Sample records for canela sassafras ocotea

  1. 33 CFR 117.570 - Sassafras River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.570 Sassafras River. The draw of the...River (Route 213) bridge, mile 10.0 at Georgetown, Maryland, shall open on signal; except that from...

  2. 33 CFR 117.570 - Sassafras River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.570 Sassafras River. The draw of the...River (Route 213) bridge, mile 10.0 at Georgetown, Maryland, shall open on signal; except that from...

  3. 33 CFR 117.570 - Sassafras River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.570 Sassafras River. The draw of the...River (Route 213) bridge, mile 10.0 at Georgetown, Maryland, shall open on signal; except that from...

  4. 33 CFR 117.570 - Sassafras River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.570 Sassafras River. The draw of the...River (Route 213) bridge, mile 10.0 at Georgetown, Maryland, shall open on signal; except that from...

  5. 33 CFR 117.570 - Sassafras River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.570 Sassafras River. The draw of the...River (Route 213) bridge, mile 10.0 at Georgetown, Maryland, shall open on signal; except that from...

  6. Antifungal effects of Ellagitannin isolated from leaves of Ocotea odorifera (Lauraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi; Francielle Pelegrin Garcia; Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez; Tânia Ueda-Nakamura; Benedito Prado Dias Filho; Celso Vataru Nakamura

    2011-01-01

    Ocotea odorifera is a medicinal plant that is popularly known in Brazil as “canela-sassafrás” and is used to treat dermatosis. This study\\u000a investigated the antifungal properties of O. odorifera. The methanol extract of O. odorifera was submitted to successive chromatographic separation and yielded Tellimagrandin II (TEL). Candida parapsilosis strain ATCC 22019 was used to determine the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and

  7. 75 FR 81125 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sassafras River, Georgetown, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ...Georgetown, MD. The deviation is necessary to facilitate mechanical repairs and gate replacement. This deviation allows the drawbridge...operating regulations set out in 33 CFR 117.570 to facilitate mechanical repairs and barrier gate replacement. The Sassafras...

  8. New aporphine alkaloids of Ocotea minarum.

    PubMed

    Vecchietti, V; Casagrande, C; Ferrari, G; Severini Ricca, G

    1979-10-01

    Fourteen aporphine alkaloids were isolated from the leaves of a Brazilian Lauracea, Ocotea minarum Nees (Mez). The known alkaloids were identified through their physico-chemical properties as: leucoxylonine (VII), dicentrine (IV), ocoteine (V), leucoxine (VI), ocopodine (VIII), predicentrine (IX), dicentrinone (XIV) and thalicminine (XV). Six new aporphine alkaloids were also isolated: ocotominarine (I), ocominarine (III), nor-leucoxylonine (XI), iso-oconovine (xii), 4-hydroxydicentrine (XIII) and ocominarone (XVI). Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods and chemical correlations. PMID:510527

  9. Supporting concurrency, communication, and synchronization in human-computer interaction—the Sassafras UIMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph D. Hill

    1986-01-01

    Sassafras is a prototype User Interface Management System (UIMS) specifically designed to support a wide range of user interface styles. In particular, it supports the implementation of user interfaces where the user is free to manipulate multiple input devices and perform several (possibly related) tasks concurrently. These interfaces can be compactly represented and efficiently implemented without violating any of the

  10. Antimycobacterial and nitric oxide production inhibitory activities of Ocotea notata from Brazilian restinga.

    PubMed

    Costa, Isabela Francisca Borges; Calixto, Sanderson Dias; Heggdorne de Araujo, Marlon; Konno, Tatiana Ungaretti Paleo; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Guimarães, Denise Oliveira; Lasunskaia, Elena B; Leal, Ivana Ramos Correa; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ocotea (Lauraceae) is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Some species of this genus as O. puberula and O. quixos have been described in the literature, showing antibacterial activity. And Ocotea macrophylla showed anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, and LOX-5. The purpose of this study was the phytochemical investigation of the plant species Ocotea notata from Restinga Jurubatiba National Park, Macaé, RJ, Brazil, and the search for antimycobacterial fractions and compounds. The crude extract was evaluated for antimycobacterial activity and presented 95.75 ± 2.53% of growth inhibition at 100?µg/mL. Then, it was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition and subsequently was chemically investigated by HPLC, revealing the major presence of flavonoids. In this process the partition fractions hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol are shown to be promising in the antimycobacterial assay. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction was chromatographed and afforded two flavonoids identified by MS and NMR as afzelin and isoquercitrin. The isolated flavonoids afzelin and isoquercitrin were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity and for their ability to inhibit NO production by macrophages stimulated by LPS; both flavonoids isoquercitrin (Acet22) and afzelin (Acet32) were able to inhibit the production of NO by macrophages. The calculated IC50 of Acet22 and Acet32 was 1.03 and 0.85?µg/mL, respectively. PMID:25789338

  11. Antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of essential oil from wild Ocotea quixos (Lam.) Kosterm. (Lauraceae) calices from Amazonian Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ballabeni, Vigilio; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Bertoni, Simona; Bruni, Renato; Guerrini, Alessandra; Rueda, Gabriela Moreno; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2007-01-01

    Ocotea quixos essential oil was shown to possess significant inhibitory activity of platelet aggregation and clot retraction in rodent plasma. This study is aimed at fully characterizing the antiplatelet activity of the whole essential oil and its main components trans-cinnamaldehyde and methyl cinnamate also in human plasma, at investigating the mechanism underlying such activity and at evaluating the potential antithrombotic activity of subacute treatment of mice with Ocotea essential oil. In vitro Ocotea essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde inhibited arachidonic acid-, U46619-, ADP-, phorbol12-myristate13-alcetate-, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and thrombin-induced clot retraction in human and rodent plasma; Ocotea oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde competitively antagonized contractions induced by thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619 in rat isolated aortic ring (K(B) = 18 and 3.2 microg ml(-1), respectively). In vivo Ocotea oil, orally administered in a subacute treatment (30-100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 5 days) to mice, prevented acute thrombosis induced by collagen-epinephrine intravenous injection. This antithrombotic activity was not accompanied by pro-haemorragic side effect, as detected by the inactivity in bleeding test, thus showing a favourable safety profile compared to the conventional antiplatelet agent, acetylsalicylic acid. Present findings indicate that Ocotea essential oil possesses potent and safe antithrombotic activity attributable to its antiplatelet and vasorelaxant effects. The main constituent trans-cinnamaldehyde seems to be the primary responsible for this activity through a putative mechanism involving the inhibition of thromboxane A2 receptors. PMID:17079160

  12. Benzopyrans from Curvularia sp., an endophytic fungus associated with Ocotea corymbosa (Lauraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helder Lopes Teles; Geraldo Humberto Silva; Ian Castro-Gamboa; Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani; José Odair Pereira; Claudio Miguel Costa-Neto; Renato Haddad; Marcos Nogueira Eberlin; Maria Claudia Marx Young; Ângela Regina Araújo

    2005-01-01

    An isolate of Curvularia sp. was obtained from the leaves of Ocotea corymbosa, a native plant of the Brazilian Cerrado. The ethyl acetate extract from culture of this fungus afforded two benzopyran derivatives: (2?S)-2-(propan-2?-ol)-5-hydroxy-benzopyran-4-one (2) and 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-benzopyran-4,5-diol (4); and two known benzopyrans: 2-methyl-5-methoxy-benzopyran-4-one (1) and (2R)-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-5-methoxy-benzopyran-4-one (3). The structures of 2 and 4 were established on the basis of comprehensive

  13. Antinociceptive effects of a chloroform extract and the alkaloid dicentrine isolated from fruits of Ocotea puberula.

    PubMed

    Montrucchio, Deise Prehs; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby; da Silva, Gabriel Araujo; Cardozo, Alcíbia Maia; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares

    2012-09-01

    The present work describes the chemical characterization of a chloroform fraction (CF) obtained from an extract of Ocotea puberula (Lauraceae) fruits, and preliminary antinociceptive analysis of CF and the alkaloid dicentrine, isolated from this fraction. CF (30-300?mg/kg, p.?o.) caused dose-related inhibition of abdominal constrictions caused by acetic acid and also inhibited both phases of formalin-induced nociception. However, hexane or ethyl acetate fractions did not produce any effect. Antinociception caused by CF (100?mg/kg, p.?o.) in the acetic acid test was not affected either by caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, or by naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, and neither was associated with nonspecific effects such as muscle relaxation or sedation. Furthermore, dicentrine (30-300?mg/kg, p.?o.) produced dose-related inhibition of acetic acid-induced pain without causing changes in the motor performance of mice. The results show, for the first time, that CF from Ocotea puberula fruits produced marked antinociception in different models of chemical pain, and this effect appears to be, at least in part, due to the presence of dicentrine. The mechanism by which CF and the alkaloid produced antinociception still remains unclear, but the adenosinergic or opioid system seems unlikely to be involved in this action. PMID:22815198

  14. CRESCIMENTO EM ALTURA DE Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. EM TRÊS SÍTIOS NATURAIS, NA REGIÃO DE CANELA - RS HEIGHT GROWTH OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. ON THREE NATURAL SITES, AT REGION OF CANELA - RS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ciência Florestal; Santa Maria; Luciano Weber Scheeren; César Augusto; Guimarães Finger; Mauro Valdir Schumacher; Solon Jonas Longhi

    This work has had as its principal objectives the study of dominant height growth considering its age in three natural sites, and the determination of natural sites classification efficacy for the Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. in a planting stand in Canela, RS. For height and age data adjustment, determined through stem analysis, it was used the RICHARDS (1959) non-linear

  15. Stable isotope investigation of a cryptic ant-plant association: Myrmelachista flavocotea (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and Ocotea spp . (Lauraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. McNett; J. Longino; P. Barriga; O. Vargas; K. Phillips; C. L. Sagers

    2010-01-01

    An obligate symbiosis between Ocotea\\u000a dendrodaphne Mez and O. atirrensis Mez & Donn.Sm. (Lauraceae) and their cryptic ant symbiont, Myrmelachista\\u000a flavocotea, is common in lowland wet forests of Costa Rica, yet it is unclear whether the association is typically mutualistic or parasitic.\\u000a Ants impose costs by tending trophobionts inside the plant body and further compromise the structural integrity of their

  16. Benzopyrans from Curvularia sp., an endophytic fungus associated with Ocotea corymbosa (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Teles, Helder Lopes; Silva, Geraldo Humberto; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Pereira, José Odair; Costa-Neto, Claudio Miguel; Haddad, Renato; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Araújo, Angela Regina

    2005-10-01

    An isolate of Curvularia sp. was obtained from the leaves of Ocotea corymbosa, a native plant of the Brazilian Cerrado. The ethyl acetate extract from culture of this fungus afforded two benzopyran derivatives: (2'S)-2-(propan-2'-ol)-5-hydroxy-benzopyran-4-one (2) and 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-benzopyran-4,5-diol (4); and two known benzopyrans: 2-methyl-5-methoxy-benzopyran-4-one (1) and (2R)-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-5-methoxy-benzopyran-4-one (3). The structures of 2 and 4 were established on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, mainly using 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The benzopyrans 1 and 2 showed weak in vitro antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum and C. cladosporioides. Analyses of the biological activities were also carried out on HeLa (human cervix tumor) and CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells, aiming to evaluate their potential effects on mammalian cell line proliferation. Results from both cell lines indicated that compound 2 was able to induce cell proliferation: 70% on HeLa cells and 25% on CHO cells. PMID:16038954

  17. Neolignans and other metabolites from Ocotea cymosa from the Madagascar rain forest and their biological activities.

    PubMed

    Rakotondraibe, L Harinantenaina; Graupner, Paul R; Xiong, Quanbo; Olson, Monica; Wiley, Jessica D; Krai, Priscilla; Brodie, Peggy J; Callmander, Martin W; Rakotobe, Etienne; Ratovoson, Fidy; Rasamison, Vincent E; Cassera, Maria B; Hahn, Donald R; Kingston, David G I; Fotso, Serge

    2015-03-27

    Ten new neolignans including the 6'-oxo-8.1'-lignans cymosalignans A (1a), B (2), and C (3), an 8.O.6'-neolignan (4a), ococymosin (5a), didymochlaenone C (6a), and the bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoids 7-10 were isolated along with the known compounds 3,4,5,3',5'-pentamethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan, 3,4,5,3'-tetramethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan, didymochlaenone B, virologin B, ocobullenone, and the unusual 2'-oxo-8.1'-lignan sibyllenone from the stems or bark of the Madagascan plant Ocotea cymosa. The new 8.O.6'-neolignan 4a, dihydrobenzofuranoid 5a, and the bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoid 7a had in vitro activity against Aedes aegypti, while the new compounds 5a, 7a, 8, and 10a and the known virolongin B (4b) and ocobullenone (10b) had antiplasmodial activity. We report herein the structure elucidation of the new compounds on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra, electronic circular dichroism, and mass spectrometry, and the biological activities of the new and known compounds. PMID:25650896

  18. Isolation and biochemical characterization of a new topoisomerase I inhibitor from Ocotea leucoxylon.

    PubMed

    Zhou, B N; Johnson, R K; Mattern, M R; Wang, X; Hecht, S M; Beck, H T; Ortiz, A; Kingston, D G

    2000-02-01

    In a continuation of our search for potential tumor inhibitors from plants, we found that a crude extract from Ocotea leucoxylon showed selective activity typical of inhibitors of the enzyme topoisomerase I in a yeast assay for DNA-damaging agents. Using a bioassay-directed fractionation approach, the major bioactive compound was isolated and identified as the known aporphine alkaloid dicentrinone (4); the inactive alkaloid dicentrine (3) was also isolated. Compound 4 showed selective bioactivity against the rad52 repair-deficient yeast strain RS322 (IC(12) 49 microg/mL) and was inactive against the rad52- and topo1-deficient strain RS321 (IC(12) > 2000 microg/mL) and against the repair-proficient strain RJ03 (IC(12) > 2000 microg/mL). Biochemical studies with recombinant human topoisomerase I indicated that dicentrinone (4) is an inhibitor of the human enzyme. Colony formation studies suggest that it is weakly cytotoxic, but that its mechanism of toxicity differs from that of camptothecin and its derivatives. PMID:10691712

  19. Foxfire 4: Fiddle Making, Springhouses, Horse Trading, Sassafras Tea, Berry Buckets, Gardening, and Further Affairs of Plain Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigginton, Eliot, Ed.

    Planting by the signs of the moon, well digging, hewing logs, wood carving, knife making, bird trapping, and horsetrading are but a few of the aspects of Appalachian culture explored in "Foxfire 4." Like its predecessors, the volume was compiled by high school students at Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School. Information on the cultural heritage of…

  20. Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, religion, sex, age, veteran status, national origin, disability, or political affiliation. An equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. Issued in furth

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Identification Contest #2, VCE Publication 420-401. 1. Eastern white pine 9. Pitch pine 2. White oak 10. Eastern. Flowering dogwood 14. Shortleaf pine 7. Chestnut oak 15. Black oak 8. White ash 16. Sassafras 2" ­ 3" 3" ­ 7

  1. Basketball - Mens - 1971-1980 - 103 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2006-01-01

    oaks, elms, walnuts, and many vines, such as sassafras, zocosote [tuna or cactus plant), very fine as well as storax, berries of many kinds, pomegranates in abundance, persimmons, almonds, chestnuts, strawberries and many others" (Kress 1932:57). He...

