purpose of mobility training is to have the person touch the ground with the cane tip at the foot contact positions. PMID:9475140

Johnson, J T; Johnson, B F; Blasch, B B; de l'Aune, W D

1998-02-01

193

Horizontal drilling potential of the Cane Creek Shale, Paradox Formation, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Cane Creek shale of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation is a well-defined target for horizontal drilling. This unit is naturally fractures and consists of organic-rich marine shale with interbedded dolomitic siltstone and anhydrite. Six fields have produced oil from the Cane Creek shale in the Paradox basin fold-and-fault belt. The regional structural trend is north-northwest with productive fractures occurring along the crest and flanks of both the larger and more subtle smaller anticlines. The Long Canyon, Cane Creek, Bartlett Flat, and Shafer Canyon fields are located on large anticlines, while Lion Mesa and Wilson Canyon fields produce from subtle structural noses. The Cane Creek shale is similar to the highly productive Bakken Shale in the Williston basin. Both are (1) proven producers of high-gravity oil, (2) highly fractured organic-rich source rocks, (3) overpressured, (4) regionally extensive, and (5) solution-gas driven with little or no associated water. Even though all production from the Cane Creek shale has been from conventional vertical wells, the Long Canyon 1 well has produced nearly 1 million bbl of high-gravity, low-sulfur oil. Horizontal drilling may result in the development of new fields, enhance recovery in producing fields, and revive production in abandoned fields. In addition, several other regionally extensive organic-rich shale beds occur in the Paradox Formation. The Gothic and Chimney Rock shales for example, offer additional potential lying above the Cane Creek shale.

Morgan, C.D.; Chidsey, T.C. (Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, Salt Lake City (United States))

1991-06-01

194

Design development of an electrocoagulation reactor for molasses process wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The impact of electrode corrosion behaviour, reactor geometry and current density on electrocoagulation efficiency were investigated for the treatment of molasses process wastewater. Two laboratory-scale vertical plate electrocoagulation reactors were used for this investigation: the first being a low aspect ratio bath reactor with a low specific electrode area, while the other was a high aspect ratio column reactor with a high specific electrode area. Anomalous anodic dissolution and cathodic corrosion of the aluminium electrodes both contributed significantly to overall metal consumption. Increasing specific electrode area and aspect ratio each led to improved treatment efficiency, whereas the impact of current density was more complicated involving the combined influences of several competing effects. The space-time yields of coagulant and bubbles (both functions of specific electrode area, current density and current efficiency) were found to influence mixing within the reactor and thus treatment efficiency. PMID:20555220

Gadd, A S; Ryan, D R; Kavanagh, J M; Barton, G W

2010-01-01

195

Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

Han, Wei; Li, Yong-feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

2010-11-01

196

Quantum interference-enhanced deep sub-Doppler cooling of 39 K atoms beyond gray molasses  

E-print Network

We report enhanced sub-Doppler cooling of the bosonic atoms of 39 K facilitated by formation of dark states due to the quantum interference of excitation amplitudes in the Raman configuration for the cooling and repumping lasers tuned around the D1 resonance. The temperature of about 12 {\\mu}K achieved in the two stage D2-D1 molasses is the lowest ever reported for 39 K and spans a very large parameter region where quantum interference persists robustly. We also present results on enhanced radiation heating with sub-natural linewidth (0.1{\\Gamma}) and Fano like profile, following the quantum features of 3-level coherently driven atomic system with complexities associated with optical pumping to dark states and Sisyphus effect in standing wave light fields, over and above the Raman quantum interference.

Nath, Dipankar; Rajalakshmi, G; Unnikrishnan, C S

2013-01-01

197

A novel hybrid technology for remediation of molasses-based raw effluents.  

PubMed

A novel three-step technology for treatment of four molasses-based raw industrial effluents, varying in their COD, color and turbidity is reported here. Sequential steps involved in this treatment are; (1) sonication of the effluents, (2) whole-fungal treatment of these by a ligninolytic marine fungus and (3) biosorption of the residual color with heat-inactivated biomass of the same fungus. Sonication reduced the foul odor and turbidity of the effluents. It increased biodegradability of the effluents in the second stage of treatment. Laccase production in the presence of all the four effluents was directly correlated with their decolorization. After the third step, a reduction of 60-80% in color, 50-70% in COD and 60-70% in total phenolics were achieved. Comparative mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicated increasing degradation of the effluent components after each stage. Toxicity (LC(50) values) against Artemia larvae was reduced by two to five folds. PMID:21111609

Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Raghukumar, Chandralata; Naik, Chandrakant Govind

2011-02-01

198

A radiochemical, hydrochemical and dissolved gas study of groundwaters in the Molasse basin of Upper Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Innviertel (Ottnangian) formation of the Molasse zone of Upper Austria is of major importance as a source of potable water. A hydrochemical, radiochemical and dissolved gas study was undertaken to establish the flow pattern in the Innviertel and its relationship to groundwaters in deeper formations in the Molasse basin. The Innviertel groundwaters could be differentiated into three groups on the basis of their chemical compositions. Waters from shallow boreholes which sampled very localised systems are oxidising waters of the Ca-bicarbonate type and may have high 3H contents. A transition to reducing groundwaters occurs in the second and third groups, with Na + replacing Ca 2+ as the dominant cation and sulphate being reduced to sulphide. The uranium solution chemistry also changes systematically with this change in redox conditions. The 234U/ 238U activity ratios are enhanced for group 2 groundwaters and decrease again in group 3 groundwaters. The low Cl contents of all the Innviertel groundwaters indicate that the marine sediments have been completely flushed by meteoric water and this is confirmed by the stable isotope composition of the water. Groundwater residence times have been estimated from hydrological data, radiogenic 4He accumulation rates and palaeotemperatures of recharge which were estimated from noble gas contents. The 3He/ 4He ratio shows that most radiogenic He diffuses from the basement granite and the He flux was estimated on the basis of diffusion theory. Groundwater residence times were assessed from this diffusive flux of helium and together with the recharge temperatures, indicate that the evolved groundwaters of the Innviertel were recharged during the interstadial which preceded the last glaciation.

Andrews, J. N.; Goldbrunner, J. E.; Darling, W. G.; Hooker, P. J.; Wilson, G. B.; Youngman, M. J.; Eichinger, L.; Rauert, W.; Stichler, W.

1985-05-01

199

The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Carbon Budget of Land Use Conversion from Pasture to Energy Cane Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States is committed to produce 140 billion liters of ethanol by 2022. To meet this goal, and mitigate concerns about the "fuel versus food" conundrum, there is a pressing need for a second generation of sustainable biofuel feedstocks. Energy cane is a high yield, cold-tolerant C4 grass that can be efficiently used to produce bio-ethanol via existing cellulo-lignosic conversion technologies. There is exciting promise for Energy cane as an ethanol feedstock, however the climate implications of large-scale land use change from pasture (a significant use of land in the Southeastern USA) to production of an energy grass has not been fully explored. Furthermore, the soil type on which Energy cane will be grown will likely have a significant impact on greenhouse gases (GHG). We use DAYCENT, a process based biogeochemical model, to forecast how land use change from pasture to Energy cane production influences ecosystem level GHG flux and soil carbon flux. Because Energy cane is not widely cultivated, we use the available sugar cane literature to validate our in silico experiments. DAYCENT simulations suggest that soil type and fertilization rates have a strong control on the GHG and soil C dynamics after changing land from pasture to Energy cane. Our model results show net losses of ecosystem level C when Energy cane is grown on Histosols (organic matter rich soils), and a net gain of ecosystem C when that crop is grown on Spodosols (sandy soils). Respired CO2, N2O and total GHG efflux is significantly higher on Histosols compared to Spodosols in cane production. We conclude that the soil type on which Energy cane is grown determines the climatic impact of changing a landscape from pasture to Energy cane, and the greatest long-term climate benefit comes from growing cane on Spodosols.

Duval, B.; Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S. P.; DeLucia, E. H.

2011-12-01

200

Production and characterization of PHA from recombinant E. coli harbouring phaC1 gene of indigenous Pseudomonas sp. LDC-5 using molasses  

PubMed Central

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable and biocompatible green thermoplastics, synthesized by wide variety of bacteria as an intracellular carbon and energy storage intermediate. They are used as an alternative to nonrenewable petroleum derived plastics. The current interest in these biopolyesters is stimulated by the search for cost-effective capitalized production. This paper attempts to achieve maximized production rate from recombinant system using inexpensive substrate. Molasses from agro-industrial waste was used to produce PHA from recombinant E.coli in batch culture. PHA yield in molasses (3.06g/L ± 0.05?75.5%) was higher than that of sucrose (2.5g/L ± 0.05 - 65.1%). Properties of the polymer produced from molasses and sucrose were analyzed by DSC, TGA, DTA, GC/MS, TLC and optical rotation studies. The findings suggested that molasses enhanced PHA production in recombinant E.coli. PMID:24031729

Saranya, V.; Shenbagarathai, R.

2011-01-01

201

Do invasive cane toads affect the parasite burdens of native Australian frogs?  

PubMed

One of the most devastating impacts of an invasive species is the introduction of novel parasites or diseases to native fauna. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia contain several types of parasites, raising concern that the toads may increase rates of parasitism in local anuran species. We sampled cane toads and sympatric native frogs (Limnodynastes peronii, Litoria latopalmata, and Litoria nasuta) at the southern invasion front of cane toads in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW). We dissected and swabbed these anurans to score the presence and abundance of nematodes (Rhabdias lungworms, and gastric encysting nematodes), myxozoans, and chytrid fungus. To determine if cane toad invasion influences rates of parasitism in native frogs, we compared the prevalence and intensity of parasites in frogs from areas with toads, to frogs from areas without toads. Contrary to the situation on the (rapidly-expanding) tropical invasion front, cane toads on the slowly-expanding southern front were heavily infected with rhabditoid lungworms. Toads also contained gastric-encysting nematodes, and one toad was infected by chytrid fungus, but we did not find myxozoans in any toads. All parasite groups were recorded in native frogs, but were less common in areas invaded by toads than in nearby yet to be invaded areas. Contrary to our predictions, toad invasion was associated with a reduced parasite burden in native frogs. Thus, cane toads do not appear to transfer novel parasites to native frog populations, or act as a reservoir for native parasites to 'spill-back' into native frogs. Instead, cane toads may reduce frog-parasite numbers by taking up native parasites that are then killed by the toad's immune defences. PMID:24533330

Lettoof, Damian C; Greenlees, Matthew J; Stockwell, Michelle; Shine, Richard

2013-12-01

202

Do invasive cane toads affect the parasite burdens of native Australian frogs??  

PubMed Central

One of the most devastating impacts of an invasive species is the introduction of novel parasites or diseases to native fauna. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia contain several types of parasites, raising concern that the toads may increase rates of parasitism in local anuran species. We sampled cane toads and sympatric native frogs (Limnodynastes peronii, Litoria latopalmata, and Litoria nasuta) at the southern invasion front of cane toads in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW). We dissected and swabbed these anurans to score the presence and abundance of nematodes (Rhabdias lungworms, and gastric encysting nematodes), myxozoans, and chytrid fungus. To determine if cane toad invasion influences rates of parasitism in native frogs, we compared the prevalence and intensity of parasites in frogs from areas with toads, to frogs from areas without toads. Contrary to the situation on the (rapidly-expanding) tropical invasion front, cane toads on the slowly-expanding southern front were heavily infected with rhabditoid lungworms. Toads also contained gastric-encysting nematodes, and one toad was infected by chytrid fungus, but we did not find myxozoans in any toads. All parasite groups were recorded in native frogs, but were less common in areas invaded by toads than in nearby yet to be invaded areas. Contrary to our predictions, toad invasion was associated with a reduced parasite burden in native frogs. Thus, cane toads do not appear to transfer novel parasites to native frog populations, or act as a reservoir for native parasites to ‘spill-back’ into native frogs. Instead, cane toads may reduce frog-parasite numbers by taking up native parasites that are then killed by the toad’s immune defences. PMID:24533330

Lettoof, Damian C.; Greenlees, Matthew J.; Stockwell, Michelle; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

203

Ecological sustainability of energy cane as a biofuel feedstock Assess the ecological sustainability of deploying energy cane on land previously used for  

E-print Network

Ecological sustainability of energy cane as a biofuel feedstock Objective Assess the ecological to the ecological sustainability of the wide-scale deployment of biofuel feedstocks. Key among these issues are how replacing current land use with biofuel feedstocks will affect the fluxes of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N20

DeLucia, Evan H.

204

Characterisation of the impact of coagulation and anaerobic bio-treatment on the removal of chromophores from molasses wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a coagulation sequence using aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH) and a low MW polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC), and ferric chloride, for decolourising a high-strength industrial molasses wastewater was compared at bench scale. At their optimum dosages, ACH\\/polyDADMAC gave higher colour removal than FeCl3 (45% cf. 28%), whereas COD reduction was similar (?30%), indicating preferential removal of melanoidins (a major contributor to

Linhua Fan; Thang Nguyen; Felicity A. Roddick

2011-01-01

205

Invasive cane toads: social facilitation depends upon an individual's personality.  

PubMed

Individual variation in behavioural traits (including responses to social cues) may influence the success of invasive populations. We studied the relationship between sociality and personality in invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) from a recently established population in tropical Australia. In our field experiments, we manipulated social cues (the presence of a feeding conspecific) near a food source. We captured and compared toads that only approached feeding sites where another toad was already present, with conspecifics that approached unoccupied feeding sites. Subsequent laboratory trials showed correlated personality differences (behavioural syndromes) between these two groups of toads. For example, toads that approached already-occupied rather than unoccupied feeding sites in the field, took longer to emerge from a shelter-site in standardized trials, suggesting these individuals are 'shy' (whereas toads that approached unoccupied feeding stations tended to be 'bold'). Manipulating hunger levels did not abolish this difference. In feeding trials, a bold toad typically outcompeted a shy toad under conditions of low prey availability, but the outcome was reversed when multiple prey items were present. Thus, both personality types may be favored under different circumstances. This invasive population of toads contains individuals that exhibit a range of personalities, hinting at the existence of a wide range of social dynamics in taxa traditionally considered to be asocial. PMID:25033047

González-Bernal, Edna; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

2014-01-01

206

Evolutionary Responses to Invasion: Cane Toad Sympatric Fish Show Enhanced Avoidance Learning  

PubMed Central

The introduced cane toad (Bufo marinus) poses a major threat to biodiversity due to its lifelong toxicity. Several terrestrial native Australian vertebrates are adapting to the cane toad’s presence and lab trials have demonstrated that repeated exposure to B. marinus can result in learnt avoidance behaviour. Here we investigated whether aversion learning is occurring in aquatic ecosystems by comparing cane toad naïve and sympatric populations of crimson spotted rainbow fish (Melanotaenia duboulayi). The first experiment indicated that fish from the sympatric population had pre-existing aversion to attacking cane toad tadpoles but also showed reduced attacks on native tadpoles. The second experiment revealed that fish from both naïve and sympatric populations learned to avoid cane toad tadpoles following repeated, direct exposure. Allopatric fish also developed a general aversion to tadpoles. The aversion learning abilities of both groups was examined using an experiment involving novel distasteful prey items. While both populations developed a general avoidance of edible pellets in the presence of distasteful pellets, only the sympatric population significantly reduced the number of attacks on the novel distasteful prey item. These results indicate that experience with toxic prey items over multiple generations can enhance avoidance leaning capabilities via natural selection. PMID:23372788

Caller, Georgina; Brown, Culum

2013-01-01

207

Improvement of whole crop rice silage nutritive value and rumen degradability by molasses and urea supplementation.  

PubMed

Whole crop rice was harvested 120 days after planting and chopped to 2-3-cm length for silage making. The whole crop rice silage (WCRS) was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 6?×?5 factorial arrangement, in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplementation at M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 %, and the second was urea (U) supplementation at U0, U0.5, U1.0, U1.5, and U2.0 % of the crop dry mater (DM), respectively. After 45 days of ensiling, temperature, pH, chemical composition, and fermentation end products of the silages were measured. Ten U and M treatment combinations of WCRS were subsequently selected to study rumen degradability by nylon bag technique. The results showed that temperature and pH of the silages linearly increased with U supplementation level, while total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), acetic acid (C2) and propionic acid (C3) decreased. In contrast, increasing level of M supplementation decreased WCRS temperature and pH, whereas TVFA, C2, and C3 concentrations increased dramatically. Both M and U supplementation increased concentration of butyric acid (C4). Dry matter, organic matter (OM), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the silages were not influenced by either M or U supplementation. Increasing U supplementation increased crude protein (CP) content, while M level did not show any effect. Furthermore, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content in silage was decreased by both M and U supplementation. The results of the in situ study showed that M and U supplementation increased both ruminal DM and OM degradation. The water-soluble fraction (a) was the highest in WCRS U1.5M3 and lowest in U0M0. Increasing M and U supplementation levels increased the potentially degradable fraction (b) of both DM and OM. Total rumen degradable fraction (a?+?b) was highest in WCRS U1.5M3, whereas OM degradability was highest in U0M3. However, effective degradation of both DM and OM were the highest in WCRS U1.5M3 and the lowest in U0M0. We conclude that supplementation of U and M increases WCRS quality and rumen degradability. Supplementation of U at 1.5 and M at 3-4 % of the crop DM is recommended for lactating dairy cows and fattening beef cattle. PMID:23771776

Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote

2013-11-01

208

40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

2010-07-01

209

40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

2012-07-01

210

40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

2013-07-01

211

40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

2014-07-01

212

40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

2011-07-01

213

The cane toad's (Bufo marinus) increasing ability to invade Australia is revealed by a dynamically updated range model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species threaten biological diversity throughout the world. Understanding the dynamics of their spread is critical to mitigating this threat. In Australia, efforts are underway to control the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus). Range models based on their native bioclimatic envelope suggest that the cane toad is nearing the end of its invasion phase. However, such models assume a conserved

Mark C. Urban; Ben L. Phillips; David K. Skelly; Richard Shine

2007-01-01

214

An introduced pentastomid parasite (Raillietiella frenata) infects native cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Panama.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The pentastomid parasite, Raillietiella frenata, is native to Asia where it infects the Asian House gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus. This gecko has been widely introduced and recently R. frenata was found in introduced populations of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia, indicating a host-switch from introduced geckos to toads. Here we report non-native adult R. frenata infecting the lungs of native cane toads in Panama. Eight of 64 toads were infected (median = 2·5, range = 1-80 pentastomids/toad) and pentastomid prevalence was positively associated with the number of buildings at a site, though further sampling is needed to confirm this pattern. We postulate that this pattern is likely due to a host shift of this parasite from an urban-associated introduced gecko. This is the first record of this parasite infecting cane toads in their native range, and the first instance of this parasite occurring in Central America. PMID:25394910

Kelehear, Crystal; Saltonstall, Kristin; Torchin, Mark E

2014-11-14

215

Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates. PMID:23227051

Pereira, Regina F. R.; Vidal, Carla B.; de Lima, Ari C. A.; Melo, Diego Q.; Dantas, Allan N. S.; Lopes, Gisele S.; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F.; Gomes, Clerton L.; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

2012-01-01

216

Fermentative hydrogen production from molasses wastewater in a continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor.  

PubMed

A novel continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor (CMISR) containing activated carbon as support carrier was used for fermentative hydrogen production from molasses wastewater. When the CMISR system operated at the conditions of influent COD of 2000-6000mg/L, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6h and temperature of 35°C, stable ethanol type fermentation was formed after 40days operation. The H(2) content in biogas and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were estimated to be 46.6% and 13%, respectively. The effects of organic loading rates (OLRs) on the CMISR hydrogen production system were also investigated. It was found that the maximum hydrogen production rate of 12.51mmol/hL was obtained at OLR of 32kg/m(3)d and the maximum hydrogen yield by substrate consumed of 130.57mmol/mol happened at OLR of 16kg/m(3)d. Therefore, the continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor (CMISR) could be a promising immobilized system for fermentative hydrogen production. PMID:22326329

Han, Wei; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yan; Wang, De-Xin; Wang, Yan; Yue, Li-Ran; Li, Yong-Feng; Ren, Nan-Qi

2012-04-01

217

Fructooligosaccharides metabolism and effect on bacteriocin production in Lactobacillus strains isolated from ensiled corn and molasses.  

PubMed

Fructo- (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides have been used to promote the growth of probiotics, mainly those from Lactobacillus genus. However, only few reports have evaluated the effect of prebiotics on bacteriocins activity and production. In this work, we characterized the effect of FOS supplementation on the growth, lactic and acetic acids production, and antimicrobial activity of crude extracts obtained from Lactobacillus strains isolated from ensiled corn and molasses. Seven out of 28 isolated Lactobacillus, belonging to Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis, showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua. Among them, the strain L. plantarum LE5 showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Enteroccocus faecalis; while the L. plantarum LE27 strain showed antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes, E. faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. This antimicrobial activity in most of the cases was obtained only after FOS supplementation. In summary, these results show the feasibility to increase the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus bacteriocins by supplementing the growth medium with FOS. PMID:22342961

Muñoz, M; Mosquera, A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Melendez, A P; Sánchez, O F

2012-06-01

218

Kinetics and thermodynamics of ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MLD10 using molasses.  

PubMed

In this study, we have used ultraviolet (UV) and ?-ray induction to get a catabolite repression resistant and thermotolerant mutant with enhanced ethanol production along with optimization of sugar concentration and temperature of fermentation. Classical mutagenesis in two consecutive cycles of UV- and ?-ray-induced mutations evolved one best catabolite-resistant and thermotolerant mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae MLD10 which showed improved ethanol yield (0.48 ± 0.02 g g(-1)), theoretical yield (93 ± 3%), and extracellular invertase productivity (1,430 ± 50 IU l(-1) h(-1)), respectively, when fermenting 180 g sugars l(-1) in molasses medium at 43 °C in 300 m(3) working volume fermenter. Ethanol production was highly dependent on invertase production. Enthalpy (?H*) (32.27 kJ M(-1)) and entropy (?S*) (-202.88 J M(-1) K(-1)) values at 43 °C by the mutant MLD10 were significantly lower than those of ?-glucosidase production by a thermophilic mutant derivative of Thermomyces lanuginosus. These results confirmed the enhanced production of ethanol and invertase by this mutant derivative. These studies proved that mutant was significantly improved for ethanol production and was thermostable in nature. Lower fermentation time for ethanol production and maintenance of ethanol production rates (3.1 g l(-1) h(-1)) at higher temperature (43 °C) by this mutant could decrease the overall cost of fermentation process and increase the quality of ethanol production. PMID:24395695

Arshad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Sibtain; Zia, Muhammad Anjum; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim

2014-03-01

219

A pseudo-stoichiometric dynamic model of anaerobic hydrogen production from molasses.  

PubMed

Despite many mathematical models available in the literature for simulation and optimization of anaerobic digestion processes, only few can accurately account for hydrogen production. In the present study, experiments were performed in a continuous stirred tank reactor with a hydraulic retention time close to 6 h. pH was regulated to 5.5 and agitation was maintained at 300 rpm. Molasses were used as substrate with feeding concentrations varying between 5 and 20 g L(-1). Experimental data were used to estimate the pseudo-stoichiometric coefficients with a constrained nonlinear optimization. The obtained pseudo-stoichiometric matrix is made of two reactions, one being associated with hydrogen production and the other one with acetate production. Finally, a dynamic model is derived and is demonstrated to simulate very accurately the dynamic evolution of hydrogen production, but also biomass and intermediate compounds (i.e., individual volatile fatty acids) concentrations while being very close to the stoichiometric balance. Finally, the best hydrogen production was 15.3L(H)(2)d(-1)L(-1) for a concentration of substrate of 20.09 g L(-1) and a liquid feed flow of 5 L d(-1) (i.e., 1.47 mol-H2 mol-glucose(-1)). PMID:18359057

Aceves-Lara, Cesar-Arturo; Latrille, Eric; Bernet, Nicolas; Buffière, Pierre; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

2008-05-01

220

The impact of stress on the health of sugar cane cutters  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Evaluate the impact of stress on sugar cane cutters and the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms before and after harvest. METHODS We studied 114 sugarcane cutters and 109 urban workers in the pre-harvest and 102 sugar cane cutters and 81 urban workers in the post-harvest period in the city of Mendonça, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Data analysis was based on the frequency and percentage of the assessed symptoms of stress, using the Lipp-ISSL test (Symptoms of Stress for Adults). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The Fisher Test was used to compare the variable of stress between pre- and post-harvest within the sugar cane cutter and urban worker groups. P values below 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS Stress in sugar cane cutters increased after harvesting (34.2% pre-harvest and 46.1% post-harvest); in urban workers, stress decreased from 44.0% pre-harvest to 42.0% post-harvest. There was prevalence of the phase of resistance to stress for both groups with signs more apparent from the near-exhaustion and exhaustion phases for sugar cane cutters. After harvest, there was a tendency for the number of sugar cane cutters with symptoms of near-exhaustion (6.4%) and exhaustion (10.6%) to increase. After harvest there was a trend for the number of sugar cane cutters with physical symptoms (pre-harvest = 20.5%, post-harvest = 25.5%) and psychological symptoms (pre-harvest = 64.1%; post-harvest = 70.2%) to increase. For both groups, predominantly psychological symptoms occurred in both phases (70.2% versus 64.7%). CONCLUSIONS The work process of cutting cane can cause stress. Individual factors such as cognitive perception of the experience, self-efficacy beliefs and expectations of the employee regarding their performance can influence the understanding of the reactions in their body in face of the work. PMID:24897043

Priuli, Roseana Mara Aredes; de Moraes, Maria Silvia; Chiaravalloti, Rafael Morais

2014-01-01

221

CANE FIBERBOARD DEGRADATION WITHIN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION  

SciTech Connect

The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.

2013-06-19

222

In vitro digestion and fermentation characteristics of temulose molasses, a coproduct of fiberboard production, and select temulose fractions using canine fecal inoculum.  

PubMed

It is of interest to discover new fermentable carbohydrate sources that function as prebiotics. This study evaluated the hydrolytic digestibility, fermentative capacity, and microbiota modulating properties of Temulose molasses, four hydrolyzed fractions of Temulose molasses, short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), and a yeast cell wall preparation (Safmannan). These substrates resisted in vitro hydrolytic digestion. Each substrate was fermented in vitro using dog fecal inoculum, and fermentation characteristics were quantified at 0 and 12 h. All Temulose molasses substrates decreased pH by at least 0.64 unit and resulted in greater (P < 0.05) butyrate and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production compared to scFOS and Safmannan. Temulose molasses substrates resulted in higher (P < 0.01) or equal Bifidobacterium spp. concentrations compared to scFOS. Temulose molasses substrate and its fractions demonstrated prebiotic characteristics as indicated by low hydrolytic digestibility, high fermentability, and enhanced growth of microbiota considered to be beneficial to health. PMID:21288027

Faber, Trevor A; Bauer, L L; Price, Neil P; Hopkins, Anne C; Fahey, George C

2011-03-01

223

Cane Toads on Cowpats: Commercial Livestock Production Facilitates Toad Invasion in Tropical Australia  

PubMed Central

Habitat disturbance and the spread of invasive organisms are major threats to biodiversity, but the interactions between these two factors remain poorly understood in many systems. Grazing activities may facilitate the spread of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia by providing year-round access to otherwise-seasonal resources. We quantified the cane toad’s use of cowpats (feces piles) in the field, and conducted experimental trials to assess the potential role of cowpats as sources of prey, water, and warmth for toads. Our field surveys show that cane toads are found on or near cowpats more often than expected by chance. Field-enclosure experiments show that cowpats facilitate toad feeding by providing access to dung beetles. Cowpats also offer moist surfaces that can reduce dehydration rates of toads and are warmer than other nearby substrates. Livestock grazing is the primary form of land use over vast areas of Australia, and pastoral activities may have contributed substantially to the cane toad’s successful invasion of that continent. PMID:23145158

González-Bernal, Edna; Greenlees, Matthew; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

2012-01-01

224

Cane toads on cowpats: commercial livestock production facilitates toad invasion in tropical australia.  

PubMed

Habitat disturbance and the spread of invasive organisms are major threats to biodiversity, but the interactions between these two factors remain poorly understood in many systems. Grazing activities may facilitate the spread of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia by providing year-round access to otherwise-seasonal resources. We quantified the cane toad's use of cowpats (feces piles) in the field, and conducted experimental trials to assess the potential role of cowpats as sources of prey, water, and warmth for toads. Our field surveys show that cane toads are found on or near cowpats more often than expected by chance. Field-enclosure experiments show that cowpats facilitate toad feeding by providing access to dung beetles. Cowpats also offer moist surfaces that can reduce dehydration rates of toads and are warmer than other nearby substrates. Livestock grazing is the primary form of land use over vast areas of Australia, and pastoral activities may have contributed substantially to the cane toad's successful invasion of that continent. PMID:23145158

González-Bernal, Edna; Greenlees, Matthew; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

2012-01-01

225

Increased estimates of air-pollution emissions from Brazilian sugar-cane ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse-gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels on air quality and climate. Sugar-cane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here we use a life-cycle approach to produce spatially and temporally explicit estimates of air-pollutant emissions over the whole life cycle of sugar-cane ethanol in Brazil. We show that even in regions where pre-harvest field burning has been eliminated on half the croplands, regional emissions of air pollutants continue to increase owing to the expansion of sugar-cane growing areas, and burning continues to be the dominant life-cycle stage for emissions. Comparison of our estimates of burning-phase emissions with satellite estimates of burning in São Paulo state suggests that sugar-cane field burning is not fully accounted for in satellite-based inventories, owing to the small spatial scale of individual fires. Accounting for this effect leads to revised regional estimates of burned area that are four times greater than some previous estimates. Our revised emissions maps thus suggest that biofuels may have larger impacts on regional climate forcing and human health than previously thought.

Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J. E.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Chen, Y.

2012-01-01

226

Invasive cane toads ( Bufo marinus) cause mass mortality of freshwater crocodiles ( Crocodylus johnstoni) in tropical Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species are frequently blamed for faunal declines, but there is little direct evidence about the pathways, magnitude and size-selectivity of mortality induced by invaders. Top predators are of particular interest in this context, because their removal can generate substantial cascades of secondary effects on community composition. Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are large South American anurans currently spreading rapidly through

Mike Letnic; Jonathan K. Webb; Richard Shine

2008-01-01

227

3 CFR 8439 - Proclamation 8439 of October 15, 2009. White Cane Safety Day, 2009  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...those among us who are blind or have low vision. As Americans, we must nurture a society... Individuals who are blind or have low vision are less constrained and better...For Americans who are blind or have low vision, a white cane is just one of a...

2010-01-01

228

Immunotherapeutic effects of some sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) extracts against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Present paper reports the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice and bagasse, respectively on protective immune responses in industrial broiler chickens against coccidiosis. Immunotherapeutic efficacies of the extracts were measured by evaluating their effect on body weight gain, oocyst shedding, lesion score, anti-coccidial indices, per cent protection and elicited serum antibody responses against coccidiosis. Results revealed a significantly lower (P<0.05) oocyst shedding and mortality in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to control. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05) body weight gains and antibody responses were detected in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to chickens of control group. Moreover, ethanolic extract showed higher anti-coccidia index (227.61) as compared to aqueous extract (192.32). The organ body weight ratio of the lymphoid organs of experimental and control groups were statistically non-significant (P>0.01). These results demonstrated that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of sugar cane possess immune enhancing properties and their administration in chickens augments the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:21354144

Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, M Irfan

2011-06-01

229

Sugar Cane Bagasse Lignin in Resol-Type Resin: Alternative Application for Ligninphenol-Formaldehyde Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin can be recovered from sugar cane bagasse, which is widely available in Brazil as a residue from sugar mills. Many reports can be found in the literature on the partial replacement of phenol by lignin in phenolic-type resins, but normally only their application as an adhesive is considered. This work is part of a study intended to look for

Rogério S. J. Piccolo; Fernando Santos; Elisabete Frollini

1997-01-01

230

TESTING FOR A TRAIL FOLLOWING PHEROMONE ON THE SILKY CANE WEEVIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The silky cane weevil (SCW), Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of sugarcane, and palms, and was introduced into Florida in the mid-1980s. In laboratory tests it was observed that weevils followed tracks already walked by other co-specifics and experiments...

231

Financial and economic feasibility of sugar cane production in northern La Paz  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last three decades northern La Paz has experienced the arrival of migrants establishing settlements and clearing forest lands for agriculture. Increasing forest conversion for agricultural projects is the basis of several national and local government development schemes. Today, the most significant development proposal includes installation of a sugar cane mill in San Buenaventura to produce sugar and ethyl

Alfonso Malky

2010-01-01

232

WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING  

SciTech Connect

Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex{trademark} manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex{trademark}. The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package.

Varble, J

2007-11-20

233

Adapting to an invasive species: Toxic cane toads induce morphological change in Australian snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arrival of invasive species can devastate natural ecosystems, but the long-term effects of invasion are less clear. If native organisms can adapt to the presence of the invader, the severity of impact will decline with time. In Australia, invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) are highly toxic to most snakes that attempt to eat them. Because snakes are gape-limited predators

Ben L. Phillips; Richard Shine

2004-01-01

234

Alkali-based AFEX pretreatment for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse and cane leaf residues to ethanol.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is one of the major agricultural crops cultivated in tropical climate regions of the world. Each tonne of raw cane production is associated with the generation of 130 kg dry weight of bagasse after juice extraction and 250 kg dry weight of cane leaf residue postharvest. The annual world production of sugarcane is approximately 1.6 billion tones, generating 279 MMT tones of biomass residues (bagasse and cane leaf matter) that would be available for cellulosic ethanol production. Here, we investigated the production of cellulosic ethanol from sugar cane bagasse and sugar cane leaf residue using an alkaline pretreatment: ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX). The AFEX pretreatment improved the accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses to enzymes during hydrolysis by breaking down the ester linkages and other lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds and the sugar produced by this process is found to be highly fermentable. The maximum glucan conversion of AFEX pretreated bagasse and cane leaf residue by cellulases was approximately 85%. Supplementation with hemicellulases during enzymatic hydrolysis improved the xylan conversion up to 95-98%. Xylanase supplementation also contributed to a marginal improvement in the glucan conversion. AFEX-treated cane leaf residue was found to have a greater enzymatic digestibility compared to AFEX-treated bagasse. Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose, produced from high solid loading (6% glucan) hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and cane leaf residue, using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (424A LNH-ST) produced 34-36 g/L of ethanol with 92% theoretical yield. These results demonstrate that AFEX pretreatment is a viable process for conversion of bagasse and cane leaf residue into cellulosic ethanol. PMID:20521302

Krishnan, Chandraraj; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Jin, Mingjie; Chang, Linpei; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

2010-10-15

235

Development of appropriate technology for treatment of molasses-based wastewater.  

PubMed

In this study, the performance of a proposed treatment system consisting of an anaerobic process (acidification, methane fermentation) and an aerobic process (trickling filter) was evaluated for treating high concentrations of molasses-based wastewater (43-120 gCOD/L) by a continuous flow experiment. An anaerobic up-flow staged sludge bed (USSB) reactor, equipped with multiple gas solid separators, was used as the main treatment/methane recovery process. The USSB showed good efficiency of both COD removal (80-87%) and methane recovery (70-80%) at an organic loading rate of 11-43 kgCOD/m(3) day. As the influent COD concentration was increased, the organic loading rate for stable operation of the USSB was reduced due to cation inhibition. However, the COD removal efficiency of the whole treatment system (including the aerobic post-treatment process) was 96% even at an influent COD concentration of 120 gCOD/L. Use of the treated wastewater as a fertilizer and/or irrigation-water for sugarcane was evaluated by a field cultivation test. Both growth of sugarcane and emission of greenhouse gases from the field soil were measured. A relatively high methane flux (352 ?gCH4/m(2) h) was observed when the treated wastewater from day 0 was used. By day 3, however, this value was reduced to the same level as the control. In addition, growth of sugarcane was satisfactory when the treated wastewater was used. The treated wastewater was found to be useful for cultivation of sugarcane in terms of both a low risk of greenhouse gas emission from the field soil and effectiveness for growth of sugarcane. PMID:23573932

Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Onodera, Takashi; Choeisai, Pairaya; Khodphuvieng, Jamnan; Prammanee, Preecha; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Kaewpradit, Wanwipa; Kubota, Keiichi

2013-01-01

236

Continuous ethanol production from sugarcane molasses using a newly designed combined bioreactor system by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Continuous ethanol fermentation using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), immobilized yeast, and sugarcane molasses (22 and 35°Bx) with 8 g/L urea was run in a combined bioreactor system consisting of three-stage tubular bioreactors in series. The effect of the dilution rate (D) at 0.0037, 0.0075, 0.0117, 0.0145, 0.018, and 0.0282 H(-1) on continuous ethanol fermentation was investigated in this study. The results showed that D had a significant effect on fermentation efficiency, sugar-utilized rate, ethanol yield, and ethanol productivity in this designed continuous fermentation system. The D had a linear relationship with residual sugar and ethanol production under certain conditions. The highest fermentation efficiency of 83.26%, ethanol yield of 0.44 g/g, and the lowest residual sugar content of 6.50 g/L were achieved at 0.0037 H(-1) in the fermentation of 22°Bx molasses, indicating that the immobilization of cells using PVA, sugarcane pieces, and cotton towel is feasible and the established continuous system performs well. PMID:24164318

Xu, Wanxia; Liang, Lei; Song, Zhentao; Zhu, Mingjun

2014-01-01

237

Slowly released molasses barrier system for controlling nitrate plumes in groundwater: a pilot-scale tank study.  

PubMed

A well-type barrier system containing solidified molasses as a reactive medium was developed to promote the indigenous denitrifying activity and to treat nitrate plumes in groundwater. Three slowly released molasses (SRM) barrier systems harboring 60, 120, and 120 SRM rods, which were named System A, B, and C, respectively, were operated to examine nitrate removal efficiency in a pilot-scale sandy tank. These SRM systems induced a consistent removal of nitrate without pore clogging and hydraulic disturbance during the test period. The initial nitrate concentration was 142mgL(-1), and the concentrations decreased by 80%, 84%, and 79% in System A, B, and C, respectively. In particular, System C was inoculated with heterotrophic denitrifiers, but the nitrate removal efficiency was not enhanced compared to System B, probably due to the prior existence of indigenous denitrifiers in the sandy tank. The presence of nitrite reductase-encoding gene (i.e. nirK) at the site was confirmed by denatured gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. PMID:24280052

Lee, Byung Sun; Lee, Kyuyeon; Um, Jae Yeon; Nam, Kyoungphile

2014-02-01

238

Ctenodactyloid rodent assemblage from Kargil Formation, Ladakh Molasse Group: Age and palaeobiogeographic implications for the Indian subcontinent in the Oligo-Miocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two ctenodactyloid rodents, Fallomus razaeFlynn, Jacobs & Cheema and F. ladakhensis nov. sp., arebeing described from the Kargil Formation of the Ladakh Molasse Group of Kargil area. Fallomus (? Chapattimyidae) is considered an endemic offshoot of the South Asian Eocene ctenodactyloid stock. The new species is relatively larger and more hypsodont with an ectostylid borne on a separate pillar. At

Avinash C. Nanda; Ashok Sahni

1998-01-01

239

Efficient all-optical production of large [superscript 6]Li quantum gases using D[subscript 1] gray-molasses cooling  

E-print Network

We use a gray molasses operating on the D[subscript 1] atomic transition to produce degenerate quantum gases of [superscript 6]Li with a large number of atoms. This sub-Doppler cooling phase allows us to lower the initial ...

Burchianti, A.

240

A biomechanical evaluation of visually impaired persons' gait and long-cane mechanics.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare selected kinematic components of gait and long cane mechanics between groups of visually impaired travelers. Twenty subjects were placed in Traditional or Modified technique groups according to their long cane traveling technique. Subjects were measured during the following conditions; 1) normal walking (NW), 2) walking while anticipating a simulated drop-off (AD), 3) walking while responding to an audible task (ST) and, 4) walking while anticipating a simulated drop-off and responding to an audible task (STAD). Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's r correlation coefficient. Analyses revealed no differences between groups of travelers. However, significant differences were noted between trials for components of gait velocity, stride length, and hip flexion velocity. These findings may indicate a potentially dangerous alteration in the normal gait cycle of visually impaired travelers when faced with additional attention-demanding tasks while walking. PMID:10678455

Ramsey, V K; Blasch, B B; Kita, A; Johnson, B F

1999-10-01

241

Embryonic exposure to conspecific chemicals suppresses cane toad growth and survival  

PubMed Central

Adaptations to suppress the viability of conspecifics may provide novel ways to control invasive taxa. The spread of cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia has had severe ecological impacts, stimulating a search for biocontrol. Our experiments show that cane toad tadpoles produce waterborne chemical cues that suppress the viability of conspecifics encountering those cues during embryonic development. Brief (72 h) exposure to these cues in the egg and post-hatching phases massively reduced rates of survival and growth of larvae. Body sizes at metamorphosis (about three weeks later) were almost twice as great in control larvae as in tadpole-exposed larvae. The waterborne cue responsible for these effects might provide a weapon to reduce toad recruitment within the species' invaded range. PMID:21880623

Crossland, Michael R.; Shine, Richard

2012-01-01

242

Embryonic exposure to conspecific chemicals suppresses cane toad growth and survival.  

PubMed

Adaptations to suppress the viability of conspecifics may provide novel ways to control invasive taxa. The spread of cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia has had severe ecological impacts, stimulating a search for biocontrol. Our experiments show that cane toad tadpoles produce waterborne chemical cues that suppress the viability of conspecifics encountering those cues during embryonic development. Brief (72 h) exposure to these cues in the egg and post-hatching phases massively reduced rates of survival and growth of larvae. Body sizes at metamorphosis (about three weeks later) were almost twice as great in control larvae as in tadpole-exposed larvae. The waterborne cue responsible for these effects might provide a weapon to reduce toad recruitment within the species' invaded range. PMID:21880623

Crossland, Michael R; Shine, Richard

2012-04-23

243

Characterisation of major histocompatibility complex class I in the Australian cane toad, Rhinella marina.  

PubMed

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I is a highly variable gene family that encodes cell-surface receptors vital for recognition of intracellular pathogens and initiation of immune responses. The MHC class I has yet to be characterised in bufonid toads (Order: Anura; Suborder: Neobatrachia; Family: Bufonidae), a large and diverse family of anurans. Here we describe the characterisation of a classical MHC class I gene in the Australian cane toad, Rhinella marina. From 25 individuals sampled from the Australian population, we found only 3 alleles at this classical class I locus. We also found large number of class I alpha 1 alleles, implying an expansion of class I loci in this species. The low classical class I genetic diversity is likely the result of repeated bottleneck events, which arose as a result of the cane toad's complex history of introductions as a biocontrol agent and its subsequent invasion across Australia. PMID:25093458

Lillie, Mette; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

2014-01-01

244

Characterisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I in the Australian Cane Toad, Rhinella marina  

PubMed Central

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I is a highly variable gene family that encodes cell-surface receptors vital for recognition of intracellular pathogens and initiation of immune responses. The MHC class I has yet to be characterised in bufonid toads (Order: Anura; Suborder: Neobatrachia; Family: Bufonidae), a large and diverse family of anurans. Here we describe the characterisation of a classical MHC class I gene in the Australian cane toad, Rhinella marina. From 25 individuals sampled from the Australian population, we found only 3 alleles at this classical class I locus. We also found large number of class I alpha 1 alleles, implying an expansion of class I loci in this species. The low classical class I genetic diversity is likely the result of repeated bottleneck events, which arose as a result of the cane toad's complex history of introductions as a biocontrol agent and its subsequent invasion across Australia. PMID:25093458

Lillie, Mette; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

2014-01-01

245

Invader immunology: invasion history alters immune system function in cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia.  

PubMed

Because an individual's investment into the immune system may modify its dispersal rate, immune function may evolve rapidly in an invader. We collected cane toads (Rhinella marina) from sites spanning their 75-year invasion history in Australia, bred them, and raised their progeny in standard conditions. Evolved shifts in immune function should manifest as differences in immune responses among the progeny of parents collected in different locations. Parental location did not affect the offspring's cell-mediated immune response or stress response, but blood from the offspring of invasion-front toads had more neutrophils, and was more effective at phagocytosis and killing bacteria. These latter measures of immune function are negatively correlated with rate of dispersal in free-ranging toads. Our results suggest that the invasion of tropical Australia by cane toads has resulted in rapid genetically based compensatory shifts in the aspects of immune responses that are most compromised by the rigours of long-distance dispersal. PMID:25399668

Brown, Gregory P; Phillips, Benjamin L; Dubey, Sylvain; Shine, Richard

2015-01-01

246

Cloning and expression of candidate sexual development genes in the cane toad (Bufo marinus).  

PubMed

The development of the reproductive system in bufonids (true toads) is unique in several respects: sexual differentiation occurs later than in other anurans, and toads develop a Bidder's organ, a rudimentary ovary that can be manipulated in males to produce mature oocytes. To illuminate the genesis of this unusual reproductive system, we isolated from the cane toad (Bufo marinus) the orthologues of several known vertebrate sex-determining genes, determined their primary structure, and studied their expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization of tissue sections. We report here that cane toad Sox9, Dmrt1, and p450aromatase (Cyp19a1) are highly homologous to their counterparts in other vertebrates. They show profiles of expression that generally follow patterns observed in other taxa, but with some novel features. Our data suggest that these genes likely play key roles in sex determination and early gonad development in bufonids. PMID:19653320

Abramyan, John; Feng, Chun-Wei; Koopman, Peter

2009-09-01

247

Saccharicola, a new genus for two Leptosphaeria species on sugar cane.  

PubMed

Leptosphaeria bicolor, causal agent of a leaf scorch disease of sugar cane, is referred to the new genus Saccharicola. The ascospores are 1-3 transseptate and hyaline at first but become melanized and rough after release, as is the case in some members of Massarina and Lophiostoma. SSU rDNA data indicate that it is closely related to M. eburnea but is biotrophic in leaves of sugar cane and not corticolous, the ascomata are less melanized, and it has Stagonospora- and Phoma-like synanamorphs, not a Ceratophoma-like anamorph. A second species, Leptosphaeria taiwanensis, is transferred to Saccharicola. It differs in slightly larger, normally 1-septate, hyaline spores with more attenuated ends. The family Massarinaceae is resurrected to accommodate Massarina s. str., Keissleriella, Saccharicola and Helminthosporium. These genera formed a clade with 100% bootstrap support in a parsimony analysis of SSU rDNA sequences from 38 ascomycetes, 30 of them members of Pleosporales (including Melanommatales). PMID:21156631

Eriksson, Ove E; Hawksworth, David L

2003-01-01

248

Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants  

PubMed Central

Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from ‘floor dump sediment’, ‘cooling tower water’, and ‘bagasse leachate’. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as ‘lactic acid bacteria’, capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

2013-01-01

249

Complex hydrothermal alteration and illite K-Ar ages in Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Variscan Badenweiler-Lenzkirch suture zone, Black Forest, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-collisional Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Badenweiler-Lenzkirch Zone reveal by microscopy of thin sections different degrees of hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and mica particles, and XRD, IR and XRF data of the <2 µm fractions show illitic material as the dominant clay mineral consisting of a mixture of 1M and 2M1 polytypes. Moreover, small amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer minerals of R1-ordering are proved in the granites. In the separates, two illite mixing lines with different Fe + Mg contents are verified between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and detrital illite in the molasse sediments, as well as between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and altered mica flakes in the granites. Fe-rich detrital chlorite is present within the molasse sediments, while mixtures of high aluminous Fe-poor dioctahedral/di-trioctahedral chlorite with randomly interstratified chlorite/smectite mixed-layer minerals are formed from feldspar alteration in the granites. Illite K-Ar dating of the <2 and <0.63 µm fractions yields hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and partial resetting of the K-Ar system of detrital illite and mica flakes in the molasse sediments at ?200 °C during Upper Permian to Middle Triassic times, while the granites in the eastern part of the study area were not altered contemporaneously. In contrast, hydrothermal activity at ?200 °C during Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous times occurred in the granites, whereas these temperatures were too low for resetting the older `Permo-Triassic' illite K-Ar ages in the molasse rocks. Within both K-Ar age clusters, the data are seen to decrease with grain size and portion of illite 2M1 polytype. The alteration phenomena indicate multiple hydrothermal episodes in the study area, and they match those from the Central and Western European crust as fluid supply was controlled geodynamically by episodic break up of Pangea.

Brockamp, Olaf; Schlegel, Andreas; Wemmer, Klaus

2015-01-01

250

Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range  

SciTech Connect

Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degree sign C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Jordan, Kevin J. [Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada)

2009-04-15

251

Cultivation of Candida tropicalis in sugar cane hemicellulosic hydrolyzate for microbial protein production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic fraction was hydrolyzed by treatment with 100 mg of sulfuric acid per gram of dry mass at 140 °C for 20 min. The hydrolyzate was used as the substrate to grow Candida tropicalis IZ 1824 in a 1.0-1 bioreactor at 30 °C; aeration at 1.0 and 2.0 vvm; stirring at 400 rpm and initial pH of

A. Pessoa; I. M. Mancilha; S. Sato

1996-01-01

252

Mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of Trichoderma reesei with Aspergillus niger on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma reesei LM-UC4, the parent strain, and its hypercellulolytic mutant LM-UC4E1 were co-cultured with Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 in solid substrate fermentation on alkali-treated sugar cane for cellulolytic enzyme production. Bagasse was supplemented with either soymeal or with ammonium sulfate and urea, and fermented at 80% moisture content and 30°C. Mixed culturing produced better results with the inorganic supplement. The

Marcel Gutierrez-Correa; Leticia Portal; Patricia Moreno; Robert P. Tengerdy

1999-01-01

253

Combat Effectiveness In MOPP 4: Lessons from the U.S. Army CANE Exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the early 1980s until the early 1990s, the U.S. Army ran a series of exercises to gauge the combat effectiveness of military forces engaged in combat when forced to wear protective gear to prevent casualties from chemical and nuclear attacks. These exercises were called CANE or Combined Arms in a Nuclear\\/Chemical Environment. Those who have worn the cumbersome Mission

Barry R. Schneider

254

Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1982-01-01

255

[Natural presence of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin in the sugar cane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) in Cuba].  

PubMed

The natural presence of Beauveria bassiana was determined (Balsamo) Vuillemin from insects with mycotic symptoms collected in leaves and in the stalks of sugar cane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) in Pinar del Río, Ciudad de la Habana, Habana, Matanzas, Villa Clara, Cienfuegos and Camagüey. The results obtained demonstrate the natural presence of the entomopathogen fungus in larvae and chrysalises of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) and they suggest the basis for the strategy of biological control against this borer. PMID:15458363

Estrada, María Elena; Romero, Maritza; Rivero, María Julia; Barroso, Francisco

2004-03-01

256

Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.

1979-01-01

257

Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

1983-01-01

258

An isotopic method for quantifying sweeteners derived from corn and sugar cane1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, as well as cane sugar, has been implicated in the rise of the obesity and diabetes epidemics. To date, however, no reliable biomarker for the con- sumption of these sweeteners is available. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the natural abundance stable-carbon-isotope signature of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. Design:

A Hope Jahren; Christopher Saudek; Edwina H Yeung; Linda Kao; Rebecca A Kraft; Benjamin Caballero

259

Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

2011-12-01

260

An improved chemically inducible gene switch that functions in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane.  

PubMed

Chemically inducible gene switches can provide precise control over gene expression, enabling more specific analyses of gene function and expanding the plant biotechnology toolkit beyond traditional constitutive expression systems. The alc gene expression system is one of the most promising chemically inducible gene switches in plants because of its potential in both fundamental research and commercial biotechnology applications. However, there are no published reports demonstrating that this versatile gene switch is functional in transgenic monocotyledonous plants, which include some of the most important agricultural crops. We found that the original alc gene switch was ineffective in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane, and describe a modified alc system that is functional in this globally significant crop. A promoter consisting of tandem copies of the ethanol receptor inverted repeat binding site, in combination with a minimal promoter sequence, was sufficient to give enhanced sensitivity and significantly higher levels of ethanol inducible gene expression. A longer CaMV 35S minimal promoter than was used in the original alc gene switch also substantially improved ethanol inducibility. Treating the roots with ethanol effectively induced the modified alc system in sugar cane leaves and stem, while an aerial spray was relatively ineffective. The extension of this chemically inducible gene expression system to sugar cane opens the door to new opportunities for basic research and crop biotechnology. PMID:24142380

Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, R Jason; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; De Lucca, Paulo C; Palupe, Anthony; Harrison, Mark D; Jepson, Ian; Dale, James L; Sainz, Manuel B

2014-03-01

261

A toad more traveled: the heterogeneous invasion dynamics of cane toads in Australia.  

PubMed

To predict the spread of invasive species, we need to understand the mechanisms that underlie their range expansion. Assuming random diffusion through homogeneous environments, invasions are expected to progress at a constant rate. However, environmental heterogeneity is expected to alter diffusion rates, especially by slowing invasions as populations encounter suboptimal environmental conditions. Here, we examine how environmental and landscape factors affect the local invasion speeds of cane toads (Chaunus [Bufo] marinus) in Australia. Using high-resolution cane toad data, we demonstrate heterogeneous regional invasion dynamics that include both decelerating and accelerating range expansions. Toad invasion speed increased in regions characterized by high temperatures, heterogeneous topography, low elevations, dense road networks, and high patch connectivity. Regional increases in the toad invasion rate might be caused by environmental conditions that facilitate toad reproduction and movement, by the evolution of long-distance dispersal ability, or by some combination of these factors. In any case, theoretical predictions that neglect environmental influences on dispersal at multiple spatial scales may prove to be inaccurate. Early predictions of cane toad range expansion rates that assumed constant diffusion across homogeneous landscapes already have been proved wrong. Future attempts to predict range dynamics for invasive species should consider heterogeneity in (1) the environmental factors that determine dispersal rates and (2) the mobility of invasive populations because dispersal-relevant traits can evolve in exotic habitats. As an invasive species spreads, it is likely to encounter conditions that influence dispersal rates via one or both of these mechanisms. PMID:18271722

Urban, Mark C; Phillips, Ben L; Skelly, David K; Shine, Richard

2008-03-01

262

Biosynthetic Origin of E-Resveratrol Accumulation in Grape Canes during Postharvest Storage.  

PubMed

Grape canes are vineyard waste products containing valuable phytochemicals of medicine and agriculture interest. Grape canes storage is critical for the accumulation of these bioactive compounds. In the present study, we investigated the changes in stilbenoid phytochemical composition during grape cane storage and the influence of the temperature on final concentrations. A strong increase in the concentration of the monomer E-resveratrol (approximately 40-fold) was observed during the first 6 weeks of storage at 20 °C in eight different grape varieties without any change in oligomer concentrations. The E-resveratrol accumulation was temperature-dependent with an optimal range at 15-20 °C. A 2 h heat-shock treatment aiming at protein denaturation inhibited E-resveratrol accumulation. The constitutive expression of key genes involved in the stilbene precursor biosynthesis along with an induction of stilbene synthase (STS) expression during the first weeks of storage contribute to a de novo biosynthesis of E-resveratrol in pruned wood grapes. PMID:25598452

Houillé, Benjamin; Besseau, Sébastien; Courdavault, Vincent; Oudin, Audrey; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Delanoue, Guillaume; Guérin, Laurence; Simkin, Andrew John; Papon, Nicolas; Clastre, Marc; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Lanoue, Arnaud

2015-02-11

263

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of sugar cane renewable jet fuel.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the life cycle GHG emissions of a renewable jet fuel produced from sugar cane in Brazil under a consequential approach. The analysis included the direct and indirect emissions associated with sugar cane production and fuel processing, distribution, and use for a projected 2020 scenario. The CA-GREET model was used as the basic analytical tool, while Land Use Change (LUC) emissions were estimated employing the GTAP-BIO-ADV and AEZ-EF models. Feedstock production and LUC impacts were evaluated as the main sources of emissions, respectively estimated as 14.6 and 12 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case. However, the renewable jet fuel would strongly benefit from bagasse and trash-based cogeneration, which would enable a net life cycle emission of 8.5 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case, whereas Monte Carlo results indicate 21 ± 11 g CO2eq/MJ. Besides the major influence of the electricity surplus, the sensitivity analysis showed that the cropland-pasture yield elasticity and the choice of the land use factor employed to sugar cane are relevant parameters for the biofuel life cycle performance. Uncertainties about these estimations exist, especially because the study relies on projected performances, and further studies about LUC are also needed to improve the knowledge about their contribution to the renewable jet fuel life cycle. PMID:25419647

Moreira, Marcelo; Gurgel, Angelo C; Seabra, Joaquim E A

2014-12-16

264

Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs  

PubMed Central

Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax. PMID:16348144

Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

1990-01-01

265

Using pig manure to promote fermentation of sugarcane molasses alcohol wastewater and its effects on microbial community structure.  

PubMed

Molasses alcohol wastewater (MAW) is difficult to be bio-treated and converted into biogas. In this study, MAW mixed with pig manure (PM) in different ratios was co-digested. Biogas production, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the structure of microbial communities were monitored in the process. Our results showed that under the optimal COD ratio of PM:MAW (1.0:1.5), CODremoval and biogas yield were the highest. And in fermentation tanks with different PM to MAW ratios, the structure and composition of bacterial communities varied in the early and late stage. Furthermore, the type of main bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have no differences, yet the relative abundance of OTUs varied. The current research showed that there was a good potential to the use of PM as a co-digested material to anaerobic treatment of MAW and provided references for further improving bio-treatment of MAW. PMID:24463412

Shen, Peihong; Han, Fei; Su, Shuquan; Zhang, Junya; Chen, Zhineng; Li, Junfang; Gan, Jiayi; Feng, Bin; Wu, Bo

2014-03-01

266

A controlled-release molasses barrier system for controlling nitrate plume in groundwater: A large flow-tank study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well-type permeable barrier system containing controlled-release molasses as a reactive material to promote the indigenous denitrifying activity (termed CRM system hereafter) has been developed for controlling nitrate plume in groundwater. To control the release of molasses as an extra carbon and energy source, CRM rod (OD x L = 4 cm x 30 cm) was manufactured using molding technique by dispersing molasses in paraffin wax-cellulose-silica matrix. A large scale flow-tank (L x W x D = 8 m x 4 m x 1 m, 95 m3 of sands, porosity of 0.45) was prepared to test the CRM system (L x W x D = 3 m x 4 m x 1 m) in destroying nitrate, which was consisted of three layers of discrete barriers installed at 1-m interval. Nitrate plume (1.2 m/d of velocity, 142 mg/L of nitrate) was generated by introducing both tap water (1.1 m3/d) and diluted nitrate solution (0.5 m3/d, 312 mg/L of nitrate) daily. Changes in nitrate concentrations were monitored at 30 monitoring points across the flow-tank. For 14 (i.e., the first test), 21 (i.e., the second test), and 42 (i.e., the third test) days, 80, 140, and 140 CRM rods were placed into the barriers to construct the CRM system, respectively. An indigenous microorganism Ensifer adhaerens (97% similarity) was identified from the flow-tank sands, which was probably the main denitrifier in the system. After the second test, a heterotrophic denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. KY1 was inoculated to increase destruction efficiency into the flow-tank sands for the third test. For the first test, nitrate concentrations decreased by 29, 59, and 80% after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd barriers, respectively. For the second and third tests, nitrate concentrations decreased by 32 and 26% for the 1st, 68 and 74% for the 2nd, and 84 and 81% for the 3rd barrier, indicating little effects of inoculating KY1 on destruction efficiencies. At 5.5 m downstream (i.e., 1.75 m behind the 3rd barrier), nitrate concentrations decreased by 81, 90, and 90% at the first, second, and third tests, respectively. COD values were determined as an indirect indication of molasses concentrations ranging from 161 to 329 mg/L for the 1st, 81 to 287 mg/L for the 2nd, and 105 to 377 mg/L for the 3rd barrier. Incomplete destruction of nitrate plume could be attributed to the lack of transverse dispersion in flow-tank sands. The present study suggests that the CRM system may provide a practical tool for a long-term treatment option of nitrate plume in groundwater.

