Sample records for cane blackstrap molasses

  1. Use of cane condensed molasses solubles in feeding broilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Waliszewski; A. Romero; V. T. Pardio

    1997-01-01

    The mean composition of condensed molasses solubles (vinasse or stillage) obtained from the three alcohol fermentation plants of the sugar cane industry including proximate constituents, inorganic components and amino acid composition was obtained. Mean solids content was 620 g kg?1. Vinasse found to be low in fat and fiber but high in ash and different carbohydrate contents. Potassium content of

  2. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol from cane molasses in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thu Lan T. Nguyen; Shabbir H. Gheewala

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope  After China and India, Thailand is considered another emerging market for fuel ethanol in Asia. At present, ethanol in the\\u000a country is mainly a fermentation\\/distillery product of cane molasses, although cassava and cane juice are considered other\\u000a potential raw materials for the fuel. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impacts of substituting conventional gasoline\\u000a (CG) with

  3. Influence of Ammonium Salts and Cane Molasses on Growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus and Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, M.; Beaulieu, Y.; Melinard, J.; Pandian, S.; Goulet, J.

    1995-01-01

    The production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545 was studied in a synthetic medium with 3% glucose at pH 7.0 supplemented with several ammonium substrates and cane molasses. Growth was measured by dry cell weight, and the PHB content was measured by gas chromatography. The effects of ammonium sources such as sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and chloride salts and those of different ammonium sulfate concentrations were evaluated. The best growth and PHB production were obtained with ammonium sulfate; however, NH(inf4)(sup+) concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5 g/liter showed no significant difference. Ammonium sulfate was therefore used as the sole source of NH(inf4)(sup+) for experiments with cane molasses as the growth activator. Optimal growth and PHB production were obtained with 0.3% molasses. However, the yields of biomass (39 to 48%) and PHB (17 to 26%) varied significantly among the different ammonium substrates and cane molasses concentrations. PMID:16534900

  4. Improved welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp. ATCC31555 from pretreated cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hongxia; Liu, Min; Yu, Pingru; Zhang, Shaozhi; Suo, Yukai; Luo, Ping; Li, Shuang; Wang, Jufang

    2015-09-20

    Welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp. ATCC31555 from cane molasses was studied in batch fermentation to reduce production costs and enhance gum production. The pretreatment of cane molasses, agitation speed and the addition of supplements were investigated to optimize the process. Sulfuric acid hydrolysis was found to be the optimal pretreatment, resulting in a maximum gum concentration of 33.5g/L, which is 50.0% higher than those obtained from the molasses' mother liquor. Agitation at 600rpm at 30°C and addition of 10% n-dodecane following fermentation for 36h increased the maximum gum production up to 41.0±1.41g/L, which is 49.1% higher than the greatest welan gum concentration in the literature so far. The welan gum product showed an acceptable molecular weight, similar rheological properties and better thermal stability to that obtained from glucose. These results indicate that cane molasses may be a suitable and inexpensive substrate for cost-effective industrial-scale welan gum production. PMID:26050885

  5. Critical analysis of the effect of metal ions on gluconic acid production by Aspergillus niger using a treated Indian cane molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Subba Rao; T. Panda

    1994-01-01

    Gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger has been investigated using untreated and treated Indian cane molasses. The yield of gluconic acid was found to be reduced using an untreated molasses medium compared to a defined medium. Hence, molasses was subjected to various pretreatment techniques. Pretreatment reduced the levels of various cations and anions. As the synthesis of gluconic acid has

  6. High-level production of heterologous proteins using untreated cane molasses and corn steep liquor in Escherichia coli medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Ye; Ximu Li; Ming Yan; Hou Cao; Lin Xu; Yueyuan Zhang; Yong Chen; Jian Xiong; Pingkai Ouyang; Hanjie Ying

    2010-01-01

    To develop an economical industrial medium, untreated cane molasses (UCM) was tested as a carbon source for fermentation culturing\\u000a of Escherichia coli. To test the industrial application of this medium, we chose a strain co-expressing a carbonyl reductase (PsCR) and a glucose\\u000a dehydrogenase (BmGDH). Although corn steep liquor (CSL) could be used as an inexpensive nitrogen source to replace peptone,

  7. Production, optimization and characterization of lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIM 2025 from utilizing agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Abhinay Kumar; Tripathi, Abhishek Dutt; Jha, Alok; Poonia, Amrita; Sharma, Nitya

    2015-06-01

    In the present work Lactobacillus delbrueckii was used to utilize agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses) for lactic acid production under submerged fermentation process. Screening of LAB was done by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). Effect of different amino acids (DL-Phenylalanine, L-Lysine and DL-Aspartic acid) on the fermentation process was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to optimize the levels of three parameters viz. tween 80, amino acid and cane molasses concentration during fermentative production of lactic acid. Under optimum condition lactic acid production was enhanced from 55.89 g/L to 84.50 g/L. Further, validation showed 81.50 g/L lactic acid production. Scale up was done on 7.5 L fermentor. Productivity was found to be 3.40 g/L/h which was higher than previous studies with reduced fermentation time from 24 h to 12 h. Further characterization of lactic acid was done by FTIR. PMID:26028739

  8. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2

    PubMed Central

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  9. Economical production of poly(?-glutamic acid) using untreated cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Hong

    2012-06-01

    The production of poly(?-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 from cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL) was studied for the first time in this work. When batch fermentation was carried out with untreated molasses, 33.6±0.37 g L(-1) PGA was obtained with a productivity of 0.46±0.006 g L(-1) h(-1). In order to minimize the substrate inhibition, fed-batch fermentation was performed with untreated or hydrolyzed molasses in 7.5 L bioreactor, giving 50.2±0.53 and 51.1±0.51 g L(-1) of PGA at 96 h, respectively. Further studies were carried out by using MGWL as another carbon source, resulting in a PGA concentration of 52.1±0.52 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.54±0.003 g L(-1) h(-1). These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and MGWL can be used for the environmental-friendly and economical production of PGA by B. subtilis NX-2. PMID:22465581

  10. High-level production of heterologous proteins using untreated cane molasses and corn steep liquor in Escherichia coli medium.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qi; Li, Ximu; Yan, Ming; Cao, Hou; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yueyuan; Chen, Yong; Xiong, Jian; Ouyang, Pingkai; Ying, Hanjie

    2010-06-01

    To develop an economical industrial medium, untreated cane molasses (UCM) was tested as a carbon source for fermentation culturing of Escherichia coli. To test the industrial application of this medium, we chose a strain co-expressing a carbonyl reductase (PsCR) and a glucose dehydrogenase (BmGDH). Although corn steep liquor (CSL) could be used as an inexpensive nitrogen source to replace peptone, yeast extract could not be replaced in E. coli media. In a volume of 40 ml per 1-l flask, a cell concentration of optical density (OD(600)) 15.1 and enzyme activities of 6.51 U/ml PsCR and 3.32 U/ml BmGDH were obtained in an optimized medium containing 25.66 g/l yeast extract, 3.88 g/l UCM, and 7.1% (v/v) CSL. When 3.88 g/l UCM was added to the medium at 6 h in a fed-batch process, the E. coli concentration increased to OD(600) of 24, and expression of both PsCR and BmGDH were twofold higher than that of a batch process. Recombinant cells from batch or fed-batch cultures were assayed for recombinant enzyme activity by testing the reduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate to ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate (CHBE). Compared to cells from batch cultures, fed-batch cultured cells showed higher recombinant enzyme expression, producing 560 mM CHBE in the organic phase with a molar yield of 92% and an optical purity of the (S)-isomer of >99% enantiomeric excess. PMID:20309539

  11. Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Bodhisatta; Rathore, Ankita; Srivastava, Saurav; Shekhawat, Mitali; Srivastava, Pradeep

    2011-04-01

    Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation time) for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using Box-Behnken experimental design and genetic algorithm (GA). An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to analyze the effects of the process parameters on ethanol production. The data obtained after performing the experiments based on statistical design was utilized for regression analysis and analysis of variance studies. The regression equation obtained after regression analysis was used as a fitness function for the genetic algorithm. The GA optimization technique predicted a maximum ethanol yield of 59.59 g/L at temperature 31 °C, pH 5.13, initial TRS concentration 216 g/L and fermentation time 44 h. The maximum experimental ethanol yield obtained after applying GA was 58.4 g/L, which was in close agreement with the predicted value. PMID:21336926

  12. Modeling the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse: extension of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Ernesto L; Spanjers, Henri; Solon, Kimberly; Amerlinck, Youri; Nopens, Ingmar; Dewulf, Jo

    2015-03-15

    This research presents the modeling of the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse, hereby extending the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater. Based on a sensitivity analysis, four parameters of the original ADM1 and all sulfate reduction parameters were calibrated. Although some deviations were observed between model predictions and experimental values, it was shown that sulfates, total aqueous sulfide, free sulfides, methane, carbon dioxide and sulfide in the gas phase, gas flow, propionic and acetic acids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH were accurately predicted during model validation. The model showed high (±10%) to medium (10%-30%) accuracy predictions with a mean absolute relative error ranging from 1% to 26%, and was able to predict failure of methanogenesis and sulfidogenesis when the sulfate loading rate increased. Therefore, the kinetic parameters and the model structure proposed in this work can be considered as valid for the sulfate reduction process in the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse when sulfate and organic loading rates range from 0.36 to 1.57 kg [Formula: see text]  m(-3) d(-1) and from 7.66 to 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. PMID:25589435

  13. Artificial intelligence based modeling and optimization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production process by using Azohydromonas lata MTCC 2311 from cane molasses supplemented with volatile fatty acids: a genetic algorithm paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Mohd; Kumar, Shashi; Kumar, Surendra; Dhiman, Amit K

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the optimization of medium variables for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] by Azohydromonas lata MTCC 2311 using cane molasses supplemented with propionic acid. Genetic algorithm (GA) has been used for the optimization of P(3HB-co-3HV) production through the simulation of artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM). The predictions by ANN are better than those of RSM and in good agreement with experimental findings. The highest P(3HB-co-3HV) concentration and 3HV content have been reported as 7.35 g/l and 16.84 mol%, respectively by hybrid ANN-GA. Upon validation, 7.20 g/l and 16.30 mol% of P(3HB-co-3HV) concentration and 3HV content have been found in the shake flask, whereas 6.70 g/l and 16.35 mol%, have been observed in a 3 l bioreactor, respectively. The specific growth rate and P(3HB-co-3HV) accumulation rate of 0.29 per h and 0.16 g/lh determined with cane molasses are comparable to those observed on pure substrates. PMID:22074908

  14. Modeling and optimization of poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) production from cane molasses by Azohydromonas lata MTCC 2311 in a stirred-tank reactor: effect of agitation and aeration regimes.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Mohd; Kumar, Shashi; Kumar, Surendra; Dhiman, Amit K

    2012-07-01

    The effects of agitation and aeration rates on copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] production by Azohydromonas lata MTCC 2311 using cane molasses supplemented with propionic acid in a bioreactor were investigated. The experiments were conducted in a three-level factorial design by varying the impeller (150-500 rev min(-1)) and aeration (0.5-1.5 vvm) rates. Further, the data were fitted to mathematical models [quadratic polynomial equation and artificial neural network (ANN)] and process variables were optimized by genetic algorithm-coupled models. ANN and hybrid ANN-GA were found superior for modeling and optimization of process variables, respectively. The maximum copolymer concentration of 7.45 g l(-1) with 21.50 mol% of 3HV was predicted at process variables: agitation speed, 287 rev min(-1); and aeration rate, 0.85 vvm, which upon validation gave 7.20 g l(-1) of P(3HB-co-3HV) with 21 mol% of 3HV with the prediction error (%) of 3.38 and 2.32, respectively. Agitation speed established a relative high importance of 72.19% than of aeration rate (27.80%) for copolymer accumulation. The volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (k (L) a) was strongly affected by agitation and aeration rates. The highest P(3HB-co-3HV) productivity of 0.163 g l(-1) h(-1) was achieved at 0.17 s(-1) of k (L) a value. During the early phase of copolymer production process, 3HB monomers were accumulated, which were shifted to 3HV units (9-21%) during the cultivation period of 24-42 h. The enhancement of 7.5 and 34% were reported for P(3HB-co-3HV) production and 3HV content, respectively, by hybrid ANN-GA paradigm, which revealed the significant utilization of cane molasses for improved copolymer production. PMID:22361743

  15. General Subject 4, Molasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A report is given on the lastest international trends in the analysis of molasses for trade and processing, as well as recommendations for methods to study. A new enzymatic method to measure reducing sugars in molasses still needs work to stabilize the enzymes. There is a strong concern, worldwide...

  16. Molasses for Fattening Cattle.

    E-print Network

    Craig, John A. (John Alexander); Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert)

    1906-01-01

    about the same 3 during the period, while of those ~teers previously fed a medium sses ration, those that continued to eat molasses made much larger gains than those from which the molasses was withdrawn. After July 12th, no more molasses was fed... ~iles over a single line of railroad is 26 cents per hundred pounds. In ~nk cars the rate is 1.2 cents per hunclrecl ponncls from Sugarlancl to lallas ancl San Antonio, and simiIar rates are quoted from other points. 11 the molasscs usecl in our...

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Ghasem D; Shan, Cheong Poi

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic studies of the enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses were conducted using glucoamylase. Central Sugar Refinery SDN BHD contains 13-20% glucose. The molasses was diluted and the kinetic experiments were conducted at 67 degrees C with 100-1000 mg/l of glucoamylase. The glucose contents of the molasses were enhanced after hydrolysis of molasses solution with 1000 mg/l glucoamylase. A Lineweaver-Burk plot was obtained based on enzyme kinetic data. The rate constant, Km and maximum reaction rate, Vmax for 500 mg/l of glucoamylase were 100 mmol/l (18 g/l) and 5 mmol/l min (0.9 g/l min), respectively. The maximum reaction rate, Vmax for 1000 mg/l of glucoamylase was doubled, to 100 mmol/l (18 g/l) and the rate constant, Km was the same for 500 mg/l of glucoamylase. The substrate inhibition model was noncompetitive based on the resulting Lineweaver-Burk plot for enzyme concentration of 500 and 1000 mg/l. PMID:12421015

  18. Molasses for ethanol: The economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Molasses for ethanol: The economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol Anand R Gopal1,4,6 and Daniel M Kammen1,2,3,5 1 Energy supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol; fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian

  19. Molasses-based growth and production of oil and astaxanthin by Chlorella zofingiensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Junchao; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the industrial waste cane molasses as a carbon source for cell growth, lipid and astaxanthin production of Chlorella zofingiensis. Pretreated with cation exchange resin to remove the metal ions, cane molasses provided better productivities of biomass, lipid, and astaxanthin (1.55, 0.71 g L(-1)day(-1) and 1.7 mg L(-1)day(-1), respectively) than glucose. Using a strategy of semi-continuous cultures coupled with feeding at a low concentration, molasses without pretreatment has the same effect as pretreated one on supporting the algal cell growth, lipid and astaxanthin production. The efficient metabolism of molasses triggered the up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid and also astaxanthin biosynthesis, leading to the very high production of the two metabolites. This study highlights the possibility of using C. zofingiensis to deal with industrial wastes and to produce profitable biodiesel as well as the high-value astaxanthin. PMID:22221991

  20. Effect of molasses-based liquid supplements on digestibility of creeping bluestem and performance of mature cows on winter range.

    PubMed

    Kalmbacher, R S; Brown, W F; Pate, F M

    1995-03-01

    Poor quality of tropical range forage leads to excessive weight loss and poor reproductive performance of beef cows. This research measured 1) the digestibility by steers fed creeping bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium var. stoloniferum) diets supplemented with cane molasses (0 or 20% of diet DM) and(or) added CP (no added CP, urea, or soybean meal) and 2) the performance of mature cows grazing creeping bluestem range and supplemented with 1.6 kg/(cow.d) (DM basis) of either molasses-urea or molasses-cottonseed meal-urea, each containing 30% CP (DM basis). Bluestem averaged 4.7% CP and 37.0% in vitro OM digestion. In the digestion trial, diets supplemented with molasses had greater (P < .01) apparent OM digestibility but lower (P < .01) apparent NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose digestibilities than diets not supplemented with molasses. Apparent OM digestibility of diets supplemented with soybean meal was greater (P < .05) than that of diets supplemented with urea but not different (P > .05) from the control. While grazing range, mature cows supplemented with molasses-urea lost less (P < .05) body condition (-1.7 vs -1.3) than cows supplemented with molasses-cottonseed meal-urea. Treatment did not affect cow weight loss on range (P = .85) or pregnancy rate (P = .51). Cows supplemented with molasses-urea tended to wean a heavier calf (P = .09). When fed at 1.6 kg/(cow.d) to mature cows grazing range, a molasses-based supplement containing urea was of equal value to one containing a natural protein. PMID:7608020

  1. Flavonoid glycosides and limonoids from Citrus molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanori Kuroyanagi; Hiromi Ishii; Nobuo Kawahara; Hiroyuki Sugimoto; Hideo Yamada; Kiyoshi Okihara; Osamu Shirota

    2008-01-01

    Molasses of tangerine orange (Citrus unshiu Markovich) is obtained as a waste product in the course of tangerine orange juice production. This molasses is expected to\\u000a be a useful source of organic compounds such as flavonoids and limonoids. To elucidate a use for this molasses waste, we isolated\\u000a and identified its organic constituents. Two new flavanonol glycosides were isolated from

  2. OLIGOSACCHARIDES IN CANE AND THEIR FORMATION ON CANE DETERIORATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cane deterioration in the field, factory storage pile, or during factory milling processes has become a major technical concern in recent years, especially in those areas where mechanical harvesting of billeted sugar cane has increased. Not all deterioration products advocated as cane deterioratio...

  3. Sugarcane molasses and yeast powder used in the Fructooligosaccharides production by Aspergillus japonicus-FCL 119T and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611.

    PubMed

    Dorta, Claudia; Cruz, Rubens; de Oliva-Neto, Pedro; Moura, Danilo José Camargo

    2006-12-01

    Different concentrations of sucrose (3-25% w/v) and peptone (2-5% w/v) were studied in the formulation of media during the cultivation of Aspergillus japonicus-FCL 119T and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. Moreover, cane molasses (3.5-17.5% w/v total sugar) and yeast powder (1.5-5% w/v) were used as alternative nutrients for both strains' cultivation. These media were formulated for analysis of cellular growth, beta-Fructosyltransferase and Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) production. Transfructosylating activity (U ( t )) and FOS production were analyzed by HPLC. The highest enzyme production by both the strains was 3% (w/v) sucrose and 3% (w/v) peptone, or 3.5% (w/v) total sugars present in cane molasses and 1.5% (w/v) yeast powder. Cane molasses and yeast powder were as good as sucrose and peptone in the enzyme and FOS (around 60% w/w) production by studied strains. PMID:16835781

  4. Flavonoid glycosides and limonoids from Citrus molasses.

    PubMed

    Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Ishii, Hiromi; Kawahara, Nobuo; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Hideo; Okihara, Kiyoshi; Shirota, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Molasses of tangerine orange (Citrus unshiu Markovich) is obtained as a waste product in the course of tangerine orange juice production. This molasses is expected to be a useful source of organic compounds such as flavonoids and limonoids. To elucidate a use for this molasses waste, we isolated and identified its organic constituents. Two new flavanonol glycosides were isolated from tangerine orange molasses, along with several flavonoids such as hesperidine, narirutin, eriodictyol, 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxyflavone, and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy- 3-beta-D-[4-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaloyl)]-glucopyranosyloxyflavone, and limonoids such as limonin, nomilin, and cyclic peptide, citrusin III. The structures of the new flavanonol glycosides were determined as (2R,3R)-7-O-(6-O-alpha-L-rahmnopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-aromadendrin and 7-O-(6-O-alpha-L-rahmnopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3,3',5,7-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone by means of spectral analyses using (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and 2D-NMR. Of these compounds, flavanone glycoside, hesperidin and narirutin were isolated as the main constituents. Thus, molasses is a promising source of flavonoid glycosides. PMID:18404354

  5. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Anand R.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-10-01

    Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant number in Brazil, manufacture most of their ethanol from molasses, a low value co-product of raw sugar. Several producers in these countries have the capacity to export ethanol to California, but the GREET (from: greenhouse gas, regulated emissions and energy use in transportation) model, which is the LCA (lifecycle assessment) model of choice for most biofuel regulators including California, does not currently include this production pathway. We develop a modification to GREET to account for this pathway. We use the upstream and process lifecycle results from the existing GREET model for Brazilian ethanol to derive lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for ethanol manufactured from any combination of molasses and fresh cane juice. We find that ethanol manufactured with only molasses as a feedstock with all other processes and inputs identical to those of the average Brazilian mill has a lifecycle GHG (greenhouse gas) rating of 15.1 gCO2- eq MJ-1, which is significantly lower than the current California-GREET assigned rating of 26.6 gCO2- eq MJ-1. Our model can be applied at any level of granulation from the individual factory to an industry-wide average. We examine some ways in which current sugarcane producers could inaccurately claim this molasses credit. We discuss methods for addressing this in regulation.

  6. Mathematical model for prediction of apparent viscosity of molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan To?rul; Nurhan Arslan

    2004-01-01

    The rheological properties of molasses with or without added ethanol were studied using a rotational viscometer at several temperatures (45–60 °C), different amounts of added ethanol in molasses–ethanol mixture per 100 g of molasses (1–5%) and rotational speed ranging from 4.8 to 60 rpm. Flow behaviour index of less than one confirmed pseudoplasticity (n=0.756–0.970). The power law model was found

  7. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

  11. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

  12. Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder

    E-print Network

    Ang, Dexter W

    2005-01-01

    The Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder compresses carbonized sugar cane into charcoal briquettes. that are environmentally-friendly and comparable to wood charcoal in burn performance, cost, and durability. Originally developed ...

  13. Neural Network Modelling of Reference Purity of Cuban Molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. O. Gozá; C. H. Kazemian; C. J. Hormaza; C. R. Santana

    Summary The purity of molasses is a very important process variable in sugar manufacturing. It depends on many factors, both external (related to agriculture) and internal (related to the industry). In order to assess the purity of molasses, a benchmark is necessary, not only for sugar factories but also for ethanol distilleries. This is generally available in the form of

  14. Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2012-01-01

    Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane

  15. Production of poly--hydroxybutyrate on molasses by recombinant

    E-print Network

    Gu, Tingyue

    applications. Despite many cost-cutting efforts in the past few years, the price of ``Biopol'' (a commercial the possibility of adding beet molasses as the sole carbon and energy source to a mineral medium to produce PHB

  16. Community Structure Evolution and Enrichment of Glycogen-Accumulating Organisms Producing Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Fermented Molasses?

    PubMed Central

    Pisco, Ana R.; Bengtsson, Simon; Werker, Alan; Reis, Maria A. M.; Lemos, Paulo C.

    2009-01-01

    An open mixed culture was enriched with glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) by using a sequencing batch reactor and treating an agroindustrial waste (sugar cane molasses) under cyclic anaerobic-aerobic conditions. Over a 1-year operating period, the culture exhibited a very stable GAO phenotype with an average polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) content of 17% total suspended solids. However, the GAO microbial community evolved over the course of operation to a culture exhibiting unusual characteristics in producing PHAs comprised of short-chain-length monomers, namely, 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate, 3-hydroxyvalerate, and 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate, and also, up to 31 mol% of the medium-chain-length (MCL) monomer 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx). Microbial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed a concurrent long-term drift in the GAO community balance, from mainly “Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis” to mainly Defluviicoccus vanus-related organisms. The production of 3HHx was confirmed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and appeared to be related to the increased presence of D. vanus-related GAOs. These results suggest a broadened spectrum of material, chemical, and mechanical properties that can be achieved for biopolymers produced by open mixed cultures from fermented waste. The increased spectrum of polymer properties brings a wider scope of potential applications. PMID:19465533

  17. Japanese Sugar Cane as a Forage Crop. 

    E-print Network

    Leidigh, A. H. (Arthur Henry); McNess, George Thomas; Laude, H. H. (Hilmer Henry)

    1916-01-01

    short. It stools or suckers much more freely than do the other varieties of sugar cane, single plants having as many as seventy-five stalks. In Texas, if the crop is not harvested, the above-ground growth is killed by freezes. The part of the stalk.... This flood necessitated the replanting of all ordinary crops. Japanese sugar cane did not have to be replanted. The newly planted cane was just coming up and the sprouts that had not emerged from the ground were killed but those already up were uninjured...

  18. Utilization of beet molasses as a grinding aid in blended cements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojian Gao; Yingzi Yang; Hongwei Deng

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the viability of using beet molasses as a grinding aid for blended cements with high volumes of mineral admixtures. Different ratios of beet molasses (0.01–0.05% by weight of cement) were added into a blended cement containing 41% of fly ash and GBFS. The influence of beet molasses on performances of blended cement was studied by comparing with

  19. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  20. Drop-Off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection…

  1. Biohydrogen production from beet molasses by sequential dark and photofermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebru Özgür; Astrid E. Mars; Begüm Peksel; Annemarie Louwerse; Meral Yücel; Ufuk Gündüz; Pieternel A. M. Claassen; ?nci Ero?lu

    2010-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production using renewable resources is a promising possibility to generate hydrogen in a sustainable way. In this study, a sequential dark and photofermentation has been employed for biohydrogen production using sugar beet molasses as a feedstock. An extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was used for the dark fermentation, and several photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodobacter capsulatus wild type, R. capsulatus hup? mutant,

  2. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

  3. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

  4. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

  5. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

  6. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

  10. Human Factor Analysis of Long Cane Design: Weight and Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2005-01-01

    In a series of experiments, canes of different lengths, weights, and weight distributions were assessed to determine the effect of these characteristics on various performance measures. The results indicate that the overall weight of a cane and the distribution of weight along a cane's shaft do not affect a person's performance, but accuracy does…

  11. Original article Simulation of the maximum yield of sugar cane

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Simulation of the maximum yield of sugar cane at different altitudes: effect - To minimize the production costs of sugar cane, for the diverse sites of production found in La Réunion. Existing mod- els simulate poorly the temperature-radiation interaction. A model of sugar cane growth has

  12. Integrated treatment of molasses distillery wastewater using microfiltration (MF).

    PubMed

    Basu, Subhankar; Mukherjee, Sangeeta; Kaushik, Ankita; Batra, Vidya S; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2015-08-01

    To achieve zero-liquid discharge, high pressure reverse osmosis (RO) of effluent is being employed by molasses based alcohol distilleries. Low pressure and thus less energy intensive microfiltration (MF) is well established for particulate separation but is not suitable for removal of dissolved organics and color. This work investigates two schemes incorporating MF for molasses distillery wastewater (a) chemical coagulation followed by treatment in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) using MF and (b) electrocoagulation followed by MF. The performance was assessed in terms of COD and color reduction; the conversion of the generated sludge into a zeolite desiccant was also examined. A comparison of the schemes indicates electrocoagulation followed by MF through a 0.1 ?m membrane to be most effective. By hydrothermal treatment, electrocoagulated sludge can be transformed into a porous NaX zeolite with a surface area of 86 m(2)/g, which is comparable to commercial desiccants. PMID:25956444

  13. What is SmartCane ? SmartCane device is an electronic mobility aid which fits on the top fold of the white

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Subhashis

    of the white cane. It serves as an enhancement to white cane and overcomes its limitations by detecting knee SmartCane device is very beneficial. It protects me from a lot of upper body injuries which I earlier

  14. ioCane: A Smart-Phone and Sensor-Augmented Mobility Aid for the Blind

    E-print Network

    Han, Richard Y.

    ioCane: A Smart-Phone and Sensor-Augmented Mobility Aid for the Blind Ben Leduc-Mills, Halley, the ioCane is the first sensor-based mobility assistance system to integrate natively with a mobile phoneCane, a mobility aid for blind cane users that uses de- tachable cane-mounted ultrasonic sensors connected to a cir

  15. Invitro Digestion and Fermentation Characteristics of Temulose Molasses, a Co-Product of Fiberboard Production, and Select Temulose Fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is of interest to discover new fermentable carbohydrates sources that function as prebiotics. This study evaluated the hydrolytic digestibility, fermentative capacity, and microbiota modulating properties of temulose molasses, four hydrolyzed fractions of temulose molasses, short-chain fructooli...

  16. GS4 Molasses ICUMSA (International Commission for Uniform Methods in Sugar Analysis) Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A report is given on international trade methods for molasses. At the present time there is a need to replace lead acetate clarification agent used in the determination of sucrose in molasses samples, in Europe and other parts of the world. The report discusses possible replacements for lead aceta...

  17. A radiochemical, hydrochemical and dissolved gas study of groundwaters in the Molasse basin of Upper Austria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Andrews; J. E. Goldbrunner; W. G. Darling; P. J. Hooker; G. B. Wilson; M. J. Youngman; L. Eichinger; W. Rauert; W. Stichler

    1985-01-01

    The Innviertel (Ottnangian) formation of the Molasse zone of Upper Austria is of major importance as a source of potable water. A hydrochemical, radiochemical and dissolved gas study was undertaken to establish the flow pattern in the Innviertel and its relationship to groundwaters in deeper formations in the Molasse basin. The Innviertel groundwaters could be differentiated into three groups on

  18. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section...Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the...

  19. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section...Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the...

  20. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section...Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the...

  1. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section...Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the...

  2. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section...Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the...

  3. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of ?-amylase, ?-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  4. The Estimation of Salt and Molasses in Mixed Feeds 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1931-01-01

    for estimating chlorides in feeds, calculated to salt, based upon the use of picric acid as a precipitant for interfering substances and titration with silver nitrate. It .also describes a method for molasses, based upon the estimation of sugars in the mixed.... Acljust so that 20 cc. of the silvrr nitrate solution equals 10 cc. of the 0.2 N acid. Keep in an amher or dark-colored bottle. Potassium or sodium chromate. Dissolve five grams in 100 cc. of dis- tilled water. Estimation Weigh 5.85 gm. of the feed...

  5. Production of ethanol from sugar cane

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, F.W.

    1982-04-20

    An integrated process is provided for producing ethanol from sugar cane. Harvested cane is chopped and shredded to provide a mass of fiber and juice which is digested in a first digester with a hemicellulase enzyme. Fibrous residue is separated by centrifuge and passed to a second digester for digestion with a mixed culture of a cellulase enzyme and an ethanol-producing culture. Fibrous residue from is pressed to provide a recycle juice extract and then burned to provide at least part of the heat energy requirement of the process. Juice extracts from digesters separated by centrifuges are combined, sterilized, flashed and passed to a fermentor for fermentation with an ethanol-producing microorganism. Ethanol is recovered from the process by separation utilizing a membrane.

  6. Novel strategy using an adsorbent-column chromatography for effective ethanol production from sugarcane or sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Ken-ichi; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yohei; Sakamoto, Hironobu; Takigami, Machiko; Kojima, Yasuyoshi

    2009-10-01

    Molasses-based distilleries generate large volumes of a highly polluted and dark brown-colored wastewater. The present work describes the way in which an adsorbent-column chromatography can effectively remove the colorant and produce biomass ethanol from sugarcane or sugar beet molasses. It was found that the color and chemical oxygen demand of the resulting wastewater was respectively reduced by approximately 87% and 28% as compared with conventional molasses fermentation. Gas chromatography showed that the decolorized molasses maintained good ethanol productivity almost equal to that of the original molasses. Furthermore, it was revealed that the colorant concentrations of about 5 mg ml(-1) in the medium were the most favorable for ethanolic fermentation. In summary, we have concluded that this method is the most effective when the adsorbent chromatography is performed just before molasses fermentation and that the decolorized molasses is an ideal substrate for fuel ethanol production. PMID:19467586

  7. Fractionation of orange peel phenols in ultrafiltered molasses and mass balance studies of their antioxidant levels.

    PubMed

    Manthey, John A

    2004-12-15

    Orange peel molasses, a byproduct of juice production, contains high concentrations of phenols, including numerous flavanone and flavone glycosides, polymethoxylated flavones, hydroxycinnamates, and other miscellaneous phenolic glycosides and amines. Extensive fractionation of these phenols was achieved by adsorption, ion exchange, and size exclusion chromatography. Size exclusion chromatography effectively separated the different classes of flavonoids in ultrafiltered molasses, including the polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone-O-trisaccharides, flavanone- and flavone-O-disaccharides, and, finally, flavone-C-glycosides. Mass spectral analysis of the early-eluting flavonoid fractions off the size exclusion column revealed a broad collection of minor-occurring flavone glycosides, which included, in part, glycosides of limocitrin, limocitrol, and chrysoeriol. Most hydroxycinnamates in the molasses were recovered by ion exchange chromatography, which also facilitated the recovery of fractions containing many other miscellaneous phenols. Total antioxidant levels and total phenolic contents were measured for the separate categories of phenols in the molasses. Inhibition of the superoxide anion reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium showed that a significant amount of the total antioxidant activity in orange peel molasses was attributable to minor-occurring flavones. The miscellaneous phenolic-containing fractions, in which a large portion of the total phenolic content in molasses occurred, also constituted a major portion of the total antioxidants in ultrafiltered molasses. PMID:15675808

  8. Evaluation of new energy cane varieties for Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in U.S bioenergy markets may offer an alternative source of income for Louisiana sugarcane growers. High-fiber sugarcane or energy cane varieties are currently being developed. As with traditional sugarcane varieties, energy-cane varieties need to be evaluated across the sugarca...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment may use only beet sugar to fill such allocation. A sugarcane processor allocated a share of the cane sugar allotment may use only cane sugar to fill such allocation. [67 FR...

  10. Invasive Cane Toads have been featured prominently in

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Invasive Cane Toads have been featured prominently in the news this summer, and were responsible failed. Experts believe that the invasive Cane Toads found in Florida today were introduced when a shipment of 100 toads from Colombia, intended for the pet trade, escaped at the Miami Air- port in 1955

  11. Can high quality cane be delivered to the mill economically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cane quality is becoming increasingly important to the Louisiana sugarcane industry, with some processors offering premiums for high quality cane. Using a Cameco® 3500, we tested ground speeds of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 mph and fan speeds of 650, 850, and 1050 rpm. Ground speed had no effect on can...

  12. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  13. Haygrazers and Canes for South Texas 

    E-print Network

    Livingston, Stephen; Bade, David H.; Dorsett, Donald J.

    2001-02-22

    after emergence. Grazers may also be planted in the fall for quick forage production. Hybrid Selection. ?Redtop Cane: This is a sorghum-cross also known as Early Sumac. It provides lots of bulk and is moderately fast in growth, but it has prussic acid... lots of bulk with very fast production. Sorghum Almum is basically an annual, but it is a very weak perennial in growth habit and has limited rhizomes. ?Hybrid Pearl Millet: This hybrid will resist yellowing (more iron-efficient plant), while being...

  14. Lightweight Acoustic Classification for Cane-Toad Thanh Dang and Nirupama Bulusu

    E-print Network

    Bulusu, Nirupama

    Lightweight Acoustic Classification for Cane-Toad Monitoring Thanh Dang and Nirupama Bulusu.hu@csiro.au Abstract--We propose a light weight algorithm to classify cane- toads, a non-native invasive amphibian application motivating our work is the detection of cane-toads in northern Australia. The cane-toad, a non

  15. Effects of processing factors on in vitro ammonia release from cooked molasses blocks containing urea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Trater; E. C. Titgemeyer; J. S. Drouillard; J. N. Pike

    2003-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate effects of processing factors on in vitro release of ammonia by ruminal microbes from cooked molasses blocks containing urea. Blocks were manufactured in a scraped-surface, steam-jacketed cooking vessel. Molasses was poured into the vessel, and the pH was adjusted. Other ingredients then were added, and cooking was initiated. Vapors were removed with mild vacuum

  16. Optimization of xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris grown in molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stavros Kalogiannis; Gesthimani Iakovidou; Maria Liakopoulou-Kyriakides; Dimitrios A Kyriakidis; George N Skaracis

    2003-01-01

    Xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 1395 using sugar beet molasses as carbon source was studied. The pre-treatment of sugar beet molasses and the supplementation of the medium were investigated in order to improve xanthan gum production. Addition of K2HPO4 to the medium had a significant positive effect on both xanthan gum and biomass production. The medium was subsequently

  17. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-08-01

    Sugarcane grown as energy cane presents a new potential to the Caribbean countries to provide their own energy needs and to reduce or eliminate fuel oil imports. The use of proper agronomic techniques can convert conventional sugarcane growing to a crop capable of giving energy feedstocks in the form of fiber for boiler fuel for electricity and fermentable solids for alcohol for motor fuel. Sugarcane can still be obtained from the energy cane for domestic consumption and export if desired. The aerable land now devoted to sugarcane can utilized for energy-cane production without causing any serious imbalance in food crop production.

  18. Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

    This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas are…

  19. Clastogenicity of landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse.

    PubMed

    da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Hencklein, Fabiana Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The addition of nutrients and/or soil bulking agents is used in bioremediation to increase microbial activity in contaminated soils. For this purpose, some studies have assessed the effectiveness of vinasse in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum waste. The present study was aimed at investigating the clastogenic/aneugenic potential of landfarming soil from a petroleum refinery before and after addition of sugar cane vinasse using the Allium cepa bioassay. Our results show that the addition of sugar cane vinasse to landfarming soil potentiates the clastogenic effects of the latter probably due the release of metals that were previously adsorbed into the organic matter. These metals may have interacted synergistically with petroleum hydrocarbons present in the landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse. We recommend further tests to monitor the effects of sugar cane vinasse on soils contaminated with organic wastes. PMID:22580848

  20. 10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  1. 17. Photocopy of c. 1922 photograph of cane field tractor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of c. 1922 photograph of cane field tractor developed and patented by Mr. Arsenaud of Laurel Valley Plantation; Claiborne Toups, overseer, is standing on the left. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  2. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  3. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.

