Sample records for canela sassafras ocotea

  1. Sassafras oil overdose


    ... oil Note: The United States and Canada have banned sassafras oil (other than trace amounts of safrole) from foods and medications since 1960. Its active ingredient, safrole, is a recognized cancer-causing substance.

  2. Phytochemical and antiprotozoal activity of Ocotea lancifolia.


    Fournet, Alain; Ferreira, Maria Elena; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Guy, Isabelle; Guinaudeau, Hélène; Heinzen, Horacio


    Thirteen known isoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from Ocotea lancifolia, popularly known as < canela pilosa > in Brasil and < laurel né > by the Guarani people which means smell laurel. Their activities against the promastigote forms of three Leishmania strains and the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated, as well as their hepatocytotoxicity. Among them, the noraporphine alkaloid (-) caaverine has shown the most interesting antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania and T. cruzi parasites. PMID:17499454

  3. Ocotea quixos, American cinnamon.


    Naranjo, P; Kijjoa, A; Giesbrecht, A M; Gottlieb, O R


    Among the three South American Lauraceae with cinnamon odours, Ocotea quixos Lam. is distinguished with the richest historical legacy. Cinnamaldehyde, its odoriferous principle, occurs besides o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid and methyl cinnamate in the fruit calyx. In contradistinction, 1-nitro-2-phenylethane is responsible for the cinnamon odour of bark and leaves of Aniba canelilla (H..B.K.) Mez and Ocotea pretiosa (Nees) Mez. PMID:7311599

  4. 21 CFR 172.580 - Safrole-free extract of sassafras.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR


    ... § 172.580 Safrole-free extract of sassafras. The food additive safrole-free extract of sassafras may be safely used...The additive is the aqueous extract obtained from the root bark of the plant Sassafras albidum...

  5. Alkaloids of Ocotea brachybotra.


    Vecchietti, V; Casagrande, C; Ferrari, G


    Aporphine, proaporphine and morphinane alkaloids were isolated from the leaves of a Brazilian Lauracea, Ocotea brachybotra (Meiss.) Mez. The known alkaloids were identified through their physico-chemical properties as: (I) (+/-)-glaziovine, (II) dicentrine, (III) ocopodine, (IV) cassynthicine, (V) predicentrine, (VI) leucoxine, (IX) sinacutine and (X) pallidine. The structure of (VI) leucoxine was confirmed by a detailed analysis of the N.M.R. spectra recorded in various conditions. New morphinane alkaloids, (XI) ocobotrine and (XII) 14-espisinomenine, having the unusual B/C-trans configuration were also isolated. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods and chemical correlations. PMID:923790

  6. The Canela Indians of Northeastern Central Brazil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library


    Based largely on the pioneering research of Bill Crocker, this site on the Canela Indians of Central Brazil is hosted by the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Designed to educate a general audience about the life and activities of the Canela, the site contains numerous sections that allow visitors to explore a world that few persons will be able to visit. First-time visitors will want to read the short essay ("About the Canela") before proceeding to the Daily Life chronology, which lists the activities of the Canela on an average day, including a men's council meeting and sing-dancing. A literature section offers numerous papers written by Bill Crocker on various aspects of Canela life, such as their initiation festivals and their relationships with ghosts. Finally, visitors will want to check out a short video showing Canela men engaging in one of their most unique daily activities, log racing.

  7. Cytotoxic aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea acutifolia.


    Garcez, Fernanda R; Francisca da Silva, Ana G; Garcez, Walmir S; Linck, Gabriela; de Fatima Matos, Maria C; Santos, Evelyn C S; Queiroz, Lyara M M


    Two new aporphinoid alkaloids, (+)-6 S-ocoteine N-oxide and (+)-norocoxylonine, were isolated from the leaves and trunk bark of OCOTEA ACUTIFOLIA (Lauraceae) along with thirteen aporphine analogues, one morphinan alkaloid, and one flavonoid. The aporphine alkaloids (+)-thalicsimidine and (+)-neolitsine are reported for the first time for the genus OCOTEA. The structures of all compounds were established on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques, optical rotation and/or mass spectrometry data. The cytotoxic potential of eight of the aporphine alkaloids against four human cancer cell lines (Hep-2, MCF-7, B16-F10 and 786-0) was also evaluated. PMID:20922653

  8. New aporphine alkaloids of Ocotea minarum.


    Vecchietti, V; Casagrande, C; Ferrari, G; Severini Ricca, G


    Fourteen aporphine alkaloids were isolated from the leaves of a Brazilian Lauracea, Ocotea minarum Nees (Mez). The known alkaloids were identified through their physico-chemical properties as: leucoxylonine (VII), dicentrine (IV), ocoteine (V), leucoxine (VI), ocopodine (VIII), predicentrine (IX), dicentrinone (XIV) and thalicminine (XV). Six new aporphine alkaloids were also isolated: ocotominarine (I), ocominarine (III), nor-leucoxylonine (XI), iso-oconovine (xii), 4-hydroxydicentrine (XIII) and ocominarone (XVI). Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods and chemical correlations. PMID:510527

  9. Antifungal effects of Ellagitannin isolated from leaves of Ocotea odorifera (Lauraceae).


    Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda; Garcia, Francielle Pelegrin; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru


    Ocotea odorifera is a medicinal plant that is popularly known in Brazil as "canela-sassafrás" and is used to treat dermatosis. This study investigated the antifungal properties of O. odorifera. The methanol extract of O. odorifera was submitted to successive chromatographic separation and yielded Tellimagrandin II (TEL). Candida parapsilosis strain ATCC 22019 was used to determine the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and fungicidal concentrations, and to study the synergistic action with nystatin (NYS), amphotericin (AMP), and fluconazole (FLU). After treatment, the morphology of the yeast was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity was assessed in Vero cells, and genotoxicity by the micronucleus test. The TEL structure was proposed based on NMR and comparison with literature data and ESI-MSMS analysis. The compound showed potent inhibitory activity against C. parapsilosis, with a MIC of 1.6 ?M. TEL acted synergistically with NYS, AMP, and FLU, and caused morphological alterations in the yeast cells. The methanolic extract showed low cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and was not mutagenic in mice (P < 0.05). The use of O. odorifera in traditional medicine seems to have a valid basis, in view of the antifungal activity of TEL demonstrated in this study, and may contribute to potential drug development. PMID:20922478

  10. Asaricin, the main component of Ocotea opifera Mart. essential oil.


    Lorenzo, D; Loayza, I; Leigue, L; Frizzo, C; Dellacass, E; Moyna, P


    Investigation of the volatile fraction from the stem bark of Ocotea opifera Mart. led to the isolation and characterization of asaricin, a phenolic derivative with antifungal and insecticidal activity, as the main component, which is described for the first time for the genus Ocotea. The structure has been established by a study of its mono- and bidimensional NMR spectra and mass spectrometry. PMID:11858548

  11. Essential oil of trees of the genus Ocotea (Lauraceae) in Costa Rica. I. Ocotea brenesii.


    Chaverri, Carlos; Cicció, José F


    The chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves and wood of Ocotea brenesii Standl. growing wild in Costa Rica was determined by capillary GC/FID and GC/MS. From the leaves, 64 compounds were identified, corresponding to 85.9% of the oil, and from the wood 57 compounds were identified corresponding to 69.0% of the oil. The major constituents identified in the leaf oil were alpha-copaene (21. 1%), 8-cadinene (9.2%), spathulenol (7.3%), globulol (5.6%) and beta-caryophyllene (5.2%). The major constituents of the wood oil were alpha-copaene (6.6%), caryophyllene oxide (6.3%). beta-caryophyllene (6.1%) and humulene epoxide (4.6%). PMID:17354452

  12. Caparratriene, an active sesquiterpene hydrocarbon from Ocotea caparrapi.


    Palomino, E; Maldonado, C; Kempff, M B; Ksebati, M B


    Caparratriene (1), a new sesquiterpene hydrocarbon with significant growth inhibitory activity (IC50 = 3.0 +/- 0.5 x 10(-6) M) against CEM leukemia cells, was isolated from the oil of Ocotea caparrapi (Nates) Dugand. The structure of 1, determined by spectroscopic techniques, corresponded to (E,E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,4,10-dodecatriene (C15H26). PMID:8984157

  13. Mutagenicity and recombinagenicity of Ocotea acutifolia (Lauraceae) aporphinoid alkaloids.


    Guterres, Zaira da Rosa; da Silva, Ana Francisca Gomes; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Felipe Rodrigues; Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues


    The somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in wing cells of Drosophila melanogaster was used to test the mutagenic and recombinogenic activities of five aporphinoid alkaloids isolated from Ocotea acutifolia: thalicminine (1), (+)-dicentrine (2), (+)-ocoteine (3), (+)-6S-ocoteine N-oxide (4), and (+)-leucoxine (5). Third-stage larvae derived from the standard cross with wing cell markers mwh and/or flr(3) were treated chronically. The frequencies of mutant spots observed in marked heterozygous descendants revealed significant dose-dependent genotoxicity for alkaloids 1-4; compounds 1 and 2 were the most active. Alkaloids 1-4 also induced mitotic recombination. The presence of a methoxyl group at C-3 (as in compound 3) lowers its genotoxic effect relative to that of unsubstituted analogue 2, and the introduction of an N-oxide functionality (3 vs. 4) further reduces genotoxicity. The very planar conformation of oxo-aporphine alkaloid 1 may account for its higher genotoxicity vs. its less-planar analogues 3 and 4. As previously reported for (+)-dicentrine (2), alkaloids 1, 3, and 4 may also be DNA intercalating agents, interfering with the catalytic activity of topoisomerases. PMID:23892138

  14. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for Ocotea species (Lauraceae) threatened with extinction.


    Martins, E M; Martinelli, G; Arbetman, M P; Lamont, R W; Simões-Araújo, J L; Powell, D; Ciampi-Guillardi, M; Baldauf, C; Quinet, A; Galisa, P; Shapcott, A


    The Atlantic rainforest species Ocotea catharinensis, Ocotea odorifera, and Ocotea porosa have been extensively harvested in the past for timber and oil extraction and are currently listed as threatened due to overexploitation. To investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of these species, we developed 8 polymorphic microsatellite markers for O. odorifera from an enriched microsatellite library by using 2 dinucleotide repeats. The microsatellite markers were tested for cross-amplification in O. catharinensis and O. porosa. The average number of alleles per locus was 10.2, considering all loci over 2 populations of O. odorifera. Observed and expected heterozygosities for O. odorifera ranged from 0.39 to 0.93 and 0.41 to 0.92 across populations, respectively. Cross-amplification of all loci was successfully observed in O. catharinensis and O. porosa except 1 locus that was found to lack polymorphism in O. porosa. Combined probabilities of identity in the studied Ocotea species were very low ranging from 1.0 x 10-24 to 7.7 x 10-24. The probability of exclusion over all loci estimated for O. odorifera indicated a 99.9% chance of correctly excluding a random nonparent individual. The microsatellite markers described in this study have high information content and will be useful for further investigations on genetic diversity within these species and for subsequent conservation purposes. PMID:25061738

  15. Structural analysis of female and hermaphroditic flowers of a gynodioecious tree, Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae).


    Gibson, J; Diggle, P


    The evolution of gynodioecy from hermaphroditism involves modifications of floral structure such that male or female fitness is enhanced in hermaphrodites and females, respectively. We present an analysis of structural specialization of flowers of Ocotea tenera, in order to evaluate gender system evolution in this tropical tree species. Significant morphological and anatomical variation was found between high fruiting and low or nonfruiting trees. Female flowers were significantly smaller than hermaphroditic flowers, produced no viable pollen, and made relatively greater allocation to structures that increase female fitness. Hermaphroditic flowers were significantly larger than female flowers, produced copious quantities of pollen, and made relatively greater allocation to male structures. Analyses indicated that changes in allometries between whole-flower growth and growth of reproductive structures may have occurred, which enhance function of the flower and plant as a male or female. Efficiency of nutrient allocation for reproduction is argued to be a factor driving gender system evolution in Ocotea tenera. PMID:21708583

  16. Central depressant effects of reticuline extracted from Ocotea duckei in rats and mice.


    Morais, L C; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Almeida, R N


    Neuropharmacological studies were carried out with reticuline, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, isolated from Ocotea duckei Vattimo. It was found that reticuline (50-100 mg/kg i.p.) produced alteration of behaviour pattern, prolongation of pentobarbital-induced sleep, reduction in motor coordination and D-amphetamine-induced hypermotility and suppression of the conditioned avoidance response. These observations suggest that reticuline possesses potent central nervous system depressant action. PMID:9720612

  17. Antimycobacterial and nitric oxide production inhibitory activities of Ocotea notata from Brazilian restinga.


    Costa, Isabela Francisca Borges; Calixto, Sanderson Dias; Heggdorne de Araujo, Marlon; Konno, Tatiana Ungaretti Paleo; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Guimarães, Denise Oliveira; Lasunskaia, Elena B; Leal, Ivana Ramos Correa; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão


    The genus Ocotea (Lauraceae) is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Some species of this genus as O. puberula and O. quixos have been described in the literature, showing antibacterial activity. And Ocotea macrophylla showed anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, and LOX-5. The purpose of this study was the phytochemical investigation of the plant species Ocotea notata from Restinga Jurubatiba National Park, Macaé, RJ, Brazil, and the search for antimycobacterial fractions and compounds. The crude extract was evaluated for antimycobacterial activity and presented 95.75 ± 2.53% of growth inhibition at 100?µg/mL. Then, it was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition and subsequently was chemically investigated by HPLC, revealing the major presence of flavonoids. In this process the partition fractions hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol are shown to be promising in the antimycobacterial assay. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction was chromatographed and afforded two flavonoids identified by MS and NMR as afzelin and isoquercitrin. The isolated flavonoids afzelin and isoquercitrin were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity and for their ability to inhibit NO production by macrophages stimulated by LPS; both flavonoids isoquercitrin (Acet22) and afzelin (Acet32) were able to inhibit the production of NO by macrophages. The calculated IC50 of Acet22 and Acet32 was 1.03 and 0.85?µg/mL, respectively. PMID:25789338

  18. Antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of essential oil from wild Ocotea quixos (Lam.) Kosterm. (Lauraceae) calices from Amazonian Ecuador.