Lee, B. S.; Um, J. Y.; Lee, K. Y.; Kim, Y. B.; Nam, K.; Woo, N. C.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. M.

2009-04-01

267

Efficient all-optical production of large $^6$Li quantum gases using D$_1$ gray-molasses cooling  

E-print Network

We use a gray molasses operating on the D$_1$ atomic transition to produce degenerate quantum gases of $^{6}$Li with a large number of atoms. This sub-Doppler cooling phase allows us to lower the initial temperature of 10$^9$ atoms from 500 to 40 $\\mu$K in 2 ms. We observe that D$_1$ cooling remains effective into a high-intensity infrared dipole trap where two-state mixtures are evaporated to reach the degenerate regime. We produce molecular Bose-Einstein condensates of up to 5$\\times$10$^{5}$ molecules and weakly-interacting degenerate Fermi gases of $7\\times$10$^{5}$ atoms at $T/T_{F}<0.1$ with a typical experimental duty cycle of 11 seconds.

A. Burchianti; G. Valtolina; J. A. Seman; E. Pace; M. De Pas; M. Inguscio; M. Zaccanti; G. Roati

2014-06-18

268

Efficient all-optical production of large Li6 quantum gases using D1 gray-molasses cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a gray molasses operating on the D1 atomic transition to produce degenerate quantum gases of Li6 with a large number of atoms. This sub-Doppler cooling phase allows us to lower the initial temperature of 109 atoms from 500 to 40 ?K in 2 ms. We observe that D1 cooling remains effective into a high-intensity infrared dipole trap where two-state mixtures are evaporated to reach the degenerate regime. We produce molecular Bose-Einstein condensates of up to 5 × 105 molecules and weakly interacting degenerate Fermi gases of 7×105 atoms at T /TF<0.1 with a typical experimental duty cycle of 11 s.

Burchianti, A.; Valtolina, G.; Seman, J. A.; Pace, E.; De Pas, M.; Inguscio, M.; Zaccanti, M.; Roati, G.

2014-10-01

269

Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in time ourselves, we investigated whether material at the museum of natural history could be used to retrieve parasites, and whether they were infected at the time of their collection (specifically prior to and after the cane toad translocation to Australia in 1935). Results Using the herpetological collection at the Australian Museum we showed that no myxospores were found in any animals (n = 115) prior to the cane toad invasion (1879-1935). The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea), the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) and the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) were all negative for the presence of the parasite using microscopy of the gallbladder content and its histology. These results were sufficient to conclude that the population was free from this disease (at the expected minimum prevalence of 5%) at 99.7% confidence level using the 115 voucher specimens in the Australian Museum. Similarly, museum specimens (n = 29) of the green and golden bell frog from New Caledonia, where it was introduced in 19th century, did not show the presence of myxospores. The earliest specimen positive for myxospores in a gallbladder was a green tree frog from 1966. Myxospores were found in eight (7.1%, n = 112) frogs in the post cane toad introduction period. Conclusion Australian wildlife is increasingly under threat, and amphibian decline is one of the most dramatic examples. The museum material proved essential to directly support the evidence of parasite emergence in Australian native frogs. This parasite can be considered one of the luckiest parasites, because it has found an empty niche in Australia. It now flourishes in > 20 endemic and exotic frog species, but its consequences are yet to be fully understood. PMID:20537137

2010-01-01

270

Effects of a molasses-coated cottonseed product on diet digestibility, performance, and milk fatty acid profile of lactating dairy cattle.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a molasses-coated cottonseed product on nutrient digestibility and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of lactating dairy cattle. The effect of a direct-fed microbial (DFM) product was also examined. Twelve Holstein cows (693+/-85kg of body weight, 127+/-39 d in milk, 2.08+/-0.29 lactations; mean +/- SD) were randomly assigned to sequence in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design balanced for carryover effects. Cows were fed 1 of 4 treatments during each of the four 14-d periods: a control diet including 11.4% (dry matter basis) reginned cottonseed (CON), a diet with 14.4% molasses-coated cottonseed to match the cottonseed inclusion rate of the control diet (TC), the control diet with the addition of a liquid form of the cotton coating used to produce molasses-coated cottonseed (LC), and the LC diet with the addition of a DFM (LC+DFM). Diets were formulated for equal concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, ether extract, and macrominerals. Treatments had no effect on dry matter intake, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, or milk production. The molasses coat, in either form, tended to decrease concentrations of odd-chain FA (2.25 and 2.31 vs. 2.35 g/100g of FA for TC, LC, and CON, respectively) and unsaturated FA (31.4 and 31.1 vs. 32.1 g/100g of FA) in milk. This could be indicative of a mild shift in ruminal fermentation away from propionate-producing bacteria toward fiber-digesting bacteria responsible for biohydrogenation of FA. The form of the molasses coating had few effects, but LC significantly decreased concentrations of total trans-C18:1 (2.04 vs. 2.30+/-0.13 g/100g of FA) and polyunsaturated FA (4.81 vs. 5.01+/-0.17) compared with TC, implying that the liquid form slightly enhanced ruminal FA biohydrogenation. Furthermore, adding the DFM to the LC diet tended to increase the proportion of long-chain FA (FA >C16) and significantly increased the proportions of trans-C18:1 (2.22 vs. 2.04+/-0.13 g/100g of FA) and unsaturated FA (32.4 vs. 31.1+/-0.7 g/100g of FA), suggesting an inhibitory effect on ruminal biohydrogenation. Results suggest that coating cottonseed with a hardened molasses product does not significantly depress nutrient digestibility and may provide a convenient method of incorporating these ingredients into dairy rations. PMID:20630230

Mullins, C R; Bradford, B J

2010-07-01

271

STELLAR POPULATIONS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA FAINT DWARF GALAXIES, CANES VENATICI I, BOOeTES I, CANES VENATICI II, AND LEO IV  

SciTech Connect

We take deep images of four ultra faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Canes Venatici I (CVn I), Booetes I (Booe I), Canes Venatici II (CVn II), and Leo IV, using the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend below main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) and yield measurements of the ages of stellar populations. The stellar populations of three faint galaxies, the Booe I, CVn II, and Leo IV dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), are estimated to be as old as the Galactic globular cluster M92. We confirm that Booe I dSph has no intrinsic color spread in the MSTO and no spatial difference in the CMD morphology, which indicates that Booe I dSph is composed of an old single stellar population. One of the brightest UFDs, CVn I dSph, shows a relatively younger age ({approx}12.6 Gyr) with respect to Booe I, CVn II, and Leo IV dSphs, and the distribution of red horizontal branch (HB) stars is more concentrated toward the center than that of blue HB stars, suggesting that the galaxy contains complex stellar populations. Booe I and CVn I dSphs show the elongated and distorted shapes. CVn II dSph has the smallest tidal radius of a Milky Way satellite and has a distorted shape, while Leo IV dSph shows a less concentrated spherical shape. The simple stellar population of faint UFDs indicates that the gases in their progenitors were removed more effectively than those of brighter dSphs at the occurrence of their initial star formation. This is reasonable if the progenitors of UFDs belong to less massive halos than those of brighter dSphs.

Okamoto, Sakurako [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Arimoto, Nobuo; Yamada, Yoshihiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Onodera, Masato, E-mail: okamoto@pku.edu.cn [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2012-01-10

272

The effect of different levels of forage and fish meal on the live performance and rumen volatile fatty acid concentation of heifers fed high molasses diets  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FORAGE AND FISH MEAL ON THE LIVE PERFORMANCE AND RUMEN VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONCEN- TRATION OF HEIFERS FED HIGH MOLASSES DIETS A Thesis by SERGIO ESTRADA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM... University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Animal Science THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FORAGE AND FISH MEAL ON IHE LIVE PERFORMANCE AND RUMEN VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONCEN...

Estrada, Sergio

2012-06-07

273

Exposure to elevated carbon dioxide concentration in the dark lowers the respiration quotient of Vitis cane wood.  

PubMed

Cane cuttings of the grapevine rootstock Vitis rupestris Scheele x V. riparia Michx. cv. 3309 Couderc were brought out of endodormancy by warming at 30 degrees C. Cane pieces (12 to 13 cm long) with nodes containing a primary bud were placed in a gas exchange system and monitored for net respiratory fluxes of CO2 and O2. Grapevine respiration rates expressed on a wood volume basis were 1.4 to 3.4 mmol CO2 or O2 m-3s-1, which is higher than stem respiration rates reported for many other woody taxa but similar to rates measured for ecodormant buds of other Vitis species. Passive water loss from canes was 0.7 to 1.2 mmol H2O m-3s-1. During a 7-day period, nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations in cane wood declined only slightly, whereas sucrose was nearly completely consumed. When ambient CO2 concentration ([CO2]) was raised from 300 to 750 micro molmol-1 and then 2000 micromol mol-1, net CO2 exchange rates declined by 5.9 +/- 0.6 and then 11.0 +/- 0.6%, whereas net O2 consumption rates remained about constant. The mean respiration quotient (net CO2/O2 flux) for canes with intact ecodormant buds was 0.99 +/- 0.03 when the [CO2] was 300 micromol mol-1, and decreased to 0.87 +/- 0.03 and 0.088 +/- 0.02 when the [CO2] was increased to 750 and 2000 micromol mol-1, respectively. The results support the hypothesis that, in Vitis canes, inhibition of respiratory CO2 efflux in response to high [CO2] is an indirect consequence of non-photosynthetic carboxylation reactions, and not a result of inhibition of respiratory metabolism. PMID:14652221

Smart, David R

2004-01-01

274

Immune response varies with rate of dispersal in invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

What level of immunocompetence should an animal maintain while undertaking long-distance dispersal? Immune function (surveillance and response) might be down-regulated during prolonged physical exertion due to energy depletion, and/or to avoid autoimmune reactions arising from damaged tissue. On the other hand, heightened immune vigilance might be favored if the organism encounters novel pathogens as it enters novel environments. We assessed the links between immune defense and long-distance movement in a population of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia. Toads were radio-tracked for seven days to measure their activity levels and were then captured and subjected to a suite of immune assays. Toads that moved further showed decreased bacteria-killing ability in their plasma and decreased phagocytic activity in their whole blood, but a heightened skin-swelling response to phytohemagglutinin. Baseline and post-stress corticosterone levels were unrelated to distance moved. Thus, long-distance movement in cane toads is associated with a dampened response in some systems and enhanced response in another. This pattern suggests that sustained activity is accompanied by trade-offs among immune components rather than an overall down or up-regulation. The finding that high mobility is accompanied by modification of the immune system has important implications for animal invasions. PMID:24936876

Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

2014-01-01

275

Corticosterone-immune interactions during captive stress in invading Australian cane toads (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

Vertebrates cope with physiological challenges using two major mechanisms: the immune system and the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., the glucocorticoid stress response). Because the two systems are tightly integrated, we need simultaneous studies of both systems, in a range of species, to understand how vertebrates respond to novel challenges. To clarify how glucocorticoids modulate the amphibian immune system, we measured three immune parameters and plasma corticosterone (CORT), before and after inflicting a stressor (capture and captive confinement) on introduced cane toads (Rhinella marina) near their invasion front in Australia. Stress increased CORT levels, decreased complement lysis capacity, increased leukocyte oxidative burst, and did not change heterologous erythrocyte agglutination. The strength of the CORT response was positively correlated with leukocyte oxidative burst, and morphological features associated with invasiveness in cane toads (relative leg length) were correlated with stress responsiveness. No immune parameter that we measured was affected by a toad's infection by a parasitic nematode (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala), but the CORT response was muted in infected versus uninfected toads. These results illustrate the complex immune-stress interactions in wild populations of a non-traditional model vertebrate species, and describe immune adaptations of an important invasive species. PMID:22713726

Graham, Sean P; Kelehear, Crystal; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

2012-07-01

276

Larger body size at metamorphosis enhances survival, growth and performance of young cane toads (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans) with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors). To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran's body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water), and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual's long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species. PMID:23922930

Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

277

Larger Body Size at Metamorphosis Enhances Survival, Growth and Performance of Young Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)  

PubMed Central

Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans) with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors). To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran’s body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water), and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual’s long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species. PMID:23922930

Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

278

Sugar cane vinasse in water bodies: Impact assessed by liver histopathology in tilapia.  

PubMed

Aquatic ecosystems are the main receptors of toxic substances from human activities. With the increase in sugar cane production, vinasse - the main residue of ethanol production - is a potential contaminant of water resources, due to its high organic matter content. This study was aimed at evaluating the toxicity of vinasse by examining the liver of the fish Oreochromis niloticus exposed to different dilutions of sugar cane vinasse (1%, 2%, 5%, 5% and 10%) in laboratory bioassays. Portions of liver were collected and fixed for histological and histochemical techniques to detect total proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. In the histological analysis, the groups treated with vinasse exhibited significant alterations, such as loss of cytoplasmic integrity, loss of cell limit and tissue disorganization. Protein and lipid profiles were not altered. Higher accumulation of polysaccharides was detected in fish exposed to lower concentrations of vinasse, with a gradual decrease in animals treated with vinasse in higher concentrations. We concluded that vinasse has a dose-dependent toxic and cytotoxic potential in water bodies and that the liver is strongly affected when acutely exposed to this contaminant. PMID:25265025

Marinho, Júlia Fernanda Urbano; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marcato, Ana Claudia de Castro; Pedro-Escher, Janaína; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

2014-12-01

279

Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, ?-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, ?-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and ?-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

280

Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1?10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

281

Immune Response Varies with Rate of Dispersal in Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)  

PubMed Central

What level of immunocompetence should an animal maintain while undertaking long-distance dispersal? Immune function (surveillance and response) might be down-regulated during prolonged physical exertion due to energy depletion, and/or to avoid autoimmune reactions arising from damaged tissue. On the other hand, heightened immune vigilance might be favored if the organism encounters novel pathogens as it enters novel environments. We assessed the links between immune defense and long-distance movement in a population of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia. Toads were radio-tracked for seven days to measure their activity levels and were then captured and subjected to a suite of immune assays. Toads that moved further showed decreased bacteria-killing ability in their plasma and decreased phagocytic activity in their whole blood, but a heightened skin-swelling response to phytohemagglutinin. Baseline and post-stress corticosterone levels were unrelated to distance moved. Thus, long-distance movement in cane toads is associated with a dampened response in some systems and enhanced response in another. This pattern suggests that sustained activity is accompanied by trade-offs among immune components rather than an overall down or up-regulation. The finding that high mobility is accompanied by modification of the immune system has important implications for animal invasions. PMID:24936876

Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

2014-01-01

282

Enhancement of dibenzothiophene desulfurization by Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B using sugar beet molasses as alternative carbon source.  

PubMed

There are several problems limiting an industrial application of fossil fuel biodesulfurization, and one of them is the cost of culture media used to grow the microorganisms involved in the process. In this context, the utilization of alternative carbon sources resulting from agro-industrial by-products could be a strategy to reduce the investment in the operating expenses of a future industrial application. Recently, Gordonia alkanivorans 1B was described as a fructophilic desulfurizing bacterium, and this characteristic opens a new interest in alternative carbon sources rich in fructose. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the utilization of sugar beet molasses (SBM) in the dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization process using strain 1B. SBM firstly treated with 0.25% BaCl2 (w/v) was used after sucrose acidic hydrolysis or in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process with a Zygosaccharomyces bailii Talf1 invertase (1%), showing promising results. In optimal conditions, strain 1B presented a ? max of 0.0795 h(-1), and all DBT was converted to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (250 ?M) within 48 h with a maximum production rate of 7.78 ?M h(-1). Our results showed the high potential of SBM to be used in a future industrial fossil fuel biodesulfurization process using strain 1B. PMID:24519629

Alves, Luís; Paixão, Susana M

2014-03-01

283

Optimization of continuous hydrogen production from co-fermenting molasses with liquid swine manure in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.  

PubMed

This study investigated and optimized the operational conditions for continuous hydrogen production from sugar beet molasses, co-fermented with liquid swine manure in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor. Results indicated that pH, HRT and total solids content in the swine manure (TS) had significant impact on all the responses such as biogas production rate (BPR), hydrogen content (HC), hydrogen production rate (HPR), and hydrogen yield (HY), although the highest level of each response was achieved at different combination of the three variables. The maximum BPR, HC, HPR and HY of 32.21 L/d, 30.51%, 2.23 L/d/L and 1.57 mol-H2/mol-sugar were estimated at the optimal pH, HRT, and TS of 5.55, 15.78 h, and 0.71% for BPR; 5.22, 12.04, and 0.69 for HC; 5.32, 15.62, and 0.78% for HPR; and 5.36, 17.56, and 0.74% for HY, respectively. Good linear relationships of the predicted and tested results for all the parameters were observed. PMID:23567702

Wu, Xiao; Lin, Hongjian; Zhu, Jun

2013-05-01

284

Karst geomorphology of carbonatic conglomerates in the Folded Molasse zone of the Northern Alps (Austria/Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Folded Molasse zone of the Northern Alps consists of clastic sedimentary rocks that are usually not considered to be karstifiable. However, large areas within this zone are composed of carbonatic conglomerates. Numerous karst landforms have recently been discovered but are not recorded on official maps and in the literature. Therefore, a research programme was initiated at the Hochgrat site (Austria/Germany) that included geomorphological mapping and characterisation of the karst phenomena. Both fracture-controlled and hydrodynamically-controlled karren were observed on conglomerate outcrops. The predominant karst landforms, dolines, are typically circular, funnel shaped, most often 2 to 9 m in diameter, 1 to 6 m deep, and frequently act as swallow holes. Poljes that are atypically small (~ 1 ha) occur in either glacial cirques or syncline depressions, are flat floored and lined with sediment and soil, and drain underground via swallow holes. Short caves, springs with marked discharge variations and estavelles are further evidence for karst development. Karstic landforms are widespread in carbonatic conglomerate terrains, but their dimensions are smaller than in typical limestone karst. The practical implications of these findings are also briefly mentioned in this paper.

Goeppert, Nadine; Goldscheider, Nico; Scholz, Herbert

2011-07-01

285

Decolorization of molasses spent wash by the white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus, isolated from a marine habitat.  

PubMed

Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden, a basidiomycete (NIOCC strain 312) isolated from decomposing leaves of a sea grass, decolorized pigments in molasses spent wash (MSW) by 80% after 8 days of incubation, when used at concentrations of 10% and 50%. Decolorizing activity was also present in media prepared with half-strength seawater (equivalent to 15 ppt salinity). Decolorizing activity was seen in low-nitrogen medium, nutrient-rich medium and in sugarcane bagasse medium. The percentage decolorization of MSW was highest when glucose or sucrose was used as the carbon source in the low-nitrogen medium. The production of lignin-modifying enzymes, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MNP) and laccase decreased in a medium containing MSW. MNP production and MSW decolorization were inversely correlated, suggesting no role for MNP in MSW decolorization. The decolorization of MSW was not effective when F. flavus was immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Decolorization was achieved best in oxygenated cultures. Besides color, total phenolics and chemical oxygen demand were reduced by 50% in MSW treated with F. flavus, suggesting its potential in the bioremediation of effluents. PMID:11398935

Raghukumar, C; Rivonkar, G

2001-05-01

286

Effect of different operational conditions on the decolorization of molasses spent wash using once developed soil inoculum.  

PubMed

A stirred vessel coupled with membrane unit containing cellulose acetate (0.45 mum) membrane was used to study the decolorization of anaerobically digested molasses spent wash (MSW). The soil collected from the MSW disposal site was used as inoculum to study the decolorization without addition of any additives. The same inoculum was used over a period of 163 days at room temperature to study the decolorization of 12.5-50% (v/v) MSW using different operational conditions. The reactor was entered in to the inhibition mode after the feeding of 50% MSW, which was restored 100% without changing any operational condition. The maximum decolorization obtained for 12.5% (v/v) MSW was 77.22 +/- 0.13%. The decolorization achieved for 25, 37.5, and 50% (v/v) MSW was 70.41 +/- 0.12, 56.47 +/- 0.17, and 48.78 +/- 0.09%, respectively. Increase in the utilization of protein and reducing sugar was observed up to 25% MSW whereas, higher concentration showed decrease in the utilization. Results indicate 63% removal of chemical oxygen demand for 12.5% (v/v) MSW. Membrane flux which was significantly reduced after the feeding of 50% MSW was regenerated without changing the washing procedure, however, 35% decrease in sample flux was observed over the continuous use of membrane for the period of 198 days. PMID:19543982

Adikane, H V; Dixit, J N

2009-11-01

287

A Seamless Approach to Transitioning Cane Skills from the Diagonal to the Two-Point Touch Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The profession of orientation and mobility (O&M) is replete with literature describing specific cane techniques, strategies for teaching O&M to specific populations and age groups, rationales, and appropriate settings. These strategies and techniques are also addressed in many university preparation programs. In this article, the author discusses…

Penrod, William M.

2012-01-01

288

The interacting effects of ungulate hoofprints and predatory native ants on metamorph cane toads in tropical Australia.  

PubMed

Many invasive species exploit the disturbed habitats created by human activities. Understanding the effects of habitat disturbance on invasion success, and how disturbance interacts with other factors (such as biotic resistance to the invaders from the native fauna) may suggest new ways to reduce invader viability. In tropical Australia, commercial livestock production can facilitate invasion by the cane toad (Rhinella marina), because hoofprints left by cattle and horses around waterbody margins provide distinctive (cool, moist) microhabitats; nevertheless the same microhabitat can inhibit the success of cane toads by increasing the risks of predation or drowning. Metamorph cane toads actively select hoofprints as retreat-sites to escape dangerous thermal and hydric conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, hoofprint geometry is important: in hoofprints with steep sides the young toads are more likely to be attacked by predatory ants (Iridomyrmex reburrus) and are more likely to drown following heavy rain. Thus, anthropogenic changes to the landscape interact with predation by native taxa to affect the ability of cane toads in this vulnerable life-history stage to thrive in the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical Australia. PMID:24255703

Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R; González-Bernal, Edna; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

289

Habitat selection and coexistence of invasive cockroach species (Dictyoptera) in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selection of habitat has a profound influence on interactions among species and the assembly of ecological communities. We investigated habitat preferences to understand how different cockroach species coexist in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island. Cockroach populations belonging to a guild of seven species were surveyed during one annual cycle in eight sugar-cane fields that differed by several environmental factors, in order to investigate ecological features of cockroach species and their patterns of coexistence. Structure variations of the cockroach communities were analyzed at the field scale, at the sample unit scale, and according to variations of environmental conditions related to the annual sugar-cane growth cycle. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to elucidate relationships between species diversity, population abundance and environmental characteristics. The examination of partitioning at different spatial and temporal scales evidenced that each species occupied a particular type of habitat. The main factors influencing spatial habitat selection were at the sample unit scale: presence of ants, edge effect, soil moisture and granulometry, at the field scale: irrigation, annual rainfall, altitude and age of the field. Although a pair of species shared the same type of habitat, annual population peaks of each species did not coincide in time. This suggests that resource partitioning is based both on ecological factors and interspecific competition. Factors enhancing cockroach coexistence and factors favoring population outbursts are discussed as well as specific invasive capacities of these cockroaches and the role of the cockroach community in the sugar-cane trophic web.

Boyer, Stéphane; Rivault, Colette

2006-01-01

290

The Interacting Effects of Ungulate Hoofprints and Predatory Native Ants on Metamorph Cane Toads in Tropical Australia  

PubMed Central

Many invasive species exploit the disturbed habitats created by human activities. Understanding the effects of habitat disturbance on invasion success, and how disturbance interacts with other factors (such as biotic resistance to the invaders from the native fauna) may suggest new ways to reduce invader viability. In tropical Australia, commercial livestock production can facilitate invasion by the cane toad (Rhinella marina), because hoofprints left by cattle and horses around waterbody margins provide distinctive (cool, moist) microhabitats; nevertheless the same microhabitat can inhibit the success of cane toads by increasing the risks of predation or drowning. Metamorph cane toads actively select hoofprints as retreat-sites to escape dangerous thermal and hydric conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, hoofprint geometry is important: in hoofprints with steep sides the young toads are more likely to be attacked by predatory ants (Iridomyrmex reburrus) and are more likely to drown following heavy rain. Thus, anthropogenic changes to the landscape interact with predation by native taxa to affect the ability of cane toads in this vulnerable life-history stage to thrive in the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical Australia. PMID:24255703

Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; González-Bernal, Edna; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

291

Modelling species distributions without using species distributions: the cane toad in Australia under current and future climates  

E-print Network

, and for assessments of the impact of climate change on native species. Range-shifting species pose a challengeModelling species distributions without using species distributions: the cane toad in Australia distribution of range-shifting species are required for effective management of invasive species

Sheridan, Jennifer

292

Type of Entry Bibliography Footnote / Endnote Book--1 Author Jung, Moon-Ho. Coolies and Cane: Race, Labor, and Sugar  

E-print Network

Type of Entry Bibliography Footnote / Endnote Book--1 Author Jung, Moon-Ho. Coolies and Cane: Race, Labor, and Sugar in the Age of Emancipation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. 1. Moon University Press, 2006), 99-101. Book--2 Authors Chirot, Daniel and Clark R. McCauley. Why Not Kill them all

Hochberg, Michael

293

Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Simultaneous Energy Cane and Sugarcane Genetic Improvement -- Results of a Survey of International Sugarcane Breeders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Following Brazil's dramatic success in utilizing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for large-scale ethanol production, and with a growing interest in energy crops worldwide, sugarcane breeders have been charged with genetically improving cane as an energy crop. We conducted a survey of sugarcane breeders i...

294

Report on the engineering and economics of an ethanol/gasohol joint-venture project with Caldwell Sugars Co-op, Inc. at Thibodaux, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

The definitive availabilities and costs of the following feedstocks are assessed: sugar cane, sweet sorghum, cane, and molasses. The following are included: details of the project area in relation to the availability of nonstorable feedstocks; sugar cane availability and costs; sweet sorghum availability and costs; cane availability and costs, including identification of source of supply and byproduct marketing; molasses availability and costs, including local sources of supply and byproduct marketing, and net feedstocks costs of ethanol. Sugar cane, sweet sorghum, and molasses are investigated primarily as possible alternative local feedstocks to corn to meet the requirements of the Louisiana Gasohol Act.

Not Available

1982-04-01

295

Geophysical Methods for Locating Karst Conduits in Cane Run Watershed, Central Kentucky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cane Run watershed in central Kentucky was listed by the Kentucky Division of Water as one of four focus watersheds for clean-up under the State’s nonpoint-source pollution program. This watershed is degraded by pathogens, nutrients, siltation, and organic enrichment. The sources of pollution include both municipal point sources and nonpoint agricultural and nonagricultural sources. The relative contribution of different parts of the watershed to the contamination is not well understood, however. The geology of Cane Run watershed consists of Ordovician thin-bedded limestone with sparse interbeds of shale. The landscape is dominated by karst features such as sinkholes and springs. Cane Run only flows during times of significant rainfall, usually in the spring of the year. The remainder of the year, most water is recharged to a karst conduit system that leads from Lexington, Ky to Royal Spring, as demonstrated by groundwater tracing. Royal Spring is the major water supply for Georgetown in Scott County, Ky. We attempted to locate the karst conduit so that groundwater flowing through the conduit could be monitored. These monitoring data are essential for assessing the effectiveness of remediation plans. In 2008, based on geology, karst features, and hydrogeology, an initial round of electrical-resistivity and spontaneous-potential geophysical surveys were conducted to help pinpoint the location of the conduit at three sites. Fifteen exploratory boreholes were drilled on the basis of the geophysical results. The boreholes confirmed the geophysical surveys had located minor mud-filled conduits that were interpreted as tributaries to the main conduit. Another round of 2D and 3D electrical resistivity surveys were conducted in 2009 to search for the main conduit. The analysis of this round of surveys resulted in one promising site that is suspected to be in close proximity to the conduit. A time-lapse 2D electrical resistivity survey in conjunction with calcium chlorite solution injection was performed to pinpoint the conduit location. Microgravity measurements were also taken at the site to check whether the gravity anomaly signals are associated with conduits. The geophysical results will be further tested by exploratory boreholes. This work is being carried out in cooperation with the University of Kentucky’s College of Agriculture and Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences.