  4. Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A. [Environmental Genomics Unit, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India)], E-mail: aa_khardenavis@neeri.res.in; Vaidya, Atul N. [Solid Waste Management Unit, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India); Kumar, M. Suresh [Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India); Chakrabarti, Tapan [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India)

    2009-09-15

    Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 29). PHB production yield (Y{sub p/s}) was highest (0.184 g g{sup -1} COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

  5. Kinetics of Reductive Leaching of Low-grade Pyrolusite with Molasses Alcohol Wastewater in H 2SO 4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haifeng SU; Huaikun LIU; Fan WANG; Xiaoyan LÜ; Yanxuan WEN

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of reductive leaching of manganese from low grade pyrolusite in dilute sulfuric acid in the presence of molasses alcohol wastewater was investigated. The shrinking core model was applied to quantify the effects of reaction parameters on leaching rate. The leaching rate increases with reaction temperature, concentrations of H2SO4 and organic matter in molasses alcohol wastewater increase and ore

  6. Value of feather meal in a molasses-based liquid supplement fed to yearling cattle consuming a forage diet.

    PubMed

    Pate, F M; Brown, W F; Hammond, A C

    1995-10-01

    Hydrolyzed feather meal (FM) was compared to other sources of CP to determine its value as a protein source in a molasses-based liquid supplement. Ruminal N escape values (measured in situ) for FM, ring-dried blood meal, cottonseed meal, and soybean meal approximated reported values. Ruminal N escape value for catfish meal was lower than values reported for other fish meals. In two trials (194 d), 84 yearling heifers were allotted to 12 pastures (3 pastures/treatment) and fed one of four supplements (1.7 kg of DM.heifer-1.d-1) containing either molasses and urea; molasses, urea,and FM; molasses, urea, FM, and catfish meal; or molasses, urea, FM, and catfish oil. Heifers were exposed to bulls for 60 d. In two trials, 112 steers were allotted to 16 pastures (4 Pastures/treatment) and fed one of four supplements (1.7 kg of DM.steer-1.d-1) containing molasses and urea; molasses, urea and FM; molasses, urea, FM and ring-dried poultry blood meal; or molasses, urea, and poultry feathers and blood hydrolyzed together. In all trials, cattle fed molasses containing FM had faster gains (P < .05) and heifers had heavier live weights at breeding (P < .05) and higher pregnancy rates (P < .05) than cattle fed molasses and urea. Combining poultry blood with molasses, urea, and FM improved (P < .05) steer gains in one of two trials. Combining catfish meal with molasses, urea, and FM did not improve (P > .05) ADG of pregnancy rate of heifers. Combining catfish oil with molasses, urea, and FM increased (P < .05) ADG in one trial and blood cholesterol and live weight of heifers at breeding in both trials. It is concluded that protein feeds, such as FM, that contain a large portion of ruminally undegradable protein may provide much of the CP in liquid supplements fed to growing cattle consuming moderate-quality forage. Adding catfish oil to a liquid supplement may improve ADG and live weight of yearling heifers at breeding. PMID:8617655

  7. Collimation of a thulium atomic beam by two-dimensional optical molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sukachev, D D; Kalganova, E S; Sokolov, A V; Savchenkov, A V; Vishnyakova, G A; Golovizin, A A; Akimov, A V; Kolachevsky, Nikolai N; Sorokin, Vadim N

    2013-04-30

    The number of laser cooled and trapped thulium atoms in a magneto-optical trap is increased by a factor of 3 using a two-dimensional optical molasses which collimated the atomic beam before entering a Zeeman slower. A diode laser operating at 410.6 nm was employed to form optical molasses: The laser was heated to 70 Degree-Sign C by a two-step temperature stabilisation system. The laser system consisting of a master oscillator and an injection-locked amplifier emitted more than 100 mW at 410 nm and had a spectral linewidth of 0.6 MHz. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  8. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

  9. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

  10. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF DOMESTIC CACHAA (SUGAR-CANE SPIRITS) FROM MINAS GERAIS APPLYING PRINCIPAL

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF DOMESTIC CACHAÇA (SUGAR-CANE SPIRITS) FROM MINAS GERAIS APPLYING@iqm.unicamp.br The increasing in the consumption of sugar cane spirits ­ the cachaça ­ with good quality and the possibility

  11. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  12. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

  13. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  14. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

  15. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

  16. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

  17. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

  18. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

  19. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

  20. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

  1. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

  2. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

  3. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  4. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  5. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

  6. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

  7. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

  8. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

  9. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

  10. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

  11. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

  12. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

  13. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  14. Sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek, Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek in Lauderdale County, Tennessee, was conducted from 1985-88 to evaluate the potential for channel erosion induced by modifications (realignment and enlargement) and the potential ability of different flows to move bed and bank stabilizing material. Frequently occurring flows in Cane Creek are capable of moving sand-size material (0.0625 - 4.0 millimeters). During floods that equal or exceed the 2-year flood, Cane Creek is capable of moving very coarse gravel (32 - 64 millimeters). Boundary-shear values at bridges, where flow contractions occur, correspond to critical diameters in excess of 100 millimeters. Thus, the areas near bridges, where channel stability is most critical, are the areas where erosive power is greatest. Deepening and widening of Cane Creek has exposed large areas of channel boundary that are a significant source of raindrop-detached sediment during the early stages of a storm before stream flow increases signifi- cantly. This causes suspended-sediment concentration to peak while the flow hydrograph is just beginning to rise. For basins like Cane Creek, where runoff events commonly last less than a day and where variation in discharge and sediment concentrations are large, an estimate of sediment yield based on periodic observations of instantaneous values is subject to considerable uncertainty.

  15. Cane-toad Monitoring in Kakadu National Park Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Bulusu, Nirupama

    Cane-toad Monitoring in Kakadu National Park Using Wireless Sensor Networks Saurabh Shukla School This paper considers the problem of monitoring cane toads in Kakadu National Park using a large scale wireless sen- sor network deployment. Cane toads were mistakenly intro- duced in Australia in 1935

  16. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits. Emeric Bouin

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits. Emeric Bouin Vincent Calvez-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia [28]. The population of toads is structured phenomena in a model for the invasion of cane toads in Australia, proposed in [4]. It is a structured

  17. Assessment of Virally Vectored Autoimmunity as a Biocontrol Strategy for Cane Toads

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Assessment of Virally Vectored Autoimmunity as a Biocontrol Strategy for Cane Toads Jackie A Background: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. Methodology

  18. Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Sensor Network for Cane Toad Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Bulusu, Nirupama

    4 Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Sensor Network for Cane Toad Monitoring WEN HU Commonwealth the populations of native frogs and the invasive introduced species, the cane toad. This is a challenging on improving the lifetime of the sensor network for cane toad monitoring through harvesting-aware sensor duty

  19. The Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Sensor Network For Cane-toad Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Bulusu, Nirupama

    The Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Sensor Network For Cane-toad Monitoring Wen Hu, Van Nghia frogs and the invasive introduced species, the Cane Toad (see Fig. 1). This is a challenging application complexity. Fig. 1. The Cane Toad and its 2003 Australian distribution. I. INTRODUCTION This paper explores

  20. Demo Abstract: A Hybrid Sensor Network for Cane-toad Nirupama Bulusu

    E-print Network

    Bulusu, Nirupama

    Demo Abstract: A Hybrid Sensor Network for Cane-toad Monitoring Wen Hu Nirupama Bulusu Chun Tung frogs and the invasive in- troduced species, the Cane Toad (see Fig. 1). This is a challenging, Design, Experimentation Keywords: Sensor Networks, Hybrid, Application Figure 1: The Cane Toad and its

  1. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits. Emeric Bouin

    E-print Network

    Calvez, Vincent

    Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits. Emeric Bouin Vincent Calvez June describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia [30]. The population of toads is structured by a space phenomena in a model for the invasion of cane toads in Australia, proposed in [5]. It is a structured

  2. The influence of treatments upon the nutritive value of sugar cane residues

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The influence of treatments upon the nutritive value of sugar cane residues F Ojeda Estacion, Matanzas, Cuba Cuba produces 108 ton/year of sugar cane residues i.e. top leaves and straws. However. Our study consisted in treating the sugar cane residues with urea-generated ammonia, and adding fresh

  3. Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  4. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of functional components from sugar beet molasses. The central composite design (CCD) was used for the optimisation of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and anthocyanins. Result suggested the optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from sugar beet molasses were as follows: HCl concentration 1.55-1.72 mol/L, ethanol concentration 57-63% (v/v), extraction temperature 41-48 °C, and extraction time 66-73 min. In the optimal conditions, the experimental total phenolic contents were 17.36 mg GAE/100mL, antioxidant activity was 16.66 mg TE/g, and total anthocyanins were 31.81 mg/100g of the sugar beet molasses extract, which were well matched the predicted values. Teen compounds, i.e. gallic acid, vanillin, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucuronide and ferulic acid were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS in sugar beet molasses. PMID:25442590

  5. Simplified soy molasses-based medium for reduced-cost production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simplified medium containing only soy molasses and oleic acid as ingredients was developed for the production of sophorolipids (SLs) from Candida bombicola. We achieved a product yield of 53 plus/minus 3 g of purified sophorolipids per liter of starting culture volume, which is 71 plus/minus 4% o...

  6. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Temulose" is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in south-eastern Texas. Becaus...

  7. Performance of a two-stage methane digestor for alcohol stillage derived from sugarcane molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. K. Cho

    1983-01-01

    Summary The production of biogas with 52% methane from anaerobic fermentation of the alcohol stillage derived from sugarcane molasses has been studied using a two-stage digestor. Gas productivity of 0.4 m3\\/KgCOD day with four days of hydraulic retention time was much better than the reported holding times between 10 to 15 days with a single digestor.

  8. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Temulose” is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in southeastern Texas. Because...

  9. Quantum wave function simulation of the resonance fluorescence spectrum from one-dimensional optical molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Marte; R. Dum; R. Taïeb; P. D. Lett; P. Zoller

    1993-01-01

    Using recently developed quantum wave function techniques, we have performed a simulation of 85Rb atoms in a one-dimensional optical molasses, formed from counterpropagating laser beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. Both internal and external degrees of freedom are treated quantum mechanically in one dimension and the spectrum of resonance fluorescence is calculated and compared to recent experiments. Excellent agreement is obtained

  10. Comparitive study of copper reduction, chromatographic and enymatic methods to determine reducing sugars in molasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With more processing of sugarcane or sugarbeet for fuel alcohol production, there is an increasing emphasis on the minimizing of losses from fermentable reducing sugars to improve alcohol yields. Consequently, methods to measure reducing sugars in molasses and other sugar products have become more ...

  11. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  12. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...reassigned as provided in § 1435.309, a processor may fill an allocation of a cane sugar allotment only with sugar processed from sugarcane grown in the State for which the allotment was established. [67 FR 54928, Aug. 26, 2002. Redesignated and...

  13. A hybrid sensor network for cane-toad monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Hu; Nirupama Bulusu; Chun Tung Chou; Sanjay Jha; Andrew Taylor; Van Nghia Tran

    2005-01-01

    This demonstration shows a wireless, acoustic sensor network application--- monitoring amphibian populations in the monsoonal woodlands of northern Australia. Our system uses automatic recognition of animal vocalizations to census the populations of native frogs and the invasive introduced species, the Cane Toad (see Fig. 1). This is a challenging application because it requires high frequency acoustic sampling, complex signal processing

  14. Assessing the Potential Impact of Cane Toads on Australian Snakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BEN L. PHILLIPS; GREGORY P. BROWN; RICHARD SHINE

    2003-01-01

    Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are large, highly toxic anurans that were introduced into Australia in 1937. Anecdotal reports suggest that the invasion of toads into an area is followed by dramatic declines in the abundance of terrestrial native frog-eating predators, but quantitative studies have been restricted to nonpredator taxa or aquatic predators and have generally reported minimal impacts. Will toads

  15. Active reliable multicast on CANEs: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sanders; M. Keaton; S. Bhattacharjee; K. Calvert; S. Zabele; E. Zegura

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in implementing a moderately complex, useful service on an active network platform. The active application is reliable multicast with congestion control; the platform comprises the Bowman Node Operating System and the Composable Active Network Elements (CANEs) Execution Environment. The importance of the work stems from the lessons it provides about the design and implementation

  16. Mechanical planter update: 2007 Bayou Teche test plant cane results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanization of cane planting has been somewhat limited, due to the fact that the entire 4-5 ft stalk must be planted horizontally in the seedbed. Several modifications were made to mechanical planters by a grower cooperator. To test the modifications, a replicated field trial was planted on Augus...

  17. Simultaneous determination of aging markers in sugar cane spirits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Wendel Batista de Aquino; Sueli Rodrigues; Ronaldo Ferreira do Nascimento; Antônio Renato Soares Casimiro

    2006-01-01

    In this work a method for simultaneous determination of 10 representative compounds in sugar cane spirits is reported. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds: gallic acid; vanillic acid; syringic acid; vanilin; syringaldehyde; coniferaldehyde; sinapaldehyde and coumarin; and the furanic aldehydes: 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural and furfural were simultaneously quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. These compounds, together with acids, aldehydes

  18. 'SMART' CANE FOR THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED: TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR DETECTING

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Subhashis

    'SMART' CANE FOR THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED: TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR DETECTING KNEE-ABOVE OBSTACLES detection range, and (ii) User-triggered bus identification and homing system using radio-frequency (RF. User-Triggered Bus Identification and Homing System This device consists of two modules: (i) User

  19. Structured Discovery in Cane Travel: Constructivism in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Matthew M.; Bell, Edward C.; Woods, Eric; Allen, Roland

    2006-01-01

    There is a general sense today that constructivist teaching is not up to the task of preparing students for high-stakes exams. In this article, the authors describe a highly effective constructivist approach used to teach students in a learning situation that takes the meaning of "high stakes" to another level. They talk about teachers of "cane

  20. Smoking, caning, and delinquency in a secondary modern school.

    PubMed

    Palmer, J W

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed in 1962 to investigate the reformative effect of a particular punishment (caning) for a particular offence (smoking by schoolboys). In 1964, in the course of a larger study of juvenile offences, delinquency records were obtained from the police, and the relationship between smoking and delinquency is also discussed in this paper. PMID:25599693

  1. Nitrogen utilization and performance of pigs given diets containing a dried or undried fermented blood\\/molasses mixture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B M'ncene; J. K Tuitoek; H. K Muiruri

    1999-01-01

    The effect of feeding either a dried or undried fermented blood\\/molasses (80:20 w\\/w) mixture to pigs as a source of nitrogen was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, twelve pigs (initial weight 20.6, sd 0.05kg) were randomly assigned to one of two treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement with main effects being form of fermented blood\\/molasses mixture (dried versus

  2. Short communication: Effects of molasses supplementation on performance of lactating cows fed high-alfalfa silage diets.

    PubMed

    Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A

    2014-02-01

    Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated Latin square experiment to determine the effect of adding dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets on dairy cow performance. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated with a 68:32 forage:concentrate ratio, with alfalfa silage as the only forage source. Dietary treatments were a control diet with no added molasses and 3 and 6% dried molasses diets. Three lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation. Dietary treatments had no effect on dry matter (average 23.3 kg/d), crude protein (average 4.4 kg/d), or neutral detergent fiber (average 7.4 kg/d) intake. Milk yield, energy-corrected milk (average 35.4 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (average 33.8 kg/d) were not influenced by dietary treatments. Cows fed the control diet produced milk with less milk urea nitrogen concentration than those fed molasses-supplemented diets. Ruminal pH, NH3-N concentration, and total volatile fatty acids were not different among dietary treatments. The molar proportion of acetate linearly increased, whereas the molar proportion of propionate linearly decreased as the level of dried molasses increased. It was concluded that addition of dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets at 6% of the diet (dry matter basis) increased milk urea nitrogen but had no effect on animal performance. PMID:24315324

  3. Quantum interference-enhanced deep sub-Doppler cooling of 39 K atoms in gray molasses

    E-print Network

    Dipankar Nath; R Kollengode Easwaran; G. Rajalakshmi; C. S. Unnikrishnan

    2013-09-04

    We report enhanced sub-Doppler cooling of the bosonic atoms of $^{39}$K facilitated by formation of dark states tuned for the Raman resonance in the $\\Lambda-$configuration near the D1 transition. Temperature of about 12 $\\mu$K is achieved in the two stage D2-D1 molasses and spans a very large parameter region where quantum interference persists robustly. We also present results on enhanced radiation heating with sub-natural linewidth (0.07$\\Gamma$) and signature Fano like profile of a coherently driven 3-level atomic system. The Optical Bloch Equations relevant for the three-level atom in bichromatic light field is solved with the method of continued fractions to show that cooling occurs only for a small velocity class of atoms, emphasizing the need for pre-cooling in D2 molasses stage.

  4. Production of mycelia and exo-biopolymer from molasses by Cordyceps sinensis 16 in submerged culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Cha; J. S. Lim; C. S. Yoon; J. H. Koh; H. I. Chang; S. W. Kim

    2007-01-01

    The molecular weight of exo-biopolymer obtained from a submerged culture of Cordyceps sinensis 16 consisted of a main unit and a subunit of 126 and 68kDa, respectively. The optimal medium for the production of mycelia and exo-biopolymer was determined to be molasses containing 2% sucrose, 0.9% yeast extract, 0.3% K2HPO4, and 0.4% CaCl2. Using optimized medium, maximum productions of mycelia

  5. Study of sugarcane pieces as yeast supports for ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Liang; Yuan-ping Zhang; Li Zhang; Ming-jun Zhu; Shi-zhong Liang; Yu-nan Huang

    2008-01-01

    Due to the environmental concerns and the increasing price of oil, bioethanol was already produced in large amount in Brazil\\u000a and China from sugarcane juice and molasses. In order to make this process competitive, we have investigated the suitability\\u000a of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AS2.1190 on sugarcane pieces for production of ethanol. Electron microscopy clearly showed that cell immobilization\\u000a resulted

  6. Experience in using an ethanol sensor to control molasses feed-rates in baker's yeast production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Axelsson; C. F. Mandenius; O. Holst; P. Hagander; B. Mattiasson

    1988-01-01

    An ethanol sensor has been tested for feed-rate control of baker's yeast prouction. The yeast was grown on molasses in an 8 dm3 fed-batch reactor up to a cell concentration of 60–70 kg\\/m3. Studies were made on three levels: reliability of the sensor system, characterisation of the control problem, and evaluation of ethanol-controlled cultivations in terms of yield and production

  7. Effect of sucrose concentration on the products of Kombucha fermentation on molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Malbaša; E. Lon?ar; M. Djuri?; I. Došenovi?

    2008-01-01

    Fermentation of 1.5g\\/l of Indian black tea, sweetened with adequate quantities of molasses (containing approx. 70g\\/l, 50g\\/l and 35g\\/l of sucrose), was conducted using domestic Kombucha. Inoculation was performed with 10% of fermentation broth from a previous process. The fermentation in cylindrical vessels containing 2l of liquid phase, was carried out at 22±1°C for 14 days, with periodical sampling, to

  8. Comparison of the products of Kombucha fermentation on sucrose and molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Malbaša; E. Lon?ar; M. Djuri?

    2008-01-01

    Fermentation of 1.5g\\/L of Indian black tea, sweetened either with 70g\\/L of sucrose or an adequate quantity of three kinds of molasses, was conducted by domestic Kombucha (Acetobacter strains in symbiosis with Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bisporus, Torulopsis sp. and Zygosaccharomyces sp.). Inoculation was performed with 10% of fermentation broth from the previous process. The fermentation in cylindrical vessels

  9. Hollow fiber membrane fouling and cleaning in a membrane bioreactor for molasses wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinxin Yan; Ron Gerards; Luc Virens; Ivo Vankelecom

    2010-01-01

    The limitation of membrane microfi ltration for activated sludge wastewater treatment is membrane fouling which is indicated by the decline of the permeation flux. In this study, molasses were used to prepare a synthetic feed substrate with addition of urea (NH2) 2CO and sodium pyrophosphate Na4PO4 to adjust the COD:N:P ratio. A polyethersulfone hollow fiber membrane was operated under the

  10. Production of fructose and ethanol from sugar beet molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36858.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Hasan; Duvnjak, Zdravko

    2002-01-01

    The production of enriched fructose syrups and ethanol from beet molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36858 was studied. In batch experiments with a total sugar concentration between 94.9 and 312.4 g/L, the fructose yield was above 93% of the theoretical value. The ethanol yield and volumetric productivity in the beet molasses media with sugar concentration below 276.2 g/L were in the range of 59-76% of theoretical value and between 0.48 and 2.97 g of ethanol/(L x h), respectively. The fructose fraction in the carbohydrates content of the produced syrups was more than 95% when the total initial sugar concentration in the medium was below 242.0 g/L. Some oligosaccharides and glycerol were also produced in all tested media. Raffinose and the produced oligosaccharides were completely consumed by the end of the fermentation process when the total initial sugar concentration was below 190.1 g/L. The glycerol concentration was below 16.1 g/L. The results could be useful for a potential industrial production of ethanol and high-fructose syrup from sugar beet molasses. PMID:11934290

  11. Changes in quality of sugar-cane juice upon delayed extraction and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yusof; L. S. Shian; A. Osman

    2000-01-01

    The quality of sugar-cane juice extracted from stored canes, as well as changes in quality of fresh juice stored at different temperatures, were studied. Cane stems were stored at 10±1°C, 85–88% relative humidity (RH) and 27±1°C, 55–85% RH, while fresh juice was stored at 5±1°C, 61–84% RH and 27±1°C, 55–85% RH. The physicochemical parameters evaluated were juice yield, juice colour,

  12. Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Glen Allen; Lance Cameron Kam; Andreas Joseph Zemann; Michael Jerry Antal

    1996-01-01

    Sugar-cane bagasse and leaves (10--15 g oven-dry basis) were fractionated without size reduction by a rapid (45 s to 4 min), immersed percolation using only hot (190--230 C), compressed (P > P{sub sat}), liquid water (0.6--1.2 kg). Over 50% of the biomass could be solubilized. All of the hemicellulose, together with much of the acid-insoluble lignin in the bagasse (>60%),

  13. High pressure water jet cutting of sugar cane 

    E-print Network

    Valco, Thomas Donald

    1977-01-01

    : Agricultural Engineering HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET CUTTING OF SUGAR CANE A Thesis by THOMAS DONALD VALCO Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Charlie G. Coble (Chairman of Committee) Dr. Edward A. Haler (Head of Department) Mr. William H. Aldred... encourage- ment to test the idea. Two companies which were involved in the tests were: Flow Research, Inc. and McCartney Engineering. Both have developed industrial high pressure water jet cutting equipment. OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE The first objective...

  14. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...

  15. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...

  16. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...

  17. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...

  18. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...

  19. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

  20. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

  1. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

  2. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

  3. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

  4. Sweetpotato vines hydrolysate promotes single cell oils production of Trichosporon fermentans in high-density molasses fermentation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Fan, Xiaoping; Yang, Yuyi; Zhao, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the co-fermentation of molasses and sweetpotato vine hydrolysate (SVH) by Trichosporon fermentans. T. fermentans showed low lipid accumulation on pure molasses; however, its lipid content increased by 35% when 10% SVH was added. The strong influence of SVH on lipid production was further demonstrated by the result of sensitivity analysis on effects of factors based on an artificial neural network model because the relative importance value of SVH dosage for lipid production was only lower than that of fermentation time. Scanning electron microscope observation and flow cytometry of yeast cells grown in culture with and without SVH showed that less deformation cells were involved in the culture with SVH. The activity of malic enzyme, which plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis, increased from 2.4U/mg to 3.7U/mg after SVH added. All results indicated SVH is a good supplement for lipid fermentation on molasses. PMID:25461010

  5. Design and Optimization of a Process for Sugarcane Molasses Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Madian, Hekmat R; Amr, Salem S Abu

    2013-01-01

    A statistical model was developed in this study to describe bioethanol production through a batch fermentation process of sugarcane molasses by locally isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-39. Response surface methodology RSM based on central composite face centered design CCFD was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for maximum bioethanol production and study the significance and interaction of incubation period, initial pH, incubation temperature, and molasses concentration on bioethanol yield. With the use of the developed quadratic model equation, a maximum ethanol production of 255?g/L was obtained in a batch fermentation process at optimum operating conditions of approximately 71?h, pH 5.6, 38°C, molasses concentration 18%?wt.%, and 100?rpm. PMID:24222769

  6. Design and Optimization of a Process for Sugarcane Molasses Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Amr, Salem S. Abu

    2013-01-01

    A statistical model was developed in this study to describe bioethanol production through a batch fermentation process of sugarcane molasses by locally isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-39. Response surface methodology RSM based on central composite face centered design CCFD was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for maximum bioethanol production and study the significance and interaction of incubation period, initial pH, incubation temperature, and molasses concentration on bioethanol yield. With the use of the developed quadratic model equation, a maximum ethanol production of 255?g/L was obtained in a batch fermentation process at optimum operating conditions of approximately 71?h, pH 5.6, 38°C, molasses concentration 18%?wt.%, and 100?rpm. PMID:24222769

  7. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

  8. A wireless ranging system as an embedded sensor module for the long cane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Gao; Xiaofeng Cai

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a ultrasound-based wireless ranging system that is suited for integration into the shaft of a conventional long cane to serve as a travel aid for the blind. The new cane provides distance and height information on overhanging obstacles in the travel path ahead of the user. The system consists of three ultrasonic

  9. How to manage sugar cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season....

  10. Knowledge of and Preferences for Long Cane Components: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose-Zaken, Grace

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the various components of long canes and reports on a study of the knowledge and preferences of 100 adults with visual impairments regarding the various components and types of canes. Results indicated that the terrain of a route, weather conditions, mobility demand, and purpose of an outing are important…

  11. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spiritsB

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar. Keywords: Coffee; Sugar-cane spirit; Chemometrics; Pattern recognition 1. Introduction Globalization has

  12. Modelling species distributions without using species distributions: the cane toad in Australia under current and future climates

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Modelling species distributions without using species distributions: the cane toad in Australia this approach with a major invasive species, the cane toad Bufo marinus in Australia, assessing the direct predictions of the potential for cane toads to expand their range under current and future climate scenarios

  13. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fiber Paper

    E-print Network

    into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fiber Paper Ryan Carniato, Shariful Islam, Chun-Jiun Wang, Wilson Yeung Investigation into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fibre Paper Ryan Carniato Shariful Islam Chun-Jiun Wang Wilson Yeung method to compare wood fibre paper and sugar cane paper's economic, environmental, and social aspects

  14. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Sugar Cane and Wood Fiber Paper at UBC

    E-print Network

    into Sugar Cane and Wood Fiber Paper at UBC Scott Gerun, Martin Rios, Scott Muscroft, Ahmed Almansour An Investigation into Sugar Cane and Wood Fiber Paper at UBC - FINAL REPORT - Group Members Scott Gerun Martin Rios, Supply Management is considering a shift to paper made from sugar canes utilizing TreeFrog as a sole

  15. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: May 11, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

  16. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country...

  17. Nutrient digestibility and protein utilization by heifers and steers fed high molasses-urea diets 

    E-print Network

    Pina, Angel Modesto

    1973-01-01

    TABLE 14. MEAN VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS CONCENTRATION IN RUMEN FLUID FROM STEERS FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FISH MEAL (MOLES PERCENT). Fish meal level, g/100 kg body wt. Acetic Propionic Eutyric 80 71. 0 +0 7. 35 +0 19. 15 +0 120 65 78 +1. 8 15. 54 +4. 7... 14) was higher than the concentration of propionic acid for all three fish meal levels. These results are consist- ent enough to state that the rumen fermentation pattern induced by high molasses diets is quite different from the typical forage...

  18. Erosion processes in molassic cliffs: the role of the rock surface temperature and atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrea, Dario; Abellán, Antonio; Guerin, Antoine; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Voumard, Jérémie

    2014-05-01

    The morphology of the Swiss Plateau is modeled by numerous steep cliffs of Molasse. These cliffs are mainly composed of sub-horizontal alternated layers of sandstone, shale and conglomerates deposed in the Alps foreland basin during the Tertiary period. These Molasse cliffs are affected by erosion processes inducing numerous rockfall events. Thus, it is relevant to understand how different external factors influence Molasse erosion rates. In this study, we focus on analyzing temperature variation during a winter season. As pilot study area we selected a cliff which is formed by a sub-horizontal alternation of outcropping sandstone and shale. The westward facing test site (La Cornalle, Vaud, Switzerland), which is a lateral scarp of a slow moving landslide area, is currently affected by intense erosion. Regarding data acquisition, we monitored both in-situ rock and air temperatures at 15 minutes time-step since October 2013: (1) on the one hand we measured Ground Surface Temperature (GST) at near-surface (0.1 meter depth) using a GST mini-datalogger M-Log5W-Rock model; (2) On the other hand we monitored atmospheric conditions using a weather station (Davis Vantage pro2 plus) collecting numerous parameters (i.e. temperature, irradiation, rain, wind speed, etc.). Furthermore, the area was also seasonally monitored by Ground-Based (GB) LiDAR since 2010 and monthly monitored since September 2013. In order to understand how atmospheric conditions (such as freeze and thaw effect) influence the erosion of the cliff, we modeled the temperature diffusion through the rock mass. To this end, we applied heat diffusion and radiation equation using a 1D temperature profile, obtaining as a result both temperature variations at different depths together with the location of the 0°C isotherm. Our model was calibrated during a given training set using both in-situ rock temperatures and atmospheric conditions. We then carried out a comparison with the rockfall events derived from the 3D GB-LiDAR datasets in order to quantify the erosion rates and to correlate it with atmospheric conditions, aiming to analyze which parameters influence Molasse erosion process.

  19. A novel UASB–MFC–BAF integrated system for high strength molasses wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baogang Zhang; Huazhang Zhao; Shungui Zhou; Chunhong Shi; Chao Wang; Jinren Ni

    2009-01-01

    An up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor–microbial fuel cell–biological aerated filter (UASB–MFC–BAF) system was developed for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and molasses wastewater treatment in this study. The maximum power density of 1410.2mW\\/m2 was obtained with a current density of 4947.9mA\\/m2 when the high strength molasses wastewater with chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 127,500mg\\/l was employed as the influent. The total COD,

  20. Sugar cane as an energy resource for the Caribbean area

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, J.E.

    1982-09-01

    Sugar cane presents tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil-producing, developing countries of the Caribbean basin. The analysis presented here, finds the overall energy balance to be extremely favorable. The economics are also favorable, even though capital investment requirements are high. Potential for improvement, in both the energy balance and the economic aspects, is very great. Such improvement is attainable by the development of new technology, which could be available in the short term and at moderate cost. (Refs. 8).

  1. Mark A. Cane Receives 2013 Maurice Ewing Medal: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philander, S. George

    2014-01-01

    Mark Cane started his career when theories for the ocean circulation were "dreamlike" (in the words of Henry Stommel). He made major contributions to a complete change in those perceptions by producing theoretical results that explain and by developing computer models that simulate realistically the variability of the complex system of tropical currents, undercurrents, and countercurrents. His results served as the basis for the design of several international field programs in the three tropical oceans whose different dimensions and different surface winds provide stringent tests for the results concerning the interactions between the waves and currents that determine how the oceans adjust to changing winds.

  2. Effect of sucrose concentration on the products of Kombucha fermentation on molasses.

    PubMed

    Malbaša, R; Lon?ar, E; Djuri?, M; Došenovi?, I

    2008-06-01

    Fermentation of 1.5g/l of Indian black tea, sweetened with adequate quantities of molasses (containing approx. 70g/l, 50g/l and 35g/l of sucrose), was conducted using domestic Kombucha. Inoculation was performed with 10% of fermentation broth from a previous process. The fermentation in cylindrical vessels containing 2l of liquid phase, was carried out at 22±1°C for 14 days, with periodical sampling, to measure pH, content of acids (total, acetic and l-lactic), content of remaining sucrose, and the yield of biomass at the end of fermentation. A product with 70g/l sucrose from molasses corresponds to an optimal concentration of carbon source, which provided metabolites with high pH, a low content of less desired acetic acid, a high content of highly desired l-lactic acid, an acceptable content of total acids and the highest possible level of utilisation of sucrose. PMID:26065754

  3. Protective gloves on manual sugar cane cutting are really effective?

    PubMed

    Abrahão, R F; Gonzaga, M C; Braunbeck, O A

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), specially the use of protective gloves for the manual sugar cane cutting, motivated this research, made possible by a tripartite negotiation involving the Ministry of Labor, the Union of Rural Workers and the Employer's Association of sugarcane agribusiness. The main objective was to evaluate, from an ergonomics perspective, the impact of use of the gloves during the manual cane sugar cutting, raising questions on safety, effectiveness and comfort. The research was carried in a sugarcane industry of São Paulo for two seasons involving 47 workers who made a qualitative analysis of acceptance of four models of protective gloves. The methodology included the use of semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and field observations and the experimental determination of the coefficient of static friction developed between the gloves and the surfaces of the machete handle. The main results indicate the general inadequacy of the gloves currently used forcing the employees to improvise. Workers found the glove of leather and nylon scraping the best reported for comfort in use. The overall results highlight the problem of detachment of test standards for the manufacture of PPE, ignoring users and the activity to be performed. PMID:22317487

  4. The response of sheep to big bale grass silage ensiled with, or supplemented separately with, molassed sugar beet feed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Rouzbehan; H. Galbraith; J. H. Topps; J. A. Rooke

    1996-01-01

    Second cut big bale grass silage was prepared with grass ensiled alone or with added pelleted, molassed sugar beet feed (MSBF) at 32 or 64 g MSBF kg?1 fresh weight of grass. Addition of MSBF at ensilage increased silage dry matter (DM), water soluble carbohydrate and lactic acid concentrations and decreased ammonia concentration. When fed to wether lambs, MSBF addition,

  5. High-rate treatment of molasses wastewater by combination of an acidification reactor and a USSB reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Onodera; Shinya Sase; Pairaya Choeisai; Wilasinee Yoochatchaval; Haruhiko Sumino; Takashi Yamaguchi; Yoshitaka Ebie; Kaiqin Xu; Noriko Tomioka; Kazuaki Syutsubo

    2011-01-01

    A combination of an acidification reactor and an up-flow staged sludge bed (USSB) reactor was applied for treatment of molasses wastewater containing a large amount of organic compounds and sulfate. The USSB reactor had three gas-solid separators (GSS) along the height of the reactor. The combined system was continuously operated at mesophilic temperature over 400 days. In the acidification reactor,

  6. Nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation pattern in crossbred cattle fed different planes of nutrition supplemented with urea molasses mineral block

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Toppo; A. K. Verma; R. S. Dass; U. R. Mehra

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of the plane of nutrition on intake and nutrient utilization from urea molasses mineral blocks (UMMB) and rumen fermentation pattern, sixteen adult crossbred cattle were divided into four equal groups following a completely randomised design and fed individually for 60 days ad libitum with either wheat straw alone (Group I) or with wheat straw

  7. Decolorization of molasses spent wash by the white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus , isolated from a marine habitat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandralata Raghukumar; Gauri Rivonkar

    2001-01-01

    Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden, a basidiomycete (NIOCC strain 312) isolated from decomposing leaves of a sea grass, decolorized pigments in molasses spent wash (MSW) by 80% after 8 days of incubation, when used at concentrations of 10% and 50%. Decolorizing activity was also present in media prepared with half-strength seawater (equivalent to 15 ppt salinity). Decolorizing activity was seen in

  8. The effects of increasing the proportion of molasses in the diet of milking dairy cows on milk production and composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J Murphy

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the effects on milk production and composition of including different levels of molasses, which is a good source of rumen-fermentable energy, in the diet. The experiment was a balanced Latin square design with four treatments and four periods, each of 4 weeks duration. There were five squares using a total of 20

  9. Ethanol from sugar cane: flask experiments using the EX-FERM technique

    SciTech Connect

    Rolz, C.; Cabrera, S.

    1980-09-01

    Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level.

  10. Improvement of cell growth and L-lysine production by genetically modified Corynebacterium glutamicum during growth on molasses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Junlan; Guo, Yanfeng; Zai, Yugui; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-12-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and fructokinase (ScrK) have important roles in regenerating glucose-6-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and thus increasing L-lysine production. This article focuses on the development of L-lysine high-producing strains by heterologous expression of FBPase gene fbp and ScrK gene scrK in C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) with molasses as the sole carbon source. Heterologous expression of fbp and scrK lead to a decrease of residual sugar in fermentation broth, and heterologous expression of scrK prevents the fructose efflux. Heterologous expression of fbp and scrK not only increases significantly the activity of corresponding enzymes but also improves cell growth during growth on molasses. FBPase activities are increased tenfold by heterologous expression of fbp, whereas the FBPase activity is only increase fourfold during co-expression of scrK and fbp. Compared with glucose, the DCW of heterologous expression strains are higher on molasses except co-expression of fbp and scrK strain. In addition, heterologous expression of fbp and scrK can strongly increase the L-lysine production with molasses as the sole carbon source. The highest increase (88.4 %) was observed for C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-fbp-scrK, but the increase was also significant for C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-fbp (47.2 %) and C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-scrK (36.8 %). By-products, such as glycerol and dihydroxyacetone, are decreased by heterologous expression of fbp and scrK, whereas trehalose is only slightly increased. The strategy for enhancing L-lysine production by regeneration of glucose-6-phosphate in PPP may provide a reference to enhance the production of other amino acids during growth on molasses or starch. PMID:24029876

  11. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouin, Emeric; Calvez, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study propagation in a non-local reaction-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia (Phillips et al 2006 Nature 439 803). The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed c* of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait variable. An eigenvector arising from this eigenvalue problem gives the flavour of the profile at the edge of the front. The major difficulty is to obtain uniform L? bounds despite the combination of non-local terms and a heterogeneous diffusivity.