    Ballabeni, Vigilio; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Bertoni, Simona; Bruni, Renato; Guerrini, Alessandra; Rueda, Gabriela Moreno; Barocelli, Elisabetta


    Ocotea quixos essential oil was shown to possess significant inhibitory activity of platelet aggregation and clot retraction in rodent plasma. This study is aimed at fully characterizing the antiplatelet activity of the whole essential oil and its main components trans-cinnamaldehyde and methyl cinnamate also in human plasma, at investigating the mechanism underlying such activity and at evaluating the potential antithrombotic activity of subacute treatment of mice with Ocotea essential oil. In vitro Ocotea essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde inhibited arachidonic acid-, U46619-, ADP-, phorbol12-myristate13-alcetate-, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and thrombin-induced clot retraction in human and rodent plasma; Ocotea oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde competitively antagonized contractions induced by thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619 in rat isolated aortic ring (K(B) = 18 and 3.2 microg ml(-1), respectively). In vivo Ocotea oil, orally administered in a subacute treatment (30-100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 5 days) to mice, prevented acute thrombosis induced by collagen-epinephrine intravenous injection. This antithrombotic activity was not accompanied by pro-haemorragic side effect, as detected by the inactivity in bleeding test, thus showing a favourable safety profile compared to the conventional antiplatelet agent, acetylsalicylic acid. Present findings indicate that Ocotea essential oil possesses potent and safe antithrombotic activity attributable to its antiplatelet and vasorelaxant effects. The main constituent trans-cinnamaldehyde seems to be the primary responsible for this activity through a putative mechanism involving the inhibition of thromboxane A2 receptors. PMID:17079160

  19. Stereostructure and anti-inflammatory activity of three diastereomers of ocobullenone from Ocotea bullata.


    Zschocke, S; van Staden, J; Paulus, K; Bauer, R; Horn, M M; Munro, O Q; Brown, N J; Drewes, S E


    A novel diastereomer of ocobullenone. designated as sibyllenone, was isolated from the stem bark of mature Ocotea bullata in the course of a search for anti-inflammatory compounds from this plant. The stereostructure was established by X-ray crystallography and corroborated by NOESY analysis. Ocobullenone, obtained previously, was re-isolated and crystallised successfully for X-ray analysis, thus making possible an accurate spatial comparison of ocobullenone, iso-ocobullenone and the new stereoisomer. Tested pharmacologically for cyclooxygenase-1 and 2, and 5-lipoxygenase inhibition, sibyllenone was the only compound from O. bullata which showed good inhibitory activity towards 5-lipoxygenase. PMID:10963452

  20. Crude ethanolic extract, lignoid fraction and yangambin from Ocotea duckei (Lauraceae) show antileishmanial activity.


    Monte, Rubens L Neto; Barbosa, José M Filho; Sousa, Louisa M A; Athayde, Petrônio F Filho; Dias, Celidarque S; Oliveira, Márcia R


    Crude ethanolic extract, lignoid fraction and the purified compound yangambin were obtained from Ocotea duckei (Lauraceae) and their antileishmanial activity was tested against promastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis cultivated in Schneider medium, supplemented with 20% of fetal bovine serum. All substances presented antileishmanial activity with IC50 values of 135.7 microg/mL for the crude ethanolic extract, 26.5 microg/mL for the lignoid fraction and 49.0 microg/mL for yangambin on L. chagasi. For L. amazonensis the IC50 values were 143.7 microg/mL, 48.2 microg/mL and 64.9 microg/mL for the crude ethanolic extract, the lignoid fraction, and the purified compound yangambin, respectively. The crude ethanolic extract, lignoid fraction, and yangambin caused an inhibition higher than Glucantime, a reference drug used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:17708438

  1. Chemical, biological, morphoanatomical and antimicrobial study of Ocotea puchury-major Mart.


    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Pintore, Giorgio; Foddai, Marzia; Chessa, Mario; Piana, Andrea; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Masia, Maria Dolores; Mangano, Giuseppe; Nicoletti, Marcello


    Ocotea puchury-major Mart. is a tree native to the Brazilian rain forest, where it is popularly known as puxurì. In local folk medicine the leaves are used for their sedative, gastroenteric and antireumatic properties. The morphoanatomical study determined those features useful in distinguishing this species from other closely related taxa. Chemical analysis was focused on the study of the volatile oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses indicated safrol as the main compound of the volatile oil (39%). The results confirm and authenticate the use of its leaves in folk medicine. Furthermore, safrol is economically important as the starting material for hemisynthesis of several products. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was studied which showed promising activity against environmental microorganisms as well as anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24274027

  2. Germination of Ocotea pulchella (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae) seeds in laboratory and natural restinga environment conditions.


    Pires, L A; Cardoso, V J M; Joly, C A; Rodrigues, R R


    The germination response of Ocotea pulchella (Nees) Mez seeds to light, temperature, water level and pulp presence is introduced. The laboratory assays were carried out in germination chambers and thermal-gradient apparatus, whereas the field assays were performed in environments with distinct light, temperature and soil moisture conditions within a permanent parcel of Restinga forest of the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananéia, São Paulo. The seeds do not exhibit dormancy, they are non photoblastic, and a loss of viability in dry stored seeds can be related to a decrease in water content of the seed. The presence of the pulp and the flooded substratum influenced negatively the germination of O. pulchella seeds tested in the laboratory. Otherwise, light and temperature probably are not limiting factors of the germination of O. pulchella seeds in the natural environment of Restinga. The optimum temperature range for germination of Ocotea pulchella seeds was 20 to 32 degrees C, the minimum or base temperature estimated was 11 degrees C and the maximum ranged between 33 and 42 degrees C. The isotherms exhibited a sigmoidal pattern well described by the Weibull model in the sub-optimal temperature range. The germinability of O. pulchella seeds in the understorey, both in wet and dry soil, was higher than in gaps. Germination was not affected by fluctuations in soil moisture content in the understorey environment, whereas in gaps, germination was higher in wet soils. Thus, the germination of this species involves the interaction of two or more factors and it cannot be explained by a single factor. PMID:19802455

  3. Ocotea quixos Lam. essential oil: in vitro and in vivo investigation on its anti-inflammatory properties.


    Ballabeni, Vigilio; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Giorgio, Carmine; Bertoni, Simona; Bruni, Renato; Barocelli, Elisabetta


    Here we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Ocotea quixos essential oil and of its main components, trans-cinnamaldehyde and methyl cinnamate, in in vitro and in vivo models. Ocotea essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde but not methyl cinnamate significantly reduced LPS-induced NO release from J774 macrophages at non-toxic concentrations, inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 expression and increased forskolin-induced cAMP production. The essential oil (30-100mg/kg os) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (10mg/kg os) in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema showed anti-inflammatory effect without damaging gastric mucosa. In conclusion we provide the first evidence of a significant anti-inflammatory gastro-sparing activity of O.quixos essential oil. PMID:19825398

  4. Metabolomic analysis of Ocotea odorifera cell cultures: a model protocol for acquiring metabolite data.


    Maraschin, Marcelo; Dias, Paulo Fernando; Pedrotti, Enio Luiz; Nunes, Hiliana; Morais, Hiliana Nunes Ferreira; Viana, Ana Maria; Wood, Karl Vernon


    Metabolomics constitutes a quantitative and qualitative survey of the whole metabolites of an organism as well as a tissue, reflecting the genome and proteome of a sample as analyzed. Advanced analytical spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques are used along with uni- or multivariate statistical data analysis, rapidly identifying up- or down-regulated metabolites in complex matrices. In this chapter, protocols for the analysis of target compounds (protocol I) and metabolomics (protocol II) of Ocotea odorifera cell cultures are described. In the first case, the target compound safrole, an aromatic ether used as a flavoring agent and also in the manufacture of insecticides, is analyzed in the organosolvent fraction of stable prototrophic cell lines of O. odorifera by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For metabolomics studies the protocol is designed to detect and quantify metabolites in the aqueous extract of O. odorifera cell lines by using high-resolution 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, followed by chemometric analysis of the 1H NMR spectra dataset. Protocol I has been successfully used, for example, in screening studies of cell lines able of producing safrole. Protocol II is suitable to detect the chemical features of a number of metabolite compounds in aqueous extracts of O. odorifera cell lines cultured under certain conditions, leading to new insights into metabolomics of that species. PMID:19521858

  5. Morphological and physiological changes in Leishmania promastigotes induced by yangambin, a lignan obtained from Ocotea duckei.


    Monte Neto, Rubens L; Sousa, Louisa M A; Dias, Celidarque S; Barbosa Filho, José M; Oliveira, Márcia R; Figueiredo, Regina C B Q


    We have previously demonstrated that yangambin, a lignan obtained from Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae), shows antileishmanial activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro effects of yangambin against these parasites using electron and confocal microscopy. L. chagasi and L. amazonensis promastigotes were incubated respectively with 50 ?g/mL and 65 ?g/mL of pure yangambin and stained with acridine orange. Treated-parasites showed significant alterations in fluorescence emission pattern and cell morphology when compared with control cells, including the appearance of abnormal round-shaped cells, loss of cell motility, nuclear pyknosis, cytoplasm acidification and increased number of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs), suggesting important physiological changes. Ultrastructural analysis of treated-promatigotes showed characteristics of cell death by apoptosis as well as by autophagy. The presence of parasites exhibiting multiples nuclei suggests that yangambin may also affect the microtubule dynamic in both Leishmania species. Taken together our results show that yangambin is a promising agent against Leishmania. PMID:20691682

  6. Isolation and biochemical characterization of a new topoisomerase I inhibitor from Ocotea leucoxylon.


    Zhou, B N; Johnson, R K; Mattern, M R; Wang, X; Hecht, S M; Beck, H T; Ortiz, A; Kingston, D G


    In a continuation of our search for potential tumor inhibitors from plants, we found that a crude extract from Ocotea leucoxylon showed selective activity typical of inhibitors of the enzyme topoisomerase I in a yeast assay for DNA-damaging agents. Using a bioassay-directed fractionation approach, the major bioactive compound was isolated and identified as the known aporphine alkaloid dicentrinone (4); the inactive alkaloid dicentrine (3) was also isolated. Compound 4 showed selective bioactivity against the rad52 repair-deficient yeast strain RS322 (IC(12) 49 microg/mL) and was inactive against the rad52- and topo1-deficient strain RS321 (IC(12) > 2000 microg/mL) and against the repair-proficient strain RJ03 (IC(12) > 2000 microg/mL). Biochemical studies with recombinant human topoisomerase I indicated that dicentrinone (4) is an inhibitor of the human enzyme. Colony formation studies suggest that it is weakly cytotoxic, but that its mechanism of toxicity differs from that of camptothecin and its derivatives. PMID:10691712

  7. Benzopyrans from Curvularia sp., an endophytic fungus associated with Ocotea corymbosa (Lauraceae).


    Teles, Helder Lopes; Silva, Geraldo Humberto; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Pereira, José Odair; Costa-Neto, Claudio Miguel; Haddad, Renato; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Araújo, Angela Regina


    An isolate of Curvularia sp. was obtained from the leaves of Ocotea corymbosa, a native plant of the Brazilian Cerrado. The ethyl acetate extract from culture of this fungus afforded two benzopyran derivatives: (2'S)-2-(propan-2'-ol)-5-hydroxy-benzopyran-4-one (2) and 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-benzopyran-4,5-diol (4); and two known benzopyrans: 2-methyl-5-methoxy-benzopyran-4-one (1) and (2R)-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-5-methoxy-benzopyran-4-one (3). The structures of 2 and 4 were established on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, mainly using 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The benzopyrans 1 and 2 showed weak in vitro antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum and C. cladosporioides. Analyses of the biological activities were also carried out on HeLa (human cervix tumor) and CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells, aiming to evaluate their potential effects on mammalian cell line proliferation. Results from both cell lines indicated that compound 2 was able to induce cell proliferation: 70% on HeLa cells and 25% on CHO cells. PMID:16038954

  8. Yangambin cytotoxicity: a pharmacologically active lignan obtained from Ocotea duckei vattimo (Lauraceae).


    Monte Neto, Rubens L; Sousa, Louisa M A; Dias, Celidarque S; Filho, José M Barbosa; Oliveira, Márcia R


