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1

INFLUÊNCIA DA TEMPERATURA NA GERMINAÇÃO DE DIÁSPOROS DE Ocotea odorifera (Vellozo) Rohwer (CANELA-SASSAFRÁS) TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON THE GERMINATION OF DIASPORES OF Ocotea odorifera Vellozo) Rohwer (CANELA-SASSAFRÁS) Ricardo Cetnarski Filho1 Antonio Carlos Nogueira2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was developed at the Seed Laboratory of Forestry Sciences Department of Federal University of Paraná - UFPR, in order to determinate the effect of the temperature: 20, 25 and 30o C, and the remotion of the outer coat (endocarp and tegument) on seeds germination the Ocotea odorifera (Vel.) Rohwer. The diaspores were collected at Fazenda Rio Grande, Paraná

Engenheiro Agrônomo

2

INFLUÊNCIA DA TEMPERATURA NA GERMINAÇÃO DE DIÁSPOROS DE Ocotea odorifera (Vellozo) Rohwer (CANELA-SASSAFRÁS) TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON THE GERMINATION OF DIASPORES OF Ocotea odorifera Vellozo) Rohwer (CANELA-SASSAFRÁS) Ricardo Cetnarski Filho 1 Antonio Carlos Nogueira 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was developed at the Seed Laboratory of Forestry Sciences Department of Federal University of Paraná - UFPR, in order to determinate the effect of the temperature: 20, 25 and 30 o C, and the remotion of the outer coat (endocarp and tegument) on seeds germination the Ocotea odorifera (Vel.) Rohwer. The diaspores were collected at Fazenda Rio Grande,

Engenheiro Agrônomo

2005-01-01

3

Phytochemical and antiprotozoal activity of Ocotea lancifolia.  

PubMed

Thirteen known isoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from Ocotea lancifolia, popularly known as < canela pilosa > in Brasil and < laurel né > by the Guarani people which means smell laurel. Their activities against the promastigote forms of three Leishmania strains and the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated, as well as their hepatocytotoxicity. Among them, the noraporphine alkaloid (-) caaverine has shown the most interesting antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania and T. cruzi parasites. PMID:17499454

Fournet, Alain; Ferreira, Maria Elena; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Guy, Isabelle; Guinaudeau, Hélène; Heinzen, Horacio

2007-07-01

4

Sassafras tea and diaphoresis.  

PubMed

A patient whose main symptom is sweating can present a diagnostic challenge. Dr Haines describes a case in which diaphoresis was caused not by a conventional medication or illness but rather by a life-style change in which the patient began consuming sassafras tea. PMID:1891436

Haines, J D

1991-09-15

5

75 FR 81125 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sassafras River, Georgetown, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2010-1100] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sassafras River, Georgetown, MD AGENCY: Coast...regulations governing the operation of the Sassafras River (Route 213) Bridge, mile 10...repairs and barrier gate replacement. The Sassafras River Bridge (Route 213), at...

2010-12-27

6

The Canela Indians of Northeastern Central Brazil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based largely on the pioneering research of Bill Crocker, this site on the Canela Indians of Central Brazil is hosted by the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Designed to educate a general audience about the life and activities of the Canela, the site contains numerous sections that allow visitors to explore a world that few persons will be able to visit. First-time visitors will want to read the short essay ("About the Canela") before proceeding to the Daily Life chronology, which lists the activities of the Canela on an average day, including a men's council meeting and sing-dancing. A literature section offers numerous papers written by Bill Crocker on various aspects of Canela life, such as their initiation festivals and their relationships with ghosts. Finally, visitors will want to check out a short video showing Canela men engaging in one of their most unique daily activities, log racing.

2002-01-01

7

33 CFR 117.570 - Sassafras River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.570 Sassafras River. The draw of the...River (Route 213) bridge, mile 10.0 at Georgetown, Maryland, shall open on signal; except that from...

2011-07-01

8

33 CFR 117.570 - Sassafras River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.570 Sassafras River. The draw of the...River (Route 213) bridge, mile 10.0 at Georgetown, Maryland, shall open on signal; except that from...

2012-07-01

9

33 CFR 117.570 - Sassafras River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.570 Sassafras River. The draw of the...River (Route 213) bridge, mile 10.0 at Georgetown, Maryland, shall open on signal; except that from...

2013-07-01

10

33 CFR 117.570 - Sassafras River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.570 Sassafras River. The draw of the...River (Route 213) bridge, mile 10.0 at Georgetown, Maryland, shall open on signal; except that from...

2014-07-01

11

33 CFR 117.570 - Sassafras River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.570 Sassafras River. The draw of the...River (Route 213) bridge, mile 10.0 at Georgetown, Maryland, shall open on signal; except that from...

2010-07-01

12

A benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Doryphora sassafras.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation of the Australian rainforest plant Doryphora sassafras has resulted in the isolation of a new natural product, 2-methyl-1-(p-methoxybenzyl)-6,7-methylenedioxyisoquinolinium chloride (1). The iodide salt of compound 1 has previously been synthesized but only partially characterized. This paper reports the full spectroscopic characterization of 1 by MS, IR, UV, and NMR data. PMID:11754616

Carroll, A R; Davis, R A; Forster, P I; Guymer, G P; Quinn, R J

2001-12-01

13

Attributes of Leaves on Reproductive Shoots of Taiwan Sassafras (Sassafras randaiense (Hay.) Rehder) at Chilan Shan, Northeastern Taiwan1  

Microsoft Academic Search

?Abstract? The objective of this study was ,to investigate the dynamic nature of size and greenness,of leaves ,on the reproductive shoots of ,Taiwan sassafras (Sassafras randaiense (Hay.) Rehder) during a growing season at Chilan-Shan of northeastern Taiwan. Five trees, each under 1.

Jing-hui Lin; Biing T. Guan

2003-01-01

14

Antifungal effects of Ellagitannin isolated from leaves of Ocotea odorifera (Lauraceae).  

PubMed

Ocotea odorifera is a medicinal plant that is popularly known in Brazil as "canela-sassafrás" and is used to treat dermatosis. This study investigated the antifungal properties of O. odorifera. The methanol extract of O. odorifera was submitted to successive chromatographic separation and yielded Tellimagrandin II (TEL). Candida parapsilosis strain ATCC 22019 was used to determine the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and fungicidal concentrations, and to study the synergistic action with nystatin (NYS), amphotericin (AMP), and fluconazole (FLU). After treatment, the morphology of the yeast was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity was assessed in Vero cells, and genotoxicity by the micronucleus test. The TEL structure was proposed based on NMR and comparison with literature data and ESI-MSMS analysis. The compound showed potent inhibitory activity against C. parapsilosis, with a MIC of 1.6 ?M. TEL acted synergistically with NYS, AMP, and FLU, and caused morphological alterations in the yeast cells. The methanolic extract showed low cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and was not mutagenic in mice (P < 0.05). The use of O. odorifera in traditional medicine seems to have a valid basis, in view of the antifungal activity of TEL demonstrated in this study, and may contribute to potential drug development. PMID:20922478

Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda; Garcia, Francielle Pelegrin; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

2011-03-01

15

21 CFR 172.580 - Safrole-free extract of sassafras.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Safrole-free extract of sassafras. 172.580 Section 172.580 Food...172.580 Safrole-free extract of sassafras. The food additive safrole-free extract of sassafras may be safely used in accordance...

2013-04-01

16

21 CFR 172.580 - Safrole-free extract of sassafras.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Safrole-free extract of sassafras. 172.580 Section 172.580 Food...172.580 Safrole-free extract of sassafras. The food additive safrole-free extract of sassafras may be safely used in accordance...

2011-04-01

17

21 CFR 172.580 - Safrole-free extract of sassafras.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Safrole-free extract of sassafras. 172.580 Section 172.580 Food...172.580 Safrole-free extract of sassafras. The food additive safrole-free extract of sassafras may be safely used in accordance...

2010-04-01

18

21 CFR 172.580 - Safrole-free extract of sassafras.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Safrole-free extract of sassafras. 172.580 Section 172.580 Food...172.580 Safrole-free extract of sassafras. The food additive safrole-free extract of sassafras may be safely used in accordance...

2014-04-01

19

21 CFR 172.580 - Safrole-free extract of sassafras.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Safrole-free extract of sassafras. 172.580 Section 172.580 Food...172.580 Safrole-free extract of sassafras. The food additive safrole-free extract of sassafras may be safely used in accordance...

2012-04-01

20

Herbivory in Australian Rain Forests, with Particular Reference to the Canopies of Doryphora sassafras (Monimiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivory in the canopies of Australian rain forest trees was measured from 1979-1988, and their associated leaf growth dynamics quantified. Levels of defoliation were compared on several spatial scales: within and among canopies of one species (Doryphora sassafras Endl.) (Monimiaceae), between species, and among sites, light, and height. Sassafras was distributed throughout all rain forest formations in New South Wales,

Margaret D. Lowman

21

Antimalarial benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from the rainforest tree Doryphora sassafras.  

PubMed

Mass-directed isolation of the CH(2)Cl(2)/MeOH extract of Doryphora sassafras resulted in the purification of a new benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, 1-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-6,7-methylenedioxy-2-methylisoquinolinium trifluoroacetate (1), and the known aporphine alkaloid (S)-isocorydine (2). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by 1D and 2D NMR and MS data analyses. The compounds were isolated during a drug discovery program aimed at identifying new antimalarial leads from a prefractionated natural product library. When tested against two different strains of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 and Dd2), 1 displayed IC(50) values of 3.0 and 4.4 microM, respectively. Compound 1 was tested for cytotoxicity toward a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293) and displayed no activity at 120 microM. PMID:19637893

Buchanan, Malcolm S; Davis, Rohan A; Duffy, Sandra; Avery, Vicky M; Quinn, Ronald J

2009-08-01

22

Phylogeny and biogeography of Sassafras (Lauraceae) disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sassafras (Lauraceae) consists of three species disjunct between eastern Asia (S. tzumu and S. randaiense) and eastern North America (S. albidum). Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of nuclear ribosomal ITS and three chloroplast non-coding regions (rpl16, trnL-F, and psbA-trnH) showed that Sassafras is monophyletic and that the eastern North American S. albidum is sister to the clade of its two

Z.-L. Nie; J. Wen; H. Sun

2007-01-01

23

Evidence for gondwanan origins for sassafras (lauraceae)? : late cretaceous fossil wood of antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sassafrasoxylon gottwaldii sp. nov. is a new taxon for fossil wood with\\u000aa suite of features diagnostic of Sassafras Nees & Eberm. of the Lauraceae.\\u000aThe fossil wood described is from Late Cretaceous (Santonian-\\u000aMaastrichtian) sediments of the northern Antarctica Peninsula region.\\u000aThis new species of Sassafrasoxylon Brezinová et Süss resembles the\\u000aspecies of extant Sassafras in being distinctly ring-porous,

I. J. Poole; Hans G. Richter; Jane E. Francis

2000-01-01

24

Supporting concurrency, communication, and synchronization in human-computer interaction—the Sassafras UIMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sassafras is a prototype User Interface Management System (UIMS) specifically designed to support a wide range of user interface styles. In particular, it supports the implementation of user interfaces where the user is free to manipulate multiple input devices and perform several (possibly related) tasks concurrently. These interfaces can be compactly represented and efficiently implemented without violating any of the

Ralph D. Hill

1986-01-01

25

Composition of the Essential Oil from the Root of Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Sassafras albidum, obtained by hydrodistallation of the root bark and root wood, were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The main component of the root bark and root wood oils was safrole (61.29–88.80%). Both oils contained the same constituents although there were some quantitative differences.

Jan H. Zwaving; Rein Bos

1996-01-01

26

Mating System Dynamics of Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae), a Gynodioecious Tropical Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progeny arrays of Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae), a gynodioecious tree endemic to Costa Rica, were electrophoretically surveyed for allozyme variation to estimate the outcrossing rate in the overall population and to test for differences in outcrossing rates between hermaphroditic and female trees. Multilocus outcrossing rate estimates across 3 yr indicated O. tenera predominantly outcrosses. However, significant heterogeneity in single-locus outcrossing rates

J. Phil Gibson; Nathaniel T. Wheelwright

1996-01-01

27

Structural Analysis of Female and Hermaphroditic Flowers of a Gynodioecious Tree, Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of gynodioecy from hermaphroditism involves modifications of floral structure such that male or female fitness is enhanced in hermaphrodites and females, respectively. We present an analysis of structural specialization of flowers of Ocotea tenera, in order to evaluate gender system evolution in this tropical tree species. Significant morphological and anatomical variation was found between high fruiting and low

J. Phil Gibson; Pamela K. Diggle

1997-01-01

28

Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for Ocotea species (Lauraceae) threatened with extinction.  