  2. Growth performances and mycorrhizae of native and exotic hardwoods on bituminous stripmine spoils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM C. SHUFFSTALL; RICHARD J. MEDVE

    1979-01-01

    Growth parameters and mycorrhizal characteristics were compared for 10 hardwood species that naturally invade bituminous stripmine spoil and 4 exotic hard- woods that are commonly planted on reclaimed stripmine spoils in western Penn- sylvania. Sassafras albidum, Acer rubrum, Populus tremuloides, Crataegus spp., and Robinia pseudoacacia grew better on bituminous spoils than on non-spoil sites. In- vaders with the best total

  3. Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Valero; M. C. Salmerón

    2003-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils from aromatic plants against the strain INRA L2104 of the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus grown in carrot broth at 16 °C was studied. The quantity needed by the essential oils of nutmeg, mint, clove, oregano, cinnamon, sassafras, sage, thyme or rosemary to produce 14–1110% relative extension of the lag phase was determined. Total

  4. SOME USEFUL PLANTS OF THE BOTANICAL FAMILY LAURACEAE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Schroeder

    Cinnamon spice for cooking, bay leaves for flavoring, camphor for moth repellant and medicinal purposes, myrtlewood and stinkwood furniture, sassafras tea and avocado fruits to eat are all products from the botanical family Lauraceae to which the avocado belongs. The family Lauraceae, which derives its name from the prominent member, the Grecian laurel, Laurus nobilis, is characterized by plants which

  5. Verticillium Wilt of Shade Trees

    E-print Network

    , resulting in blockage of water movement from the roots to the foliage. The tree responds to infection recurrence of the trouble. NOTE: Yews and conifers are resistant to Verticillium wilt. Redbud and smoke tree Sassafras Boxwood Horse chestnut Serviceberry Brambles Japanese pagoda tree Smoke tree Buckeye Lilac Sumac

  6. Antennal electrophysiological responses of the giant swallowtail butterfly, Papilio cresphontes , to the essential oils of Zanthoxylum clava-herculis and related plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Fadamiro; Li Chen; Clement Akotsen-Mensah; William N. Setzer

    2010-01-01

    We used the electroantennogram (EAG) technique to compare the antennal sensitivity of both sexes of the giant swallowtail\\u000a butterfly, Papilio cresphontes to four doses (1, 10, 100, and 1,000 ?g) of the leaf essential oils of Zanthoxylum clava-herculis and Ptelea trifoliata (key host plants) and Sassafras albidum (a marginal or non-host plant). The main hypothesis tested was that P. cresphontes will show greater

  7. A rapid diversification of rainforest trees ( Guatteria; Annonaceae) following dispersal from Central into South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy H. J. Erkens; Lars W. Chatrou; Jan W. Maas; Timotheüs van der Niet; Vincent Savolainen

    2007-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of today’s plant diversity in the Neotropics has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region rather than vicariance, but more data are needed to substantiate this claim. Guatteria (Annonaceae) is, with 265 species, the third largest genus of Neotropical trees after Inga (Fabaceae) and Ocotea (Lauraceae), and its widespread

  8. Classification of a large and widespread genus of Neotropical trees, Guatteria (Annonaceae) and its three satellite genera Guatteriella, Guatteriopsis and Heteropetalum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. J. Erkens; L. W. Chatrou; J. Koek-Noorman; J. W. Maas; P. J. M. Maas

    2007-01-01

    Guatteria (Annonaceae) is with ca. 265 species one of the largest genera of Neotropical trees together with Inga and Ocotea. Use of Guatteria in evolutionary studies has been hampered by taxonomic problems caused by lack of morphological variability in the genus. This study focuses on molecular phylogenetic relationships within Guatteria and its satellites Guatteriopsis, Guatteriella and Heteropetalum, and implications of

  9. de recherche ISSN0249-6399ISRNINRIA/RR--6733--FR+ENG

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RECHERCHE EN INFORMATIQUE ET EN AUTOMATIQUE Inductor shape optimization for electromagnetic casting Alfredo for electromagnetic casting Alfredo Canelas, Jean R. Roche, José Herskovits§§ Thème NUM -- Systèmes numériques Équipes and the equilibrium shapes while in a second approach we minimizes the L2 norm of a fictitious surface pressure

  10. Human Lice (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Moore, Glen C.; Olson, Jimmy K.

    2006-06-26

    vida. Los huevecillos son de forma oval, de color canela claro y aproximadamente del tama?o de una part?cula fina de arena. Las liendres se pegan a los tallos del pelo cerca del cuero cabelludo, usualmente cerca de las orejas y en la parte posterior de...

  11. The relationships of understory vegetation to stand composition, stand structure and soil series in the San Jacinto Experimental Forest of Texas

    E-print Network

    Homesley, Wylie Buress

    1963-01-01

    2 18 0. 2 0 13 313 362 17 20 Vaccinium srboreum iburnum dentstum Viburnum rufidulum Zsnthox lum clays-herculis Brouseonetia a rifera 0 08 0. 08 1. 17 0 10 0. 02 08 0. 08 0. 27 0. 40 1. 15 0. 77 0. 09 0. 06 0. 02 1. 27 1. 91 3. 64... allina Sassafras albidum ULmus slats Vaccinium arboreum Viburnum dentatum Viburnum rufidulum Z~hl 1 -h 1L Dios ros vir iniana 3. 48 504 0. 10 371 8. 06 346 0, 52 730 0. 54 413 2. 37 451 0. 31 1072 0. 08 3361 0. 52 674 0. 25 699 2. 13 1...

  12. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.

  13. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chávez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patiño, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (?2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  14. Determinants of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in young children: a systematic review

    E-print Network

    Paes, Veena Mazarello; Hesketh, Kathryn; O’Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen; Summerbell, Carolyn; Griffin, Simon; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Ong, Ken K.; Lakshman, Rajalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    diseases. Meanwhile, despite resistance from the beverage industry, several public policies and regulatory strategies to reduce consumption of SSBs are already in place or being developed worldwide (15, 24-26). Evidence suggests that unhealthy... systematic review of the effectiveness of taxes on nonalcoholic beverages and high-in-fat foods as a means to prevent obesity trends. ClinicoEconomics and outcomes research : CEOR. 2013;5:519-43. 87. Bes-Rastrollo M, Schulze MB, Ruiz-Canela M, Martinez...

  15. En vue de l'obtention du DOCTORAT DE L'UNIVERSITE DE TOULOUSE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .Pilgrim, T.Lei, J. Rivera-Letelier, M.Shishikura, X.Wang, M.Jonsson, J.Canela, B. Branner, C. Petersen, S l'institut de Math de Toulouse : P.Haissinsky, J. Raissy, A.Dezotti, I.Zidane, B.Rossetti, L particuli`erement appr´eci´e les cours. Merci aussi `a T.Dedieu, D.C. Cisinski et M.Spivakovsky qui ont

  16. Site Name : Combarbala permanent station Author : Morvan + Decamps Site Code :C M B A date : year 2007 month 05 day 08

    E-print Network

    Vigny, Christophe

    Reinforced concrete/gravel Pilar 1.5m height anchored at 3 m depth Pillar and receiver shelter System `Samuel Roman Rojas'. MONUMENTATION Brass 12 cm rod (Delmont type), scealed in concrete pilar + BrassPatria and Ovalle To Canela #12;CMBA 4/6 Excavation size : 40x40, 3m depth 4 10x10 iron stem to re-enforce concrete

  17. Cooking with All-Purpose Flour (Spanish)

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    . Para asegurar su calidad util?cela en un periodo no mayor de 6 meses despu?s de adquirirla. Bizcocho r?pido (Coffee Cake) (rinde aproximadamente 6 porciones) Ingredientes 3 cucharadas de mantequilla o margarina, semiderretida ? taza de az?car (blanca...) 1 huevo 1 taza de harina de uso general (all purpose flour) 1? de cucharaditas de polvo para hornear ? de cucharadita de sal 1/3 de taza de leche ? de cucharadita de vainilla 1/3 de taza de az?car moreno comprimida ? cucharadita de canela ? taza de...