Zhu, J.; Paylor, R.; Currens, J. C.; Dinger, J. S.

2009-12-01

296

Character & Cane  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

Sartorius, Tara Cady

2009-01-01

297

Wheelchairs, walkers, and canes: what does Medicare pay for, and who benefits?  

PubMed

Medicare's role in the distribution of mobility-related assistive technology has not been well documented, yet rapid growth and regional variation in spending, and concerns over "in-the-home" coverage criteria, highlight the need for facts. Using the 2001 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we find that 6.2 percent percent of beneficiaries obtained mobility assistive technology under the Medicare durable medical equipment (DME) benefit. These beneficiaries were disproportionately poor, disabled, and users of both acute and postacute services. Average per item spending ranged from $52 for canes to $6,208 for power wheelchairs. Among beneficiaries who acquired such technology through the DME benefit, these devices comprised just 2 percent of overall Medicare spending. PMID:16012154

Wolff, Jennifer L; Agree, Emily M; Kasper, Judith D

2005-01-01

298

Genetic diversity analysis with RAPD linked to sex identification in the sugar cane borer Diatraea saccharalis.  

PubMed

Diatraea saccharalis is an insect that causes considerable losses in the sugar cane crop. Our aim was to contribute to the knowledge of the biology of D. saccharalis, with the report of DNA fragments involved in the differentiation between the male and female of this species using the RAPD sex molecular marker GyakuU-13, which is specific for the W chromosome of Bombyx mori. Another point evaluated in this study was the genetic diversity of a D. saccharalis population maintained by inbreeding in a laboratory culture. The profile of sex-specific fragments was analyzed, and the genetic variability of this population was estimated. An analysis of the molecular markers showed only one fragment, of approximately 700 bp, that could be considered as a female sex marker in D. saccharalis. PMID:21128215

Heideman, C; Munhoz, R E F; Pattaro Júnior, J R; Fernandez, M A

2010-01-01

299

Canes Venatici I cloud of galaxies seen in the H? line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of H? imaging for 42 galaxies in the nearby low-density cloud Canes Venatici I, populated mainly by late-type objects. Estimates of the H? flux and integrated star formation rate ({SFR}) are now available for all 78 known members of this scattered system, spanning a large range in luminosity, surface brightness, HI content and {SFR}. Distributions of the CVnI galaxies versus their {SFR}, blue absolute magnitude and total hydrogen mass, are given in comparison with those for a population of the nearby virialized group around M 81. We found no essential correlation between star formation activity in a galaxy and its density environment. The bulk of CVnI galaxies had enough time to generate their baryon mass with the observed {SFR}. Most of them also possess a supply of gas that is sufficient to maintain their observed {SFR}s during the next Hubble time.

Kaisin, S. S.; Karachentsev, I. D.

2008-02-01

300

Electric power from sugar cane in Costa Rica. A technical and economic analysis  

SciTech Connect

A team of specialists visited Costa Rica in May 1988 to analyze the potential for production and sale of electricity by the sugar-cane industry. Focusing on three sugar mills, the team made technical projections at four levels of investment, ranging from the simplest sale of surplus power to the installation of new turbogenerator systems. For each level, capital costs, electricity production and sales, and fuel options were estimated. Associated risks were assessed through sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the possible impacts of varying interest rates, fuel costs, and electricity sales prices. The team concluded that production and sale of electricity for the national grid could be an excellent investment opportunity for the sugar industry and would provide important economic benefits, including creation of additional jobs in rural areas, diversification of the sugar industry, and (in the short term) displacement of the need for imported fuels.

Tugwell, F.; Gowen, M.; Kenda, W.; Cohen, A.

1988-07-01

301

Cane Creek flood-flow characteristics at State Route 30 near Spencer, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tennessee Department of Transportation has constructed a new bridge and approaches on State Route 30 over Cane Creek near Spencer, Tennessee. The old bridge and its approaches were fairly low, permitting considerable flow over the road during high floods. The new bridge and its approaches are considerably higher, causing different flow conditions at the site. Analysis of the effects of the new bridge, as compared to the old bridge, on floods of the magnitude of the May 27, 1973, flood is presented. The May 27, 1973, flood was greater than a 100-year flood. Analysis of the 50- and 100-year floods for the new bridge are also presented. Results of the study indicate that the new construction will increase the water-surface elevation for a flood equal to the May 27, 1973, flood by approximately 1 foot upstream from bridge. (USGS)

Gamble, Charles R.

1983-01-01

302

Post 12 Ma tectonic activity of the Subalpine Molasse resolved by combining thermochronology and critical wedge analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermochronological studies in the Northern Alpine Foreland Basin show that the folded and thrusted part of the basin, the Subalpine Molasse (SM), has been tectonically active during the last 12 Ma (Cederbom, C. E. et al., 2011; von Hagke, C. et al., in review). However, the amount of erosion and timing of thrusting is so far only reported from the Swiss Molasse basin. To test whether this is a local signal and whether climate contributed to this thrusting, we report thermochronological data from a profile south of Lake Constance and analyse the results in the framework of critical taper theory. We selected the Bregenzerach stream as suitable study area because it is one of the few profiles, which provides excellent outcrops in all stratigraphic units of the SM and is located east of the Jura fold and thrust belt, north of the Eastern Alps. We present new apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) and apatite fission track (AFT) data. In contrast to the Central Alps, the new data do not show full resetting of the AFT system. This demonstrates that the eastern SM has experienced less erosion than the central SM. The AHe system in contrast, shows complete resetting also in the eastern SM. We observe age-offsets across the same thrusts which have been reactivated in the central SM. This confirms that the SM of the Eastern Alps must have been tectonically active until at least 5 Ma, as is also known from the central SM. This implies reactivation of thrusts, which formed originally in mid to late Miocene times. From critical taper analysis, reactivation of thrusting (assuming constant dip of the basal detachment through time) can only be obtained (1) by an increase of basal detachment strength or (2) a decrease of surface slope. An increase of detachment strength through time is either possible due to jumping of the detachment to another stratigraphic level or a change in pore fluid pressure. A decrease in surface slope is either tectonic- or erosion-controlled. We show that today the Eastern Alps are at a stable state whereas the Central Alps are critical. We use these first order constraints in combination with new and old thermochronological data and discuss the influence of climate on foreland deformation. This presentation was supported by the EUROCORES programme TOPO-EUROPE of the European Science Foundation CEDERBOM, C.E., SCHLUNEGGER, F., VAN DER BEEK, P.A., SINCLAIR, H.D. & ONCKEN, O. (2011) Rapid, Extensive Erosion of the North Alpine Foreland Basin at 5-4 Ma. Basin Research, 23, 528-550. VON HAGKE, C., CEDERBOM, C.E., ONCKEN, O., STOCKLI, D.F., RAHN, M. & SCHLUNEGGER, F. (in review) Linking the Northern Alps with Their Foreland: The Latest Uplift and Erosion History Resolved with Low Temperature Thermochronology. submitted to Tectonics.

von Hagke, C.; Oncken, O.; Ortner, H.; Cederbom, C.

2012-04-01

303

Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p<0.05) LA content and higher dry matter (DM) recovery than the control and P silages. P silage had lower (p<0.05) LA content than the control silage. During aerobic exposure, lactic acid contents decreased gradually in the control and M silages, while that of P and PM silages increased, and the peak values were observed after 9 d. M silage had similar yeast counts with the control silage (>10(5) cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<10(5) cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage. PMID:25049961

Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

2014-03-01

304

Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p<0.05) LA content and higher dry matter (DM) recovery than the control and P silages. P silage had lower (p<0.05) LA content than the control silage. During aerobic exposure, lactic acid contents decreased gradually in the control and M silages, while that of P and PM silages increased, and the peak values were observed after 9 d. M silage had similar yeast counts with the control silage (>105 cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage. PMID:25049961

Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

2014-01-01

305

Cane toads lack physiological enhancements for dispersal at the invasive front in Northern Australia.  

PubMed

Many invasive species have evolved behavioural and morphological characteristics that facilitate their dispersal into new areas, but it is unclear how selection on this level of the phenotype filters through to the underlying physiology. Cane toads have been dispersing westward across northern tropical Australia for more than 70 years. Previous studies of cane toads at the invasive front have identified several behavioural, morphological and locomotory characteristics that have evolved to facilitate dispersal of toads. We assessed a range of physiological characteristics associated with locomotory abilities in toads from the long-established, east coast of Australia, from the invasive front, and from a site in between these locations. We measured time to exhaustion and respiratory gases of toads exercising on a treadmill, time to recovery from exhaustion, blood properties (lactate, haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, blood cell volume), and muscle properties associated with locomotion (activities of the enzymes citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase, and pH buffering capacity). None of the measured physiological parameters supported the hypothesis that toads from the invasive front possess physiological adaptations that facilitate dispersal compared to toads from areas colonised in the past. The strongest difference among the three groups of toads, time to exhaustion, showed exactly the opposite trend; toads from the long-established populations in the east coast had the longest time to exhaustion. Successful colonisers can employ many characteristics to facilitate their dispersal, so the extent to which behaviour, morphology and physiology co-evolve remains an interesting question. However, in the present case at least, behavioural adaptations do not appear to have altered the organism's underlying physiology. PMID:23213366

Tracy, Christopher R; Christian, Keith A; Baldwin, John; Phillips, Ben L

2012-01-15

306

Gross, Histological and Ultrastructural Features of the Bulbourethral Gland in the Greater Cane Rat (Thryonomys swinderianus).  

PubMed

The present study examines the structure and ultrastructure of the bulbourethral glands in 10 sexually matured male greater cane rats raised in captivity. Following anaesthesia, the rats were perfusion-fixed transcardially and the bulbourethral glands dissected out. Upon morphologic and morphometric analysis, the Cowper's glands were observed to have an average volume of 0.24 ± 0.08 ml, a diameter of 6.3 ± 0.6 mm and weighs 0.199 ± 0.06 g. The paired, gourd-shaped tubuloalveolar glands were surrounded by dense connective tissues and separated into lobules by capsular septae. Each lobule consists of endpiece/secretory units and excretory ducts lined by simple glandular epithelium and pseudo-stratified epithelium, respectively. The round end pieces consisted of 8-10 pyramidal to columnar epithelial cells with flattened, basally located nuclei and granule-filled cytoplasm that bounded a narrow glandular lumen. The striking ultrastructural features of these secretory cells were the presence of some granules with uniform electron density and those with regions of lesser density as well as the absence of secretory vacuoles. Another unique characteristic of these secretory granules is the presence of electron dense strands radiating from their surfaces. The apical surfaces of the cells were also studded with abundant microvilli. From the findings, the structure of bulbourethral glands in the greater cane rat shows more resemblances to that of humans than to its rodent phylogeny. These findings serve as additional knowledge in the structural interpretation of the bulbourethral gland and its secretory products. PMID:24660943

Adebayo, A O; Akinloye, A K; Olukole, S G; Oyeyemi, M O; Taiwo, V O; Ihunwo, A O; Oke, B O

2015-02-01

307

Calcium phosphate flocs and the clarification of sugar cane juice from whole of crop harvesting.  

PubMed

Sugar cane biomass is one of the most viable feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Therefore, processing the whole of crop (WC) (i.e., stalk and trash, instead of stalk only) will increase the amount of available biomass for this purpose. However, effective clarification of juice expressed from WC for raw sugar manufacture is a major challenge because of the amounts and types of non-sucrose impurities (e.g., polysaccharides, inorganics, proteins, etc.) present. Calcium phosphate flocs are important during sugar cane juice clarification because they are responsible for the removal of impurities. Therefore, to gain a better understanding of the role of calcium phosphate flocs during the juice clarification process, the effects of impurities on the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate flocs were examined using small-angle laser light scattering technique, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. Results on synthetic sugar juice solutions showed that the presence of SiO2 and Na(+) ions affected floc size and floc structure. Starch and phosphate ions did not affect the floc structure; however, the former reduced the floc size, whereas the latter increased the floc size. The study revealed that high levels of Na(+) ions would negatively affect the clarification process the most, as they would reduce the amount of suspended particles trapped by the flocs. A complementary study on prepared WC juice using cold and cold/intermediate liming techniques was conducted. The study demonstrated that, in comparison to the one-stage (i.e., conventional) clarification process, a two-stage clarification process using cold liming removed more polysaccharides (?19%), proteins (?82%), phosphorus (?53%), and SiO2 (?23%) in WC juice but increased Ca(2+) (?136%) and sulfur (?200%). PMID:25574835

Thai, Caroline C D; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Doherty, William O S

2015-02-11

308

Cane toads lack physiological enhancements for dispersal at the invasive front in Northern Australia  

PubMed Central

Summary Many invasive species have evolved behavioural and morphological characteristics that facilitate their dispersal into new areas, but it is unclear how selection on this level of the phenotype filters through to the underlying physiology. Cane toads have been dispersing westward across northern tropical Australia for more than 70 years. Previous studies of cane toads at the invasive front have identified several behavioural, morphological and locomotory characteristics that have evolved to facilitate dispersal of toads. We assessed a range of physiological characteristics associated with locomotory abilities in toads from the long-established, east coast of Australia, from the invasive front, and from a site in between these locations. We measured time to exhaustion and respiratory gases of toads exercising on a treadmill, time to recovery from exhaustion, blood properties (lactate, haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, blood cell volume), and muscle properties associated with locomotion (activities of the enzymes citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase, and pH buffering capacity). None of the measured physiological parameters supported the hypothesis that toads from the invasive front possess physiological adaptations that facilitate dispersal compared to toads from areas colonised in the past. The strongest difference among the three groups of toads, time to exhaustion, showed exactly the opposite trend; toads from the long-established populations in the east coast had the longest time to exhaustion. Successful colonisers can employ many characteristics to facilitate their dispersal, so the extent to which behaviour, morphology and physiology co-evolve remains an interesting question. However, in the present case at least, behavioural adaptations do not appear to have altered the organism's underlying physiology. PMID:23213366

Tracy, Christopher R.; Christian, Keith A.; Baldwin, John; Phillips, Ben L.

2012-01-01

309

A suspected parasite spill-back of two novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) causing disease in Australian endemic frogs found in the invasive Cane toad.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence. PMID:21541340

Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirk?, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N; Šlapeta, Jan

2011-01-01

310

A Suspected Parasite Spill-Back of Two Novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) Causing Disease in Australian Endemic Frogs Found in the Invasive Cane Toad  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence. PMID:21541340

Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirk?, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N.; Šlapeta, Jan

2011-01-01

311

Application of the OCRA Method in the sugar cane harvest and its repercussion on the workers' health. Preliminary study.  

PubMed

In Brazil the sugar ethanol industry has had strong growth in the last 10 years, sometimes due to the growing sugar exportation, sometimes due to the alcohol production for automobile fuel and for exportation. Despite the growing mechanization of the raw material harvest (sugar cane), the manual work still persists. The development of this article was based in the application of the OCRA Method in the sugar cane harvesting process, to evaluate the risks to the upper limbs by repetitive movements and epidemiologically prove the ratio risk x harm to the heath of the workers, as well as the probability of developing improvements in the working conditions. The analysis process consists of studying the work organization, the risks to the health of the worker and the distribution of the recovery periods during the working day. PMID:22317331

Ruddy, Facci; Eduardo, Marcatto; Edoardo, Santino

2012-01-01

312

Recovery of purified lactonic sophorolipids by spontaneous crystallization during the fermentation of sugarcane molasses with Candida albicans O-13-1.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have focused on how to obtain high yield of sophorolipids using low-cost materials as substrates, and there has been various work on the experimental methods for purifying lactonic sophorolipids. These studies have not yet obtained satisfied results in combining a low-cost fermentation process and the purification of lactonic sophorolipids. This study establishes a fed-batch fermentation process of purifying sophorolipids from Candida albicans O-13-1 using low-cost sugarcane molasses as the substrate. In the optimized conditions of this research, using sugarcane molasses as a substrate and product synthesis based on the temperature stage-controlled fermentation, our result indicates that sophorolipids production could reach 108.7 g/L. More importantly, lactonic sophorolipids can crystallize and precipitate during our established fermentation process. The structures and content of sophorolipids separated from the fermentation broth and sophorolipids crystallized in the fermentation broth were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The fermentation process produced 90.5 g/L crystallized lactonic sophorolipids with 90.51% purity. This is an energy-saving and low-cost method to obtain such pure lactonic sophorolipids. PMID:23040390

Yang, Xue; Zhu, Lingqing; Xue, Chaoyou; Chen, Yu; Qu, Liang; Lu, Wenyu

2012-12-10

313

Engineering and adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli W for L-lactic acid fermentation from molasses and corn steep liquor without additional nutrients.  

PubMed

The D-lactic acid producing strain, Escherichia coli HBUT-D, was reengineered for L(+)-lactic acid fermentation by replacing the D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA) with an L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) from Pedicoccus acidilactici, followed by adaptive evolution in sucrose. The resulting strain, WYZ-L, has enhanced expression of the sucrose operon (cscA and cscKB). In 100 g L(-1) of sucrose fermentation using mineral salt medium, WYZ-L produced 97 g L(-1) of l(+)-lactic acid, with a yield of 90%, a maximum productivity of 3.17 g L(-1)h(-1) and an optical purity of greater than 99%. In fermentations using sugarcane molasses and corn steep liquor without additional nutrients, WYZ-L produced 75 g L(-1) of l(+)-lactic acid, with a yield of 85%, a maximum productivity of 1.18 g L(-1)h(-1), and greater than 99% optical purity. These results demonstrated that WYZ-L has the potential to use waste molasses and corn steep liquor as a resource for L(+)-lactic acid fermentation. PMID:24063823

Wang, Yongze; Li, Kunpeng; Huang, Feng; Wang, Jinhua; Zhao, Jinfang; Zhao, Xiao; Garza, Erin; Manow, Ryan; Grayburn, Scott; Zhou, Shengde

2013-11-01

314

Assessment of the isostatic state and the load distribution of the European Molasse basin by means of lithospheric-scale 3D structural and 3D gravity modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Molasse basin is a foreland basin situated at the northern front of the European Alps and has formed as a consequence of the Euro-Adriatic continental collision since the Tertiary. Today, it is underlain by Mesozoic sedimentary successions on top of a Paleozoic crust. To investigate the deep structure, the isostatic state, as well as the load distribution in the basin and the adjacent Alpine area, we constructed a lithospheric-scale 3D structural model by implementing available surface, well and seismic data. Subsequently, the structure of the model was constrained by means of 3D gravity modelling. Complementary, the isostatic state has been assessed based on the calculation of the 3D load distribution. Our results show that the Molasse basin is not in isostatic equilibrium and that the gravity field of the area is strongly controlled by the configuration of the crystalline crust. Furthermore, we show that the area is influenced by significant lateral load variations down to a depth of -150 km, which are considerably larger than commonly assumed for this level. Furthermore, our results allow a first-order assessment of the minimum compensating horizontal stress required to prevent gravitational collapse.

Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Schneider, Michael

2014-12-01

315

Co-firing of sugar cane bagasse with rice husk in a conical fluidized-bed combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental results on co-firing of 'as-received' sugar cane bagasse and rice husk in a conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using silica sand as the bed material. Axial temperature, O2 ,C O 2, CO and NO concentration profiles in the conical FBC operated at 82.5-82.8 kg\\/h fuel feed rate and various values of excess air (of about 40, 60,

V. I. Kuprianova; W. Permchartb K. Janvijitsakula

316

Recovery of aconitic acid from simulated aqueous effluents of the sugar-cane industry through liquid-liquid extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of carboxylic acids from the by-products of sugar-cane treatments by the technique of solvent extraction has been studied, in order to reduce environmental pollution and in view of the possible uses of aconitic acid in the food-processing and chemical industries. The liquid-liquid extraction process can be considered as an alternative to the classical precipitation method for the separation

H. Hanine; T. Conte; J. Mourgues

1995-01-01

317

A cane reduces loss of balance in patients with peripheral neuropathy: Results from a challenging unipedal balance test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To test the hypothesis that use of a cane in the nondominant hand during challenging balance tasks would significantly decrease loss of balance in patients with peripheral neuropathy while transferring from bipedal to unipedal stance on an unsteady surface.Design: Nonrandomized control study.Setting: Tertiary-care institution.Participants Eight consecutive patients with peripheral neuropathy (PN) and eight age- and gender-matched controls (C) with

James A. Ashton-Miller; Mark W. L. Yeh; James K. Richardson; Todd Galloway

1996-01-01

318

Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.  

PubMed

In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields. PMID:19886425

Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

2009-09-01

319

Influence of lung parasites on the growth rates of free-ranging and captive adult cane toads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many parasites affect the viability of their hosts, but detailed studies combining empirical data from both the field and\\u000a the laboratory are limited. Consequently, the nature and magnitude of such effects are poorly known for many important host–parasite\\u000a systems, including macroparasites of amphibians. We examined the effects of lungworm (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) infections in cane toads (Bufo marinus) within their invasive

Crystal Kelehear; Gregory P. Brown; Richard Shine

2011-01-01

320

Cane Water Content and Yield Responses of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sultanina to Overhead Irrigation During the Dormant Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility to increase grapevine cane water content during the dormant period by applying overhead irrigation, and thereby increasing yield, was investigated in a semi-arid summer rainfall climate. A field trial was carried out with Sultanina grapevines in the Lower Orange River region over two seasons. During the 2000\\/2001 season control grapevines (T1) that received no overhead irrigation in winter

P. A. Myburgh; L. D. van der Walt

321

Community values for environmental protection in a cane farming catchment in northern Australia: a choice modelling study.  

PubMed

Choice modelling is an emerging approach to estimating the non-use values of environmental services with multiple attributes. In this paper, results are reported of a choice modelling study conducted in the Herbert River District of North Queensland to estimate the value placed on the protection of natural vegetation in areas suitable for cane production by the local community. Resource use options that vary in the level of environmental protection and the level of agricultural production were presented as a series of choice sets and respondents were asked to choose among a set of three discrete alternatives in a given choice set. The alternatives in each choice set were described by four attributes, pertaining to the area of teatree woodlands, the area of vegetation along rivers and in wetlands, regional income from cane production, and an environmental levy. The responses were analysed together with socio-economic data using a nested-logit discrete-choice model to estimate the community willingness-to-pay for the protection of natural vegetation. The results indicate that the environmental values of wetlands are comparable to returns from commercial production of sugar cane and that the values of teatree woodlands are comparable to returns from extensive grazing. It is argued that land allocation policies should recognise these values in tandem with commercial benefits of production to ensure that resources are used more efficiently. PMID:11475087

Mallawaarachchi, T; Blamey, R K; Morrison, M D; Johnson, A K; Bennett, J W

2001-07-01

322

Invasive species as drivers of evolutionary change: cane toads in tropical Australia  

PubMed Central

The arrival of an invasive species can have wide-ranging ecological impacts on native taxa, inducing rapid evolutionary responses in ways that either reduce the invader's impact or exploit the novel opportunity that it provides. The invasion process itself can cause substantial evolutionary shifts in traits that influence the invader's dispersal rate (via both adaptive and non-adaptive mechanisms) and its ability to establish new populations. I briefly review the nature of evolutionary changes likely to be set in train by a biological invasion, with special emphasis on recent results from my own research group on the invasion of cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia. The toads’ invasion has caused evolutionary changes both in the toads and in native taxa. Many of those changes are adaptive, but others may result from non-adaptive evolutionary processes: for example, the evolved acceleration in toad dispersal rates may be due to spatial sorting of dispersal-enhancing genes, rather than fitness advantages to faster-dispersing individuals. Managers need to incorporate evolutionary dynamics into their conservation planning, because biological invasions can affect both the rates and the trajectories of evolutionary change. PMID:25568034

Shine, Richard

2012-01-01

323

Invasive species as drivers of evolutionary change: cane toads in tropical Australia.  

PubMed

The arrival of an invasive species can have wide-ranging ecological impacts on native taxa, inducing rapid evolutionary responses in ways that either reduce the invader's impact or exploit the novel opportunity that it provides. The invasion process itself can cause substantial evolutionary shifts in traits that influence the invader's dispersal rate (via both adaptive and non-adaptive mechanisms) and its ability to establish new populations. I briefly review the nature of evolutionary changes likely to be set in train by a biological invasion, with special emphasis on recent results from my own research group on the invasion of cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia. The toads' invasion has caused evolutionary changes both in the toads and in native taxa. Many of those changes are adaptive, but others may result from non-adaptive evolutionary processes: for example, the evolved acceleration in toad dispersal rates may be due to spatial sorting of dispersal-enhancing genes, rather than fitness advantages to faster-dispersing individuals. Managers need to incorporate evolutionary dynamics into their conservation planning, because biological invasions can affect both the rates and the trajectories of evolutionary change. PMID:25568034

Shine, Richard

2012-02-01

324

The effects of experimentally infecting Australian tree frogs with lungworms (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) from invasive cane toads.  

PubMed

Invasive species may transmit novel pathogens to native taxa, and lacking a history of coevolutionary interactions with the pathogen, the new hosts may be severely affected. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) were introduced to Australia in 1935, bringing with them a lungworm (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) not found in Australian frogs. Previous studies suggest that most frog species are unaffected by this parasite, but one tree-frog (Litoria caerulea) can harbour high numbers of lungworm. More detailed laboratory studies confirm and extend the earlier results on L. caerulea and show that Rhabdias infection severely depresses the viability of metamorphs of an allied tree-frog species, Litoria splendida. Parasitic larvae infected both of these two closely related tree-frog species, but the two anurans differed in the consequences of infection. Parasitism reduced the survivorship of L. splendida and the stamina of both species. Lungworms did not consistently reduce growth rates or affect heart rates in either tree-frog species. Although L. splendida is potentially vulnerable to the arrival of toad-transported lungworms, rates of host-switching may be reduced by low levels of habitat overlap between the frogs (which are rock-dwelling and arboreal) and the toads (which are terrestrial and most abundant in disturbed habitats). PMID:21624371

Pizzatto, Lígia; Shine, Richard

2011-08-01

325

Protective effects of sugar cane extract on endotoxic shock in mice.  

PubMed

Sugar cane extract (SCE) has been shown to have an immunostimulating effect in chickens. This study evaluated the effect of SCE on Salmonella Abortusequi lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lethal shock in d-galactosamine (GalN)-sensitized mice. Mice were administered intraperitoneally SCE (500 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline before or after injection of LPS and GalN. All the mice injected with LPS and GalN (control group) died of histopathologically congestive and hemorrhagic hepatic insufficiency within 24 h, showing significantly increased activities of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 380 IU/mL) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT; 130 IU/mL). Pretreatment of mice with SCE at 3 h before challenge with LPS and GalN (SCE treated group) resulted in significantly improved survival rates (92.3%) and a decrease in liver injury. These surviving mice in the SCE treated group showed no changes in the mean levels of plasma AST (60 IU/mL) and ALT (18 IU/mL). However, the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the SCE treated group was not significantly different when compared with that in the control group challenged with LPS and GalN. These results suggest that SCE has protective effects on LPS-induced mortality in this mouse model. PMID:16619363

Motobu, Maki; Amer, Said; Koyama, Yukari; Hikosaka, Kenji; Sameshima, Toshiya; Yamada, Manabu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Koge, Kenji; Kang, Chung-Boo; Hayasidani, Hideki; Hirota, Yoshikazu

2006-05-01

326

InSAR Studies of Crustal Deformation Near Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland and Cane Creek Anticline, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present studies of two kinds of crustal deformation phenomena using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique. Jakobshavn Isbrae, one of the largest outlet glaciers in Greenland, has been undergoing significant thinning and acceleration in recent years (Thomas, et al, 2003; Joughin et al, 2004). We use InSAR to measure crustal uplift in the ice-free bedrock area near the mouth of the glacier from 2002 to 2007, caused by the removal of the ice load. We will discuss the possibility of using the crustal deformation measurement to improve the estimation of mass loss rate of Jakobshavn Isbrae. Orbital error correction using empirical models and GPS data as ground control points will also be discussed. Since 1970s, potash ore has been mined from about 3000 feet underneath the Cane Creek anticline in southeastern Utah, using a system combining solution mining and solar evaporation. The barren and arid conditions in this area are ideal for InSAR measurements. Ground coherence is well maintained, even for time spans larger than 5 years. Interferograms formed by using ERS-1/2 SAR data show that the ground surface was subsiding steadily with a rate of 10~15 mm/yr in the period of 1992 to 2002. Detailed results, including time series studies of the subsidence rate and shape and their relation to mining activities will be provided.

Liu, L.; Wahr, J.; Howat, I.; Khan, S. A.; Joughin, I.

2007-12-01

327

Invasive Cane Toads: Social Facilitation Depends upon an Individual’s Personality  

PubMed Central

Individual variation in behavioural traits (including responses to social cues) may influence the success of invasive populations. We studied the relationship between sociality and personality in invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) from a recently established population in tropical Australia. In our field experiments, we manipulated social cues (the presence of a feeding conspecific) near a food source. We captured and compared toads that only approached feeding sites where another toad was already present, with conspecifics that approached unoccupied feeding sites. Subsequent laboratory trials showed correlated personality differences (behavioural syndromes) between these two groups of toads. For example, toads that approached already-occupied rather than unoccupied feeding sites in the field, took longer to emerge from a shelter-site in standardized trials, suggesting these individuals are ‘shy’ (whereas toads that approached unoccupied feeding stations tended to be ‘bold’). Manipulating hunger levels did not abolish this difference. In feeding trials, a bold toad typically outcompeted a shy toad under conditions of low prey availability, but the outcome was reversed when multiple prey items were present. Thus, both personality types may be favored under different circumstances. This invasive population of toads contains individuals that exhibit a range of personalities, hinting at the existence of a wide range of social dynamics in taxa traditionally considered to be asocial. PMID:25033047

González-Bernal, Edna; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

2014-01-01

328

Interplay among nocturnal activity, melatonin, corticosterone and performance in the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marinus).  