    The in vitro cytotoxic potential of yangambin was evaluated. Yangambin is a pharmacologically active furofuran lignan obtained from the leaves of Ocotea duckei. It is the major compound from the lignoids fraction. Yangambin presented low cytotoxicity in all in vitro models analyzed. Its cytotoxicity to murine macrophages was measured by the Trypan blue dye exclusion test and MTT reduction assay, resulting in high CC50 values of 187.0 microg/mL (383.3 microM) and 246.7 microg/mL (504.3 microM), respectively. The difference obtained in the inhibitory concentrations aforementioned can be explained, at least in part, by the different principles of the methods. While the MTT reduction assay evaluates the ability of yangambin to inhibit the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, the Trypan blue dye exclusion test evaluates possible damages to the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane which result in cell death. The capacity of yangambin to inhibit the sea urchin embryonic development showed that it has low antimitotic and teratogenic potential, once continued exposure of embryos to concentrations up to 500 microg/mL (1.025 microM) did not result in an inhibitory effect on the first egg cleavages. Such low in vitro cytotoxicity is correlated with the low acute toxicity previously studied. All these data, together with the various therapeutic properties of yangambin, make this lignan a promising one for a new drug. PMID:19040107

  9. Analytical and pharmacological investigation of Ocotea bullata (black stinkwood) bark and leaves.


    Zschocke, S; Drewes, S E; Paulus, K; Bauer, R; van Staden, J


    Ocotea bullata (Lauraceae), one of the top-ten traditional medicinal plants used in KwaZulu-Natal, is close to extinction through high demand and destructive harvesting methods. The stem bark is traditionally used to cure headaches, urinary disorders and stomach problems. Substitution of leaves for bark provides a possible resource management solution for this threatened medicinal plant. One aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of O. bullata leaves and bark using TLC, HPLC and GC-MS analysis. The characteristic analytical fingerprints of leaf and bark extracts showed great similarities. A second aim was to investigate the pharmacological properties of O. bullata as a remedy against headaches. Leaf and bark extracts were tested in terms of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase inhibition. Extracts from the bark exhibited moderate inhibitory activity in both test systems. Extracts from fresh leaves were superior to bark extracts in terms of their in vitro inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. Volatiles obtained from n-hexane extracts of leaves and bark showed better inhibitory activity towards cyclooxygenase-1 and especially towards 5-lipoxygenase than the original n-hexane extracts. Volatiles were therefore recognized as one of the main active principles in O. bullata with regards to the anti-inflammatory properties of this medicinal plant. This lends support to the traditional usage of O. bullata bark as an inhalant or snuff. PMID:10904166

  10. Central nervous system activity of yangambin from Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae) in mice.


    de Sousa, F C F; Pereira, B A; Lima, V T M; Lacerda, C D G; Melo, C T V; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Vasconcelos, S M M; Viana, G S B


    This work presents behavioral effects of yangambin isolated from the leaves of Ocotea duckei on open field, rota rod, barbiturate sleeping time, forced swimming and elevated plus maze test in mice. Yangambin was intraperitoneally administered to male mice at single doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg. The results showed that yangambin in the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg decreased the locomotor activity and the number of rearing. However, no change was observed in the rota rod test between the yangambin groups as compared to the control group. Reduction on the sleep latency and a prolongation of the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital was observed only with the yangambin dose of 50 mg/kg. In the forced swimming test, yangambin (25 and 50 mg/kg) increased the immobility time. Yangambin, in the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg, decreased the number of entries and the time of permanence in the open arms of the elevated plus maze test. However, this effect can not be related to anxiogenic effects, but to a decrease in locomotor activity. The results showed that yangambin presents a depressant activity in the open field, forced swimming and pentobarbital sleeping time tests. These effects probably were not due to peripheral neuromuscular blockade, since there was no alteration on the rota rod test. Also, no anxiolytic effect was observed after the treatment with yangambin. PMID:16041767

  11. Neolignans and other metabolites from Ocotea cymosa from the Madagascar rain forest and their biological activities.


    Rakotondraibe, L Harinantenaina; Graupner, Paul R; Xiong, Quanbo; Olson, Monica; Wiley, Jessica D; Krai, Priscilla; Brodie, Peggy J; Callmander, Martin W; Rakotobe, Etienne; Ratovoson, Fidy; Rasamison, Vincent E; Cassera, Maria B; Hahn, Donald R; Kingston, David G I; Fotso, Serge


    Ten new neolignans including the 6'-oxo-8.1'-lignans cymosalignans A (1a), B (2), and C (3), an 8.O.6'-neolignan (4a), ococymosin (5a), didymochlaenone C (6a), and the bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoids 7-10 were isolated along with the known compounds 3,4,5,3',5'-pentamethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan, 3,4,5,3'-tetramethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan, didymochlaenone B, virologin B, ocobullenone, and the unusual 2'-oxo-8.1'-lignan sibyllenone from the stems or bark of the Madagascan plant Ocotea cymosa. The new 8.O.6'-neolignan 4a, dihydrobenzofuranoid 5a, and the bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoid 7a had in vitro activity against Aedes aegypti, while the new compounds 5a, 7a, 8, and 10a and the known virolongin B (4b) and ocobullenone (10b) had antiplasmodial activity. We report herein the structure elucidation of the new compounds on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra, electronic circular dichroism, and mass spectrometry, and the biological activities of the new and known compounds. PMID:25650896

  12. Evaluation of the mutagenic potential of yangambin and of the hydroalcoholic extract of Ocotea duckei by the Ames test.


    Marques, Regina Célia Pereira; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo; Dias, Celidarque da Silva; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella


    Ocotea duckei Vattimo is a plant popularly known as "louro-de-cheiro" found in the northeast of Brazil. Traditional medicinal uses of this plant are not known, but recent pharmacological studies with the isolated major constituent yangambin have shown various qualities: platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonist, protective effects against cardiovascular collapse and anaphylactic shock, anti-allergic properties, analgesic activity, and depressant effect in the central nervous system. In this work, the Ames test was used to evaluate the mutagenic potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of O. duckei leaves and of yangambin. Using TA97a, TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1535 strains of Salmonella typhimurium, positive results were obtained only with the hydroalcoholic extract, with or without metabolic activation. Yangambin was not mutagenic, which is of interest due to its pharmacological properties. PMID:12694751

  13. Cryptocarya species--substitute plants for Ocotea bullata? A pharmacological investigation in terms of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 inhibition.


    Zschocke, S; van Staden, J


    In response to the serious scarcity of Ocotea bullata (Burch.) Baillon (Lauraceae), an important medicinal plant in South Africa, Cryptocarya species (Lauraceae) are frequently used as substitute plants. Our investigation was aimed at a pharmacological comparison of O. bullata and the Cryptocarya species C. latifolia Sonder, C. myrtifolia Stapf., C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy, C. woodii Engl. and C. wyliei Stapf., in terms of in vitro cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition, as an indication of O. bullatas' repute as a remedy against headache. Furthermore, we also compared bark and leaf extracts of the species investigated in order to address the problem of destructive ring-barking. The utilization of leaves instead of bark would help in the management of threatened medicinal plants. All Cryptocarya species were superior to O. bullata with regard to bark extracts. C. woodii bark extracts showed outstanding equipotent activity towards COX-1 and COX-2. The activity of extracts of fresh leaves was comparable to the activity of the respective bark extracts. Drying the leaves before extraction resulted in a loss of activity, with the exception of C. wyliei. Extracts of dried C. wyliei leaves exhibited high inhibitory activity, with a COX-2/COX-1 ratio of 5.8. PMID:10940585

  14. PAF-antagonistic bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoid neolignans from leaves of Ocotea macrophylla Kunth. (Lauraceae).


    Coy-Barrera, Ericsson D; Cuca-Suárez, Luis E; Sefkow, Michael


    Di-nor-benzofuran neolignan aldehydes, Delta(7)-3,4-methylenedioxy-3'-methoxy-8',9'-dinor-4',7-epoxy-8,3'-neolignan-7'-aldehyde (ocophyllal A) 1, Delta(7)-3,4,5,3'-tetramethoxy-8',9'-dinor-4',7-epoxy-8,3'-neolignan-7'-aldehyde (ocophyllal B) 2, and macrophyllin-type bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoid neolignans (7R, 8R, 3'S, 4'S, 5'R)-Delta(8)'-4'-hydroxy-5'-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy-2',3',4',5'-tetrahydro-2'-oxo-7.3',8.5'-neolignan (ocophyllol A) 3, (7R, 8R, 3'S, 4'S, 5'R)-Delta(8)'-4'-hydroxy-3,4,5'-trimethoxy-2',3',4',5'-tetrahydro-2'-oxo-7.3',8.5'-neolignan (ocophyllol B) 4, (7R, 8R, 3'S, 4'S, 5'R)-Delta(8)'-4'-hydroxy-3,4,5,5'-tetramethoxy-2',3',4',5'-tetrahydro-2'-oxo-7.3',8.5'-neolignan (ocophyllol C) 5, as well as 2'-epi-guianin 6 and (+)-licarin B 7, were isolated and characterized from leaves of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae). The structures and configuration of these compounds were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Inhibition of platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced aggregation of rabbit platelets were tested with neolignans 1-7. Although compound 6 was the most potent PAF-antagonist, compounds 3-5 showed some activity. PMID:19674762

  15. Yangambin, a lignan obtained from Ocotea duckei, differentiates putative PAF receptor subtypes in the gastrointestinal tract of rats.


    Jesus-Morais, C M; Assis, E F; Cordeiro, R S; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Lima, W T; Silva, Z L; Bozza, P T; Castro-Faria-Neto, H C


    We investigated the presence of PAF receptor subtypes in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, airways, blood vessels and in murine macrophages. For this purpose we have used a competitive PAF receptor antagonist, yangambin (YAN), extracted from the Brazilian plant "louro de cheiro" (Ocotea duckei Vattimo). Rat duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, stomach fundus, trachea and bronchia were removed and 1.5-2 cm muscle segments from those regions were mounted in a 10 ml organ bath with aerated physiological solution at 37 degrees C. PAF evoked a contraction of the rat jejunum, ileum, colon and stomach fundus. The contraction was slow and resistant to wash and was followed by desensitization to further doses of PAF. Contractions induced by PAF (10(-6) M) were inhibited by YAN (10(-7) to M-2 x 10(-5) M) and WEB 2086 (10(-6) m to M-5 M) in rat jejunum, ileum and colon but not in the stomach fundus. In the rat stomach fundus only WEB 2086 (5 x 10(-6) M) was able to block PAF-induced contraction. The contractions induced by acetylcholine, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and vasopressin were not inhibited by prior administration of YAN. Yangambin also significantly inhibited PAF-induced vascular permeability in rat duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and mesentery. Yangambin significantly inhibited PAF-induced lipid body formation in mice peritoneal macrophages. We suggest that YAN is a selective PAF antagonist which is able to discriminate putative PAF receptors subtypes present in the stomach fundus. PMID:10821044

  16. Study of the antinociceptive action of the ethanolic extract and the triterpene 24-hydroxytormentic acid isolated from the stem bark of Ocotea suaveolens.


    Beirith, A; Santos, A R; Calixto, J B; Hess, S C; Messana, I; Ferrari, F; Yunes, R A


    We describe here the antinociceptive action of the crude extract (CE), the chemical isolation and characterisation and preliminary pharmacological analysis of 24-hydroxytormentic acid, isolated from the stem bark of Ocotea suaveolens (Lauraceae). The CE given by i.p. or p.o. routes, 30 min and 1 h prior, produced significant inhibition of abdominal constrictions caused by acetic acid and also inhibited both phases of formalin-induced licking in mice. The antinociception caused by the CE, given by i.p. and p.o. routes, lasted up to 4 and 2h, respectively. When assessed in the hot-plate test, the CE was inactive. Its antinociceptive action was not associated with non-specific effects such as muscle relaxation or sedation. The antinociception of CE was not influenced by naloxone, L-arginine or DL-p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester, when assessed against the formalin assay. The triterpene 24-hydroxytormentic acid, given i.p. 30 min before testing, produced significant, dose-related and equipotent antinociceptive action against both phases of formalin-induced licking in mice. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the occurrence of the triterpene 24-hydroxytormentic acid in the stem bark of Ocotea suaveolens, and show that the CE and 24-hydroxytormentic acid exhibit marked antinociception against the neurogenic and the inflamamtory algesic responses induced by formalin in mice. The mechanism by which this compound and CE produces antinociception still remains unclear, but is unlikely to involve the activation of opioid, nitric oxide or serotonin systems or non-specific peripheral or central depressant actions. PMID:10083846

  17. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia.


    Feuillet, Christian


    Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae). PMID:23805052

  18. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia

    PubMed Central

    Feuillet, Christian


    Abstract Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae). PMID:23805052

  19. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of N-substituted thiosemicarbazones of 3-(3,4-methylenedioxy)phenylpropanal.


    Joselice e Silva, M; Alves, A J; Do Nascimento, S C


    Five new N-substituted thiosemicarbazones of 3-(3,4-methylenedioxy)phenylpropanal were synthesized. Safrole, a natural product obtained from sassafras oil (Ocotea pretiosa), was oxidized to alcohol using BH3-THF and H2O2, followed by oxidation to aldehyde using pyridinium dichromate (PDC) and condensation with five N-substituted derivatives of thiosemicarbazide. Tests were performed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity with continuous chain KB cells (epidermoide carcinoma of the floor of the mouth). Compounds 5 and 6 showed IC50 values of 1.5 and 4.6 micrograms/ml, respectively. PMID:9639871

  20. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle (coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).