  18. Cooking with Applesauce (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    gusta) Manera de preparase 1. L?vese las manos y aseg?rese de que el ?rea en la que va a cocinar est? limpia. 2. Bata la mantequilla o margarina con el az?car hasta formar una pasta. 3. A?ada el pur? de manzana y mezcle todo muy bien. 4.... Revuelva en la mezcla la harina, el bicarbonato, la canela y los clavos. 5. A?ada las nueces y pasitas. La pasta se har? espesa. 6. Vierta la pasta en un molde que ha sido previamente engrasado y enharinado. 7. Hornee a una temperatura de 350 grados F...

  19. Cooking with Trail Mix (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    pur? de manzana, el aceite, el huevo y la leche. 4. A?ada la harina, el bicarbonato de sodio, el polvo para hornear y la canela y mezcle todo bien. 5. A?ada y revuelva la mezcla de frutos secos hasta que se humedezca. 6. Con una cuchara vierta la.... Mezcle la harina, el polvo para hornear y la sal. Deje la mezcla a un lado. 4. En otro taz?n bata los huevos hasta que se haga espuma, luego vierta y mezcle el az?car y la vainilla. 5. A?ada los ingredientes secos a la mezcla de huevos, az?car y...

  20. North American Lauraceae: Terpenoid Emissions, Relative Attraction and Boring Preferences of Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    Kendra, Paul E.; Montgomery, Wayne S.; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A.; Bauchan, Gary R.; Ploetz, Randy C.; Epsky, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of ?-cubebene, ?-copaene, ?-humulene, and calamenene were positively correlated with attraction, and EAG analyses confirmed chemoreception of terpenoids by antennal receptors of X. glabratus. PMID:25007073

  1. A rapid diversification of rainforest trees (Guatteria; Annonaceae) following dispersal from Central into South America.

    PubMed

    Erkens, Roy H J; Chatrou, Lars W; Maas, Jan W; van der Niet, Timotheüs; Savolainen, Vincent

    2007-07-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of today's plant diversity in the Neotropics has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region rather than vicariance, but more data are needed to substantiate this claim. Guatteria (Annonaceae) is, with 265 species, the third largest genus of Neotropical trees after Inga (Fabaceae) and Ocotea (Lauraceae), and its widespread distribution and frequent occurrence makes the genus an excellent model taxon to study diversification patterns. This study reconstructed the phylogeny of Guatteria and inferred three major biogeographical events in the history of the genus: (1) a trans-oceanic Miocene migration from Central into South America before the closing of the Isthmus of Panama; (2) a major diversification of the lineage within South America; and (3) several migrations of South American lineages back into Central America via the closed Panamanian land bridge. Therefore, Guatteria is not an Amazonian centred-genus sensu Gentry but a major Miocene diversification that followed its dispersal into South America. This study provides further evidence that migration into the Neotropics was an important factor in the historical assembly of its biodiversity. Furthermore, it is shown that phylogenetic patterns are comparable to those found in Ocotea and Inga and that a closer comparison of these genera is desirable. PMID:17433720

  2. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Coy-Barrera, Ericsson D; Cuca-Suarez, Luis E

    2011-12-01

    The in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of seven known lignans and one dihydrochalcone isolated from the leaves of two Lauraceae species (Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla), were evaluated through the inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, 5-LOX and the aggregation of rabbit platelets induced by PAF, AA and ADP. (+)-de-4"-O-methylmagnolin 4 was found to be a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor and PAF-antagonist (COX-2 IC(50) 2.27 µM; 5-LOX IC(50) 5.05 µM; PAF IC(50) 2.51 µM). However, all compounds exhibited an activity at different levels, indicating good anti-inflammatory properties to be considered in further structural optimization studies. PMID:22011769

  3. The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands, a review.

    PubMed

    Rivera, D; Obón, C

    1995-05-01

    The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands is extremely interesting because of the cultural and biogeographic features of this region, which make it a centre of medicinal plant diversity (richness of endemic flora, geographical isolation in the Atlantic sea, crosscultural influences, and past abundance of local healers). The medicinal flora of Madeira is composed of 259 species. Some noteworthy medicinal taxa, endemic or locally relevant, are: Acanthus mollis, Aeonium glandulosum, Aeonium glutinosum, Bidens pilosa, Borago officinalis, Chamaemelum nobile var. discoideum, Culcita macrocarpa, Echium nervosum, Euphorbia platiphylla, Helichrysum melaleucum, Helichrysum obconicum, Hypericum glandulosum, Hypericum humifussum, Kleinia repens, Laurus azorica, Monizia edulis, Ocotea foetens, Psoralea bituminosa, Rubus bollei, Rumex maderensis, Sambucus lanceolata, Scilla maderensis, Sedum brissemoretii, Sedum farinosum, Sedum nudum, Sibthorpia peregrina, Teucrium betonicum, Thymus caespititius, Trifolium squamosum and Vaccinium padifolium. Among the medicinal cryptogams, one can underline the parasitic fungus Laurobasidium lauri, which grows on the stems of Laurus azorica and is used as an antirheumatic, haemostatic, emmenagogue, insecticide and analeptic. PMID:7650952

  4. Determining fate and transport parameters for nitroglycerine, 2,4-dinitrotoluine, and nitroguanidine in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosch, D. L.; Dontsova, K.; Chorover, J.; Ferré, T.; Taylor, S.

    2010-12-01

    During military operations, a small fraction of propellant mass is not consumed during firing and is deposited onto the ground surface (Jenkins et al., 2006). Soluble propellant constituents can be released from particulate residues into the environment. Propellant constituents of interest for this study are nitroglycerine (NG), 2,4-dinitrotoluine (2,4-DNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluine (2,6-DNT), and nitroguanidine (NQ). The goal of this work is to determine fate and transport parameters for these constituents in three soils that represent a range of geographic locations and soil properties. This supports a companion study that looks at dissolution of NG, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and NQ from fired and unfired solid propellant formulations and their transport in soils. The three soils selected for the study are Catlin silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, superactive Oxyaquic Argiudoll), Plymouth sandy loam (mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamment), and Sassafras loam (fine loamy, siliceous, mesic Typic Hapudult). Two of these soils, Plymouth sandy loam and Sassafras loam, were collected on military installations. Linear adsorption coefficients and transformation rates of propellant constituents were determined in batch kinetic experiments. Soils were mixed with propellant constituent solutions (2 mg L-1) at 4:1 solution/soil mass ratio and equilibrated for 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 120 hr at which time samples were centrifuged and supernatant solutions were analyzed for target compounds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using U.S. EPA Method 8330b for NG, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT, and Walsh (1989) method for NQ. Adsorption and transformation of propellant constituents were determined from the decrease in solution concentration of these compounds. It was determined that all studied compounds were subjected to sorption by the solid phase and degradation. Catlin soil, with finer texture and high organic matter content, influenced solution concentration of NG, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and NQ to the greatest extent. Estimated fate and transport parameters will support ongoing release and column transport studies and will allow environmental managers on military installations to better estimate potential for propellant constituent transport off-site. Jenkins, T.F., A.D. Hewitt, C.L. Grant, S. Thiboutot, G. Ampleman, M.E. Walsh, T.A. Ranney, C.A. Ramsey, A.J. Palazzo, and J.C. Pennington. 2006. Identity and distribution of residues of energetic compounds at army live-fire training ranges. Chemosphere 63:1280-1290. Walsh, M.E. 1989. Analytical Methods for Determining Nitroguanidine in Soil and Water. Special Report 89-35. U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH.