  12. Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Li, Yong-feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

  13. Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

  14. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

  19. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

  20. Direct determination of sugar cane quality parameters by X-ray spectrometry and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Melquiades, F L; Bortoleto, G G; Marchiori, L F S; Bueno, M I M S

    2012-10-31

    Current methods for quality control of sugar cane are performed in extracted juice using several methodologies, often requiring appreciable time and chemicals (eventually toxic), making the methods not green and expensive. The present study proposes the use of X-ray spectrometry together with chemometric methods as an innovative and alternative technique for determining sugar cane quality parameters, specifically sucrose concentration, POL, and fiber content. Measurements in stem, leaf, and juice were performed, and those applied directly in stem provided the best results. Prediction models for sugar cane stem determinations with a single 60 s irradiation using portable X-ray fluorescence equipment allows estimating the % sucrose, % fiber, and POL simultaneously. Average relative deviations in the prediction step of around 8% are acceptable if considering that field measurements were done. These results may indicate the best period to cut a particular crop as well as for evaluating the quality of sugar cane for the sugar and alcohol industries. PMID:23039086

  1. Geothermal field development in foreland basins: Case study Mauerstetten, Bavarian Molasse Basin (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, Inga; Jensch, Anna; Steiger, Thorsten; Stiller, Manfred; Tondera, Detlef; Blöcher, Guido

    2013-04-01

    Foreland basins with their increasing depth towards the orogenic front are ideal geologic systems for geothermal resources. The Bavarian Molasse Basin is an example where geothermal energy is being successfully developed mainly by industry. However, the predicted productivity is not achieved in all project sites because either temperature or flow rate or both are lower than expected. The case study Mauerstetten in the southwestern Bavarian Molasse Basin is one of the industry triggered projects where high temperature of over 150°C but insufficient flow rate dragged the overall project performance down. As research project, Mauerstetten is revived aiming to gain the relevant knowledge to develop a strategy to increase reservoir productivity. Within this framework structural geological and biostratigraphical analysis were combined with geomechanical tests. The structural geological analysis on 2D seismic sections revealed fossil normal faults in a strike slip to transpressional stress regime. Biostratigraphical analysis was undertaken on thin sections from wellbore cuttings to delineate appropriate analog outcrops for geomechanical tests to predict reservoir behavior under injection and production. Remarkably, the upper Jurassic Malm formation exhibits extremely high rock strength if Tubiphytes dominate the carbonate rock. Tubiphytes are encrusting and branching organisms associated with shallow-water sponge reefs rimmed along the continental margin of Laurasia towards the Tethys during Upper Jurassic. Other than coral dominated reef limestone, Tubiphyte-dominated limestone is expected to trigger a high self-propping effect along shear fractures due to its brittleness, and a low reactivation potential due to its high rock strength. Natural and artificial shear fractures are expected to be preferential flow pathways. Abnormal high injection pressure is necessary to induce slip in Tubiphytes limestone in the present-day stress field. Our study exemplifies that exploration of geothermal reservoirs is site-specific with distinct selection of appropriate methods as in this case structural geology, biostratigraphy and geomechanics. This approach should be considered for geothermal field development in foreland basins where facies and fractures control geoenergy systems in general.

  2. Quin's oval and other microbiota in the rumens of molasses-fed sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Vicini, J L; Brulla, W J; Davis, C L; Bryant, M P

    1987-01-01

    Two rumen-cannulated wether sheep were fed a diet containing 1 kg of a liquid-molasses mixture, 80 g of soybean oil meal, and 100 g of chopped wheat straw once a day. In 6 weeks and thereafter, the microbiota adapted such that Quin's oval, a very large bacterium, was present in huge numbers (11.3 X 10(10) and 1.3 X 10(10) ml-1 after 73 days). Direct microscopic counts were also done on small bacteria, moderate-sized Selenomonas spp., and small Entodinium spp., which were the only protozoa seen. After the necessary dilution of rumen contents to make the microbial cells visible, Quin's ovals were seen to be much smaller in sheep 1 than in sheep 2. Most-probable-number estimates indicated that Methanobrevibacter spp. were present at 10(7) ml-1, Methanosarcina spp. were present at 10(3) ml-1, and Eubacterium limosum-like bacteria were present at 10(5) to 10(6) ml-1. In the adapted sheep, the dry portion of the diet was rapidly consumed, but the molasses mixture was consumed over a 9- to 10-h period. Volatile fatty acids in the rumen were present in very low amounts just prior to feeding and were much higher during the consumption of the diet, with about a 1:1 molar ratio of propionate to acetate between 1 and 9 h after feeding. Data were obtained on hourly feed consumption, levels of volatile fatty acids, and pH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:3300549

  3. Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating sustainable bioenergy policies.

  4. Production and characterization of PHA from recombinant E. coli harbouring phaC1 gene of indigenous Pseudomonas sp. LDC-5 using molasses

    PubMed Central

    Saranya, V.; Shenbagarathai, R.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable and biocompatible green thermoplastics, synthesized by wide variety of bacteria as an intracellular carbon and energy storage intermediate. They are used as an alternative to nonrenewable petroleum derived plastics. The current interest in these biopolyesters is stimulated by the search for cost-effective capitalized production. This paper attempts to achieve maximized production rate from recombinant system using inexpensive substrate. Molasses from agro-industrial waste was used to produce PHA from recombinant E.coli in batch culture. PHA yield in molasses (3.06g/L ± 0.05?75.5%) was higher than that of sucrose (2.5g/L ± 0.05 - 65.1%). Properties of the polymer produced from molasses and sucrose were analyzed by DSC, TGA, DTA, GC/MS, TLC and optical rotation studies. The findings suggested that molasses enhanced PHA production in recombinant E.coli. PMID:24031729

  5. Production of ethanol from the mixture of beet molasses and cheese whey by a 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutant of Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yuji; Nakamura, Kenji

    2009-08-01

    Fourteen lactose-fermenting strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus, including its anamorph, Candida kefyr, were grown in two media containing 20% (w/v) sugar as either beet molasses or cheese whey. Strain NBRC 1963 of K. marxianus converted sucrose and lactose to ethanol in both media most efficiently. However, ethanol was produced from sucrose and not from lactose by strain NBRC 1963 in the medium containing equal amounts of sugar from beet molasses and cheese whey. The spontaneous mutants resistant to 2-deoxyglucose in the minimal medium composed of galactose as the sole carbon source were isolated from strain NBRC 1963. Among them, strain KD-15 vigorously produced ethanol in the media containing beet molasses, cheese whey, or both. The mutant strain KD-15 was insensitive to catabolite repression, as shown by the observation that beta-galactosidase was not repressed in the presence of sucrose from beet molasses. PMID:19456875

  6. Slipping cane and crutch tips. Part I--static performance of current devices.

    PubMed

    Bennett, L; Murphy, E F

    1977-01-01

    A variety of commercially available cane and crutch tips were tested on surfaces of ice and soapy tile under varying axial (thrust) loads. The output measurement consisted of the angle between the vertical and the cane axis at which slip occurred. It was learned that: 1. From the viewpoint of a user, a minimal slip angle of roughly 25 deg is desirable. 2. On ice-rink ice, a number of cane tips approach the desired slip angle under conditions of low temperature; fewer appear safe at elevated air temperatures. Only one of the tested devices appears truly safe under any ice condition. 3. On rough tile flooded with soapy water, some cane tips offer adequate performance. However, no tested cane tip offers acceptable performance on slick tile flooded with soapy water. 4. There appears to be no simple relationship between the slip performance of a cane tip on ice-rink ice and that developed on soapy wet tiles. 5. No simple relationship between thrust load and slip angle emerged. Similarly, no simple relationship between contact area and slip appeared in the data. PMID:615654

  7. Nutrient utilization and milk yield response of early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes fed on urea–molasses treated wheat straw fermented with cattle manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Aasif Shahzad; M. Nisa; M. Sarwar

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the influence of urea–molasses treated wheat straw (WS) fermented with cattle manure (CM) with 4% urea and 4% molasses incubated for 40days on its chemical composition and varying substitution levels of fermented wheat straw (FWS) with concentrate on nutrients intake and their digestibilities, milk yield and its composition in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Twenty early lactating

  8. Clay Cane is a New York City-based, award-winning writer and media consultant. His work covers various topics such as pop culture, sexuality, race, religion, social net-

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    Clay Cane Clay Cane is a New York City-based, award-winning writer and media consultant. His work social commen- tary website, www.ClayCane. net, a 2007 and 2008 Black Weblog Awards nominee. The College

  9. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  10. Characterization and Culture on Sugarcane Molasses of Gordonia Polyisoprenivorans CCT 7137, a New Strain Isolated from Contaminated Groundwater in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Fusconi; Mirna Januária Leal Godinho; Nelma Regina Segnini Bossolan

    2005-01-01

    Summary  The actinomycete strain Lg, which was isolated from groundwater contaminated with leachate flowing out of a former municipal\\u000a landfill site (upstate São Paulo, Brazil) and found to produce exopolysaccharides, was analysed by polyphasic taxonomy. The\\u000a growth of this strain on sugarcane molasses, at various concentrations from 2% to 10%, and on the standard glucose-yeast-maltose\\u000a (GYM) medium was observed by monitoring

  11. Continuous separation of sugarcane molasses with a simulated moving-bed adsorber. Adsorption equilibria, kinetics, and application

    SciTech Connect

    Saska, M.; Mei Di Wu; Clarke, S.J.; Iqbal, K. (Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Fundamental chromatographic properties are reported that are related to the industrial separation of sugarcane molasses in a simulated moving-bed adsorber. The distribution coefficients of KCL, sucrose, glucose, and fructose on XUS-40166.00 (K[sup +]) cation exchanger were determined by pulse testing to be 0.00, 0.22, 0.45, and 0.50 at infinite dilution at 70 C. The adsorption isotherm of KCl is quadratic; those of the sugars only slightly nonlinear and dependent on KCl concentration. HETP was found to be independent of fluid velocity for KCl in the range of the interstitial velocity of 5 to 35 cm/min, and increasing with v for sucrose. At high fluid velocities the broadening of the sucrose band in a packed bed comes primarily from intraparticle mass transfer, with axial dispersion and film diffusion playing minor roles. The process for separation of sugarcane molasses was demonstrated on a 47 liter, eight-column simulated moving-bed adsorber. A theoretical, staged model of the simulated moving-bed adsorber with one inert totally excluded and three linearly adsorbing components was found to give an excellent representation of the transient and steady-state behavior of the continuous separation of sugarcane molasses.

  12. Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose, and molasses.

    PubMed

    Sharifia, Mahnaz; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2008-11-01

    The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by the enzyme invertase. The fungus efficiently grew on glucose and fructose and produced ethanol in synthetic media or from molasses. The cultivations were carried out aerobically and anaerobically, and manipulated toward filamentous or yeast-like morphology. Ethanol was the major metabolite in all the experiments. The ethanol yield in anaerobic cultivations was between 0.35 and 0.48 g/g sugars consumed, depending on the carbon source and the growth morphology, while a yield of as low as 0.16 g/g was obtained during aerobic cultivation. The yeast-like form of the fungus showed faster ethanol production with an average productivity of 0.90 g/l h from glucose, fructose and inverted sucrose, than the filamentous form with an average productivity of 0.33 g/l h. The biomass of the fungus was also analyzed with respect to alkali-insoluble material (AIM), chitin, and chitosan. The biomass of the fungus contained per g maximum 0.217 g AIM and 0.042 g chitosan in yeast-like cultivation under aerobic conditions. PMID:18712551

  13. Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Boddey, R.M. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Agrobiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1995-05-01

    The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric CO{sub 2} or, consequently, to global warming. However, these advantages are negated if large quantities of fossil fuels need to be used to grow or process the biofuel crop. In this regard, the Brazilian bioethanol program, based on the fermentation/distillation of sugar cane juice, is particularly favorable, not only because the crop is principally hand harvested, but also because of the low nitrogen fertilizer use on sugar cane in Brazil. Recent {sup 15}N and N balance studies have shown that in some Brazilian cane varieties, high yields are possible without N fertilization because the plants are able to obtain large contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated biological N{sub 2} fixation (BNF). The N{sub 2}-fixing acid-tolerant bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus was first found to occur within roots, stems, and leaves of sugar cane. Subsequently, two species of Herbaspirillum also have been found to occur within the interior of all sugar cane tissues. The discovery of these, and other N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria that survive poorly in soil but thrive within plant tissue (endophytic bacteria), may account for the high BNF contributions observed in sugar cane. Further study of this system should allow the gradual elimination of N fertilizer use on sugar cane, at least in Brazil, and opens up the possibility of the extension of this efficient N{sub 2}-fixing system to cereal and other crops with consequent immense potential benefits to tropical agriculture. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Do invasive cane toads affect the parasite burdens of native Australian frogs??

    PubMed Central

    Lettoof, Damian C.; Greenlees, Matthew J.; Stockwell, Michelle; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    One of the most devastating impacts of an invasive species is the introduction of novel parasites or diseases to native fauna. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia contain several types of parasites, raising concern that the toads may increase rates of parasitism in local anuran species. We sampled cane toads and sympatric native frogs (Limnodynastes peronii, Litoria latopalmata, and Litoria nasuta) at the southern invasion front of cane toads in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW). We dissected and swabbed these anurans to score the presence and abundance of nematodes (Rhabdias lungworms, and gastric encysting nematodes), myxozoans, and chytrid fungus. To determine if cane toad invasion influences rates of parasitism in native frogs, we compared the prevalence and intensity of parasites in frogs from areas with toads, to frogs from areas without toads. Contrary to the situation on the (rapidly-expanding) tropical invasion front, cane toads on the slowly-expanding southern front were heavily infected with rhabditoid lungworms. Toads also contained gastric-encysting nematodes, and one toad was infected by chytrid fungus, but we did not find myxozoans in any toads. All parasite groups were recorded in native frogs, but were less common in areas invaded by toads than in nearby yet to be invaded areas. Contrary to our predictions, toad invasion was associated with a reduced parasite burden in native frogs. Thus, cane toads do not appear to transfer novel parasites to native frog populations, or act as a reservoir for native parasites to ‘spill-back’ into native frogs. Instead, cane toads may reduce frog-parasite numbers by taking up native parasites that are then killed by the toad’s immune defences. PMID:24533330

  15. Lower Miocene (Upper Ottnangian) sands in the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palzer, Markus; Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Wagreich, Michael; Gier, Susanne; Meszar, Maria Elisabeth; Soliman, Ali

    2015-04-01

    In the Early Miocene (late Ottnangian), a global sea level drop and the continuous rise of the Alps lead to the regression of the Parathethys sea, and to the sedimentation of the Upper Freshwater Molasse. In the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin, this event is represented by yellowish-brownish to greyish white mica-rich and carbonate-free sands and silts with clayish interlayers, formerly called Oncophora Beds (OB), which crop out between St. Pölten and Tulln. A new lithostratigraphy combines these sediments, now called Traisen-Formation (TF) together with the Dietersdorf Formation within the Pixendorf Group. Drill cores from OMV-wells predominantly from the NE show hundreds of meters thick sequences of pelites with intersections of sands interpreted as representing the OB. Contrary to the mainly brackish TF, a turbiditic marine deeper-water environment is inferred. An OMV-funded project investigates the relationship between these sediments, their stratigraphical and chronological range, provenance, facies and internal stratigraphy. First results from outcrops and several wells in the NE confirm large differences in grain size, structures and carbonate content. XRD-results indicate quartz, feldspar, muscovite, chlorite, calcite and dolomite as the main minerals within the sands and pelites. Pyrite is frequent. Halite and kaolinite occur. Whole rock chemistry, carbonate content measurements and biostratigraphic investigations of samples from the Wildendürnbach K4 well indicate, that these turbiditic OB can be divided into two sections: A lower fossil-free, carbonate poor and probably brackish (indicated by B/Al* and TOC/S) section with only few turbiditic very fine sands, and an upper microfossil bearing, marine section with carbonate contents up to 30% and more and coarser turbiditic sands. Therefore we use the working terms Lower and Upper Wildendürnbach Member (LWM, UWM). The lower part is enriched in (redox sensitive) heavy minerals such as Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Gd, Ni, Pb, Sc, Zn and REE. It shows much lower constant Sr (about 140 ppm) values and B/Al* ratios (about 80) than the upper part (150 - 250 ppm; >120). The TOC/S ratio is much higher (17-23) in the LWM than in the UWM (>5). These two members can be correlated quite well by SP-logs over several wells. Therefore it can be concluded, that the lower part represents a period of salinity and carbonate crisis which may correspond to an (more or less) isolated deep basin probably poor in oxygen. At the beginning of the upper interval, a connection with the open sea was reestablished.

  16. Evolutionary Responses to Invasion: Cane Toad Sympatric Fish Show Enhanced Avoidance Learning

    PubMed Central

    Caller, Georgina; Brown, Culum

    2013-01-01

    The introduced cane toad (Bufo marinus) poses a major threat to biodiversity due to its lifelong toxicity. Several terrestrial native Australian vertebrates are adapting to the cane toad’s presence and lab trials have demonstrated that repeated exposure to B. marinus can result in learnt avoidance behaviour. Here we investigated whether aversion learning is occurring in aquatic ecosystems by comparing cane toad naïve and sympatric populations of crimson spotted rainbow fish (Melanotaenia duboulayi). The first experiment indicated that fish from the sympatric population had pre-existing aversion to attacking cane toad tadpoles but also showed reduced attacks on native tadpoles. The second experiment revealed that fish from both naïve and sympatric populations learned to avoid cane toad tadpoles following repeated, direct exposure. Allopatric fish also developed a general aversion to tadpoles. The aversion learning abilities of both groups was examined using an experiment involving novel distasteful prey items. While both populations developed a general avoidance of edible pellets in the presence of distasteful pellets, only the sympatric population significantly reduced the number of attacks on the novel distasteful prey item. These results indicate that experience with toxic prey items over multiple generations can enhance avoidance leaning capabilities via natural selection. PMID:23372788

  17. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    PubMed

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María Del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10mgL(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400mgkg(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation. PMID:25930125

  18. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-05-27

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

  19. Ethanol production from henequen (Agave fourcroydes Lem.) juice and molasses by a mixture of two yeasts.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Farfán, Mirbella; Lappe, Patricia; Larqué-Saavedra, Alfonso; Magdub-Méndez, Abdo; Barahona-Pérez, Luis

    2008-12-01

    In the fermentation process of henequen (Agave fourcroydes Lem.) leaf juice, complemented with industrial molasses, the use of an inoculum comprising two yeasts: Kluyveromyces marxianus (isolated from the henequen plant) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commercial strain) was studied. An ethanol production of 5.22+/-1.087% v/v was obtained. Contrary to expected, a decrease on ethanol production was observed with the use of the K. marxianus strain. The best results were obtained when a mixture of 25% K. marxianus and 75% S. cerevisiae or S. cerevisiae alone were used with an initial inoculum concentration of 3x10(7)cellmL(-1). Furthermore, it was possible to detect a final concentration of approximately 2-4gL(-1) of reducing sugars that are not metabolized by the yeasts for the ethanol production. These results show that although the use of a mixture of yeasts can be of interest for the production of alcoholic beverages, it can be the opposite in the case of ethanol production for industrial purposes where manipulation of two strains can raise the production costs. PMID:18524573

  20. [Phosphorus removal characteristics by aerobic granules in normal molasses wastewater after anaerobic treatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Yu, Shui-Li; Shi, Wen-Xin; Bao, Rui-Ling; Yi, Xue-Song; Li, Jian-Zheng

    2012-04-01

    COD decreased obviously in normal molasses wastewater after anaerobic treatment, however, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were still higher in the effluent which seriously damaged the ecological balance. In this study, aerobic granules cultivated in sequencing batch airlift reactor (SBAR) were carried out for treating the effluent; phosphorus removal processes and characteristics were discussed as well. The mean diameter of aerobic granules cultivated by multiple carbon sources (acetate, propionate and butyrate) was 1.7 mm. The average phosphorus removal efficiency was 90.9% and the level of phosphorus in effluent was only 1.3 mg x L(-1); TP released per COD consumed was 0.571 and the specific rate of TP released was 5.73 mg x (g x h)(-1). NO3(-) -N usage of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) improved during denitrifying process because the concentration of propionate and butyrate increased in multiple carbon sources which means the phosphorus uptake efficiency increased when per NO3(-) -N consumed. Phosphorus content represented a stronger correlation with magnesium, calcium and ferrum contents in aerobic granules and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the phosphorus adsorption by EPS could enhance phosphorus removal. 61.9% of phosphorus accumulating organisms were denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms in aerobic granules and TP uptake per NO3(-) -N consumed was 1.14 which was higher than that of aerobic granules only cultivated by acetate. PMID:22724155

  1. Development of a force-sensing cane instrumented within a treadmill-based virtual reality locomotor system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Perez; Alison Oates; Lucinda Hughey; Joyce Fung

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a novel cane device to be used in conjunction with a treadmill-based virtual reality (VR) locomotor system. The instrumentation of such a cane device is described and results examining its use and feasibility as a proof of principle are provided in this preliminary study involving five persons with stroke and 5 healthy participants. Average walking speeds with

  2. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Economic Influence of Sugar Cane and Wheat Waste Paper on

    E-print Network

    into the Economic Influence of Sugar Cane and Wheat Waste Paper on Canadian Economy Daniel Khuu, David Wong, Ka Wang of a project/report". #12;An Investigation into the Economic Influence of Sugar Cane and Wheat Waste Paper, manufacturers and scientists have developed a more sustainable paper solution: the sugar cane and wheat waste

  3. Beware of Invasive Cane Toads: Huge Toad is a Dog and Koi Killer Doug Caldwell, Ph.D. U.F. Commercial Landscape Horticulture Extension, Collier County

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Beware of Invasive Cane Toads: Huge Toad is a Dog and Koi Killer Doug Caldwell, Ph.D. U.F. Commercial Landscape Horticulture Extension, Collier County Toxic CaneToads are Everywhere! Be careful when supervision. Especially at night! They may find a toxic Cane Toad. This toad defends itself using chemical

  4. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

  5. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

  6. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

  7. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

  8. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

  9. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into 30% Recycled Wood Fiber Paper and Sugar Cane Paper

    E-print Network

    % Recycled Wood Fiber Paper and Sugar Cane Paper Yoon Ji Byun, Amelia Chan University of British Columbia Paper and Sugar Cane Paper Yoon Ji Byun, Amelia Chan University of British Columbia APSC 262 April 4, 2013 #12;2 An Investigation into 30% Recycled Wood Fibre Paper and Sugar Cane Paper Yoon Ji Byun Amelia

  10. An introduced pentastomid parasite (Raillietiella frenata) infects native cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Panama.

    PubMed

    Kelehear, Crystal; Saltonstall, Kristin; Torchin, Mark E

    2015-04-01

    The pentastomid parasite, Raillietiella frenata, is native to Asia where it infects the Asian House gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus. This gecko has been widely introduced and recently R. frenata was found in introduced populations of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia, indicating a host-switch from introduced geckos to toads. Here we report non-native adult R. frenata infecting the lungs of native cane toads in Panama. Eight of 64 toads were infected (median = 2·5, range = 1-80 pentastomids/toad) and pentastomid prevalence was positively associated with the number of buildings at a site, though further sampling is needed to confirm this pattern. We postulate that this pattern is likely due to a host shift of this parasite from an urban-associated introduced gecko. This is the first record of this parasite infecting cane toads in their native range, and the first instance of this parasite occurring in Central America. PMID:25394910

  11. Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Michael R.; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A.; Capon, Robert J.; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control. PMID:22696528

  12. Co-digestion of molasses or kitchen waste with high-rate activated sludge results in a diverse microbial community with stable methane production.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Plovie, Kristof; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2015-04-01

    Kitchen waste and molasses are organic waste streams with high organic content, and therefore are interesting substrates for renewable energy production by means of anaerobic digestion. Both substrates, however, often cause inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process, when treated separately, hence, co-digestion with other substrates is required to ensure stable methane production. In this research, A-sludge (sludge harvested from a high rate activated sludge system) was used to stabilize co-digestion with kitchen waste or molasses. Lab-scale digesters were fed with A-sludge and kitchen waste or molasses for a total period of 105 days. Increased methane production values revealed a stabilizing effect of concentrated A-sludge on kitchen waste digestion. Co-digestion of molasses with A-sludge also resulted in a higher methane production. Volumetric methane production rates up to 1.53 L L(-1) d(-1) for kitchen waste and 1.01 L L(-1) d(-1) for molasses were obtained by co-digestion with A-sludge. The stabilizing effect of A-sludge was attributed to its capacity to supplement various nutrients. Microbial community results demonstrated that both reactor conditions and substrate composition determined the nature of the bacterial community, although there was no direct influence of micro-organisms in the substrate itself, while the methanogenic community profile remained constant as long as optimal conditions were maintained. PMID:25617871

  13. Nitrous oxide emissions in giant cane in the Cache River watershed, southern Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. M.; Williard, K. W.; Schoonover, J.

    2013-12-01

    Large stands of Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhl, called canebrakes, were vital to wildlife and lowland ecosystem functions and historically covered millions of acres in the southeastern United States. Since European settlement, human disturbances (e.g., clearing for agriculture and fire suppression) have caused giant cane to decline to approximately 2% of its historic range. Cane's ecological importance has led to an increased interest in canebrake restoration in riparian zones. Giant cane is a good candidate to include in multispecies riparian buffers designs, as it promotes infiltration of surface runoff and deposition of sediment and associated nutrients through its high density culms and extensive shallow rooting network. In addition, nitrous oxide is produced naturally in the soil during the microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification. To examine the role that cane plays in nutrient cycling, we have designed a research strategy to determine physical and chemical properties of existing riparian stands of native giant cane and their associated soils. We collected data on soil carbon/nitrogen ratios and monthly nitrous oxide release in both canebrakes and nearby forested riparian areas. Soil in the canebrakes had significantly higher C:N ratios (10.9) than that in cropfields (9.8), but showed no significant difference than that in the forest (10.8). Nitrous oxide emissions had a strong correlation with soil water content (r2 = 24%), but no relation with soil temperature (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in N2O releases between forest and cane, nor among the monthly samples.

  14. The impact of stress on the health of sugar cane cutters

    PubMed Central

    Priuli, Roseana Mara Aredes; de Moraes, Maria Silvia; Chiaravalloti, Rafael Morais

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evaluate the impact of stress on sugar cane cutters and the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms before and after harvest. METHODS We studied 114 sugarcane cutters and 109 urban workers in the pre-harvest and 102 sugar cane cutters and 81 urban workers in the post-harvest period in the city of Mendonça, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Data analysis was based on the frequency and percentage of the assessed symptoms of stress, using the Lipp-ISSL test (Symptoms of Stress for Adults). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The Fisher Test was used to compare the variable of stress between pre- and post-harvest within the sugar cane cutter and urban worker groups. P values below 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS Stress in sugar cane cutters increased after harvesting (34.2% pre-harvest and 46.1% post-harvest); in urban workers, stress decreased from 44.0% pre-harvest to 42.0% post-harvest. There was prevalence of the phase of resistance to stress for both groups with signs more apparent from the near-exhaustion and exhaustion phases for sugar cane cutters. After harvest, there was a tendency for the number of sugar cane cutters with symptoms of near-exhaustion (6.4%) and exhaustion (10.6%) to increase. After harvest there was a trend for the number of sugar cane cutters with physical symptoms (pre-harvest = 20.5%, post-harvest = 25.5%) and psychological symptoms (pre-harvest = 64.1%; post-harvest = 70.2%) to increase. For both groups, predominantly psychological symptoms occurred in both phases (70.2% versus 64.7%). CONCLUSIONS The work process of cutting cane can cause stress. Individual factors such as cognitive perception of the experience, self-efficacy beliefs and expectations of the employee regarding their performance can influence the understanding of the reactions in their body in face of the work. PMID:24897043

  15. Development of appropriate technology for treatment of molasses-based wastewater.

    PubMed

    Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Onodera, Takashi; Choeisai, Pairaya; Khodphuvieng, Jamnan; Prammanee, Preecha; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Kaewpradit, Wanwipa; Kubota, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the performance of a proposed treatment system consisting of an anaerobic process (acidification, methane fermentation) and an aerobic process (trickling filter) was evaluated for treating high concentrations of molasses-based wastewater (43-120 gCOD/L) by a continuous flow experiment. An anaerobic up-flow staged sludge bed (USSB) reactor, equipped with multiple gas solid separators, was used as the main treatment/methane recovery process. The USSB showed good efficiency of both COD removal (80-87%) and methane recovery (70-80%) at an organic loading rate of 11-43 kgCOD/m(3) day. As the influent COD concentration was increased, the organic loading rate for stable operation of the USSB was reduced due to cation inhibition. However, the COD removal efficiency of the whole treatment system (including the aerobic post-treatment process) was 96% even at an influent COD concentration of 120 gCOD/L. Use of the treated wastewater as a fertilizer and/or irrigation-water for sugarcane was evaluated by a field cultivation test. Both growth of sugarcane and emission of greenhouse gases from the field soil were measured. A relatively high methane flux (352 ?gCH4/m(2) h) was observed when the treated wastewater from day 0 was used. By day 3, however, this value was reduced to the same level as the control. In addition, growth of sugarcane was satisfactory when the treated wastewater was used. The treated wastewater was found to be useful for cultivation of sugarcane in terms of both a low risk of greenhouse gas emission from the field soil and effectiveness for growth of sugarcane. PMID:23573932

  16. Provenance Analysis of Lower Miocene Sediments in the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Palzer, Markus; Wagreich, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In the Early Miocene (Late Ottnangian) a global drop of the sea level and the continuous rise of the Alps caused a regression of the Paratethys. During this time interval the Traisen Formation (formerly Oncophora beds) was deposited in the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin. These yellowish-brownish to greyish mica-rich and carbonate-free sands and silts with clayish interlayers were originally named after a brackish water bivalve ("Oncophora"- now Rzehakia). The southeastern part of the TF partly interfingers with finer sands of the Dietersdorf Formation (DF). The Pixendorf Group combines the TF and the DF [coarse sands, conglomerates, blocks] of the Upper Ottnangian lithostratigraphic units in Lower Austria. West to the Waschberg Zone a deeper-water environment (so called Oncophora beds in former literature, herein [informally] renamed to Wildendürnbach Member) with sediment gravity flows (turbidites, muddy/sandy slumps) is inferred from OMV well data. Examinations of these fine sandstones, silts and laminated pelites have been carried out on the basis of the Wildendürnbach-4 OMV drilling core. Analyses of the TF revealed rather homogenous heavy mineral assemblages, dominated by high amounts of garnet (~65%) and relatively high amounts of epidote/zoisite (~10%) and amphiboles (~10%). Conducted surveys point towards a primary influence of metamorphic (metapelitic) source rocks of Austroalpine Crystalline Complexes of the rising Eastern Alps. Heavy mineral analysis of the WDK-4 drilling core showed even higher amounts of garnet (~80%) combined with minor amounts of rutile, staurolite, apatite, epidote/zoisite, tourmalines, zircon and amphiboles. Consistent heavy mineral assemblages and chemical data (EMPA) suggest a stratigraphical correlation with the K?epice Formation and the Ždánice-Hustope?e Formation in the Czech Republic and sedimentary influence from the Western Carpathian Flysch Belt.

  17. Noteworthy Facts about a Methane-Producing Microbial Community Processing Acidic Effluent from Sugar Beet Molasses Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Szcz?sny, Pawe?; B?aszczyk, Mieczys?aw K.; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Detman, Anna; Salamon, Agnieszka; Sikora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a complex process involving hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The separation of the hydrogen-yielding (dark fermentation) and methane-yielding steps under controlled conditions permits the production of hydrogen and methane from biomass. The characterization of microbial communities developed in bioreactors is crucial for the understanding and optimization of fermentation processes. Previously we developed an effective system for hydrogen production based on long-term continuous microbial cultures grown on sugar beet molasses. Here, the acidic effluent from molasses fermentation was used as the substrate for methanogenesis in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. This study focused on the molecular analysis of the methane-yielding community processing the non-gaseous products of molasses fermentation. The substrate for methanogenesis produces conditions that favor the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methane synthesis. Methane production results from syntrophic metabolism whose key process is hydrogen transfer between bacteria and methanogenic Archaea. High-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of total DNA isolated from the methanogenic microbial community and bioinformatic sequence analysis revealed that the domain Bacteria was dominated by Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), Bacteroidetes, ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, Cloacimonetes and Spirochaetes. In the domain Archaea, the order Methanomicrobiales was predominant, with Methanoculleus as the most abundant genus. The second and third most abundant members of the Archaeal community were representatives of the Methanomassiliicoccales and the Methanosarcinales. Analysis of the methanogenic sludge by scanning electron microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that it was composed of small highly heterogeneous mineral-rich granules. Mineral components of methanogenic granules probably modulate syntrophic metabolism and methanogenic pathways. A rough functional analysis from shotgun data of the metagenome demonstrated that our knowledge of methanogenesis is poor and/or the enzymes responsible for methane production are highly effective, since despite reasonably good sequencing coverage, the details of the functional potential of the microbial community appeared to be incomplete. PMID:26000448

  18. Mechanical analysis of the thin- versus thick-skin tectonics in the Molasse basin and Jura thrust belt (Swiss Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillot, Bertrand; Caer, Typhaine; Souloumiac, Pauline; Nussbaum, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    The Jura fold-and-thrust belt is classically interpreted as a thin-skin belt developed over a triasic décollement, which is itself topping Permo-carboniferous E-W transpressive grabens delimited by N-S strike-slip faults. These faults have been reactivated in eo-oligocene times as normal faults. Today, the basement is seismically active, suggesting that the Jura belt involves some amount of basement deformation. We tested both thin and thick-skin hypotheses using a simple rheological prototype with two potential décollements : a Triassic horizon extending below Jura and Molasse basin, and the upper-lower crust interface rooted deep south of the Alpine front close to the Penninic nappes region. Using the theory of limit analysis combined with automatic adaptive meshing, we demonstrate that the main Jura Triassic décollement can be activated with the present day topography, if its friction angle is below 5°, a counter-intuitive result, that was not foreseen by sand box models. In contrast, a thick-skin deformation involving all the upper crust is possible either only south of the Jura below the topographic depression of the Molasse basin if the upper-lower crust interface has an equivalent friction angle above 4.6°, or far beyond it towards the North, if it is weaker. Active thick-skin thrusting within the Jura belt requires further assumptions on the existence of weak zones, for which a good candidate could be the inherited eo-oligocene normal faults as previously suggested in the litterature. We also demonstrated the potential major role of the topographic depression of the Molasse basin in conveying deformation from the Alps to the Jura, and in localising thick-skin thrusting.