PubMed

Most animals conduct daily activities exclusively either during the day or at night. Here, hormones such as melatonin and corticosterone, greatly influence the synchronization or regulation of physiological and behavioral cycles needed for daily activity. How then do species that exhibit more flexible daily activity patterns, responses to ecological, environmental or life-history processes, regulate daily hormone profiles important to daily performance? This study examined the consequences of (1) nocturnal activity on diel profiles of melatonin and corticosterone and (2) the effects of experimentally increased acute melatonin levels on physiological and metabolic performance in the cane toad (Rhinella marinus). Unlike inactive captive toads that had a distinct nocturnal melatonin profile, nocturnally active toads sampled under field and captive conditions, exhibited decreased nocturnal melatonin profiles with no evidence for any phase shift. Nocturnal corticosterone levels were significantly higher in field active toads than captive toads. In toads with experimentally increased melatonin levels, plasma lactate and glucose responses following recovery post exercise were significantly different from control toads. However, exogenously increased melatonin did not affect resting metabolism in toads. These results suggest that toads could adjust daily hormone profiles to match nocturnal activity requirements, thereby avoiding performance costs induced by high nocturnal melatonin levels. The ability of toads to exhibit plasticity in daily hormone cycles, could have broad implications for how they and other animals utilize behavioral flexibility to optimize daily activities in response to natural and increasingly human mediated environmental variation. PMID:25063397

Jessop, Tim S; Dempster, Tim; Letnic, Mike; Webb, Jonathan K

2014-09-15

329

Respiratory toxicity of repeated exposure to particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.  

PubMed

We compared the toxicity of subchronic exposure to equivalent masses of particles from sugar cane burning and traffic. BALB/c mice received 3 intranasal instillations/week during 1, 2 or 4 weeks of either distilled water (C1, C2, C4) or particles (15?g) from traffic (UP1, UP2, UP4) or biomass burning (BP1, BP2, BP4). Lung mechanics, histology and oxidative stress were analyzed 24h after the last instillation. In all instances UP and BP groups presented worse pulmonary elastance, airway and tissue resistance, alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction and macrophage influx into the lungs than controls. UP4, BP2 and BP4 presented more alveolar collapse than UP1 and BP1, respectively. UP and BP had worse bronchial and alveolar lesion scores than their controls; BP4 had greater bronchial lesion scores than UP4. Catalase was higher in UP4 and BP4 than in C4. In conclusion, biomass particles were more toxic than those from traffic after repeated exposures. PMID:24280381

Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Carvalho, Giovanna M C; Lanzetti, Manuella; Valença, Samuel S; Silva, Luiz F F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Zin, Walter A; Faffe, Débora S

2014-01-15

330

Application of kaolin to improve citric acid production by a thermophilic Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Citric acid production by a thermophilic strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger IIB-6 in a medium containing blackstrap cane molasses was improved by the addition of kaolin to the fermentation medium. The fermentation was run in a 7.5-l stirred bioreactor (60% working volume). The optimal sugar concentration was found to be 150 g/l. Kaolin (1.0 ml) was added to the fermentation medium to enhance volumetric production. The best results in terms of product formation were observed when 15 parts per million (ppm) kaolin was added 24 h after inoculation. With added kaolin, citric acid production was enhanced 2.34-fold, compared to a control fermentation without added kaolin. The length of incubation to attain this product yield was shortened from 168 to 96 h. The comparison of kinetic parameters showed improved citrate synthase activity of the culture (Y (p/x)=7.046 g/g). When the culture grown at various kaolin concentrations was monitored for Q (p), Q (s), and q (p), there was significant improvement in these variables over the control. Specific production by the culture (q (p)=0.073 g/g cells/h) was improved several fold. The addition of kaolin substantially improved the enthalpy (DeltaH (D)=74.5 kJ/mol) and entropy of activation (DeltaS=-174 J/mol/K) for citric acid production, free energies for transition state formation, and substrate binding for sucrose hydrolysis. The performance of fuzzy logic control of the bioreactor was found to be very promising for an improvement ( approximately 4.2-fold) in the production of citric acid (96.88 g/l), which is of value in commercial applications. PMID:16871375

Ali, Sikander

2006-12-01

331

IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, --Part A: Systems and Humans, Vol. 31, No. 2, March 2001, pp. 131-136 The GuideCane --Applying Mobile Robot  

E-print Network

, March 2001, pp. 131-136 The GuideCane -- Applying Mobile Robot Technologies to Assist the Visually Impaired by Iwan Ulrich 1 and Johann Borenstein 2 , Member, IEEE ABSTRACT The GuideCane is a novel device designed to help blind or visually impaired users navigate safely and quickly among obstacles and other

Borenstein, Johann

332

Feeding strategies for the improved biosynthesis of canthaxanthin from enzymatic hydrolyzed molasses in the fed-batch fermentation of Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1.  

PubMed

The effect of two enzymatic hydrolyzed molasses (EHM)-feeding strategies including constant-(CFR) and exponential-(EFR) feeding rate on canthaxanthin (CTX) biosynthesis by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 fed-batch fermentation was studied. The results showed that the CFR of 7 ml/h with an EHM content of 45 g/l led to the highest values of specific growth rate (0.127 h(-1)), biomass dry weight (17.66 g/l), total carotenoid (16.31 mg/l) and CTX (14.67 mg/l). A significant decrease in the kinetic growth and production parameters by the increasing EHM concentration from 30 to 60 g/l during EFR fed-batch bioprocess was observed (p<0.01). This study concluded that EHM alone can displace glucose-based medium towards improved CTX biosynthesis from D. natronolimnaea HS-1 using a CFR strategy during fed-batch culture. PMID:24384310

Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Mousavi, Mohammad

2014-02-01

333

Combined electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops. Features of the method, technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper summarizes the results obtained from the study on combined electron-beam and coagulation method for purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of grain, potato, beet and some other plant materials. The method consists in preliminary mixing of industrial wastewater with municipal wastewater, electron-beam treatment of the mixture and subsequent coagulation. Technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility (output of 7000 m 3 day -1) with two powerful cascade electron accelerators (total maximum beam power of 400 kW) for treatment of the wastewater by the above method was carried out. It was calculated that the cost of purification of the wastes is equal to 0.25 US$ m -3 that is noticeably less than in the case of the existing method.

Pikaev, A. K.; Ponomarev, A. V.; Bludenko, A. V.; Minin, V. N.; Elizar'eva, L. M.

2001-04-01

334

Biodegradation of organic compounds of molasses melanoidin (MM) from biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) during the decolourisation by a potential bacterial consortium.  

PubMed

Molasses melanoidin (MM) is a major pollutant in biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) due to its recalcitrant properties. The 75% colour and 71% COD of MM (1,000 ppm) were reduced with developed bacterial consortium comprising Proteus mirabilis (IITRM5; FJ581028), Bacillus sp. (IITRM7; FJ581030), Raoultella planticola (IITRM15; GU329705) and Enterobacter sakazakii (IITRM16, FJ581031) in the ratio of 4:3:2:1 within 10 days at optimized nutrient. Bacterial consortium showed manganese peroxidase and laccase activity during MM decolourisation. The dominant growth of R. planticola and E. sakazakii was noted in consortium during MM decolourisation. The comparative GC-MS analysis of extracted compounds of control and degraded samples showed that most of the compounds present in control were completely utilized by bacterial consortium along with production of some metabolites. The developed bacterial consortium could be a tool for the decolourisation and degradation of melanoidin containing BMDS. PMID:22311589

Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

2012-07-01

335

Increasing accessibility to the blind of virtual environments, using a virtual mobility aid based on the "EyeCane": feasibility study.  

PubMed

Virtual worlds and environments are becoming an increasingly central part of our lives, yet they are still far from accessible to the blind. This is especially unfortunate as such environments hold great potential for them for uses such as social interaction, online education and especially for use with familiarizing the visually impaired user with a real environment virtually from the comfort and safety of his own home before visiting it in the real world. We have implemented a simple algorithm to improve this situation using single-point depth information, enabling the blind to use a virtual cane, modeled on the "EyeCane" electronic travel aid, within any virtual environment with minimal pre-processing. Use of the Virtual-EyeCane, enables this experience to potentially be later used in real world environments with identical stimuli to those from the virtual environment. We show the fast-learned practical use of this algorithm for navigation in simple environments. PMID:23977316

Maidenbaum, Shachar; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Amedi, Amir

2013-01-01

336

Physiology of invasion: cane toads are constrained by thermal effects on physiological mechanisms that support locomotor performance.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms that constrain the invasiveness of introduced animals is essential for managing invasions and for predicting their limits. In most vertebrate species, the capacity for invasion relies upon the physiological systems that support locomotion, and oxygen transport and metabolism may become limiting as environmental temperatures increase as predicted by the oxygen limitation hypothesis. Here we test the oxygen limitation hypothesis and propose the alternative hypothesis that within-individual plasticity will compensate for thermal variation. We show that during exercise in the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) oxygen transport by the cardiovascular system was maximised in warm-acclimated toads at high (30°C) temperatures, and that oxygen content of arterial blood was not affected by temperature. Resting oxygen consumption remained stable across a 10°C temperature range (20-30°C) when toads were allowed to acclimate, so that there was no increase in resting oxygen demand that could lead to a decrease in aerobic scope at high temperatures. Additionally, temperature acclimation had no effect on arterial-venous differences in oxygen partial pressures. Toads relied more on glycolytic ATP production at low temperatures to support locomotor activity. Mitochondrial capacities (citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities) were greatest at warmer temperatures. Interestingly, the metabolic cost of exercise increased at low temperatures. In contradiction to predictions by the oxygen limitation hypothesis, aerobic performance was not limited by high temperatures. On the contrary, the relatively slow advance of cane toads to cooler climates can be explained by the constraints of low temperatures on the physiological systems supporting locomotion. It is likely that human-induced global warming will facilitate invasions of environments that are currently too cool to support cane toads. PMID:21490252

Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E

2011-05-01

337

Geology of the Cane Branch and Helton Branch watershed areas, McCreary County, Kentucky  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cane Branch and Helton Branch in McCreary County, Kentucky, are about 1.4 miles apart (fig. 1). Can Branch, which is about 2.1 miles long, emptied into Hughes Fork of Beaver Creek. Its watershed area of about 1.5 square miles lies largely in the Wiborf 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (SW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle), but the downstream part of the area extends northward into the Hail 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (NW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle). Helton Branch, which is about 1.1 miles long, has two tributaries and empties into Little Hurricane Fork of Beaver Creek. It drains an area of about 0.8 square mile of while about 0.5 square mile is in the Hail quadrangle and the remainder in the Wilborg quadrangle. The total relief in the Can Branch area is about 500 feet and in the Helton Branch area about 400 feet. Narrow, steep-sided to canyon-like valley and winding ridges, typical of the Pottsville escarpment region, are characteristic of both areas. Thick woods and dense undergrowth cover much of the two areas. Field mapping was done on U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2-minute maps having a scale of 1:24,000 and a contour interval of 20 feet. Elevations of lithologic contacts were determined with a barometer and a hand level. Aerial photographs were used principally to trace the cliffs formed by sandstone and conglomerate ledges. Exposures, except for those of the cliff- and ledge-forming sandstone and conglomerates, are not abundant. The most complete stratigraphic sections (secs. 3 and 4, fig. 2) in the two areas are exposed in cuts of newly completed Forest Service roads, but the rick in the upper parts of the exposures is weathered. To supplement these sections, additional sections were measured in cuts along the railroad and main highways in nor near the watersheds.

Lyons, Erwin J.

1957-01-01

338

Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture and captivity in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture have recently been shown for the first time in amphibians, and in the present study urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture and to confinement in captivity were measured in adult cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Queensland, Australia. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was used to provide a biological validation for urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Urinary corticosterone metabolite increased 1-2 days after ACTH but not saline injection and then returned to initial values, indicating that the RIA could detect changes in corticosterone secretion in toads. Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to short-term capture and restraint in plastic bags were first apparent 2h after capture of wild toads. Toads held communally in captivity for 5 days had elevated urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations. Mean corticosterone concentrations declined significantly after a further 7 days in individual housing chambers. There was no sex difference in urinary corticosterone metabolite responses of toads to ACTH challenge, short-term capture or captivity. The relative amount of variation in the mean corticosterone responses was quantified by calculating coefficients of variation (CV) for each mean corticosterone response. Mean corticosterone at 0 min was more variable for captive toads than wild toads. Furthermore, initial corticosterone concentrations (0 min) were more variable than concentrations during the ACTH challenge, short-term capture and captivity. There was little change in the amount of variation of mean corticosterone levels between male and female toads with increasing time in captivity (12-29 days). This study has shown individual corticosterone responses of amphibians for the first-time, and has provided a novel method for quantifying the relative amount of variation in amphibian corticosterone responses. PMID:21756910

Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

2011-09-01

339

Studies on the fortification of cane sugar with iron and ascorbic acid.  

PubMed

1. The feasibility of improving iron nutrition by fortifying cane sugar with Fe and ascorbic acid was studied. 2. It was found to be possible to add a number of Fe salts together with ascorbic acid to sugar without affecting its appearance or storage properties. 3. The absorption of Fe from fortified sugar eaten with maize-meal porridge or made into jam or biscuits was measured in ninety-four volunteer multiparous Indian women using the 59-Fe erythrocyte utlization method. 4. The absorption of Fe from sugar fortified with ascorbic acid and ferrous sulphate and eaten with maize-meal porridge was increased about twofold in the ratio, ascorbic acid:Fe was 10:1 by weight. If the ratio was increased to 20:2, Fe absorption was increased a further threefold. 5. Sugar fortified with soluble Fe salts, including FeSO4.7H2O, discoloured both tea and coffee; sugar fortified with ferric orthophosphate did not have this effect. 6. Fe from FePO4.H2O was poorly absorbed when added with sugar to maize-meal porridge, and also when added with adequate quantities of ascorbic acid. This form of Fe was absorbed much less well than was the intrinsic Fe present in the maize. 7. When sugar fortified with FePO4.H2O and ascorbic acid was added to maize-meal porridge before cooling or was made into jam there was a several-fold increase in the amount of Fe absorbed. PMID:1148151

Disler, P B; Lynch, S R; Charlton, R W; Bothwell, T H; Walker, R B; Mayet, F

1975-07-01

340

Two new species of Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina: Molineoidea) parasites of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Anura) from Peru.  

PubMed

Two new species of Oswaldocruzia, O. manuensis sp. nov., and O. urubambaensis sp. nov. are described and illustrated from Peru, these are parasites of the cane toad Rhinella marina. O. manuensis is characterized by having cervical alae which are not well developed, ridges without chitinous supports, caudal bursa type II and branches of fork of dissimilar length. O. urubambaensis is characterized by a caudal bursa of type I, ridges with chitinous supports, a thin cephalic vesicle and origin of rays 9 in tip of the dorsal trunk. PMID:23377910

Guerrero, Ricardo

2013-03-01

341

Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets.  

PubMed

We investigated the interactions of corn meal or molasses [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) supplements] with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) supplements] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay diets. Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 135±49d in milk and 386±61kg of body weight in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to 4 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period lasted 19d with 14d for diet adaptation and 5d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed diets composed of mixed-mostly grass hay plus 1 of the following 4 concentrate blends: (1) corn meal plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; (2) corn meal plus flaxseed meal; (3) liquid molasses plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; or (4) liquid molasses plus flaxseed meal. Data were analyzed for main effects of NSC and RDP supplements, and the NSC × RDP supplement interactions. Significant NSC × RDP supplement interactions were observed for milk urea N, milk N efficiency, and the sums of milk saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No effect of NSC supplements was observed for nutrient intake and milk yield. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (-0.70kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (-0.60kg/d) were significantly reduced in cows fed liquid molasses due to a trend to decreased concentration of milk fat (-0.17%). Diets with liquid molasses resulted in increased (+35%) concentration and yield of milk enterolactone, indicating that this mammalian lignan can be modulated by supplements with different NSC profiles. Overall, NSC and RDP supplements profoundly changed the milk fatty acid profile, likely because of differences in fatty acids intake, ?(9)-desaturase indices, and ruminal biohydrogenation pathways. Feeding liquid molasses significantly reduced plasma urea N (-1.2mg/dL), urinary N excretion (-20g/d), and N digestibility (-3.2 percentage units). Flaxseed meal significantly reduced yields of milk (-1.3kg/d), milk fat (-90g/d), and milk lactose (-60g/d), but significantly increased the concentration and yield of milk enterolactone. Further research is needed to elucidate the negative responses of flaxseed meal on yields of milk and milk components. PMID:25465544

Brito, A F; Petit, H V; Pereira, A B D; Soder, K J; Ross, S

2015-01-01

342

The early toad gets the worm: cane toads at an invasion front benefit from higher prey availability.  

PubMed

In biological invasions, rates of range expansion tend to accelerate through time. What kind of benefits to more rapidly dispersing organisms might impose natural selection for faster rates of dispersal, and hence the evolution of range-edge acceleration? We can answer that question by comparing fitness-relevant ecological traits of individuals at the invasion front compared with conspecifics in the same area a few years post-invasion. In tropical Australia, the rate of invasion by cane toads (Rhinella marina) has increased substantially over recent decades, due to shifts in heritable traits. Our data on field-collected cane toads at a recently invaded site in the Australian wet-dry tropics span a 5-year period beginning with toad arrival. Compared with conspecifics that we monitored in the same sites post-invasion, toads in the invasion vanguard exhibited higher feeding rates, larger energy stores, better body condition and faster growth. Three processes may have contributed to this pattern: (i) higher prey availability at the front (perhaps due to reduced competition from conspecifics); (ii) the lack of viability-reducing parasites and pathogens in invasion-front toads; and (iii) distinctive (active, fast-growing) phenotypes of the invasion-front toads. Nutritional benefits to individuals in the invasion vanguard (whether because of higher prey availability, or lower pathogen levels) thus may have conferred a selective advantage to accelerated dispersal in this system. PMID:23360501

Brown, Gregory P; Kelehear, Crystal; Shine, Richard

2013-07-01

343

Individual variation and repeatability in urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

Urinary corticosterone metabolite enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) can be used for the non-invasive assessment of baseline levels and corticosterone responses in amphibians. In this study, urinary corticosterone responses of wild male cane toads (Rhinella marina) to confinement and repeated handling were measured to quantify individual variation in corticosterone responses for the first time in an amphibian species. Urine samples were collected at 0 h in the wild, hourly from 2 to 8 h after transfer into captivity, and again at 12 and 24 h in captivity. Toads were then held in captivity and subjected to the same sampling protocol on three occasions at 14 days intervals to quantify variation in corticosterone metabolite responses within and between toads. Baseline and individual corticosterone metabolite responses in male cane toads were generally consistent, with high statistical repeatabilities for 0 h (r=0.630), 6 h (r=0.793), 12 h (r=0.652) and 24 h (r=0.721) corticosterone metabolite concentrations, and for the total and corrected integrated corticosterone responses (r=0.567, p=0.033; r=0.728, p=0.014 respectively). Urinary corticosterone responses appear to be a stable, repeatable trait within individuals. Corticosterone responses in amphibians can be more readily measured when urine rather than plasma samples are collected, and the protocol established in the current study can now be applied to the study of variation in corticosterone responses in other amphibians. PMID:22137908

Narayan, Edward J; Molinia, Frank C; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

2012-01-15

344

De novo sequencing of peptides from the parotid secretion of the cane toad, Bufo marinus (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

Amphibian skin secretions are well known as a rich source of bioactive peptides. However, little is known about the presence or role of peptides in the highly toxic, parotid secretion of the cane toad or giant toad, Bufo marinus (Rhinella marina), though small molecule bufadienolides, which act as potent cardiotoxins, have been described. In the current study we used RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry to analyze and determine the first sequences of peptides from the parotid secretion of B. marinus. We show that peptides in the range of 900-2500 Da are indeed present, however in extremely low abundance. Despite the low abundance, the sequences of 14 peptides were determined, several of which match fragments of larger cellular proteins, yet none share substantial homology with defensive or anti-microbial peptides reported from frog skin secretions. We conclude that peptides are present in the parotid glands of B. marinus only in very low quantities and that they are likely to be breakdown products of proteins involved in cell maintenance. Given these results, we conclude that peptides are unlikely to contribute directly to the high toxicity of the cane toad. PMID:21115026

Rash, Lachlan D; Morales, Rodrigo A V; Vink, Simone; Alewood, Paul F

2011-02-01

345

The straight and narrow path: the evolution of straight-line dispersal at a cane toad invasion front.  

PubMed

At the edge of a biological invasion, evolutionary processes (spatial sorting, natural selection) often drive increases in dispersal. Although numerous traits influence an individual's displacement (e.g. speed, stamina), one of the most important is path straightness. A straight (i.e. highly correlated) path strongly enhances overall dispersal rate relative to time and energetic cost. Thus, we predict that, if path straightness has a genetic basis, organisms in the invasion vanguard will exhibit straighter paths than those following behind. Our studies on invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia clearly support this prediction. Radio-tracking of field-collected toads at a single site showed that path straightness steadily decreased over the first 10 years post-invasion. Consistent with an evolved (genetic) basis to that behavioural shift, path straightness of toads reared under common garden conditions varied according to the location of their parents' origin. Offspring produced by toads from the invasion vanguard followed straighter paths than did those produced by parents from long-established populations. At the individual level, offspring exhibited similar path straightness to their parents. The dramatic acceleration of the cane toad invasion through tropical Australia has been driven, in part, by the evolution of a behavioural tendency towards dispersing in a straight line. PMID:25297862

Brown, Gregory P; Phillips, Benjamin L; Shine, Richard

2014-11-22

346

Simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in grape canes by HPLC-DAD-UV using wavelength switching detection.  

PubMed

The paper described a novel chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds such as gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric and salicylic acid, (+)-catechin, (?)-epicatechin, rutin, morin, quercetin, coumarin and trans-resveratrol at their maximum absorbance wavelengths (MAW) employing reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography combined with DAD and UV detection via detection wavelength switching. The method was based on MAW acquisition by DAD and quantification by UV. The separation process was performed on a Shim-Pack VP-ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) held at 30 °C, utilizing 3.0% acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in the gradient elution mode. The method was fully validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.9990, 10?350 mg/L), precision (both intra-day and inter-day RSD < 4.22%), accuracy (97.31%?104.66%), specificity, robustness (0.59% < RSD < 2.86%), limit of detection and quantification. The switching method significantly improved the sensitivities of most phenolics studied in comparison with the standard constant wavelength detection (280 nm). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of 14 phenolic compounds in 89 varieties of one-year-old Chinese grape one-year-canes. Grape canes contain many phenolics, especially trans-resveratrol, (?)-epicatechin, and (+)-catechin. PMID:24252994

Zhang, Ang; Wan, Li; Wu, Cuiyun; Fang, Yulin; Han, Guomin; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

2013-01-01

347

Hydrogen production from acid hydrolyzed molasses by the hydrogen overproducing Escherichia coli strain HD701 and subsequent use of the waste bacterial biomass for biosorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was devoted to investigate production of hydrogen gas from acid hydrolyzed molasses by Escherichia coli HD701 and to explore the possible use of the waste bacterial biomass in biosorption technology. In variable substrate concentration experiments (1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g L?1), the highest cumulative hydrogen gas (570 ml H2 L?1) and formation rate (19 ml H2 h?1 L?1) were obtained from

Fatthy Mohamed Morsy

2011-01-01

348

Efficacy of phosphorus enriched post-methanation bio-sludge from molasses based distillery as P source to rice and wheat crops grown in a Mollisol: I. Laboratory and greenhouse evaluation with 32P-labeled sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out with 32P labeled sources to compare the kinetics of desorption, chemical transformation and efficacy of P enriched post-methanation bio-sludges from molasses based distillery (PEMB 1 and PEMB 2) against single superphosphate (SSP), a conventional P fertilizer. Phosphorus enrichment of bio-sludge was done with either SSP (PEMB 1), or with an equimolar mixture of

Prakash C. Srivastava; Ajay P. Singh; Surendra Kumar; V. Ramachandran; Manoj Shrivastava; S. F. D'souza

2009-01-01

349

Desorption and transformation of zinc in a mollisol and its uptake by plants in a rice–wheat rotation fertilized with either zinc-enriched biosludge from molasses or with inorganic zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and greenhouse investigations were carried out with 65Zn-labeled sources to study the kinetics of desorption, transformation, and availability of Zn applied to soil as zinc-enriched\\u000a biosludge from distillery molasses (ZEMB) or as zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZSH). Desorption (0.5 to 72 h) of added Zn by the\\u000a column method followed a biphasic kinetics with an initial (up to 12 h) faster phase

Prakash C. Srivastava; Ajay P. Singh; Surendra Kumar; V. Ramachandran; Manoj Shrivastava; S. F. D’souza

2008-01-01

350

Nançay ``blind'' 21 CM line survey of the Canes Venatici group region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radio spectroscopic driftscan survey in the 21 cm line with the Nançay decimetric radio telescope of 0.08 steradians of sky in the direction of the constellation Canes Venatici covering a heliocentric velocity range of -350 < V_hel < 2350 km s(-1) produced 53 spectral features, which was further reduced to a sample of 33 reliably detected galaxies by extensive follow-up observations. With a typical noise level of rms = 10 mJy after Hanning smoothing, the survey is - depending on where the detections are located with regard to the centre of the beam - sensitive to M_HI = 1-2x10(8) {h}(-2) {M_sun} at 23 {h}(-1) Mpc and to M_HI = 4-8x10(7) {h}(-2) {M_sun} throughout the CVn groups. The survey region had been previously examined on deep optical plates by \\cite[Binggeli et al. (1990)]{bin90} and contains loose groups with many gas-rich galaxies as well as voids. No galaxies that had not been previously identified in these deep optical surveys were uncovered in our H{sigma c i} survey, neither in the groups nor the voids. The implication is that no substantial quantity of neutral hydrogen contained in gas-rich galaxies has been missed in these well-studied groups. All late-type members of our sample are listed in the \\cite[Fisher & Tully (1981b)]{fis81b} optically selected sample of nearby late-type galaxies; the only system not contained in Fisher and Tully's Catalog is the S0 galaxy NGC 4203. Within the well-sampled CVn group volume with distances corrected for flow motions, the H {sigma c i} mass function is best fitted with the \\cite[Zwaan et al. (1997)]{zwa97} H{sigma c i} mass function (alpha =-1.2) scaled by a factor of f=4.5 in account of the locally overdense region.

Kraan-Korteweg, R. C.; van Driel, W.; Briggs, F.; Binggeli, B.; Mostefaoui, T. I.

1999-03-01

351

Beware of Invasive Cane Toads: Huge Toad is a Dog and Koi Killer Doug Caldwell, Ph.D. U.F. Commercial Landscape Horticulture Extension, Collier County  

E-print Network

the skin, and are rapidly absorbed across the mucus membranes of the victim into the circulatory system and catch them in a net. Humanely euthanize any Cane Toad by spraying 20% benzocaine sunburn spray from a tadpole to a 6 to 9 inch long toad; this is just the body without the legs extended

Florida, University of

352

Effect of Different Pretreatment of Sugar Cane Bagasse on Cellulase and Xylanases Production by the Mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 Grown in Submerged Culture  

PubMed Central

The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147?U·mL?1) was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher ?-glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups. PMID:24967394

Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J. P.

2014-01-01

353

Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

354

Registration of Three High Fiber Sugar Cane Varieties, L 79-1002, HoCP 91-552 AND Ho 00-961, for Biofuels Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High fiber sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) varieties, or energy canes, have been shown to be a viable feedstock for biofuel applications. Three high fiber sugarcane varieties, L 79-1002, HoCP 91-552 and Ho 00-961, were released in April 2007 for commercial biofuel production. L 79-1002 averaged 2...

355

Study of sugarcane pieces as yeast supports for ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses using newly isolated yeast from toddy sap.  

PubMed

A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:22783132

Kishore Babu, Neerupudi; Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

2012-03-01

356

An organic acid-tolerant HAA1-overexpression mutant of an industrial bioethanol strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses.  

PubMed

Bacterial contamination is known as a major cause of the reduction in ethanol yield during bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acetate is an effective agent for the prevention of bacterial contamination, but it negatively affects the fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae. We have proposed that the combined use of organic acids including acetate and lactate and yeast strains tolerant to organic acids may be effective for the elimination of principally lactic acid bacterial (LAB) contamination. In a previous study employing laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, we showed that overexpression of the HAA1 gene, which encodes a transcriptional activator, could be a useful molecular breeding method for acetate-tolerant yeast strains. In the present study, we constructed a HAA1-overexpressing diploid strain (MATa/?, named ER HAA1-OP) derived from the industrial bioethanol strain Ethanol Red (ER). ER HAA1-OP showed tolerance not only to acetate but also to lactate, and this tolerance was dependent on the increased expression of HAA1 gene. The ethanol production ability of ER HAA1-OP was almost equivalent to that of the parent strain during the bioethanol production process from sugarcane molasses in the absence of acetate. The addition of acetate at 0.5% (w/v, pH 4.5) inhibited the fermentation ability of the parent strain, but such an inhibition was not observed in the ethanol production process using ER HAA1-OP. PMID:24373204

Inaba, Takuya; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Ogawa, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Shima, Jun

2013-01-01

357

A multi-purpose flow manifold for the spectrophotometric determination of sulphide, sulphite and ethanol involving gas diffusion: application to wine and molasses analysis.  