PubMed

The Atlantic rainforest species Ocotea catharinensis, Ocotea odorifera, and Ocotea porosa have been extensively harvested in the past for timber and oil extraction and are currently listed as threatened due to overexploitation. To investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of these species, we developed 8 polymorphic microsatellite markers for O. odorifera from an enriched microsatellite library by using 2 dinucleotide repeats. The microsatellite markers were tested for cross-amplification in O. catharinensis and O. porosa. The average number of alleles per locus was 10.2, considering all loci over 2 populations of O. odorifera. Observed and expected heterozygosities for O. odorifera ranged from 0.39 to 0.93 and 0.41 to 0.92 across populations, respectively. Cross-amplification of all loci was successfully observed in O. catharinensis and O. porosa except 1 locus that was found to lack polymorphism in O. porosa. Combined probabilities of identity in the studied Ocotea species were very low ranging from 1.0 x 10-24 to 7.7 x 10-24. The probability of exclusion over all loci estimated for O. odorifera indicated a 99.9% chance of correctly excluding a random nonparent individual. The microsatellite markers described in this study have high information content and will be useful for further investigations on genetic diversity within these species and for subsequent conservation purposes. PMID:25061738

Martins, E M; Martinelli, G; Arbetman, M P; Lamont, R W; Simões-Araújo, J L; Powell, D; Ciampi-Guillardi, M; Baldauf, C; Quinet, A; Galisa, P; Shapcott, A

2014-01-01

29

Sassafrins A–D, new antimicrobial azaphilones from the fungus Creosphaeria sassafras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new azaphilones named sassafrins A–D (1–4) were isolated from the methanol extract of the stromata of the fungus Creosphaeria sassafras (Xylariaceae, Ascomycetes). Their structures were elucidated by 2D NMR, HR-MS, IR, UV and CD spectroscopy. Sassafrin D (4) possesses a novel skeleton and its biosynthetic pathway is also discussed. In addition, all compounds showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Their apparently

Dang Ngoc Quang; Toshihiro Hashimoto; Jacques Fournier; Marc Stadler; Niko Radulovi?; Yoshinori Asakawa

2005-01-01

30

Sassarandainol: a new neolignan and anti-inflammatory constituents from the stem of Sassafras randaiense.  

PubMed

A new neolignan, (R)-( - )-sassarandainol (1), together with 10 known compounds (2-11), was isolated from the stem of Sassafras randaiense. The structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Among these isolates, ?-tocopherol (5), subamolide B (7) and ?-sitosterone (9) exhibited moderate iNOS inhibitory activity on nitrite production induced (%) value of 30.51, 28.68 and 16.96, respectively. PMID:25495689

Hou, Ya-Ling; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Wang, Hui-Chun; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Chen, Tze-Ying; Lin, Chu-Hung; Chen, Ih-Sheng

2015-05-01

31

Potential of two processing methods to reduce sweetgum and sassafras lumber defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sassafras and sweetgum logs were grade sawn and the lumber milled to 4\\/4 thickness and processed according to two methods.\\u000a One half of the boards of both species were ripped prior to drying and the other half were dried prior to being ripped to\\u000a the desired dimension. A statistical analysis revealed that the non-conventional method gave a significantly greater twist,

O. V. Harding; T. F. Shupe; E. T. Choong; R. H. Mills

1997-01-01

32

The age, extent and geomorphological significance of the Sassafras basalt, south-eastern New South Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basalt at Sassafras was erupted in the Middle Eocene. The K?Ar ages average 45.3 ± 4.9 Ma on whole rock and 48.4 ± 1.9 Ma on plagioclase. The basalt is not limited to a plateau capping, but extends 150 m down into adjacent valleys. Comparison with nearby Eocene basalts shows that there was in excess of 250 m of local

R. W. Young; Ian McDougall

1985-01-01

33

Identification of nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria from living Sassafras ( Atherosperma moschatum Labill.) trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria (Enterobacter agglomerans and Citrobacter freundii) were commonly found associated with the microflora of stained Sassafras (Atherosperma moschatum Labill.) in forests of SE Tasmania. However, their populations never exceeded 3× 104 cells g?1 dry wood and comprised at most 3% of the total bacterial flora. Bacterial colonization of the wood appeared to coincide with\\u000a that by non-hymenocetous fungi: bacteria

M. A. Line

1990-01-01

34

Chemical composition of essential oil from the root bark of Sassafras albidum.  

PubMed

The root bark of Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees (Lauraceae) was extracted at room temperature with hexane and chloroform as solvents. The isolated essential oils were analyzed with GC and GC/MS. Thirty compounds were identified, nine of which have not been previously reported from this species. The major compounds were safrole (85%), camphor (3.25%), and methyleugenol (1.10%). Ten sesquiterpenes were also identified. PMID:8824955

Kamdem, D P; Gage, D A

1995-12-01

35

An Oviposition Stimulant for Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly, Papilio troilus , from Leaves of Sassafras albidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female butterflies of the spicebush swallowtail, Papilio troilus, are specialists, ovipositing on plants in the family Lauraceae. Column chromatography and HPLC were used to isolate an oviposition stimulant from the leaves of one of its hosts, Sassafras albidum. The stimulant was identified as 3-trans-caffeoyl-muco-quinic acid on the basis of FAB-MS and 1H NMR spectra as compared to a compound previously

Maureen Carter; Paul Feeny; Meena Haribal

1999-01-01

36

Liquid chromatographic determination of safrole in sassafras-derived herbal products.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for determining safrole in herbal products derived from sassafras (Sassafras albidum), as well as related compounds such as isosafrole and dihydrosafrole. The procedure involves solvent extraction and isolation of analyte by reversed-phase LC with UV detection at 235 nm. Safrole is resolved from related compounds and other sample constituents including thymol, a component of thyme. A linear concentration range of 0.003-0.200 mg/mL was obtained for safrole, isosafrole, and dihydrosafrole. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were e0.0015 and 0.0051 micrograms/mL for safrole, 0.0018 and 0.0061 micrograms/mL for isosafrole, and 0.0038 and 0.0125 micrograms/mL for dihydrosafrole, respectively. Intraday relative standard deviations (RSDs) for safrole (n = 5) from various samples ranged from 1.30 to 5.39% at analyte levels of 0.01-1.5%. Safrole contents of 26 samples including root bark powder, leaves, oils, tea concentrate, herbal extract tinctures, and herbal powder capsules ranged from < LOD for most leaf samples to 92.4% for an oil. Recoveries of safrole from fortified samples ranged from 83.6% for an oil to 117.2% for a tincture preparation. Safrole contents of 0.09-4.66 mg/cup were found for brewed teas prepared from sassafras root bark powders and tinctures. PMID:9325580

Carlson, M; Thompson, R D

1997-01-01

37

SFE with GC and MS determination of safrole and related allylbenzenes in sassafras teas.  

PubMed

Safrole (4-allyl-1,2-methylenedioxybenzene), a natural plant component of the aromatic oil of sassafras root bark, possesses carcinogenic and mutagenic activity. Legal restrictions have been placed on safrole as a food additive. However, sassafras teas continue to be accessible from health food establishments in the United States. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) determination is utilized in the formulation of a rapid, accurate, and specific method for the determination of safrole and related allylbenzenes in unbrewed sassafras teas. Samples are extracted in a static-dynamic mode with CO2 at 690 bar and 80 degrees C with methanol as an extractor-added modifier. Levels of safrole exceeding 10,000 mg/kg (1.0%) are commonly encountered. Lesser amounts of other allylbenzenes, including eugenol and 4-allyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene, are also reported. Recoveries of safrole and related compounds from previously extracted tea samples fortified at 100 and 1000 mg/kg ranged from 96 to 101%. PMID:8063885

Heikes, D L

1994-07-01

38

Repetitive Somatic Embryogenesis of Ocotea catharinensis Mez. (Lauraceae): Effect of Somatic Embryo Developmental Stage and Dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive embryogenesis of Ocotea catharinensis from globular\\/early cotyledonary somatic embryos was successfully supported by WPM supplemented with 22.7 g l?1 sorbitol, 20 g l?1 sucrose, 400 mg l?1 glutamine and 2 g l?1 Phytagel. The best medium to induce repetitive embryogenesis in cotyledonary somatic embryos was half strength WPM supplemented\\u000a with 20 g l?1 sucrose, 400 mg l?1 glutamine, 1.5

Alessandra dos Santos Olmedo; Geraldine de Andrade Meyer; Jonice Macedo; Wagner de Amorim; Ana Maria Viana

2004-01-01

39

Antimycobacterial and Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitory Activities of Ocotea notata from Brazilian Restinga  

PubMed Central

The genus Ocotea (Lauraceae) is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Some species of this genus as O. puberula and O. quixos have been described in the literature, showing antibacterial activity. And Ocotea macrophylla showed anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, and LOX-5. The purpose of this study was the phytochemical investigation of the plant species Ocotea notata from Restinga Jurubatiba National Park, Macaé, RJ, Brazil, and the search for antimycobacterial fractions and compounds. The crude extract was evaluated for antimycobacterial activity and presented 95.75 ± 2.53% of growth inhibition at 100?µg/mL. Then, it was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition and subsequently was chemically investigated by HPLC, revealing the major presence of flavonoids. In this process the partition fractions hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol are shown to be promising in the antimycobacterial assay. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction was chromatographed and afforded two flavonoids identified by MS and NMR as afzelin and isoquercitrin. The isolated flavonoids afzelin and isoquercitrin were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity and for their ability to inhibit NO production by macrophages stimulated by LPS; both flavonoids isoquercitrin (Acet22) and afzelin (Acet32) were able to inhibit the production of NO by macrophages. The calculated IC50 of Acet22 and Acet32 was 1.03 and 0.85?µg/mL, respectively. PMID:25789338

Costa, Isabela Francisca Borges; Calixto, Sanderson Dias; Heggdorne de Araujo, Marlon; Konno, Tatiana Ungaretti Paleo; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Guimarães, Denise Oliveira; Lasunskaia, Elena B.; Leal, Ivana Ramos Correa; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão

2015-01-01

40

The Mode of Origin of Root Buds and Root Sprouts in the Clonal Tree Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmental anatomy of root buds and root sprouts was examined in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum. Root samples from 13 clones that varied widely in age and vigor were sectioned and two types of buds were found, ''additional'' buds and ''reparative'' buds. Additional buds form during the early growth of uninjured roots and they perennate by growing outwards in

Michael J. Bosela; Frank W. Ewers

1997-01-01

41

Genetic structure in a population of a tropical tree Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae): influence of avian seed dispersal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the influence of avian seed dispersal on the structuring of genetic diversity in a population of a tropical tree, Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae). The seeds of O. tenera are principally dispersed by four, relatively specialized, fruit-eating bird species (emerald toucanets, keel-billed toucans, resplendent quetzals, and three-wattled bellbirds). We found high genetic diversity within the overall population and significant, nonrandom

J. Phil Gibson; Nathaniel T. Wheelwright

1995-01-01

42

Forensic profiling of sassafras oils based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.  

PubMed

Safrole, the main compound in the essential oil of several plants of the Laurel family (Lauraceae), and its secondary product piperonylmethylketone are the predominantly used precursors for the illicit synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) which is, in turn, the most common active ingredient in Ecstasy tablets. Analytical methods with adequate capacity to identify links and origin of precursors, such as safrole, provide valuable information for drug-related police intelligence. Authentic sassafras oil samples from police seizures were subjected to comparative analysis based on their chemical profiles obtained by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). The enhanced separation power and increased sensitivity of GC × GC allowed for the detection of minor compounds present in the essential oils which were of particular interest in case of very pure samples whose impurity profiles were not very pronounced. Discrimination of such samples was still possible even in the absence of characteristic main compounds. PMID:23683915

Schäffer, M; Gröger, T; Pütz, M; Zimmermann, R

2013-06-10

43

[Bamboo rhizome system of mixed forest of Sassafras tsumu and Phyllostachys pubescens].  