  19. Noteworthy Facts about a Methane-Producing Microbial Community Processing Acidic Effluent from Sugar Beet Molasses Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Szcz?sny, Pawe?; B?aszczyk, Mieczys?aw K; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Detman, Anna; Salamon, Agnieszka; Sikora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a complex process involving hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The separation of the hydrogen-yielding (dark fermentation) and methane-yielding steps under controlled conditions permits the production of hydrogen and methane from biomass. The characterization of microbial communities developed in bioreactors is crucial for the understanding and optimization of fermentation processes. Previously we developed an effective system for hydrogen production based on long-term continuous microbial cultures grown on sugar beet molasses. Here, the acidic effluent from molasses fermentation was used as the substrate for methanogenesis in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. This study focused on the molecular analysis of the methane-yielding community processing the non-gaseous products of molasses fermentation. The substrate for methanogenesis produces conditions that favor the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methane synthesis. Methane production results from syntrophic metabolism whose key process is hydrogen transfer between bacteria and methanogenic Archaea. High-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of total DNA isolated from the methanogenic microbial community and bioinformatic sequence analysis revealed that the domain Bacteria was dominated by Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), Bacteroidetes, ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, Cloacimonetes and Spirochaetes. In the domain Archaea, the order Methanomicrobiales was predominant, with Methanoculleus as the most abundant genus. The second and third most abundant members of the Archaeal community were representatives of the Methanomassiliicoccales and the Methanosarcinales. Analysis of the methanogenic sludge by scanning electron microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that it was composed of small highly heterogeneous mineral-rich granules. Mineral components of methanogenic granules probably modulate syntrophic metabolism and methanogenic pathways. A rough functional analysis from shotgun data of the metagenome demonstrated that our knowledge of methanogenesis is poor and/or the enzymes responsible for methane production are highly effective, since despite reasonably good sequencing coverage, the details of the functional potential of the microbial community appeared to be incomplete. PMID:26000448

  20. Effect of molasses supplementation on the production of lactating dairy cows fed diets based on alfalfa and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Radloff, W J

    2004-09-01

    Adding sugar to the diet has been reported to improve production in dairy cows. In each of 2 trials, 48 lactating Holsteins (8 with ruminal cannulas) were fed covariate diets for 2 wk, blocked by days in milk into 12 groups of 4, and then randomly assigned to diets based on alfalfa silage containing 4 levels of dried molasses (trial 1) or liquid molasses (trial 2). In both studies, production data were collected for 8 wk, ruminal samples were taken in wk 4 and 8, and statistical models were used that included covariate means and block. In trial 1, experimental diets contained 18% CP and 0, 4, 8, or 12% dried molasses with 2.6, 4.2, 5.6, or 7.2% total sugar. With increasing sugar, there was a linear increase in dry matter intake (DMI), and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), but no effect on yield of milk or protein. This resulted in linear decreases in fat-corrected milk (FCM)/DMI and milk N/N-intake. There was a linear decrease in urinary N with increasing sugar, and quadratic effects on milk fat content, yield of fat and FCM, and ruminal ammonia. Mean optimum from these quadratic responses was 4.8% total sugar in these diets. In trial 2, experimental diets contained 15.6% crude protein (CP) and 0, 3, 6, or 9% liquid molasses with 2.6, 4.9, 7.4, or 10.0% total sugar, respectively. Again, there were linear declines in FCM/DMI and milk N/N-intake with increasing sugar, but quadratic responses for DMI, yield of milk, protein, and SNF, digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, milk urea, urinary excretion of purine derivatives, and ruminal ammonia. Mean optimum from all quadratic responses in this trial was 6.3% total sugar. An estimate of an overall optimum, based on yield of fat and FCM (trial 1) and yield of milk, protein, and SNF (trial 2), was 5.0% total sugar, equivalent to adding 2.4% sugar to the basal diets. Feeding more than 6% total sugar appeared to depress production. PMID:15375061

  1. TESTING FOR A TRAIL FOLLOWING PHEROMONE ON THE SILKY CANE WEEVIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The silky cane weevil (SCW), Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of sugarcane, and palms, and was introduced into Florida in the mid-1980s. In laboratory tests it was observed that weevils followed tracks already walked by other co-specifics and experiments...

  2. Production of compost with bagasse and vinasses for cane crop in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Castro Gomez, R.J.H.

    1982-10-01

    Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a mixture of bagasse, animal manure and vinasse can be transformed into compost suitable for agriculture. The factors necessary for good composting are discussed, these include the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture, aeration and temperature. A mixture of 300 kg cane bagasse and 38 kg poultry manure moistened with vinasse gave the best results.

  3. Design and evaluation of a hybrid sensor network for cane toad monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Hu; Nirupama Bulusu; Chun Tung Chou; Sanjay Jha; Andrew Taylor; Van Nghia Tran

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates a wireless acoustic sensor network application—monitoring amphibian populations in the monsoonal woodlands of northern Australia. Our goal is to use automatic recognition of animal vocalizations to census the populations of native frogs and the invasive introduced species, the cane toad. This is a challenging application because it requires high frequency acoustic sampling, complex signal processing, wide area

  4. Demo Abstract: A Hybrid Sensor Network for Cane-toad Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Hu; Nirupama Bulusu; Chun Tung Chou; Sanjay Jha; Andrew Taylor

    This demonstration shows a wireless, acoustic sensor net- work application — monitoring amphibian populations in the monsoonal woodlands of northern Australia. Our sys- tem uses automatic recognition of animal vocalizations to census the populations of native frogs and the invasive in- troduced species, the Cane Toad (see Fig. 1). This is a challenging application because it requires high frequency acoustic

  5. The design and evaluation of a hybrid sensor network for cane-toad monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Hu; Van Nghia Tran; Nirupama Bulusu; Chun Tung Chou; Sanjay Jha; Andrew Taylor

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates a wireless, acoustic sensor network application — monitoring amphibian populations in the monsoonal woodlands of northern Australia. Our goal is to use automatic recognition of animal vocalizations to census the populations of native frogs and the invasive introduced species, the Cane Toad (see Fig. 1). This is a challenging application because it requires high frequency acoustic sampling,

  6. Use of the Sonicguide and Laser Cane in Obtaining or Keeping Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, William H.; Smith, Tom E. C.

    1983-01-01

    Owners of laser canes and Sonicguides were surveyed to determine whether these devices were used in employment settings. Of the 94 respondents, 74 were still using their electronic travel aids: 36 percent used the devices to travel to and from work, and 49 percent used them on the job. (SEW)

  7. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. PMID:20493626

  8. Production of energy cane and elephantgrass on marginal soils using winter covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher) and energy cane (Saccharum sp.) are tall tropical bunch grasses that produce very high biomass yields and are considered an excellent bio-energy feedstock for the lower South. However, previous studies have shown that production is not sustainable wit...

  9. Thermal characterization of foam–cane (Quseab) as an insulant material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. H. Kodah; M. A. Jarrah; N. S. Shanshal

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation is made to characterize the thermal insulation properties of different compounds of local natural low cost reinforcements with polyurethane foam forming the matrix (foam only, foam and hay, foam and cane). Several rectangular enclosures were produced with walls made from this composite material. Heat was transferred mainly by natural convection and radiation from the heat source inside

  10. Thermophilic actinomycetes in cane sugar mills: an aeromicrobiologic and seroepidemiologic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. U. Khan; Madhurama Gangwar; S. N. Gaur; H. S. Randhawa

    1995-01-01

    Aerial prevalence of clinically important thermophilic actinomycetes and occurrence of precipitating antibodies against them in sera of 153 exposed workers have been reported. The study was carried out in two cane sugar mills namely, the Upper Doab Sugar Mills and the Ramala Sugar Mills, located in north-west India. In both the sugar mills,T. sacchari was the predominant species, it accounted

  11. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL OF ARTIFICIAL STIMULATION OF RAINFALL IN THE NATAL CANE BELT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. KELBE

    A study of rainfall stimulation was made with the aim of assessing its economic potential for the Natal cane belt. High variability of precipitation in both space and time makes the determination of requirements and effects of large scale seeding programmes very difficult. Evaluation of field and laboratory tests have, however, identified two conditions under which seeding could increase precipitation

  12. Effects of dry sugar cane yeast on the diet intake, digestibility and bovine rumen microbial populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Messana; T. T. Berchielli; P. B. Arcuri; R. A. Reis; E. B. Malheiros; A. R. Rivera; M. F. S. Queiroz

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the dry sugar cane yeast (DSCY) protein addition on the intake, digestibility and rumen microbial population (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) in zebu steers fed cotton seed processing residue (CSPR). Six Nellore steers, with rumen and duodenal cannulae were used. Data were analyzed according to a randomized block design, each

  13. Structural and physicochemical characteristics of starch from sugar cane and sweet sorghum stalks.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fernanda Viginotti; Polesi, Luís Fernando; Aguiar, Cláudio Lima; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira

    2014-10-13

    The starch present in sugar cane and sorghum juice has been considered a problem to the sugar industry. The objective of this work was to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the starch present in sugar cane and sweet sorghum. Sugar cane and sweet sorghum starches presented small granules (maximum 5.9 and 7.9 ?m), A-type diffraction pattern, high degree of relative crystallinity (44.4 and 42.0%), and low amylose content (17.5 and 16.4%), respectively. Sugar cane starch presented more uniformity in granule shape and size, more homogeneity in amylose chain length, higher number of long lateral chains of amylopectin, and higher susceptibility to enzymatic digestion. Besides being in higher amount in the juice, sweet sorghum starch presented lower values for thermal properties of gelatinization, as well as higher swelling factor, which can cause more problems during processing. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the variety and maturity influence on these properties. PMID:25037392

  14. Cane toads on cowpats: commercial livestock production facilitates toad invasion in tropical australia.

    PubMed

    González-Bernal, Edna; Greenlees, Matthew; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Habitat disturbance and the spread of invasive organisms are major threats to biodiversity, but the interactions between these two factors remain poorly understood in many systems. Grazing activities may facilitate the spread of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia by providing year-round access to otherwise-seasonal resources. We quantified the cane toad's use of cowpats (feces piles) in the field, and conducted experimental trials to assess the potential role of cowpats as sources of prey, water, and warmth for toads. Our field surveys show that cane toads are found on or near cowpats more often than expected by chance. Field-enclosure experiments show that cowpats facilitate toad feeding by providing access to dung beetles. Cowpats also offer moist surfaces that can reduce dehydration rates of toads and are warmer than other nearby substrates. Livestock grazing is the primary form of land use over vast areas of Australia, and pastoral activities may have contributed substantially to the cane toad's successful invasion of that continent. PMID:23145158

  15. Adapting to an invasive species: Toxic cane toads induce morphological change in Australian snakes

    E-print Network

    Shine, Rick

    Adapting to an invasive species: Toxic cane toads induce morphological change in Australian snakes October 27, 2004 (received for review August 31, 2004) The arrival of invasive species can devastate, invasive species, habitat removal, overharvesting, and altered biogeochemical cycles (1­3). These changes

  16. Ethanol from sugar cane: a successful alternative energy strategy for Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. de Paula

    2008-01-01

    Pro-Alcool the National Alcohol Program began in 1975 and was a government financed program, developed on account of the petrol crisis of 1973, and fortified due to the second impact of 1979. This program aimed to substitute gasoline with ethanol from sugar cane on a grand scale, thereby reducing the dependence on imported petroleum. During the decades to follow, as

  17. Changes in an Inceptisol of Mauritius after rock removal for sugar cane production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Ng Cheong; K. F. Ng Kee Kwong; P. D. Ah Koon; C. C. Du Preez

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum hybrid sp.) cropping in the rocky soils of Mauritius requires the prior removal of rocks to enable the implementation of mechanized operations, particularly harvesting. The effects of such operations on the soil are unknown, particularly the extent to which soil properties could be affected. A study was conducted at a sugar estate on the sub-humid western coast

  18. Feeding value of urea molasses-treated wheat straw ensiled with fresh cattle manure for growing crossbred cattle calves.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Nisa, Mahr U; Afzal, Danish; Sharif, Muhammad; Saddiqi, Hafiz A

    2011-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the influence of urea plus molasses-treated wheat straw (WS) ensiled with cattle manure (CM) on nutrients intake, their digestibilities, and growth performance of crossbred (Sahiwal × Holstein Friesian) cattle calves. The CM was mixed with ground WS in a ratio of 30:70 on dry matter (DM) basis. The WS-CM mixture treated with urea (4% DM) and molasses (4% DM) was allowed to ferment for 40 days in a cemented pit. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic fermented wheat straw (FWS)-based experimental diets were formulated. The FWS0, FWS20, FWS30, and FWS40 diets contained 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% FWS, respectively. Twenty calves (9-10 months of age) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design, five in each group. Increasing trends for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber intakes by calves were observed with increasing dietary FWS level. Weight gain was significantly different among calves fed different levels of FWS. The highest weight gain (491.8 g/day) was observed in calves fed FWS40 diet, while calves fed FWS0 and FWS20 diets gained 350.0 and 449.6 g/day, respectively. The results from this study imply that the FWS can be added up to 30% in the diet of growing crossbred calves without any detrimental effect on their performance. PMID:21110091

  19. Quantification of heat mining in the Malm aquifer of the Bavarian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafogler, Mark; Wenderoth, Frank; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Geothermal energy is a key technology for the transition from fossil ressources to renewable energy. The Bavarian Molasse Basin offers unique geological and hydrogeological conditions for district heating and heat and power generation. With 15 plants operating and another dozen in construction or planning, exploration is highly successful. However, detailed knowledge about the processes occuring in the aquifer which is crucial to run geothermal facilities efficiently and economically, still is scarce. After more than 10 years of operation there is a good record of the hydraulics and the hydrochemistry at the production well, including numerous data from pump failures and the development of precipitates. The injection well and its surrounding, however, is usually a black box which is not readily accessible. Here, not even the temperatures in the immediate vicinity have been measured. Nevertheless, the performance of the aquifer near the injection well controls the long-term operation of the geothermal system. Thanks to an extension of the Pullach geothermal facility with a third well in 2011 there was a unique opportunity to produce water from a former injection well after 5 years of operation. Since the start of the production from this well in 2012, we collected an extensive data set of hydraulic, thermal and hydrochemical data. Within the first two years after reverting the flow direction and at a production rate of 20 L/s, which is significantly lower than the injection rate of up to 35 L/s, the temperature at the well head increased with a rate of 10 K/a. These temperatures were compared with predictions from the initial heat mining model, which was then refined. From the data it was immediately obvious that a homogeneous treatment of the Malm aquifer is not applicable. Instead a heterogeneous flow regime has to be assumed to account for the fast initial increase of the temperatures which is caused by a higher effective exchange area. The results suggest that the regeneration time of the cooled reservoir in this setting is not too much longer than the injection period. Heat energy is primarily supplied by the water drawn to the well and heat conduction in low flow zones. This has to be taken into account when designing future facilities with more wells.

  20. The El Mayah molasse basin in the Eastern Desert of Egypt A. Shalaby a,b,*, K. Stuwe a,*, H. Fritz a

    E-print Network

    Fritz, Harald

    The El Mayah molasse basin in the Eastern Desert of Egypt A. Shalaby a,b,*, K. Stu¨we a,*, H. Fritz, Austria b Department of Geology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Received 8 September 2004; received of kilometres of the East- ern Desert of Egypt. Its sedimentary record shows that deposition occurred in two

  1. Effects of Adding Extra Molasses to a Texturized Calf Starter on Rumen Development, Growth Characteristics, and Blood Parameters in Neonatal Dairy Calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Lesmeister; A. J. Heinrichs

    2005-01-01

    A texturized calf starter containing 5 (control) or 12% molasses (on a dry matter (DM) basis) was fed to dairy calves to determine effects on intake, growth, blood parameters, and rumen development. Forty-six Hol- stein calves (26 male and 20 female) were started at 2 ± 1 d of age and studied for 42 d. Starter DM intake was measured

  2. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis

  3. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY...the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to...establishing, adjusting, or suspending sugar marketing allotments in the Federal...

  4. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ...OFFICE OF THE TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  5. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  6. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  7. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

  8. Determination of Fe, Cu and Zn in sugar-cane spirits commercialized in Southeastern Brazil by TXRF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Cunha e Silva; E. Almeida; E. P. E. Valencia; V. F. Nascimento Filho

    2004-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to determine simultaneously the concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn in seven\\u000a sugar-cane spirit samples (“aguardente”), a processed alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation and distillation of sugar-cane\\u000a juice. The limits of detection ranged from 35 to 8 ng.ml-1 for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Se. Excluding Fe,

  9. Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

    2013-04-01

    The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area reached values above 200 t ha-1, with higher values of productivity are concentrated in the region northern terrain. The maps of soil electrical conductivity (ECa-V and ECa-H) showed behavior similar to the productivity of cane sugar. The linear correlation showed values of 0.74 (yield x ECa-H) and 0.85 (yield x ECa-V). The adjusted semivariograms showed no similarity in the spatial pattern of pairs of semivariance. The electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction has been shown as an important tool for predicting the productivity of sugar cane, however more studies are needed to determine the magnitude of the differences between such attributes.

  10. Complex hydrothermal alteration and illite K-Ar ages in Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Variscan Badenweiler-Lenzkirch suture zone, Black Forest, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockamp, Olaf; Schlegel, Andreas; Wemmer, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Post-collisional Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Badenweiler-Lenzkirch Zone reveal by microscopy of thin sections different degrees of hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and mica particles, and XRD, IR and XRF data of the <2 µm fractions show illitic material as the dominant clay mineral consisting of a mixture of 1M and 2M1 polytypes. Moreover, small amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer minerals of R1-ordering are proved in the granites. In the separates, two illite mixing lines with different Fe + Mg contents are verified between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and detrital illite in the molasse sediments, as well as between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and altered mica flakes in the granites. Fe-rich detrital chlorite is present within the molasse sediments, while mixtures of high aluminous Fe-poor dioctahedral/di-trioctahedral chlorite with randomly interstratified chlorite/smectite mixed-layer minerals are formed from feldspar alteration in the granites. Illite K-Ar dating of the <2 and <0.63 µm fractions yields hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and partial resetting of the K-Ar system of detrital illite and mica flakes in the molasse sediments at ?200 °C during Upper Permian to Middle Triassic times, while the granites in the eastern part of the study area were not altered contemporaneously. In contrast, hydrothermal activity at ?200 °C during Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous times occurred in the granites, whereas these temperatures were too low for resetting the older `Permo-Triassic' illite K-Ar ages in the molasse rocks. Within both K-Ar age clusters, the data are seen to decrease with grain size and portion of illite 2M1 polytype. The alteration phenomena indicate multiple hydrothermal episodes in the study area, and they match those from the Central and Western European crust as fluid supply was controlled geodynamically by episodic break up of Pangea.

  11. New energy crop giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops increasing biogas yield and reducing costs.

    PubMed

    Luca, Corno; Pilu, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Giant cane is a promising non-food crop for biogas production. Giant cane and corn silages coming from full-scale fields were tested, in mixtures with pig slurry, for biomethane production by a continuous stirred tank lab-scale-reactor (CSTR) approach. Results indicated that giant cane produced less biomethane than corn, i.e. 174±10Nm(3)CH4Mg(-1)TS(-1) and 245±26Nm(3) CH4Mg(-1)TS(-1), respectively. On the other hand, because of its high field biomass production, the biogas obtainable per Ha was higher for giant cane than for corn, i.e. 12,292Nm(3) CH4Ha(-1) and 4549Nm(3)CH4Ha(-1), respectively. Low energetic and agronomic inputs for giant cane cultivation led to a considerable reduction in the costs of producing both electricity and biomethane, i.e. 0.50€Nm(-3)CH4(-1) and 0.81€Nm(-3)CH4(-1), and 0.10€kWhEE(-1) and 0.19€kWhEE(-1) for biomethane and electricity production, and for giant cane and corn mixtures respectively. PMID:25997008

  12. Invader immunology: invasion history alters immune system function in cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Phillips, Benjamin L; Dubey, Sylvain; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Because an individual's investment into the immune system may modify its dispersal rate, immune function may evolve rapidly in an invader. We collected cane toads (Rhinella marina) from sites spanning their 75-year invasion history in Australia, bred them, and raised their progeny in standard conditions. Evolved shifts in immune function should manifest as differences in immune responses among the progeny of parents collected in different locations. Parental location did not affect the offspring's cell-mediated immune response or stress response, but blood from the offspring of invasion-front toads had more neutrophils, and was more effective at phagocytosis and killing bacteria. These latter measures of immune function are negatively correlated with rate of dispersal in free-ranging toads. Our results suggest that the invasion of tropical Australia by cane toads has resulted in rapid genetically based compensatory shifts in the aspects of immune responses that are most compromised by the rigours of long-distance dispersal. PMID:25399668

  13. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from 'floor dump sediment', 'cooling tower water', and 'bagasse leachate'. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as 'lactic acid bacteria', capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

  14. Characterization of poly(vinyl acetate)\\/sugar cane bagasse lignin blends and their photochemical degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Silva; E. A. G. Pineda; A. A. W. Hechenleitner; D. M. Fernandes; M. K. Lima; P. R. S. Bittencourt

    The acetone-soluble lignin fraction (ASLF) of sugar cane bagasse, from a sugar and alcohol factory residue, was obtained after\\u000a extraction with formic acid and used to prepare blends with poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) by casting. PVAc and ASLF\\/PVAc blends\\u000a were irradiated with ultraviolet light (Hg lamp). Blend formation and the irradiation effects were examined through thermal\\u000a analysis (TG and DSC), scanning

  15. Effect of calcination temperature on the pozzolanic activity of sugar cane bagasse ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Cordeiro; R. D. Toledo Filho; E. M. R. Fairbairn

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the results of the processing of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) under controlled calcination conditions in order to obtain materials with optimum pozzolanic activity. Bagasse samples were burnt in an aired electric oven with a heating rate of 10°C\\/min, at 350°C for 3h, and at different temperatures ranging from 400 to 800°C for another 3h. For all

  16. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO 2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo M. R. Fairbairn; Branca B. Americano; Guilherme C. Cordeiro; Thiago P. Paula; Romildo D. Toledo Filho; Marcos M. Silvoso

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar\\/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at

  17. Cyclic voltammetric analysis of antioxidant activity in cane sugars and palm sugars from Southeast Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyn Sia; Hong-Ben Yee; José H. Santos; M. Khairul-Anwar Abdurrahman

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen commonly available types of cane and palm sugar were analysed for antioxidant activity using cyclic voltammetry. Five of the sugars, dissolved in phosphate buffer, showed anodic current peaks which were indicative of antioxidant activity. The rank order of these sugars was: gula anau>gula merah>China rock honey sugar>soft brown sugar>raw sugar. Gula anau is an unrefined palm sugar, while the

  18. Generation of transgenic energy cane plants with integration of minimal transgene expression cassette.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Walid M; Hao, Wu; Xiong, Yuan; Steeves, Cody; Sandhu, Surinder K; Altpeter, Fredy

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as feedstock and direct replacement for petrochemicals in the fuel, chemical, pharmaceutical and material industries. Energy cane has been identified by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as prime lignocellulosic feedstock as it produces record biomass yields and is able to grow on low-value land with reduced inputs. Molecular improvement of energy cane is an essential step toward the development of a high-value crop and may contribute to improved biomass conversion to value added products. Such improvements require a development of an efficient regeneration and transformation system for the vegetatively propagated energy cane varieties. In this report, an efficient biolistic gene delivery protocol for energy canes (genotype L 79-1002 and Ho 00-961) has been established with immature leaf rolls as explants. Embryonic calli, developed approximately 6 weeks after culture initiation and was used as target for biolistic transfer of a minimum expression cassette of P-ubi::nptII::35S polyA derived from plasmid pJFNPTII. Putative transgenic clones of callus were obtained after selection on callus induction medium supplemented with 30 mg l(-1) geneticin. Regeneration was carried out on NB medium, which is modified from MS supplemented with 1.86 mg l(-1) naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.1mg l(-1), 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 20mg l(-1) paromomycin. Shoots growing on selection media were transferred to hormone free medium with 20 mg l(-1) paromomycin. Putative transgenic lines were first analyzed by PCR. Transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and Immunochromathography assays confirmed transgene expression. PMID:25751171

  19. Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Jordan, Kevin J. [Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degree sign C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  20. Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

  1. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  2. Efficient all-optical production of large Li6 quantum gases using D1 gray-molasses cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchianti, A.; Valtolina, G.; Seman, J. A.; Pace, E.; De Pas, M.; Inguscio, M.; Zaccanti, M.; Roati, G.

    2014-10-01

    We use a gray molasses operating on the D1 atomic transition to produce degenerate quantum gases of Li6 with a large number of atoms. This sub-Doppler cooling phase allows us to lower the initial temperature of 109 atoms from 500 to 40 ?K in 2 ms. We observe that D1 cooling remains effective into a high-intensity infrared dipole trap where two-state mixtures are evaporated to reach the degenerate regime. We produce molecular Bose-Einstein condensates of up to 5 × 105 molecules and weakly interacting degenerate Fermi gases of 7×105 atoms at T /TF<0.1 with a typical experimental duty cycle of 11 s.

  3. A controlled-release molasses barrier system for controlling nitrate plume in groundwater: A large flow-tank study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. S.; Um, J. Y.; Lee, K. Y.; Kim, Y. B.; Nam, K.; Woo, N. C.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    A well-type permeable barrier system containing controlled-release molasses as a reactive material to promote the indigenous denitrifying activity (termed CRM system hereafter) has been developed for controlling nitrate plume in groundwater. To control the release of molasses as an extra carbon and energy source, CRM rod (OD x L = 4 cm x 30 cm) was manufactured using molding technique by dispersing molasses in paraffin wax-cellulose-silica matrix. A large scale flow-tank (L x W x D = 8 m x 4 m x 1 m, 95 m3 of sands, porosity of 0.45) was prepared to test the CRM system (L x W x D = 3 m x 4 m x 1 m) in destroying nitrate, which was consisted of three layers of discrete barriers installed at 1-m interval. Nitrate plume (1.2 m/d of velocity, 142 mg/L of nitrate) was generated by introducing both tap water (1.1 m3/d) and diluted nitrate solution (0.5 m3/d, 312 mg/L of nitrate) daily. Changes in nitrate concentrations were monitored at 30 monitoring points across the flow-tank. For 14 (i.e., the first test), 21 (i.e., the second test), and 42 (i.e., the third test) days, 80, 140, and 140 CRM rods were placed into the barriers to construct the CRM system, respectively. An indigenous microorganism Ensifer adhaerens (97% similarity) was identified from the flow-tank sands, which was probably the main denitrifier in the system. After the second test, a heterotrophic denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. KY1 was inoculated to increase destruction efficiency into the flow-tank sands for the third test. For the first test, nitrate concentrations decreased by 29, 59, and 80% after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd barriers, respectively. For the second and third tests, nitrate concentrations decreased by 32 and 26% for the 1st, 68 and 74% for the 2nd, and 84 and 81% for the 3rd barrier, indicating little effects of inoculating KY1 on destruction efficiencies. At 5.5 m downstream (i.e., 1.75 m behind the 3rd barrier), nitrate concentrations decreased by 81, 90, and 90% at the first, second, and third tests, respectively. COD values were determined as an indirect indication of molasses concentrations ranging from 161 to 329 mg/L for the 1st, 81 to 287 mg/L for the 2nd, and 105 to 377 mg/L for the 3rd barrier. Incomplete destruction of nitrate plume could be attributed to the lack of transverse dispersion in flow-tank sands. The present study suggests that the CRM system may provide a practical tool for a long-term treatment option of nitrate plume in groundwater.

  4. Near real-time imaging of molasses injections using time-lapse electrical geophysics at the Brandywine DRMO, Brandywine, Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, T.; Major, B.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Lane, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Enhanced bioremediation, which involves introduction of amendments to promote biodegradation, increasingly is used to accelerate cleanup of recalcitrant compounds and has been identified as the preferred remedial treatment at many contaminated sites. Although blind introduction of amendments can lead to sub-optimal or ineffective remediation, the distribution of amendment throughout the treatment zone is difficult to measure using conventional sampling. Because amendments and their degradation products commonly have electrical properties that differ from those of ambient soil, time-lapse electrical geophysical monitoring has the potential to verify amendment emplacement and distribution. In order for geophysical monitoring to be useful, however, results of the injection ideally should be accessible in near real time. In August 2010, we demonstrated the feasibility of near real-time, autonomous electrical geophysical monitoring of amendment injections at the former Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) in Brandywine, Maryland. Two injections of about 1000 gallons each of molasses, a widely used amendment for enhanced bioremediation, were monitored using measurements taken with borehole and surface electrodes. During the injections, multi-channel resistance data were recorded; data were transmitted to a server and processed using a parallel resistivity inversion code; and results in the form of time-lapse imagery subsequently were posted to a website. This process occurred automatically without human intervention. The resulting time-lapse imagery clearly showed the evolution of the molasses plume. The delay between measurements and online delivery of images was between 45 and 60 minutes, thus providing actionable information that could support decisions about field procedures and a check on whether amendment reached target zones. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of using electrical imaging as a monitoring tool both during amendment emplacement and post-injection to track amendment distribution, geochemical breakdown, and other remedial effects.

  5. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of sugar cane renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marcelo; Gurgel, Angelo C; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-12-16

    This study evaluated the life cycle GHG emissions of a renewable jet fuel produced from sugar cane in Brazil under a consequential approach. The analysis included the direct and indirect emissions associated with sugar cane production and fuel processing, distribution, and use for a projected 2020 scenario. The CA-GREET model was used as the basic analytical tool, while Land Use Change (LUC) emissions were estimated employing the GTAP-BIO-ADV and AEZ-EF models. Feedstock production and LUC impacts were evaluated as the main sources of emissions, respectively estimated as 14.6 and 12 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case. However, the renewable jet fuel would strongly benefit from bagasse and trash-based cogeneration, which would enable a net life cycle emission of 8.5 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case, whereas Monte Carlo results indicate 21 ± 11 g CO2eq/MJ. Besides the major influence of the electricity surplus, the sensitivity analysis showed that the cropland-pasture yield elasticity and the choice of the land use factor employed to sugar cane are relevant parameters for the biofuel life cycle performance. Uncertainties about these estimations exist, especially because the study relies on projected performances, and further studies about LUC are also needed to improve the knowledge about their contribution to the renewable jet fuel life cycle. PMID:25419647

  6. Biosynthetic origin of E-resveratrol accumulation in grape canes during postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Houillé, Benjamin; Besseau, Sébastien; Courdavault, Vincent; Oudin, Audrey; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Delanoue, Guillaume; Guérin, Laurence; Simkin, Andrew John; Papon, Nicolas; Clastre, Marc; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Lanoue, Arnaud

    2015-02-11

    Grape canes are vineyard waste products containing valuable phytochemicals of medicine and agriculture interest. Grape canes storage is critical for the accumulation of these bioactive compounds. In the present study, we investigated the changes in stilbenoid phytochemical composition during grape cane storage and the influence of the temperature on final concentrations. A strong increase in the concentration of the monomer E-resveratrol (approximately 40-fold) was observed during the first 6 weeks of storage at 20 °C in eight different grape varieties without any change in oligomer concentrations. The E-resveratrol accumulation was temperature-dependent with an optimal range at 15-20 °C. A 2 h heat-shock treatment aiming at protein denaturation inhibited E-resveratrol accumulation. The constitutive expression of key genes involved in the stilbene precursor biosynthesis along with an induction of stilbene synthase (STS) expression during the first weeks of storage contribute to a de novo biosynthesis of E-resveratrol in pruned wood grapes. PMID:25598452

  7. Design, development, and clinical evaluation of the electronic mobility cane for vision rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Bhatlawande, Shripad; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Biswas, Mukul; Das, Debabrata; Gupta, Somedeb

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a new electronic mobility cane (EMC) for providing obstacle detection and way-finding assistance to the visually impaired people. The main feature of this cane is that it constructs the logical map of the surrounding environment to deduce the priority information. It provides a simplified representation of the surrounding environment without causing any information overload. It conveys this priority information to the subject by using intuitive vibration, audio or voice feedback. The other novel features of the EMC are staircase detection and nonformal distance scaling scheme. It also provides information about the floor status. It consists of a low power embedded system with ultrasonic sensors and safety indicators. The EMC was subjected to series of clinical evaluations in order to verify its design and to assess its ability to assist the subjects in their daily-life mobility. Clinical evaluations were performed with 16 totally blind and four low vision subjects. All subjects walked controlled and the real-world test environments with the EMC and the traditional white cane. The evaluation results and significant scores of subjective measurements have shown the usefulness of the EMC in vision rehabilitation services. PMID:24860035

  8. Wearable Gait Measurement System with an Instrumented Cane for Exoskeleton Control

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Modar; Kadone, Hideki; Suzuki, Kenji; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    In this research we introduce a wearable sensory system for motion intention estimation and control of exoskeleton robot. The system comprises wearable inertial motion sensors and shoe-embedded force sensors. The system utilizes an instrumented cane as a part of the interface between the user and the robot. The cane reflects the motion of upper limbs, and is used in terms of human inter-limb synergies. The developed control system provides assisted motion in coherence with the motion of other unassisted limbs. The system utilizes the instrumented cane together with body worn sensors, and provides assistance for start, stop and continuous walking. We verified the function of the proposed method and the developed wearable system through gait trials on treadmill and on ground. The achievement contributes to finding an intuitive and feasible interface between human and robot through wearable gait sensors for practical use of assistive technology. It also contributes to the technology for cognitively assisted locomotion, which helps the locomotion of physically challenged people. PMID:24445417

  9. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Nad?žda; T?íska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Št?pán; Cu?ínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-?-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-?-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol. PMID:25856060

  10. Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs

    PubMed Central

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax. PMID:16348144

  11. A genetic perspective on rapid evolution in cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Rollins, Lee A; Richardson, Mark F; Shine, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The process of biological invasion exposes a species to novel pressures, in terms of both the environments it encounters and the evolutionary consequences of range expansion. Several invaders have been shown to exhibit rapid evolutionary changes in response to those pressures, thus providing robust opportunities to clarify the processes at work during rapid phenotypic transitions. The accelerating pace of invasion of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia during its 80-year history has been well characterized at the phenotypic level, including common-garden experiments that demonstrate heritability of several dispersal-relevant traits. Individuals from the invasion front (and their progeny) show distinctive changes in morphology, physiology and behaviour that, in combination, result in far more rapid dispersal than is true of conspecifics from long-colonized areas. The extensive body of work on cane toad ecology enables us to place into context studies of the genetic basis of these traits. Our analyses of differential gene expression from toads from both ends of this invasion-history transect reveal substantial upregulation of many genes, notably those involved in metabolism and cellular repair. Clearly, then, the dramatically rapid phenotypic evolution of cane toads in Australia has been accompanied by substantial shifts in gene expression, suggesting that this system is well suited to investigating the genetic underpinnings of invasiveness. PMID:25894012

  12. Effects of a molasses-coated cottonseed product on diet digestibility, performance, and milk fatty acid profile of lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Bradford, B J

    2010-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a molasses-coated cottonseed product on nutrient digestibility and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of lactating dairy cattle. The effect of a direct-fed microbial (DFM) product was also examined. Twelve Holstein cows (693+/-85kg of body weight, 127+/-39 d in milk, 2.08+/-0.29 lactations; mean +/- SD) were randomly assigned to sequence in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design balanced for carryover effects. Cows were fed 1 of 4 treatments during each of the four 14-d periods: a control diet including 11.4% (dry matter basis) reginned cottonseed (CON), a diet with 14.4% molasses-coated cottonseed to match the cottonseed inclusion rate of the control diet (TC), the control diet with the addition of a liquid form of the cotton coating used to produce molasses-coated cottonseed (LC), and the LC diet with the addition of a DFM (LC+DFM). Diets were formulated for equal concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, ether extract, and macrominerals. Treatments had no effect on dry matter intake, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, or milk production. The molasses coat, in either form, tended to decrease concentrations of odd-chain FA (2.25 and 2.31 vs. 2.35 g/100g of FA for TC, LC, and CON, respectively) and unsaturated FA (31.4 and 31.1 vs. 32.1 g/100g of FA) in milk. This could be indicative of a mild shift in ruminal fermentation away from propionate-producing bacteria toward fiber-digesting bacteria responsible for biohydrogenation of FA. The form of the molasses coating had few effects, but LC significantly decreased concentrations of total trans-C18:1 (2.04 vs. 2.30+/-0.13 g/100g of FA) and polyunsaturated FA (4.81 vs. 5.01+/-0.17) compared with TC, implying that the liquid form slightly enhanced ruminal FA biohydrogenation. Furthermore, adding the DFM to the LC diet tended to increase the proportion of long-chain FA (FA >C16) and significantly increased the proportions of trans-C18:1 (2.22 vs. 2.04+/-0.13 g/100g of FA) and unsaturated FA (32.4 vs. 31.1+/-0.7 g/100g of FA), suggesting an inhibitory effect on ruminal biohydrogenation. Results suggest that coating cottonseed with a hardened molasses product does not significantly depress nutrient digestibility and may provide a convenient method of incorporating these ingredients into dairy rations. PMID:20630230

  13. Neogene tectonics in the Swiss Subalpine Molasse basin: Preliminary results from apatite (U-Th)\\/He ages and fault slip analyses in the Rigi area (Switzerland)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lindow; C. Cederbom; O. Oncken; F. Schlunegger; D. Gröpler

    2009-01-01

    Apatite fission-track (AFT) data from wells within the Swiss Subalpine Molasse basin suggest tectonic reactivation and km-scale thrusting in a triangle zone during Plio-Pleistocene times (Cederbom et al., in preparation). An offset in the AFT age\\/depth trend within and between wells penetrating the triangle zone suggest thrusting during or after major exhumation and basin erosion. The aims of this reconnaissance

  14. The effect of different levels of forage and fish meal on the live performance and rumen volatile fatty acid concentation of heifers fed high molasses diets 

    E-print Network

    Estrada, Sergio

    1973-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FORAGE AND FISH MEAL ON THE LIVE PERFORMANCE AND RUMEN VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONCEN- TRATION OF HEIFERS FED HIGH MOLASSES DIETS A Thesis by SERGIO ESTRADA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM... University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Animal Science THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FORAGE AND FISH MEAL ON IHE LIVE PERFORMANCE AND RUMEN VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONCEN...