PubMed

A simple and rugged flow set up was designed for spectrophotometric determination of sulphide, sulphite and ethanol aiming at quality assessment of wines, control of industrial fermentation, and selection of yeast strain. The different assays involved gas diffusion through a Teflon planar membrane and were carried out after minor modifications in the manifold, namely reagent composition and total flow rate. Main figures of merit: linear analytical curves=0.50-6.0 mg L(-1)S(2-), 2.5-20.0 mg L(-1) SO3(-) and 5.0-25.0% (v/v) of ethanol; detection limits (3?)=0.035 mg L(-1)S(2-), 0.2 mg L(-1) SO3(-) and 0.18% (v/v) of ethanol; peak height r.s.d.=2.18% for 4.03 mg L(-1)S(2-) spiked molasses, 2.21% for a 9.82 mg L(-1) SO3(-) wine and 2.07% for a typical wine (12.53% v/v of ethanol), sampling rate=15, 57 and 29 h(-1), reagent consumptions=1.9 µmol of N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine, 1.68 µg of Malachite green and 0.68 mmol Cr(VI) per determination, respectively. PMID:23708632

Silva, Claudineia R; Gomes, Taciana F; Barros, Valdemir A F; Zagatto, Elias A G

2013-09-15

358

Changes in microbial community structure in two anaerobic systems to treat bagasse spraying wastewater with and without addition of molasses alcohol wastewater.  

PubMed

This study investigates the microbial community and structure in the internal circulation (IC) reactors that treat wastewater from bagasse spraying, with (reactor B) and without (reactor A) addition of molasses alcohol wastewater (MAW). The V3 regions in the 16S rRNA of bacteria were sequenced using illumina sequencing to characterize the microbial community structures. The results showed that there were approximately 34.8% more microorganisms were reduced, while the proportions of the three most predominant bacterial populations especially some sulfate-reducing bacteria increased in reactor B. The archaeal community composition was measured by PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis and sequencing some clones from the 16S rRNA gene library. The results showed that numerous, mostly uncharacterized, archaeal genera are present in reactors A and B; the genus Methanomethylovorans was only detected in the samples that received MAW. This study demonstrated the significant effect of MAW on microbial communities in the wastewater treatment bioreactor. PMID:23370216

Shen, Peihong; Zhang, Junya; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Chengjian; Tang, Xianlai; Li, Junfang; Zhang, Min; Wu, Bo

2013-03-01

359

Optimization of anaerobically digested distillery molasses spent wash decolorization using soil as inoculum in the absence of additional carbon and nitrogen source.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to achieve maximum decolorization of molasses spent wash (MSW) in absence of any additional carbon or nitrogen source using soil as inoculum. Soil samples were collected from the MSW disposal site. Colored soil samples exhibited higher pH, sugar and protein as compare to less colored samples. A decolorization of 69% was obtained using 10% (w/v) soil and 12.5% (v/v) MSW after 7 days incubation. Optimized parameters including days--6 days, pH--6, MSW--12.5% and soil concentration--40%, were obtained for maximum decolorization. A decolorization of 81% was achieved using 10% soil and 12.5% MSW after 18 days incubation in absence of any media supplement. Nearly 12% reduction in decolorization activity of the soil sample was observed over a period of 12 months when stored at 6 degrees C. It could be concluded that the decolorization of MSW might be achieved using soil as inoculum without addition of chemical amendments. PMID:16314089

Adikane, H V; Dange, M N; Selvakumari, K

2006-11-01

360

Study of Sugarcane Pieces as Yeast Supports for Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Juice and Molasses Using Newly Isolated Yeast from Toddy Sap  

PubMed Central

A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:22783132

Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

2012-01-01

361

Vitis vinifera canes, a new source of antifungal compounds against Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator, and Botrytis cinerea.  

PubMed

Methanolic and ethanolic crude extracts of Vitis vinifera canes exhibited significant antifungal activity against the three major fungal pathogens affecting grapevines, Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator and Botrytis cinerea. The active extracts were analyzed by LC-PDA-ESI-MS, and selected compounds were identified. Efficient targeted isolation using medium-pressure liquid chromatography afforded six pure constituents in one step. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and HRMS. Six identified compounds (ampelopsin A, hopeaphenol, trans-resveratrol, ampelopsin H, ?-viniferin, and E-vitisin B) presented antifungal activities against P. viticola. ?-Viniferin also exhibited a low antifungal activity against B. cinerea. None of the identified compounds inhibited the germination of E. necator. The potential to develop a novel natural fungicide against the three major fungal pathogens affecting V. vinifera from viticulture waste material is discussed. PMID:23730921

Schnee, Sylvain; Queiroz, Emerson F; Voinesco, Francine; Marcourt, Laurence; Dubuis, Pierre-Henri; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Gindro, Katia

2013-06-12

362

Morphological and molecular characterization of Ortleppascaris sp. larvae, parasites of the cane toad Rhinella marina from eastern Amazonia.  

PubMed

This study presents a new record for the occurrence of larval Ortleppascaris sp.(Sprent, 1978). The nematodes were collected from inside fibrous cysts found in the livers of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758), captured in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. This is the first record of Ortleppascaris sp. larvae in both Brazil and this amphibian host, increasing its distribution in South America as well as expanding the number of helminths known to infect this toad. The detailed description of Ortleppascaris sp. provides new taxonomic data for these larvae, as well as sequences of the internal transcribed spacers and small subunit DNA segments, and the cytochrome oxidase I gene, which will, in time, contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny of this group of parasites. PMID:22924910

e Silva, Jefferson P; Melo, Francisco T V; Silva, Luciana C N; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Santos, Jeannie N

2013-02-01

363

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

Not Available

1994-08-01

364

The Case Low-Dispersion Northern Sky Survey. XIV - A-F stars in a region in southern Canes Venatici  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positions, estimated magnitudes, and finding charts are provided for 387 A-F stars in an about 190 sq deg region in southern Canes Venatici. The area encompassed is between R.A. 12h00m and 14h10m and decl. +29 deg 00 arcmin and +38 deg 30 arcmin (1950), excluding the region R.A. 12h00m to 13h00m and decl. +29 deg to +34 deg, which was covered in a previous paper. The A-F stars, whose blue magnitudes are within the range 8 through 18 (median 14), were identified on low-dispersion objective-prism plates taken with Case Western Reserve University's Burrell Schmidt telescope at Kitt Peak.

MacConnell, D. J.; Stephenson, C. B.; Pesch, Peter

1993-06-01

365

An invasive species induces rapid adaptive change in a native predator: cane toads and black snakes in Australia  

PubMed Central

Rapid environmental change due to human activities has increased rates of extinction, but some species may be able to adapt rapidly enough to deal with such changes. Our studies of feeding behaviour and physiological resistance to toxins reveal surprisingly rapid adaptive responses in Australian black snakes (Pseudechis porphyriacus) following the invasion of a lethally toxic prey item, the cane toad (Bufo marinus). Snakes from toad-exposed localities showed increased resistance to toad toxin and a decreased preference for toads as prey. Separate laboratory experiments suggest that these changes are not attributable to learning (we were unable to teach naive snakes to avoid toxic prey) or to acquired resistance (repeated sub-lethal doses did not enhance resistance). These results strongly suggest that black snake behaviour and physiology have evolved in response to the presence of toads, and have done so rapidly. Toads were brought to Australia in 1935, so these evolved responses have occurred in fewer than 23 snake generations. PMID:16777750

Phillips, Ben L; Shine, Richard

2006-01-01

366

Acute thermal stressor increases glucocorticoid response but minimizes testosterone and locomotor performance in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

Climatic warming is a global problem and acute thermal stressor in particular could be considered as a major stressor for wildlife. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) have expanded their range into warmer regions of Australia and they provide a suitable model species to study the sub-lethal impacts of thermal stressor on the endocrine physiology of amphibians. Presently, there is no information to show that exposure to an acute thermal stressor could initiate a physiological stress (glucocorticoid) response and secondly, the possible effects on reproductive hormones and performance. Answering these questions is important for understanding the impacts of extreme temperature on amphibians. In this study, we experimented on cane toads from Queensland, Australia by acclimating them to mildly warm temperature (25°C) and then exposing to acute temperature treatments of 30°, 35° or 40°C (hypothetical acute thermal stressors). We measured acute changes in the stress hormone corticosterone and the reproductive hormone testosterone using standard capture and handling protocol and quantified the metabolites of both hormones non-invasively using urinary enzyme-immunoassays. Furthermore, we measured performance trait (i.e. righting response score) in the control acclimated and the three treatment groups. Corticosterone stress responses increased in all toads during exposure to an acute thermal stressor. Furthermore, exposure to a thermal stressor also decreased testosterone levels in all toads. The duration of the righting response (seconds) was longer for toads that were exposed to 40°C than to 30°, 35° or 25°C. The increased corticosterone stress response with increased intensity of the acute thermal stressor suggests that the toads perceived this treatment as a stressor. Furthermore, the results also highlight a potential trade-off with performance and reproductive hormones. Ultimately, exposure acute thermal stressors due to climatic variability could impact amphibians at multiple eco-physiological levels through impacts on endocrine physiology, performance and potentially fitness traits (e.g. reproductive output). PMID:24643017

Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

2014-01-01

367

Seasonal dynamics of the lungworm, Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala, in recently colonised cane toad (Rhinella marina) populations in tropical Australia.  

PubMed

The impact of parasites on host populations depend upon parasite prevalence and intensity. Understanding how infection dynamics change through time following a host population's initial exposure to the parasite is fundamental to host-parasite biology. We studied an invasive host (the cane toad, Rhinella marina) currently undergoing range expansion - a process through which this host's range is expanding faster than that of its lung parasites (the nematode, Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala), such that hosts at the expanding range edge remain parasite-free for several years. It was predicted that parasite intensity and prevalence would be affected by host characteristics (e.g., size, sex), environmental conditions (e.g., seasons, habitat type), and time since parasite arrival in the newly established invading host population. Over 2,400 cane toads were sampled at 10 sites in recently established toad populations in the highly seasonal monsoonal tropics of northern Australia. The sampling spanned 14 consecutive 3 month seasons commencing in the early stages of lungworm establishment in those toad populations. Both parasite prevalence and intensity increased with host body size but were unaffected by host sex. Prevalence and intensity were highest during drier times of year and in drier habitats (i.e., sites lacking permanent waterbodies). These changes in parasite prevalence may reflect a trend for saturated soil to reduce parasite survival during the free-living infective stage, and to allow anuran hosts to disperse widely (thus reducing the transfer of directly transmitted parasites between hosts). Conversely, dry conditions induce toads to aggregate in moist dry-season refugia where conditions may be more conducive to direct transmission of infective parasitic larvae between hosts. PMID:23747925

Pizzatto, Lígia; Kelehear, Crystal; Shine, Richard

2013-08-01

368

Acute Thermal Stressor Increases Glucocorticoid Response but Minimizes Testosterone and Locomotor Performance in the Cane Toad (Rhinella marina)  

PubMed Central

Climatic warming is a global problem and acute thermal stressor in particular could be considered as a major stressor for wildlife. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) have expanded their range into warmer regions of Australia and they provide a suitable model species to study the sub-lethal impacts of thermal stressor on the endocrine physiology of amphibians. Presently, there is no information to show that exposure to an acute thermal stressor could initiate a physiological stress (glucocorticoid) response and secondly, the possible effects on reproductive hormones and performance. Answering these questions is important for understanding the impacts of extreme temperature on amphibians. In this study, we experimented on cane toads from Queensland, Australia by acclimating them to mildly warm temperature (25°C) and then exposing to acute temperature treatments of 30°, 35° or 40°C (hypothetical acute thermal stressors). We measured acute changes in the stress hormone corticosterone and the reproductive hormone testosterone using standard capture and handling protocol and quantified the metabolites of both hormones non-invasively using urinary enzyme-immunoassays. Furthermore, we measured performance trait (i.e. righting response score) in the control acclimated and the three treatment groups. Corticosterone stress responses increased in all toads during exposure to an acute thermal stressor. Furthermore, exposure to a thermal stressor also decreased testosterone levels in all toads. The duration of the righting response (seconds) was longer for toads that were exposed to 40°C than to 30°, 35° or 25°C. The increased corticosterone stress response with increased intensity of the acute thermal stressor suggests that the toads perceived this treatment as a stressor. Furthermore, the results also highlight a potential trade-off with performance and reproductive hormones. Ultimately, exposure acute thermal stressors due to climatic variability could impact amphibians at multiple eco-physiological levels through impacts on endocrine physiology, performance and potentially fitness traits (e.g. reproductive output). PMID:24643017

Narayan, Edward J.; Hero, Jean-Marc

2014-01-01

369

Identification, syntheses, and characterization of the geometric isomers of 9,11-hexadecadienal from female pheromone glands of the sugar cane borer Diatraea saccharalis.  

PubMed

Chemical analysis of the pheromone glands of the sugar cane borer Diatraea saccharalis has shown the presence of the four geometric isomers of 9,11-hexadecadienal (1-4), in addition to hexadecanal and (Z)-hexadec-11-enal. We here report the syntheses and characterization of compounds 1-4. One starting material, 9-decen-1-ol, has been used to obtain all of them via divergent synthetic routes. PMID:12088437

Santangelo, Ellen M; Coracini, Myrian; Witzgall, Peter; Correa, Arlene G; Unelius, C Rikard

2002-06-01

370

Cellulase production by Penicillium funiculosum and its application in the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for second generation ethanol production by fed batch operation.  

PubMed

This study aimed to produce a cellulase blend and to evaluate its application in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for second generation ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse. The sugar cane bagasse was subjected to pretreatments (diluted acid and alkaline), as for disorganizing the ligocellulosic complex, and making the cellulose component more amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. The residual solid fraction was named sugar cane bagasse partially delignified cellulignin (PDC), and was used for enzyme production and ethanol fermentation. The enzyme production was performed in a bioreactor with two inoculum concentrations (5 and 10% v/v). The fermentation inoculated with higher inoculum size reduced the time for maximum enzyme production (from 72 to 48). The enzyme extract was concentrated using tangential ultrafiltration in hollow fiber membranes, and the produced cellulase blend was evaluated for its stability at 37 °C, operation temperature of the simultaneous SSF process, and at 50 °C, optimum temperature of cellulase blend activity. The cellulolytic preparation was stable for at least 300 h at both 37 °C and 50 °C. The ethanol production was carried out by PDC fed-batch SSF process, using the onsite cellulase blend. The feeding strategy circumvented the classic problems of diffusion limitations by diminishing the presence of a high solid:liquid ratio at any time, resulting in high ethanol concentration at the end of the process (100 g/L), which corresponded to a fermentation efficiency of 78% of the maximum obtainable theoretically. The experimental results led to the ratio of 380 L of ethanol per ton of sugar cane bagasse PDC. PMID:23123260

Maeda, Roberto Nobuyuki; Barcelos, Carolina Araújo; Santa Anna, Lídia Maria Melo; Pereira, Nei

2013-01-10

371

An approach to the utilisation of CO2 as impregnating agent in steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves for ethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min) and temperature (190 to 220°C). The pretreatment was assessed in terms of glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitor formation (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) in the pretreatment. Results from pretreatment using SO2 as impregnating agent was used as reference. Results For sugar cane bagasse, the highest glucose yield (86.6% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 205°C for 15 min. For sugar cane leaves the highest glucose yield (97.2% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 220°C for 5 min. The reference pretreatment, using impregnation with SO2 and performed at 190°C for 5 min, resulted in an overall glucose yield of 79.7% and 91.9% for bagasse and leaves, respectively. Conclusions Comparable pretreatment performance was obtained with CO2 as compared to when SO2 is used, although higher temperature and pressure were needed. The results are encouraging as some characteristics of CO2 are very attractive, such as high availability, low cost, low toxicity, low corrosivity and low occupational risk. PMID:20384996

2010-01-01

372

E-CANES: A Research Network dedicated to Electromagnetic Coupling of the Atmosphere With Near-Earth Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient luminous events in the stratosphere and mesosphere, the sprites, elves, blue jets and gigantic jets, are observed above intense thunderstorms in association with particularly intense lightning discharges. Their recent discovery (1989) offers an opportunity to study the fundamental process of the electric discharge under the different conditions of the troposphere (lightning), stratosphere (blue jets) and the mesosphere (sprites) and the coupling between these regions by electric and magnetic fields. It further facilitates studies of the more general questions of thunderstorm effects on the atmosphere and the role of thunderstorms in a changing climate. New space missions will be launched in the coming years to study the various effects of thunderstorms. They will focus on transient luminous events, the generation of relativistic electron beams in discharges, and the perturbation to the atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere of lightning, transient luminous events, water vapour transport and gravity waves. The missions are the French micro-satellite TARANIS, the ESA ASIM payload on board the International Space Station and the Japanese Sprite Sat mission. These highly interdisciplinary missions will result in a wealth of new data, which require knowledge based capacity building to underpin the observations with improved statistical data analysis and theoretical modelling. We are therefore establishing a global framework for research on thunderstorm processes and their effect on the atmosphere, in particular (1) the fundamental process of the electric discharge as manifested in the stratosphere and mesosphere as sprites and jets, (2) the relationship between cosmic rays, lightning discharges, transient luminous events and terrestrial gamma ray flashes, and (3) the environmental impact of the above physical processes, and thunderstorms in general, on the atmosphere and near-Earth space. The first step has been the creation of the European research group (GDRE) dubbed E-CANES (Electromagnetic Coupling of the Atmosphere with the Near-Earth Space). It complements in a synergistic way the former EU Research Training Network 'Coupling of Atmospheric Layers', the existing COST action on 'The physics of lightning flash and its effects', the ASIM Topical Team, and other programs. The main objective of E-CANES is to initiate and promote coordination activities towards a global research community on the subject. The first actions include the establishment of an organization for coordinating ground, balloon and aircraft observation campaigns, the creation of a community-wide mailing list and website, and the promotion and coordination of joint activities with other structures - to include new communities and to avoid the duplication of meetings and workshops.

Hanuise, C.; Blanc, E.; Crosby, N.; Ebert, U.; Mareev, E.; Neubert, T.; Rothkaehl, H.; Santolik, O.; Yair, Y.; Gille, P.

2008-12-01

373

7 CFR 1435.3 - Maintenance of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM General Provisions § 1435.3 Maintenance of records. (a) Each sugar beet processor, sugarcane processor, importer of sugars, syrups and molasses, and cane...

2012-01-01

374

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages--The Facts Whatisasugar-sweetenedbeverage?  

E-print Network

of these words on the list of ingredients:sugar,high-fructose corn syrup, brown sugar,corn sweetener,corn syrup,dextrose,fruit juice concentrates,glucose,honey,invert sugar, molasses,sucrose,syrup or cane sugar

Rosen, Jay

375

21 CFR 573.920 - Selenium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) cultivated in a fed-batch fermentation which provides incremental amounts of cane molasses and selenium...selenium salts on the growth rate of the yeast and allows for optimal incorporation of inorganic selenium into cellular...

2010-04-01

376

40 CFR 180.628 - Chlorantraniliprole; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Strawberry 1.0 Sugar apple 4.0 Sugarcane, cane 14 Sugarcane, molasses 420 Tallowwood, seed 0.3 Tea oil plant, seed 0.3 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.25 Vegetable, foliage of legume, except soybean,...

2011-07-01

377

Liver histopathology in the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae), induced by Ortleppascaris sp. larvae (Nematoda: Ascarididae).  

PubMed

Exposure to parasites is considered to be an important factor in the development of many diseases and histopathologies which are the result of the parasite-host interaction. The present study evaluated the impact of natural infection by larvae of Ortleppascaris sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) in the liver of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758). Larvae were encysted in nodules delimited by collagenous fibers and fibroblasts or freely within the hepatic parenchyma, provoking a clear response from the host. The histological examination of the liver revealed viable larvae in a number of different developmental stages, as well as cysts filled with amorphous material and cell residues and surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. The infection of the liver by these larvae induces a significant increase in the area occupied by melanomacrophages and a reduction or deficit in the vascularization of the liver, hypertrophy of the hepatocytes, vacuolar bodies, and cytoplasmatic granules. Focal concentrations of inflammatory infiltrates were observed enclosing the unencapsulated early-stage larvae. These results indicate that infection by Ortleppascaris sp. induces severe physiological problems and histopathological lesions in the liver of R. marina . PMID:22989059

Silva, Jefferson P E; da Silva, Djane C B; Melo, Francisco T V; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Santos, Jeannie N

2013-04-01

378

Kitasatospora sampliensis sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from soil of a sugar-cane field in India.  

PubMed

Polyphasic characterization of an actinomycete strain VT-36(T) isolated from a sugar-cane field soil sample collected in Punjab State, India, revealed that the strain belongs to the genus Kitasatospora. The strain's chemotaxonomic characters and G+C content of DNA (76.5 mol%) were typical of members of the genus. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence supported the generic affiliation of the strain and showed that its closest phylogenetic relative was Kitasatospora putterlickiae F18-98T (= DSM 44665T) (98.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The similarities with type strains of all other Kitasatospora species were in the range 95.1-97.0 %. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization showed 54 % relatedness of the isolate and K. putterlickiae F18-98T. Based on the above data and the phenotypic differences from K. putterlickiae and other Kitasatospora species, it is proposed that the isolate should be classified as the type strain of a novel species, Kitasatospora sampliensis sp. nov., with strain VT-36T (= MTCC 6546T = DSM 44898T = JCM 13010T) as the type strain. PMID:16514020

Mayilraj, S; Krishnamurthi, S; Saha, P; Saini, H S

2006-03-01

379

Interactive effects of molasses by homofermentative and heterofermentative inoculants on fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation, nutritive value and aerobic stability of wilted alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) silage.  

PubMed

The effect of adding molasses (0, UM or 50 g/kg on DM basis, M) and two types of inoculant including homofermentative (HO) and a combination of homofermentative and propionate-producing bacterial (HOPAB) inoculants on silage fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation and aerobic stability of pre-bloom, wilted alfalfa (AS) was determined in laboratory silos. The HOPAB inoculant was more effective than HO in reducing the alfalfa silage pH but increased propionate content in the absence of M (p < 0.05). Inoculation of HOPAB reduced (p < 0.01) acid detergent fibre (ADF) and increased (p < 0.01) lactate to acetate ratio compared with uninoculated AS. Acetate concentration was lower (p < 0.01) in HOPAB-inoculated than other AS. This difference was more pronounced in M-added AS (inoculants × M interaction, p = 0.01). Both inoculants reduced (p < 0.01) ammonia-N content in AS added with M, whereas only HOPAB decreased (p < 0.01) ammonia-N concentration in silage without M. Inoculants increased (p < 0.01) B2 fraction in AS with M addition but had no effect on AS without M. Treating silages with HO-UM increased (p < 0.05) C fraction (acid-detergent insoluble-N) but HOPAB decreased C fraction at two levels of M. Treating alfalfa crop with M and HOPAB improved aerobic stability by increasing the concentration of acetate and propionate of AS respectively. Adding M tended (p < 0.10) to increase short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cumulative gas production (CGP). HOPAB alone increased DM disappearance at 24 h post-incubation and effective degradability assuming outflow rate of 8%/h relative to untreated AS (p < 0.05). It was concluded that adding M had no pronounced effects on AS fermentation quality, but increased aerobic stability. HOPAB-inoculated AS with no addition of M improved fermentation quality and increased DM degradability compared with HO. PMID:23692608

Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Taghizadeh, A; Kargar, S; Yang, W Z

2014-04-01

380

Nonlinear forcing singular vector -type tendency errors of the Zebiak-Cane model and its effect on ENSO predictability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the Zebiak-Cane model, the nonlinear forcing singular vector (NFSV) approach is used to explore the constant tendency error that has the largest effect on prediction uncertainties for El Niño events. The results showed only one NFSV to exist for each of the predictions for the predetermined model El Niño events. It was found that the NFSVs often present large-scale zonal dipolar structures and are insensitive to the intensities of El Niño events, but are dependent on the prediction period. In particular, the NFSVs associated with the predictions crossing through the growth phase of El Niño tend to exhibit a zonal dipolar pattern with positive anomalies in the equatorial central-western Pacific and negative anomalies in the equatorial eastern Pacific (denoted as "type-1 NFSVs"). Meanwhile, those associated with the predictions through the decaying phase of El Niño are inclined to present another zonal dipolar pattern (denoted as "type-2 NFSVs"), which is almost opposite to the type-1 NFSVs. The FSVs, i.e. the linear counterpart of the NFSVs, can also be classified into two types, which are of almost the same signs as in type-1 NFSVs and type-2 NFSVs, and which we similarly denoted as "type-1 FSVs" and "type-2 FSVs", respectively. We found that both type-1 FSVs and type-1 NFSVs often cause negative prediction errors for Niño-3 SSTA of the El Niño events, while the type-2 FSVs and type-2 NFSVs usually yield positive prediction errors. However, due to the effect of nonlinearities, the NFSVs usually have the western pole of the zonal dipolar pattern much farther west, and covering much broader region. Correspondingly, the NFSVs cause much larger prediction errors than the FSVs and show themselves to be much more applicable in describing the optimal tendency errors in the nonlinear Zebiak-Cane model. Our results also show that the nonlinearities have a suppression effect on the growth of the prediction errors caused by the FSVs. Furthermore, the particular structure of the NFSVs tends to reduce the suppression effect of nonlinearities on prediction errors for Niño-3 SSTA of El Niño events. It is clear that the effect of nonlinearities on ENSO predictability is significant and cannot be neglected. The NFSV-type tendency errors, compared to the FSV-type tendency errors, is much potential for revealing the effect of nonlinearity. The NFSV-type tendency errors may also provide information concerning the sensitive areas in which the model errors, compared to those in other areas, are much more likely to yield large prediction errors for El Niño events. Therefore, if we improve the ability of the model simulating the states in the sensitive areas, the ENSO forecast skill may in turn be greatly improved.

Duan, Wansuo; Zhao, Peng

2014-05-01

381

Inverse urinary corticosterone and testosterone metabolite responses to different durations of restraint in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

Non-invasive measurement of urinary corticosterone and testosterone metabolites in amphibians provides opportunities for endocrine studies of responses to physiological and psychological stressors. Typically, corticosterone metabolite concentrations increase in frog urine within 1-2h of a mild capture and handling stress protocol. However, no study has investigated the effect of duration of manual restraint on the changes in corticosterone and reproductive hormones in amphibians. We quantified urinary corticosterone and testosterone metabolite responses for 8h following various durations of manual restraint (control, 5, 15 or 30min) in adult male cane toads (Rhinella marina) under controlled laboratory conditions. All toads had a corticosterone stress response over 8h to our standard capture and handling stressor. The mean corticosterone stress response was significantly higher after 15 or 30min restraint in comparison to the control (no restraint) or to 5min restraint. Manual restraint for 5, 15 or 30min caused a significant reduction in urinary testosterone concentrations over 8h. We also provide a novel method of quantifying plasticity in corticosterone stress responses in amphibians with respect to restraint duration using the concept of a "reaction norm". The reaction norm, which was calculated as slope of the regression line of integrated corticosterone response against restraint duration, was 9.69 (pg corticosterone/?g creatinineh)/min for male toads. In summary, corticosterone and testosterone responses to restraint are affected by restraint duration in male toads. Glucocorticoid reaction norms can be applied to study the change in physiological stress hormonal response with respect to restraint duration in other amphibian species. PMID:23036735

Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc; Cockrem, John F

2012-12-01

382

Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) Using differente polyclonal antibodies  

PubMed Central

The species Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN) Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 105 cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques. PMID:24031435

da Silva-Froufe, Lúcia Gracinda; Boddey, Robert Michael; Reis, Veronica Massena

2009-01-01

383

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

NONE

1996-03-01

384

Host-parasite relationships during a biologic invasion: 75 years postinvasion, cane toads and sympatric Australian frogs retain separate lungworm faunas.  