PubMed

By the method of fixed plots, the bamboo rhizome system structure and nutrient content in rhizome from mixed Sassafras tsumu and Phyllostachys pubescens, which were established in 1983-1984 by planting S. tsumu on new-planted bamboo forests (3-4 years old), were investigated. The results showed that the mixtures with rational density of S. tsumu were suitable for optimizing the bamboo rhizome structure and increasing the nutrient content in rhizome. The total length and weight of rhizome, the diameter of rhizome and its evenness indices, the annual growth of new rhizome, the proportion of healthy rhizomes and buds, and the volume of rhizome system in the mixed bamboo forests with the density of 420-615 S. tsumu trees per hectare were higher than those in pure bamboo forest, respectively. The indexes mentioned above in mixed bamboo forests with the density of S. tsumu more than 735 trees per hectare were lower than those in pure bamboo forest, respectively, but the frequency of rhizome branch per unit length of rhizome was obviously higher than that in pure bamboo forest. The results of regression analysis showed that there were close relationships between S. tsumu density and total length of rhizome, the length between two joints, the growth of new rhizome, the diameter of rhizome and its evenness indices, and the frequency of rhizome branch per unit length of rhizome. The content of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg in the rhizome from mixed bamboo forests were higher than those in pure bamboo forest, respectively. For example, the content of N in rhizomes from mixtures was increased by 7.6-11.6% averagely. PMID:12222037

Liu, Guihua; Li, Hongkai

2002-04-01

44

Yangambin cytotoxicity: a pharmacologically active lignan obtained from Ocotea duckei vattimo (Lauraceae).  

PubMed

The in vitro cytotoxic potential of yangambin was evaluated. Yangambin is a pharmacologically active furofuran lignan obtained from the leaves of Ocotea duckei. It is the major compound from the lignoids fraction. Yangambin presented low cytotoxicity in all in vitro models analyzed. Its cytotoxicity to murine macrophages was measured by the Trypan blue dye exclusion test and MTT reduction assay, resulting in high CC50 values of 187.0 microg/mL (383.3 microM) and 246.7 microg/mL (504.3 microM), respectively. The difference obtained in the inhibitory concentrations aforementioned can be explained, at least in part, by the different principles of the methods. While the MTT reduction assay evaluates the ability of yangambin to inhibit the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, the Trypan blue dye exclusion test evaluates possible damages to the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane which result in cell death. The capacity of yangambin to inhibit the sea urchin embryonic development showed that it has low antimitotic and teratogenic potential, once continued exposure of embryos to concentrations up to 500 microg/mL (1.025 microM) did not result in an inhibitory effect on the first egg cleavages. Such low in vitro cytotoxicity is correlated with the low acute toxicity previously studied. All these data, together with the various therapeutic properties of yangambin, make this lignan a promising one for a new drug. PMID:19040107

Monte Neto, Rubens L; Sousa, Louisa M A; Dias, Celidarque S; Filho, José M Barbosa; Oliveira, Márcia R

2008-01-01

45

Seasonal Conductivity and Embolism in the Roots and Stems of Two Clonal Ring-Porous Trees, Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae) and Rhus typhina (Anacardiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal xylem (wood) conductivity and embolism (air blockage) patterns were monitored in roots vs. stems of two clonal ring- porous tree species, Sassafras albidum and Rhus typhina, throughout 1996 and 1997. Stems of both species were 100% embolized in the early spring and became conductive by late June following leaf expansion and maturation of new earlywood vessels. Dyes indicated the

Laura L. Jaquish; Frank W. Ewers

2001-01-01

46

The Continuous Incorporation of Carbon into Existing Sassafras albidum Fine Roots and Its Implications for Estimating Root Turnover  

PubMed Central

Although understanding the timing of the deposition of recent photosynthate into fine roots is critical for determining root lifespan and turnover using isotopic techniques, few studies have directly examined the deposition and subsequent age of root carbon. To gain a better understanding of the timing of the deposition of root carbon, we labeled four individual Sassafras albidum trees with 99% 13C CO2. We then tracked whether the label appeared in roots that were at least two weeks old and no longer elongating, at the time of labeling. We found that not only were the non-structural carbon pools (soluble sugars and starch) of existing first-order tree roots incorporating carbon from current photosynthate, but so were the structural components of the roots, even in roots that were more than one year old at the time of labeling.Our findings imply that carbon used in root structural and nonstructural pools is not derived solely from photosynthate at root initiation and have implications regarding the determination of root age and turnover using isotopic techniques. PMID:24788762

Adams, Thomas S.; Eissenstat, David M.

2014-01-01

47

The continuous incorporation of carbon into existing Sassafras albidum fine roots and its implications for estimating root turnover.  

PubMed

Although understanding the timing of the deposition of recent photosynthate into fine roots is critical for determining root lifespan and turnover using isotopic techniques, few studies have directly examined the deposition and subsequent age of root carbon. To gain a better understanding of the timing of the deposition of root carbon, we labeled four individual Sassafras albidum trees with 99% 13C CO2. We then tracked whether the label appeared in roots that were at least two weeks old and no longer elongating, at the time of labeling. We found that not only were the non-structural carbon pools (soluble sugars and starch) of existing first-order tree roots incorporating carbon from current photosynthate, but so were the structural components of the roots, even in roots that were more than one year old at the time of labeling.Our findings imply that carbon used in root structural and nonstructural pools is not derived solely from photosynthate at root initiation and have implications regarding the determination of root age and turnover using isotopic techniques. PMID:24788762

Adams, Thomas S; Eissenstat, David M

2014-01-01

48

The mode of origin of root buds and root sprouts in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae).  

PubMed

The developmental anatomy of root buds and root sprouts was examined in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum. Root samples from 13 clones that varied widely in age and vigor were sectioned and two types of buds were found, "additional" buds and "reparative" buds. Additional buds form during the early growth of uninjured roots and they perennate by growing outwards in concert with the vascular cambium such that bud traces are produced in the secondary xylem. Reparative buds form de novo in response to senescence, injuries, or other types of disturbance. Reparative buds were found on the roots of seven of the clones, whereas additional buds were found on the roots of all 13 clones. The reparative buds had originated in the proliferated pericycle, where they were subtended by sphaeroblasts, or spherical nodules of wood. Few of the reparative buds were vascularized and none were connected with the vasculature of their parent roots. In contrast, most of the additional buds were vascularized, and the leaf traces of several of the additional buds appeared to be contiguous with the conducting xylem of their parent roots. To determine whether both bud types were functional, 82 field-collected root sprouts and 44 incubation-induced sprouts were sectioned at the root-sprout junction and examined for evidence relating to their mode of origin. None of the sprouts were subtended by sphaeroblasts, but 98% were subtended by bud traces, which indicated that they had originated from additional buds. Although reparative buds were more common than additional buds on some of the root samples, they appear to be dysfunctional at sprouting. Additional buds, on the other hand, are able to sprout both as a normal part of clonal spread and from root cuttings. PMID:21708553

Bosela, M; Ewers, F

1997-11-01

49

Neolignans and Other Metabolites from Ocotea cymosa from the Madagascar Rain Forest and Their Biological Activities 1.  

PubMed

Ten new neolignans including the 6'-oxo-8.1'-lignans cymosalignans A (1a), B (2), and C (3), an 8.O.6'-neolignan (4a), ococymosin (5a), didymochlaenone C (6a), and the bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoids 7-10 were isolated along with the known compounds 3,4,5,3',5'-pentamethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan, 3,4,5,3'-tetramethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan, didymochlaenone B, virologin B, ocobullenone, and the unusual 2'-oxo-8.1'-lignan sibyllenone from the stems or bark of the Madagascan plant Ocotea cymosa. The new 8.O.6'-neolignan 4a, dihydrobenzofuranoid 5a, and the bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoid 7a had in vitro activity against Aedes aegypti, while the new compounds 5a, 7a, 8, and 10a and the known virolongin B (4b) and ocobullenone (10b) had antiplasmodial activity. We report herein the structure elucidation of the new compounds on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra, electronic circular dichroism, and mass spectrometry, and the biological activities of the new and known compounds. PMID:25650896

Rakotondraibe, L Harinantenaina; Graupner, Paul R; Xiong, Quanbo; Olson, Monica; Wiley, Jessica D; Krai, Priscilla; Brodie, Peggy J; Callmander, Martin W; Rakotobe, Etienne; Ratovoson, Fidy; Rasamison, Vincent E; Cassera, Maria B; Hahn, Donald R; Kingston, David G I; Fotso, Serge

2015-03-27

50

Seasonal conductivity and embolism in the roots and stems of two clonal ring-porous trees, Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae) and Rhus typhina (Anacardiaceae).  

PubMed

Seasonal xylem (wood) conductivity and embolism (air blockage) patterns were monitored in roots vs. stems of two clonal ring-porous tree species, Sassafras albidum and Rhus typhina, throughout 1996 and 1997. Stems of both species were 100% embolized in the early spring and became conductive by late June following leaf expansion and maturation of new earlywood vessels. Dyes indicated the stem conduction was restricted almost exclusively to the current year's growth ring. Stems became totally embolized again by early October, before the first freezing temperatures. In contrast, woody roots of both species maintained low embolism values, many conductive growth rings, and high conductivity values regardless of the season. No positive root pressures were detected in either species. The mean frost depth (204 ± 11 mm) was deeper than all sampled roots of Rhus and 47% of sampled roots of Sassafras. The roots that had been in frozen soil either avoided embolism altogether or they were able to reverse embolism by a mechanism other than positive root pressures. PMID:11222243

Jaquish, L L; Ewers, F W

2001-02-01

51

Polyamines, IAA and ABA during germination in two recalcitrant seeds: Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant growth regulators play an important role in seed germination. However, much of the current knowledge about their function during seed germination was obtained using orthodox seeds as model systems, and there is a paucity of information about the role of plant growth regulators during germination of recalcitrant seeds. In the present work, two endangered woody species with recalcitrant seeds, Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm), native to the Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil, were used to study the mobilization of polyamines (PAs), indole-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. Methods Data were sampled from embryos of O. odorifera and embryos and megagametophytes of A. angustifolia throughout the germination process. Biochemical analyses were carried out in HPLC. Key Results During seed germination, an increase in the (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio was recorded in embryos in both species. An increase in IAA and PA levels was also observed during seed germination in both embryos, while ABA levels showed a decrease in O. odorifera and an increase in A. angustifolia embryos throughout the period studied. Conclusions The (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio could be used as a marker for germination completion. The increase in IAA levels, prior to germination, could be associated with variations in PA content. The ABA mobilization observed in the embryos could represent a greater resistance to this hormone in recalcitrant seeds, in comparison to orthodox seeds, opening a new perspective for studies on the effects of this regulator in recalcitrant seeds. The gymnosperm seed, though without a connective tissue between megagametophyte and embryo, seems to be able to maintain communication between the tissues, based on the likely transport of plant growth regulators. PMID:21685432

Pieruzzi, Fernanda P.; Dias, Leonardo L. C.; Balbuena, Tiago S.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; dos Santos, André L. W.; Floh, Eny I. S.

2011-01-01

52

Sassafras oil overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... SC, Daubert GP, Spoerke DG. Poisonous plants. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and ... Foley C. Herbal, traditional, and alternative medicine. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and ...

53

The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae). PMID:23805052

Feuillet, Christian

2013-01-01

54

THE JACKET LAYER IN SASSAFRAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ovules of some angiosperms a definite nutritive tissue invests the embryo-sac, while in others no such layer exists. This nutritive jacket appears in all cases to be simply a modifica- tion of one or more layers of cells on the inner wall of the ovule. It is purely a physiological tissue and is usually described as consisting of

JOHN H. SCHAFFNER

55

Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of N-substituted thiosemicarbazones of 3-(3,4-methylenedioxy)phenylpropanal.  

PubMed

Five new N-substituted thiosemicarbazones of 3-(3,4-methylenedioxy)phenylpropanal were synthesized. Safrole, a natural product obtained from sassafras oil (Ocotea pretiosa), was oxidized to alcohol using BH3-THF and H2O2, followed by oxidation to aldehyde using pyridinium dichromate (PDC) and condensation with five N-substituted derivatives of thiosemicarbazide. Tests were performed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity with continuous chain KB cells (epidermoide carcinoma of the floor of the mouth). Compounds 5 and 6 showed IC50 values of 1.5 and 4.6 micrograms/ml, respectively. PMID:9639871

Joselice e Silva, M; Alves, A J; Do Nascimento, S C

1998-03-01

56

Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle (coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).  