  15. Comparison of two mathematical models for correlating the organic matter removal efficiency with hydraulic retention time in a hybrid anaerobic baffled reactor treating molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ghaniyari-BenisA; A. Martín; R. Borja; M. A. Martín; N. Hedayat

    A modelling of the anaerobic digestion process of molasses was conducted in a 70-L multistage anaerobic biofilm reactor or\\u000a hybrid anaerobic baffled reactor with six compartments at an operating temperature of 26 °C. Five hydraulic retention times\\u000a (6, 16, 24, 72 and 120 h) were studied at a constant influent COD concentration of 10,000 mg\\/L. Two different kinetic models\\u000a (one was based on

  16. Nutrient utilization by Murrah buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis) as influenced by varying levels of urea molasses mineral block on wheat straw based diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K Verma; U. R Mehra; R. S Dass

    1998-01-01

    To ascertain the optimum intake of urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) as a supplement on wheat straw based diets, twelve adult male Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) (390±9.0kg; 4y) were assigned to three equal groups in a completely randomized design. To minimize individual diurnal variation, the animals on Diets 1, 2 and 3 were fed fixed quantity of UMMB at the

  17. Effects of formaldehyde treated mustard cake and molasses supplementation on nutrient utilization, microbial protein supply and feed efficiency in growing kids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sahoo; T. K. Walli

    2008-01-01

    Twenty healthy growing male kids (Sannen×Beetal and Alpine×Beetal) of 2–3 months of age, weighing 12±0.61kg, were randomly assigned to one to four dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial design. Two types of isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate mixtures were fed to kids in four treatments being: untreated mustard cake, untreated mustard cake with molasses, formaldehyde treated mustard cake and formaldehyde treated

  18. Effect of different planes of nutrition on urea molasses mineral block intake, nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation pattern and blood profile in Murrah buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Hosamani; U. R. Mehra; R. S. Dass

    1998-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of plane of nutrition on intake and nutrient utilization from urea molasses mineral block (UMMB), rumen fermentation pattern and blood biochemical constituents, 20 intact and 12 rumen fistulated male Murrah buffaloes aged about 3 years and weighing 320.3±13.11kg were randomly distributed into four groups of eight animals in each, thus each group having five

  19. Use of response surface methodology (RSM) in the evaluation of growth and copper(II) bioaccumulation properties of Candida utilis in molasses medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferda Gönen; Zümriye Aksu

    2008-01-01

    The influential factors on simultaneous growth and copper(II) bioaccumulation by growing cells of Candida utilis yeast under various ambient conditions, such as changing concentrations of molasses sucrose and copper(II) were tested. The highest growth rate of 0.133h?1 was obtained at an initial sucrose concentration of 15gl?1 in absence of copper(II). For each constant sucrose concentration chosen between 5 and 15gl?1,

  20. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA FAINT DWARF GALAXIES, CANES VENATICI I, BOOeTES I, CANES VENATICI II, AND LEO IV

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Sakurako [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Arimoto, Nobuo; Yamada, Yoshihiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Onodera, Masato, E-mail: okamoto@pku.edu.cn [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-01-10

    We take deep images of four ultra faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Canes Venatici I (CVn I), Booetes I (Booe I), Canes Venatici II (CVn II), and Leo IV, using the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend below main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) and yield measurements of the ages of stellar populations. The stellar populations of three faint galaxies, the Booe I, CVn II, and Leo IV dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), are estimated to be as old as the Galactic globular cluster M92. We confirm that Booe I dSph has no intrinsic color spread in the MSTO and no spatial difference in the CMD morphology, which indicates that Booe I dSph is composed of an old single stellar population. One of the brightest UFDs, CVn I dSph, shows a relatively younger age ({approx}12.6 Gyr) with respect to Booe I, CVn II, and Leo IV dSphs, and the distribution of red horizontal branch (HB) stars is more concentrated toward the center than that of blue HB stars, suggesting that the galaxy contains complex stellar populations. Booe I and CVn I dSphs show the elongated and distorted shapes. CVn II dSph has the smallest tidal radius of a Milky Way satellite and has a distorted shape, while Leo IV dSph shows a less concentrated spherical shape. The simple stellar population of faint UFDs indicates that the gases in their progenitors were removed more effectively than those of brighter dSphs at the occurrence of their initial star formation. This is reasonable if the progenitors of UFDs belong to less massive halos than those of brighter dSphs.

  1. A navigation system for the visually impaired an intelligent white cane.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, A Jin; Magatani, Kazusihge

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe about a developed navigation system that supports the independent walking of the visually impaired in the indoor space. Our developed instrument consists of a navigation system and a map information system. These systems are installed on a white cane. Our navigation system can follow a colored navigation line that is set on the floor. In this system, a color sensor installed on the tip of a white cane, this sensor senses a color of navigation line and the system informs the visually impaired that he/she is walking along the navigation line by vibration. This color recognition system is controlled by a one-chip microprocessor. RFID tags and a receiver for these tags are used in the map information system. RFID tags are set on the colored navigation line. An antenna for RFID tags and a tag receiver are also installed on a white cane. The receiver receives the area information as a tag-number and notifies map information to the user by mp3 formatted pre-recorded voice. And now, we developed the direction identification technique. Using this technique, we can detect a user's walking direction. A triaxiality acceleration sensor is used in this system. Three normal subjects who were blindfolded with an eye mask were tested with our developed navigation system. All of them were able to walk along the navigation line perfectly. We think that the performance of the system is good. Therefore, our system will be extremely valuable in supporting the activities of the visually impaired. PMID:23366992

  2. Production of ethanol from sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate by Pichia stipitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carina Van Zyl; Bernard A. Prior; James C. Du Preez

    1988-01-01

    The ability ofPichia stipitis to fermentd-xylose andd-glucose in the acid-hydrolyzed hemicellulose component of sugar cane bagasse depends on the alkali used to neutralize the\\u000a hydrolyzate to pH 6.5. With NH4OH and NaOH no fermentation occurred, whereas neutralization with Ca(OH)2 gave the best results (Qpmax=0.25 g\\/L-h; Yp\\/s =0.38 g\\/g sugar). However, the volumetric productivity was still considerably less than observed in

  3. Biofiltration of volatile ethanol using sugar cane bagasse inoculated with Candida utilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Christen; F. Domenech; G. Michelena; R. Auria; S. Revah

    2002-01-01

    Candidautilis (C.utilis) growing on sugar cane bagasse complemented with a mineral salt solution was studied for gaseous ethanol removal in a biofilter. Ethanol loads from 93.7 to 511.9g\\/hm3 were used, by varying both inlet ethanol concentration (9.72 to 52.4g\\/m3) and air flow rate (1.59×10?3 to 2.86×10?3m3\\/h). At a loading rate of 93.7g\\/hm3, a steady-state was maintained for 300h. Ethanol removal

  4. http://www.hnei.hawaii.edu/ HAWAI`I NATURAL ENERGY INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    waste, molasses, crude glycerol, cane bagasse, and biomass syngas. A pilot plant has been built up byproducts and cellulosic biomass. The technology consists of feedstock pretreatment, biological conversion

  5. Immune response varies with rate of dispersal in invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2014-01-01

    What level of immunocompetence should an animal maintain while undertaking long-distance dispersal? Immune function (surveillance and response) might be down-regulated during prolonged physical exertion due to energy depletion, and/or to avoid autoimmune reactions arising from damaged tissue. On the other hand, heightened immune vigilance might be favored if the organism encounters novel pathogens as it enters novel environments. We assessed the links between immune defense and long-distance movement in a population of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia. Toads were radio-tracked for seven days to measure their activity levels and were then captured and subjected to a suite of immune assays. Toads that moved further showed decreased bacteria-killing ability in their plasma and decreased phagocytic activity in their whole blood, but a heightened skin-swelling response to phytohemagglutinin. Baseline and post-stress corticosterone levels were unrelated to distance moved. Thus, long-distance movement in cane toads is associated with a dampened response in some systems and enhanced response in another. This pattern suggests that sustained activity is accompanied by trade-offs among immune components rather than an overall down or up-regulation. The finding that high mobility is accompanied by modification of the immune system has important implications for animal invasions. PMID:24936876

  6. Long-term prospects for the environmental profile of advanced sugar cane ethanol.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cinthia R U; Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira; Junqueira, Tassia Lopes; van Oers, Lauran; van der Voet, Ester; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-10-21

    This work assessed the environmental impacts of the production and use of 1 MJ of hydrous ethanol (E100) in Brazil in prospective scenarios (2020-2030), considering the deployment of technologies currently under development and better agricultural practices. The life cycle assessment technique was employed using the CML method for the life cycle impact assessment and the Monte Carlo method for the uncertainty analysis. Abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, photochemical oxidation, acidification, and eutrophication were the environmental impacts categories analyzed. Results indicate that the proposed improvements (especially no-til farming-scenarios s2 and s4) would lead to environmental benefits in prospective scenarios compared to the current ethanol production (scenario s0). Combined first and second generation ethanol production (scenarios s3 and s4) would require less agricultural land but would not perform better than the projected first generation ethanol, although the uncertainties are relatively high. The best use of 1 ha of sugar cane was also assessed, considering the displacement of the conventional products by ethanol and electricity. No-til practices combined with the production of first generation ethanol and electricity (scenario s2) would lead to the largest mitigation effects for global warming and abiotic depletion. For the remaining categories, emissions would not be mitigated with the utilization of the sugar cane products. However, this conclusion is sensitive to the displaced electricity sources. PMID:25275890

  7. Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 9: Catalytic liquefaction in ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lancas, F.M.; Rezemini, A.L. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry; Donate, P.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1999-05-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, using ethanol as solvent. A systematic study with 12 different types of commercially available catalysts was accomplished. For each catalyst, the conversion yield of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products, which are useful as liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks, was determined. The highest conversion yield was observed when a nickel catalyst on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used. The liquefied products were fractionated into oils, asphaltenes, and asphaltols. The oil samples were separated and then fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography. The highest proportion of light-oils (F1 to F5) was obtained with the potassium fluoride catalyst on silica gel. High proportions of resins (F6) were obtained with three types of catalysts: nickel on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ruthenium, or platinum on activated carbon powder. The highest proportion of asphaltenes (F7) and of asphaltols (F8) were obtained with the niobium oxide catalyst.

  8. Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 10: Catalytic liquefaction in aqueous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Lancas, F.M.; Ruggiero, M.A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry; Donate, P.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1999-05-01

    This work presents the results of a study of a process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, in aqueous medium, using different pH values. The experiments were conducted in the absence as well as in the presence of commercial catalysts. In the absence of catalyst, the results showed that the conversion of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products is not influenced by the pH of the reaction mixture. An increase in the temperature augments the yield of liquefied products. The utilization of different commercial catalysts permits an increase in the yields of liquefied products up to 92.4%, obtained with 10% palladium on activated carbon powder as catalyst. The liquefied products were fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography (PLC-8 method). In the absence of catalyst, high conversion yields into light-oils and resins (fractions F1 to F6) was observed only at pH = 9. When the catalysts were used (at pH = 9 and at 370 C), an important increase (from 29 to 78%) of resins (fraction F6) was observed. Under this condition, the proportion of asphaltenes and asphaltols (fractions F7 and F8) decreases from 70 to 20%.

  9. Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, ?-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

    Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, ?-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and ?-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

  10. Larger Body Size at Metamorphosis Enhances Survival, Growth and Performance of Young Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans) with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors). To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran’s body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water), and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual’s long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species. PMID:23922930

  11. The Interacting Effects of Ungulate Hoofprints and Predatory Native Ants on Metamorph Cane Toads in Tropical Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; González-Bernal, Edna; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Many invasive species exploit the disturbed habitats created by human activities. Understanding the effects of habitat disturbance on invasion success, and how disturbance interacts with other factors (such as biotic resistance to the invaders from the native fauna) may suggest new ways to reduce invader viability. In tropical Australia, commercial livestock production can facilitate invasion by the cane toad (Rhinella marina), because hoofprints left by cattle and horses around waterbody margins provide distinctive (cool, moist) microhabitats; nevertheless the same microhabitat can inhibit the success of cane toads by increasing the risks of predation or drowning. Metamorph cane toads actively select hoofprints as retreat-sites to escape dangerous thermal and hydric conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, hoofprint geometry is important: in hoofprints with steep sides the young toads are more likely to be attacked by predatory ants (Iridomyrmex reburrus) and are more likely to drown following heavy rain. Thus, anthropogenic changes to the landscape interact with predation by native taxa to affect the ability of cane toads in this vulnerable life-history stage to thrive in the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical Australia. PMID:24255703

  12. PRESS RELEASE FROM THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DELHI "Smart Cane" developed jointly by IIT Delhi, Phoenix Medical

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Subhashis

    , such as a tree branch or a window air- conditioner protruding in the corridor. The "Smart Cane" is an innovative to the user using vibratory signals with distance differentiated characteristics. It is designed as a user phones and digital cameras. The funding from Wellcome Trust has been used to optimise the design

  13. 75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ...raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d) (3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3)) authorizes...committed pursuant to the World Trade Organization (WTO) Uruguay Round Agreements (1,117,195 MTRV) and the previous...

  14. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3)) authorizes...committed pursuant to the World Trade Organization (WTO) Uruguay Round Agreements (1,117,195 MTRV). Based on...

  15. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3)) authorizes...committed to pursuant to the World Trade Organization (WTO) Uruguay Round Agreements (1,117,195 metric tons raw value...

  16. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ...raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3)) authorizes...committed to pursuant to the World Trade Organization (WTO) Uruguay Round Agreements (1,117,195 MTRV, as announced by...

  17. Soil chemical and physical properties as indicators of sustainable land management under sugar cane in Papua New Guinea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred E. Hartemink

    1998-01-01

    The sustainability of land management was assessed for a sugar cane plantation using soil chemical and physical properties as indicators. The plantation (6000 ha) was established in 1979 on a broad alluvial plain and the majority of the soils are classified as Eutric and Mollic Fluvisols (73%) and Eutric Vertisols (23%). Average annual rainfall is about 2000 mm with a

  18. Habitat selection and coexistence of invasive cockroach species (Dictyoptera) in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Stéphane; Rivault, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Selection of habitat has a profound influence on interactions among species and the assembly of ecological communities. We investigated habitat preferences to understand how different cockroach species coexist in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island. Cockroach populations belonging to a guild of seven species were surveyed during one annual cycle in eight sugar-cane fields that differed by several environmental factors, in order to investigate ecological features of cockroach species and their patterns of coexistence. Structure variations of the cockroach communities were analyzed at the field scale, at the sample unit scale, and according to variations of environmental conditions related to the annual sugar-cane growth cycle. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to elucidate relationships between species diversity, population abundance and environmental characteristics. The examination of partitioning at different spatial and temporal scales evidenced that each species occupied a particular type of habitat. The main factors influencing spatial habitat selection were at the sample unit scale: presence of ants, edge effect, soil moisture and granulometry, at the field scale: irrigation, annual rainfall, altitude and age of the field. Although a pair of species shared the same type of habitat, annual population peaks of each species did not coincide in time. This suggests that resource partitioning is based both on ecological factors and interspecific competition. Factors enhancing cockroach coexistence and factors favoring population outbursts are discussed as well as specific invasive capacities of these cockroaches and the role of the cockroach community in the sugar-cane trophic web.

  19. The interacting effects of ungulate hoofprints and predatory native ants on metamorph cane toads in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R; González-Bernal, Edna; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Many invasive species exploit the disturbed habitats created by human activities. Understanding the effects of habitat disturbance on invasion success, and how disturbance interacts with other factors (such as biotic resistance to the invaders from the native fauna) may suggest new ways to reduce invader viability. In tropical Australia, commercial livestock production can facilitate invasion by the cane toad (Rhinella marina), because hoofprints left by cattle and horses around waterbody margins provide distinctive (cool, moist) microhabitats; nevertheless the same microhabitat can inhibit the success of cane toads by increasing the risks of predation or drowning. Metamorph cane toads actively select hoofprints as retreat-sites to escape dangerous thermal and hydric conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, hoofprint geometry is important: in hoofprints with steep sides the young toads are more likely to be attacked by predatory ants (Iridomyrmex reburrus) and are more likely to drown following heavy rain. Thus, anthropogenic changes to the landscape interact with predation by native taxa to affect the ability of cane toads in this vulnerable life-history stage to thrive in the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical Australia. PMID:24255703

  20. IIT Delhi launches SmartCaneTM to assist visually impaired to detect above-the-knee obstacles

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Subhashis

    (2011 census data). Developed jointly with Saksham Trust and Phoenix Medical Systems, with funding has ensured that the device meets global standards in terms of quality and reliability. Saksham Trust of the SmartCaneTM device, said "Blindness is not just a medical condition but possesses the larger dimensions

  1. SUGARCANE CHOPPER HARVESTER EXTRACTOR FAN AND GROUND SPEED EFFECTS ON SUGARCANE YIELD, CANE QUALITY, AND FIELD LOSSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Operational settings on chopper harvesters are extremely important in green-cane harvesting since one is relying solely on the harvester to remove extraneous matter instead of the traditional pre-harvest burn method. The objective of this research was to determine the combined effect of selected gr...

  2. A comparison of liquid hot water and steam pretreatments of sugar cane bagasse for bioconversion to ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Laser; Deborah Schulman; Stephen G Allen; Joseph Lichwa; Michael J Antal; Lee R Lynd

    2002-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated with either liquid hot water (LHW) or steam using the same 25 l reactor. Solids concentration ranged from 1% to 8% for LHW pretreatment and was ?50% for steam pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time ranged from 170 to 230 °C and 1 to 46 min, respectively. Key performance metrics included fiber reactivity, xylan recovery, and

  3. Reservoir characterization of the Upper Jurassic geothermal target formations (Molasse Basin, Germany): role of thermofacies as exploration tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homuth, S.; Götz, A. E.; Sass, I.

    2015-06-01

    The Upper Jurassic carbonates of the southern German Molasse Basin are the target of numerous geothermal combined heat and power production projects since the year 2000. A production-orientated reservoir characterization is therefore of high economic interest. Outcrop analogue studies enable reservoir property prediction by determination and correlation of lithofacies-related thermo- and petrophysical parameters. A thermofacies classification of the carbonate formations serves to identify heterogeneities and production zones. The hydraulic conductivity is mainly controlled by tectonic structures and karstification, whilst the type and grade of karstification is facies related. The rock permeability has only a minor effect on the reservoir's sustainability. Physical parameters determined on oven-dried samples have to be corrected, applying reservoir transfer models to water-saturated reservoir conditions. To validate these calculated parameters, a Thermo-Triaxial-Cell simulating the temperature and pressure conditions of the reservoir is used and calorimetric and thermal conductivity measurements under elevated temperature conditions are performed. Additionally, core and cutting material from a 1600 m deep research drilling and a 4850 m (total vertical depth, measured depth: 6020 m) deep well is used to validate the reservoir property predictions. Under reservoir conditions a decrease in permeability of 2-3 magnitudes is observed due to the thermal expansion of the rock matrix. For tight carbonates the matrix permeability is temperature-controlled; the thermophysical matrix parameters are density-controlled. Density increases typically with depth and especially with higher dolomite content. Therefore, thermal conductivity increases; however the dominant factor temperature also decreases the thermal conductivity. Specific heat capacity typically increases with increasing depth and temperature. The lithofacies-related characterization and prediction of reservoir properties based on outcrop and drilling data demonstrates that this approach is a powerful tool for exploration and operation of geothermal reservoirs.

  4. 3-D seismic analysis of a carbonate platform in the Molasse Basin - reef distribution and internal separation with seismic attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hartmann, Hartwig; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Schulz, Rüdiger

    2012-10-01

    Carbonate platforms differ from clastic sedimentary environments by a greater heterogeneity, so that key horizons for mapping and compartmentalisation of the reservoir are generally missing. We show that different seismic attributes help to compete with these difficulties and to identify different carbonate facies within the platform. The Upper Jurassic carbonate platform in Southern Germany in the Molasse Basin is a main exploration target for hydrogeothermal projects. Knowledge about the distribution of different carbonate facies within the platform, which is overprinted by faults, is important for a realistic reservoir simulation. The platform with an average thickness of 600 meters was artificially divided into four layers of equal thickness. Within each layer the characteristic seismic pattern was visualized by different attributes (travel time mapping, spectral decomposition), allowing additionally for further depositional classification. Within the uppermost layer the coral reef distribution could be mapped. The reefs form several complexes of up to 12 square kilometres in size. The surrounding slope and trough areas are identified as well. Within the platform , the distribution of sponge reefs could be visualized. They form either amalgamations in distinct areas, or are spread as small singular structures with diameters of approximately less than hundred meters. Comparing tectonic elements and reef distribution within the whole platform reveals that the early topography triggered the reef distribution, while these lithologic inhomogenities influenced later on the local shape of tectonic lineaments. The fault system which dominates the structural style in the area is visible in the different transformations but does not obscure the facies distribution, which hindered former interpretations of the data set. In this way a reservoir model can incorporate now the first time the reef distribution within an area.

  5. Character & Cane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2009-01-01

    They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

  6. Origine et évolution du soufre au sein de l'aquifére des Sables infra-molassiques du Bassin aquitainOrigin and evolution of sulphur in the Infra-Molassic Sands Aquifer from the Aquitaine Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Laurent; Franceschi, Michel; Pouchan, Pierre; Atteia, Olivier

    New data on isotopic composition of sulphur and oxygen in dissolved sulphates are used to determine the origin of sulphate ions (SO 42-) in the water of the Infra-Molassic Sands Eocene aquifer. Two very distinct origins appear: one is the gypsum dissolution, from the molasse, and the second is the pyrite oxidation, present at the bottom of and within the aquifer. These isotopic analyses helped, in agreement with hydrogeology, to identify geochemical basins whose properties modify the chemical water composition. They also highlight the existence of bioreduction areas. To cite this article: L. André et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 749-756.

  7. Genetic diversity analysis with RAPD linked to sex identification in the sugar cane borer Diatraea saccharalis.

    PubMed

    Heideman, C; Munhoz, R E F; Pattaro Júnior, J R; Fernandez, M A

    2010-01-01

    Diatraea saccharalis is an insect that causes considerable losses in the sugar cane crop. Our aim was to contribute to the knowledge of the biology of D. saccharalis, with the report of DNA fragments involved in the differentiation between the male and female of this species using the RAPD sex molecular marker GyakuU-13, which is specific for the W chromosome of Bombyx mori. Another point evaluated in this study was the genetic diversity of a D. saccharalis population maintained by inbreeding in a laboratory culture. The profile of sex-specific fragments was analyzed, and the genetic variability of this population was estimated. An analysis of the molecular markers showed only one fragment, of approximately 700 bp, that could be considered as a female sex marker in D. saccharalis. PMID:21128215

  8. Cane Creek flood-flow characteristics at State Route 30 near Spencer, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    The Tennessee Department of Transportation has constructed a new bridge and approaches on State Route 30 over Cane Creek near Spencer, Tennessee. The old bridge and its approaches were fairly low, permitting considerable flow over the road during high floods. The new bridge and its approaches are considerably higher, causing different flow conditions at the site. Analysis of the effects of the new bridge, as compared to the old bridge, on floods of the magnitude of the May 27, 1973, flood is presented. The May 27, 1973, flood was greater than a 100-year flood. Analysis of the 50- and 100-year floods for the new bridge are also presented. Results of the study indicate that the new construction will increase the water-surface elevation for a flood equal to the May 27, 1973, flood by approximately 1 foot upstream from bridge. (USGS)

  9. Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Cutler, William G; Brewer, Roger C; El-Kadi, Aly; Hue, Nguyen V; Niemeyer, Patrick G; Peard, John; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenical herbicides were used extensively for emergent weed control in Hawaiian sugar cane cultivation from 1913 to about 1950. As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern portion of the Island of Hawaii. This study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and arsenic bioaccessibility in the iron-rich volcanic soils. Soils are predominantly Andisols, formed by weathering of basaltic lava and tephra, with pedogenic solid phases consisting of short-range order iron oxyhydroxides, allophane-like aluminosilicates, and metal-humus compounds. These reactive solid phases strongly adsorb oxyanions, such as phosphate and arsenite/arsenate. High arsenic sorption capacity limits desorption and vertical migration within the soil column and prevents contamination of the underlying groundwater aquifer, despite high arsenic loading and precipitation rates. In vitro arsenic bioaccessibility, as measured by the SBRC gastric-phase test, ranges from 2% to 35% and averages 9% of total arsenic. Bioaccessible arsenic is higher in less weathered soils (Udifolists, Typic and Lithic Hydrudands) and lower in more weathered ash-dominant soils (Acrudoxic Hydrudands). Soil weathering indicators, such as reactive iron content, are strong predictors of arsenic bioaccessibility. Based on evidence from soil mineralogy, geochemistry and arsenic speciation, as well as limited soil arsenic bioavailability/bioaccessibility comparisons, risks to human health from direct contact (soil ingestion) are significantly reduced by low arsenic bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, some soils within former sugar cane cultivation areas contain bioaccessible arsenic concentrations exceeding Hawaii Department of Health risk-based action levels, and will require mitigating actions. Even higher levels of soil arsenic contamination have been identified at former pesticide storage and mixing areas, but are generally of localized extent. PMID:23178778

  10. Investigations on alcohol production and yeast growth as influenced by media conditions 

    E-print Network

    Uddoulah, Md. Seraj

    1961-01-01

    the chelation potential of the citric acid and as a result no reduction in alcohol production was secured in the media con- taining citric acid. 23 Laboratory Evaluation of Experimental Blackstrap Molasses Constituent Assay Value per cent Protein Total... salts of magnesium, manganese, iron and sodium. These results add veight to the chelation concept vhich has been presented. 31 REFERENCES Arrington, L. Rand and W. A. Krienke, "Inhibition of Oxidized Flavor of Milk With Chelating Agents, " J. Dairy...

  11. A suspected parasite spill-back of two novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) causing disease in Australian endemic frogs found in the invasive Cane toad.

    PubMed

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirk?, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N; Šlapeta, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence. PMID:21541340

  12. Reactivity of sugar cane bagasse as a natural solid phase extractor for selective removal of Fe(III) and heavy-metal ions from natural water samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezzat M. Soliman; Salwa A. Ahmed; Aliaa A. Fadl

    2011-01-01

    This work introduces the feasibility of using sugar cane bagasse (SCB) – a sugar cane industry waste – as a selective solid phase extractor for Fe(III). The order of metal uptake capacities in ?molg?1 for the extraction of six tested metal ions from aqueous solution using static technique is Fe(III)>Cu(II)>Pb(II)>Zn(II)>Cd(II)>Co(II). Since SCB exhibits remarkable binding characteristics for Fe(III), special interest

  13. Betaine removal during thermo- and mesophilic aerobic batch biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse: influence of temperature and pH on the progress and efficiency of the process.

    PubMed

    Cibis, Edmund; Ryznar-Luty, Agnieszka; Krzywonos, Ma?gorzata; Lutos?awski, Krzysztof; Mi?kiewicz, Tadeusz

    2011-07-01

    The key issue in achieving a high extent of biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse is to establish the conditions for the assimilation of betaine, which is the main pollutant in this high-strength industrial effluent. In the present study, aerobic batch biodegradation was conducted over the temperature range of 27-63°C (step 9°C), at a pH of 6.5 and 8.0, using a mixed culture of bacteria of the genus Bacillus. Betaine was assimilated at 27-54°C and the pH of 8.0, as well as at 27-45°C and the pH of 6.5. The processes where betaine was assimilated produced a high BOD(5) removal, which exceeded 99.40% over the temperature range of 27-45°C at the pH of 8.0, as well as at 27°C and the pH of 6.5. Maximal COD removal (88.73%) was attained at 36°C and the pH of 6.5. The results indicate that the process can be applied on an industrial scale as the first step in the treatment of beet molasses vinasse. PMID:21367516

  14. Biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse by a mixed culture of micro organisms: effect of aeration conditions and pH control.

    PubMed

    Lutos?awski, Krzysztof; Ryznar-Luty, Agnieszka; Cibis, Edmund; Krzywonos, Ma?gorzata; Mi?kiewicz, Tadeusz

    2011-01-01

    The effect of aeration conditions and pH control on the progress and efficiency of beet molasses vinasse biodegradation was investigated during four batch processes at 38 degrees C with the mixed microbial culture composed of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Rhodopseudomonas, and Saccharomyces. The four processes were carried out in a shake flask with no pH control, an aerobic bioreactor without mixing with no pH control, and a stirred-tank reactor (STR) with aeration with and without pH control, respectively. All experiments were started with an initial pH 8.0. The highest efficiency of biodegradation was achieved through the processes conducted in the STR, where betaine (an organic pollutant occurring in beet molasses in very large quantities) was completely degraded by the microorganisms. The process with no pH control carried out in the STR produced the highest reduction in the following pollution measures: organic matter expressed as chemical oxygen demand determined by the dichromatic method + theoretical COD of betaine (COD(sum), 85.5%), total organic carbon (TOC, 78.8%) and five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5, 98.6%). The process conditions applied in the shake flask experiments, as well as those used in the aerobic bioreactor without mixing, failed to provide complete betaine assimilation. As a consequence, reduction in COD(sum), TOC and BOD5 was approximately half that obtained with STR. PMID:22432306

  15. Description of Gluconacetobacter sacchari sp. nov., a new species of acetic acid bacterium isolated from the leaf sheath of sugar cane and from the pink sugar-cane mealy bug.

    PubMed

    Franke, I H; Fegan, M; Hayward, C; Leonard, G; Stackebrandt, E; Sly, L I

    1999-10-01

    A new species of the genus Gluconacetobacter, for which the name Gluconacetobacter sacchari sp. nov. is proposed, was isolated from the leaf sheath of sugar cane and from the pink sugar-cane mealy bug, Saccharicoccus sacchari, found on sugar cane growing in Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia. The nearest phylogenetic relatives in the alpha-subclass of the Proteobacteria are Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, which have 98.8-99.3% and 97.9-98.5% 16S rDNA sequence similarity, respectively, to members of Gluconacetobacter sacchari. On the basis of the phylogenetic positioning of the strains, DNA reassociation studies, phenotypic tests and the presence of the Q10 ubiquinone, this new species was assigned to the genus Gluconacetobacter. No single phenotypic characteristic is unique to the species, but the species can be differentiated phenotypically from closely related members of the acetic acid bacteria by growth in the presence of 0.01% malachite green, growth on 30% glucose, an inability to fix nitrogen and an inability to grow with the L-amino acids asparagine, glycine, glutamine, threonine and tryptophan when D-mannitol was supplied as the sole carbon and energy source. The type strain of this species is strain SRI 1794T (= DSM 12717T). PMID:10555349

  16. Influence of lung parasites on the growth rates of free-ranging and captive adult cane toads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Crystal Kelehear; Gregory P. Brown; Richard Shine

    2011-01-01

    Many parasites affect the viability of their hosts, but detailed studies combining empirical data from both the field and\\u000a the laboratory are limited. Consequently, the nature and magnitude of such effects are poorly known for many important host–parasite\\u000a systems, including macroparasites of amphibians. We examined the effects of lungworm (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) infections in cane toads (Bufo marinus) within their invasive

  17. Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

    2009-09-01

    In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields. PMID:19886425

  18. A cane reduces loss of balance in patients with peripheral neuropathy: Results from a challenging unipedal balance test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Ashton-Miller; Mark W. L. Yeh; James K. Richardson; Todd Galloway

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that use of a cane in the nondominant hand during challenging balance tasks would significantly decrease loss of balance in patients with peripheral neuropathy while transferring from bipedal to unipedal stance on an unsteady surface.Design: Nonrandomized control study.Setting: Tertiary-care institution.Participants Eight consecutive patients with peripheral neuropathy (PN) and eight age- and gender-matched controls (C) with

  19. Parameters-related uncertainty in modeling sugar cane yield with an agro-Land Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ruget, F.; Gabrielle, B.

    2012-12-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the coupling of specific crop models and large-scale generic vegetation models. They aim at accounting for the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum with a particular emphasis on how crop phenology and agricultural management practice influence the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty in these models is related to the many parameters included in the models' equations. In this study, we quantify the parameter-based uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS on a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Reunion and Brazil. First, the main source of uncertainty for the output variables NPP, GPP, and sensible heat flux (SH) is determined through a screening of the main parameters of the model on a multi-site basis leading to the selection of a subset of most sensitive parameters causing most of the uncertainty. In a second step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the parameters selected from the screening analysis at a regional scale. For this, a Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used. First, we quantify the sensitivity of the output variables to individual input parameters on a regional scale for two regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Then, we quantify the overall uncertainty in the simulation's outputs propagated from the uncertainty in the input parameters. Seven parameters are identified by the screening procedure as driving most of the uncertainty in the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS model output at all sites. These parameters control photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), root uptake of water (root profile), and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients). We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and optimal photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in NPP and GPP simulations whereas stomatal conductance is the most sensitive parameter controlling SH, followed by optimal photosynthesis temperature and optimal carboxylation rate. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and output variables is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting that climate mediated regionally different sensitivities of modeled sugarcane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil.

  20. Interplay among nocturnal activity, melatonin, corticosterone and performance in the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marinus).

    PubMed

    Jessop, Tim S; Dempster, Tim; Letnic, Mike; Webb, Jonathan K

    2014-09-15

    Most animals conduct daily activities exclusively either during the day or at night. Here, hormones such as melatonin and corticosterone, greatly influence the synchronization or regulation of physiological and behavioral cycles needed for daily activity. How then do species that exhibit more flexible daily activity patterns, responses to ecological, environmental or life-history processes, regulate daily hormone profiles important to daily performance? This study examined the consequences of (1) nocturnal activity on diel profiles of melatonin and corticosterone and (2) the effects of experimentally increased acute melatonin levels on physiological and metabolic performance in the cane toad (Rhinella marinus). Unlike inactive captive toads that had a distinct nocturnal melatonin profile, nocturnally active toads sampled under field and captive conditions, exhibited decreased nocturnal melatonin profiles with no evidence for any phase shift. Nocturnal corticosterone levels were significantly higher in field active toads than captive toads. In toads with experimentally increased melatonin levels, plasma lactate and glucose responses following recovery post exercise were significantly different from control toads. However, exogenously increased melatonin did not affect resting metabolism in toads. These results suggest that toads could adjust daily hormone profiles to match nocturnal activity requirements, thereby avoiding performance costs induced by high nocturnal melatonin levels. The ability of toads to exhibit plasticity in daily hormone cycles, could have broad implications for how they and other animals utilize behavioral flexibility to optimize daily activities in response to natural and increasingly human mediated environmental variation. PMID:25063397

  1. Invasive Cane Toads: Social Facilitation Depends upon an Individual’s Personality

    PubMed Central

    González-Bernal, Edna; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in behavioural traits (including responses to social cues) may influence the success of invasive populations. We studied the relationship between sociality and personality in invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) from a recently established population in tropical Australia. In our field experiments, we manipulated social cues (the presence of a feeding conspecific) near a food source. We captured and compared toads that only approached feeding sites where another toad was already present, with conspecifics that approached unoccupied feeding sites. Subsequent laboratory trials showed correlated personality differences (behavioural syndromes) between these two groups of toads. For example, toads that approached already-occupied rather than unoccupied feeding sites in the field, took longer to emerge from a shelter-site in standardized trials, suggesting these individuals are ‘shy’ (whereas toads that approached unoccupied feeding stations tended to be ‘bold’). Manipulating hunger levels did not abolish this difference. In feeding trials, a bold toad typically outcompeted a shy toad under conditions of low prey availability, but the outcome was reversed when multiple prey items were present. Thus, both personality types may be favored under different circumstances. This invasive population of toads contains individuals that exhibit a range of personalities, hinting at the existence of a wide range of social dynamics in taxa traditionally considered to be asocial. PMID:25033047

  2. [Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

    2005-11-01

    Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young. PMID:16402584

  3. UGC 7639: a Dwarf Galaxy in the Canes Venatici I Cloud

    E-print Network

    Buson, L M; Mazzei, P; Galletta, G

    2015-01-01

    We want to get insight into the nature, i.e. the formation mechanism and the evolution, of UGC 7639, a dwarf galaxy in the Canes Venatici I Cloud (CVnIC). We used archival GALEX (FUV and NUV) and SDSS images, as well as Hyperleda and NED databases, to constrain its global properties. GALEX FUV/NUV images show that UGC 7639 inner regions are composed mostly by young stellar populations. In addition, we used smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations with chemo-photometric implementation to account for its formation and evolution. UGC 7639 is an example of blue dwarf galaxy whose global properties are well matched by our multi-wavelength and multi-technique approach, that is also a suitable approach to highlight the evolution of these galaxies as a class. We found that the global properties of UGC 7639, namely its total absolute B-band magnitude, its whole spectral energy distribution (SED), and its morphology are well-matched by an encounter with a system four times more massive than our target. Moreove...

  4. Stereo camera based virtual cane system with identifiable distance tactile feedback for the blind.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghun; Kim, Kwangtaek; Lee, Sangyoun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new haptic-assisted virtual cane system operated by a simple finger pointing gesture. The system is developed by two stages: development of visual information delivery assistant (VIDA) with a stereo camera and adding a tactile feedback interface with dual actuators for guidance and distance feedbacks. In the first stage, user's pointing finger is automatically detected using color and disparity data from stereo images and then a 3D pointing direction of the finger is estimated with its geometric and textural features. Finally, any object within the estimated pointing trajectory in 3D space is detected and the distance is then estimated in real time. For the second stage, identifiable tactile signals are designed through a series of identification experiments, and an identifiable tactile feedback interface is developed and integrated into the VIDA system. Our approach differs in that navigation guidance is provided by a simple finger pointing gesture and tactile distance feedbacks are perfectly identifiable to the blind. PMID:24932864

  5. Deposition and leaching of tebuthiuron on sugar cane straw applied with and without alkyl polyglycoside adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Negrisoli, Eduardo; da Costa, Eduardo Antonio Drolhe; Velini, Edivaldo Domingues; Cavenaghi, Anderson Luis; Tofoli, Gustavo Radomille

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was carried out aiming to study the effects of an alkyl polyglycoside adjuvant (APG) on deposition and leaching of the herbicide tebuthiuron applied on sugar cane straw. Tebuthiuron, at concentration of 1200 mg L(-1), was applied separately and in tank mix with the APG adjuvant, at concentrations of 0.07 and 0.09% (wt v(-1)), using a spraying volume of 204 L ha(-1). A precipitation equivalent to 20 mm of rain was simulated, 24 h after the applications, to evaluate the herbicide leaching. The quantification of tebuthiuron was carried out by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was observed that the addition of APG adjuvant at 0.07% (wt v(-1)) provided an increase of 11.5% in the deposition of tebuthiuron on straw, reduction of 50.4% in the drift of the herbicide and it did not affect significantly the leached amount (68.5%), when compared with the treatment where tebuthiuron was applied alone (70.8%). At the concentration of 0.09% (wt v(-1)), the APG adjuvant caused an increase of 22.7% in the deposition; it reduced the drift of the herbicide by 99.9% and reduced the leached amount by 7.6% thereby increasing the retention of the herbicide by straw. PMID:15656183

  6. Feeding strategies for the improved biosynthesis of canthaxanthin from enzymatic hydrolyzed molasses in the fed-batch fermentation of Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1.