    Mayfield, A E; Hanula, J L


    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps baited with swampbay (Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent) and camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), which were more attractive than avocado (Persea americana Miller), lancewood (Ocotea coriacea (Swartz) Britton), and sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana L.). These species were more attractive than loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis). X. glabratus entrance hole density and emergence from caged bolts were highest on swampbay and camphortree. In 2010, swampbay was significantly more attractive to X. glabratus than sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). Sassafras bolts end sealed with a liquid wax-and-water emulsion were more attractive to X. glabratus than end-sealed bolts of yellow poplar and redbud. Relative to unsealed bolts, end seal decreased X. glabratus entrance hole density on swampbay and decreased granulate ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)) trap catch, entrance hole density, and adult emergence from swampbay. X. crassiusculus was not attracted to sassafras, yellow poplar, and redbud and was not more attracted to manuka oil than to unbaited traps. Sassafras was more attractive to X. glabratus than previously reported and supported reproducing populations of the insect. End sealing bolts with a wax-and-water emulsion may not be optimal for attracting and rearing ambrosia beetles in small logs. PMID:22606816

  1. Assessment of the Web using Genetic Programming Reginald L. Walker \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    '' 336 91 0 126 337 73 +``sassafras tea'' +herb 66 21 0 5 66 0 ``sassafras tea'' NEAR herb 143311 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 143311 ­ ­ ``sassafras tea'' OR herb 555226 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 555226 ­ ­ ``sassafras tea'' AND herb 679028

  2. Foxfire 4: Fiddle Making, Springhouses, Horse Trading, Sassafras Tea, Berry Buckets, Gardening, and Further Affairs of Plain Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigginton, Eliot, Ed.

    Planting by the signs of the moon, well digging, hewing logs, wood carving, knife making, bird trapping, and horsetrading are but a few of the aspects of Appalachian culture explored in "Foxfire 4." Like its predecessors, the volume was compiled by high school students at Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School. Information on the cultural heritage of…

  3. Anti-inflammatory properties of new bioisosteres of indomethacin synthesized from safrole which are sulindac analogues.


    Pereira, E F; Pereira, N A; Lima, M E; Coelho, F A; Barreiro, E J


    The anti-inflammatory activities of new compounds (I, II, III and IV) synthesized in 30% overall yield from the abundant natural product safrole, the principal chemical constituent of the oil of sassafras (Ocotea pretiosa, Lauraceae), were determined in mice. The synthesis of these new indenyl-acetic acids (I and II) and indenyl-propionic acids (III and IV) was based on the minimal structural features of non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents of the aryl- or heteroarylcarboxylic acid group. The compounds exhibited potencies 4- to 10-fold less than that of indomethacin in inhibiting carrageenan-induced hindpaw edema. In contrast, like sulindac, all the new compounds were more potent than indomethacin in antagonizing writhing pain and increased vascular permeability caused by acetic acid. The results confirm the anticipated bioisosteric relationship between these synthetic derivatives, designed as sulindac analogues, and the classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. PMID:2638933

  4. Synthesis and antiplatelet evaluation of novel aryl-sulfonamide derivatives, from natural safrole.


    Lima, L M; Ormelli, C B; Brito, F F; Miranda, A L; Fraga, C A; Barreiro, E J


    In the scope of a research program aiming at the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel possible antiplatelet prototype compounds, exploring bioisosterism principles for molecular design, we describe in this paper the synthesis of new aryl-sulfonamides derivatives, structurally similar to known thromboxane A2 receptor antagonists. The synthetic route used to access the new compounds described herein starts from safrole, an abundant Brazilian natural product, which occurs in Sassafras oil (Ocotea pretiosa). The results from preliminary evaluation of these novel aryl-sulfonamide compounds by the platelet aggregation inhibitory test, using rabbit PRP, induced by ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid, and U46619, identified the N-[2-(4-carboxymethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-6-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyphe nyl- sulfonamido derivative as the most active among them, presenting in IC50 value for the U-46619-induced platelet aggregation in rabbit platelet-rich plasma: 329 microM. PMID:10443173

  5. Assessment of the Web using Genetic Programming Reginald L. Walker

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Smart Yahoo! sassafras tea" 336 91 0 126 337 73 + sassafras tea" +herb 66 21 0 5 66 0 sassafras tea" NEAR herb 143311 - - - - - - 143311 - - sassafras tea" OR herb 555226 - - - - - - 555226 - - sassafras tea" AND herb 679028 - - - - - - 679028 - - Table 2: Comparison of the number of relevant documents for each

  6. [Morphology and anatomy of the fruit development of Ocotea puberula (Rich.) Nees and Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng.) Mez (Lauraceae)].


    de Souza, L A; Moscheta, I S


    The morphology and anatomy of the fruit development of Ocotee puberula (Rich.) Nees and Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng.) Mez (Lauraceae) was studied in flowers and fruits collected in secondary forests of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil. The fruits of the species are drupes, with epidermic exocarp, parenchymatous mesocarp and endocarp which consists of macrosclereids. The origin of endocarp is the internal epidermis of ovary. The exalbuminous seeds develop from the anatropous ovules and they have testa and tegmen with parenchymatous cells frequently compressed. In the hilum region these teguments show sciereids in radial arrangement. The straight embryo has thick cotyledons which contain reserve substances such as starch and oil. The plumule and hypocotyl-radicle axis are reduced. PMID:11220223

  7. 21 CFR 189.180 - Safrole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR


    ... H10 O2 . It is a natural constituent of the sassafras plant. Oil of sassafras is about 80 percent safrole. Isosafrole...Food and Color Additives, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100...

  8. 21 CFR 189.180 - Safrole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR


    ...4-allyl-1,2-methylenedioxy-benzene, C10 H10 O2 . It is a natural constituent of the sassafras plant. Oil of sassafras is...Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or available...


    E-print Network

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    assignments occur. Cornus altern@ora, C. amomum, Sassafras albidum, and Rhamnus alnfolius, all fruiting in absence of actual data on lipid content (E.atropurpurens, E. obovatus).CornusJlorida and C. racemosa

  10. Arnold Hague's Chair

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A wooden, collapsible chair from Arnold Hague's expedition. Made of sassafras wood with interchangeable canvas covers. This chair can be collapsed into a roll that is packed up and transported easily. Object ID: USGS-000031...

  11. Estimation of aboveground biomass and inorganic nutrient content of a 25-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation 

    E-print Network

    Houser, James Nelson


    Center for data and statisitcal an:lyses. 27 RESLILTS Sample Tree and Stand Characteristics The sample plot contained 47 loblolly pine, 1 longleaf pine, 3 dogwood (Comus florida L. ), 2 yaupon ( Il ex vomitori a Ai t. ), and 2 sassafras (Sassafras...ESTIMATION OF ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS AND INORGANIC NUTRIENT CONTENT OF A 25-YEAR-OLD LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L. ) PLANTATION A Thesis by JAMES NELSON MOUSER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment...

  12. The chemical composition of some Lauraceae essential oils and their antifungal activities.


    Simi?, A; Sokovi?, M D; Risti?, M; Gruji?-Jovanovi?, S; Vukojevi?, J; Marin, P D


    The antifungal activity of Aniba rosaeodora, Laurus nobilis, Sassafras albidum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils were investigated against 17 micromycetes. Among the tested fungal species were food poisoning, spoilage fungi, plant and animal pathogens. In order to determine fungistatic and fungicidal concentrations (MIC and MFC) macrodilution and microdilution tests were used. Linalool was the main component in the essential oil of A. rosaeodora, while 1.8-cineole was dominant in L. nobilis. In sassafras essential oil safrole was the major component and in the oil of C. zeylanicum the main component was trans-cinnamaldehyde. The essential oil of cinnamon showed the strongest antifungal activity. PMID:15478207

  13. New Stenella and Parastenella species from the Brazilian cerrado.


    Dornelo-Silva, Denise; Pereira-Carvalho, Rita de Cássia; Dianese, José Carmine


    Five new Stenella species were found on native cerrado plants. Stenella erythroxyli-campestris, S. erythroxyli-suberosi and S. erythroxylicola were associated with plant species belonging in the family Erythroxylaceae; S. cyrtopodii was found infecting the rare Cyrtopodium eugenii (Orchidaceae), and S. ocoteae occurred on Ocotea sp. (Lauraceae). Finally Parastenella callisthenis-fasciculatae was collected on a Vochysiaceae (viz. Callisthene fasciculate) endemic to the cerrado. PMID:18268908

  14. Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Valero; M. C. Salmerón


    The antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils from aromatic plants against the strain INRA L2104 of the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus grown in carrot broth at 16 °C was studied. The quantity needed by the essential oils of nutmeg, mint, clove, oregano, cinnamon, sassafras, sage, thyme or rosemary to produce 14–1110% relative extension of the lag phase was determined. Total

  15. Sassafrass The Big Tree for August By Anne Krantz, Tree Steward,

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    . The fragrance from the crushed leaves is truly delightful and enticing - spicy, with a hint of orange, so I fell in the East Indies. Cinnamon and camphor were valuable products for both food preparation and for medical uses to pay the bills they incurred in getting here in the first place. Sassafras bark has a spicy aroma

  16. Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA.


    Davis, Donald D; Orendovici, Teodora


    During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001>1995>1994>1993>2003>2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. PMID:16458398

  17. A phenological study of selected vascular plants of Brazos and Leon Counties, Texas, 1972 

    E-print Network

    Clark, Carolyn A


    er May 1973 ABSTRACT A PHENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SELECTED VASCULAR PLANTS OF BRAZOS AND LEON COUNTIES, TEXAS, 1972. (May 1973) Carolyn Archer Clark, B. A. , Sam Houston State Teachers College Directed by: Dr. John J. Sperry Phenological... albxdum (Nutt. ) Nees. (Sassafras) If cx vombtoxiu Ai t. (Yaupon) Suffix nigau Marsh. (Black Wi ll ow) Qucacua emLbmdicu Muenchh. (Black Jack Oak) Quaacua a~ Wang. (Post Oak) V~ mua~enaxa Buckl. (Mustang Grape) VudeiMum uaboacum Marsh . (Farkleberry...

  18. Comparative study of two anti-ulcerogenic drugs--glaziovine and sulpiride.


    Chaumontet, M; Capt, M; Gold-Aubert, P


    The anti-ulcer effect of glaziovine, a major psychotropic alkaloid isolated from Ocotea glaziovii (Laureaceae) and belonging to a new chemical class, has been studied in different types of experimentally induced ulcers in the guinea-pig and the rat. The effect of glaziovine was compared with that of sulpiride. PMID:582915


    E-print Network

    / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP (I have worked on a number of tropical hardwood projects in this area over as architects and designers, projects like this one aggressively address those concerns and make a positive and furniture. Technical Data Greenheart (Ocotea rodiaei) Varies from light to dark olive green or nearly black

  20. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.


    Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.

  1. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.


    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela


    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (?2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  2. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chávez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patiño, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela


    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (?2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  3. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.


    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G


    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo. PMID:11332848

  4. Descriptions of two new, cryptic species of Metasiro (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi: Neogoveidae) from South Carolina, USA, including a discussion of mitochondrial mutation rates.


    Clouse, Ronald M; Wheeler, Ward C


    Specimens of Metasiro from its three known disjunct population centers in the southeastern US were examined and had a 769 bp fragement of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequenced. These populations are located in the western panhandle of Florida and nearby areas of Georgia, in the Savannah River delta of South Carolina, and on Sassafras Mt. in South Carolina. This range extends over as much as 500 km, which is very large for a species of cyphophthalmid harvestmen and presents a degree of physical separation among populations such that we would expect them to actually be distinguishable species. We examined the morphology, including the spermatopositors of males, and sequences from 221 specimens. We found no discernible differences in the morphologies of specimens from the different populations, but corrected pairwise distances of COI were about 15% among the three population centers. We also analyzed COI data using a General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model implemented in the R package SPLITS; with a single threshold, the most likely model had four species within Metasiro. Given this level of molecular divergence, the monophyly of the population haplotypes, and the number of exclusive COI nucleotide and amino acid differences distinguishing the populations, we here raise the Savannah River and Sassafras Mt. populations to species status: M. savannahensis sp. nov., and M. sassafrasensis sp. nov., respectively. This restricts M. americanus (Davis, 1933) to just the Lower Chattahoochee Watershed, which in this study includes populations along the Apalachicola River and around Florida Caverns State Park. GMYC models reconstructed the two main haplotype clades within M. americanus as different species, but they are not exclusive to different areas. We estimate COI percent divergence rates in certain cyphophthalmid groups and discuss problems with historical measures of this rate. We hypothesize that Metasiro began diversifying over 20 million years ago. PMID:24943422

  5. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).


    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D


    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of ?-cubebene, ?-copaene, ?-humulene, and calamenene were positively correlated with attraction, and EAG analyses confirmed chemoreception of terpenoids by antennal receptors of X. glabratus. PMID:25007073

  6. Variation in manuka oil lure efficacy for capturing Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and cubeb oil as an alternative attractant.