PubMed

The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps baited with swampbay (Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent) and camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), which were more attractive than avocado (Persea americana Miller), lancewood (Ocotea coriacea (Swartz) Britton), and sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana L.). These species were more attractive than loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis). X. glabratus entrance hole density and emergence from caged bolts were highest on swampbay and camphortree. In 2010, swampbay was significantly more attractive to X. glabratus than sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). Sassafras bolts end sealed with a liquid wax-and-water emulsion were more attractive to X. glabratus than end-sealed bolts of yellow poplar and redbud. Relative to unsealed bolts, end seal decreased X. glabratus entrance hole density on swampbay and decreased granulate ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)) trap catch, entrance hole density, and adult emergence from swampbay. X. crassiusculus was not attracted to sassafras, yellow poplar, and redbud and was not more attracted to manuka oil than to unbaited traps. Sassafras was more attractive to X. glabratus than previously reported and supported reproducing populations of the insect. End sealing bolts with a wax-and-water emulsion may not be optimal for attracting and rearing ambrosia beetles in small logs. PMID:22606816

Mayfield, A E; Hanula, J L

2012-04-01

57

21 CFR 189.180 - Safrole.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...natural constituent of the sassafras plant. Oil of sassafras is about 80 percent...Food containing any added safrole, oil of sassafras, isosafrole, or dihydrosafrole...or food containing any safrole, oil of sassafras, isosafrole,...

2010-04-01

58

21 CFR 189.180 - Safrole.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...natural constituent of the sassafras plant. Oil of sassafras is about 80 percent...Food containing any added safrole, oil of sassafras, isosafrole, or dihydrosafrole...or food containing any safrole, oil of sassafras, isosafrole,...

2011-04-01

59

21 CFR 189.180 - Safrole.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...natural constituent of the sassafras plant. Oil of sassafras is about 80 percent...Food containing any added safrole, oil of sassafras, isosafrole, or dihydrosafrole...or food containing any safrole, oil of sassafras, isosafrole,...

2012-04-01

60

Synthesis and antiplatelet evaluation of novel aryl-sulfonamide derivatives, from natural safrole.  

PubMed

In the scope of a research program aiming at the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel possible antiplatelet prototype compounds, exploring bioisosterism principles for molecular design, we describe in this paper the synthesis of new aryl-sulfonamides derivatives, structurally similar to known thromboxane A2 receptor antagonists. The synthetic route used to access the new compounds described herein starts from safrole, an abundant Brazilian natural product, which occurs in Sassafras oil (Ocotea pretiosa). The results from preliminary evaluation of these novel aryl-sulfonamide compounds by the platelet aggregation inhibitory test, using rabbit PRP, induced by ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid, and U46619, identified the N-[2-(4-carboxymethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-6-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyphe nyl- sulfonamido derivative as the most active among them, presenting in IC50 value for the U-46619-induced platelet aggregation in rabbit platelet-rich plasma: 329 microM. PMID:10443173

Lima, L M; Ormelli, C B; Brito, F F; Miranda, A L; Fraga, C A; Barreiro, E J

1999-06-01

61

Anti-inflammatory properties of new bioisosteres of indomethacin synthesized from safrole which are sulindac analogues.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory activities of new compounds (I, II, III and IV) synthesized in 30% overall yield from the abundant natural product safrole, the principal chemical constituent of the oil of sassafras (Ocotea pretiosa, Lauraceae), were determined in mice. The synthesis of these new indenyl-acetic acids (I and II) and indenyl-propionic acids (III and IV) was based on the minimal structural features of non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents of the aryl- or heteroarylcarboxylic acid group. The compounds exhibited potencies 4- to 10-fold less than that of indomethacin in inhibiting carrageenan-induced hindpaw edema. In contrast, like sulindac, all the new compounds were more potent than indomethacin in antagonizing writhing pain and increased vascular permeability caused by acetic acid. The results confirm the anticipated bioisosteric relationship between these synthetic derivatives, designed as sulindac analogues, and the classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. PMID:2638933

Pereira, E F; Pereira, N A; Lima, M E; Coelho, F A; Barreiro, E J

1989-01-01

62

Isolation and Genome Sequencing of Two Novel Mycobacteriophages, Optimus and Sassafras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty new mycobacteriophages, capable of infecting Mycobacterium smegmatis, were isolated from soil samples collected on or nearby Hope College in Holland, Michigan. Collectively, the group displayed a variety of plaque morphologies indicating an assortment of different phages. Both lytic and temperate phages appear represented in this collection. Purified phage stocks were used to prepare genomic DNA samples for restriction digest

Alexandra Benson; David Blystra; Chrissla Boyea; Rachel Butts; Catherine Calyore; Christopher Davis; Guillermo Flores; Lauren Janness; Kelsey Jeletz; Joshua Kammeraad; Taylor Mann; Danielle Mila; Shayla Patton; Caitlin Ploch; Matthew Ringel; Austin Roblyer; Daniel Schriemer; Thomas Smeltzer; Jonathan Turkus; Holly Vander Stel

2011-01-01

63

Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Carr Fork Dam, Sassafras, Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of retrofitting the Carr Fork Dam near Hazard, KY for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 80 ft and was built in 1975 to provide flood protection. The study of environmental, institutional, safety, and economic factors showed that the total investment cost would be $909,600 and that hydroelectric power development at this site

Gebhard; T. G. Jr

1982-01-01

64

Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Carr Fork Dam, Sassafras, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of retrofitting the Carr Fork Dam near Hazard, KY for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 80 ft and was built in 1975 to provide flood protection. The study of environmental, institutional, safety, and economic factors showed that the total investment cost would be $909,600 and that hydroelectric power development at this site is not feasible unless a higher price could be obtained for the power sold. (LCL)

Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

1982-05-24

65

Assessment of the Web using Genetic Programming Reginald L. Walker  

E-print Network

for each search engine using sassafras tea" as the basis. Excite AltaVista NetCenter HotBot Infoseek LookSmart Yahoo! sassafras tea" 336 91 0 126 337 73 + sassafras tea" +herb 66 21 0 5 66 0 sassafras tea" NEAR herb 143311 - - - - - - 143311 - - sassafras tea" OR herb 555226 - - - - - - 555226 - - sassafras tea

Fernandez, Thomas

66

Purdue extension Hardwood Lumber  

E-print Network

, IN 47907 Sassafras Sassafras (Sassafras albidum (nutt.) Nees.) ranges throughout the eastern United States found as an occasional tree on rich woodland soils. On these sites, sassafras develops into small, when freshly cut, has the distinctive odor of sassafras. The wood tends to darken with exposure

67

Foxfire 4: Fiddle Making, Springhouses, Horse Trading, Sassafras Tea, Berry Buckets, Gardening, and Further Affairs of Plain Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planting by the signs of the moon, well digging, hewing logs, wood carving, knife making, bird trapping, and horsetrading are but a few of the aspects of Appalachian culture explored in "Foxfire 4." Like its predecessors, the volume was compiled by high school students at Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School. Information on the cultural heritage of…

Wigginton, Eliot, Ed.

68

21 CFR 189.180 - Safrole.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...H10 O2. It is a natural constituent of the sassafras plant. Oil of sassafras is about 80 percent safrole. Isosafrole and...b) Food containing any added safrole, oil of sassafras, isosafrole, or dihydrosafrole, as such,...

2014-04-01

69

21 CFR 189.180 - Safrole.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...H10 O2 . It is a natural constituent of the sassafras plant. Oil of sassafras is about 80 percent safrole. Isosafrole and...b) Food containing any added safrole, oil of sassafras, isosafrole, or dihydrosafrole, as such,...

2013-04-01

70

Assessment of the Web using Genetic Programming Reginald L. Walker \\Lambda  

E-print Network

``sassafras tea'' as the basis. Excite/ AltaVista NetCenter HotBot Infoseek LookSmart Yahoo! ``sassafras tea'' 336 91 0 126 337 73 +``sassafras tea'' +herb 66 21 0 5 66 0 ``sassafras tea'' NEAR herb 143311 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 143311 ­ ­ ``sassafras tea'' OR herb 555226 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 555226 ­ ­ ``sassafras tea'' AND herb 679028

Fernandez, Thomas

71

Hotel Rooms 100s IU Bookstore  

E-print Network

Credit Union Kiva (below Commons) Sassafras M035 Kiva Business Office & Personnel Administrative Services Meeting Services Reservations Charter Room Distinguished Alumni Room Oak Walnut Maple Sassafras Persimmon

Indiana University

72

Big Tree of the Month -September 2013 Anne Krantz, Tree Steward and NH Big Tree Committee  

E-print Network

Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) ­ Part II We all love the colorful leaves of fall in New England. Among the brilliant leaves are the yellow to red leaves of native sassafras. Its unique mitten shaped leaves are fun. These strange leaves with unusual smooth edges make identifying sassafras easy, but it is not a common tree

New Hampshire, University of

73

Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Odontopus Plants Attacked  

E-print Network

Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Odontopus calceatus Plants Attacked Yellow poplar, sassafras-279 PUBLICATION 444-279W2002 Entomology Tulip Tree Leaf Miner (Sassafras Weevil) Eric R. Day* *Manager, Insect damage caused by Sassafras WeevilLeaf damage caused by Sassafras Weevil #12;

Liskiewicz, Maciej

74

21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sulfate, petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide have been...petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, thymol, or zinc oxide initially introduced or...

2013-04-01

75

21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sulfate, petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide have been...petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, thymol, or zinc oxide initially introduced or...

2010-04-01

76

INVITED REVIEW Technological advances in temperate hardwood tree  

E-print Network

), hard (and soft) maples (Acer spp.), hickory and pecan (Carya spp.), oak (Quercus spp.), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), sycamore (Platanus spp.), walnut (Juglans spp.), black willow (Salix nigra), and yellow

77

MAJOR FOREST COMMUNITY TYPES OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT  

E-print Network

-rod . . Slash pine-black gum . .. . Slash pine-sassafras-dollarleaf . Slash pine-black cherry-water oak Longleaf pine-sassafras . Longleaf pine-black gum-sand hickory Turkey oak-dwarf huckleberry Blackjack oak

Georgia, University of

78

Oak Openings and Conservation EEES 4750: Conservation Biology  

E-print Network

, hickory, black cherry, Sassafras, Understory: Service berry, which hazel, pasture rose, blueberry, and choke cheery #12;Oak spp. Red maple Black cherry Red pine Unknown Witch-hazel Sassafras Misc. Species

Gottgens, Hans

79

21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sulfate, petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide have been...petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, thymol, or zinc oxide initially introduced or...

2012-04-01

80

21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...sulfate, petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide have been...petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, thymol, or zinc oxide initially introduced or...

2011-04-01

81

21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...sulfate, petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide have been...petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, thymol, or zinc oxide initially introduced or...

2014-04-01

82

Collective Intentionality IX September 10th  

E-print Network

Dogwood Chair: Georg Theiner Persimmon Chair: Ásta Sveinsdóttir Sassafras Chair: Anna Moltchanova Rob Rupert Sassafras Chair: Facundo Alonso Seumas Miller (Charles Sturt & Delft University) Collective

Indiana University

83

Sassafrass The Big Tree for August By Anne Krantz, Tree Steward,  

E-print Network

Big Tree Committee Last summer, I helped remeasure the Hillsborough County Champion sassafras tree country road, lined with hedgerows and thickets looking for the distinctive mitten-shaped sassafras leaves. These astonishingly tall sassafras trees, soaring to the sky, are totally unexpected this far north. New Hampshire

New Hampshire, University of

84

POPULATION ECOLOGY Host Pubescence and the Behavior and Performance of the Butterfly  

E-print Network

pubescence in Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees negatively in- Ã?uences the growth and survivorship troilus, Sassafras albidum, host preference, landscape variation, oviposition MANY PLANTS HAVE evolved 1996). In the eastern United States, naturally occurring Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees vary greatly

Haddad, Nick

85

Separation of very hydrophobic analytes by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. I. Optimization of the composition of the sample solution for the determination of the aromatic ingredients of sassafras and other essential oils of forensic interest.  