    PubMed

    Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Mousavi, Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    The effect of two enzymatic hydrolyzed molasses (EHM)-feeding strategies including constant-(CFR) and exponential-(EFR) feeding rate on canthaxanthin (CTX) biosynthesis by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 fed-batch fermentation was studied. The results showed that the CFR of 7 ml/h with an EHM content of 45 g/l led to the highest values of specific growth rate (0.127 h(-1)), biomass dry weight (17.66 g/l), total carotenoid (16.31 mg/l) and CTX (14.67 mg/l). A significant decrease in the kinetic growth and production parameters by the increasing EHM concentration from 30 to 60 g/l during EFR fed-batch bioprocess was observed (p<0.01). This study concluded that EHM alone can displace glucose-based medium towards improved CTX biosynthesis from D. natronolimnaea HS-1 using a CFR strategy during fed-batch culture. PMID:24384310

  7. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Petit, H V; Pereira, A B D; Soder, K J; Ross, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the interactions of corn meal or molasses [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) supplements] with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) supplements] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay diets. Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 135±49d in milk and 386±61kg of body weight in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to 4 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period lasted 19d with 14d for diet adaptation and 5d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed diets composed of mixed-mostly grass hay plus 1 of the following 4 concentrate blends: (1) corn meal plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; (2) corn meal plus flaxseed meal; (3) liquid molasses plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; or (4) liquid molasses plus flaxseed meal. Data were analyzed for main effects of NSC and RDP supplements, and the NSC × RDP supplement interactions. Significant NSC × RDP supplement interactions were observed for milk urea N, milk N efficiency, and the sums of milk saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No effect of NSC supplements was observed for nutrient intake and milk yield. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (-0.70kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (-0.60kg/d) were significantly reduced in cows fed liquid molasses due to a trend to decreased concentration of milk fat (-0.17%). Diets with liquid molasses resulted in increased (+35%) concentration and yield of milk enterolactone, indicating that this mammalian lignan can be modulated by supplements with different NSC profiles. Overall, NSC and RDP supplements profoundly changed the milk fatty acid profile, likely because of differences in fatty acids intake, ?(9)-desaturase indices, and ruminal biohydrogenation pathways. Feeding liquid molasses significantly reduced plasma urea N (-1.2mg/dL), urinary N excretion (-20g/d), and N digestibility (-3.2 percentage units). Flaxseed meal significantly reduced yields of milk (-1.3kg/d), milk fat (-90g/d), and milk lactose (-60g/d), but significantly increased the concentration and yield of milk enterolactone. Further research is needed to elucidate the negative responses of flaxseed meal on yields of milk and milk components. PMID:25465544

  8. Increasing Accessibility to the Blind of Virtual Environments, Using a Virtual Mobility Aid Based On the "EyeCane": Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Amedi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Virtual worlds and environments are becoming an increasingly central part of our lives, yet they are still far from accessible to the blind. This is especially unfortunate as such environments hold great potential for them for uses such as social interaction, online education and especially for use with familiarizing the visually impaired user with a real environment virtually from the comfort and safety of his own home before visiting it in the real world. We have implemented a simple algorithm to improve this situation using single-point depth information, enabling the blind to use a virtual cane, modeled on the “EyeCane” electronic travel aid, within any virtual environment with minimal pre-processing. Use of the Virtual-EyeCane, enables this experience to potentially be later used in real world environments with identical stimuli to those from the virtual environment. We show the fast-learned practical use of this algorithm for navigation in simple environments. PMID:23977316

  9. Analysis of sucrose accumulation in the sugar cane culm on the basis of in vitro kinetic data.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, J M; Botha, F C

    2001-09-01

    Sucrose accumulation in developing sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is accompanied by a continuous synthesis and cleavage of sucrose in the storage tissues. Despite numerous studies, the factors affecting sucrose accumulation are still poorly understood, and no consistent pattern has emerged which pinpoints certain enzyme activities as important controlling steps. Here, we develop an approach based on pathway analysis and kinetic modelling to assess the biochemical control of sucrose accumulation and futile cycling in sugar cane. By using the concept of elementary flux modes, all possible routes of futile cycling of sucrose were enumerated in the metabolic system. The available kinetic data for the pathway enzymes were then collected and assembled in a kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in sugar cane culm tissue. Although no data were fitted, the model agreed well with independent experimental results: in no case was the difference between calculated and measured fluxes and concentrations greater than 2-fold. The model thus validated was then used to assess different enhancement strategies for increasing sucrose accumulation. First, the control coefficient of each enzyme in the system on futile cycling of sucrose was calculated. Secondly, the activities of those enzymes with the numerically largest control coefficients were varied over a 5-fold range to determine the effect on the degree of futile cycling, the conversion efficiency from hexoses into sucrose, and the net sucrose accumulation rate. In view of the modelling results, overexpression of the fructose or glucose transporter or the vacuolar sucrose import protein, as well as reduction of cytosolic neutral invertase levels, appear to be the most promising targets for genetic manipulation. This offers a more directed improvement strategy than cumbersome gene-by-gene manipulation. The kinetic model can be viewed and interrogated on the World Wide Web at http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za. PMID:11513743

  10. Further observations on the interaction between sugar cane and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus under laboratory and greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    James, E K; Olivares, F L; de Oliveira, A L; dos Reis, F B; da Silva, L G; Reis, V M

    2001-04-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) variety SP 70-1143 was inoculated with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 (ATCC 49037) in two experiments. In experiment 1 the bacteria were inoculated into a modified, low sucrose MS medium within which micropropagated plantlets were rooted. After 10 d there was extensive anatomical evidence of endophytic colonization by G. diazotrophicus, particularly in lower stems, where high numbers of bacteria were visible within some of the xylem vessels. The identity of the bacteria was confirmed by immunogold labelling with an antibody raised against G. diazotrophicus. On the lower stems there were breaks caused by the separation of the plantlets into individuals, and at these 'wounds' bacteria were seen colonizing the xylem and intercellular spaces. Bacteria were also occasionally seen entering leaves via damaged stomata, and subsequently colonizing sub-stomatal cavities and intercellular spaces. A localized host defence response in the form of fibrillar material surrounding the bacteria was associated with both the stem and leaf invasion. In experiment 2, stems of 5-week-old greenhouse-grown plants were inoculated by injection with a suspension of G. diazotrophicus containing 10(8) bacteria ml(-1). No hypersensitive response (HR) was observed, and no symptoms were visible on the leaves and stems for the duration of the experiment (7 d). Close to the point of inoculation, G. diazotrophicus cells were observed within the protoxylem and the xylem parenchyma, where they were surrounded by fibrillar material that stained light-green with toluidine blue. In leaf samples taken up to 4 cm from the inoculation points, G. diazotrophicus cells were mainly found within the metaxylem, where they were surrounded by a light green-staining material. The bacteria were growing in relatively low numbers adjacent to the xylem cell walls, and they were separated from the host-derived material by electron-transparent 'haloes' that contained material that reacted with the G. diazotrophicus antibody. PMID:11413211

  11. Geology of the Cane Branch and Helton Branch watershed areas, McCreary County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Erwin J.

    1957-01-01

    Cane Branch and Helton Branch in McCreary County, Kentucky, are about 1.4 miles apart (fig. 1). Can Branch, which is about 2.1 miles long, emptied into Hughes Fork of Beaver Creek. Its watershed area of about 1.5 square miles lies largely in the Wiborf 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (SW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle), but the downstream part of the area extends northward into the Hail 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (NW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle). Helton Branch, which is about 1.1 miles long, has two tributaries and empties into Little Hurricane Fork of Beaver Creek. It drains an area of about 0.8 square mile of while about 0.5 square mile is in the Hail quadrangle and the remainder in the Wilborg quadrangle. The total relief in the Can Branch area is about 500 feet and in the Helton Branch area about 400 feet. Narrow, steep-sided to canyon-like valley and winding ridges, typical of the Pottsville escarpment region, are characteristic of both areas. Thick woods and dense undergrowth cover much of the two areas. Field mapping was done on U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2-minute maps having a scale of 1:24,000 and a contour interval of 20 feet. Elevations of lithologic contacts were determined with a barometer and a hand level. Aerial photographs were used principally to trace the cliffs formed by sandstone and conglomerate ledges. Exposures, except for those of the cliff- and ledge-forming sandstone and conglomerates, are not abundant. The most complete stratigraphic sections (secs. 3 and 4, fig. 2) in the two areas are exposed in cuts of newly completed Forest Service roads, but the rick in the upper parts of the exposures is weathered. To supplement these sections, additional sections were measured in cuts along the railroad and main highways in nor near the watersheds.

  12. Spectrofotometric determination of copper in sugar cane spirit using biquinoline in the presence of ethanol and Triton X-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento Rocha, Sarah Adriana; Dantas, Alaílson Falcão; Jaeger, Helena Valli; Costa, Antônio Celso Spínola; Leão, Elsimar dos Santos; Gonçalves, Mara Rúbia

    2008-12-01

    The present paper proposes a method for molecular spectrophotometric determination of copper in sugar cane spirits. The copper(I) reacts with biquinoline forming a pink complex with maximum absorption at 545 nm. The reaction occurs in the presence of hydroxylamine, ethanol and Triton X-100 tensioative. Determination of copper is possible in a linear range 0.2-20.0 mg L -1 with a detection limit 0.05 mg L -1. The great advantages of the proposed methodology are the elimination of liquid-liquid extraction step and the use of toxic organics solvents, like dioxane, to dissolve the reagent.

  13. The straight and narrow path: the evolution of straight-line dispersal at a cane toad invasion front.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Phillips, Benjamin L; Shine, Richard

    2014-11-22

    At the edge of a biological invasion, evolutionary processes (spatial sorting, natural selection) often drive increases in dispersal. Although numerous traits influence an individual's displacement (e.g. speed, stamina), one of the most important is path straightness. A straight (i.e. highly correlated) path strongly enhances overall dispersal rate relative to time and energetic cost. Thus, we predict that, if path straightness has a genetic basis, organisms in the invasion vanguard will exhibit straighter paths than those following behind. Our studies on invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia clearly support this prediction. Radio-tracking of field-collected toads at a single site showed that path straightness steadily decreased over the first 10 years post-invasion. Consistent with an evolved (genetic) basis to that behavioural shift, path straightness of toads reared under common garden conditions varied according to the location of their parents' origin. Offspring produced by toads from the invasion vanguard followed straighter paths than did those produced by parents from long-established populations. At the individual level, offspring exhibited similar path straightness to their parents. The dramatic acceleration of the cane toad invasion through tropical Australia has been driven, in part, by the evolution of a behavioural tendency towards dispersing in a straight line. PMID:25297862

  14. CO2 co-gasification of lower sulphur petroleum coke and sugar cane bagasse via TG-FTIR analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Edreis, Elbager M A; Luo, Guangqian; Li, Aijun; Chao, Chen; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Sen; Gui, Ben; Xiao, Li; Xu, Kai; Zhang, Pingan; Yao, Hong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the non-isothermal mechanism and kinetic behaviour of gasification of a lower sulphur petroleum coke, sugar cane bagasse and blends under carbon dioxide atmosphere conditions using the thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The gas products were measured online with coupled Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The achieved results explored that the sugar cane bagasse and blend gasification happened in two steps: at (<500 °C) the volatiles are released, and at (>700 °C) char gasification occurred, whereas the lower sulphur petroleum coke presented only one char gasification stage at (>800 °C). Significant interactions were observed in the whole process. Some solid-state mechanisms were studied by the Coats-Redfern method in order to observe the mechanisms responsible for the gasification of samples. The results show that the chemical first order reaction is the best responsible mechanism for whole process. The main released gases are CO2, CO, CH4, HCOOH, C6H5OH and CH3COOH. PMID:23567736

  15. Production of fuel ethanol at high temperature from sugar cane juice by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Limtong, Savitree; Sringiew, Chutima; Yongmanitchai, Wichien

    2007-12-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU 3-1042, isolated by an enrichment technique in a sugar cane juice medium supplemented with 4% (w/v) ethanol at 35 degrees C, produced high concentrations of ethanol at both 40 and 45 degrees C. Ethanol production by this strain in shaking flask cultivation in sugar cane juice media at 37 degrees C was highest in a medium containing 22% total sugars, 0.05% (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 0.05% KH(2)PO(4), and 0.15% MgSO(4).7H(2)O and having a pH of 5.0; the ethanol concentration reached 8.7% (w/v), productivity 1.45 g/l/h and yield 77.5% of theoretical yield. At 40 degrees C, a maximal ethanol concentration of 6.78% (w/v), a productivity of 1.13 and a yield 60.4% of theoretical yield were obtained from the same medium, except that the pH was adjusted to 5.5. In a study on ethanol production in a 5l jar fermenter with an agitation speed of 300 rpm and an aeration rate of 0.2 vvm throughout the fermentation, K. marxianus DMKU 3-1042 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 6.43% (w/v), a productivity of 1.3g/l/h and a yield of 57.1% of theoretical yield. PMID:17537627

  16. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

  17. Effect of different pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse on cellulase and xylanases production by the mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 grown in submerged culture.

    PubMed

    Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2014-01-01

    The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147 U · mL(-1)) was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher ? -glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups. PMID:24967394

  18. The first video in the Cane Connections Video Series introduced Dr. Woody's VIPER model for creating a YOU plan. VIPER is about asking yourself 5 fundamental questions

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    The first video in the Cane Connections Video Series introduced Dr. Woody's VIPER model, upbringing, culture, and employers. Take stock of your values and ask yourself whether or not you live them. In building your roadmap, you must: · Set interim goals · Identify reasonable milestones · Identify targets

  19. Effects and feasibility of a standardised orientation and mobility training in using an identification cane for older adults with low vision: design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zijlstra, GAR; van Rens, GHMB; Scherder, EJA; Brouwer, DM; van der Velde, J; Verstraten, PFJ; Kempen, GIJM

    2009-01-01

    Background Orientation and mobility training (O&M-training) in using an identification cane, also called symbol cane, is provided to people with low vision to facilitate independent participation in the community. In The Netherlands this training is mainly practice-based because a standardised and validly evaluated O&M-training in using the identification cane is lacking. Recently a standardised O&M-training in using the identification cane was developed. This training consists of two face-to-face sessions and one telephone session during which, in addition to usual care, the client's needs regarding mobility are prioritised, and cognitive restructuring techniques, action planning and contracting are applied to facilitate the use of the cane. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate this standardised O&M-training in using the identification cane in older adults with low vision. Methods/design A parallel group randomised controlled trial was designed to compare the standardised O&M-training with usual care, i.e. the O&M-training commonly provided by the mobility trainer. Community-dwelling older people who ask for support at a rehabilitation centre for people with visual impairment and who are likely to receive an O&M-training in using the identification cane are included in the trial (N = 190). The primary outcomes of the effect evaluation are ADL self care and visual functioning with respect to distance activities and mobility. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, feelings of anxiety, symptoms of depression, fear of falling, and falls history. Data for the effect evaluation are collected by means of telephone interviews at baseline, and at 5 and 17 weeks after the start of the O&M-training. In addition to an effect evaluation, a process evaluation to study the feasibility of the O&M-training is carried out. Discussion The screening procedure for eligible participants started in November 2007 and will continue until October 2009. Preliminary findings regarding the evaluation are expected in the course of 2010. If the standardised O&M-training is more effective than the current O&M-training or, in case of equal effectiveness, is considered more feasible, the training will be embedded in the Dutch national instruction for mobility trainers. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00946062 PMID:19712448

  20. Use of response surface methodology (RSM) in the evaluation of growth and copper(II) bioaccumulation properties of Candida utilis in molasses medium.

    PubMed

    Gönen, Ferda; Aksu, Zümriye

    2008-06-15

    The influential factors on simultaneous growth and copper(II) bioaccumulation by growing cells of Candida utilis yeast under various ambient conditions, such as changing concentrations of molasses sucrose and copper(II) were tested. The highest growth rate of 0.133 h(-1) was obtained at an initial sucrose concentration of 15 g l(-1) in absence of copper(II). For each constant sucrose concentration chosen between 5 and 15 g l(-1), the increase in initial copper(II) concentration up to 500 mg l(-1) resulted in a decrease in the percentage uptake of copper(II) and moreover all copper(II) concentrations tested inhibited the yeast growth. On the other hand, at each constant copper(II) concentration studied, both the growth and copper(II) uptake yield enhanced with raising sucrose concentration up to 15 g l(-1). Maximum uptake yield of 34.2% was observed in 15 g l(-1) sucrose and 50 mg l(-1) copper(II) containing growth medium. The binary effects of initial sucrose and copper(II) concentrations on the specific growth rate and copper(II) uptake yield of yeast were analyzed by experimental design method and two model equations for predicting the growth rate and copper(II) uptake yield of yeast due to arbitrarily chosen sucrose and copper(II) concentrations were developed by using response surface methodology (RSM). PMID:18063295

  1. Usefulness and acceptability of a standardised orientation and mobility training for partially-sighted older adults using an identification cane

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Orientation and mobility (O&M) training in using an identification (ID) cane is provided to partially-sighted older adults to facilitate independent functioning and participation in the community. Recently, a protocolised standardised O&M-training in the use of the ID cane was developed in The Netherlands. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and acceptability of both the standardised training and the regular training for participants and O&M-trainers in a randomised controlled trial (NCT00946062). Methods The standardised O&M-training consists of two structured face-to-face sessions and one telephone follow-up, in which, in addition to the regular training, self-management and behavioural change techniques are applied. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data on the training’s usefulness, e.g. the population reached, self-reported benefits or achievements, and acceptability, e.g. the performance of the intervention according to protocol and participants’ exposure to and engagement in the training. Results Data was collected from 29 O&M-trainers and 68 participants. Regarding the self-reported benefits, outcomes were comparable for the standardised training and the regular training according the trainers and participants e.g., about 85% of the participants in both groups experienced benefits of the cane and about 70% gained confidence in their capabilities. Participants were actively involved in the standardised training. Nearly 40% of the participants in the standardised training group was not exposed to the training according to protocol regarding the number of sessions scheduled and several intervention elements, such as action planning and contracting. Conclusions The standardised and regular O&M-training showed to be useful and mostly acceptable for the partially-sighted older adults and trainers. Yet, a concern is the deviation from the protocol of the standardised O&M-training by the O&M-trainers regarding distinguishing elements such as action planning. Overall, participants appreciated both trainings and reported benefit. PMID:22681932

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  3. PRODUCCIÓN ECONÓMICA DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO UTILIZANDO RESIDUOS DE COSECHA Y JUGOS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum L.) Economical production of lactic acid using sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wastes and juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliana Serna Cock; Aida Rodríguez de Stouvenel

    A B S T R A C T Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) tops and leaves (JCG), and the juice extracted from this sugar cane, harvested with crop burning (JCL) and without crop burning (JCV), were tested as substrates for the discontinuous fermentative production of lactic acid. Anaerobic fermentations were carried out at 32°C, adjusting pH at 6.0, and using

  4. K-Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of the Natal group, Southeast Africa: a post Pan-African molasse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Marshall, C. G. A.; Watkeys, M. K.; Fitch, F. J.; Miller, J. A.

    1992-11-01

    The post-Kibaran sedimentary rocks of the Natal Group have traditionally been regarded as the lateral equivalents of the Palaeozoic Cape Supergroup. However, the lithology in Transkei and southern Natal (pale grey marine quartz arenites with late Devonian fossils) is markedly different from that of the rest of Natal (unfossiliferous fluviatile red-beds, with a newly recognised volcanic component). These two lithofacies do not interdigitate as previously thought; there is a break in outcrop over the Dweshula Basement High, with quartz arenites cropping out to the south and red-beds to the north. There is thus no reason to relate the two "facies" in space or time and the term "Natal Group" should be restricted to the northern red beds. The southern rocks (Msikaba Formation) are probably lateral equivalents of the Witteberg Group. Petrographic, K?Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar isotopic data from samples of the basal Durban Formation (Natal Group) reveal a complex history of isotopic resetting. Pan-African K?Ar ages of ˜580 Ma were obtained from detrital muscovites, whilst secondary clay fractions suggest major K?Ar components at ˜400, ˜350 and ˜260 Ma. The last event reflects partial overprinting during the Cape Orogeny, but the significance of the older dates is less certain. 40Ar/ 39Ar spectrum analyses of two samples suggest that the Natal Group was deposited at ˜490 Ma (Arenig). Thus, the rocks probably represent a fluviatile molasse deposit, derived from the rapid erosion of a Pan-African mountain chain situated to the northeast, in present-day Moçambique, and laid down in an adjacent fault-bounded trough during the early Ordovician. This conclusion is supported by palaeocurrent data.

  5. Effect of clipping at several stages of growth of first year plants of cane Bluesteam (Andropogon barbinodis Lag.) on subsequent development 

    E-print Network

    Bernardon, Abel Eduardo

    1965-01-01

    in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1965 Major Subject: Range Management EFFECT OF CLIPPING AT SEVERAL STAGES OF GROWTH OF FIRST YEAR PLANTS OF CANE BLUESTEM (~Ad P S S d I S. ) ON SUBSEQUENT DEVELDPMENT... L. Leinweber. Also, thanks to Mr. Paul Ohlenbusch, graduate student of Range Management, for his help and suggestions during the study. Appreciation is extended to Dr. Eldred E. Dayhoff, staff member of the Institute of Statistics, and Mr...

  6. Microfluorometric analyses of glycogen in freshly dissected, single skeletal muscle fibres of the cane toad using a mechanically skinned fibre preparation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long Thanh Nguyen; D. George Stephenson; Gabriela M. M. Stephenson

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse glycogen in single muscle fibres, using a recently developed microfluorometric method which detects subpicomol amounts of NADPH, glucose and glycogen (as glucosyl units) (detection limit 0.16–0.17pmol in a 25nl sample) without fluorochrome amplification. The fibres were freshly dissected from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of the cane toad (Bufo

  7. El Nino and La Nina Events Simulated by the Cane and Zebiak's Model and Observed with Satellite or in situ Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Periguad, C.; Dewitte, B.

    1995-01-01

    The Zebiak and Cane (1987) model is first run in its 'forced mode' where the oceanic part of the model is driven by FSU wind stress anomalies over 1980-1994 to simulate sea surface temperature anomalies and those are used in the atmospheric part of the model to generate wind anomalies. Simulated thermocline depths, sea surface temperature and wind stress anomalies are first validated with observations.

  8. E-CANES: A Research Network dedicated to Electromagnetic Coupling of the Atmosphere With Near-Earth Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuise, C.; Blanc, E.; Crosby, N.; Ebert, U.; Mareev, E.; Neubert, T.; Rothkaehl, H.; Santolik, O.; Yair, Y.; Gille, P.

    2008-12-01

    Transient luminous events in the stratosphere and mesosphere, the sprites, elves, blue jets and gigantic jets, are observed above intense thunderstorms in association with particularly intense lightning discharges. Their recent discovery (1989) offers an opportunity to study the fundamental process of the electric discharge under the different conditions of the troposphere (lightning), stratosphere (blue jets) and the mesosphere (sprites) and the coupling between these regions by electric and magnetic fields. It further facilitates studies of the more general questions of thunderstorm effects on the atmosphere and the role of thunderstorms in a changing climate. New space missions will be launched in the coming years to study the various effects of thunderstorms. They will focus on transient luminous events, the generation of relativistic electron beams in discharges, and the perturbation to the atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere of lightning, transient luminous events, water vapour transport and gravity waves. The missions are the French micro-satellite TARANIS, the ESA ASIM payload on board the International Space Station and the Japanese Sprite Sat mission. These highly interdisciplinary missions will result in a wealth of new data, which require knowledge based capacity building to underpin the observations with improved statistical data analysis and theoretical modelling. We are therefore establishing a global framework for research on thunderstorm processes and their effect on the atmosphere, in particular (1) the fundamental process of the electric discharge as manifested in the stratosphere and mesosphere as sprites and jets, (2) the relationship between cosmic rays, lightning discharges, transient luminous events and terrestrial gamma ray flashes, and (3) the environmental impact of the above physical processes, and thunderstorms in general, on the atmosphere and near-Earth space. The first step has been the creation of the European research group (GDRE) dubbed E-CANES (Electromagnetic Coupling of the Atmosphere with the Near-Earth Space). It complements in a synergistic way the former EU Research Training Network 'Coupling of Atmospheric Layers', the existing COST action on 'The physics of lightning flash and its effects', the ASIM Topical Team, and other programs. The main objective of E-CANES is to initiate and promote coordination activities towards a global research community on the subject. The first actions include the establishment of an organization for coordinating ground, balloon and aircraft observation campaigns, the creation of a community-wide mailing list and website, and the promotion and coordination of joint activities with other structures - to include new communities and to avoid the duplication of meetings and workshops.

  9. Interactive effects of molasses by homofermentative and heterofermentative inoculants on fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation, nutritive value and aerobic stability of wilted alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) silage.

    PubMed

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Taghizadeh, A; Kargar, S; Yang, W Z

    2014-04-01

    The effect of adding molasses (0, UM or 50 g/kg on DM basis, M) and two types of inoculant including homofermentative (HO) and a combination of homofermentative and propionate-producing bacterial (HOPAB) inoculants on silage fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation and aerobic stability of pre-bloom, wilted alfalfa (AS) was determined in laboratory silos. The HOPAB inoculant was more effective than HO in reducing the alfalfa silage pH but increased propionate content in the absence of M (p < 0.05). Inoculation of HOPAB reduced (p < 0.01) acid detergent fibre (ADF) and increased (p < 0.01) lactate to acetate ratio compared with uninoculated AS. Acetate concentration was lower (p < 0.01) in HOPAB-inoculated than other AS. This difference was more pronounced in M-added AS (inoculants × M interaction, p = 0.01). Both inoculants reduced (p < 0.01) ammonia-N content in AS added with M, whereas only HOPAB decreased (p < 0.01) ammonia-N concentration in silage without M. Inoculants increased (p < 0.01) B2 fraction in AS with M addition but had no effect on AS without M. Treating silages with HO-UM increased (p < 0.05) C fraction (acid-detergent insoluble-N) but HOPAB decreased C fraction at two levels of M. Treating alfalfa crop with M and HOPAB improved aerobic stability by increasing the concentration of acetate and propionate of AS respectively. Adding M tended (p < 0.10) to increase short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cumulative gas production (CGP). HOPAB alone increased DM disappearance at 24 h post-incubation and effective degradability assuming outflow rate of 8%/h relative to untreated AS (p < 0.05). It was concluded that adding M had no pronounced effects on AS fermentation quality, but increased aerobic stability. HOPAB-inoculated AS with no addition of M improved fermentation quality and increased DM degradability compared with HO. PMID:23692608

  10. Added Sugars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sweetened milk); and other grains (cinnamon toast and honey-nut waffles). Too Much Sugar Isn't So ... molasses, cane sugar, corn sweetener, raw sugar, syrup, honey or fruit juice concentrates. Learn more about reading ...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.3 - Maintenance of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM General Provisions § 1435.3 Maintenance of records. (a) Each sugar beet processor, sugarcane processor, importer of sugars, syrups and molasses, and cane sugar refiner or any person having custody of...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Credit Corporation (CCC) will: (a) Make loans and enter agreements with eligible processors, (b) Collect data from sugarcane processors, sugar beet processors, cane refiners, and importers of sugar, syrup, and molasses, (c) Administer...

  13. 7 CFR 1435.3 - Maintenance of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM General Provisions § 1435.3 Maintenance of records. (a) Each sugar beet processor, sugarcane processor, importer of sugars, syrups and molasses, and cane sugar refiner or any person having custody of...

  14. 21 CFR 573.920 - Selenium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...months.” (h) Selenium yeast is a dried, non-viable yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) cultivated in a fed-batch fermentation which provides incremental amounts of cane molasses and selenium salts in a manner which minimizes the detrimental...

  15. 7 CFR 1435.3 - Maintenance of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM General Provisions § 1435.3 Maintenance of records. (a) Each sugar beet processor, sugarcane processor, importer of sugars, syrups and molasses, and cane...

  16. 7 CFR 1435.3 - Maintenance of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM General Provisions § 1435.3 Maintenance of records. (a) Each sugar beet processor, sugarcane processor, importer of sugars, syrups and molasses, and cane...

  17. Cellulases and xylanases production by Penicillium echinulatum grown on sugar cane bagasse in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the production of cellulases and xylanases from Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1, solid-state fermentation (SSF) was performed by using different ratios of sugar cane bagasse (SCB) and wheat bran (WB). The greatest filter paper activity obtained was 45.82?±?1.88 U gdm(-1) in a culture containing 6SCB/4WB on the third day. The greatest ?-glucosidase activities were 40.13?±?5.10 U gdm(-1) obtained on the third day for the 0SCB/10WB culture and 29.17?±?1.06 U gdm(-1) for the 2SCB/8WB culture. For endoglucanase, the greatest activities were 290.47?±?43.57 and 276.84?±?15.47 U gdm(-1), for the culture 6SCB/4WB on the fourth and fifth days of cultivation, respectively. The greatest xylanase activities were found on the third day for the cultures 6SCB/4WB (36.38?±?5.38 U gdm(-1)) and 4SCB/6WB (37.87?±?2.26 U gdm(-1)). In conclusion, the results presented in this article showed that it was possible to obtain large amounts of cellulases and xylanases enzymes using low-cost substrates, such as SCB and WB. PMID:20397060

  18. Compressive strength and interfacial transition zone of sugar cane bagasse ash concrete: A comparison to the established pozzolans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Asma Abd Elhameed; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural and industrial by-products are commonly used in concrete production as cement replacement materials (CRMs) or as admixtures to enhance both fresh and hardened properties of concrete as well as to save the environment from the negative effects caused by their disposal. Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) is one of the promising CRMs, it is used as a partial replacement of cement for producing concrete; properties of such concrete depend on the chemical composition, fineness, and burning temperature of SCBA. Approximately 1500 Million tons of sugarcane are annually produced over all the world which leave about 40-45% bagasse after juice crushing for sugar industry giving an average annual production of about 600 Million tons of bagasse as a waste material. This paper presents some findings on the effect of SCBA on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of interfacial zone of concrete and its performance is compared to some of the established CRMs namely Densified Silica Fume, Fly Ash and Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash.

  19. 21 CFR 558.311 - Lasalocid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Lasalocid Type A medicated articles containing lasalocid dried fermentation residue are for use in cattle and sheep feed only. (7...Cane molasses 55.167 4-13-241 Condensed molasses fermentation solubles 24.0 50% Urea Solution (23% N)...

  20. 21 CFR 558.311 - Lasalocid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Lasalocid Type A medicated articles containing lasalocid dried fermentation residue are for use in cattle and sheep feed only. (7...Cane molasses 55.167 4-13-241 Condensed molasses fermentation solubles 24.0 50% Urea Solution (23% N)...

  1. 21 CFR 558.311 - Lasalocid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Lasalocid Type A medicated articles containing lasalocid dried fermentation residue are for use in cattle and sheep feed only. (7...Cane molasses 55.167 4-13-241 Condensed molasses fermentation solubles 24.0 50% Urea Solution (23% N)...

  2. 21 CFR 558.311 - Lasalocid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Lasalocid Type A medicated articles containing lasalocid dried fermentation residue are for use in cattle and sheep feed only. (7...Cane molasses 55.167 4-13-241 Condensed molasses fermentation solubles 24.0 50% Urea Solution (23% N)...

  3. 21 CFR 558.311 - Lasalocid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Lasalocid Type A medicated articles containing lasalocid dried fermentation residue are for use in cattle and sheep feed only. (7...Cane molasses 55.167 4-13-241 Condensed molasses fermentation solubles 24.0 50% Urea Solution (23% N)...

  4. Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) Using differente polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Froufe, Lúcia Gracinda; Boddey, Robert Michael; Reis, Veronica Massena

    2009-10-01

    The species Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN) Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 10(5) cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques. PMID:24031435

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  6. Use of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain isolated from the Amazon rainforest with pretreated sugar cane bagasse for on-site cellulase production.

    PubMed

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Silva, Mateus Ribeiro; Azzoni, Sindelia Freitas; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2012-03-01

    The on-site production of cellulases is an important strategy for the development of sustainable second-generation ethanol production processes. This study concerns the use of a specific cellulolytic enzyme complex for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Glycosyl hydrolases (FPase, xylanase, and ?-glucosidase) were produced using a new strain of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from the Amazon rainforest and cultivated under different conditions. The influence of the carbon source was first investigated using shake-flask cultures. Selected carbon sources were then further studied under different pH conditions using a stirred tank bioreactor. Enzymatic activities up to 121 FPU/g, 8000 IU/g, and 1730 IU/g of delignified steam-exploded bagasse+sucrose were achieved for cellulase, xylanase and ?-glucosidase, respectively. This enzymatic complex was used to hydrolyze pretreated sugar cane bagasse. A comparative evaluation, using an enzymatic extract from Trichoderma reesei RUTC30, indicated similar performance of the T. harzianum enzyme complex, being a potential candidate for on-site production of enzymes. PMID:22221990

  7. Landscape structure and live fences in Andes Colombian agrosystems: upper basin of the Cane-Iguaque River.

    PubMed

    Otero, Javier; Onaindia, Miren

    2009-12-01

    Changes in land use have generated a new landscape configuration in the Andino orobiome (mountain range) of the tropical Andes, resulting in a mosaic of cultivation and pastures interrupted by small fragments of forest and live fences. This has resulted in an ongoing decrease in the biodiversity of this biome. In the upper basin of the Cane-Iguaque River (Villa de Levya-Boyacá, Colombia), located 2,600-3,000 m above the Cordillera Oriental, over three time periods in 1960, 1984, and 2004, we characterized the structure, patterns, and evolution of the overall landscape and of the live fences (used as tools in biodiversity conservation and considered to be desirable alternatives to nonlive fences in farming production systems) within an agricultural landscape. To do this, we interpreted high-resolution satellite images using a landscape ecology approach and applied landscape map metrics. We found that the natural forests have been transformed by pastures and cultivation, and that although live fences cover only a small portion of the total landscape (4.6%), they have an important effect on landscape structure and biodiversity. There has been an increase in live fences, especially between 1960 and 1984, as well as an increase in their density. However, there has been a reduction in the average length of live fences over the periods that we studied. This could be due in part to changes in the types of agricultural products that have been cultivated in recent years, with an increase in potatoes and a decrease in other vegetables, and also by resource extraction of timber and fuel wood. In the studied area, agricultural production was sustained while biodiversity conservation was improved by the use of live fences. Therefore, live fences should be considered not only as part of an agriculturally productive area, but also as an important element of a multi-functional landscape that contributes to the maintenance of biodiversity and provides resources of economic and ecological interest, decreasing the pressure on natural forest. Improving the network of live fences constitutes an important strategy for the sustainable management of the rural landscape of the Andino orobiome of Colombia and similar areas in the tropics. PMID:20073343

  8. Preheating and incubation of cane juice prior to liming: a comparison of intermediate and cold lime clarification.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Monge, Adrian; Pepperman, Armand

    2002-01-30

    In the U.S., cold lime clarification remains the clarification process of choice in raw sugar manufacturing. A comparative study of cold vs intermediate lime clarification was undertaken at a factory that operated intermediate liming (approximately 30% mixed juice (MJ) of pH 5.2 +/- 0.3 was preheated to 87-93 degrees C to help maintain clean limed juice heaters, incubated at approximately 54 degrees C, and then limed) but still had the pipes to revert to cold liming (MJ incubated and limed at approximately 40 degrees C) for this study. Hourly samples were collected over a 6 h sampling period across cold and intermediate clarification processes on two consecutive days, respectively, and this was repeated three times across the 1999 grinding season. A total of 1.57% less sucrose was lost to inversion reactions across intermediate rather than cold liming. In intermediate liming, which required approximately 4.6% less lime, preheating of only 30% of the MJ markedly removed color (-29%), dextran (-10%), and starch (-24%) and caused large flocs to form that settled faster in the clarifiers. Faster settling led to an impressive 4.6% (season average) more turbidity removal across the clarifiers in intermediate rather than cold liming. Intermediate clarified juice (CJ) turbidity (season average 2028 ICU +/- 675) was approximately half of cold CJ turbidity (average 3952 ICU +/- 1450) with over 2-fold more CJ turbidity control. Subsequent turbidity values and control were significantly improved in the final evaporator syrup samples too. For both processes, juice incubation caused approximately 10% color removal, but this was offset by color formation on liming, because of the alkaline degradation of invert; however, overall, more color was removed than formed in intermediate liming. Starch was reduced in the incubator tank, for both processes, because added filtrate reduced the acidity enabling natural diastase from the cane to degrade starch. Some dextran occasionally formed in the incubator tank, in both processes. Summed across measured parameters, intermediate liming appears to offer several advantages over cold liming. PMID:11804517

  9. Cane Corso attack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabina Di Donato; Pietrantonio Ricci; Fernando Panarese; Emanuela Turillazzi

    2006-01-01

    It is estimated that annually between 1 and 4 million people are bitten by dogs in the United States. The vast majority of\\u000a dog bites produce minor injuries, but serious sequelae, and even death, may occur. Annual mortality rates from dog attacks\\u000a are reported at 7.2 cases per 100 million inhabitants each year. Of these fatalities, 69,8% involved a pet.