    Hanula, James L; Sullivan, Brian T; Wakarchuk, David


    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees]. Xyleborus glabratus is attracted to manuka oil lures, which are commercially available, and phoebe oil. Variable efficacy of manuka oil lures and insufficient availability of phoebe oil prompted us to investigate the reasons behind changes in manuka oil lure efficacy and to test cubeb oil, a readily available essential oil from Piper cubeba L. seeds, as an alternative attractant. Attraction, release rates and durations, and volatile composition of manuka oil lures manufactured in 2008 were compared with manuka oil lures manufactured in 2012, and to whole and a distilled fraction of cubeb oil. Manuka oil lures from 2008 were more attractive to X. glabratus than controls for 8 wk, whereas lures from 2012 were attractive for only 2 wk. Cubeb oil and the distilled fraction of it were as attractive as or more attractive than manuka oil in three trials. In gravimetric studies, manuka oil lures from 2008 and cubeb oil lures continued to release volatiles for 57 d, whereas lures from 2012 stopped after 16 d. The chemical composition of volatiles released from new manuka oil lures from 2008 was similar to 2012; however, a preservative (butylated hydroxytoluene) was detected in the 2008 lures. Cubeb oil was an effective attractant for X. glabratus that lasted 8-9 wk when released from bubble lures. PMID:23575024

  7. Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors.


    Jäger, A K; Hutchings, A; van Staden, J


    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine to treat headache or inflammatory diseases were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. Extracts were tested in an in vitro assay for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In general, ethanolic extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous extracts. Two-thirds of the plants screened had high inhibitory activity. The highest inhibition was obtained with ethanolic extracts of Bidens pilosa, Eucomis autumnalis, Harpephyllum caffrum, Helichrysum nudifolium, Leonotis intermedia, L. leonorus, Ocotea bullata, Rumex saggitatus, Solanum mauritianum, Synadenium cupulare and Trichilia dregeana. PMID:8735453

  8. In vitro inhibitory activities of Lauraceae aporphine alkaloids.


    Coy Barrera, Ericsson David; Cuca Suárez, Luis Enrique


    The in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of eight aporphine alkaloids isolated from the leaves of two Lauraceae plants (Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla) was evaluated through inhibition of two isozymes of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and platelet aggregation induced by PAF, AA and ADP. All alkaloids exhibited inhibitory activities against COX-2 (IC50 25.9-116 microM range) and PAF- and AA-induced platelet aggregation, while only four and three of them were good COX-1 and 5-LOX inhibitors, respectively. (+)-N-acetyl-nornantenine 6 was the most potent COX-2, 5-LOX, AA and PAF inhibitor. PMID:20420312

  9. Biological activity of yangambin on the postembryonic development of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).


    Cabral, Marise Maleck de Oliveira; Mendonça, Paloma Martins; Gomes, Celma Marinho da Silva; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Dias, Celidarque da Silva; Soares, Maurilio José; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho


    Phytochemicals endowed with hormonal, antihormonal, or toxic activity are potential agents for insect control. Thus, we became interested in testing Brazilian plant metabolites on Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a public health menace that is one of the most prevalent flies in Brazilian urban areas. We tested the lignan yangambin, from the leaves of Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae). Topical treatment of eggs and first instars with yangambin as well as feeding larvae a yangambin-treated diet resulted in inhibition of postembryonic development, morphological alteration, and oviposition reduction. PMID:17427693

  10. Effects of black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) seed ingestion on insect larvae.


    Bravo, S P; Zunino, G E


    Fig (Ficus monckii) and laurel (Ocotea puberula) seeds were obtained from Alouatta caraya feces (ingested seeds) and from trees (noningested) in northeastern Argentina. Seeds were examined to detect the presence (infested) or absence (noninfested) of larvae. Sixty percent (N = 315) of noningested fig seeds were galls with insect larvae inside, while 23% (N = 331) were encountered in the ingested group. Eighty-two percent (N = 28) of noningested laurel seeds were infested, and only 19% (N = 63) of ingested seeds were infested. According to the present data, the insects' larvae are digested by howlers intaking animal protein, but the laurel seeds were not destroyed. PMID:9702285

  11. A rapid diversification of rainforest trees (Guatteria; Annonaceae) following dispersal from Central into South America.


    Erkens, Roy H J; Chatrou, Lars W; Maas, Jan W; van der Niet, Timotheüs; Savolainen, Vincent


    Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of today's plant diversity in the Neotropics has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region rather than vicariance, but more data are needed to substantiate this claim. Guatteria (Annonaceae) is, with 265 species, the third largest genus of Neotropical trees after Inga (Fabaceae) and Ocotea (Lauraceae), and its widespread distribution and frequent occurrence makes the genus an excellent model taxon to study diversification patterns. This study reconstructed the phylogeny of Guatteria and inferred three major biogeographical events in the history of the genus: (1) a trans-oceanic Miocene migration from Central into South America before the closing of the Isthmus of Panama; (2) a major diversification of the lineage within South America; and (3) several migrations of South American lineages back into Central America via the closed Panamanian land bridge. Therefore, Guatteria is not an Amazonian centred-genus sensu Gentry but a major Miocene diversification that followed its dispersal into South America. This study provides further evidence that migration into the Neotropics was an important factor in the historical assembly of its biodiversity. Furthermore, it is shown that phylogenetic patterns are comparable to those found in Ocotea and Inga and that a closer comparison of these genera is desirable. PMID:17433720

  12. Seed predation by mammals in forest fragments in Monteverde, Costa Rica.


    Chinchilla, Federico A


    Few studies have evaluated seed predation in fragmented landscapes, in which lower species diversity is expected to modifying ecological interactions. The rates of seed removal by mammals were investigated in a continuous forest and two fragmented patches of Premontane Tropical Moist Forest, in Monteverde, Costa Rica. The composition of mammalian seed-predators in each site was recorded during 16 months. The removal of four native tree species of experimental seeds: Ocotea valeriana and Ocotea whitei (Lauraceae), Panopsis costaricensis (Proteaceae) and Billia colombiana (Hippocastanaceae) in forest understories was followed during two annual fruiting seasons for each species. Results indicated similar species composition of seed-predators between continuous forest, the largest fragment (350 ha). However the smaller fragment (20 ha), had fewer seed predators. In this fragment, the specialized seed predator Heteromys desmarestianus (Rodentia) was more abundant. Unexpectedly, seed-predation in the two forest fragments and the continuous forest did not differ statistically for any of the seed species. Apparently, the higher abundance of small seed-predators in the fragments was compensated by the absence of medium and large seed-predators, like Agouti paca, Dasyprocta punctata (both Rodentia) and Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla) recorded in continuous forest. Removal of experimentally-placed seeds was higher when the number of naturally occurring seeds in the sites was lower. This result could best be attributed to differential satiation of seed predators rather than differences in richness or abundance of seed predators. PMID:19928478

  13. Effects of drought on leaf gas exchange in an eastern broadleaf deciduous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. T.; Brzostek, E. R.; Dragoni, D.; Rahman, A. F.; Novick, K. A.; Phillips, R.


    Understanding plant physiological adaptations to drought is critical for predicting changes in ecosystem productivity that result from climate variability and future climate change. From 2011-2013, southern Indiana experienced a late growing season drought in 2011, a severe early season drought in 2012, and a wet growing season in 2013 characterized by an absence of water stress with frequent precipitation and milder temperatures. The 2012 drought was unique due to the severity and early onset drought conditions (compared to the more frequent late season drought) and was characterized by a Palmer Drought severity index below -4 and precipitation totals from May - July that were 70% less than the long-term (2000 - 2010) mean. During the 2012 drought, an 11% decline in net ecosystem productivity relative to the long-term mean was observed at the AmeriFlux tower in Morgan Monroe State Forest despite a growing season that started ~25 days earlier. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate species-specific contributions to the canopy-scale response to inter-annual variability in water stress. We investigated differences between tree species in their response to climate variability using weekly leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential measurements during the growing seasons of 2011-2013. We used this unique dataset, collected at the top of the canopy with a 25 m boom lift, to evaluate changes in leaf water status and maximum assimilation capacity in the drought versus non-drought years. The leaf-level physiology of oak (Quercus) species appears to be less sensitive to drought than other species (tulip poplar [Liriodendron tulipifera], sassafras [Sassafras albidum] and sugar maple [Acer saccharum]). Preliminary data shows mean canopy leaf water potential for oaks was 30.5% more negative in May-July 2012 versus the same time period in 2013. During these same periods the rate of C assimilation in oaks was reduced by only 3%, whereas other species were reduced by closer to 10-20% in the drought year. We then assess how assimilation capacity and leaf water potential relate to marginal water use efficiency across species and years. Given that this region is predicted to experience more water stress over the coming decades, these results will inform predictions as to how species composition will drive ecosystem responses to climate variability.

  14. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of some plants native to the West-Central region of Brazil.


    Garcez, Walmir S; Garcez, Fernanda R; da Silva, Lilliam M G E; Hamerski, Lidilhone


    A total of 42 ethanolic extracts from 30 different plant species, native to the Pantanal and Cerrado of the West-Central region of Brazil, have been evaluated for their larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, the vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fevers. Among the extracts tested, that obtained from the trunk bark of Ocotea velloziana was the most active. Using a bioassay-directed fractionation of this extract, the active constituent was isolated and characterized as the aporphine alkaloid (+)-dicentrine. Its structure was established on the basis of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra, optical rotation and by comparison with an authentic sample. This is the first report on the larvicidal activity against A. aegypti of this alkaloid. Our results suggest that (+)-dicentrine may be considered as a promising natural mosquito larvicidal agent. PMID:19664915

  15. The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands, a review.


    Rivera, D; Obón, C


    The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands is extremely interesting because of the cultural and biogeographic features of this region, which make it a centre of medicinal plant diversity (richness of endemic flora, geographical isolation in the Atlantic sea, crosscultural influences, and past abundance of local healers). The medicinal flora of Madeira is composed of 259 species. Some noteworthy medicinal taxa, endemic or locally relevant, are: Acanthus mollis, Aeonium glandulosum, Aeonium glutinosum, Bidens pilosa, Borago officinalis, Chamaemelum nobile var. discoideum, Culcita macrocarpa, Echium nervosum, Euphorbia platiphylla, Helichrysum melaleucum, Helichrysum obconicum, Hypericum glandulosum, Hypericum humifussum, Kleinia repens, Laurus azorica, Monizia edulis, Ocotea foetens, Psoralea bituminosa, Rubus bollei, Rumex maderensis, Sambucus lanceolata, Scilla maderensis, Sedum brissemoretii, Sedum farinosum, Sedum nudum, Sibthorpia peregrina, Teucrium betonicum, Thymus caespititius, Trifolium squamosum and Vaccinium padifolium. Among the medicinal cryptogams, one can underline the parasitic fungus Laurobasidium lauri, which grows on the stems of Laurus azorica and is used as an antirheumatic, haemostatic, emmenagogue, insecticide and analeptic. PMID:7650952

  16. In vitro activities of plant extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado and Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).


    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Ligia Miranda Ferreira; Nicácio, José; Alves, Reginaldo Dias; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues


    A total of 73 ethanol extracts from different anatomical parts of 44 plant species belonging to 24 families, native to the Mid-Western region of Brazil, were assessed in vitro for their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, using the adult immersion test. All extracts were evaluated at the concentration of 0.2 % and, among the extracts tested, the one obtained from the fruits of Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae) proved to be highly efficacious, showing 99.1 % of product effectiveness. Extracts from other three species were shown to be moderately active, namely Nymphaea amazonum trunk (Nymphaeaceae) [51.7 %], Strychnos pseudoquina trunk (Loganiaceae) [48 %] [corrected] and Ocotea lancifolia leaves (Lauraceae) [34.5 %], while the remaining extracts were shown to be weakly active or inactive. This is the first report on the bioactivity of these species on egg production by engorged females of R. microplus. PMID:23344640

  17. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae plants.


    Coy-Barrera, Ericsson D; Cuca-Suarez, Luis E


    The in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of seven known lignans and one dihydrochalcone isolated from the leaves of two Lauraceae species (Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla), were evaluated through the inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, 5-LOX and the aggregation of rabbit platelets induced by PAF, AA and ADP. (+)-de-4"-O-methylmagnolin 4 was found to be a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor and PAF-antagonist (COX-2 IC(50) 2.27 µM; 5-LOX IC(50) 5.05 µM; PAF IC(50) 2.51 µM). However, all compounds exhibited an activity at different levels, indicating good anti-inflammatory properties to be considered in further structural optimization studies. PMID:22011769

  18. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts and naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae species.