PubMed

A micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method using UV and (UV)LIF detection in-line was developed for the determination of aromatic constituents, mainly allylbenzenes in essential oils. The method optimization included the optimization of the composition of the separation electrolyte using ACN and urea to reduce retention factors and CaCl(2) to widen the migration time window. In addition, it was necessary to optimize the composition of the sample solution which included the addition of a neutral surfactant at high concentration. With the optimized method, the determination of minor constituents in essential oils was possible despite of the presence of a structurally related compound being in a molar ratio excess of 1000:1. The use of UV and LIF-detection in-line enabled the direct comparison of the two detection traces using an electrophoretic mobility x-axis instead of the normal time-based scale. This simplifies the assignment of signals and enhances repeatability. The method developed was successfully applied to the determination of minor and major constituents in herbal essential oils, some of them being forensically relevant as sources of precursors for synthetic drugs. PMID:18064732

Huhn, Carolin; Pütz, Michael; Holthausen, Ivie; Pyell, Ute

2008-01-01

86

Verticillium Wilt of Shade Trees  

E-print Network

Ginkgo Mountain ash Walnut Hackberry Mulberry Willow Hawthorn Oak Yew Hickory Pawpaw Zelkova Verticillium Sassafras Boxwood Horse chestnut Serviceberry Brambles Japanese pagoda tree Smoke tree Buckeye Lilac Sumac

87

Ackee, Lychee, Longan, Maple Syrup  

E-print Network

, Oregano, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme Lemon verbena Sesame Sweet potato Eggplant, Peppers (bell, chili, sweet Mace, Nutmeg Custard Apple, Pawpaw, Sugar Apple Yam Avocado, Cinnamon, Sassafras Black Pepper Grape

88

BIOS 3010: Ecology Laboratory 10: Dispersion Page -1 BIOS 3010: ECOLOGY  

E-print Network

common) Broadleaf trees: Red maple Acer rubrum Aceraceae Sugar maple Acer saccharum Aceraceae Box elder Juglandaceae Sassafras Sassafras albidum Lauraceae Tulip tree Liriodendron tulipifera Magnoliaceae Red mulberry to examine the distribution of tree species in the typically mixed forests of south west Michigan. #12;BIOS

Malcolm, Stephen

89

Is California bay laurel a suitable host for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle, vector of laurel wilt disease?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laurel wilt is a deadly vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae that kills healthy redbay (Persea borbonia), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), and other related hosts. The fungal pathogen (Raffaelea lauricola) and it vector, the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) are native to Asia and ha...

90

A study of impurities in intermediates and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) samples produced via reductive amination routes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impurities found in various sources of precursors (sassafras oil, safrol, isosafrol, piperonal), intermediates (?-nitroisosafrol, piperonylmethylketone (PMK)) and final product (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)) are presented and discussed. Particular attention is paid to the chemical origin of each impurity found in the prepared samples. Impurity profiles of isosafrol, piperonal, and PMK samples obtained from industrial sources or from sassafras oil were first compared.

P. Gimeno; F. Besacier; M. Bottex; L. Dujourdy; H. Chaudron-Thozet

2005-01-01

91

Host-Plant Chemistry Influences Oviposition Choice of the Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spicebush swallowtail, Papilio troilus (L.), lays its eggs on plants in the family Lauraceae. Sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees], spicebush [Lindera benzoin (L.) Spreng.], redbay (Persea borbonia (L.)] and camphortree [Cinnamomum camphora (Nees) Eberm.] are four of its known host plants. In one-choice tests, free-flying spicebush swallowtail females laid eggs on chemical extracts of the leaves of each of

Maureen Carter; Paul Feeny

1999-01-01

92

Effects of selective logging and regeneration treatments on mortality of retained trees in Tasmanian cool temperate rainforest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The mortality of major Tasmanian rainforest tree species, principally myrtle and sassafras, was recorded over 10-26 y on transects established to monitor myrtle wilt in trials of a range of selective logging and regeneration treatments and in an untreated control area. At the sites monitored for over 20 y, cumulative mortality of myrtle and sassafras ranged from 25% to

H. J. Elliott; J. E. Hickey; S. M. Jennings

2005-01-01

93

Comparison of the heterogeneity of asperities in wood and aluminum sanding surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneity of surface asperities in yezomatsu and sassafras wood sanding profiles was examined and compared with those of aluminum samples. The results showed that the surface asperities on the smoother yezomatsu sanding profiles were almost as homogeneous as aluminum. In contrast, the smoother sassafras sanding profiles had a high degree of heterogeneity, although the rougher sanding profiles of both

Tadashi Ohtani; Chiaki Tanaka; Hirosi Usuki

2004-01-01

94

Friends of the George A. Smathers Libraries UNIVERSITY of FLORIDA  

E-print Network

-2013 Florida Gator season to maintain and grow the excellence of the Libraries. Billy Donovan Amanda Butler Canelas Richard M. Carris Keith R. Douglas Katherine Egolf Beverly English Sandra Fackler Aaron

Fang, Yuguang "Michael"

95

Arnold Hague's Chair  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A wooden, collapsible chair from Arnold Hague's expedition. Made of sassafras wood with interchangeable canvas covers. This chair can be collapsed into a roll that is packed up and transported easily. Object ID: USGS-000031...

96

Use of Herbal Supplements in Chronic Kidney Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Garlic (leaf) Genipap (fruit) Goto Kola Japanese Honeysuckle (flower) Kelp Kudzu (shoot) Lemongrass Mugwort Noni Papaya (leaf, fruit) Purslane Sage (leaf) Safflower (flower) Sassafras Scullcap Shepherd's Purse Stinging Nettle (leaf) Turmeric ( ...

97

Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Circulionidae: Scolytinae) Invasion in Eastern U.S. Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-native redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Cur- culionidae: Scolytinae), has recently emerged as a signiÞcant pest of southeastern U.S. coastal forests. SpeciÞcally, a fungal symbiont (Raffaelea sp.) of X. glabratus has caused mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) trees in the region; several other Lauraceae species also seem susceptible. Although the range of X.

F. H. Koch; W. D. Smith

2008-01-01

98

Land use in the late prehistoric Post Oak Savannah of Texas  

E-print Network

oaks, elms, walnuts, and many vines, such as sassafras, zocosote [tuna or cactus plant), very fine as well as storax, berries of many kinds, pomegranates in abundance, persimmons, almonds, chestnuts, strawberries and many others" (Kress 1932:57). He... Solis, who in 1768, writes of the landscape around the Brazos River, "During the day we had been traveling over green hills and plains, and through shady woods, covered with great number of ashtrees, oaks, walnuts, elms, cedars, and sassafras...

Judjahn, Stephanie K.

1999-01-01

99

A new armored dinosaur from the Cretaceous of Kansas  

E-print Network

is a hard, fine-grained, cross-bedded sandstone, reddish, gray and brown, and has many concretions containing limonite. Fossil leaves of oak, beech, sycamore and sassafras indicate that the animal lived in a warm-temperate forest like... is a hard, fine-grained, cross-bedded sandstone, reddish, gray and brown, and has many concretions containing limonite. Fossil leaves of oak, beech, sycamore and sassafras indicate that the animal lived in a warm-temperate forest like...

Eaton, T. H., Jr.

1960-11-21

100

A historical and photographic study of significant architecture in Jefferson, Texas  

E-print Network

as long as white men have known it, has been dictated by its surrounding geography. In the eastern portions of the county, great forests of pine, oak, sassafras and cypress grow in and around large bayous and lakes. In the west, the land is open.... In the eastern portions of the county, great forests of pine, oak, sassafras and cypress grow in and around large bayous and lakes. In the west, the land is open, with a gently undulating, and almost prairie like surface. Here the dark red soil is deep...

Pledger, Roy Crawford

1965-01-01

101

Utilization and composition of forage in a longleaf-pine-hardwood forest of Newton County, Texas  

E-print Network

typical plants of the area such as sassafras& sand- )ack oak, hickory, black)ask oak& and piney woods grapes . . . . . . ~ Heavily timbered site ~ The typical plants were the s ame as in Pigure 4 o 16 o i 17 o 17 Plot 16, on site C& showing... to clipping data? There were 84 sassafras plants on the area studied? One plant was selected for detailed study in each site, Clipping data indi sated. that 40 grams of air dry material was removed from the four plants or an average of 10 grams per...

Miller, William B

1951-01-01

102

More Grass from Controlling Trees and Brush with Chemicals.  

E-print Network

- diesel oil or kerosene May-August or trunk base of standing 1 beam, huisache, prickly ash, red trees. On all trees over 6" ham, sassafras, sumac, wild china- thick make frills and treat. berry, willow, yaupon d Live oak Pricklypear 1 1 lb. 2,4,5-T..., Ammate crystals or 3 Fall and winter Apply crystals to stumps or , post oak, red oak, sumac lb. in 1 gal. water In cups. On big trees apply ammate solution in frills. Eastern persimmon, sassafras 3 lb. Ammate in 1 gal. Spring or Apply on cut-off stumps...

Walker, A. H.

1955-01-01

103

The chemical composition of some Lauraceae essential oils and their antifungal activities.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of Aniba rosaeodora, Laurus nobilis, Sassafras albidum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils were investigated against 17 micromycetes. Among the tested fungal species were food poisoning, spoilage fungi, plant and animal pathogens. In order to determine fungistatic and fungicidal concentrations (MIC and MFC) macrodilution and microdilution tests were used. Linalool was the main component in the essential oil of A. rosaeodora, while 1.8-cineole was dominant in L. nobilis. In sassafras essential oil safrole was the major component and in the oil of C. zeylanicum the main component was trans-cinnamaldehyde. The essential oil of cinnamon showed the strongest antifungal activity. PMID:15478207

Simi?, A; Sokovi?, M D; Risti?, M; Gruji?-Jovanovi?, S; Vukojevi?, J; Marin, P D

2004-09-01

104

Suggestions for Chemical Weed and Brush Control on Rangeland.  

E-print Network

willow 10 10 Threadleaf groundsel 8 8 Running live oak 21 21 Treadsalve 7 7 Sand sagebrush 21 21 Upright prairie-coneflower 7 7 Sand shinnery oak 21 21 Western bitterweed 5 5 Sassafras 13 Western horsenettle 7 7 Seep wiIIow 10 10 Western ragweed 5 5... to freshly Spring and summer Wash metal container after use persimmon, sassafras (2.85 Ib) per cut surface of because ammate corrodes. 1 gal or water stump Common or Eastern Banvel 2 qt (2Ib) 1 gal (4 Ib) mixed Ground broadcast Spring, leaves fully...

Welch, Tommy G.

1988-01-01

105

SOME USEFUL PLANTS OF THE BOTANICAL FAMILY LAURACEAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamon spice for cooking, bay leaves for flavoring, camphor for moth repellant and medicinal purposes, myrtlewood and stinkwood furniture, sassafras tea and avocado fruits to eat are all products from the botanical family Lauraceae to which the avocado belongs. The family Lauraceae, which derives its name from the prominent member, the Grecian laurel, Laurus nobilis, is characterized by plants which

C. A. Schroeder

106

Comparative screening of plant essential oils: Phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus

M. Tognolini; E. Barocelli; V. Ballabeni; R. Bruni; A. Bianchi; M. Chiavarini; M. Impicciatore

2006-01-01

107

Mapping Soils, Vegetation, and Landforms: An Integrative Physical Geography Field Experience*  

E-print Network

. The presettlement (early 1830s) vegetation of the area was oak forest, oak savanna, and black oak ``barrens.'' Upland sites currently support closed forests of white, black, and red oak, with a red maple, dogwood, and sassafras understory. Ecological data suggest that these oak forests will, barring major disturbance, become

Schaetzl, Randall

108

Your Backyard VIRGINIA STATE UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

rounded lobes - white oaks, sassafras, mulberry b. leaves have pointed lobes - red oaks, sycamore, sweet-like (cedar) A. needles in clusters or bundles (pines) 1. 5 needle clusters - white pine 2. 3 needle clusters In Your Backyard4 2. fruit like a small pine cone - white cedar Activity 4 Making A Leaf Collection Making

Liskiewicz, Maciej

109

The effect of cropping systems on the organic matter content and on certain physical properties of Miller clay  

E-print Network

& lgI&g 6. Ash, B. E. , snd. Bmmfnep tp. N. , Factors kfpeetfng the Btshf1fty Boil AC'"re&gates& Boil '-ex Boo ~ ~xr Px'oe ~ 13x51& 1948. Klnte, App and. Jacob, S. C?phFsfosl Properties of Sassafras Silt Loam as Affected hF Long Ties Cr;~o Natter...