  5. Dissolution of Unfired and Fired Propellants and Transport of Released Nitroglycerine, 2,4-Dinitrotoluine, and Nitroguanidine in Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dontsova, K.; Hunt, E.; Gosch, D. L.; Taylor, S.; Simunek, J.; Chorover, J.; Huxman, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ground water contamination due to deposition of military-related compounds during training activities on the firing ranges presents a potential problem for military land management. Small particles of propellant residue have been found around firing points on military installations (Jenkins et al., 2006). Understanding release of soluble propellant constituents, such as nitroglycerine (NG), 2,4-dinitrotoluine (2,4-DNT) and nitroguanidine (NQ) from insoluble nitrocellulose matrix of commonly-used propellants will allow estimating environmental impact of these residues. Studies of unfired propellants (Dontsova et al., 2009) showed that they can serve as potential sources of ground water contamination when exposed to rainwater. However, fired residues have not been examined. This study compared dissolution and subsequent transport of NG, 2,4-DNT, and NQ from unfired and fired residues of several common propellant formulations, M1 (2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT), WC860 (NG), and M31 (NG and NQ). Propellants were placed on soil surface in the columns and exposed to saturated flow. Two water fluxes were used, 0.55 and 0.9 cm h-1. Water flow was followed using conservative tracer, (Br-), while fate of propellant constituents was tracked by measuring their concentrations in outflow using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Dissolution and transport parameters were estimated using a water flow and solute transport model, HYDRUS-1D (Šimunek et al., 2005). Initial spike in outflow concentrations of NG, 2,4-DNT, and NQ observed after flow initiation for both fired and unfired propellants was followed by gradual decrease in dissolution rate, until it reached near steady-state. This decrease is explained by limitation that is placed on dissolution rate by diffusion of these compounds from particle interior. Of the two soils used, Plymouth sandy loam (mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamment), and Sassafras loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, mesic Typic Hapudult), Sassafras loam exhibited greater potential for adsorption and transformation of propellant constituents. Water flow rate also was shown to impact release of propellant constituents into solution. This work provides critical information about dissolution of propellant constituents from propellant formulations and their fate in soils necessary for making decisions about environmental management of firing ranges.

  6. Foraging strategies in trees of different root morphology: the role of root lifespan.

    PubMed

    Adams, Thomas S; McCormack, M Luke; Eissenstat, David M

    2013-09-01

    Resource exploitation of patches is influenced not simply by the rate of root production in the patches but also by the lifespan of the roots inhabiting the patches. We examined the effect of sustained localized nitrogen (N) fertilization on root lifespan in four tree species that varied widely in root morphology and presumed foraging strategy. The study was conducted in a 12-year-old common garden in central Pennsylvania using a combination of data from minirhizotron and root in-growth cores. The two fine-root tree species, Acer negundo L. and Populus tremuloides Michx., exhibited significant increases in root lifespan with local N fertilization; no significant responses were observed in the two coarse-root tree species, Sassafras albidum Nutt. and Liriodendron tulipifera L. Across species, coarse-root tree species had longer median root lifespan than fine-root tree species. Localized N fertilization did not significantly increase the N concentration or the respiration of the roots growing in the N-rich patch. Our results suggest that some plant species appear to regulate the lifespan of different portions of their root system to improve resource acquisition while other species do not. Our results are discussed in the context of different strategies of foraging of nutrient patches in species of different root morphology. PMID:24128849

  7. From buds to litter: seasonal changes in leaf wax concentrations and carbon isotopes and implications for the geologic past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Y. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon isotope composition (?13C) of leaf waxes, such as n-alkanes, have extensively been used in paleoenvironmental studies for reconstruction of the past vegetation, climate and carbon cycling. There is however little information available on the seasonal variation of leaf wax concentration and ?13C in modern plants and when the ?13C signal is set. This lack of information confounds interpretations of leaf wax ?13C in sedimentary archives. To address this gap, this study investigates temporal changes in n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid ?13C values in several species (Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Ulmus Americana, Sassafras albidum, and Juniperus virginiana) within a single temperate deciduous forest stand in southern Ohio. We sampled atmospheric air, buds, leaves, leaf litter, and surface soil weekly during leaf flush and biweekly thereafter. In A. rubrum, A. saccharum, and U. Americana, buds had one or two dominant n-alkanes, such as C29 and C31. After leaf flush, the concentrations of shorter n-alkanes (C23~C27) significantly increased relative to the longer chain-lengths. We are currently analyzing remaining samples from the growing season and are analyzing bulk leaf and leaf wax (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids) ?13C values. This information will be important for identifying environmental and physiological controls on leaf wax ?13C and will improve interpretations of leaf wax ?13C preserved in the geologic record.

  8. Toxicity and uptake of cyclic nitramine explosives in ryegrass Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, Sylvie; Lachance, Bernard; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2008-11-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), and 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) are cyclic nitramines used as explosives. Their ecotoxicities have been characterized incompletely and little is known about their accumulation potential in soil organisms. We assessed the toxicity and uptake of these explosives in perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne L. exposed in a Sassafras sandy loam (SSL) or in a sandy soil (DRDC, CL-20 only) containing contrasting clay contents (11% and 0.3%, respectively). A 21-d exposure to RDX, HMX or CL-20 in either soil had no adverse effects on ryegrass growth. RDX and HMX were translocated to ryegrass shoots, with bioconcentration factors (BCF) of up to 15 and 11, respectively. In contrast, CL-20 was taken up by the roots (BCF up to 19) with no translocation to the shoots. These studies showed that RDX, HMX, and CL-20 can accumulate in plants and may potentially pose a risk of biomagnification across the food chain. PMID:18358578

  9. Toxicity of emerging energetic soil contaminant CL-20 to potworm Enchytraeus crypticus in freshly amended or weathered and aged treatments.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Anthony, J Steven; Kolakowski, Jan E; Davis, Emily A

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the toxicity of an emerging polynitramine energetic material hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) to the soil invertebrate species Enchytraeus crypticus by adapting then using the Enchytraeid Reproduction Test (ISO/16387:2003). Studies were designed to develop ecotoxicological benchmark values for ecological risk assessment of the potential impacts of accidental release of this compound into the environment. Tests were conducted in Sassafras Sandy Loam soil, which supports relatively high bioavailability of CL-20. Weathering and aging procedures for CL-20 amended into test soil were incorporated into the study design to produce toxicity data that better reflect soil exposure conditions in the field compared with the toxicity in freshly amended soils. Concentration-response relationships for measurement endpoints were determined using nonlinear regressions. Definitive tests showed that toxicities for E. crypticus adult survival and juvenile production were significantly increased in weathered and aged soil treatments compared with toxicity in freshly amended soil, based on 95% confidence intervals. The median effect concentration (EC50) and EC20 values for juvenile production were 0.3 and 0.1 mg kg-1, respectively, for CL-20 freshly amended into soil, and 0.1 and 0.035 mg kg-1, respectively, for weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments. These findings of increased toxicity to E. crypticus in weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments compared with exposures in freshly amended soils show that future investigations should include a weathering and aging component to generate toxicity data that provide more complete information on ecotoxicological effects of emerging energetic contaminants in soil. PMID:16213571

  10. Accumulation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine by the earthworm Eisenia andrei in a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine G; Savard, Kathleen; Lachance, Bernard; Robidoux, Pierre Y; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2009-10-01

    The heterocyclic polynitramine hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a highly energetic compound found as a soil contaminant at some defense installations. Although RDX is not lethal to soil invertebrates at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg, it decreases earthworm cocoon formation and juvenile production at environmentally relevant concentrations found at contaminated sites. Very little is known about the uptake of RDX in earthworms and the potential risks for food-chain transfer of RDX in the environment. Toxicokinetic studies were conducted to quantify the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) using adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed for up to 14 d to sublethal concentrations of nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX in a Sassafras sandy loam soil. High-performance liquid chromatography of acetonitrile extracts of tissue and soil samples indicated that nonlabeled RDX can be accumulated by the earthworm in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The BAF, expressed as the earthworm tissue to soil concentration ratio, decreased from 6.7 to 0.1 when the nominal soil RDX concentrations were increased from 1 to 10,000 mg/kg. Tissue concentrations were comparable in earthworms exposed to nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX. The RDX bioaccumulation also was estimated using the kinetically derived model (BAFK), based on the ratio of the uptake to elimination rate constants. The established BAFK of 3.6 for [14C]RDX uptake was consistent with the results for nonlabeled RDX. Radioactivity also was present in the tissue residues of [14C]RDX-exposed earthworms following acetonitrile extraction, suggesting the formation of nonextractable [14C]RDX metabolites associated with tissue macromolecules. These findings demonstrated a net accumulation of RDX in the earthworm and the potential for food-chain transfer of RDX to higher-trophic-level receptors. PMID:19432505