  10. "Cane" and Its Discontents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyck, Reginald

    2000-01-01

    Explores how the issue of race is enmeshed in a complex web of social relations that also include love, sex, gender, economics, and violence. Suggests how a consideration of modernist primitivism and Sigmund Freud's ideas on the individual's relationship to society can provide frameworks for further analysis of two of the stories in Jean Toomer's…

  11. The Acid Test: pH Tolerance of the Eggs and Larvae of the Invasive Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) in Southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wijethunga, Uditha; Greenlees, Matthew; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Invasive cane toads are colonizing southeastern Australia via a narrow coastal strip sandwiched between unsuitable areas (Pacific Ocean to the east, mountains to the west). Many of the available spawning sites exhibit abiotic conditions (e.g., temperature, salinity, and pH) more extreme than those encountered elsewhere in the toad's native or already invaded range. Will that challenge impede toad expansion? To answer that question, we measured pH in 35 ponds in northeastern New South Wales and 8 ponds in the Sydney region, in both areas where toads occur (and breed) and adjacent areas where toads are likely to invade, and conducted laboratory experiments to quantify effects of pH on the survival and development of toad eggs and larvae. Our field surveys revealed wide variation in pH (3.9-9.8) among natural water bodies. In the laboratory, the hatching success of eggs was increased at low pH (down to pH 4), whereas the survival, growth, and developmental rates of tadpoles were enhanced by higher pH levels. We found that pH influenced metamorph size and shape (relative head width, relative leg length) but not locomotor performance. The broad tolerance range of these early life-history stages suggests that pH conditions in ponds will not significantly slow the toad's expansion southward. Indeed, toads may benefit from transiently low pH conditions, and habitat where pH in wetlands is consistently low (such as coastal heath) may enhance rather than reduce toad reproductive success. A broad physiological tolerance during embryonic and larval life has contributed significantly to the cane toad's success as a widespread colonizer. PMID:26052640

  12. Sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol wastewater treatment by two-phase multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) combination with up-flow UASB and down-flow hanging sponge.

    PubMed

    Choeisai, P; Jitkam, N; Silapanoraset, K; Yubolsai, C; Yoochatchaval, W; Yamaguchi, T; Onodera, T; Syutsubo, K

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate a treatment system for high strength wastewater (vinasse) from a sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol plant in Thailand. A laboratory-scale two-phase treatment system composed of a sulfate reducing (SR) tank and multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (MS-UASB) reactor was used as the pre-treatment unit. Conventional UASB and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors were used as the post-treatment unit. The treatment system was operated for 300 days under ambient temperature conditions (24.6-29.6 °C). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) in each unit was kept at 25 h for the two-phase system and 23 h for the UASB&DHS. The influent concentration was allowed to reach up to 15,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. COD removal efficiency (based on influent COD) of the two-phase MS-UASB and the UASB&DHS was 54.9 and 18.7%, respectively. Due to the effective removal of sulfide in the SR tank, the MS-UASB achieved a high methane conversion ratio of up to 97%. In DHS, nitrification occurred at the outside portion of the sponge media while denitrification occurred at the inside. Consequently, 27% of the total nitrogen (TN) was removed. An amount of 32% of residual nitrogen (28 mgN/L) was in the form of nitrate, a better nitrogen state for fertilizer. PMID:24647181

  13. Photosynthetic and Canopy Characteristics of Different Varieties at the Early Elongation Stage and Their Relationships with the Cane Yield in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Yuye; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Rukai

    2014-01-01

    During sugarcane growth, the Early Elongation stage is critical to cane yield formation. In this study, parameters of 17 sugarcane varieties were determined at the Early Elongation stage using CI-301 photosynthesis measuring system and CI-100 digital plant canopy imager. The data analysis showed highly significant differences in leaf area index (LAI), mean foliage inclination angle (MFIA), transmission coefficient for diffused light penetration (TD), transmission coefficient for solar beam radiation penetration (TR), leaf distribution (LD), net photosynthetic rate (PN), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (GS) among sugarcane varieties. Based on the photosynthetic or canopy parameters, the 17 sugarcane varieties were classified into four categories. Through the factor analysis, nine parameters were represented by three principal factors, of which the cumulative rate of variance contributions reached 85.77%. A regression for sugarcane yield, with relative error of yield fitting less than 0.05, was successfully established: sugarcane yield = ?27.19 ? 1.69 × PN + 0.17 ×??E + 90.43 × LAI ? 408.81 × LD + 0.0015 × NSH + 101.38 ×??D (R2 = 0.928**). This study helps provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the screening of new sugarcane varieties with high net photosynthetic rate and ideal canopy structure. PMID:25045742

  14. Use of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for minimizing post-harvest physio-chemical and microbial changes responsible for sucrose losses in sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pushpa; Arya, Namita; Tiwari, Priyanka; Suman, Archna; Rai, R K; Shrivastava, A K; Solomon, S

    2008-08-27

    Sugar cane is sensitive to enormous sucrose losses induced by physio-chemical and microbial changes, the severity being increased during the time lag between harvest and crushing in the mills. Minimization of the sucrose losses in the field is essential for better sugar recovery and prevention of sucrose losses. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for their effects on the microbial counts and physio-chemical changes responsible for sucrose losses. Glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride (1000 + 250 ppm) reduced the losses in sucrose content to 7.1% as compared to the 30.8% loss in the control, thus improving the performance by 76.9%. The application of chemicals reduced the acid invertase activity (by 60%), lowered weight loss, titrable acidity, reducing sugars content, dextran, ethanol, and ethylene production and respiration rates. The application led to the reduction in the total bacterial, fungal, Leuconostoc, and yeast counts by 67.92, 51.3%, 26.08, and 51.2%, respectively. PMID:18662009

  15. Effects of multiple chemical, physical, and biological stressors on the incidence and types of abnormalities observed in Bermuda's cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Bacon, Jamie P; Fort, Chelsea E; Todhunter, Brian; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Douglas J

    2013-06-01

    The interactive effects of contaminants and ultraviolet light (UV)-exposure on the incidence and types of abnormalities observed were measured in newly metamorphosed cane toads (Rhinella marina) from four Bermuda ponds contaminated with petrochemicals and metals. Abnormalities were compared in toadlets that were field-collected, reared in predator exclusion cages, reared in laboratory microcosms exposed to control media or corresponding pond media, and reared in laboratory microcosms exposed to UV-light and control media or media from two ponds. Percent abnormal for field-collected, cage-reared, and microcosm-reared toadlets were equivalent per site and ranged between 14% and 63%. All treatments produced similar limb abnormalities but the percentage of hind versus forelimb defects was statistically greater only in field-collected toadlets. UV-exposed control media did not induce abnormalities in larvae exhibiting no maternal effect, and did not alter the types of abnormalities observed in larvae exhibiting a maternal or latent effect. Site media treatments without UV exposure induced significant cephalic and limb abnormalities, proved additive to the observed maternal/latent effect, and produced limb defects predominantly in forelimbs. Concurrent exposure to site media and UV-light induced similar types of abnormalities but a significantly higher percentage of hind limb abnormalities (68-89%) than exposure to site media alone (7-13%). Our results suggest that the types of abnormalities expressed were principally determined by direct and/or transgenerational contaminant exposure, but that UV-light exposure caused limb abnormalities to occur primarily in the hind limbs, mirroring field observations. Our field observations also suggest that ectromelia and brachydactyly in some field-collected specimens may be predator-induced. PMID:23526808

  16. The Manufacture of Cane Syrup. 

    E-print Network

    Harrington, H. H. (Henry Hill)

    1903-01-01

    and sulphured. In case it is not, it must be carefully strained or filtered through some material that wi1I not only take out the sus- *Florida Bulletin, No. 44. pended or mechanical impurities, but that will also improve the color of the juice, or partially... day after day until it begins to clog, and fails to remove the color from the fresh juice as it comes from the mill, which will usually be the second or third day, when fresh moss must be supplied. It is safer to collect fresh moss every other day...

  17. Efficacy of Liquid Feeds Varying in Concentration and Composition of Fat, Nonprotein Nitrogen, and Nonfiber Carbohydrates for Lactating Dairy Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Firkins; B. S. Oldick; J. Pantoja; C. Reveneau; L. E. Gilligan; L. Carver

    2008-01-01

    In trial 1, we evaluated the efficacy of a liquid feed (LF) containing cane molasses and corn steep liquor as carriers of suspended white grease (WG) without or with urea (U) or with soybean lipid (SL; a byproduct of soybean processing) compared with roasted soybeans plus tallow blended into respective concentrates in a 16-wk lactation study. The dry matter intake

  18. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages--The Facts Whatisasugar-sweetenedbeverage?

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    diet drinks are low in calories but have little if any nutritional value.They're a good alternative,dextrose,fruit juice concentrates,glucose,honey,invert sugar, molasses,sucrose,syrup or cane sugar and juices,and blended coffee drinks contain a lot of sugar.You can get 16 teaspoons of sugar in a single 20

  19. Glass transition control of the detachment of food pastes dried over glass plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P Collares; J. R. D Finzer; T. G Kieckbusch

    2004-01-01

    A drying chamber with a device that allows the spreading of a uniform film of food paste over glass plates was developed with the purpose of evaluating the drying of paste-like materials assisted by the movement of solid bodies. The chamber temperature and the water content of the dried film made of maltodextrin, gum arabic or sugar cane molasses, were

  20. Improving production of hyperthermostable and high maltose-forming alpha-amylase by an extreme thermophile Geobacillus thermoleovorans using response surface methodology and its applications.

    PubMed

    Uma Maheswar Rao, J L; Satyanarayana, T

    2007-01-01

    By cultivating Geobacillus thermoleovorans in shake flasks containing cane molasses medium at 70 degrees C, the fermentation variables were optimized by 'one variable at a time' approach followed by response surface methodology (RSM). The statistical model was obtained by central composite design (CCD) using three variables (cane-molasses, urea and inoculum density). An overall 1.6- and 2.1-fold increase in enzyme production was achieved in the optimized medium in shake flasks and fermenter, respectively. The alpha-amylase titre increased significantly in cane-molasses medium (60 U ml(-1)) as compared to that in the synthetic medium (26 U ml(-1)). Thus the cost of enzyme produced in cane molasses medium (0.823 euros per million U) was much lower than that produced in the synthetic starch-yeast extract-tryptone medium (18.52 euros per million U). The shelf life of bread was improved by supplementing dough with alpha-amylase, and thus, the enzyme was found to be useful in preventing the staling of bread. Reducing sugars liberated from 20% and 30% raw pearl millet starch were fermented to ethanol; ethanol production levels attained were 35.40 and 28.0 g l(-1), respectively. PMID:16473003

  1. The Use of Sudan Grass Pastures and Other Feeds for Beef Production. 

    E-print Network

    Jones, John H.

    1941-01-01

    concentrate supplements while fleshy yearling steers made much smaller gains. Cottonseed cake, ground ear corn, mixtures of concentrate feeds, and cane molasses were self-fed to yearling steers while on sudan pasture without ill effect from scouring... or going "off feed." It was possible to market creditably finished yearling steers directly from the sudan fields by self-feeding cottonseed cake or ground ear corn with the grazing; however, carcasses of steers so fed showed yellow color of external...

  2. Food for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.

    1982-05-01

    Cassava, sugar cane, grain crops, molasses - all are potential feedstocks for ethanol production. Brazil has taken a clear lead in converting food crops into ethanol fuels for the automobile, but other countries may follow and the economic consequences could be considerable. This article looks at the various options. The total activity involved in fuel ethanol production and usage is considered as comprising three related components: feedstock production, ethanol production and application of the ethanol as a transport fuel.

  3. Life cycle cost analysis of fuel ethanol produced from cassava in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thu Lan T. Nguyen; Shabbir H. Gheewala; Sébastien Bonnet

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope  As a net oil importer, Thailand has a special interest in the development of biofuels, especially ethanol. At present, ethanol\\u000a in the country is mainly a fermentation\\/distillery product of cane molasses, but cassava holds superior potential for the\\u000a fuel. This study aims to assess the economics of cassava-based ethanol as an alternative transportation fuel in Thailand.\\u000a The

  4. Decolorization of anaerobically digested molasses spent wash by Pseudomonas putida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ghosh; A. Ganguli; A. K. Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    The distillery wastewater (spent wash) contains dark brown colored recalcitrant organic compounds that are not amenable to\\u000a conventional biological treatment. The characteristic recalcitrance to decolorization is due to the presence of brown melanoidin\\u000a polymers. In the present study, feasibility of using Pseudomonas putida putida strain U for decolorization of spent wash was demonstrated. Batch cultures of P. putida decolourized spent

  5. The Estimation of Salt and Molasses in Mixed Feeds

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1931-01-01

    ..................................................... 31649 ..................................................... 31650 ..................................................... 31564 ..................................................... 31566 ..................................................... 31682...

  6. SWMREC Special Report #21 Cane Positioning

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    of a vertically-oriented sickle bar with dual action blades. At the base of this sickle bar, a hydraulic motor, sweep across the cordon and then move downward and back toward the operator. Gillison Variety

  7. Use of specific gene analysis to assess the effectiveness of surfactant-enhanced trichloroethylene cometabolism.

    PubMed

    Liang, S H; Liu, J K; Lee, K H; Kuo, Y C; Kao, C M

    2011-12-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ bioremediation of trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater using specific gene analyses under the following conditions: (1) pretreatment with biodegradable surfactants [Simple Green™ (SG) and soya lecithin (SL)] to enhance TCE desorption and dissolution, and (2) supplementation with SG, SL, and cane molasses as primary substrates to enhance the aerobic cometabolism of TCE. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and nucleotide sequence analysis were applied to monitor the variations in specific activity-dependent enzymes and dominant microorganisms. Results show that TCE-degrading enzymes, including toluene monooxygenase, toluene dioxygenase, and phenol monooxygenase, were identified from sediment samples collected from a TCE-spill site. Results from the microcosm study show that addition of SG, SL, or cane molasses can enhance the aerobic cometabolism of TCE. The TCE degradation rates were highest in microcosms with added SL, the second highest in microcosms containing SG, and lowest in microcosms containing cane molasses. This indicates that SG and SL can serve as TCE dissolution agents and act as primary substrates for indigenous microorganisms. Four dominant microorganisms (Rhodobacter sp., Methyloversatilis sp., Beta proteobacterium sp., and Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava) observed in microcosms might be able to produce TCE-degrading enzymes for TCE cometabolic processes. PMID:22071259

  8. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, a sugar cane endosymbiont, produces a bacteriocin against Xanthomonas albilineans, a sugar cane pathogen.

    PubMed

    Piñón, Dolores; Casas, Mario; Blanch, María; Fontaniella, Blanca; Blanco, Yolanda; Vicente, Carlos; Solas, María-Teresa; Legaz, María-Estrella

    2002-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in liquid culture secretes proteins into the medium. Both medium containing Gluconacetobacter protein and a solution of this protein after acetone precipitation appeared to inhibit the growth of Xanthomonas albilineans in solid culture. This apparent inhibition of bacterial growth has, in fact, been revealed to be lysis of bacterial cells, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. Fractionation of the Gluconacetobacter protein mixture in size-exclusion chromatography reveals a main fraction with lysozyme-like activity which produces lysis of both living bacteria and isolated cell walls. PMID:12234008

  9. 46 CFR Table 2 to Part 153 - Cargoes Not Regulated Under Subchapters D or O of This Chapter When Carried in Bulk on Non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...III Milk III Molasses III Molasses residue (from fermentation ) [III] Naphthenic acid, sodium salt solution ...OS Milk # Molasses OS Molasses residue (from fermentation) # Naphthalenesulfonic acid-Formaldehyde...

  10. 46 CFR Table 2 to Part 153 - Cargoes Not Regulated Under Subchapters D or O of This Chapter When Carried in Bulk on Non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...III Milk III Molasses III Molasses residue (from fermentation ) [III] Naphthenic acid, sodium salt solution ...OS Milk # Molasses OS Molasses residue (from fermentation) # Naphthalenesulfonic acid-Formaldehyde...

  11. Biological activity of phenolic compounds. Hepatic cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b/sub 5/ and NADPH cytochrome c reductase in chicks and rats fed phenolic monomers, polymers, and glycosides

    SciTech Connect

    Klasing, S.A.; Mora, M.I.; Wilson, W.C.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.; Garst, J.E.

    1985-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine effects of a phenolic polymer (Kraft wood lignin, Indulin), phenolic glycosides (cane molasses and wood molasses), and phenolic monomers (vanillin, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid) on liver cytochromes P-450, cytochrome b/sub 5/, and NADPH cytochrome c reductase in chicks and rats. Chicks fed 6.0% lignin had a higher cytochromes P-450 content than did chicks fed 0% fiber, 6.0% wood cellulose, or 6.0% arenaceous flour. Chicks fed 12.0% wood molasses had a higher cytochromes P-450 level than did chicks fed 0% fiber or 6.0% wood molasses. Cane molasses incorporated at both 6.0 and 12.0% of the diet induced cytochromes P-450 content over those of control-fed birds. Chicks fed 6.0% lignin, with or without antibiotic, had a higher cytochromes P-450 level than did chicks fed control diets, with or without antibiotic. Additionally, chicks fed 6.0% lignin had lower intestinal diaminopimelic acid (DAP) levels than did chicks fed 0% fiber. Rats fed 0% fiber, 6.0% wood cellulose, 6.0% arenaceous flour, or 6.0% lignin exhibited no difference in cytochrome level or activity among treatments. Chicks fed 0.5% vanillin, 0.5% vanillic acid, 0.5% ferulic acid, or 0.5% p-coumaric acid had comparable cytochromes level and activity compared with chicks fed no phenolics. Chicks fed 0.5% p-coumaric acid had lower rates of gain than did chicks fed control or other phenolic-containing diets. Rats fed these phenolics had similar cytochromes P-450 content among treatments.

  12. Statistical media optimization for the biomass production of postharvest biocontrol yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Xia; Wang, Yifei; Ruan, Hui; Zheng, XiaoDong

    2011-01-01

    A cane molasses-based medium for the biomass production of biocontrol agent Rhodosporidium paludigenum was statistically optimized. Molasses concentration (after pretreatment), yeast extract, and initial pH were identified by the Plackett-Burman design to show significant influence on the biomass production. The three factors were further optimized by central composite design and response-surface methodology. The statistical analysis indicated the optimum values of the variables were 89.98 g/L for cane molasses, 2.35 g/L for yeast extract and an initial pH of 8.48. The biomass yield at the optimal culture achieved 15.89 g/L in flask fermentation, which was 2.1 times higher than that at the initial NYDB medium. In a 10-L fermenter, 18.97 g/L of biomass was obtained after 36 hr of cultivation. Moreover, the biocontrol efficacy of the yeast was investigated after culture optimization. The results showed the yeast harvested in the optimal medium maintained its initial biocontrol properties by reducing the percentage of decayed apples to below 20%. PMID:21967338

  13. Spray nozzles, pressures, additives and stirring time on viability and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (nematoda: rhabditida) for greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; Batista, Elder Simões de Paula; Campos, Henrique Borges Neves; Lemos, Raphael Emilio; Ferreira, Marcelo da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004), three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa), four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin) and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae) viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed. PMID:23755280

  14. Spray Nozzles, Pressures, Additives and Stirring Time on Viability and Pathogenicity of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) for Greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; Batista, Elder Simões de Paula; Campos, Henrique Borges Neves; Lemos, Raphael Emilio; Ferreira, Marcelo da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004), three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa), four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin) and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae) viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed. PMID:23755280

  15. Molecular Structure of Sucrose

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-29

    Sucrose is the chemical name of table sugar. It is found in granulated, powdered and brown sugar and molasses, as well as, in a variety of fruits and vegetables. Sucrose is a disaccharide that can be made from the combination of two monosaccarides, glucose and fructose. For production use, sucrose is generally extracted from a sugar cane and then purified and crystallized. Sucrose is the most common sweetener in the modern world, however, including too much of it in a diet does have adverse health effects such obesity caused by the high calorie content.

  16. Sugar cane as an alternative energy source for Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kilicaslan; H. I. Sarac; E. Özdem; K. Erm

    1999-01-01

    The consumption of various energy resources in the world since the beginning of industrial revolution has changed due to several causes, such as the economy, availability, transportation and environmental effects as well as climate change phenomena. The use of fossil fuels has become rather harmful for the environment in which human beings live, especially in the urban areas of the

  17. Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

    2015-03-15

    Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ? 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:25308651

  18. Mark A. Cane Receives 2013 Maurice Ewing Medal: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cane, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    I must first pay tribute to Klaus Wyrtki, a hero of mine who passed away earlier this year. At a time when ideas about El Niño pointed all over the place, he told me that Bjerknes's hypothesis was the way forward. He was right, of course, but Bjerknes stopped short of explaining the oscillatory nature of ENSO, and it took Klaus's tide gauge data to show that ocean dynamics is the answer. His analysis was masterful, but there would have been nothing much to analyze without his incredible effort to deploy those tide gauges in atolls and islands throughout the tropical Pacific. My magnum opus may fairly be described as translating Bjerknes-Wyrtki into a numerical model.

  19. Development of Energy Canes for an Expanding Biofuels Industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 20 years, oil prices have increased from near $20 per barrel in the 1990s to over $70 per barrel in the 2000s. The rising cost of oil has caused a significant increase in interest in the utilization of renewable resources for biofuels production. In his 2007 State of the Union address, ...

  20. Sugar Cane Water Foot Print for Brazilian Major Varietes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, R. D.; Maschio, R.; Leal, D. P.; Barbosa, F. D.; Mauri, R.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water productivity (PA) into biomass, sugar and energy for 24 brazilian sugarcane varieties under drip irrigation, subjected to full and deficit irrigation treatments during growing stage. Two experiments were established under greenhouse conditions at the Biosystems Engineering Department, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP. Experiment 1: ten varieties on a clay soil (RB835054, RB855453, RB855536, RB925211, RB867515, SP89-1115, SP81-3250, CTC14, CTC8 e CTC6) and Experiment 2: fourteen varieties on a sandy-loam soil (RB925345, RB855156, RB966928, RB72454, RB92579, IACSP95-5000, Caiana, SP83-2847, SP90-3414, SP79-1011, CTC17, CTC15, CTC9 e CTC2). In both experiments it was adopted two irrigation treatments: T100 - full irrigation with 100% crop evapotranspiration replacement, maintaining soil moisture near field capacity, and T70 - irrigation with 70% of water depth applied to T100 treatment. Irrigation treatments were initiated at 101 days of crop cycle, corresponding to the end of tillering and the beginning of intense stalk growth phase (first ratoon). It was observed variation in the water productivity into fresh stalk biomass (PABFC) from 16.22 to 29.21 kg m-3, according of the varieties and irrigation treatments applied. The highest values were observed for varieties CTC6, CTC14, RB867515, SP81-3250 and RB92579, under full irrigation treatment (T100), and CTC6, CTC14 and SP90-3414, under deficit irrigation treatment (T70). Water productivity into sugar (PABATR) ranged from 1.95 to 3.84 kg m-3, highest values were observed for varieties CTC6 and RB92579 (T100), as well as RB835054 e RB966928 (T70). Water productivity into total energy (PAETOT) varied from 101.17 to 174.65 MJ m-3, with highest values for varieties:SP81-3250, CTC6, CTC17 and RB92579 (T100 treatment), as well as SP90-3414, SP81-3250 and CTC6 (T70 treatment).

  1. Real Time Deformable Template Tracking Brendan McCane

    E-print Network

    McCane, Brendan

    than areas can be effective and efficient; the extension of the snake minimisation algorithm to allow contributions of this work: the realisation that tracking line profiles rather than areas can be effective is a natural side-effect of the method that is pro- posed; since we are not trying to track boundaries or con

  2. ORAL PRESENTATION ABSTRACT Smart Mobility Cane: Obstacle Detection

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    pulse generated from output of the sensor is acquisitioned to calculate the distance of the obstacles, the LABVIEW's visual block programming of triggering pulse periodically and echo pulse analysis from sensor-above areas. This is based on Ultrasonic Range Finder sensor which can acquire range data between obstacles

  3. Biodegradation of endosulfan by Mortieralla sp. strain W8 in soil: Influence of different substrates on biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Ryota; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Sakakibara, Futa

    2011-10-01

    To examine the bioremediation potential of Mortierella sp. strain W8 in endosulfan contaminated soil, the fungus was inoculated into sterilized and unsterilized soil spiked with endosulfan. Wheat bran and cane molasses were used as substrates to understand the influence of different organic materials on the degradation of endosulfan in soil. Strain W8 degraded ?- and ?-endosulfan in both sterilized and unsterilized soil. In unsterilized soil with wheat bran+W8, ?- and ?- endosulfan were degraded by approximately 80% and 50%, respectively after 28 d incubation against the initial endosulfan concentration (3 mg kg(-1) dw). The corresponding values for ?- and ?-endosulfan degradation with wheat bran only were 50% and 3%. Endosulfan diol metabolite was detected after 14 d incubation in wheat bran+W8 whereas it was not found with wheat bran only. Production of endosulfan sulfate, the main metabolite of endosulfan, was suppressed with wheat bran+W8 treatment compared with wheat bran only. It was demonstrated that wheat bran is a more suitable substrate for strain W8 than cane molasses. Wheat bran+W8 is a superior fungus and substrate mix for bioremediation in soil contaminated with endosulfan. PMID:21893334

  4. ?-enhanced sub-Doppler cooling of lithium atoms in D1 gray molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, Andrew T.; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Rem, Benno S.; Delehaye, Marion; Khaykovich, Lev; Chevy, Frédéric; Salomon, Christophe

    2013-06-01

    Following the bichromatic sub-Doppler cooling scheme on the D1 line of 40K recently demonstrated in Fernandes [Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/100/63001 100, 63001 (2012)], we introduce a similar technique for 7Li atoms and obtain temperatures of 60?K while capturing all of the 5×108 atoms present from the previous stage. We investigate the influence of the detuning between the the two cooling frequencies and observe a threefold decrease of the temperature when the Raman condition is fulfilled. We interpret this effect as arising from extra cooling due to long-lived coherences between hyperfine states. Solving the optical Bloch equations for a simplified ?-type three-level system we identify the presence of an efficient cooling force near the Raman condition. After transfer into a quadrupole magnetic trap, we measure a phase space density of ˜10-5. This laser cooling offers a promising route for fast evaporation of lithium atoms to quantum degeneracy in optical or magnetic traps.

  5. Studies on Feed Spoilage: Heating in Feed Ingredients and Mixtures Containing Molasses and Added Fat. 

    E-print Network

    Cline, Margaret; Richardson, L. R.; Halick, John V.

    1957-01-01

    were yellow corn meal and soybean oil meal. The fats used were mazola and lard. Mazola is corn oil refined by the Corn Products Refirling Company. Ingredient with Moisture Slightly Above the Critical Level In one series of three separate trials.... of ~~i~t~~~ content of to trials Source Percent Amount content mixture heat None None Mazo1a2 Lard Mazola Lard Mazola Lard Days 29.3 1 32.0 39.0 20.0 36.0 21.0 31.0 'Did not heat. 'Mazola is corn oil obtained from the Corn Products...

  6. Short Communication: Effect of temporary glycosuria on molasses consumption in Holstein calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-invasive measures of stress are needed for experimental purposes and for potential use in well-being audits. Sucrose consumption is frequently used to determine that a stress response has been induced in mice and rats. This study was conducted to determine the effect of experimentally increased ...

  7. The effect of Urea-Molasses-Mineral Blocks on rumen parameters and growth performance of buffaloes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .05) amount of microbial protein synthesis (Cline et al, 1958, J Anim Sci, 17, 284-292) as compared and offering UMMB ad lib. The average intake of UMMB was 400 g/d/anim. As shown in table below, in spite VK Kakkar GS Makka Department of Animal Nutrition and Forages, Punjab Agricultural University

  8. The comparative value of five types of molasses as feeds for fattening beef cattle

    E-print Network

    Blankenship, Albert Young

    1954-01-01

    ~ ~ ~ t t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 8 t ~ 1 j0 LITKRATtON CITEO ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o i e ~ 31 FICUR28 Page ly Qesalatdes OLLas by Gewapa hy TSe@lg Feeieds+ ~ ~ ~ + s ~ ~ ~ 80 2 ~ Tota1 Osina~ Harb@ Besisq Nade by Steers Fed Five Types sf Ns1asses at Tss...

  9. The provenance of the stone ballast from the Molasses Reef Wreck 

    E-print Network

    Lamb, William Reginald

    1988-01-01

    sandstones from the MN cross section for observable and definable surface-texture characteristics of the quartz grains. Chipped samples of the stones were mounted on aluminum stubs for initial examination. The aluminum stubs were sputter-coated with a... reasonably well but the l2 Figure 2. View of the MRW ballast mound from the south end. (Photo courtesy of INA staff) 0 1 2 1" 1 I 0-aa 0- 1 ~ LM TRANSECT MN TRANSECT 04 TRANSECT MID 4 THAHSKCT Cf NTERLINK 1 - 1 33 KL TRANSECT NORTH \\3 3031...

  10. The comparative value of five types of molasses as feeds for fattening beef cattle 

    E-print Network

    Blankenship, Albert Young

    1954-01-01

    ooaposed of $05 steeaed boneaoal snd Qg plain vld. te granulated salt Vuag 4 iVSQGE RlTIQS 00gSWRO igO DiIXX OLXMS Ig POCROS BT 25@AT HSIUOS ice ice PeAoCa ae289IoaeA Qewel a1lo iiRao eel)ega Cog? heQg ~ NLa ieao ~ gaia ILES?iaeg9 aa...Leaooo feaiala eqpg9Ie?eat Oroaal allo ANoa aQaga Cogo he5ls ~ ala iea ~gaia Oeoa aolooooo PHAala oeggilAsss4 Owaak aQo ki3ao eQoga Ceg? hei)a ~ ala @coo 4aQg gala Nodal aeSaogog RnAda ?~?A OeocuL alla ii3as ?KLago Cege hello Kheeal ala knee 4...

  11. Burial history and thermal evolution of wells Weiach and Entlebuch 1, Swiss molasse basin

    SciTech Connect

    Leu, W. (Geoform, Geological Consulting and Studies Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland))

    1993-09-01

    Only 30-50% of the stratigraphic records are preserved in the Swiss foreland basin as a consequence of at least three major erosional events in the Permian, the Late Cretaceous/Paleocene, and the late Neogene. The detailed set of geological and petrophysical data of well Weiach (exploration well for radioactive waste disposal sites) is used to assess the influence of burial and thermal history scenarios on porosity development, organic maturity evolution, and hydrocarbon generation/expulsion. Results of this calibration are taken as constraints for the analysis of the hydrocarbon exploration well Entlebuch 1, the only gas-producing well in Switzerland. Modeling results from well Weiach indicate that recently proposed, large amounts of up to 2.5 km of removed overburden at the level of the late Neogene unconformity, stay in conflict with observed thermal maturities, unless contemporaneously heat-flow variations of substantial magnitude are assumed. Additional erosion of up to 700 m of missing Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments (Tertiary unconformity) is compatible with the observed maturity gradients in the Mesozoic section. Today, only the proven Paleozoic source rocks (Autunian shale and Carboniferous coal) are in the main oil and gas windows. However, hydrocarbon generation rates are low because of ongoing uplift and cooling in this external position in the foreland basin. In the more proximal position of the Entlebuch 1 well (only a limited data set is publicly available) major thrust wedges of Tertiary clastics were emplaced during the late Alpine orogenic phase (Miocene/Pliocene). Modeling demonstrates that his influences the thermal regime up to the present day, resulting in the generation of mainly gas from the hypothetical Mesozoic, and oil and gas from Paleozoic source rocks.

  12. The provenance of the stone ballast from the Molasses Reef Wreck

    E-print Network

    Lamb, William Reginald

    1988-01-01

    not be established. The second sample, MN-89, contained several types of diatoms and other presently-unknown organisms. Several fragments of pennate diatoms were encountered, as was a probable diatom auxospore and possible silicoflagellate. 44 One diatom...

  13. Treatment of a molasses based distillery effluent in a constructed wetland in central India.

    PubMed

    Billore, S K; Singh, N; Ram, H K; Sharma, J K; Singh, V P; Nelson, R M; Dass, P

    2001-01-01

    A field-scale 4-celled, horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (CW) was installed to evaluate removal efficiencies of wastewater constituents in an industrial distillery effluent. Total and dissolved solids, NH4-N, TKN, P and COD were measured. This CW design provides four serial cells with synthetic liners and a river gravel base. The first two unplanted cells provide preliminary treatment. Specific gravel depths and ensuing biofilm growth provides anaerobic treatment in Cell 1 and anaerobic treatment in Cell 2. Cell 3 was planted with Typha latifolia with an inserted layer of brick rubble (for phosphorus removal). Locally grown reed, Phragmites karka was planted in Cell 4. COD was reduced from 8420 mg/l 3000 from Cell 1 to the outlet of Cell 4. Likewise other parameters: total and dissolved solids, ammonium and total nitrogen, and total P, indicated declining trends at the 4-celled CW effluent. This study reveals how high strength distillery wastewater strongly impacts morphology, aeration anatomy in the chiseled plant tissues, reed growth; and composition of the biofilm in the specialized substratum. The reliability of a CW for organic and nutrients reduction, in association with a poorly performing conventional system is discussed. There is an immense potential for appropriately designed constructed wetlands to improve high strength wastewaters in India. PMID:11804132

  14. Production of Candida utilis biomass on molasses in different culture types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bum-Kyu Lee; Joong Kyun Kim

    2001-01-01

    Three different types of aerobic fermentations were performed for the mass production of C. utilis as aquafeeds. From the best fermentation result of each culture type, the biomass yield and productivity were calculated to be 0.67 and 0.24 for batch, 0.51 and 1.95 for fed-batch with sigmoidal feeding strategy, and 0.36 g g?1 and 2.15 g?1 l?1 h?1 for continuous

  15. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia. PMID:23021947

  16. [Biomass production and biological purification of distillation slops in a 2-step process].

    PubMed

    Waehner, R S; Giulietti, A M; Fraile, E R

    1983-01-01

    In order to lower the chemical demand (COD) of slops from cane molasses alcohol a treatment of two steps which allows the production of single cell protein of Candida utilis and Paecilomyces variotii has been performed. Its use reduces the treatment cost. In the first step the slops without sterilization supplemented with ammonium sulphate (5 g.l-1) and dipotassium phosphate (0.5 g.l-1) was inoculated with C. utilis and P. variotii. The yield was 24 and 18 g.l-1 of dry biomass and COD reduction of 36 and 75% respectively. In the second step, the remainder effluents were treated with Aspergillus niger. The final COD reduction attained was 93 and 92% respectively. PMID:6400760

  17. Glucosyltransferase production by Klebsiella sp. K18 and conversion of sucrose to palatinose using immobilized cells

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, Daniela C.; Kawaguti, Haroldo Y.; Sato, Hélia H.

    2009-01-01

    The strain Klebsiella sp. K18 produces the enzyme glucosyltransferase and catalyses the conversion of sucrose to palatinose, an alternative sugar that presents low cariogenicity. Response Surface Methodology was successfully employed to determine the optimal concentration of culture medium components. Maximum glucosyltransferase production (21.78 U mL-1) was achieved using the optimized medium composed by sugar cane molasses (80 g L-1), bacteriological peptone (7 g L-1) and yeast extract (20 g L-1), after 8 hours of fermentation at 28°C. The conversion of sucrose to palatinose was studied utilizing immobilized cells in calcium alginate. The effects of the alginate concentration (2-4%), cell mass concentration (20-40%) and substrate concentration (25-45%) were evaluated and the yield of palatinose was approximately 62.5%. PMID:24031319

  18. Production of a thermostable uricase by a novel Bacillus thermocatenulatus strain.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Walid A

    2008-03-01

    A novel uricase-producing bacterium was identified based on its 16S rRNA sequence as Bacillus thermocatenulatus. The kinetic constants for this uricase, determined with uric acid as the substrate, were a V(max) of 0.99U/ml of enzyme and a K(m) of 0.25mM. After heat treatment at 75 degrees C for 45min, the uricase retained about 100% of its initial activity. The uric acid showed to be an inducer for uricase production. The effects of different factors on the enzyme production were studied. Pretreated cane molasses and corn steep liquor were the most promising carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. When the strain was cultured at 30 degrees C at pH 7.0 for 30-36h, the uricase activity peaked at 1.25U/ml. PMID:17395458

  19. How combine harvesting of green cane billets with different levels of trash affects production and processing. Part I. Field yields and delivered cane quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New refineries in Louisiana, USA are requesting Louisiana sugarcane factories to deliver very high pol/very low color (VHP/VLC) raw sugar with low ash concentrations. This higher quality raw sugar will allow both growers and factory processors to share economic premiums from the new refineries. A ...