Mills, Jim Frank

1953-01-01

110

Biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) formed from botanical dietary supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to

Birgit M. Dietz; Judy L. Bolton

2011-01-01

111

The Quare Women's Journals: May Stone & Katherine Pettit's Summers in the Kentucky Mountains and the Founding of the Hindman Settlement School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning in 1899, Katherine Pettit and May Stone spent three summers in social settlement work in Kentucky at Camp Cedar Grove, Camp Industrial, and Sassafras Social Settlement before founding the Hindman Settlement School in 1902. The camps taught homemaking skills; provided kindergartens; assisted local people with health, homemaking, and…

Stoddart, Jess, Ed.; Stone, May; Pettit, Katherine

112

Studies of Contaminant and Water Quality Effects on Striped Bass Prolarvae and Yearlings in the Potomac River and Upper Chesapeake Bay in 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous on-site and in situ studies of survival of prolarval and yearling striped bass Morone saxatilis were conducted in the Potomac River during the 1988 spawning season. Various water quality and contaminant conditions were monitored during these experiments. In situ experiments on yearlings and monitoring of water quality and contaminants were also conducted in the Susquehanna, Elk, and Sassafras rivers

Lenwood W. Hall Jr; Michael C. Ziegenfuss; Steven J. Bushong; Michael A. Unger; Roger L. Herman

1989-01-01

113

Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA.  

PubMed

During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001>1995>1994>1993>2003>2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. PMID:16458398

Davis, Donald D; Orendovici, Teodora

2006-10-01

114

A study of impurities in intermediates and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) samples produced via reductive amination routes.  

PubMed

Impurities found in various sources of precursors (sassafras oil, safrol, isosafrol, piperonal), intermediates (beta-nitroisosafrol, piperonylmethylketone (PMK)) and final product (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)) are presented and discussed. Particular attention is paid to the chemical origin of each impurity found in the prepared samples. Impurity profiles of isosafrol, piperonal, and PMK samples obtained from industrial sources or from sassafras oil were first compared. Then PMK samples produced from isosafrol through isosafrol glycol or through beta-nitroisosafrol were compared. At last, attention was paid to the reductive amination of PMK to MDMA using different reductive agents. Possible use of this profiling method to determine the synthesis route is discussed for all products. PMID:16226151

Gimeno, P; Besacier, F; Bottex, M; Dujourdy, L; Chaudron-Thozet, H

2005-12-20

115

Visible Ozone Injury on Forest Trees in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 1991 ozone injury trend plots in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA, consisting of mature black cherry, sassafras and yellow-poplar were established near three ozone monitors, ranging in elevation from 597-1265 m. Beginning in mid-August 1991-1993, three exposed branches each from the upper- and mid- to lower-crown of each tree were collected and evaluated for ozone

A. Chappelka; G. Somers; J. Renfro

1999-01-01

116

Fertilizer application methods for Irish potatoes compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted in eastern Virginia on a Sassafras fine sandy loam soil to determine whether fertilizer for Irish\\u000a potatoes could be broadcast before planting instead of band-placed at planting. Band placement is considered the most efficient\\u000a method; however, use of the broadcast method involves less labor and speeds up the planting process.\\u000a \\u000a Two rates of fertilizer were used,

E. M. Dunton

1971-01-01

117

Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids\\/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were

Andrew J. Higgins

1984-01-01

118

Land application of sewage sludge with regard to cropping systems and pollution potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobically digested liquid sewage sludge was applied to Sassafras sandy loam soils (Typic Hapludults), characteristic of the eastern coastal plain, for 3 consecutive years. Sludge was applied at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids\\/ha in June of each year. Ground water, soil, and crops were monitored for 4 years to establish the effects of high rates

Higgins

2009-01-01

119

Zinc, cadmium and manganese uptake by soybean from two zinc- and cadmium-amended Coastal Plain soils  

SciTech Connect

Two Coastal Plain soils were used to evaluate the effects of organic matter and Fe and Mn hydrous oxides on Zn phytotoxicity, and on Zn, Cd, and Mn uptake by soybean seedlings. Fertilized Pocomoke sl and Sassafras sl were limed to pH 5.5 and 6.3 with CaCO/sub 3/ when adding Zn (six levens between 1.3 and 196 mg/kg at pH 5.5; seven levels between 1.3 and 524 mg/kg at pH 6.3). Cadmium was added at 1% of the added Zn. Beeson soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) was grown 4 weeks, and the trifoliolate leaves evaluated for dry weight yield and for their Zn, Cd, and Mn concentrations. The higher organic matter Pocomoke soil was more effective than the Sassafras soil in reducing metal uptake, and Zn phytoxicity. Foliar Zn levels associated with yield reduction of soybean grown on Pocomoke differed with soil pH. Cadmium uptake was significantly lower on the Pocomoke soil. Foliar Mn increased to reported phytotoxic levels (> 500 mg/kg) with increased added Zn only on the Sassafras soil at pH 6.3. DTPA-extractable Zn and Cd were linear functions of added Zn and Cd for both soils; 0.01M CaCl/sub 2/-extractable Zn and Cd were curvilinear (increasing slope) functions for the Sassafras and linear for the Pocomoke soil. Thus, soil type can strongly influence Zn, Cd, and Mn uptake as well as Zn phytotoxicity to soybean. Soil organic matter appears to be more important than hydrous oxides of Fe and Mn in moderating the effects of excessive soil Zn and limiting Zn and Cd uptake. Induced metal toxicities (Mn) may depend on many factors, and should be considered an integral part of any characterization of specific metal phytotoxicities (e.g. Zn).

White, M.C. (Maryland Environmental Service, Annapolis); Chaney, R.L.

1980-03-01

120

Zinc, cadmium and manganese uptake by soybean from two zinc- and cadmium-amended Coastal Plain soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Coastal Plain soils were used to evaluate the effects of organic matter and Fe and Mn hydrous oxides on Zn phytotoxicity, and on Zn, Cd, and Mn uptake by soybean seedlings. Fertilized Pocomoke sl and Sassafras sl were limed to pH 5.5 and 6.3 with CaCOâ when adding Zn (six levens between 1.3 and 196 mg\\/kg at pH 5.5;

M. C. White; R. L. Chaney

1980-01-01

121

Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (?2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

2014-05-01

122

Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (?2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

Chávez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patiño, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

2014-01-01

123

Biological Reactive Intermediates (BRIs) Formed from Botanical Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to reactive biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes. Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Quinones (sassafras, kava, black cohosh), quinone methides (sassafras), and epoxides (pennyroyal oil) represent BRIs of intermediate reactivity, which could generate both genotoxic and/or chemopreventive effects. The biological targets of BRIs formed from botanical dietary supplements and their resulting toxic and/or chemopreventive effects are closely linked to the reactivity of BRIs as well as dose and time of exposure. PMID:20970412

Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

2013-01-01

124

Spatio-temporal analysis of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae [corrected] Scolytinae) invasion in eastern U.S. forests.  

PubMed

The non-native redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), has recently emerged as a significant pest of southeastern U.S. coastal forests. Specifically, a fungal symbiont (Raffaelea sp.) of X. glabratus has caused mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) trees in the region; several other Lauraceae species also seem susceptible. Although the range of X. glabratus continues to expand rapidly, little is known about the species' biology and behavior. In turn, there has been no broad-scale assessment of the threat it poses to eastern U.S. forests. To provide a basic information framework, we performed analyses exploiting relevant spatio-temporal data available for X. glabratus. First, we mapped the densities of redbay and sassafras from forest inventory data. Second, we used climate matching to delineate potential geographic limits for X. glabratus. Third, we used county infestation data to estimate the rate of spread and modeled spread through time, incorporating host density as a weighting factor. Our results suggest that (1) key areas with high concentrations of redbay have yet to be invaded, but some are immediately threatened; (2) climatic conditions may serve to constrain X. glabratus to the southeastern U.S. coastal region; and (3) if unchecked, X. glabratus may spread throughout the range of redbay in <40 yr. Disruption of anthropogenic, long-distance dispersal could reduce the likelihood of this outcome. PMID:18419916

Koch, F H; Smith, W D

2008-04-01

125

Biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) formed from botanical dietary supplements.  

PubMed

The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes. Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Quinones (sassafras, kava, black cohosh), quinone methides (sassafras), and epoxides (pennyroyal oil) represent BRIs of intermediate reactivity, which could generate both genotoxic and/or chemopreventive effects. The biological targets of BRIs formed from botanical dietary supplements and their resulting toxic and/or chemopreventive effects are closely linked to the reactivity of BRIs as well as dose and time of exposure. PMID:20970412

Dietz, Birgit M; Bolton, Judy L

2011-06-30

126

Significant genetic differentiation among populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791): A bivalve with planktonic larval dispersion  

PubMed Central

Four Brazilian populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana were tested for mutual genetic homogeneity, using data from 123 sequences of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene. A total of 36 haplotypes were identified, those shared being H3 (Canela Island, Prainha and Acupe) and both H5 and H9 (Prainha and Acupe). Haplotype diversity values were high, except for the Camurupim population, whereas nucleotide values were low in all the populations, except for that of Acupe. Only the Prainha population showed a deviation from neutrality and the SSD test did not reject the demographic expansion hypothesis. Fst values showed that the Prainha and Acupe populations represent a single stock, whereas in both the Canela Island and Camurupim stocks, population structures are different and independent. The observed structure at Canela Island may be due to the geographic distance between this population and the remainder. The Camurupim population does not share any haplotype with the remaining populations in northeastern Brazil. The apparent isolation could be due to the rocky barrier located facing the mouth of the Mamanguape River. The results highlight the importance of wide-scale studies to identify and conserve local genetic diversity, especially where migration is restricted. PMID:21637701

2009-01-01

127

Use of remote sensing in agriculture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.

Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.

1974-01-01

128

The relationships of understory vegetation to stand composition, stand structure and soil series in the San Jacinto Experimental Forest of Texas  

E-print Network

. , h' oak, guercus alba L. , and red oak, ~uercus falcata Michx. made up 53. g5 percent of the composition . This table may be used with Table IV to set up studies to determine indicator plants for soil series. The number of grids in each series... s uercus alba ercus falcata uerc s falcata a odaefolia uercus mat'ilandics uercus michauxli uercus ni ra nereus hellos ercus shumardii uercus stellata Rhus co allina Sassafras albidum Ulmus slats Vac inium arboreum V burnum dentatum Viburnum...

Homesley, Wylie Buress

1963-01-01

129

Biology and host associations of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), exotic vector of laurel wilt killing redbay trees in the southeastern United States.  

PubMed

The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions to the southeastern United States responsible for the wilt of mature redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., trees. In 2006 and 2007, we investigated the seasonal flight activity of X. glabratus, its host associations, and population levels at eight locations in South Carolina and Georgia where infestations ranged from very recent to at least several years old. Adults were active throughout the year with peak activity in early September. Brood development seems to take 50-60 d. Wood infested with beetles and infected with the Raffaelea sp. was similar in attraction to uninfested redbay wood, whereas both were more attractive than a nonhost species. Sassafras, Sassafras albidium (Nutt.) Nees, another species of Lauraceae, was not attractive to X. glabratus and very few beetle entrance holes were found in sassafras wood compared with redbay. Conversely, avocado, Persea americana Mill., was as attractive to X. glabratus as swampbay, P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg., and both were more attractive than the nonhost red maple, Acer rubrum L. However, avocado had relatively few entrance holes in the wood. In 2007, we compared X. glabratus populations in areas where all mature redbay have died to areas where infestations were very active and more recent. Trap catches of X. glabratus and numbers of entrance holes in trap bolts of redbay were correlated with the number of dead trees with leaves attached. Older infestations where mature host trees had been eliminated by the wilt had low numbers of beetles resulting in trap catches ranging from 0.04 to 0.12 beetles per trap per d compared with 4-7 beetles per trap per d in areas with numerous recently dead trees. Our results indicate beetle populations drop dramatically after suitable host material is gone and provide hope that management strategies can be developed to restore redbay trees. The lack of attraction of X. glabratus to sassafras suggests that spread of X. glabratus may slow once it is outside the range of redbay. PMID:18767737

Hanula, James L; Mayfield, Albert E; Fraedrich, Stephen W; Rabaglia, Robert J

2008-08-01

130

Carcinogenicity of some folk medicinal herbs in rats.  

PubMed

Twelve medicinal herbs were bioassayed to correlate a high incidence of esophageal carcinoma in natives of different places with their habitual consumption of these products. Outbred NIH Black rats were given 72 weekly sc injections of the total aqueous extracts of the plant materials. The tanninrich plant extracts from Areca catechu and Rhus copallina produced local tumors in 100 and 33%, respectively, of the experimental animals. Other materials included Diospyros virginiana and extracts from plants not rich in tannins. Diospyros and extracts of Sassafras albidum and Chenopodium ambrosiodes were tumorigenic in over 50% of the treated animals. PMID:625070

Kapadia, G J; Chung, E B; Ghosh, B; Shukla, Y N; Basak, S P; Morton, J F; Pradhan, S N

1978-03-01

131

Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.  