PubMed

Invasive species may carry with them parasites from their native range, differing from parasite taxa found in the invaded range. Host switching by parasites (either from the invader to native fauna or from native fauna to the invader) may have important consequences for the viability of either type of host (e.g., their survivorship, fecundity, dispersal ability, or geographic distribution). Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala (Nematoda) is a common parasite of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in the toad's native range (South and Central America) and also in its introduced Australian range. This lungworm can depress host viability and is capable of infecting Australian frogs in laboratory trials. Despite syntopy between toads and frogs for up to 75 yr, our analyses, based on DNA sequence data of lungworms from 80 frogs and 56 toads, collected from 2008 to 2011, did not reveal any cases of host switching in nature: toads and native frogs retain entirely different lungworm faunas. All lungworms in cane toads were the South and Central American species Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala, whereas Australian frogs contained at least four taxa (mostly undescribed and currently lumped under the name Rhabdias cf. hylae). General patterns of prevalence and intensity, based on the dissection of 1,315 frogs collected between 1989 and 2011 across the toads' Australian range, show that these Australian endemic Rhabdias spp. are widely distributed geographically and across host taxa but are more common in some frog species (especially, large-bodied species) than they are in others. PMID:23060496

Pizzatto, Lígia; Kelehear, Crystal; Dubey, Sylvain; Barton, Diane; Shine, Richard

2012-10-01

385

Size and sex matter: infection dynamics of an invading parasite (the pentastome Raillietiella frenatus) in an invading host (the cane toad Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

Correlations between host phenotype and vulnerability to parasites can clarify the processes that enhance rates of parasitism, and the effects of parasites on their hosts. We studied an invasive parasite (the pentastome Raillietiella frenatus, subclass Pentastomida, order Cephalobaenida) infecting a new host (the invasive cane toad Rhinella marina), in tropical Australia. We dissected toads over a 27-month period to investigate seasonal changes in pentastome population dynamics and establish which aspects of host phenotype are related to infection. Pentastome prevalence and intensity varied seasonally; male toads were 4 times more likely to be infected than were females; and prevalence was highest in hosts of intermediate body size. The strong sex effect may reflect habitat or dietary divergence between the sexes, resulting in males encountering parasites more often. The relationship between pentastome prevalence and host size likely reflects a role for acquired immunity in preventing re-infection. Infection did not influence host body condition (fatbody size), suggesting that R. frenatus does not impose high energy costs in cane toads. Infected toads had heavier spleens (likely an immune response to infection) and larger testes (perhaps since reproductively active hosts have altered microhabitat use and/or immunocompetence) than did uninfected conspecifics. Although experimental studies are required to identify the causal bases of such patterns, our data confirm that infection status within a population can be strongly linked to host phenotypic traits. PMID:22814124

Kelehear, Crystal; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

2012-10-01

386

Quantifying anuran microhabitat use to infer the potential for parasite transmission between invasive cane toads and two species of Australian native frogs.  

PubMed

Parasites that are carried by invasive species can infect native taxa, with devastating consequences. In Australia, invading cane toads (Rhinella marina) carry lungworm parasites (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) that (based on previous laboratory studies) can infect native treefrogs (Litoria caerulea and L. splendida). To assess the potential of parasite transmission from the invader to the native species (and from one infected native frog to another), we used surveys and radiotelemetry to quantify anuran microhabitat use, and proximity to other anurans, in two sites in tropical Australia. Unsurprisingly, treefrogs spent much of their time off the ground (especially by day, and in undisturbed forests) but terrestrial activity was common at night (especially in anthropogenically modified habitats). Microhabitat overlap between cane toads and frogs was generally low, except at night in disturbed areas, whereas overlap between the two frog species was high. The situations of highest overlap, and hence with the greatest danger of parasite transmission, involve aggregations of frogs within crevices by day, and use of open ground by all three anuran species at night. Overall, microhabitat divergence between toads and frogs should reduce, but not eliminate, the transmission of lungworms from invasive toads to vulnerable native frogs. PMID:25188421

Pizzatto, Lígia; Both, Camila; Shine, Richard

2014-01-01

387

Quantifying Anuran Microhabitat Use to Infer the Potential for Parasite Transmission between Invasive Cane Toads and Two Species of Australian Native Frogs  

PubMed Central

Parasites that are carried by invasive species can infect native taxa, with devastating consequences. In Australia, invading cane toads (Rhinella marina) carry lungworm parasites (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) that (based on previous laboratory studies) can infect native treefrogs (Litoria caerulea and L. splendida). To assess the potential of parasite transmission from the invader to the native species (and from one infected native frog to another), we used surveys and radiotelemetry to quantify anuran microhabitat use, and proximity to other anurans, in two sites in tropical Australia. Unsurprisingly, treefrogs spent much of their time off the ground (especially by day, and in undisturbed forests) but terrestrial activity was common at night (especially in anthropogenically modified habitats). Microhabitat overlap between cane toads and frogs was generally low, except at night in disturbed areas, whereas overlap between the two frog species was high. The situations of highest overlap, and hence with the greatest danger of parasite transmission, involve aggregations of frogs within crevices by day, and use of open ground by all three anuran species at night. Overall, microhabitat divergence between toads and frogs should reduce, but not eliminate, the transmission of lungworms from invasive toads to vulnerable native frogs. PMID:25188421

Pizzatto, Lígia; Both, Camila; Shine, Richard

2014-01-01

388

Direct Zinc Determination in Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit by Solid-Phase Extraction Using Moringa oleifera Husks in a Flow System with Detection by FAAS  

PubMed Central

This paper reports a method for the determination of zinc in Brazilian sugar cane spirit, (cachaça in Portuguese), using solid-phase extraction with a flow injection analysis system and detection by FAAS. The sorbent material used was activated carbon obtained from Moringa oleifera husks. Flow and chemical variables of the proposed system were optimized through multivariate designs. The factors selected were sorbent mass, sample pH, sample flow rate, and eluent concentration. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 4.0, a sample flow rate of 6.0?mL?min?1, 30.0?mg of sorbent mass, and 1.0?mol?L?1 HNO3 as the eluent at a flow rate of 4.0?mL?min?1. The limit of detection for zinc was 1.9??g?L?1, and the precision was below 0.82% (20.0??g?L?1, n = 7). The analytical curve was linear from 2 to 50??g?L?1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The method developed was successfully applied to spiked Brazilian sugar cane spirit, and accuracy was assessed through recovery tests, with results ranging from 83% to 100%. PMID:21785595

Alves, Vanessa N.; Borges, Simone S. O.; Coelho, Nivia M. M.

2011-01-01

389

Purification and characterization of three beta-glycosidases from midgut of the sugar cane borer, Diatraea saccharalis.  

PubMed

Three beta-glycosidases, named betaGly1, betaGly2 and betaGly3, were isolated from midgut tissues of the sugar cane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The three enzymes have similar Mr (58,000; 61,000; 61,000), pI (7.5, 7.4, and 7.4) and optimum pH (6.7, 6.3, and 7.2) and were resolved by hydrophobic chromatography. The beta-glycosidases prefer beta-glucosides to beta-galactosides, have four subsites for glucose binding and hydrolyse glucose-glucose beta-1,3 linkages better than beta-1, 4- or beta-1,6 linkages. betaGly1 and 2 were completely purified, whereas betaGly3 was isolated with a contaminant peptide that has no activity upon beta-glycosides. By using competing substrates, it was shown that betaGly 1 and 3 have one active site, whereas betaGly2 has two, one hydrolyzing natural and the other synthetic substrates. betaGly2 is the only D. saccharalis beta-glycosidase that can efficiently hydrolyse prunasin, the glycoside remaining after glucose removal from the plant glycoside amygdalin and that liberates the cyanogenic mandelonitrile. As shown elsewhere, betaGly2 activity is reduced when D. saccharalis is reared in amygdalin containing diets. From the results, we propose that the physiological role of betaGly 1 and 3 is the digestion of oligo- and disaccharides derived from hemicelluloses and of betaGly2 is glycolipid hydrolysis. Free energy relationships showed that D. saccharalis betaGly3 and Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) betaGly1 have active sites that bind similarly the transition states formed with different substrates. The same is also true for the active sites of D. saccharalis betaGly1 and T. molitor betaGly2. This suggests that active sites of similar enzymes are probably homologous, displaying nearly identical bonds between active site amino acids and substrate moieties. PMID:12459203

Azevedo, Tamara R; Terra, Walter R; Ferreira, Clélia

2003-01-01

390

High-temperature ethanol fermentation by immobilized coculture of Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Suspended and immobilized cocultures of the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU 3-1042 and the mesophilic flocculent yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae M30 were studied for their abilities to improve production and stability of ethanol fermentation. Sugarcane juice and blackstrap molasses, at initial sugar concentrations of 220 g/L, were used as carbon sources. The results indicated that the coculture system could improve ethanol production from both sugarcane juice and blackstrap molasses when the operating temperature ranged between 33 °C and 45 °C. High temperature tolerances were achieved when the coculture was immobilized. The immobilized coculture was more effective in high-temperature ethanol fermentation than the suspended cultures. The coculture immobilized on thin-shell silk cocoon and fermented at 37 °C and 40 °C generated maximal ethanol concentrations of 81.4 and 77.3 g/L, respectively, which were 5.9-8.7% and 16.8-39.0% higher than those of the suspended cultures, respectively. PMID:22608995

Eiadpum, Akekasit; Limtong, Savitree; Phisalaphong, Muenduen

2012-09-01

391

"Cane" and Its Discontents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how the issue of race is enmeshed in a complex web of social relations that also include love, sex, gender, economics, and violence. Suggests how a consideration of modernist primitivism and Sigmund Freud's ideas on the individual's relationship to society can provide frameworks for further analysis of two of the stories in Jean Toomer's…

Dyck, Reginald

2000-01-01

392

Chronic hypoxia and chronic hypercapnia differentially regulate an NMDA-sensitive component of the acute hypercapnic ventilatory response in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

This study addressed the hypotheses that exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH) and chronic hypercapnia (CHC) would modify the acute hypercapnic ventilatory response in the cane toad (Rhinella marina; formerly Bufo marinus or Chaunus marinus) and its regulation by NMDA-mediated processes. Cane toads were exposed to 10 days of CH (10% O(2)) or CHC (3.5% CO(2)) followed by acute in vivo hypercapnic breathing trials, conducted before and after an injection of the NMDA-receptor channel blocker, MK801 into the dorsal lymph sac. CH, CHC and MK801 did not alter ventilation under acute normoxic normocapnic conditions. CH blunted the increase in breathing frequency during acute hypercapnia while CHC had no effect. The effect of CH on breathing frequency was mediated by a decrease in the number of breaths per breathing episode. Neither CH nor CHC altered breath area (volume). MK801 augmented breathing frequency (via an increase in breaths per episode) and total ventilation during acute hypercapnia in control toads and toads exposed to CH; there was no effect of MK801 on the increase in breathing frequency or total ventilation, during acute hypercapnia in toads exposed to CHC. The results indicate that CH and CHC differentially alter breathing pattern. Furthermore, they indicate an absence of NMDA-mediated glutamatergic tone during normoxic normocapnia but that NMDA-mediated processes attenuate the increase in breathing frequency during acute hypercapnia under control conditions and following CH but not following CHC. Given that MK801 was administered systemically, the effects could be acting anywhere in the reflex pathway from CO(2)-sensing to respiratory motor output. PMID:21359567

McAneney, Jessica; Gheshmy, Afshan; Manga, Jasmin; Reid, Stephen G

2011-08-01

393

Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo

2011-11-01

394

Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input parameters on a continental scale across the large regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Ten parameters driving most of the uncertainty in the ORCHIDEE-STICS modeled biomass at the 7 sites are identified by the screening procedure. We found that the 10 most sensitive parameters control phenology (maximum rate of increase of LAI) and root uptake of water and nitrogen (root profile and root growth rate, nitrogen stress threshold) in STICS, and photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients) in ORCHIDEE. We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in harvested biomass simulations at site scale. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and modeled biomass at harvest is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting climate-mediated different sensitivities of modeled sugar cane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil. This study reveals the spatial and temporal patterns of uncertainty variability for a highly parameterized agro-LSM and calls for more systematic uncertainty analyses of such models.

Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

2014-01-01

395

Changes in serum and urinary corticosterone and testosterone during short-term capture and handling in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

Non-invasive endocrine monitoring with minimally invasive biological samples, such as urine, is being used widely for conservation biology research on amphibians. Currently, it is unknown how closely urinary measurements correspond with the traditional serum hormone measurements. We compared urinary and serum concentrations of corticosterone (CORT) and testosterone (T) in adult male cane toads (Rhinella marina) using a standard capture and handling (short-term stressor) protocol. Free-living male cane toads were captured and sampled for baseline urine (0h) with a second urine sample taken at 0.5h and hourly between 1 and 8h. A single blood sample was collected from each toad after the final urine sampling and capture handling. The mean serum CORT concentration increased between 0 and 0.5h, reaching the highest level between 6 and 8h. The mean urinary CORT concentration increased with a lag-time of 1h and continued to increase up to 8h. The mean level of serum T decreased between 0 and 7h and increased between 7 and 8h. Mean urinary T concentration decreased with a lag-time of 0.5h. Urinary T levels did not change between 4 and 8h. Mean serum T levels reached 50% of the original 0h value at 1h while mean serum CORT levels reached 200% of the original 0h value within 0.5h. Mean urinary T levels reached 50% of the original 0h value within 3h while mean urinary CORT levels reached 200% of the original 0h value within 3h. The inter-individual variation in baseline serum and urinary CORT and T levels were highly comparable, suggesting that baseline urine sample provides a reliable indicator of the physiological status of the animal. Overall, the results have demonstrated that urine sampling and standard capture handling protocol provide reliable measures of baseline corticosterone and testosterone, as well as short-term stress hormone responses in amphibians. PMID:23851041

Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John; Hero, Jean-Marc

2013-09-15

396

Revealing the most disturbing tendency error of Zebiak-Cane model associated with El Niño predictions by nonlinear forcing singular vector approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear forcing singular vector (NFSV) approach is used to identify the most disturbing tendency error of the Zebiak-Cane model associated with El Niño predictions, which is most potential for yielding aggressively large prediction errors of El Niño events. The results show that only one NFSV exists for each of the predictions for the predetermined model El Niño events. These NFSVs cause the largest prediction error for the corresponding El Niño event in perfect initial condition scenario. It is found that the NFSVs often present large-scale zonal dipolar structures and are insensitive to the intensities of El Niño events, but are dependent on the prediction periods. In particular, the NFSVs associated with the predictions crossing through the growth phase of El Niño tend to exhibit a zonal dipolar pattern with positive anomalies in the equatorial central-western Pacific and negative anomalies in the equatorial eastern Pacific (denoted as "NFSV1"). Meanwhile, those associated with the predictions through the decaying phase of El Niño are inclined to present another zonal dipolar pattern (denoted as "NFSV2"), which is almost opposite to the NFSV1. Similarly, the linear forcing singular vectors (FSVs), which are computed based on the tangent linear model, can also be classified into two types "FSV1" and "FSV2". We find that both FSV1 and NFSV1 often cause negative prediction errors for Niño-3 SSTA of the El Niño events, while the FSV2 and NFSV2 usually yield positive prediction errors. However, due to the effect of nonlinearities, the NFSVs usually have the western pole of the zonal dipolar pattern much farther west, and covering much broader region. The nonlinearities have a suppression effect on the growth of the prediction errors caused by the FSVs and the particular structure of the NFSVs tends to reduce such suppression effect of nonlinearities, finally making the NFSV-type tendency error yield much large prediction error for Niño-3 SSTA of El Niño events. The NFSVs, compared to the FSVs, are more applicable in describing the most disturbing tendency error of the Zebiak-Cane model since they consider the effect of nonlinearities. The NFSV-type tendency errors may provide information concerning the sensitive areas where the model errors are much more likely to yield large prediction errors for El Niño events. If the simulation skills of the states in the sensitive areas can be improved, the ENSO forecast skill may in turn be greatly increased.

Duan, Wansuo; Zhao, Peng

2014-10-01

397

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains obtained from sugar-cane juice fermentations and their impact in cachaça production.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were isolated and characterized aiming at the selection of starter yeasts to be used in the production of cachaça, the Brazilian sugar cane spirit. The methodology established took into account the screening for biochemical traits desirable in a yeast cachaça producer, such as no H2S production, high tolerance to ethanol and high temperatures, high fermentative capacity, and the abilities to flocculate and to produce mycocins. Furthermore, the yeasts were exposed to drugs such as 5,5',5"-trifluor-D,L-leucine and cerulenin to isolate those that potentially overproduce higher alcohols and esters. The utilization of a random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR method with primers based on intron splicing sites flanking regions of the COX1 gene, as well as microsatellite analysis, was not sufficient to achieve good differentiation among selected strains. In contrast, karyotype analysis allowed a clear distinction among all strains. Two selected strains were experimentally evaluated as cachaça producers. The results suggest that the selection of strains as fermentation starters requires the combined use of biochemical and molecular criteria to ensure the isolation and identification of strains with potential characteristics to produce cachaça with a higher quality standard. PMID:18065624

Oliveira, Valdinéia Aparecida; Vicente, Maristela Araújo; Fietto, Luciano Gomes; Castro, Ieso de Miranda; Coutrim, Maurício Xavier; Schüller, Dorit; Alves, Henrique; Casal, Margarida; Santos, Juliana de Oliveira; Araújo, Leandro Dias; da Silva, Paulo Henrique Alves; Brandão, Rogelio Lopes

2008-02-01

398

Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Bayou Grand Cane, De Soto Parish, Louisiana. Topical report, August 1991--July 1993  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipeline on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and night of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 12-13, 1991, at the Bayou Grand Cane crossing in De Soto Parish, Louisiana, where a pipeline constructed three years prior to the survey crosses the bayou through mature bottomland hardwoods. The sit was not seeded or fertilized after construction activities. At the time of sampling, a dense herb stratum (composed of mostly native species) covered the 20-m-wide ROW, except within drainage channels. As a result of the creation of the ROW, new habitat was created, plant diversity increased, and forest habitat became fragmented. The ROW must be maintained at an early stage of succession to allow access to the pipeline however, impacts to the wetland were minimized by decreasing the width of the ROW to 20 m and recreating the drainage channels across the ROW. The canopy trees on the ROW`s edge shaded part of the ROW, which helped to minimize the effects of the ROW.

Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Hayes, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, IL (United States)

1994-12-01

399

The effects of co-culturing non-Saccharomyces yeasts with S. cerevisiae on the sugar cane spirit (cachaça) fermentation process.  

PubMed

Twenty non-Saccharomyces strains were previously tested in pure culture for their ability to grow in 12 % ethanol, their ?-glucosidase activity, flocculation, glycerol, ethanol and acetic acid production, fermentation kinetics and their production of volatile compounds. Of these 20 strains, three strains, namely, Pichia anomala UFLA CAF70, P. anomala UFLA CAF119 and Pichia caribbica UFLA CAF733, were evaluated in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CA11. Of the mixed inocula, the mixture of P. caribbica UFLA CAF733 and S. cerevisiae UFLA CA11 gave the highest ethanol concentration (75.37 g/L), the lowest levels of residual glucose (1.14 g/L) and fructose (19.92 g/L), and the highest volumetric productivity (Q (p)) of ethanol. Twenty-three minor volatile compounds were identified in the fermented sugar cane juice. The mixed culture of P. caribbica UFLA CAF733 and S. cerevisiae UFLA CA11 gave the highest concentration of volatile compounds with good sensory descriptors; these compounds included ethyl esters (290.13 ?g/L), acetates (715.21 ?g/L) and monoterpenic alcohols (195.56 ?g/L). This mixed culture also gave the lowest concentration of volatile acids (1774.46 ?g/L) and aldehydes (121.10 ?g/L). In principal component analysis, the mixed inoculum of UFLA CAF733 and UFLA CA11 was positively characterized by ethyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethanol, linalool, nonanoic acid, ethyl butyrate, phenylethyl acetate, diethylsuccinate, hexanoic acid, and geraniol. In conclusion, we found that clear improvements could be achieved in the fermentation process with mixed, rather than pure, S. cerevisiae culture. The use of the non-Saccharomyces strain P. caribbica UFLA CAF733 in co-culture with S. cerevisiae UFLA CA11 may therefore be an interesting means by which to improve the quality of cachaça. PMID:22911390

Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Amorim, Juliana Cunha; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2013-01-01

400

Effects of multiple chemical, physical, and biological stressors on the incidence and types of abnormalities observed in Bermuda's cane toads (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

The interactive effects of contaminants and ultraviolet light (UV)-exposure on the incidence and types of abnormalities observed were measured in newly metamorphosed cane toads (Rhinella marina) from four Bermuda ponds contaminated with petrochemicals and metals. Abnormalities were compared in toadlets that were field-collected, reared in predator exclusion cages, reared in laboratory microcosms exposed to control media or corresponding pond media, and reared in laboratory microcosms exposed to UV-light and control media or media from two ponds. Percent abnormal for field-collected, cage-reared, and microcosm-reared toadlets were equivalent per site and ranged between 14% and 63%. All treatments produced similar limb abnormalities but the percentage of hind versus forelimb defects was statistically greater only in field-collected toadlets. UV-exposed control media did not induce abnormalities in larvae exhibiting no maternal effect, and did not alter the types of abnormalities observed in larvae exhibiting a maternal or latent effect. Site media treatments without UV exposure induced significant cephalic and limb abnormalities, proved additive to the observed maternal/latent effect, and produced limb defects predominantly in forelimbs. Concurrent exposure to site media and UV-light induced similar types of abnormalities but a significantly higher percentage of hind limb abnormalities (68-89%) than exposure to site media alone (7-13%). Our results suggest that the types of abnormalities expressed were principally determined by direct and/or transgenerational contaminant exposure, but that UV-light exposure caused limb abnormalities to occur primarily in the hind limbs, mirroring field observations. Our field observations also suggest that ectromelia and brachydactyly in some field-collected specimens may be predator-induced. PMID:23526808

Bacon, Jamie P; Fort, Chelsea E; Todhunter, Brian; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Douglas J

2013-06-01

401

Urinary corticosterone responses to capture and toe-clipping in the cane toad (Rhinella marina) indicate that toe-clipping is a stressor for amphibians.  

PubMed

Toe-clipping, the removal of one or more toes, is a common method used to individually mark free-living animals. Whilst this method is widely used in studies of amphibians, the appropriateness of the method, and its potential detrimental effects have been the subject of debate. Here, we provide for the first time, evidence that toe-clipping is a stressor in a wild amphibian. We measured urinary corticosterone responses of male cane toads (Rhinella marina) to capture and handling only, and to toe-clipping under field conditions. Urinary testosterone concentrations and white blood cell proportions were also measured. Urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations increased 6h after capture and handling only and remained high for 24h; corticosterone returned to baseline levels after 48 h and remained low at 72 h post capture and handling. Corticosterone concentrations in toads subjected to toe-clipping increased at 6h to significantly higher concentrations than after capture and handling only, then decreased more slowly than after capture and handling, and were still elevated (approximately double basal level) 72 h after toe-clipping. Testosterone did not change significantly after capture and handling only, whereas after toe-clipping testosterone decreased at 6h and remained low at 72 h. There were weak short-term effects of toe-clipping compared with capture and handling only on white blood cell proportions. We have clearly shown that toe-clipping is a distinctly stronger stressor than capture and handling alone. This indicates that there is an ethical cost of toe-clipping, and this should be considered when planning studies of amphibians. PMID:21945118

Narayan, Edward J; Molinia, Frank C; Kindermann, Christina; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

2011-11-01

402

Short term responses of nitrogen trace gas emissions to nitrogen fertilization in tropical sugar cane: Variations due to soils and management practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitrogen (N) fertilization of agricultural systems is thought to be a major source of the increase in atmospheric N2O; NO emissions from soils have also been shown to increase due to N fertilization. While N fertilizer use is increasing rapidly in the developing world and in the tropics, nearly all of our information on gas emissions is derived from studies of temperate zone agriculture. Using chambers, we measured fluxes of N2O and NO following urea fertilization in tropical sugar cane systems growing on a variety of soil types in the Hawaiian Islands, USA. On the island of Maui, where urea is applied in irrigation lines and soils are mollisols and inceptisols, N2O fluxes were elevated for a week or less following fertilization; maximum average fluxes were typically less than 30 ng cm(exp -2)/ h. NO fluxes were often an order of magnitude less than N2O. Together, N2O and NO represented from 0.01 - 0.5% of the applied N. In fields on the island of Hawaii, where urea is broadcast on the surface and soils are andisols, N2O fluxes were similar in magnitude to Maui but remained elevated for much longer periods after fertilization. NO emissions were 2-5 times higher than N2O through most of the sampling periods. Together the gases loss represented approximately 1. 1 - 3% of the applied N. Laboratory studies indicate that denitrification is a critical source of N2O in Maui, but that nitrification is more important in Hawaii. Experimental studies suggest that differences in the pattern of N2O/NO and the processes producing them are a result of both carbon availability and placement of fertilizer, and that the more information-intensive fertilizer management practice results in lower emissions.

Matson, P. A.; Billow, C.; Hall, S.; Zachariassen, J.

1994-01-01

403

Effects of temperature on urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to short-term capture and handling stress in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

Extreme temperature can cause metabolic, immune and behavioural changes in amphibians. Short-term stress hormonal response via increased secretion of corticosterone enables amphibians to make necessary physiological and behavioural adjustments for coping with stressors. The effect of temperature on short-term corticosterone responses has not been studied in amphibians. In this study, this relationship was evaluated in adult male cane toads (Rhinella marina). We acclimated male toads (n=24 toads per group) at low, medium and high temperature (15, 25 or 35°C) under controlled laboratory conditions for a 14 day period. After thermal acclimation, short-term corticosterone responses were evaluated in the toads subjected to a standard capture and handling stress protocol over a 24h period. Corticosterone metabolites in toad urine were measured via enzyme-immunoassay. During acclimation, mean baseline urinary corticosterone level increased after transfer of the toads from wild into captivity and returned to baseline on day 14 of acclimation for each of the three temperatures. At the end of the 14 days of thermal acclimation period, baseline corticosterone level were highest for toad group at 35°C and lowest at 15°C. All toads generated urinary corticosterone responses to the standard capture and handling stressor for each temperature. Both individual and mean short-term corticosterone responses of the toads were highest at 35°C and lowest at 15°C. Furthermore, Q(10) values (the factor by which the reaction rate increases when the temperature is raised by 10°) were calculated for mean corrected integrated corticosterone responses as follows; (15-35°C) Q(10)=1.51, (15-25°C) Q(10)=1.60; (25-35°C) Q(10)=1.43. Both total and corrected integrated corticosterone responses were highest for toads at 35°C followed by 25°C and lowest for the 15°C toad group. Overall, the results have demonstrated the thermodynamic response of corticosterone secretion to short-term capture and handling stress in an amphibian species. PMID:22728158

Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

2012-09-01

404

PRODUCTION OF MICROBIAL BIOSURFACTANTS FROM SOY MOLASSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial biosurfactants (MBSs) are surface-active molecules that have potential applications in pharmaceutical, bioremediation, cosmetic, food, agricultural and oil-recovery industries. Since renewable feedstocks are used in their production, MBSs are "green" molecules with minimal environmental f...

405

Lymph flux rates from various lymph sacs in the cane toad Rhinella marina: an experimental evaluation of the roles of compliance, skeletal muscles and the lungs in the movement of lymph.  

PubMed

A new method for quantitatively determining lymph flux from various lymphatic sacs of an anuran, the cane toad, was developed. This method used the dye dilution principle of C(i)V(i)=C(f)V(f) following injection of Evans Blue into specific lymph sacs and measuring its appearance in the venous circulation. The apparent lymph volume was 57 ml kg(-1). The greatest rate of lymph return (0.5-0.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and best linear fit of Evans Blue appearance in the circulation with time followed injections into the subvertebral lymph sac, which has direct connections to both the anterior and posterior pairs of lymphatic hearts. Rate of lymph flux from the pair of posterior lymph hearts was three times greater than the anterior pair. Rates of lymph flux were only influenced by injection volume in the crural lymph sacs, implicating lymph sac compliance as the source of the pressure for lymph movement from these sacs. Femoral lymph sac fluxes were decreased by 60% following ablation of the tendons of the sphincter ani cloacalis, abdominal crenators and piriformis. This supports a role for these muscles in generating the pressure for vertical lymph movement. Femoral lymph sac fluxes were also decreased by 70% by the insertion of a coil in the subvertebral lymph sac, preventing normal compression and expansion of this sac by the lungs. This supports a role for lung ventilation in generating the pressure for vertical movement of lymph. Contrary to previous hypotheses, fluxes from the brachial sac were not influenced by insertion of the coil into the subvertebral sac. A haemorrhage equivalent to 50% of the blood volume did not change lymph flux rates from the femoral lymph sacs. These data provide the first experimental evidence that actual lymph fluxes in the cane toad Rhinella marina depend on lymph sac compliance, contraction of specific skeletal muscles and lung ventilation to move lymph laterally and vertically to the dorsally located lymphatic hearts. PMID:20802118

Hillman, Stanley S; Hedrick, Michael S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

2010-09-15

406

21 CFR 558.258 - Fenbendazole.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6-04-152 Monosodium phosphate 31.16 6-04-288...6-04-152 Dicalcium phosphate (18.5% P) 32.44 6-00-080 Calcium carbonate (38% Ca...902 4-13-251 Water 9.36 n/a Urea...of cane molasses and water in the...

2010-04-01

407

Continuous butanol fermentation from inexpensive sugar-based feedstocks by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864.  

PubMed

Corn stover hydrolysate (CSH) and cane molasses were studied for butanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864 in continuous fermentation. Using cane molasses as substrate, solvent of 13.75 g/L (butanol 8.65 g/L) and productivity of 0.439 g/L/h were achieved in a four-stage continuous fermentation at a gradient dilution mode of 0.15-0.15-0.125-0.1 h(-1). In continuous fermentation using CSH as substrate, total solvent titer of 11.43 g/L (butanol 7.81 g/L) and productivity of 0.429 g/L/h were reached at a dilution rate of 0.15 h(-1), and the steady process was continuously operated for 220 h without compromise in solvent titer. PMID:23298765

Ni, Ye; Xia, Ziyi; Wang, Yun; Sun, Zhihao

2013-02-01

408

Experimental research of road maintenance salts and molasses (\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation is to assess the corrosive impact of de?icing salts and product “Safecote” on metals by performing immersion and spraying experiments. Metallic elements such as metallic bridges, road signs, and cars, situated near the road, are exposed to salts used for road maintenance in winter seasons. The salts, used to de?ice the road surface, can cause

Jolita Petkuviene; Dainius Paliulis

2009-01-01

409

Volatile constituents of fermented sugar baits and their attraction to lepidopteran species.  