    Sánchez-Suárez, Jeysson; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Delgado, Gabriela


    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of ethanolic extracts and fifteen naturally-occurring compounds (five lignans, eight neolignans, a diterpene and a dihydrochalcone), obtained from Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla, were evaluated on promastigotes of Leishmania panamensis and L. braziliensis. In addition, in order to determine the selective action on Leishmania species as a safety principle, in vitro cytotoxicity on J774 cells was also evaluated for test compounds and extracts. One extract and seven compounds showed activity against Leishmania parasites at different levels. Dihydroflavokawin B (8) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial compound on both parasites, whilst (+)-otobaphenol (14), was found to be the most selective compound on L. panamensis. PMID:21425681

  19. COX, LOX and platelet aggregation inhibitory properties of Lauraceae neolignans.


    Coy, Ericsson David; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Sefkow, Michael


    The anti-inflammatory potential of 26 neolignans (14 of the bicyclooctane-type and 12 of the benzofuran-type), isolated from three Lauraceae species (Pleurothyrium cinereum, Ocotea macrophylla and Nectandra amazonum), was evaluated in vitro through inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, 5-LOX and agonist-induced aggregation of rabbit platelets. Benzofuran neolignans were found to be selective COX-2 inhibitors, whereas bicyclooctane neolignans inhibit selectively the PAF-action as well as COX-1 and 5-LOX. The neolignan 9-nor-7,8-dehydro-isolicarin B 15 and cinerin C 7 were found to be the most potent COX-2 inhibitor and PAF-antagonist, respectively. Nectamazin C 10 exhibited dual 5-LOX/COX-2 inhibition. PMID:19880317

  20. Native leaf-tying caterpillars influence host plant use by the invasive Asiatic oak weevil through ecosystem engineering.


    Baer, Christina S; Marquis, Robert J


    We tested the effect of leaf-tying caterpillars, native ecosystem engineers, on the abundance and host feeding of an invasive insect, the Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs). Leaf quality was previously thought to be the sole factor determining host use by C. castaneus, but adult weevils congregate in leaf ties made by lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars). Adult weevil abundance was naturally higher on Quercus alba and Q. velutina compared to four other tree species tested (Acer rubrum, Carya ovata, Cornus florida, and Sassafras albidum). These differences were associated with more natural leaf ties on the two Quercus species. In the laboratory, weevils fed on all six species but again preferred Q. alba and Q. velutina. When artificial ties were added to all six tree species, controlling for differences in leaf-tie density, adult weevil density increased on all six tree species, damage increased on all species but A. rubrum, and host ranking changed based on both abundance and damage. We conclude that leaf ties increase the local abundance of C. castaneus adults and their feeding. Thus, these native leaf-tying caterpillars engender the success of an invasive species via structural modification of potential host plants, the first described example of this phenomenon. PMID:25039212

  1. Phytotoxicity of nitroaromatic energetic compounds freshly amended or weathered and aged in sandy loam soil.


    Rocheleau, Sylvie; Kuperman, Roman G; Martel, Majorie; Paquet, Louise; Bardai, Ghalib; Wong, Stephen; Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine; Gong, Ping; Hawari, Jalal; Checkai, Ronald T; Sunahara, Geoffrey I


    The toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) to terrestrial plants alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Japanese millet (Echinochloa crusgalli L.), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were determined in Sassafras sandy loam soil using seedling emergence, fresh shoot, and dry mass measurement endpoints. A 13-week weathering and aging of energetic materials in soils, which included wetting and drying cycles, and exposure to sunlight of individual soil treatments, was incorporated into the study design to better reflect the soil exposure conditions in the field than toxicity determinations in freshly amended soils. Definitive toxicity tests showed that dinitrotoluenes were more phytotoxic for all plant species in freshly amended treatments based on EC20 values for dry shoot ranging from 3 to 24mgkg(-1) compared with values for TNB or TNT ranging from 43 to 62mgkg(-1). Weathering and aging of energetic materials (EMs) in soil significantly decreased the toxicity of TNT, TNB or 2,6-DNT to Japanese millet or ryegrass based on seedling emergence, but significantly increased the toxicity of all four EMs to all three plant species based on shoot growth. Exposure of the three plant species to relatively low concentrations of the four compounds initially stimulated plant growth before the onset of inhibition at greater concentrations (hormesis). PMID:16112172

  2. Phytotoxicity and uptake of nitroglycerin in a natural sandy loam soil.


    Rocheleau, Sylvie; Kuperman, Roman G; Dodard, Sabine G; Sarrazin, Manon; Savard, Kathleen; Paquet, Louise; Hawari, Jalal; Checkai, Ronald T; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Sunahara, Geoffrey I


    Nitroglycerin (NG) is widely used for the production of explosives and solid propellants, and is a soil contaminant of concern at some military training ranges. NG phytotoxicity data reported in the literature cannot be applied directly to development of ecotoxicological benchmarks for plant exposures in soil because they were determined in studies using hydroponic media, cell cultures, and transgenic plants. Toxicities of NG in the present studies were evaluated for alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) exposed to NG in Sassafras sandy loam soil. Uptake and degradation of NG were also evaluated in ryegrass. The median effective concentration values for shoot growth ranged from 40 to 231 mg kg(-1) in studies with NG freshly amended in soil, and from 23 to 185 mg kg(-1) in studies with NG weathered-and-aged in soil. Weathering-and-aging NG in soil did not significantly affect the toxicity based on 95% confidence intervals for either seedling emergence or plant growth endpoints. Uptake studies revealed that NG was not accumulated in ryegrass but was transformed into dinitroglycerin in the soil and roots, and was subsequently translocated into the ryegrass shoots. The highest bioconcentration factors for dinitroglycerin of 685 and 40 were determined for roots and shoots, respectively. Results of these studies will improve our understanding of toxicity and bioconcentration of NG in terrestrial plants and will contribute to ecological risk assessment of NG-contaminated sites. PMID:21975007

  3. Foraging strategies in trees of different root morphology: the role of root lifespan.


    Adams, Thomas S; McCormack, M Luke; Eissenstat, David M


    Resource exploitation of patches is influenced not simply by the rate of root production in the patches but also by the lifespan of the roots inhabiting the patches. We examined the effect of sustained localized nitrogen (N) fertilization on root lifespan in four tree species that varied widely in root morphology and presumed foraging strategy. The study was conducted in a 12-year-old common garden in central Pennsylvania using a combination of data from minirhizotron and root in-growth cores. The two fine-root tree species, Acer negundo L. and Populus tremuloides Michx., exhibited significant increases in root lifespan with local N fertilization; no significant responses were observed in the two coarse-root tree species, Sassafras albidum Nutt. and Liriodendron tulipifera L. Across species, coarse-root tree species had longer median root lifespan than fine-root tree species. Localized N fertilization did not significantly increase the N concentration or the respiration of the roots growing in the N-rich patch. Our results suggest that some plant species appear to regulate the lifespan of different portions of their root system to improve resource acquisition while other species do not. Our results are discussed in the context of different strategies of foraging of nutrient patches in species of different root morphology. PMID:24128849

  4. Collecting single and multichannel seismic-reflection data in shallow water near Aberdeen Proving Ground, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Haeni, F.P.; Banks, W.L.; Versteeg, R.J.


    In August and September 1994, single- and multi-channel seismic-reflection data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), to support a regional hydrogeologic framework study at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland. Data were collected in Chesapeake Bay, as well as in the Bush, Gunpowder, and Sassafras Rivers, which are tributaries to Chesapeake Bay. Data were collected along the shoreline in very shallow water, usually less than 1 m. Approximately 100 km of single-channel seismic-reflection data were collected using a water gun and an electromechanical plate as sound sources; about 50 percent of these data contained usable geologic information. A prominent channel in the Quaternary sediments at a depth of 61 m is clearly evident, and the depth to bedrock ranges from approximately 184 to 223 m. Approximately 14 km of multi-channel data were collected in the Gunpowder and Bush Rivers and in Chesapeake Bay; about 40 percent of these data showed subsurface reflectors, often in small, discontinuous segments. Data were processed using established processing techniques. Numerous reflectors were present in the data that were continuous over long distances. The multi-channel data contained more detail and significantly less noise than the single-channel data. The quality and continuity of the single- and multi-channel data were best in shallow water (less than 1 m) where the presence of gassing organic sediments was at a minimum.

  5. Avian Influenza Virus (H11N9) in Migratory Shorebirds Wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Jansen; de Azevedo Júnior, Severino M.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hurtado, Renata F.; Walker, David; Thomazelli, Luciano M.; Ometto, Tatiana; Seixas, Marina M. M.; Rodrigues, Roberta; Galindo, Daniele B.; da Silva, Adriana C. S.; Rodrigues, Arlinéa M. M.; Bomfim, Leonardo L.; Mota, Marcelo A.; Larrazábal, Maria E.; Branco, Joaquim O.; Serafini, Patricia; Neto, Isaac S.; Franks, John; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Durigon, Edison L.


    Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV). Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America. PMID:25329399

  6. Yangambin: a new naturally-occurring platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist: in vivo pharmacological studies.


    Castro-Faria-Neto, H C; Araújo, C V; Moreira, S; Bozza, P T; Thomas, G; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Cordeiro, R S; Tibiriçá, E V


    The pharmacological profile of a novel specific platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist-yangambin-isolated from the Brazilian plant Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae), was investigated in the pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rabbit. The i.v. administration of PAF (0.03-3.0 microgram kg-1) induced marked but reversible hypotensive effects and mild reductions in the heart rate. Both effects are independent of the respiratory conditions imposed on the animals. Moreover, PAF (3.0 microgram kg-1, i.v.) induced a reversible decrease of the circulating levels of platelets and of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Pretreatment with yangambin (10 and 20 mg kg-1, i.v.) dose-dependently attenuated PAF-induced cardiovascular changes and thrombocytopaenia. Nevertheless, the neutropenic leukopaenia elicited by PAF (3.0 microgram kg-1, i.v.) was not prevented by yangambin whereas the reference PAF antagonists WEB 2086 (2 mg kg-1, i.v.) and SR 27417 (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) significantly inhibited the phenomenon. The hypotensive effects of acetylcholine, histamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine were not affected by prior administration of yangambin. It is concluded that yangambin is a selective antagonist of the cardiovascular effects of PAF which could be useful in pathological states characterized by abnormal PAF release, such as anaphylactic and septic shocks. Furthermore, yangambin might discriminate a PAF receptor subtype present in the cardiovascular system and platelets from the one existing in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the rabbit. PMID:7753914

  7. Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?


    Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J


    Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175

  8. Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal.


    Botsaris, Alexandros S


    The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader) and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs. PMID:17472740

  9. (S)-reticuline induces vasorelaxation through the blockade of L-type Ca(2+) channels.


    Medeiros, Marcos Antônio A; Nunes, Xirley P; Barbosa-Filho, José M; Lemos, Virginia S; Pinho, José F; Roman-Campos, Danilo; de Medeiros, Isac A; Araújo, Demetrius Antonio M; Cruz, Jader S


    In Brazil, various species of the genus Ocotea are used in folk medicine for treating several diseases. The chemical characterization of this plant showed the presence of alkaloids belonging to the benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline family, the major component of which is (S)-reticuline. The present study investigated whether (S)-reticuline exerts an inhibitory effect on smooth muscle L-type Ca(2+) channels. Tension measurements and patch clamp techniques were utilized to study the effects of (S)-reticuline. Whole-cell Ca(2+) currents were measured using the A7r5 smooth muscle cell line. (S)-reticuline antagonized CaCl(2)- and KCl-induced contractions and elicited vasorelaxation. It also reduced the voltage-activated peak amplitude of I (Ca,L) in a concentration-dependent manner. (S)-reticuline did not change the characteristics of current density vs. voltage relationship. (S)-reticuline shifted leftwards the steady-state inactivation curve of I (Ca,L). The application of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate to the cell decreased the amplitude of Ca(2+) currents. In cells pretreated with forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, the addition of (S)-reticuline caused further inhibition of the Ca(2+) currents suggesting an additive effect. The results obtained show that (S)-reticuline elicits vasorelaxation probably due to the blockade of the L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) current in rat aorta. The reported effect may contribute to the potential cardioprotective efficacy of (S)-reticuline. PMID:18825370

  10. Naturally occurring compounds affect glutamatergic neurotransmission in rat brain.


    Martini, Lucia Helena; Jung, Fernanda; Soares, Felix Antunes; Rotta, Liane Nanci; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio dos Santos; Yunes, Rosendo A; Calixto, João Batista; Wofchuk, Susana; Souza, Diogo O


    Natural products, including those derived from plants, have largely contributed to the development of therapeutic drugs. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and it is also considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter, by acting on peripheral nervous system. For this reason, in this study we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Drymis winteri (polygodial and drimanial), Phyllanthus (rutin and quercetine), Jathopha elliptica (jatrophone), Hedyosmum brasiliense (13HDS), Ocotea suaveolens (Tormentic acid), Protium kleinii (alphabeta-amyrin), Citrus paradise (naringin), soybean (genistein) and Crataeva nurvala (lupeol), described as having antinociceptive effects, on glutamatergic transmission parameters, such as [(3)H]glutamate binding, [(3)H]glutamate uptake by synaptic vesicles and astrocyte cultures, and synaptosomal [(3)H]glutamate release. All the glutamatergic parameters were affected by one or more of these compounds. Specifically, drimanial and polygodial presented more broad and profound effects, requiring more investigation on their mechanisms. The putative central side effects of these compounds, via the glutamatergic system, are discussed. PMID:17577666

  11. Previous-year reproduction reduces photosynthetic capacity and slows lifetime growth in females of a neotropical tree.


    Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Logan, Barry A


    Females of dioecious plant species typically invest more in reproduction than males because they produce seeds, fruits, and associated structures in addition to flowers. If females are unable to compensate by up-regulating rates of photosynthesis or by reproducing less frequently than males, their greater reproductive investment may result in reduced growth or higher mortality. Here we provide evidence of the cost of reproduction in Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae), a dioecious neotropical tree common in lower montane forests of Monteverde, Costa Rica. Over periods of 12-21 years, females grew more slowly than males in a natural population and in two experimental plots where we were able to control for genotype, age, habitat, and reproductive history. Simultaneous measurements of 10 matched pairs of sibling trees of the opposite sex but same age demonstrated that the photosynthetic capacities of females were 13% lower than those of males. Among females, photosynthetic capacity was negatively correlated with fruit production during the most recent reproductive season but not with lifetime fruit production. Sexual size dimorphism in adult O. tenera trees appears to be a nonadaptive consequence of trading off recent reproduction against maintenance of the photosynthetic apparatus, with long-term negative effects on growth. PMID:15148383

  12. Anti-quorum sensing activity of essential oils from Colombian plants.


    Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena E; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Kunze, Brigitte


    Essential oils from Colombian plants were characterised by GC-MS, and assayed for anti-quorum sensing activity in bacteria sensor strains. Two major chemotypes were found for Lippia alba, the limonene-carvone and the citral (geranial-neral). For other species, the main components included ?-pinene (Ocotea sp.), ?-pinene (Swinglea glutinosa), cineol (Elettaria cardamomun), ?-zingiberene (Zingiber officinale) and pulegone (Minthostachys mollis). Several essential oils presented promising inhibitory properties for the short chain AHL quorum sensing (QS) system, in Escherichia coli containing the biosensor plasmid pJBA132, in particular Lippia alba. Moderate activity as anti-QS using the same plasmid, were also found for selected constituents of essential oils studied here, such as citral, carvone and ?-pinene, although solely at the highest tested concentration (250?µg?mL(-1)). Only citral presented some activity for the long chain AHL QS system, in Pseudomonas putida containing the plasmid pRK-C12. In short, essential oils from Colombian flora have promising properties as QS modulators. PMID:21936639

  13. Protective effects of Yangambin - a naturally occurring platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist - on anaphylactic shock in rats.


    Ribeiro, R; Carvalho, F A; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Cordeiro, R S; Tibiriçá, E V


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of yangambin to inhibit cardiovascular collapse and to reduce the mortality due to systemic anaphylaxis induced by antigen challenge in actively sensitized rats. The i.v. injection of the antigen (ovalbumin, 250 or 500 ?g/kg), induced a systemic anaphylactic reaction mainly characterized by sudden and marked arterial hypotension and high mortality rates. Yangambin, a PAF receptor antagonist isolated from the Brazilian plant Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae), as well as the reference PAF receptor antagonist SR 27417, significantly prevented and partially reversed the circulatory collapse elicited by antigen challenge. Moreover, yangambin and SR 27417, when administered 5 min before re-exposure of the animals to the antigen, markedly improved the survival rate at 120 min. These results confirm that PAF plays an important role in the pathophysiology of anaphylactic shock and show that yangambin presents good therapeutic potential in the treatment of the cardiovascular alterations observed during immediate hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:23195079

  14. Effects of edaphic factors on the tree stand diversity in a tropical forest of Sierra Madre del Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzmeier, S.; Wiedemann, T.; Biber, P.; Schad, P.; Krasilnikov, P. V.


    Two sites with similar environmental parameters, except for the edaphic factor, were selected in the mountainous tropical forest of southern Mexico. Site 1 was established on an Alisol; site 2, on a Phaeozem. Representative soil profiles were examined on each of the sites, and topsoil was sampled on a regular grid pattern. The soil of site 2 was richer in organic matter and major nutrients and had a less acid reaction than the soil of site 1. The species diversity of the trees at site 2 (30 species) was higher than that at site 1 (17 species). The species compositions of the trees were different on the two soils: there were only six species in common for both sites. The coefficients of species similarity on the sites were low. We concluded that the presence of different soils within the same type of forest ecosystem increases its ?-diversity. The examination of edaphic preferences of the species showed that Alstonia longifolia and Thouinidium decandrum preferred rich soils, Inga punctata and Ocotea sinuata preferred poor soils, and Cupania dentata and Hamelia patens did not display preferences in the studied range of soil properties. Thus, the spatial variability of the soil properties affect the spatial pattern of tree species in the studied tropical forest ecosystems.

  15. Efficacy of extracts from plants of the Brazilian Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.


    dos Santos, Larissa Bezerra; Souza, Juliana Kátia; Papassoni, Barbara; Borges, Dyego Gonçalves Lino; Damasceno, Geraldo Alves; de Souza, Jeana Mara Escher; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Borges, Fernando de Almeida


    This research evaluated the in vitro acaricidal activity of extracts from 21 plant species from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul. During stage I, a larval immersion test was performed using three extract concentrations (5%, 20%, and 40%). During stage II, we used only plants that showed over 95% efficiency at the 40% concentration in stage I in an amount sufficient for the adult immersion test. Aeschynomene denticulata, Angelonia hirta, Aspilia latissima, Caperonia castaneifolia, Centratherum punctatum, Crotalaria micans, Diodia kuntzei, Echinodorus paniculatus, Hyptis mutabilis, Lantana canescens, Melanthera latifolia, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Richardia grandiflora, Sebastiana hispida, Tocoyena formosa, Zanthoxylum rigidum, and Sesbania virgata (fruit extract) showed acaricidal activity against the larval stage of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus higher than 95% at a 40% (w/v) concentration, while Hippocratea volubilis and Randia armata showed moderate efficacy and Croton glandulosus and Senna obtusifolia had no effect. The M. latifolia, A. hirta, R. grandiflora, and A. latissima raw extracts were evaluated for their activity against adults, and only A. hirta showed an efficacy close to 90%. Eighteen extracts had an efficacy of up to 95% against larvae at a 40% concentration, seven extracts were effective at 20%, and only one (Sebastiana hispida) was effective at a 5% concentration. PMID:24473878

  16. Nantenine blocks muscle contraction and Ca2+ transient induced by noradrenaline and K+ in rat vas deferens.


    Ribeiro, Rosana de A; do Carmo, Lucia Garcez; Vladimirova, Irina; Jurkiewicz, Neide H; Jurkiewicz, Aron


    The effect of nantenine, an aporphine alkaloid isolated from Ocotea macrophylla H.B.K., was studied on contractions and Ca(2+) translocation induced by noradrenaline, Ca(2+), or K(+) in the isolated rat vas deferens from reserpinized animals. Concentration-response curves of calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) were performed in the vas deferens, in a Ca(2+)-free nutrient solution, using potassium chloride (KCl, 80 mM) as a depolarizing agent. In these conditions, nantenine (2.35 x 10(-4) and 4.7 x 10(-4) M) significantly reduced the maximum contractions (E(max)) of Ca(2+) (IC(50)=2.6 x 10(-4) M) and noradrenaline (IC(50)=2.9 x 10(-4) M). The contractile responses were totally recovered after the withdrawal of nantenine. In addition, experiments performed to measure simultaneously the contraction and the increase of intracellular Ca(2+) induced by noradrenaline (10(-5) M) or KCl (80 mM) showed that nantenine (2.35 x 10(-4) and 4.7 x 10(-4) M) significantly decreased both effects. The results suggest that a reversible block of Ca(2+) entry could be involved on the non-competitive-like antagonism of nantenine in rat vas deferens. PMID:12787829

  17. Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal

    PubMed Central

    Botsaris, Alexandros S


    The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader) and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs. PMID:17472740

  18. Annual litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition depending on elevation and land use at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Pabst, H.; Mnyonga, J.; Kuzyakov, Y.


    Litterfall is one of the major pathways connecting above- and belowground processes. The effects of climate and land-use change on carbon (C) and nutrient inputs by litterfall are poorly known. We quantified and analyzed annual patterns of C and nutrient deposition via litterfall in natural forests and agroforestry systems along the unique elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter in three natural (lower montane, Ocotea and Podocarpus forests), two sustainably used (homegardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Leaves, branches and remaining residues were separated and analyzed for C and nutrient contents. The annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall seasonality, exhibiting a large peak towards the end of the dry season (August-October). This peak decreased at higher elevations with decreasing rainfall seasonality. Macronutrients (N, P, K) in leaf litter increased at mid elevation (2100 m a.s.l.) and with land-use intensity. Carbon content and micronutrients (Al, Fe, Mn, Na) however, were unaffected or decreased with land-use intensity. On the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, the annual pattern of litterfall depends on seasonal climatic conditions. While leaf litterfall decreased with elevation, total annual input was independent of climate. Compared to natural forests, the nutrient cycles in agroforestry ecosystems were accelerated by fertilization and the associated changes in dominant tree species.

  19. Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central


    Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations???30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti. PMID:24713267

  20. Dynamics of violaxanthin and lutein epoxide xanthophyll cycles in Lauraceae tree species under field conditions.


    Esteban, Raquel; Jiménez, Eduardo T; Jiménez, M Soledad; Morales, Domingo; Hormaetxe, Koldobika; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio


    Two xanthophyll cycles have been described in higher plants: the violaxanthin xanthophyll (V or VAZ) cycle, which is present in all species, and the taxonomically restricted lutein epoxide xanthophyll (Lx) cycle, which involves the light-induced de-epoxidation of Lx to lutein (L) and its epoxidation back to Lx in low light. Laboratory experiments indicate that the first reaction occurs quickly, but the second reaction is much slower. We investigated the Lx cycle under field conditions in several tree species of the Lauraceae family to determine its relationship with the ubiquitous V cycle. The field study was conducted in two natural laurel forests: one in the Canary Islands, where Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco, Ocotea foetens (Aiton.) Benth, Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm. and Persea indica (L.) Spreng were studied; and one in the Basque Atlantic coast where Laurus nobilis L. was studied. The results were complemented by a taxonomic study. The presence of Lx was widespread among Lauraceae species, but its concentration varied even among closely related species. The V pool size correlated positively with growth irradiance, whereas the relationship between Lx pool size and growth irradiance varied with species. A functional Lx cycle was confirmed under field conditions only in O. foetens and L. nobilis. Furthermore, in O. foetens, a correlation between Lx de-epoxidation and photoinhibition suggested a protective role for this cycle. We conclude that, unlike the V cycle, which is normally correlated with irradiance, the operation and light dependence of the Lx cycle is species-dependent. PMID:17669731

  1. Photosynthesis and growth of two rain forest species in simulated gaps under elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Roden, J.S.; Wiggins, D.J.; Ball, M.C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)


    Two species common to the temperate rain forests of New South Wales, Australia (Doryphora sassafras and Acmena smithii) were grown for 2 wk in either ambient (350 {mu}L/L) or elevated (700 {mu}L/L) CO{sub 2} concentrations and low light (30 {mu}mol photons{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}) after which the seedlings were exposed for over 9 wk to a midday 2-h highlight period (1250 {mu}mol photons{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}, maximum) to simulate a tree fall gap. For both species, plants grown in elevated CO{sub 2} had greater biomass than plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. However, relative increases in biomass were greater in Acmena, an early-successional species, than Doryphora, a late-successional species. Recovery in quantum efficiencies over time was observed for Doryphora, implying physiological acclimation to the new light environment. Doryphora plants grown in elevated CO{sub 2} had lower values of F{sub v}/F{sub m} than plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. Although exposure to the simulated tree fall gap dramatically increased the conversion of pigments of the xanthophyll cycle, as well as increased the total pool size of xanthophyll cycle pigments relative to total chlorophyll concentration, there were no differences in either parameter between co{sub 2} treatments. Leaves of Doryphora and those seedlings grown in elevated CO{sub 2} had greater starch concentrations than Acmena and those seedlings grown in elevated CO{sub 2} had greater starch concentrations than Acmena and those seedlings grown in ambient CO{sub 2}, respectively. The reduction in quantum efficiencies for plants grown in elevated CO{sub 2} and exposed to a simulated tree fall gap is discussed in the context of the importance of gap phase regeneration for species in rain forest ecosystems and the potential effects of global change on those processes. 37 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Comparative Geomorphology of Salt and Tidal Freshwater Marsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, G. B.


    Temperate estuaries include a spectrum of coastal marshes ranging from highly saline near the ocean to fresh in tributaries with substantial watershed drainage. While the hydrologic, sedimentary, and geomorphic dynamics of salt marshes have been thoroughly investigated, those aspects of tidal freshwater marshes have only begun to be addressed. Based on a recent burst in research on tidal freshwater systems in Chesapeake Bay by different universities, an attempt is made here to provide comparative geomorphology. In terms of similarities, both have tidal channels whose hydraulic geometry is primarily controlled by the tidal prism. Both show decreasing sedimentation and increasing organics with elevation and distance from channels. At seasonal to interannual time scales, the morphodynamics of both show similarities in the interplay among hydroperiod, vegetation, and geomorphology. Rather than simply evolving from youth to maturity, both systems exhibit strong evidence for dynamic equilibrium between process and morphology. Despite these similarities, there are key differences that motivate further research of tidal freshwater marshes. First, whereas salt marshes are limited by sediment supply, tidal fresh ones may not be limited depending on upstream basin size. E.g., fringing marshes along Pumunkey River have very low sediment supply, while deltaic marshes in Bush River and Sassafras River are not supply-limited. Instead, the growth of deltaic fresh marshes is transport limited, as winds and tides can only generate low momentum and turbulence for sediment transport. As illustrated in multiple systems, a constant availability of sediment leads to higher sedimentation in fresh marshes. Second, in high latitude salt marshes where the tidal range is large and the climate cold, ice acts as a strong erosional agent. In fresh marshes, ice serves to sequester sediment and buffer the erosional impact of autumnal vegetation dieback. Third, the high spatial variation in plant associations in fresh marshes allows for a finer control of spatial patterns in sedimentation and erosion than is possible in salt marshes. Finally, the landscape position of fresh marshes places them near riparian forests that can supply large amounts of organics thereby promoting accretion.