  11. Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations???30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti. PMID:24713267

  12. Efficacy of extracts from plants of the Brazilian Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Larissa Bezerra; Souza, Juliana Kátia; Papassoni, Barbara; Borges, Dyego Gonçalves Lino; Damasceno, Geraldo Alves; de Souza, Jeana Mara Escher; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Borges, Fernando de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the in vitro acaricidal activity of extracts from 21 plant species from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul. During stage I, a larval immersion test was performed using three extract concentrations (5%, 20%, and 40%). During stage II, we used only plants that showed over 95% efficiency at the 40% concentration in stage I in an amount sufficient for the adult immersion test. Aeschynomene denticulata, Angelonia hirta, Aspilia latissima, Caperonia castaneifolia, Centratherum punctatum, Crotalaria micans, Diodia kuntzei, Echinodorus paniculatus, Hyptis mutabilis, Lantana canescens, Melanthera latifolia, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Richardia grandiflora, Sebastiana hispida, Tocoyena formosa, Zanthoxylum rigidum, and Sesbania virgata (fruit extract) showed acaricidal activity against the larval stage of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus higher than 95% at a 40% (w/v) concentration, while Hippocratea volubilis and Randia armata showed moderate efficacy and Croton glandulosus and Senna obtusifolia had no effect. The M. latifolia, A. hirta, R. grandiflora, and A. latissima raw extracts were evaluated for their activity against adults, and only A. hirta showed an efficacy close to 90%. Eighteen extracts had an efficacy of up to 95% against larvae at a 40% concentration, seven extracts were effective at 20%, and only one (Sebastiana hispida) was effective at a 5% concentration. PMID:24473878

  13. Post-transcriptional regulation of connexins.

    PubMed

    Salat-Canela, Clàudia; Muñoz, María José; Sesé, Marta; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Aasen, Trond

    2015-06-01

    Gap junctions allow intercellular communication. Their structural subunits are four-transmembrane proteins named connexins (Cxs), which can be post-transcriptionally regulated by developmental and cellular signalling cues. Cx translation and mRNA stability is regulated by miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) such as human antigen R (HuR). In addition, several Cxs have also been suggested to contain 5' internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements that are thought to allow cap-independent translation in situations such as mitosis, stress and senescence. Furthermore, several recent reports have documented internal translation of Cx mRNAs that result in N-terminally truncated protein isoforms that may have unique gap junction-independent functions [Ul-Hussain et al. (2008) BMC Mol. Biol. 9, 52; Smyth and Shaw (2013) Cell Rep. 5, 611-618; Salat-Canela et al. (2014) Cell Commun. Signal. 12, 31; Ul-Hussain et al. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 20979-20990]. This review covers the emerging field of the post-transcriptional regulation of Cxs, with particular focus on the translational control of Cx 43 and its possible functional consequences. PMID:26009192

  14. A new hypothesis for the importance of seed dispersal in time.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Adriana; Stevenson, Pablo R

    2011-12-01

    Most studies on seed dispersal in time have focused on seed dormancy and the physiological triggers for germination. However, seed dispersed by animals with low metabolic and moving rates, and long gut-passage times such as terrestrial turtles, could be considered another type of dispersal in time. This study tests the hypothesis that seeds dispersed in time may lower predation rates. We predicted that seeds deposited below parent trees after fruiting fall has finished is advantageous to minimize seed predators and should show higher survival rates. Four Amazonian plant species, Dicranostyles ampla, Oenocarpus bataua, Guatteria atabapensis and Ocotea floribunda, were tested for seed survival probabilities in two periods: during fruiting and 10-21 days after fruiting. Experiments were carried out in two biological stations located in the Colombian Amazon (Caparú and Zafire Biological Stations). Seed predation was high and mainly caused by non-vertebrates. Out of the four plant species tested, only Guatteria atabapensis supported the time escape hypothesis. For this species, seed predation by vertebrates after the fruiting period increased (from 4.1% to 9.2%) while seed predation by non-vertebrates decreased (from 54.0% to 40.2%). In contrast, seed predation by vertebrates and by non-vertebrates after the fruiting period in D. ampla increased (from 7.9% to 22.8% and from 40.4% to 50.6%, respectively), suggesting predator satiation. Results suggest that for some species dispersal in time could be advantageous to avoid some type of seed predators. Escape in time could be an additional dimension in which seeds may reach adequate sites for recruitment. Thus, future studies should be address to better understand the survival advantages given by an endozoochory time-dispersal process. PMID:22208093

  15. Survival and reproduction of enchytraeid worms, Oligochaeta, in different soil types amended with energetic cyclic nitramines.

    PubMed

    Dodard, Sabine G; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Kuperman, Roman G; Sarrazin, Manon; Gong, Ping; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Hawari, Jalal

    2005-10-01

    Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a new polycyclic polynitramine, has the same functional nitramine groups (N-NO2) as the widely used energetic chemicals hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (royal demolition explosive [RDX]) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (high-melting explosive [HMX]). Potential impacts of CL-20 as an emerging contaminant must be assessed before its use. The effects of CL-20, RDX, or HMX on adult survival and juvenile production by potworms Enchytraeus albidus and Enchytraeus crypticus were studied in three soil types, including Sassafras sandy loam (1.2% organic matter [OM], 11% clay, pH 5.5), an agricultural soil (42% OM, 1% clay, pH 8.2), and a composite agricultural-forest soil (23% OM, 2% clay, pH 7.9) by using ISO method 16387 (International Standard Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Results showed that CL-20 was toxic to E. crypticus with median lethal concentration values for adult survival ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 mg/kg dry mass (DM) when using the three tested soils. In addition, CL-20 adversely affected juvenile production by both species in all soils tested, with median effective concentration (EC50) values ranging from 0.08 to 0.62 mg/kg DM. Enchytraeus crypticus and E. albidus were similarly sensitive to CL-20 exposure in the composite agricultural-forest soil, which supported reproduction by both species and enabled comparisons. Correlation analysis showed weak or no relationship overall among the soil properties and reproduction toxicity endpoints. Neither RDX nor HMX affected (p > 0.05) adult survival of either species below 658 and 918 mg/kg DM, respectively, indicating that CL-20 is more toxic to enchytraeids than RDX or HMX. Examination of data shows that CL-20 should be considered as a potential reproductive toxicant to soil invertebrates, and that safeguards should be considered to minimize the potential for release of CL-20 into the environment. PMID:16268160

  16. Molecular Models of Rosmarinic Acid and DPPH

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The paper by Canelas and da Costa (1) introduces students to the antioxidant rosmarinic acid, and its interaction with the free radical DPPH. Those two molecules are the featured species this month. The original paper shows the 2-dimensional structure of the cis isomer of rosmarinic acid, although the trans isomer exhibits very similar antioxidant properties. Calculations at the DFT/B3LYP 631-G(d) level show that the trans isomer is more stable than the cis isomer in the gas phase, a situation that is expected to carry over into solution. Many antioxidants are phenols, and rosmarinic acid has four such groups available for radical formation. A DFT study by Cao et al. (2) examines the relative stabilities of the radicals formed from loss of each of the phenolic hydrogens. That paper focuses on the trans isomer, and a useful student project would be to repeat the calculations with the cis isomer. An HPLC separation of the isomers of rosmarinic acid has been published (3), and might well lead to an extension of the experiment described in ref 1 in which relative antioxidant efficiencies of the two isomers could be evaluated. DPPH has been used extensively as a standard for determining antioxidant activity. An examination of the molecular orbital occupied by the lone electron shows significant delocalization, providing a partial explanation for the stability of the neutral radical. Our gas phase structure for DPPH, also at the DFT/B3LYP 631-G(d) level, is quite consistent with several crystal structures on DPPH and DPPH in the presence of another species (4).