PubMed

The volatile compounds emanating from four fermented sugar baits, palm sugar, golden cane syrup, port wine, and molasses, were isolated by headspace sampling and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three classes of compounds including esters, alcohols, and aromatic compounds were identified in the headspace of the four fermented sugar baits. There was a high degree of qualitative similarity between the headspace contents of the four fermented sugar baits, although quantitatively they varied considerably. Ethyl acetate, 3-methylbutanol, ethyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl octanoate, ethyl (E)-4-decenoate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate were the major compounds identified in the headspace of the four fermented sugar baits. The efficacy of the four fermented sugar baits was investigated in field trapping experiments. Fermented palm sugar and golden cane syrup were superior in attracting significant numbers of moths as compared to port wine and molasses. Fermented molasses was the least attractive among the four baits. Over 90% of the insects caught were noctuids with Graphania mutans and Tmetolophota spp. being the main noctuids captured (over 55%) in the four fermented sugar baits. Male and female G. mutans were equally attracted to the four sugar baits. A number of tortricid species were also trapped. PMID:15713004

El-Sayed, A M; Heppelthwaite, V J; Manning, L M; Gibb, A R; Suckling, D M

2005-02-23

410

Biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis B30 and its application in enhancing oil recovery.  

PubMed

The fermentative production of biosurfactants by Bacillus subtilis strain B30 and the evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood were investigated. Different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, date molasses, cane molasses) were tested to determine the optimal biosurfactant production. The isolate B30 produced a biosurfactant that could reduce the surface tension and interfacial tension to 26.63±0.45 mN/m and 3.79±0.27 mN/m, respectively in less than 12h in both glucose or date molasses based media. A crude biosurfactant concentration of 0.3-0.5 g/l and critical micelle dilution (CMD) values of 1:8 were observed. The biosurfactants gave stable emulsions with wide range of hydrocarbons including light and heavy crude oil. The biosurfactants were partially purified and identified as a mixture of lipopeptides similar to surfactin, using high performance thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The biosurfactants were stable over wide range of pH, salinity and temperatures. The crude biosurfactant preparation enhanced light oil recovery by 17-26% and heavy oil recovery by 31% in core-flood studies. The results are indicative of the potential of the strain for the development of ex situ microbial enhanced oil recovery processes using glucose or date molasses based minimal media. PMID:24240116

Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Joshi, Sanket; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Shibulal, Biji

2014-02-01

411

Molecular Structure of Sucrose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sucrose is the chemical name of table sugar. It is found in granulated, powdered and brown sugar and molasses, as well as, in a variety of fruits and vegetables. Sucrose is a disaccharide that can be made from the combination of two monosaccarides, glucose and fructose. For production use, sucrose is generally extracted from a sugar cane and then purified and crystallized. Sucrose is the most common sweetener in the modern world, however, including too much of it in a diet does have adverse health effects such obesity caused by the high calorie content.

2002-08-29

412

The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse  

PubMed Central

Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and ?-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, ?-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

Ribeiro, Daniela A.; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Murakami, Mario T.; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Squina, Fabio M.

2012-01-01

413

Mark A. Cane Receives 2013 Maurice Ewing Medal: Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I must first pay tribute to Klaus Wyrtki, a hero of mine who passed away earlier this year. At a time when ideas about El Niño pointed all over the place, he told me that Bjerknes's hypothesis was the way forward. He was right, of course, but Bjerknes stopped short of explaining the oscillatory nature of ENSO, and it took Klaus's tide gauge data to show that ocean dynamics is the answer. His analysis was masterful, but there would have been nothing much to analyze without his incredible effort to deploy those tide gauges in atolls and islands throughout the tropical Pacific. My magnum opus may fairly be described as translating Bjerknes-Wyrtki into a numerical model.

Cane, Mark A.

2014-01-01

414

Results of a Study To Develop an Alternative Cane.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of orientation and mobility specialists (N=26) was conducted to determine the mobility devices currently being used with visually impaired and elderly clients. These results were then used to design and develop an effective, commercially manufacturable adaptive-mobility device prototype which was tested with elderly individuals, multiply…

Mancil, Rickilyn; Manuel, Stephanie; Siffermann, Eileen; Blasch, Bruce B.

1998-01-01

415

Developing Sugar Cane as a Dedicated Energy Crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High yield with low inputs, resistance to diseases, insects, and drought, adaptation to a wide range of soils and climates, and biomass composition that is optimized for end use are identified as important traits for cellulosic biomass crops. Sugarcane is one of the most efficient grass species in c...

416

Development of Energy Canes for an Expanding Biofuels Industry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past 20 years, oil prices have increased from near $20 per barrel in the 1990s to over $70 per barrel in the 2000s. The rising cost of oil has caused a significant increase in interest in the utilization of renewable resources for biofuels production. In his 2007 State of the Union address, ...

417

Knowledge of the Elders: The Iroquois Condolence Cane Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide, developed for high school students, looks at Eastern Woodlands history and tradition through the words of Cayuga Nation elder Jacob Thomas. The Six Nations, also known as the Iroquois, are a confederacy of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora tribes. The Iroquois have a population of more than 60,000 living…

Barreiro, Jose, Ed.; Cornelius, Carol, Ed.

418

75 FR 64619 - White Cane Safety Day, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...opportunity for Americans with visual impairments. Today, students with disabilities...the classroom. Blindness and visual impairments are not impediments to obtaining...countless individuals with visual impairments across our country and...

2010-10-20

419

Oli essenziali nelle dermatiti correlate alla Malassezia nel cane.  

E-print Network

??RIASSUNTO I lieviti del genere Malassezia fanno parte dell'ordine Malasseziales, famiglia Cryptococcaceae, classe Ustilagomycetes , phylum Basidiomycota. La Malassezia e’ un lievito commensale che si… (more)

SANNA, VERONICA

2012-01-01

420

Geologic Map of the Cane Quadrangle, Coconino County, Northern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital map database is compiled from unpublished data and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of surficial and bedrock geology in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying pamphlet, it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area. The database delineate map units that are identified by age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution of the database to 1:24,000 or smaller.

Billingsley, George H.; Wellmeyer, Jessica L.

2001-01-01

421

Real Time Deformable Template Tracking Brendan McCane  

E-print Network

) of the style of Amini et al [1] can be applied to a tree with the same cost complexity per feature as a snake#12 354¤6£¦789 ¢¡¤£¦7@§A!CB¢ 4¤6 D¡¤£¦7EF£¦¥¦§HGIE (1) where the subscripts P and Q indicate parent and child nodes respectively, R ¡¤£ ¥ § represents the set of children of node £ ¥ , and the minimum for £ 7

McCane, Brendan

422

ORAL PRESENTATION ABSTRACT Smart Mobility Cane: Obstacle Detection  

E-print Network

and the user within 3.5 meters. Using the LABVIEW (visual programming language) the URF sensor (SRF05. At the end, the range of distance is numerically displayed in real-time on the LABVIEW block diagram on the range. In this project detail description of hardware aspect of the Ultrasonic ranger sensor

Haykin, Simon

423

Sugar cane as an alternative energy source for Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of various energy resources in the world since the beginning of industrial revolution has changed due to several causes, such as the economy, availability, transportation and environmental effects as well as climate change phenomena. The use of fossil fuels has become rather harmful for the environment in which human beings live, especially in the urban areas of the

I. Kilicaslan; H. I. Sarac; E. Özdem; K. Erm

1999-01-01

424

Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ? 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:25308651

Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

2015-03-15

425

Non-sterilized fermentative co-production of poly(?-glutamic acid) and fibrinolytic enzyme by a thermophilic Bacillus subtilis GXA-28.  

PubMed

Poly(?-glutamic acid), as a naturally occurring homopolymer, is widely used in industry, agriculture, food and medicine. Fibrinolytic enzyme has a great potential for the prevention and/or treatment of vascular diseases caused by fibrin clots. Co-production of ?-PGA and fibrinolytic enzyme by Bacillus subtilis GXA-28 (CCTCC M 2012347) from soybean residue using cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor under sterilized and non-sterilized condition were investigated. It was observed that total sugar from cane molasses of 3% (w/w) and glutamate from monosodium glutamate waste liquor of 2% (w/w) were favorable for ?-PGA and fibrinolytic enzyme co-production at pH 7.0 and 45°C. Based on the optimal medium, the ?-PGA and fibrinolytic activity reached 103.5 g/kg-substrates at 22 h and 986 U/g-substrates at 24h under non-sterilized condition, respectively. To our knowledge, the yield of ?-PGA was highest in all reported literatures. PMID:23725975

Zeng, Wei; Li, Wei; Shu, Lin; Yi, Juyang; Chen, Guiguang; Liang, Zhiqun

2013-08-01

426

Enhancing isomaltulose production by recombinant Escherichia coli producing sucrose isomerase: culture medium optimization containing agricultural wastes and cell immobilization.  

PubMed

Isomaltulose is a structural isomer of sucrose commercially used in food industries. In this work, recombinant Escherichia coli producing sucrose isomerase (SIase) was used to convert sucrose into isomaltulose. To develop an economical industrial medium, untreated cane molasses (10.63 g l?¹), yeast extract (25.93 g l?¹), and corn steep liquor (10.45 g l?¹) were used as main culture compositions for SIase production. The relatively high SIase activity (14.50 ± 0.11 U mg DCW?¹) was obtained by the recombinant cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on SIase production by engineered E. coli using untreated cane molasses. The recombinant E. coli cells expressing the SIase gene were immobilized in calcium alginate gel in order to improve the efficiency of recycling. The immobilization was most effective with 2 % (w/v) sodium alginate and 3 % (w/v) calcium chloride. The optimal initial biomass for immobilization was 20 % (w/v, wet wt.), with a hardening time of 8 h for cell immobilization. The immobilized E. coli cells exhibited good stability for 30 batches with the productivity of 0.45 g isomaltulose g pellet?¹ h?¹. A continuous isomaltulose formation process using a column reactor remained stable for 40 days with 83 ± 2 % isomaltulose yield, which would be beneficial for economical production of isomaltulose. PMID:23300051

Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Yu, Jianguang; Wang, Yanyuan; Feng, Xiaohai; Ouyang, Pingkai

2013-10-01

427

Dynamic metabolic modelling of volatile fatty acids conversion to polyhydroxyalkanoates by a mixed microbial culture.  

PubMed

In this work, we present a dynamic metabolic model that describes the uptake of complex mixtures of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and respective conversion into PHA by mixed microbial cultures (MMC). This model builds upon a previously published flux balance analysis model [1] that identified the minimization of TCA cycle activity as the key metabolic objective to predict PHA storage fluxes and respective composition. The model was calibrated either with experimental data of PHA production from fermented sugar cane molasses or from synthetic mixtures of VFA. All PHA production experiments were performed using a MMC selected with fermented sugar cane molasses under feast and famine regimen. The model was able to capture the process dynamics denoted by an excellent fit between experimental and computed time profiles of concentrations with the regression coefficients always above 0.92. The introduced VFA uptake regulatory factor reflects the decrease of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA available to TCA cycle in conformity with the hypothesis that the minimization of TCA cycle is a key metabolic objective for MMC subjected to feast and famine regimen for the maximization of PHA production. PMID:23933561

Pardelha, Filipa; Albuquerque, Maria G E; Reis, Maria A M; Oliveira, Rui; Dias, João M L

2014-06-25

428

Optimization of complex fermentation media for glucose oxidase production using statistical approach.  

PubMed

Production cost of enzyme is largely determined by the type of the strain and raw material used to propagate the strain. Hence, selection of the strain and raw materials is crucial in enzyme production. For Glucose oxidase (GOx), previous studies showed Aspergillus terreus UniMAP AA-1 offers a better alternative to the existing sources. Thus, a lower production cost could be logically anticipated by growing the strain in a cheaper complex media such as molasses. In this work, sugar cane molasses, supplemented with urea and carbonate salt and a locally isolated strain Aspergillus terreus UniMAP AA-1 were used to produce a crude GOx enzyme in a small scale. A statistical optimization approach namely Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the media components for highest GOx activity. It was found that the highest GOx activity was achieved using a combination of molasses, carbonate salt and urea at concentration 32.51, 4.58 and 0.93% (w/v), respectively. This study provides an alternative optimized media conditions for GOx production using locally available raw materials. PMID:24502155

Gunny, Ahmad Anas Nagoor; Arbain, Dachyar; Sithamparam, Logachanthirika

2013-09-15

429

Studies on Feed Spoilage: Heating in Feed Ingredients and Mixtures Containing Molasses and Added Fat.  

E-print Network

.5 percent less than that for any single lot OF FEED TABLE 3. CRITICAL MOISTURE LEVELS INGREDIENTS Ingredient Cri tical mois!;: Barley, flaked TABLE 2. MOISTURE CONTENT OF PROTEIN CONCEN- TRATES WHICH HEATED AND WHICH DID NOT HEAT Bone meal 1953 1952...~Stcdies OH 3eed Spoilage. . . TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS, DIRECTOR. COLLEGE STATIPN. TEXAS DIGEST Studies described in this bulletin are: (1) The critical moisture levels of various protein concentrates. 1 I (2...

Cline, Margaret; Richardson, L. R.; Halick, John V.

1957-01-01

430

Molasses or crowds: making sense of the Higgs boson with two popular analogies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has contributed to a surge of interest in particle physics and science education in general. Given the conceptual difficulty of the phenomenon in question, it is inevitable that teachers and science communicators rely on analogies to explain the Higgs physics and its meaning. Here, we review two popular analogies for explaining the Higgs boson, field and mechanism and their complex relationships. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these analogies and their pedagogical implications.

Alsop, S.; Beale, S.

2013-09-01

431

Burial history and thermal evolution of wells Weiach and Entlebuch 1, Swiss molasse basin  

SciTech Connect

Only 30-50% of the stratigraphic records are preserved in the Swiss foreland basin as a consequence of at least three major erosional events in the Permian, the Late Cretaceous/Paleocene, and the late Neogene. The detailed set of geological and petrophysical data of well Weiach (exploration well for radioactive waste disposal sites) is used to assess the influence of burial and thermal history scenarios on porosity development, organic maturity evolution, and hydrocarbon generation/expulsion. Results of this calibration are taken as constraints for the analysis of the hydrocarbon exploration well Entlebuch 1, the only gas-producing well in Switzerland. Modeling results from well Weiach indicate that recently proposed, large amounts of up to 2.5 km of removed overburden at the level of the late Neogene unconformity, stay in conflict with observed thermal maturities, unless contemporaneously heat-flow variations of substantial magnitude are assumed. Additional erosion of up to 700 m of missing Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments (Tertiary unconformity) is compatible with the observed maturity gradients in the Mesozoic section. Today, only the proven Paleozoic source rocks (Autunian shale and Carboniferous coal) are in the main oil and gas windows. However, hydrocarbon generation rates are low because of ongoing uplift and cooling in this external position in the foreland basin. In the more proximal position of the Entlebuch 1 well (only a limited data set is publicly available) major thrust wedges of Tertiary clastics were emplaced during the late Alpine orogenic phase (Miocene/Pliocene). Modeling demonstrates that his influences the thermal regime up to the present day, resulting in the generation of mainly gas from the hypothetical Mesozoic, and oil and gas from Paleozoic source rocks.

Leu, W. (Geoform, Geological Consulting and Studies Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland))

1993-09-01

432

FERMENTATIVE PRODUCTION OF BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOSURFACTANTS FROM GLYCEROL-RICH BIODIESEL COPRODUCT STREAM AND SOY MOLASSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fats and oils are important agricultural products produced globally at hundreds of millions of metric tons annually. During processing and utilization of these commodities, large amounts of coproduct streams are produced that require the development of new uses utilization to ease disposal problems...

433

The comparative value of five types of molasses as feeds for fattening beef cattle  

E-print Network

F$ Fed Coll Nelasaes 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 34 6? Fiedahsd Steetw Fed CHes Noblesse e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 94 7o FiL1ahad gtaaaw Fed Deed Nslaaaea ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ o e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ )5 8o Fiaished StelRs Fed Weed Masses ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ 3...

Blankenship, Albert Young

1954-01-01

434

Zircon Hf isotopic constraints on the sources of the Indus Molasse, Ladakh Himalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India-Asia collision has resulted in the largest orogenic event on Earth since at least 500 Ma, and this has had a profound influence on the drainage patterns of Asia, on the Asian monsoon climate, on global oceanography, as well as on faunal extinctions. Despite this importance, understanding of the Paleogene evolution of this system is limited. U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic

Fu-Yuan Wu; Peter D. Clift; Jin-Hui Yang

2007-01-01

435

Molasses or Crowds: Making Sense of the Higgs Boson with Two Popular Analogies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has contributed to a surge of interest in particle physics and science education in general. Given the conceptual difficulty of the phenomenon in question, it is inevitable that teachers and science communicators rely on analogies to explain the Higgs physics and its…

Alsop, S.; Beale, S.

2013-01-01

436

Effectiveness of acidizing geothermal wells in the South German Molasse Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Germany, many hydro-geothermal plants have been constructed in recent years, primarily in the region of Munich. As the host formation here mainly consists of carbonates, nearly all recently drilled wells have been acidized in order to improve the well yield. In this study, the effectiveness of these acid treatments is analyzed with respect to the amount of acid used and the number of acid treatments carried out per well. The results show that the first acid treatment has the largest effect, while subsequent acidizing improves the well only marginally. Data also indicate that continued acidizing can lead to degradation of the well. These findings may not only be important for geothermal installations in Germany but also for projects, for example, in Austria, France or China where geothermal energy is produced from carbonate formations as well.

Schumacher, S.; Schulz, R.

2013-10-01

437

Short Communication: Effect of temporary glycosuria on molasses consumption in Holstein calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Non-invasive measures of stress are needed for experimental purposes and for potential use in well-being audits. Sucrose consumption is frequently used to determine that a stress response has been induced in mice and rats. This study was conducted to determine the effect of experimentally increased ...

438

Glucosyltransferase production by Klebsiella sp. K18 and conversion of sucrose to palatinose using immobilized cells  

PubMed Central

The strain Klebsiella sp. K18 produces the enzyme glucosyltransferase and catalyses the conversion of sucrose to palatinose, an alternative sugar that presents low cariogenicity. Response Surface Methodology was successfully employed to determine the optimal concentration of culture medium components. Maximum glucosyltransferase production (21.78 U mL-1) was achieved using the optimized medium composed by sugar cane molasses (80 g L-1), bacteriological peptone (7 g L-1) and yeast extract (20 g L-1), after 8 hours of fermentation at 28°C. The conversion of sucrose to palatinose was studied utilizing immobilized cells in calcium alginate. The effects of the alginate concentration (2-4%), cell mass concentration (20-40%) and substrate concentration (25-45%) were evaluated and the yield of palatinose was approximately 62.5%. PMID:24031319

Orsi, Daniela C.; Kawaguti, Haroldo Y.; Sato, Hélia H.

2009-01-01

439

20. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. View: Remains of south wall. The molasses storage pits are below the floor in the foreground. The remaining piece of floor indicates the form of the entire floor. The sorghum pan and boiling range flue slope from left to right (east to west) and permitted batches of cane juice to flow through the boiling pan by gravity. The beams, joists, truss work are built of northwest pine. The sides and floor boards are built of redwood. The boiling range flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. The corrugated roof appears to be a later addition, not contemporary with mill operation. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

440

Comparison of rates of ureolysis between Sporosarcina pasteurii and an indigenous groundwater community under conditions required to precipitate large volumes of calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ureolysis-driven calcite precipitation has potential to seal porosity and fracture networks in rocks thus preventing groundwater flow and contaminant transport. In this study urea hydrolysis and calcite precipitation rates for the model bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii were compared with those of indigenous groundwater communities under conditions required to precipitate large volumes of calcite (up to 50 g L -1). We conducted microcosm experiments in oxic artificial and anoxic natural groundwaters (collected from the Permo-Triassic sandstone aquifer at Birmingham, UK) that were inoculated with aerobically grown S. pasteurii. The rate constants for urea hydrolysis, kurea, ranged between 0.06 and 3.29 d -1 and were only affected by inoculum density. Higher Ca 2+ concentration (50-500 mM Ca 2+) as well as differences in fO 2 did not inhibit the ureolytic activity of S. pasteurii and did not significantly impact kurea. These results demonstrate that S. pasteurii has potential to improve calcite precipitation in both oxic and anoxic groundwaters, especially if indigenous communities lack ureolytic activity. Urea hydrolysis by indigenous groundwater communities was investigated in anoxic, natural groundwaters amended with urea and CaCl 2. A notable increase in ureolysis rates was measured only when these communities were stimulated with dilute nutrients (with best results from blackstrap molasses). Furthermore, there was a considerable lag time (12-20 days) before ureolysis and calcite precipitation began. Calculated ureolysis rate constants, kurea, ranged between 0.03 and 0.05 d -1 and were similar to kurea values produced by S. pasteurii at low inoculum densities. Overall, this comparative study revealed that the growth of ureolytic microorganisms present within groundwaters can easily be stimulated to enhance rates of urea hydrolysis in the subsurface, and thus can be used to induce calcite precipitation in these environments. The time required for urea hydrolysis to begin is almost instantaneous if an inoculum of S. pasteurii is included, while it may take several weeks for ureolytic groundwater communities to grow and become ureolytically active.

Tobler, Dominique J.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Greswell, Richard B.; Riley, Michael S.; Renshaw, Joanna C.; Handley-Sidhu, Stephanie; Phoenix, Vernon R.

2011-06-01

441

Evaluation of TCDD biodegradability under different redox conditions.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins have been generated as unwanted by-products in many industrial processes. Although their widespread distribution in different environmental compartments has been recognized, little is known about their fate in the ultimate environment sinks. The highly stable dioxin isomer 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been called the most toxic compound known to man. In this laboratory microcosm study, TCDD bioavailability was evaluated under five reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions including aerobic biodegradation, aerobic cometabolism, methanogenesis, iron reduction, and reductive dechlorination. Activated sludge and aquifer sediments from a TCDD and a pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated site were used as the inocula. Acetate, sludge cake, and cane molasses were used as the primary substrates (carbon sources) in cometabolism and reductive dechlorination microcosms. After a 90-day incubation period, microcosms constructed under reductive dechlorination conditions were the only treatment showing promising remediation results. The highest TCDD degradation rate [up to 86% of TCDD removal (with an initial concentration of 96 microg/kg of soil)] was observed in the microcosms with anaerobic activated sludge as the microbial inocula and sludge cakes as the primary substrates. Except for reductive dechlorination microcosms, no significant TCDD removal was observed in the microcosms prepared under other conditions. Thus, application of an effective primary substrate to enhance the reductive dechlorination process is a feasible method for TCDD bioremediation. Bioremediation expense can be significantly reduced by the supplement of some less expensive alternative substrates (e.g., sludge cakes, cane molasses). Results would be useful in designing a scale-up in situ or on-site bioremediation system such as bioslurry reactor for field application. PMID:11513124

Kao, C M; Chen, S C; Liu, J K; Wu, M J

2001-09-01

442

The in vitro effects of artificial and natural sweeteners on the immune system using whole blood culture assays.  

PubMed

This article investigates the effects of commercially available artificial (aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) and natural sweeteners (brown sugar, white sugar, molasses) on the immune system. Human whole blood cultures were incubated with various sweeteners and stimulated in vitro with either phytohemagglutinin or endotoxin. Harvested supernatants were screened for cytotoxicity and cytokine release. Results showed that none of the artificial or natural sweeteners proved to be cytotoxic, indicating that no cell death was induced in vitro. The natural sweetener, sugar cane molasses (10 ug/mL), enhanced levels of the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 while all artificial sweeteners (10 ug/mL) revealed a suppressive effect on IL-6 secretion (P < 0.001). Exposure of blood cells to sucralose-containing sweeteners under stimulatory conditions reduced levels of the biomarker of humoral immunity, Interleukin-10 (P < 0.001). The cumulative suppression of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 levels induced by sucralose may contribute to the inability in mounting an effective humoral response when posed with an exogenous threat. PMID:24063614

Rahiman, F; Pool, E J

2014-01-01

443

Long-term bioethanol system and its implications on GHG emissions: a case study of Thailand.  

PubMed

The study evaluates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions performance of future bioethanol systems in Thailand to ascertain whether bioethanol for transport could help the country mitigate a global warming impact. GHG emission factors of bioethanol derived from cassava, molasses, and sugar cane are analyzed using 12 scenarios covering the critical variables possibly affecting the GHG performance, i.e., (1) the possible direct land use change caused by expanding feedstock cultivation areas; (2) types of energy carriers used in ethanol plants; and (3) waste utilization, e.g., biogas recovery and dry distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) production. The assessment reveals that GHG performance of a Thai bioethanol system is inclined to decrease in the long run due to the effects from the expansion of plantation areas to satisfy the deficit of cassava and molasses. Therefore, bioethanol will contribute to the country's strategic plan on GHG mitigation in the transportation sector only if the production systems are sustainably managed, i.e., coal replaced by biomass in ethanol plants, biogas recovery, and adoption of improved agricultural practices to increase crop productivity without intensification of chemical fertilizers. Achieving the year 2022 government policy targets for bioethanol with recommended measures would help mitigate GHG emissions up to 4.6 Gg CO(2)-eq per year. PMID:21528843

Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H

2011-06-01

444

Late Cenozoic burial history and dynamics of the Northern Caucasus molasse basin: implications for foreland basin modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collisional history of the Caucasus segment of the Alpine–Himalayan fold belt started at the end of the Eocene. The associated development of the Northern Caucasus foreland basin occurred during two syn-collisional stages, each displaying different subsidence patterns. The 34–16 Ma (Maikopian or pre-foreland stage) displays a long-wavelength subsidence of a broad area whereas the 16–0 Ma (foreland stage) displays

Andrei V. Ershov; Marie-Françoise Brunet; Maxim V. Korotaev; Anatoly M. Nikishin; Sergei N. Bolotov

1999-01-01

445

The model of the oil-gas bearing molasse reservoirs in the Peri-Adriatic depression, Albania  

SciTech Connect

The Peri-Adriatic Depression (PAD) represents the eastern extension of the Cenozoic Adriatic basin into onshore Albania. Several oil, gas condensate, dry gas fields have been discovered in this basin. Dry gas fields occur mainly in the western sector of the basin, whereas the oil fields are found in the eastern one. Reservoir rocks are well sorted to poorly, fine grained to pebbly sandstones and silstones of Miocene (Serravalian) to Pliocene age, deposited in deep water (turbidite), deltaic and littoral environments. Reservoir beds range in thickness from I to 40 in and are generally regionally distributed. The porosity varies from 3 to 37%, the permeability ranges from low values up to 2200-2500 mD. The minimal value of the porosity measured from oil flowing reservoirs varies from 12% to 16% and for the dry gas 12-21%. Geothermal gradient range from 1.4-2 C/100m. The dimensions of the reservoirs are very different and its geometric shape differs from beds to irregular shape. The types of the traps are also different : lithologo-stratigraphic, lithologic, structural-lithologic ones, etc. The upper part of the Pliocene basin belongs to the delta deposits. The deltaic sandstones are coarse grain to conglomeratic ones, of barriers type, saturated with fresh water and have vast distribution.

Hysen, K.N.; Skender, T.G. (Albpetrol Co., Fier (Albania))

1996-01-01

446

The model of the oil-gas bearing molasse reservoirs in the Peri-Adriatic depression, Albania  

SciTech Connect

The Peri-Adriatic Depression (PAD) represents the eastern extension of the Cenozoic Adriatic basin into onshore Albania. Several oil, gas condensate, dry gas fields have been discovered in this basin. Dry gas fields occur mainly in the western sector of the basin, whereas the oil fields are found in the eastern one. Reservoir rocks are well sorted to poorly, fine grained to pebbly sandstones and silstones of Miocene (Serravalian) to Pliocene age, deposited in deep water (turbidite), deltaic and littoral environments. Reservoir beds range in thickness from I to 40 in and are generally regionally distributed. The porosity varies from 3 to 37%, the permeability ranges from low values up to 2200-2500 mD. The minimal value of the porosity measured from oil flowing reservoirs varies from 12% to 16% and for the dry gas 12-21%. Geothermal gradient range from 1.4-2 C/100m. The dimensions of the reservoirs are very different and its geometric shape differs from beds to irregular shape. The types of the traps are also different : lithologo-stratigraphic, lithologic, structural-lithologic ones, etc. The upper part of the Pliocene basin belongs to the delta deposits. The deltaic sandstones are coarse grain to conglomeratic ones, of barriers type, saturated with fresh water and have vast distribution.

Hysen, K.N.; Skender, T.G. [Albpetrol Co., Fier (Albania)

1996-12-31

447

Testing a molasses-based bait for oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against Mycobacterium bovis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA are wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) with documented spread to cattle. In vaccine efficacy trials, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) administered orally reduces colonization and bTB-associated lesions in whi...

448

A Toad More Traveled: The Heterogeneous Invasion Dynamics of Cane Toads in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To predict the spread of invasive species, we need to understand the mechanisms that underlie their range expansion. As- suming random diffusion through homogeneous environments, in- vasions are expected to progress at a constant rate. However, envi- ronmental heterogeneity is expected to alter diffusion rates, especially by slowing invasions as populations encounter suboptimal environ- mental conditions. Here, we examine how

Richard Shine

2008-01-01