  3. A new hypothesis for the importance of seed dispersal in time.


    Guzmán, Adriana; Stevenson, Pablo R


    Most studies on seed dispersal in time have focused on seed dormancy and the physiological triggers for germination. However, seed dispersed by animals with low metabolic and moving rates, and long gut-passage times such as terrestrial turtles, could be considered another type of dispersal in time. This study tests the hypothesis that seeds dispersed in time may lower predation rates. We predicted that seeds deposited below parent trees after fruiting fall has finished is advantageous to minimize seed predators and should show higher survival rates. Four Amazonian plant species, Dicranostyles ampla, Oenocarpus bataua, Guatteria atabapensis and Ocotea floribunda, were tested for seed survival probabilities in two periods: during fruiting and 10-21 days after fruiting. Experiments were carried out in two biological stations located in the Colombian Amazon (Caparú and Zafire Biological Stations). Seed predation was high and mainly caused by non-vertebrates. Out of the four plant species tested, only Guatteria atabapensis supported the time escape hypothesis. For this species, seed predation by vertebrates after the fruiting period increased (from 4.1% to 9.2%) while seed predation by non-vertebrates decreased (from 54.0% to 40.2%). In contrast, seed predation by vertebrates and by non-vertebrates after the fruiting period in D. ampla increased (from 7.9% to 22.8% and from 40.4% to 50.6%, respectively), suggesting predator satiation. Results suggest that for some species dispersal in time could be advantageous to avoid some type of seed predators. Escape in time could be an additional dimension in which seeds may reach adequate sites for recruitment. Thus, future studies should be address to better understand the survival advantages given by an endozoochory time-dispersal process. PMID:22208093

  4. Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants.


    Tavares, Lucélia; Carrilho, Dina; Tyagi, Meenu; Barata, David; Serra, Ana Teresa; Duarte, Catarina Maria Martins; Duarte, Rui Oliveira; Feliciano, Rodrigo Pedro; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Chicau, Paula; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; dos Santos, Cláudia Nunes


    The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of different phytomolecules (flavonoids, organic acids and selenocompounds), presents in leaves of the five traditional medicinal plants endemic to Macaronesia, all exhibiting antioxidant properties. PMID:20428065

  5. Cardiovascular effects induced by reticuline in normotensive rats.


    Dias, Katy Lísias; Da Silva Dias, Celidarque; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; De Azevedo Correia, Nadja; Medeiros, Isac Almeida


    The cardiovascular effects of reticuline, isolated in a pure form from the stem of Ocotea duckei Vattimo, were studied in rats by using a combined in vivo and in vitro approach. In normotensive rats, reticuline (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i. v., randomly) injections produced an intense hypotension. This hypotensive response was attenuated after either, L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i. v.), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, or atropine (2 mg/kg, i. v.), a muscarinic receptor antagonist. In isolated rat aortic rings with intact endothelium, reticuline (3 x 10 ( - 6), 3 x 10 ( - 5), 3 x 10 ( - 4), 9 x 10 ( - 4) and 1.5 x 10 ( - 3) M) inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the contractions induced by phenylephrine (1 microM), KCl (80 mM) and KCl (30 mM), [IC (50) = (0.4 +/- 0.1, 2.4 +/- 0.4 and 3 +/- 0.4) x 10 ( - 4) M, respectively). The effect of reticuline on phenylephrine-induced contractions was attenuated by removal of the vascular endothelium [IC (50) = (2.5 +/- 0.7) x 10 ( - 4) M]. Similar results were obtained after pretreatment of the rings with L-NAME 100 microM [IC (50) = (1.3 +/- 0.1) x 10 ( - 4) M], L-NAME 300 microM [IC (50) = (3 +/- 0.3) x 10 ( - 4) M] or atropine 1 microM [IC (50) = (1.2 +/- 0.2) x 10 ( - 4) M]. On the other hand, the effect of reticuline on phenylephrine-induced contractions was not affected by indomethacin 1 microM [IC (50) = (0.7 +/- 0.3) x 10 ( - 4) M]. Reticuline (3 x 10 ( - 6), 3 x 10 ( - 5), 3 x 10 ( - 4), 9 x 10 ( - 4) and 1.5 x 10 ( - 3) M) antagonized CaCl (2)-induced contractions, and also inhibited the intracellular calcium dependent transient contractions induced by norepinephrine (1 microM), but not those induced by caffeine (20 mM). These results suggest that the hypotensive effect of reticuline is probably due to a peripheral vasodilation in consequence of: 1) muscarinic stimulation and NOS activation in the vascular endothelium, 2) voltage-dependent Ca (2+) channel blockade and/or 3) inhibition of Ca (2+) release from norepinephrine-sensitive intracellular stores. PMID:15095148

  6. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes) on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil.


    Gomes, Verônica Souza da Mota; Correia, Maria Célia Rodrigues; de Lima, Heloisa Alves; Alves, Maria Alice S


    Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation) is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1,680 net-hrs) and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis) in the present study, we confirmed that the tested effect of restinga frugivorous birds on seed germination was generally null. Although there is a need for more detailed studies on specific animal-plant interactions on this habitat, the overall effect of the birds on seed dispersal in restinga is probably positive. PMID:18624238

  7. Calcium influx inhibition is involved in the hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects induced by yangambin.


    Araújo, Islania Giselia Albuquerque; Silva, Darizy Flávia; do Carmo de Alustau, Maria; Dias, Katy Lísias Gondim; Cavalcante, Karla Veruska Marques; Veras, Robson Cavalcante; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Neto, Mario Dos Anjos; Bendhack, Lusiane Maria; de Azevedo Correia, Nadja; Almeida de Medeiros, Isac


    The pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular system of yangambin, a lignan isolated from Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae), were studied in rats using combined functional and biochemical approaches. In non-anaesthetized rats, yangambin (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg, i.v.) induced hypotension (-3.5 ± 0.2; -7.1 ± 0.8; -8.9 ± 1.3; -14 ± 2.3, -25.5% ± 2.6%, respectively) accompanied by tachycardia (5.9 ± 0.5; 5.9 ± 1.6; 8.8 ± 1.4; 11.6, 18.8% ± 3.4%, respectively). In isolated rat atria, yangambin (0.1 µM-1 mM) had very slight negative inotropic (Emax = 35.6% ± 6.4%) and chronotropic effects (Emax = 10.2% ± 2.9%). In endothelium-intact rat mesenteric artery, yangambin (0.1 µM-1 mM) induced concentration-dependent relaxation (pD2 = 4.5 ± 0.06) of contractions induced by phenylephrine and this effect was not affected by removal of the endothelium. Interestingly, like nifedipine, the relaxant effect induced by yangambin was more potent on the contractile response induced by KCl 80 mM (pD2 = 4.8 ± 0.05) when compared to that induced by phenylephrine. Furthermore, yangambin inhibited CaCl2-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. This lignan also induced relaxation (pD2 = 4.0 ± 0.04) of isolated arteries pre-contracted with S(-)-Bay K 8644. In fura-2/AM-loaded myocytes of rat mesenteric arteries, yangambin inhibited the Ca2+ signal evoked by KCl 60 mM. In conclusion, these results suggest that the hypotensive effect of yangambin is probably due to a peripheral vasodilatation that involves, at least, the inhibition the Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. PMID:24858272

  8. Annual Proxy Records from Tropical Cloud Forest Trees in the Monteverde Cloud Forest, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchukaitis, K. J.; Evans, M. N.; Wheelwright, N. T.; Schrag, D. P.


    The extinction of the Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes) from Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest prompted research into the causes of ecological change in the montane forests of Costa Rica. Subsequent analysis of meteorological data has suggested that warmer global surface and tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures contribute to an observed decrease in cloud cover at Monteverde. However, while recent studies may have concluded that climate change is already having an effect on cloud forest environments in Costa Rica, without the context provided by long-term climate records, it is difficult to confidently conclude that the observed ecological changes are the result of anthropogenic climate forcing, land clearance in the lowland rainforest, or natural variability in tropical climate. To address this, we develop high-resolution proxy paleoclimate records from trees without annual rings in the Monteverde Cloud Forest in Costa Rica. Calibration of an age model in these trees is a fundamental prerequisite for proxy paleoclimate reconstructions. Our approach exploits the isotopic seasonality in the ?18O of water sources (fog versus rainfall) used by trees over the course of a single year. Ocotea tenera individuals of known age and measured annual growth increments were sampled in long-term monitored plantation sites in order to test this proposed age model. High-resolution (200?m increments) stable isotope measurements on cellulose reveal distinct, coherent ?18O cycles of 6 to 10‰. The calculated growth rates derived from the isotope timeseries match those observed from basal growth increment measurements. Spatial fidelity in the age model and climate signal is examined by using multiple cores from multiple trees and multiple sites. These data support our hypothesis that annual isotope cycles in these trees can be used to provide chronological control in the absence of rings. The ability of trees to record interannual climate variability in local hydrometeorology and remote climate forcing is evaluated using the isotope signal from multiple trees, local meteorological observations, and climate field data for the well-observed 1997-1998 warm El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. The successful calibration of our age model is a necessary step toward the development of long, annually-resolved paleoclimate reconstructions from old trees, even without rings, which will be used to evaluate the cause of recent observed climate change at Monteverde and as proxies for tropical climate field reconstructions.

  9. Severity and exposure associated to tsunami actions in urban waterfronts. The case of Lisbon, Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Daniel; Telhado, Maria J.; Viana Baptista, Maria A.; Antunes, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.


    The Tagus estuary is recognized as an exposed location to tsunami occurrences, given its proximity to tsunamigenic faults such as the Marquês de Pombal and the Horseshoe fault system. Lisbon, bordered by the Tagus estuary, is a critical point of Portugal's tsunami hazard map, having been affected by several tsunamis (Baptista and Miranda, 2009) including the notorious event of November 1st 1755, the last major natural disaster known to have inflicted massive destruction in Portugal. The main objective of this work, a joint initiative of CEHIDRO (IST - Universidade de Lisboa) and the Municipal Civil Protection Services of Lisbon, is to contribute to the quantification of severity and exposure of Lisbon waterfront to tsunami events. For that purpose, the propagation of a tsunami similar to that of the 1st November of 1755 in the Tagus estuary was numerically simulated. Several scenarios were considered, articulating the influence of tidal (low and high tides), atmospheric (increase in water level due to storm surges) and hydrological (flow discharge in Tagus river) conditions. Different initial and boundary conditions were defined for each modelling scenario but the magnitude of the tsunami remained what is believed to be an exceptional event. The extent of the inundation and relevant hydrodynamic quantities were registered for all scenarios. The employed simulation tool - STAV-2D - was developed at CEHIDRO (IST) and is based on a 2DH spatial (Eulerian) shallow-flow approach suited to complex and dynamic bottom boundaries. The discretization technique relies on a finite-volume scheme, based on a flux-splitting technique incorporating a reviewed version of the Roe Riemann solver (Canelas et al. 2013, Conde et al. 2013). STAV-2D features conservation equations for the finer solid phase of the flow and also a Lagrangian model for the advection of larger debris elements. The urban meshwork was thoroughly discretized with a mesh finer than average street width. This fine discretization allows for resolving flow resistance associated to obstacles: no ad hoc formulations are needed to express drag on buildings, which is a key innovation in regard to previous studies. Additionally, vehicle-like particles were virtually placed over the major traffic nodes and routes, resulting in over 5000 lagrangian particles along the riverfront. This allows for an assessment of debris deposition patterns on the aftermath of the tsunami inundation. Severity is herein assumed to depend on hydrodynamic features of the tsunami, namely its capacity to impart momentum. Exposure to tsunami actions depends on the extent of the inundation. Both severity and exposure thus vary with the tsunami scenario considered. The obtained results, obtained with a high detail of hydrodynamic behavior, allow for a street-by-street quantification of severity, expressed in terms of the product of the depth-averaged velocity by the flow depth (Karvonen et al., 2000), herein the q-parameter. This parameter is shown to be larger during run-up, particularly in streets and narrow sections. It was observed that the scenario with greater exposure is a combination of a high-tide, a storm surge and a discharge equivalent to a 100 year flood on the Tagus River. The work conducted allows for designing a methodology for exposure assessment due to tsunami propagating over urban meshes, where the influence of the existing infrastructures on the incoming inundation is highly relevant. Such methodology, here applied to Lisbon waterfront, is general since it is defined in terms of quantifiable hydrodynamic variables. Acknowledgements: Project RECI/ECM-HID/0371/2012, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), has partially supported this work. References: Baptista, M.A., Miranda, J.M. (2009). Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 25 - 42. Canelas, R., Murillo, J. & Ferreira, R.M.L. (2013). Two-dimensional depth-averaged modelling of dam-break flows over mobile beds. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 51(4), 392-407. C