PubMed

The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo. PMID:11332848

Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

2001-04-01

132

Manganese toxicity in soil for Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta), and Folsomia candida (Collembola).  

PubMed

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing Ecological Soil Screening Level (Eco-SSL) benchmarks for ecological risk assessment (ERA) of contaminants at Superfund sites. Eco-SSLs are developed from published values whenever sufficient quantity and quality of data exist. Because insufficient information was available to generate an Eco-SSL for Mn, standardized toxicity testing was undertaken to fill the data gaps. Tests included the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) cocoon production test, the enchytraeid (Enchytraeus crypticus) reproduction test, and the collembolan (Folsomia candida) reproduction test, all conducted in Sassafras sandy loam soil that supports a relatively high bioavailability of metals. Weathering and aging of manganese-amended soil were carried out to more closely simulate exposure effects at Superfund sites on soil invertebrates. Data were analyzed by nonlinear regression to determine EC20 and EC50 values based on concentration-response relationships. The toxicity order for manganese in Sassafras sandy loam was E. crypticus>E. fetida>F. candida, with EC20 values of 116, 629, and 1209 mg kg(-1), respectively. The Eco-SSL requirement for the testing of multiple representative species is well justified. All study results will be submitted to the Eco-SSL Task Group for quality control review prior to inclusion in the Eco-SSL database. PMID:14659366

Kuperman, R G; Checkai, R T; Simini, M; Phillips, C T

2004-01-01

133

Apparent genetic homogeneity of spawning striped bass in the upper Chesapeak Bay  

SciTech Connect

The possible existence of genetically distinct populations of spawning striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the river systems of the upper Chesapeake Bay was investigated by a biochemical genetic approach. Samples of blood and liver from adult fish were obtained during the 1976 spawning runs from the Rappanhannock (Virginia), Potomac, Choptank, Sassafras, Bohemia, and Elk rivers (Maryland), and Maryland waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. Samples were analyzed for frequency of occurrence of a polymorphic liver enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and variable serum proteins which were not correlated with age or sex. Multivariate and Bayesian analyses of these data indicate apparent genetic homogeneity of spawning bass within the upper Chesapeake Bay. If natal stream homing occurs, a sufficient number of wanderers may provide significant gene flow among river systems. The results suggest that long-term management of the fishery need not be totally on the basis of separate river units.

Sidell, B.D.; Otto, R.G.; Powers, D.A. Karweit, M.; Smith, J.

1980-01-01

134

The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands, a review.  

PubMed

The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands is extremely interesting because of the cultural and biogeographic features of this region, which make it a centre of medicinal plant diversity (richness of endemic flora, geographical isolation in the Atlantic sea, crosscultural influences, and past abundance of local healers). The medicinal flora of Madeira is composed of 259 species. Some noteworthy medicinal taxa, endemic or locally relevant, are: Acanthus mollis, Aeonium glandulosum, Aeonium glutinosum, Bidens pilosa, Borago officinalis, Chamaemelum nobile var. discoideum, Culcita macrocarpa, Echium nervosum, Euphorbia platiphylla, Helichrysum melaleucum, Helichrysum obconicum, Hypericum glandulosum, Hypericum humifussum, Kleinia repens, Laurus azorica, Monizia edulis, Ocotea foetens, Psoralea bituminosa, Rubus bollei, Rumex maderensis, Sambucus lanceolata, Scilla maderensis, Sedum brissemoretii, Sedum farinosum, Sedum nudum, Sibthorpia peregrina, Teucrium betonicum, Thymus caespititius, Trifolium squamosum and Vaccinium padifolium. Among the medicinal cryptogams, one can underline the parasitic fungus Laurobasidium lauri, which grows on the stems of Laurus azorica and is used as an antirheumatic, haemostatic, emmenagogue, insecticide and analeptic. PMID:7650952

Rivera, D; Obón, C

1995-05-01

135

Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were monitored to establish the maximum sewage solids loading rate that could be applied without causing environmental deterioration. The results indicate that application of 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha of sludge is the upper limit to ensure protection of the groundwater quality on the site studied. Application rates at or slightly below 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha are sufficient for providing plant nutrients for the dent corn and rye cropping system utilized in the study.

Higgins, A.J.

1984-06-01

136

Relation of Nickel Concentrations in Tree Rings to Groundwater Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increment cores were collected from trees growing at two sites where groundwater is contaminated by nickel. Proton-induced X ray emission spectroscopy was used to determine the nickel concentrations in selected individual rings and in parts of individual rings. Ring nickel concentrations were interpreted on the basis of recent concentrations of nickel in aquifers, historical information about site use activities, and model simulations of groundwater flow. Nickel concentrations in rings increased during years of site use but not in trees outside the contaminated aquifers. Consequently, it was concluded that trees may preserve in their rings an annual record of nickel contamination in groundwater. Tulip trees and oaks contained higher concentrations of nickel than did sassafras, sweet gum, or black cherry. No evidence was found that nickel accumulates consistently within parts of individual rings or that nickel is translocated across ring boundaries.

Yanosky, Thomas M.; Vroblesky, Don A.

1992-08-01

137

Naturally occurring insect growth regulators. II. Screening of insect and plant extracts as insect juvenile hormone mimics.  

PubMed

Ethereal extracts prepared from the larvae, pupae, or eggs of 10 species of insects and from various parts of 343 species of higher plants were screened for juvenilizing effects against Tenebrio molitor and Oncopeltus fasciatus. Activity in both species was shown by an extract of the larvae of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, whereas an extract of the pupae was active in O. fasiatus only. Extracts of two plant species (Echinacea angustifolia roots and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana seeds) showed high juvenilizing activity in T. MOLITOR, AND EXtracts of five plant species (Clethra alnifolia stems, leaves, and fruits, Sassafras albidum roots and root bark, Eucalyptus camaldulensis stems and bark, Pinus rigida twigs and leaves, and Iris douglasiana roots, stems, and fruits) were highly active in O. fasciatus an extract of Tsuga canadensis leaves showed lower activity in this insect. Extracts of 16 species of plants showed high insecticidal activity (mortality) in O. fasciatus but lacked juvenilizing properties in both species of test insects. PMID:1221244

Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Mills, G D

1975-01-01

138

Decadal morphological response of an ebb-tidal delta and down-drift beach to artificial breaching and inlet stabilisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphodynamic response of a mixed-energy ebb-tidal delta (Guadiana estuary, southern Portugal) and its down-drift barrier island (Canela Island) to channel relocation and stabilisation by jetties is examined using a series of sequential bathymetric maps and vertical aerial photographs spanning five decades. Morphological analysis indicates that the ebb delta is in an immature state, characterised by weak sediment bypassing. Landward-migrating shoals on the swash platform have been produced by the jetty-induced artificial bank-breaching and by the collapse of the eastern portion of the delta. The welding of these shoals has largely controlled the evolution of the coast, with local accretion and erosion lasting for years, and large amounts of regional accretion occurring over decades due to sand accumulation against jetties located further down-drift. These observations provide insights into the potential response of a coast to very large, locally concentrated sand nourishment in the form of shoals. The main effects of the jetties on the coast are observed at the centre of Canela Island, with the production of an erosion hot-spot associated with a temporally persistent and divergent longshore transport providing sand to the adjacent areas. Significant accretion is anticipated for the next decade along the entire island due to the ongoing attachment of the presently observed shoals. After the depletion of this sediment source, and in the context of weak sediment bypassing, the most severe down-drift erosion induced by the jetties is predicted to occur some decades after their construction. This study demonstrates that the geomorphic response of an ebb-tidal delta to jetty construction must be considered at multiple temporal and spatial scales when assessing the impacts of jetties on the down-drift coast.

Garel, E.; Sousa, C.; Ferreira, Ó.; Morales, J. A.

2014-07-01

139

Soil microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) of twelve ecosystems of Mt. Kilimanjaro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the metabolic quotient qCO2 - as sensitive and important parameters for soil fertility and C turnover - are strongly affected by land-use changes all over the world. These effects are particularly distinct upon conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems due to very fast carbon (C) and nutrient cycles and high vulnerability, especially in the tropics. In this study, we used an elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to investigate the effects of land-use change and elevation on Corg, MBC and qCO2. Down to a soil depth of 18 cm we compared 4 natural (Helichrysum, Erica forest, Podocarpus forest, Ocotea forest), 5 seminatural (disturbed Podocarpus forest, disturbed Ocotea forest, lower montane forest, grassland, savannah), 1 sustainably used (homegarden) and 2 intensively used ecosystems (coffee plantation, maize field) on an elevation gradient from 950 to 3880 m a.s.l.. Using an incubation device, soil CO2-efflux of 18 cm deep soil cores was measured under field moist conditions and mean annual temperature. MBC to Corg ratios varied between 0.7 and 2.3%. qCO2 increased with magnitude of the disturbance, albeit this effect decreased with elevation. Following the annual precipitation of the ecosystems, both, Corg and MBC showed a hum-shaped distribution with elevation, whereas their maxima were between 2500 and 3000 m a.s.l.. Additionaly, Corg and MBC contents were significantly reduced in intensively used agricultural systems. We conclude that the soil microbial biomass and its activity in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems are strongly altered by land-use. This effect is more distinct in lower than in higher elevated ecosystems and strongly dependent on the magnitude of disturbance.

Pabst, Holger; Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kiese, Ralf; Kuzyakov, Yakov

2014-05-01

140

North American Lauraceae: Terpenoid Emissions, Relative Attraction and Boring Preferences of Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)  

PubMed Central

The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of ?-cubebene, ?-copaene, ?-humulene, and calamenene were positively correlated with attraction, and EAG analyses confirmed chemoreception of terpenoids by antennal receptors of X. glabratus. PMID:25007073

Kendra, Paul E.; Montgomery, Wayne S.; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A.; Bauchan, Gary R.; Ploetz, Randy C.; Epsky, Nancy D.

2014-01-01

141

Descriptions of two new, cryptic species of Metasiro (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi: Neogoveidae) from South Carolina, USA, including a discussion of mitochondrial mutation rates.  

PubMed

Specimens of Metasiro from its three known disjunct population centers in the southeastern US were examined and had a 769 bp fragement of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequenced. These populations are located in the western panhandle of Florida and nearby areas of Georgia, in the Savannah River delta of South Carolina, and on Sassafras Mt. in South Carolina. This range extends over as much as 500 km, which is very large for a species of cyphophthalmid harvestmen and presents a degree of physical separation among populations such that we would expect them to actually be distinguishable species. We examined the morphology, including the spermatopositors of males, and sequences from 221 specimens. We found no discernible differences in the morphologies of specimens from the different populations, but corrected pairwise distances of COI were about 15% among the three population centers. We also analyzed COI data using a General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model implemented in the R package SPLITS; with a single threshold, the most likely model had four species within Metasiro. Given this level of molecular divergence, the monophyly of the population haplotypes, and the number of exclusive COI nucleotide and amino acid differences distinguishing the populations, we here raise the Savannah River and Sassafras Mt. populations to species status: M. savannahensis sp. nov., and M. sassafrasensis sp. nov., respectively. This restricts M. americanus (Davis, 1933) to just the Lower Chattahoochee Watershed, which in this study includes populations along the Apalachicola River and around Florida Caverns State Park. GMYC models reconstructed the two main haplotype clades within M. americanus as different species, but they are not exclusive to different areas. We estimate COI percent divergence rates in certain cyphophthalmid groups and discuss problems with historical measures of this rate. We hypothesize that Metasiro began diversifying over 20 million years ago. PMID:24943422

Clouse, Ronald M; Wheeler, Ward C

2014-01-01

142

Screening botanical extracts for quinoid metabolites.  

PubMed

Botanical dietary supplements represent a significant share of the growing market for alternative medicine in the USA, where current regulations do not require assessment of their safety. To help ensure the safety of such products, an in vitro assay using pulsed ultrafiltration and LC-MS-MS has been developed to screen botanical extracts for the formation of electrophilic and potentially toxic quinoid species upon bioactivation by hepatic cytochromes P450. Rat liver microsomes were trapped in a flow-through chamber by an ultrafiltration membrane, and samples containing botanical extracts, GSH and NADP(H), were flow-injected into the chamber. Botanical compounds that were metabolized to reactive intermediates formed stable GSH adducts mimicking a common in vivo detoxification pathway. If present in the ultrafiltrate, GSH conjugates were detected using LC-MS-MS with precursor ion scanning followed by additional characterization using product ion scanning and comparison to standard compounds. As expected, no GSH adducts of reactive metabolites were found in extracts of Trifolium pratense L. (red clover), which are under investigation as botanical dietary supplements for the management of menopause. However, extracts of Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees (sassafras), Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey), and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), all of which are known to contain compounds that are either carcinogenic or toxic to mammals, produced GSH adducts during this screening assay. Several compounds that formed GSH conjugates including novel metabolites of rosmarinic acid were identified using database searching and additional LC-MS-MS studies. This assay should be useful as a preliminary toxicity screen during the development of botanical dietary supplements. A positive test suggests that additional toxicological studies are warranted before human consumption of a botanical product. PMID:11712913

Johnson, B M; Bolton, J L; van Breemen, R B

2001-11-01

143

North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).  