  17. The ENVISAT Atmospheric Chemistry mission (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY) -Processing status and data availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehn, Angelika; Brizzi, G.; Barrot, G.; Bovensmann, H.; Canela, M.; Fehr, T.; Laur, H.; Lichtenberg, G.; Niro, F.; Perron, G.; Raspollini, P.; Saavedra de Miguel, L.; Scarpino, G.; Vogel, P.

    The atmospheric chemistry instruments on board the ENVISAT platform (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY) provide a unique dataset of geophysical parameters (e.g.: trace gases, clouds, and aerosol) that allows a comprehensive characterization of the atmosphere's chemical and climatological processes [1]. These instruments started to provide significant science data shortly after the launch of the ENVISAT satellite (March 2002). At the time of writing this paper, these instruments and the whole payload modules are fully working and are well beyond the expected lifetime of 5 years. In addition the orbit control strategy of the platform will be modified starting from 2010, in order to extend the mission lifetime up to 2013 [2]. This means that if no instrument problems will appear, the ENVISAT atmospheric sensors will provide at the end of their life, three separated, but complementary datasets of the most important atmospheric state parameters, spanning a time interval of about 11 years. This represents an extraordinary source of information for the scientific user community, both for the completeness and quality of the data and for the extent of the dataset. The aim of this paper is to present the actual status of the ESA operational atmospheric chemistry dataset provided by the three ENVISAT atmospheric chemistry instruments and the future evolution. The processing and reprocessing status will be described in details for each instrument. The outcomes of the geophysical validation and the planned validation activities will be discussed. Finally the data availability and the source of information will be specified. [1] H. Nett, J. Frerick, T. Paulsen, and G. Levrini, "The atmospheric instruments and their applications: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY", ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265), No. 106, p. 77 -87 (2001) [2] J. Frerick, B. Duesmann, and M. Canela, "2010 and beyond -The ENVISAT mission extension", Proc. `Envisat Symposium 2007', Montreux, Switzerland, 23-27 April 2007 (ESA SP-636, July 2007)

  18. The ENVISAT Atmospheric Chemistry mission (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY) - Processing status and data availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niro, F.

    2009-04-01

    The atmospheric chemistry instruments on board the ENVISAT platform (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY) provide a unique dataset of geophysical parameters (e.g.: trace gases, clouds, and aerosol) that allows a comprehensive characterization of the atmosphere's chemical and climatological processes [1]. These instruments started to provide significant science data shortly after the launch of the ENVISAT satellite (March 2002). At the time of writing this paper, these instruments and the whole payload modules are fully working and are well beyond the expected lifetime of 5 years. In addition the orbit control strategy of the platform will be modified starting from 2010, in order to extend the mission lifetime up to 2013 [2]. This means that if no instrument problems will appear, the ENVISAT atmospheric sensors will provide at the end of their life, three separated, but complementary datasets of the most important atmospheric state parameters, spanning a time interval of about 11 years. This represents an extraordinary source of information for the scientific user community, both for the completeness and quality of the data and for the extent of the dataset. The aim of this paper is to present the actual status of the ESA operational atmospheric chemistry dataset provided by the three ENVISAT atmospheric chemistry instruments and the future evolution. The processing and reprocessing status will be described in details for each instrument. The outcomes of the geophysical validation and the planned validation activities will be discussed. Finally the data availability and the source of information will be specified. [1] H. Nett, J. Frerick, T. Paulsen, and G. Levrini, "The atmospheric instruments and their applications: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY", ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265), No. 106, p. 77 - 87 (2001) [2] J. Frerick, B. Duesmann, and M. Canela, "2010 and beyond - The ENVISAT mission extension", Proc. ‘Envisat Symposium 2007', Montreux, Switzerland, 23-27 April 2007 (ESA SP-636, July 2007)

  19. Floristic composition and similarity of 15 hectares in Central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Kátia Emidio; Martins, Sebastião Venancio; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Santos, Nerilson Terra; de Azevedo, Celso Paulo; Matos, Francisca Dionizia de Almeida; do Amaral, Ieda Leão

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon region is one of the most diverse areas in the world. Research on high tropical forest diversity brings up relevant contributions to understand the mechanisms that result and support such diversity. In the present study we describe the species composition and diversity of 15 one-ha plots in the Amazonian terra firme dense forest in Brazil, and compare the floristic similarity of these plots with other nine one-ha plots. The 15 plots studied were randomly selected from permanent plots at the Embrapa Experimental site, Amazonas State in 2005. The diversity was analysed by using species richness and Shannon's index, and by applying the Sorensen's index for similarity and unweighted pair-group average (UPGMA) as clustering method. Mantel test was performed to study whether the differences in species composition between sites could be explained by the geographic distance between them. Overall, we identified 8 771 individuals, 264 species and 51 plant families. Most of the species were concentrated in few families and few had large number of individuals. Families presenting the highest species richness were Fabaceae (Faboideae: 22spp., Mimosoideae: 22spp.), Sapotaceae: 22spp., Lecythidaceae: 15 and Lauraceae: 13. Burseraceae had the largest number of individuals with 11.8% of the total. The ten most abundant species were: Protium hebetatum (1 037 individuals), Eschweilera coriacea (471), Licania oblongifolia (310), Pouteria minima (293), Ocotea cernua (258), Scleronema micranthum (197), Eschweilera collina (176), Licania apelata (172), Naucleopsis caloneura (170) and Psidium araca (152), which represented 36.5% of all individuals. Approximately 49% of species had up to ten individuals and 13% appeared only once in all sampled plots, showing a large occurrence of rare species. Our study area is on a forest presenting a high tree species diversity with Shannon's diversity index of 4.49. The dendrogram showed two groups of plots with low similarity between them (less than 0.25), and the closer the plots were one to another, more similar in species composition (Mantel R = 0.3627, p < 0.01). The 15 plots in our study area share more than 50% of their species composition and represent the group of plots that have the shortest distance between each other. Overall, our results highlight the high local and regional heterogeneity of environments in terra firme forests, and the high occurrence of rare species, which should be considered in management and conservation programs in the Amazon rainforest, in order to maintain its structure on the long run. PMID:22208103

  20. Annual Proxy Records from Tropical Cloud Forest Trees in the Monteverde Cloud Forest, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchukaitis, K. J.; Evans, M. N.; Wheelwright, N. T.; Schrag, D. P.

    2005-12-01

    The extinction of the Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes) from Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest prompted research into the causes of ecological change in the montane forests of Costa Rica. Subsequent analysis of meteorological data has suggested that warmer global surface and tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures contribute to an observed decrease in cloud cover at Monteverde. However, while recent studies may have concluded that climate change is already having an effect on cloud forest environments in Costa Rica, without the context provided by long-term climate records, it is difficult to confidently conclude that the observed ecological changes are the result of anthropogenic climate forcing, land clearance in the lowland rainforest, or natural variability in tropical climate. To address this, we develop high-resolution proxy paleoclimate records from trees without annual rings in the Monteverde Cloud Forest in Costa Rica. Calibration of an age model in these trees is a fundamental prerequisite for proxy paleoclimate reconstructions. Our approach exploits the isotopic seasonality in the ?18O of water sources (fog versus rainfall) used by trees over the course of a single year. Ocotea tenera individuals of known age and measured annual growth increments were sampled in long-term monitored plantation sites in order to test this proposed age model. High-resolution (200?m increments) stable isotope measurements on cellulose reveal distinct, coherent ?18O cycles of 6 to 10‰. The calculated growth rates derived from the isotope timeseries match those observed from basal growth increment measurements. Spatial fidelity in the age model and climate signal is examined by using multiple cores from multiple trees and multiple sites. These data support our hypothesis that annual isotope cycles in these trees can be used to provide chronological control in the absence of rings. The ability of trees to record interannual climate variability in local hydrometeorology and remote climate forcing is evaluated using the isotope signal from multiple trees, local meteorological observations, and climate field data for the well-observed 1997-1998 warm El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. The successful calibration of our age model is a necessary step toward the development of long, annually-resolved paleoclimate reconstructions from old trees, even without rings, which will be used to evaluate the cause of recent observed climate change at Monteverde and as proxies for tropical climate field reconstructions.