  20. Quasiparticle molasses: the giant force on an object moving through a beam of thermal excitations in superfluid3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, N. S.; Cousins, D. J.; Enrico, M. P.; Fisher, S. N.; Guénault, A. M.; Pickett, G. R.; Thibault, P. J. Y.

    1996-01-01

    Owing to the unusual dispersion curve for excitations in superfluid3He an object moving through the excitation gas experiences a very much higher drag force than expected for a similar ‘conventional’ gas. We have made investigations of the force on a body moving through a unidirectional beam of thermal excitations in3He-B at very low temperatures which shows that owing to the nature of Andreev reflection by the surrounding flow field the moving body (in this case a vibrating wire resonator) experiences a giant drag force independently of the relative direction of motion between object and beam.

  1. CLIMATE CHANGE DURING & AFTER THE ROMAN EMPIRE Michael McCormick, Ulf Bntgen, Mark A. Cane,

    E-print Network

    R. Cook, Kyle Harper, Peter Huybers, Thomas Litt, Sturt W. Manning, Paul Andrew Mayewski, Alexander and Letters, University of Oklahoma, Nor- man. He is the author of Slavery in the Late Roman World, AD 275., "Vegetation and Climate History in the Westeifel Volcanic Field (Ger- many) during the Last 11,000 Years Based

  2. Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Boddey

    1995-01-01

    The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric COâ or, consequently, to global warming.

  3. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ...by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations...sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane states' sugar marketing allotments...

  4. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kling, S.H.; Neto, C.C.; Ferrara, M.A.; Torres, J.C.R.; Magalhaes, D.B.; Ryu, D.D.Y.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the possibility of applying a steam explosion pretreatment process to sugarcane bagasse was investigated, and the effectiveness of the pretreatment in terms of hemicellulose solubilization and enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was determined. The steam requirement for the pretreatment was also investigated at the pilot-plant scale, and these results are presented.

  5. A simple rule for bioenergy conversion plant size optimisation: Bioethanol from sugar cane and sweet sorghum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Nguyen; R. G. H. Prince

    1996-01-01

    Fuel ethanol from agricultural crops, “bioethanol”, is more expensive than petrol. Here we consider ways to reduce ethanol costs, by using mixed crops to extend the processing season and by optimising plant capacity. We derive a simple model of general applicability by balancing crop transport costs (which increase with plant size) against the (decreasing) production costs. We show that at

  6. Pre-harvest cane burning and health: the association between school absences and burning sugarcane fields.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Carla Cabrini; Ferrante, Vera Lúcia Silveira Bota; Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Ribeiro, Maria Lúcia; Magnani, Romeu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate an association between pre-harvest sugarcane burning and respiratory diseases in children under five years of age. The following data were collected in five schools in the city of Araraquara, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between March and June 2009: daily records of absences and the reasons stated for these absences, total concentration of suspended particulate matter (µg/m3), and air humidity. The relationship between the percentage of school absences due to respiratory problems and the concentration of particulate matter in March and from April to June presented a distinct behavior: absences increased alongside the increase in particulate matter concentration. The use of school absences as indicators of this relationship is an innovative approach. PMID:26018783

  7. Horizontal cane orientation and rowcover application improve winter survival and yield of trailing 'Siskiyou' blackberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western trailing blackberries (Genus Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson) are susceptible to low temperature injury and are not grown commercially in the central or eastern United States. Seven-year-old trailing 'Siskiyou' blackberry plants were trained to the rotating cross-arm (RCA) trellis system. In w...

  8. [Influence of substrate concentration on PHA production using fermented sugar cane as substrate].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Deng, Yi; Huang, Long; Wen, Qin-Xue; Guo, Zi-Rui

    2013-06-01

    PHA was a kind of biodegradable polymer produced by mixed microorganisms. In recent years, 3-stage PHA synthesis process (including substrate hydrolysis, culture selection, and PHA synthesis) was commonly used for PHA production. In this kind of process, culture selection is the key stage, which directly affects the PHA production efficiency. In order to deal with sludge bulking occurred in the culture selection system, this paper analyzes the influence of substrate concentration on culture selection efficiency as well as operation stability. Under different influent substrate concentrations of 560 mg x L(-1), 1 120 mg x L(-1) and 1 680 mg x L(-1), we confirmed that influent substrate concentration (COD) of 1 120 mg x L(-1) is the most suitable parameter for the bacteria enriching process after a long period of time under short SRT. After 94 days of cultivation, we achieved 50% of PHA content, 0.7145 COD/COD of PHA conversion rate and 0.191 2 mg x (mg x h)(-1) of specific PHA storage rate at the end of batch tests with nutrient starvation. The study also confirmed that glycogen level in cells has a close relationship with its PHA synthesis ability, which shows its potential to predict the enrichment efficiency. PMID:23947047

  9. Progress in Paleoclimate Modeling* MARK A. CANE, PASCALE BRACONNOT,# AMY CLEMENT,@ HEZI GILDOR,& SYLVIE JOUSSAUME,#

    E-print Network

    Gildor, Hezi

    , and some of them have been shown to reproduce the reduction of ENSO activity observed in the early to orbital variations is less important than the radiance changes due to volcanic eruptions and variations Paleoclimate is a larger and grander topic than Cli- mate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR), the subject

  10. Horizontal cane orientation and rowcover application improve winter survival and yield of trailing 'Siskiyou' blackberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western trailing blackberries (Genus Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson) are susceptible to low temperature injury and are not generally grown commercially in the central or eastern United States. Seven-year-old trailing ‘Siskiyou’ blackberry plants were trained to the rotating cross-arm (RCA) trellis sys...

  11. Screening for tolerance to periodic flooding for cane grown for sucrose and bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To prevent negative impacts on food production, energy crops in Louisiana will have to be grown on marginal lands that in some cases may be prone to flooding. Two high fiber/low sugar energycane clones, 79-1002 and Ho 01-12, and two low fiber/high sugar sugarcane clones, HoCP 96-540 and L 99-226, ...

  12. 3 CFR 8588 - Proclamation 8588 of October 15, 2010. White Cane Safety Day, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...impairment to use the technology our 21st-century economy depends on, from navigating digital menus on a television to sending emails on a smart phone. As we observe the 20th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act this year, my...

  13. El Nin~o prediction and predictability Dake Chen a,b,*, Mark A. Cane a

    E-print Network

    Chen, .Dake

    anywhere in the world. It is implicated in catastrophic flooding in coastal Peru and Ecuador, drought huge forest fires on Kalimantan spread a thick cloud of smoke over Southeast Asia and crippled air sensitive to climatological conditions, so it is possible that El Nin~o would behave dif- ferently in our

  14. U.P. Weather Burcw, Psalininary report on H w r i cane "DIILTPB",

    E-print Network

    directly mer Durham i n m i d after- noon, and proceeded on into Virginia. On August 12th, DIANE drifted Series ERRATA NOTICE One or more conditions of the original document may affect the quality of the image Data Center (NCDC). To view the original document contact the NOAA Central Library in Silver Spring, MD

  15. A Master Trainer Class for Professionals in Teaching the UltraCane Electronic Travel Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrod, William; Corbett, Michael D.; Blasch, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Electronic travel devices are used to transform information about the environment that would normally be perceived through the visual sense into a form that can be perceived by people who are blind or have low vision through another sense (Blasch, Long, & Griffin-Shirley, 1989). They are divided into two broad categories: primary devices and…

  16. Invasion, stress, and spinal arthritis in cane toads Gregory P. Brown*, Cathy Shilton

    E-print Network

    Shine, Rick

    , Australia; and Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries, and Mines, Berrimah Veterinary Laboratories the Australian tropics. anuran invasive species locomotion spondylitis colonization The increasing rate at which

  17. 'SMART' CANE FOR THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED: DESIGN AND CONTROLLED FIELD TESTING OF AN AFFORDABLE

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Subhashis

    and Ankush Garg are co-inventors of the system and Chinmay Agarwal and Saumya Jain contributed of Technology (IIT), Delhi. They graduated from IIT Delhi in 2008-2009 and are presently at NetApp Pvt. Ltd

  18. Distance Functions for Categorical and Mixed1 Brendan McCane Michael Albert3

    E-print Network

    McCane, Brendan

    rise to a Mahalanobis-type distance in the32 product space. The dimension of the embedding space a Mahalanobis-type distance. In this case, strictly speak-36 ing, there is no embedding space, but all compare three different measures for computing Mahalanobis-type dis-6 tances between random variables

  19. Biologie et cologie du bec-de-cane, Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskl), en Nouvelle-Caldonie

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .............................................................................. 9 Extraction de l'ADN ................................................................................ 9 ADN mitochondrial : séquences de la région de contrôle .............................................. 13 ADN mitochondrial : SSCP d'un fragment de l'ADNr 16S ........................................ 13

  20. Photolysis of Atrazine and Ametryne Herbicides in Barbados Sugar Cane Plantation Soils and Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dena W. McMartin; John V. Headley; Beverley P. Wood; Jon A. Gillies

    2003-01-01

    The photodegradation kinetics of atrazine (2?chloro?6?(ethylamino)?4?isopropylamino?1,3,5?triazine) and ametryne (2?methylthio?4?ethylamino?6?isopropylamino?s?triazine), in fresh and coastal salt water from Barbados, were measured under irradiation with artificial solar and UV254?radiation. The first?order rate constants were greater for ametryne than for atrazine, and the rates were reduced in seawater relative to fresh water, and in soil slurries relative to fresh water. However, rates were accelerated

  1. Scaling up of ethanol production from sugar molasses using yeast immobilized with alginate-based MCM-41 mesoporous zeolite composite carrier.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chunming; Sun, Xiaohong; Li, Landong; Guan, Naijia

    2012-07-01

    Microporous and mesoporous zeolites, including ZSM-5, H-?, H-Y, and MCM-41, were modified with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES), then inorganic fillers, such as abovementioned zeolites or mesoporous materials, (?-AlOOH or ?-Al(2)O(3)), were mixed with alginate embedded with yeast; and finally these carriers were cross-linked through the double oxirane. The alginate-based immobilized yeast with MCM-41 exhibited much shorter fermentation time and higher ethanol concentration than pure alginate and other composite carriers with the highest cell concentration of 4.8×10(9) cells/mL. The composite carrier maintains the highest ethanol productivity of 6.55 g/L/h for 60 days in continuous fermentation process, implying good operational durability for commercial applications. The reason for the higher bio-catalytical function of the immobilized yeast might lay in the uniformly yeast distribution in the bio-reactor and high yeast cell concentration, which contributed by the improved transmission of fermentation media and combined effects of yeast adsorption by MCM-41 and embedment by alginate. PMID:22154581

  2. The effect of different levels of forage and fish meal on the live performance and rumen volatile fatty acid concentation of heifers fed high molasses diets

    E-print Network

    Estrada, Sergio

    1973-01-01

    forages like millet, alfalfa, sorghum and Napier grass, Martin, Preston snd Willis (1968) found no significant differences in the digestion of dry matter and nitrogen. Nitrogen retention as a percent of nitrogen intake per unit metabolic weight did... not vary among the treatments either. Urinary nitrogen was higher when alfal- fa was fed than when sorghum or Napier grass were fed, probably because of the higher nitrogen intake from the alfalfa that was not thouroughly synthesized by the rumen...

  3. Encrusting growth and retreat of Montastrea annularis (Anthozoa; Scleractinia) following the grounding of a freighter on Molasses Reef, Key Largo, Florida 

    E-print Network

    Choi, Kwang-Sik

    1987-01-01

    ; Barnes, 1972; Maclntyre and Smith, 1974). Several methods have been applied to estimate the growth rates of scleractinian corals under field conditions and in laboratories. Most of these methods apply to accretionary growth rather than tissue.... Rogers (1979) I'ound significant reduction of growth rate of 4cropora cervicoruis v'hich ivas experimentally shaded for a 40-day period. Under natural field conditions, decrease in light intensity may be caused by high sediment resuspension which can...

  4. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations...sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane States' sugar marketing allotments...

  5. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations...sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane states' sugar marketing allotments...

  6. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations...sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane states' sugar marketing allotments...

  7. Acceleration of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover and Sugar Cane Bagasse Celluloses by Low Intensity Uniform Ultrasound

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost-competitive production of bio-ethanol and other biofuels is currently impeded, mostly by high cost and low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of feedstock biomass and especially plant celluloses. Despite substantial reduction in the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes in recent times...

  8. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, Michael C.; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda D.; Cole, Rebecca Ann

    2014-01-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina, (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) toads were parasitized by one or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only two parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimile was significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  9. Effects of some chemical substances on germination, root development, and growth of the stem cuttings of sugar cane 

    E-print Network

    Khan, Mohammad Abdullah

    1953-01-01

    ' u ?H u a) (2 O rH i?1 3 ^ O 11) rH ?H cC & cC 05 ?H O -H c X O

  10. THE EFFECTS OF CANE NUMBER ON YIELD IN 'CHESTER THORNLESS' BLACKBERRY ON THE ROTATABLE CROSS-ARM TRELLIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used mature 'Chester Thornless' blackberry plants trained to the rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis to determine the effect on retaining two, four, and six primocanes on plant productivity. Retention of only the two oldest primocanes and generally the most vigorous primocanes per plant yielded 14...

  11. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...amount to which the United States is committed under the WTO Uruguay Round Agreements. I have further determined that an aggregate...000 MTRV minimum level necessary to comply with U.S. WTO Uruguay Round commitments, of which 1,656 MTRV is reserved for...

  12. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...amount to which the United States is committed under the WTO Uruguay Round Agreements. I have further determined that an aggregate...000 MTRV minimum level necessary to comply with U.S. WTO Uruguay Round commitments, of which 1,656 MTRV is reserved for...

  13. Effects of some chemical substances on germination, root development, and growth of the stem cuttings of sugar cane

    E-print Network

    Khan, Mohammad Abdullah

    1953-01-01

    ! C T3 S 0}8 ?H ?H ?P ?H a) TJ a O?H 6 X> a 6 o oo CV 1-3 \\ T3 a a ? f-i PL,? . J3 o $ ao ?H aVCtO -P -P... ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? CP\\ CP\\ ?P ? ? CO CO o o O -4- ^ CV CMO be CO ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?O ?H 6 -4 in > so vO '4- in m\\X! (D o H v? rH v? rH v? H rH v? CO K g ?H 4-5 cd o O O O o O o O O c- C- CO o c - CO C'- c - 0} o ___ 1 -p >>v? X cfl Go CQ a> G bo O...

  14. Vector transmission studies of Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV) with the yellow sugar-cane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes) 

    E-print Network

    Su, Shu-Hua

    1972-01-01

    VECTOR TRANSMISSION STUDIES OF MAIZE DWARF MOSAIC VIRUS (MDMV) WITH THE YELLOW SUGARCANE APHID, SIPHA FLAVA (FORBES) . A Thesis by SHU-HUA SU Submi. tted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1972 Major Subject: Plant Pathology VECTOR TRANSMISSION STUDIES OF MAIZE DWARF MOSAIC VIRUS (MDMV) WITH THE YELLOW SUGARCANE APHID, SIPHA FLAVA (FORBES) . A Thesis by SHU-HUA SU Approved...

  15. Climate Change over the Equatorial Indo-Pacific in Global Warming* CHIE IHARA, YOCHANAN KUSHNIR, AND MARK A. CANE

    E-print Network

    Climate Change over the Equatorial Indo-Pacific in Global Warming* CHIE IHARA, YOCHANAN KUSHNIR to global warming is investigated using model outputs submitted to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate equatorial Indian Ocean warm more than the SSTs in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean under global warming

  16. Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

  17. Highly efficient rice straw utilization for poly-(?-glutamic acid) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bao; Lei, Peng; Xu, Zongqi; Jiang, Yongxiang; Xu, Zheng; Liang, Jinfeng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been identified as an economic and environmental feedstock for future biotechnological production. Here, for the first time, poly-(?-glutamic acid) (PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 using rice straw is investigated. Based on two-stage hydrolysis and characteristic consumption of xylose and glucose by B. subtilis NX-2, a co-fermentation strategy was designed to better accumulate PGA in a 7.5L fermentor by two feeding methods. The maximum cumulative respective PGA production and PGA productivity were 73.0±0.5gL(-1) and 0.81gL(-1)h(-1) by the continuous feeding method, with carbon source cost was saved by 84.2% and 42.5% compared with glucose and cane molasse, respectively. These results suggest that rice straw, a type of abundant, low-cost, non-food lignocellulosic feedstock, may be feasibly and efficiently utilized for industrial-scale production of PGA. PMID:26143572

  18. Elimination of adverse effects of ethoxyquin (EQ) by methionine hydroxy analog (MHA). Protective effects of EQ and MHA for bitterweed poisoning in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kim, H L; Herrig, B W; Anderson, A C; Jones, L P; Calhoun, M C

    1983-04-01

    Dietary ethoxyquin (EQ) and methionine hydroxy analog (MHA) protected 6-8-month-old wethers from toxic doses of bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata DC.). The EQ-MHA group received sweet feed (corn, oats, dehydrated alfalfa pellets, cane molasses and minerals), 500 g/day/sheep, supplemented with EQ and MHA (0.5% and 1.0% of feed, respectively) for 9 days prior to the poisoning with bitterweed while the MHA group received the same feed without EQ and controls received the same amount of feed with no additives. Two of 6 MHA-treated and 3 of 7 controls died whereas all 7 EQ-MHA-treated sheep survived after receiving 5 doses of bitterweed (5 X 5.5 g/kg) in 6 days. Coadministration of MHA and EQ eliminated the adverse effect of EQ; dietary EQ lowered the serum albumin, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase content while protecting the animals from bitterweed poisoning. EQ is the most promising protective agent tested for bitterweed poisoning in sheep. PMID:6836610

  19. One-pot conversions of raffinose into furfural derivatives and sugar alcohols by using heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Dabral, Saumya; Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki

    2014-01-01

    Inedible and/or waste biomass reserves are being strongly focused upon as a suitable new energy and chemical source. Raffinose, which is an indigestible trisaccharide composed of glucose, galactose, and fructose, is found abundantly in beet molasses, sugar cane, and seeds of many leguminous plants. Herein, we demonstrate the one-pot synthesis of furan derivatives and sugar alcohols from raffinose by using heterogeneous acid, base, and/or metal-supported catalysts. The combination of Amberlyst-15 and hydrotalcite (HT) showed a high activity (37% yield) for 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) through continuous hydrolysis, isomerization, and dehydration reactions. In addition, the use of a hydrotalcite-supported ruthenium catalyst (Ru/HT) successfully afforded 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF, 27% yield) from HMF produced by raffinose, directly. Moreover, the hydrogenation of hexoses obtained by raffinose hydrolysis into sugar alcohols (galactitol, mannitol, sorbitol) was also achieved in a high yield (91%) with Amberlyst-15 and Ru/HT catalysts. Thus, we suggest that raffinose has great potential for the synthesis of important industrial intermediates under mild reaction conditions. PMID:24193816

  20. Bioremediation of 1,2-dichloroethane contaminated groundwater: Microcosm and microbial diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Kuo, Y C; Huang, Y Z; Huang, C W; Kao, C M

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of bioremediating 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA)-contaminated groundwater under different oxidation-reduction processes was evaluated. Microcosms were constructed using indigenous bacteria and activated sludge as the inocula and cane molasses and a slow polycolloid-releasing substrate (SPRS) as the primary substrates. Complete DCA removal was obtained within 30 days under aerobic and reductive dechlorinating conditions. In anaerobic microcosms with sludge and substrate addition, chloroethane, vinyl chloride, and ethene were produced. The microbial communities and DCA-degrading bacteria in microcosms were characterized by 16S rRNA-based denatured-gradient-gel electrophoresis profiling and nucleotide sequence analyses. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to evaluate the variations in Dehalococcoides spp. and Desulfitobacterium spp. Increase in Desulfitobacterium spp. indicates that the growth of Desulfitobacterium might be induced by DCA. Results indicate that DCA could be used as the primary substrate under aerobic conditions. The increased ethene concentrations imply that dihaloelimination was the dominate mechanism for DCA biodegradation. PMID:25863886

  1. Effects of Changes in Feed Level, Starvation, and Level of Feed After Starvation Upon the Concentration of Rumen Protozoa in the Ovine1

    PubMed Central

    Potter, E. L.; Dehority, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    Four rumen fistulated sheep were used in five experiments to investigate the effect of feed level upon the concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa. The sheep were fed once daily 650 g of a pelleted diet composed of corn cobs, 45%; alfalfa meal, 35%; oats, 12.5%; cane molasses, 5%; urea, 0.4%; and vitamins and minerals, 2%. The concentration of protozoa reached minimum and maximum values at 5 and 22.5 h after feeding, respectively. Thus, to estimate apparent generation rates, concentrations of protozoa were determined at 5 and 20 h postfeeding. Apparent generation rate/h = natural log of ([concentration of protozoa at 20 h divided by concentration at 5 h] divided by the time interval, [T20 to T5]). Alteration of the feed to protozoa ratio by starvation and by changing the level of feed (200 to 900 g/day) showed that as the ratio of feed to protozoa increased, generation rate increased. Measurements of liquid turnover rates in the rumen showed that turnover rate decreased as feed level decreased. Turnover rate was near zero when the sheep were starved. Small quantities of soluble substrates, added directly to the rumen of starved sheep, maintained the protozoal population when rumen turnover was minimal. Furthermore, as rumen turnover rate increased with increased levels of feed, the effect of substrate on maintaining the protozoal population was negated. Thus, at high feed levels, turnover rate may be the dominant factor controlling the establishment and concentration of protozoa in the rumen. PMID:4202706

  2. Effects of changes in feed level, starvation, and level of feed after starvation upon the concentration of rumen protozoa in the ovine.

    PubMed

    Potter, E L; Dehority, B A

    1973-11-01

    Four rumen fistulated sheep were used in five experiments to investigate the effect of feed level upon the concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa. The sheep were fed once daily 650 g of a pelleted diet composed of corn cobs, 45%; alfalfa meal, 35%; oats, 12.5%; cane molasses, 5%; urea, 0.4%; and vitamins and minerals, 2%. The concentration of protozoa reached minimum and maximum values at 5 and 22.5 h after feeding, respectively. Thus, to estimate apparent generation rates, concentrations of protozoa were determined at 5 and 20 h postfeeding. Apparent generation rate/h = natural log of ([concentration of protozoa at 20 h divided by concentration at 5 h] divided by the time interval, [T20 to T5]). Alteration of the feed to protozoa ratio by starvation and by changing the level of feed (200 to 900 g/day) showed that as the ratio of feed to protozoa increased, generation rate increased. Measurements of liquid turnover rates in the rumen showed that turnover rate decreased as feed level decreased. Turnover rate was near zero when the sheep were starved. Small quantities of soluble substrates, added directly to the rumen of starved sheep, maintained the protozoal population when rumen turnover was minimal. Furthermore, as rumen turnover rate increased with increased levels of feed, the effect of substrate on maintaining the protozoal population was negated. Thus, at high feed levels, turnover rate may be the dominant factor controlling the establishment and concentration of protozoa in the rumen. PMID:4202706

  3. Bioconversion of Sugarcane Biomass into Ethanol: An Overview about Composition, Pretreatment Methods, Detoxification of Hydrolysates, Enzymatic Saccharification, and Ethanol Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Canilha, Larissa; Chandel, Anuj Kumar; Suzane dos Santos Milessi, Thais; Antunes, Felipe Antônio Fernandes; Luiz da Costa Freitas, Wagner; das Graças Almeida Felipe, Maria; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2012-01-01

    Depleted supplies of fossil fuel, regular price hikes of gasoline, and environmental damage have necessitated the search for economic and eco-benign alternative of gasoline. Ethanol is produced from food/feed-based substrates (grains, sugars, and molasses), and its application as an energy source does not seem fit for long term due to the increasing fuel, food, feed, and other needs. These concerns have enforced to explore the alternative means of cost competitive and sustainable supply of biofuel. Sugarcane residues, sugarcane bagasse (SB), and straw (SS) could be the ideal feedstock for the second-generation (2G) ethanol production. These raw materials are rich in carbohydrates and renewable and do not compete with food/feed demands. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB/SS (efficient pretreatment technology, depolymerization of cellulose, and fermentation of released sugars) remains challenging to commercialize the cellulosic ethanol. Among the technological challenges, robust pretreatment and development of efficient bioconversion process (implicating suitable ethanol producing strains converting pentose and hexose sugars) have a key role to play. This paper aims to review the compositional profile of SB and SS, pretreatment methods of cane biomass, detoxification methods for the purification of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the fermentation of released sugars for ethanol production. PMID:23251086

  4. 76 FR 71583 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for Field Release of Insects for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ...for Biological Control of Carrizo Cane...Arundo wasp as biological control agents for the...non-native invasive weed species, Carrizo...Accordingly, effective control of Carrizo cane...Carrizo cane. ARS Biological Control...

  5. Dynamics of Evolution in the Global Fuel-Ethanol Industry

    E-print Network

    Chan, Jin Hooi; Reiner, David

    in the production of beverage and industrial grades alcohol in many countries prior to the existence of fuel-ethanol market. But there is an increasing use of maize, sugarcane juice, wheat and cassava as many manufacturing facilities utilizing these feedstock... , Maize 4 China Maize, Wheat, Sugarcane and Beet Molasses, Cassava 5 India Sugarcane Molasses 6 Canada Maize 7 Thailand Sugarcane Molasses, Cassava 8 Australia Sugarcane Molasses Sources: Authors The overall percentage of feedstock production used...

  6. Effect of replacement of green grass by jackfruit leaf (Artocarpus heterophyllus) on the performance

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of replacement of green grass by jackfruit leaf (Artocarpus heterophyllus grousgaiii)+ wheat bran+ molasses (T,), German grass+ Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)+ wheat bran+ molasses (T2) and Jackfruit leaf+ wheat bran+ molasses (T3) - were fed to the three groups respectively

  7. Original article Microscopic detection of adulteration of honey

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Microscopic detection of adulteration of honey with cane sugar and cane sugar adulteration of honey with cane sugar, acid-hydrolized cane sugar syrup or with 'honey' obtained from feeding sugar to bees. The method consists of preparing a microscope slide of the honey sample and taking up

  8. SISTEMAS DE COLHEITA DA CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR E ALTERAÇÕES NAS PROPRIEDADES FÍSICAS DE UM SOLO PODZÓLICO AMARELO NO ESTADO DO ESPÍRITO SANTO1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARCOS BACIS CEDDIA; LÚCIA HELENA CUNHA; DOS ANJOS; EDUARDO LIMA; ALEXANDRE RAVELLI NETO

    A long term (1989-1994) experiment with sugar cane (RB 739735) was carried out, in Linhares, ES, Brazil, in order to evaluate the effect of two systems of sugar cane harvesting: the first with previous burning (burned cane), and the second with crop residue remaining on the soil surface (green cane), on some physical properties of a tableland Yellow Podzolic soil.

  9. Methane production by treating vinasses from hydrous ethanol using a modified UASB reactor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A modified laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was used to obtain methane by treating hydrous ethanol vinasse. Vinasses or stillage are waste materials with high organic loads, and a complex composition resulting from the process of alcohol distillation. They must initially be treated with anaerobic processes due to their high organic loads. Vinasses can be considered multipurpose waste for energy recovery and once treated they can be used in agriculture without the risk of polluting soil, underground water or crops. In this sense, treatment of vinasse combines the elimination of organic waste with the formation of methane. Biogas is considered as a promising renewable energy source. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum organic loading rate for operating a modified UASB reactor to treat vinasse generated in the production of hydrous ethanol from sugar cane molasses. Results The study showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 69% at an optimum organic loading rate (OLR) of 17.05 kg COD/m3-day, achieving a methane yield of 0.263 m3/kg CODadded and a biogas methane content of 84%. During this stage, effluent characterization presented lower values than the vinasse, except for potassium, sulfide and ammonia nitrogen. On the other hand, primers used to amplify the 16S-rDNA genes for the domains Archaea and Bacteria showed the presence of microorganisms which favor methane production at the optimum organic loading rate. Conclusions The modified UASB reactor proposed in this study provided a successful treatment of the vinasse obtained from hydrous ethanol production. Methanogen groups (Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales) detected by PCR during operational optimum OLR of the modified UASB reactor, favored methane production. PMID:23167984

  10. Effect of supplementation with urea, blood meal, and rumen-protected methionine on growth performance of Holstein heifers grazing kikuyu pasture.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Armando; Mendoza, German David; Garcìa-Bojalil, Carlos; Barcena, Ricardo; Ramos, Jesus A; Crosby, Maria M; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Lara, Alejandro

    2011-03-01

    Supplements with corn grain, molasses cane, and different nitrogen sources were evaluated in 16 growing Hosltein heifers [227 ± 33 kg body weight (BW)] grazing kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) pasture in a 10-ha sward (rotational grazing with electric fences) during 90 days in the summer season. The nitrogen sources were urea (U); urea and blood meal (U+BM); and urea, blood meal, and rumen-protected methionine (U+BM?+RPM). Heifers were randomly assigned to four experimental supplements defined as follows: control (no supplementation), U, U+BM, and U+BM?+RPM. Two kilograms (as fed) of supplement was offered daily. The final BW of heifers fed U+BM?+RPM was higher (P<0.05) than heifers not supplemented. The total and average daily weight gain of heifers supplemented with U+BM?+RPM were higher than heifers not supplemented or supplemented with U and U+BM (P<0.05). The average daily gain of heifers supplemented with U and U+BM were higher than heifers not supplemented (P<0.05). Grass intake was not affected by supplementation, but total dry matter intake was increased by supplements with U, U+BM, and U+BM?+RPM (P<0.05). Feed conversion was improved by U+BM?+RPM (P<0.05). Total tract digestion was not affected by supplements. Blood urea nitrogen concentrations of heifers supplemented with U, U+BM, and U+BM?+RPM were higher than heifers not supplemented (P<0.05). It is concluded that supplements with U+BM?+RPM improved growth performance and feed conversion in heifers grazing kikuyu pasture. PMID:21153880

  11. Removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil using a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic composting technique.

    PubMed

    Ponza, Supat; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Shrestha, Rajendra P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2010-01-01

    The effect of organic carbon addition on remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated clay soil was investigated using a two stage anaerobic-aerobic composting system. TCE removal rate and processes involved were determined. Uncontaminated clay soil was treated with composting materials (dried cow manure, rice husk and cane molasses) to represent carbon based treatments (5%, 10% and 20% OC). All treatments were spiked with TCE at 1,000 mg TCE/kg DW and incubated under anaerobic and mesophillic condition (35 degrees C) for 8 weeks followed by continuous aerobic condition for another 6 weeks. TCE dissipation, its metabolites and biogas composition were measured throughout the experimental period. Results show that TCE degradation depended upon the amount of organic carbon (OC) contained within the composting treatments/matrices. The highest TCE removal percentage (97%) and rate (75.06 micro Mole/kg DW/day) were obtained from a treatment of 10% OC composting matrices as compared to 87% and 27.75 micro Mole/kg DW/day for 20% OC, and 83% and 38.08 micro Mole/kg DW/day for soil control treatment. TCE removal rate was first order reaction kinetics. Highest degradation rate constant (k(1) = 0.035 day(- 1)) was also obtained from the 10% OC treatment, followed by 20% OC (k(1) = 0.026 day(- 1)) and 5% OC or soil control treatment (k(1) = 0.023 day(- 1)). The half-life was 20, 27 and 30 days, respectively. The overall results suggest that sequential two stages anaerobic-aerobic composting technique has potential for remediation of TCE in heavy texture soil, providing that easily biodegradable source of organic carbon is present. PMID:20390902

  12. Evaluation of a passive self-treatment technology for pastured cattle with a doramectin-medicated molasses-based liquid feed supplement for the control of southern cattle ticks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The treatment of cattle every 14 days for the eradication of cattle fever ticks carries a high financial burden for producers. Thus, most producers who have ticks detected on their property hoose to vacate the premises of all livestock instead of dipping animals every 14 days. However, the vacation ...

  13. Impact of the invasive cane toad ( Bufo marinus ) on an Australian frog ( Opisthodon ornatus ) depends on minor variation in reproductive timing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Crossland; Ross A. Alford; Richard Shine

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species are widely viewed as unmitigated ecological catastrophes, but the reality is more complex. Theoretically,\\u000a invasive species could have negligible or even positive effects if they sufficiently reduce the intensity of processes regulating\\u000a native populations. Understanding such mechanisms is crucial to predicting ultimate ecological impacts. We used a mesocosm\\u000a experiment to quantify the impact of eggs and larvae of

  14. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into the Technology Behind the Manufacturing of Sugar Cane and Wood

    E-print Network

    been introduced to the market. Bagasse is a by-product that remains after sugarcane and sorghum stalks that there is no significant cost of transitioning a wood fibre paper mill to produce sugarcane paper. In the manufacturing..........................................................................................................................................2 2.1 Sugarcane Pulp

  15. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Drake, Michael C; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda; Cole, Rebecca A

    2014-10-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina , (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) were parasitized by 1 or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth, and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only 2 parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimile was significantly more abundant during the dry season. PMID:24960037

  16. Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO2Al2O3CaO System Using SugarCane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Teixeira; M. Romero; J. Ma Rincón; R. S. Magalhães; A. E. Souza; G. T. A. Santos; R. A. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO2, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based

  17. SUGAR CANE GROWING AND CATTLE GRAZING AS DRIVERS TO WETLAND DEGRADATION IN UGANDA: A case of upper river Ruizi and Iguluibi catchments Lake Victoria basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakiyemba Were, Alice; Isabirye, Moses; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Introduction: This study was conducted with in the framework of the VLIR-OI project with the aim of making contributions to the Diagnosis and Remediation of Land Degradation Processes in the Riparian Zone of Lake Victoria Uganda in view of reducing sediment pollution of the Lake Waters with a special focus on the upper river Ruiz and Iguluibi catchments. The study seeks to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in light of the current farming systems and practices and their contributions to land degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Vegetation especially wetlands improves the resistance to erosion. The removal of riparian vegetation tends to accelerate surface erosion as a result of human activities. Increased erosion with in the catchments due to clearing of wetlands for sugarcane growing and cattle grazing has caused adverse increased sedimentation, degraded the water quality, and reduced the water productivity of the Lake Victoria Basin. Methods: We conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in Uganda in light of the current farming systems and practices and their socio-economic contributions to wetland degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, semi structured interviews and observations were undertaken with the relevant stakeholders in the community. Results: Findings reveal that in Iguluibi catchment, sugarcane growing is now a major activity indicating land use change since the 1990s. Community members said when planting sugarcane all vegetations including all trees are cut leaving the land bare to allow the tractor to clear the land for cultivation. This has left the land bare without any natural vegetation with increased erosion hence eventually loss of soil fertility and increased sediment pollution to the Lake Victoria waters. As a result of land loosing fertility upland, due to erosion and runoff, most community members have resorted to wetlands for agricultural practices with in the catchment and this has hardly left any natural vegetation to protect the soil and increased runoff to Lake Victoria hence sediment pollution of the lake waters. In the Ruizi catchment, many valleys, the natural vegetation has been cut and the land has been turned into pastureland. The massive expansion of livestock keeping into the low lands mainly covered by wetlands is relatively new (over the last 20 years). Burning of rangelands is a common practice and seasonal swamps are grazed during the dry season This change of land use as far as farming practice is concerned has had a big impact on the water levels of the River Ruizi systems in a number of ways for example: the wetland filter system for sediments and sediment fixed nutrients is compromised; lowering of the water storage capacity of the papyrus swamps as a consequence of drainage, hence surface lowering; river bank erosion of the Ruizi by livestock coming into the river for drinking; pollution of the River Ruizi by livestock defecating into the water while drinking. Due to overstocking of the steep slopes by livestock, the low lands are overgrazed which has resulted in soil erosion, that is, mainly sheet and rill erosion, mass movement below cattle tracks, and stone movement by cattle trampling. The steep slope grazing area has generated substantial runoff, the concentrated flow of which causes gullies that cut through the banana groves. Conclusion Vegetation management of riparian areas especially wetlands in Uganda should conserve and maintain adequate ecological balance of the Lake by reducing on nutrient-loaded fluxes from the riparian zone into the Lake Victoria basin.

  18. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ...amount to which the United States is committed under the WTO Uruguay Round Agreements. I have further determined that an aggregate...000 MTRV minimum level necessary to comply with U.S. WTO Uruguay Round commitments, of which 1,656 MTRV is reserved for...

  19. HELIUM VARIATION IN THE SOLAR WIND John D. Richardson1, Ian G. Richardson2, Justin C. Kasper1, Hilary V. Cane2, Nancy U.

    E-print Network

    Richardson, John

    1 HELIUM VARIATION IN THE SOLAR WIND John D. Richardson1, Ian G. Richardson2, Justin C. Kasper1 activity. Enhanced helium abun- dance is an identifying characteristic of interplane- tary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) we compare a published ICME list not based on helium abun- dance with intervals

  20. Developmental and photosynthetic regulation of ?-endotoxin reveals that engineered sugarcane conferring resistance to ‘dead heart’ contains no toxins in cane juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Sarwar Khan; Safdar Ali; Javed Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase is regulated at the levels of transcription and post-translation in C4 plants in light and abundantly accumulates in leaf mesophyll cells. We report here developmental and photosynthetic regulation\\u000a of stably accumulated Bacillus thuringiensis ?-endotoxin under the control of PEP-C promoter in transgenic sugarcane. In young leaves of plants, the transprotein is accumulated\\u000a to 39% of the