  1. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes) on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Verônica Souza da Mota; Correia, Maria Célia Rodrigues; de Lima, Heloisa Alves; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2008-03-01

    Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation) is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1,680 net-hrs) and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis) in the present study, we confirmed that the tested effect of restinga frugivorous birds on seed germination was generally null. Although there is a need for more detailed studies on specific animal-plant interactions on this habitat, the overall effect of the birds on seed dispersal in restinga is probably positive. PMID:18624238

  2. The ENVISAT Atmospheric Chemistry mission (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY) -Instrument status and mission evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehn, Angelika

    The ENVISAT ESA's satellite was launched on a polar orbit on March 2002. It carries on-board three atmospheric chemistry instruments: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY [1]. At the present time, although the mission expected lifetime of 5 years has been already exceeded, all the payload modules are in good to excellent status. The only limiting factor is the available fuel that is used for orbit control manoeuvre. A new strategy was proposed [2] that will allow to save fuel and to extend the mission up to 2013. Following this strategy, the altitude of the orbit will be lowered by 17 km starting from end of 2010 and the inclination will be allowed to drift. The new orbit scenario will result in a new repeating cycle with a variation of the Mean Local Solar Time (MLST). This will have an impact on both the in-flight operations, on the science data and on the mission. The simulations carried out for the atmospheric chemistry instruments show that the new orbit strategy will neither have a significant impact in the instrument operations nor on the quality of the science data. Therefore we expect that the atmospheric mission will continue nominally until the end of the platform life time, providing to the scientist a unique dataset of the most important geophysical parameters (e.g., trace gases, clouds, and aerosol) spanning a time interval of about 11 years. The aim of this paper is to review the overall ENVISAT atmospheric mission status for the past, present and future. The evolution of the instrument performances since launch will be analyzed with focus on the life-limited items monitoring. The tuning of the instrument in-flight operations decided to cope with instrument degradation or scientific needs will be described. The lessons learned on how to operate and monitor the instruments will be highlighted. Finally the expected evolution of the instrument performances until the ENVISAT end-of-life will be discussed. [1] H. Nett, J. Frerick, T. Paulsen, and G. Levrini, "The atmospheric instruments and their applications: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY", ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265), No. 106, p. 77 -87 (2001) [2] J. Frerick, B. Duesmann, and M. Canela, "2010 and beyond -The ENVISAT mission extension", Proc. `Envisat Symposium 2007', Montreux, Switzerland, 23-27 April 2007 (ESA SP-636, July 2007)

  3. The ENVISAT Atmospheric Chemistry mission (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY) - Instrument status and mission evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niro, F.

    2009-04-01

    The ENVISAT ESA's satellite was launched on a polar orbit on March 2002. It carries on-board three atmospheric chemistry instruments: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY [1]. At the present time, although the mission expected lifetime of 5 years has been already exceeded, all the payload modules are in good to excellent status. The only limiting factor is the available fuel that is used for orbit control manoeuvre. Recently a new strategy was proposed [2] that will allow to save fuel and to extend the mission up to 2013. Following this strategy, the altitude of the orbit will be lowered by 17 km starting from end of 2010 and the inclination will be allowed to drift. The new orbit scenario will result in a new repeating cycle with a variation of the Mean Local Solar Time (MLST). This will have an impact on both the in-flight operations, on the science data and on the mission. The simulations carried out for the atmospheric chemistry instruments show that the new orbit strategy will neither have a significant impact in the instrument operations nor on the quality of the science data. Therefore we expect that the atmospheric mission will continue nominally until the end of the platform life time, providing to the scientist a unique dataset of the most important geophysical parameters (e.g., trace gases, clouds, and aerosol) spanning a time interval of about 11 years. The aim of this paper is to review the overall ENVISAT atmospheric mission status for the past, present and future. The evolution of the instrument performances since launch will be analyzed with focus on the life-limited items monitoring. The tuning of the instrument in-flight operations decided to cope with instrument degradation or scientific needs will be described. The lessons learned on how to operate and monitor the instruments will be highlighted. Finally the expected evolution of the instrument performances until the ENVISAT end-of-life will be discussed. [1] H. Nett, J. Frerick, T. Paulsen, and G. Levrini, "The atmospheric instruments and their applications: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY", ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265), No. 106, p. 77 - 87 (2001) [2] J. Frerick, B. Duesmann, and M. Canela, "2010 and beyond - The ENVISAT mission extension", Proc. ‘Envisat Symposium 2007', Montreux, Switzerland, 23-27 April 2007 (ESA SP-636, July 2007)

  4. Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port, Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Daniel; Baptista, Maria Ana; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2015-04-01

    Global energy production is still significantly dependant on the coal supply chain, justifying huge investments on building infrastructures, capable of stocking very large quantities of this natural resource. Most of these infrastructures are located at deep-sea ports and are therefore exposed to extreme coastal hazards, such as tsunami impacts. The 2011 Tohoku tsunami is reported to have inflicted severe damage to Japan's coal-fired power stations and related infrastructure. Sines, located in the Portuguese coast, hosts a major commercial port featuring an exposed coal stockpile area extending over more than 24 ha and a container terminal currently under expansion up to 100ha. It is protected against storm surges but tsunamis have not been considered in the design criteria. The dominant wind-generated wave direction is N to NW, while the main tsunamigenic faults are located S to SW of the port. This configuration potentially exposes sensitive facilities, such as the new terminal container and the coal stockpile area. According to a recent revision of the national tsunami catalogue (Baptista, 2009), Portugal has been affected by numerous major tsunamis over the last two millennia, with the most notorious event being the Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami occurred on the 1st November 1755. The aim of this work is to simulate the open ocean propagation and overland impact of a tsunami on the Sines port, similar to the historical event of 1755, based on the different tsunamigenic faults and magnitudes proposed in the current literature. Open ocean propagation was modelled with standard simulation tools like TUNAMI and GeoClaw. Near-shore and overland propagation was carried out using a recent 2DH mathematical model for solid-fluid flows, STAV-2D from CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Canelas, 2013). STAV-2D is particularly suited for tsunami propagation over complex and morphodynamic geometries, featuring a discretization scheme based on a finite-volume method using a flux-splitting technique with a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver and appropriate source-term formulations to ensure full conservativeness. Additionally, STAV-2D features Lagrangian-Eulerian coupling enabling solid transport simulation under both continuum and discrete approaches, and has been validated with both laboratory data and paleo-tsunami evidence (Conde, 2013a; Conde, 2013b). The interactions between the inundating flow and coal stockpiles or natural mobile bed reaches were simulated using a continuum debris-flow approach, featuring fractional solid transport, while the containers at the new terminal were advected with an explicit Lagrangian method. The meshwork employed at the port models the existing geometry and structures in great detail, enabling explicitly resolved interactions between the current infrastructure and the overland propagating tsunami. The obtained preliminary results suggest that several structures, some of them critical in a nationwide context, are exposed to tsunami actions. The coal deposition pattern and the final location of monitored containers were determined for two magnitude scenarios (8.5 Mw and 9.5 Mw) in the case of a tsunami generated at the Horseshoe fault and one magnitude scenario (9.5 Mw) for a tsunami generated at the Gorringe bank. The inland washing of the coal stockpiles may impose great loss of both economical and environmental value, while the impact of large mobile debris, such as the containers in the terminal area, significantly increases the severity of infrastructural damage. Acknowledgements This work was partially funded by FEDER, program COMPETE, and by national funds through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) with project RECI/ECM-HID/0371/2012. References Baptista M.A. & Miranda, J.M. (2009), Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 25-42. Canelas, R.; Murillo, J. & Ferreira, R.M.L. (2013), Two-dimensional depth-averaged modelling of dam-break flows over mobile beds. Vol 51(4) pp. 392-407. Conde, D. A. S.; Baptista, M. A. V.; Sousa