PubMed

The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of ?-cubebene, ?-copaene, ?-humulene, and calamenene were positively correlated with attraction, and EAG analyses confirmed chemoreception of terpenoids by antennal receptors of X. glabratus. PMID:25007073

Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D

2014-01-01

144

Variation in manuka oil lure efficacy for capturing Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and cubeb oil as an alternative attractant.  

PubMed

Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees]. Xyleborus glabratus is attracted to manuka oil lures, which are commercially available, and phoebe oil. Variable efficacy of manuka oil lures and insufficient availability of phoebe oil prompted us to investigate the reasons behind changes in manuka oil lure efficacy and to test cubeb oil, a readily available essential oil from Piper cubeba L. seeds, as an alternative attractant. Attraction, release rates and durations, and volatile composition of manuka oil lures manufactured in 2008 were compared with manuka oil lures manufactured in 2012, and to whole and a distilled fraction of cubeb oil. Manuka oil lures from 2008 were more attractive to X. glabratus than controls for 8 wk, whereas lures from 2012 were attractive for only 2 wk. Cubeb oil and the distilled fraction of it were as attractive as or more attractive than manuka oil in three trials. In gravimetric studies, manuka oil lures from 2008 and cubeb oil lures continued to release volatiles for 57 d, whereas lures from 2012 stopped after 16 d. The chemical composition of volatiles released from new manuka oil lures from 2008 was similar to 2012; however, a preservative (butylated hydroxytoluene) was detected in the 2008 lures. Cubeb oil was an effective attractant for X. glabratus that lasted 8-9 wk when released from bubble lures. PMID:23575024

Hanula, James L; Sullivan, Brian T; Wakarchuk, David

2013-04-01

145

Determining fate and transport parameters for nitroglycerine, 2,4-dinitrotoluine, and nitroguanidine in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During military operations, a small fraction of propellant mass is not consumed during firing and is deposited onto the ground surface (Jenkins et al., 2006). Soluble propellant constituents can be released from particulate residues into the environment. Propellant constituents of interest for this study are nitroglycerine (NG), 2,4-dinitrotoluine (2,4-DNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluine (2,6-DNT), and nitroguanidine (NQ). The goal of this work is to determine fate and transport parameters for these constituents in three soils that represent a range of geographic locations and soil properties. This supports a companion study that looks at dissolution of NG, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and NQ from fired and unfired solid propellant formulations and their transport in soils. The three soils selected for the study are Catlin silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, superactive Oxyaquic Argiudoll), Plymouth sandy loam (mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamment), and Sassafras loam (fine loamy, siliceous, mesic Typic Hapudult). Two of these soils, Plymouth sandy loam and Sassafras loam, were collected on military installations. Linear adsorption coefficients and transformation rates of propellant constituents were determined in batch kinetic experiments. Soils were mixed with propellant constituent solutions (2 mg L-1) at 4:1 solution/soil mass ratio and equilibrated for 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 120 hr at which time samples were centrifuged and supernatant solutions were analyzed for target compounds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using U.S. EPA Method 8330b for NG, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT, and Walsh (1989) method for NQ. Adsorption and transformation of propellant constituents were determined from the decrease in solution concentration of these compounds. It was determined that all studied compounds were subjected to sorption by the solid phase and degradation. Catlin soil, with finer texture and high organic matter content, influenced solution concentration of NG, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and NQ to the greatest extent. Estimated fate and transport parameters will support ongoing release and column transport studies and will allow environmental managers on military installations to better estimate potential for propellant constituent transport off-site. Jenkins, T.F., A.D. Hewitt, C.L. Grant, S. Thiboutot, G. Ampleman, M.E. Walsh, T.A. Ranney, C.A. Ramsey, A.J. Palazzo, and J.C. Pennington. 2006. Identity and distribution of residues of energetic compounds at army live-fire training ranges. Chemosphere 63:1280-1290. Walsh, M.E. 1989. Analytical Methods for Determining Nitroguanidine in Soil and Water. Special Report 89-35. U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH.

Gosch, D. L.; Dontsova, K.; Chorover, J.; Ferré, T.; Taylor, S.

2010-12-01

146

Effects of drought on leaf gas exchange in an eastern broadleaf deciduous forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding plant physiological adaptations to drought is critical for predicting changes in ecosystem productivity that result from climate variability and future climate change. From 2011-2013, southern Indiana experienced a late growing season drought in 2011, a severe early season drought in 2012, and a wet growing season in 2013 characterized by an absence of water stress with frequent precipitation and milder temperatures. The 2012 drought was unique due to the severity and early onset drought conditions (compared to the more frequent late season drought) and was characterized by a Palmer Drought severity index below -4 and precipitation totals from May - July that were 70% less than the long-term (2000 - 2010) mean. During the 2012 drought, an 11% decline in net ecosystem productivity relative to the long-term mean was observed at the AmeriFlux tower in Morgan Monroe State Forest despite a growing season that started ~25 days earlier. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate species-specific contributions to the canopy-scale response to inter-annual variability in water stress. We investigated differences between tree species in their response to climate variability using weekly leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential measurements during the growing seasons of 2011-2013. We used this unique dataset, collected at the top of the canopy with a 25 m boom lift, to evaluate changes in leaf water status and maximum assimilation capacity in the drought versus non-drought years. The leaf-level physiology of oak (Quercus) species appears to be less sensitive to drought than other species (tulip poplar [Liriodendron tulipifera], sassafras [Sassafras albidum] and sugar maple [Acer saccharum]). Preliminary data shows mean canopy leaf water potential for oaks was 30.5% more negative in May-July 2012 versus the same time period in 2013. During these same periods the rate of C assimilation in oaks was reduced by only 3%, whereas other species were reduced by closer to 10-20% in the drought year. We then assess how assimilation capacity and leaf water potential relate to marginal water use efficiency across species and years. Given that this region is predicted to experience more water stress over the coming decades, these results will inform predictions as to how species composition will drive ecosystem responses to climate variability.

Roman, D. T.; Brzostek, E. R.; Dragoni, D.; Rahman, A. F.; Novick, K. A.; Phillips, R.

2013-12-01

147

Dissolution of Unfired and Fired Propellants and Transport of Released Nitroglycerine, 2,4-Dinitrotoluine, and Nitroguanidine in Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground water contamination due to deposition of military-related compounds during training activities on the firing ranges presents a potential problem for military land management. Small particles of propellant residue have been found around firing points on military installations (Jenkins et al., 2006). Understanding release of soluble propellant constituents, such as nitroglycerine (NG), 2,4-dinitrotoluine (2,4-DNT) and nitroguanidine (NQ) from insoluble nitrocellulose matrix of commonly-used propellants will allow estimating environmental impact of these residues. Studies of unfired propellants (Dontsova et al., 2009) showed that they can serve as potential sources of ground water contamination when exposed to rainwater. However, fired residues have not been examined. This study compared dissolution and subsequent transport of NG, 2,4-DNT, and NQ from unfired and fired residues of several common propellant formulations, M1 (2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT), WC860 (NG), and M31 (NG and NQ). Propellants were placed on soil surface in the columns and exposed to saturated flow. Two water fluxes were used, 0.55 and 0.9 cm h-1. Water flow was followed using conservative tracer, (Br-), while fate of propellant constituents was tracked by measuring their concentrations in outflow using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Dissolution and transport parameters were estimated using a water flow and solute transport model, HYDRUS-1D (Šimunek et al., 2005). Initial spike in outflow concentrations of NG, 2,4-DNT, and NQ observed after flow initiation for both fired and unfired propellants was followed by gradual decrease in dissolution rate, until it reached near steady-state. This decrease is explained by limitation that is placed on dissolution rate by diffusion of these compounds from particle interior. Of the two soils used, Plymouth sandy loam (mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamment), and Sassafras loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, mesic Typic Hapudult), Sassafras loam exhibited greater potential for adsorption and transformation of propellant constituents. Water flow rate also was shown to impact release of propellant constituents into solution. This work provides critical information about dissolution of propellant constituents from propellant formulations and their fate in soils necessary for making decisions about environmental management of firing ranges.

Dontsova, K.; Hunt, E.; Gosch, D. L.; Taylor, S.; Simunek, J.; Chorover, J.; Huxman, T. E.

2010-12-01

148

Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids. PMID:16274702

Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M

2006-02-23

149

Effects of edaphic factors on the tree stand diversity in a tropical forest of Sierra Madre del Sur, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two sites with similar environmental parameters, except for the edaphic factor, were selected in the mountainous tropical forest of southern Mexico. Site 1 was established on an Alisol; site 2, on a Phaeozem. Representative soil profiles were examined on each of the sites, and topsoil was sampled on a regular grid pattern. The soil of site 2 was richer in organic matter and major nutrients and had a less acid reaction than the soil of site 1. The species diversity of the trees at site 2 (30 species) was higher than that at site 1 (17 species). The species compositions of the trees were different on the two soils: there were only six species in common for both sites. The coefficients of species similarity on the sites were low. We concluded that the presence of different soils within the same type of forest ecosystem increases its ?-diversity. The examination of edaphic preferences of the species showed that Alstonia longifolia and Thouinidium decandrum preferred rich soils, Inga punctata and Ocotea sinuata preferred poor soils, and Cupania dentata and Hamelia patens did not display preferences in the studied range of soil properties. Thus, the spatial variability of the soil properties affect the spatial pattern of tree species in the studied tropical forest ecosystems.

Kurzmeier, S.; Wiedemann, T.; Biber, P.; Schad, P.; Krasilnikov, P. V.

2012-08-01

150

Effects of cyanobacterial-driven pH increases on sediment nutrient fluxes and coupled nitrification-denitrification in a shallow fresh water estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer cyanobacterial blooms caused an elevation in pH (9 to ~10.5) that lasted for weeks in the shallow and tidal-fresh region of the Sassafras River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay (USA). Elevated pH promoted desorption of sedimentary inorganic phosphorus and facilitated conversion of ammonium (NH4+) to ammonia (NH3). In this study, we investigated pH effects on exchangeable NH4+ desorption, pore water diffusion and the flux rates of NH4+, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and nitrate (NO3-), nitrification, denitrification, and oxygen consumption. Elevated pH enhanced desorption of exchangeable NH4+ through NH3 formation from both pore water and adsorbed NH4+ pools. Progressive penetration of high pH from the overlying water into sediment promoted the mobility of SRP and the release of total ammonium (NH4+ and NH3) into the pore water. At elevated pH levels, high sediment-water effluxes of SRP and total ammonium were associated with reduction of nitrification, denitrification and oxygen consumption rates. Alkaline pH and the toxicity of NH3 may inhibit nitrification in the thin aerobic zone, simultaneously constraining coupled nitrification-denitrification with limited NO3- supply and high pH penetration into the anaerobic zone. Geochemical feedbacks to pH elevation, such as enhancement of dissolved nutrient effluxes and reduction in N2 loss via denitrification, may enhance the persistence of cyanobacterial blooms in shallow water ecosystems.

Gao, Y.; Cornwell, J. C.; Stoecker, D. K.; Owens, M. S.

2012-07-01

151

Effects of cyanobacterial-driven pH increases on sediment nutrient fluxes and coupled nitrification-denitrification in a shallow fresh water estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer cyanobacterial blooms caused an elevation in pH (9 to ~10.5) that lasted for weeks in the shallow and tidal-fresh region of the Sassafras River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay (USA). Elevated pH promoted desorption of sedimentary inorganic phosphorus and facilitated conversion of ammonium (NH4+) to ammonia (NH3). In this study, we investigated pH effects on exchangeable NH4+ desorption, nutrient pore water diffusion and flux rates of NH4+, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), nitrate (NO3-), nitrification, denitrification, and oxygen consumption. pH elevation enhanced the desorption of exchangeable NH4+ because of NH3 formation from both pore water and adsorbed NH4+ pools. Progressive penetration of high pH from the overlying water into sediment promoted the release of SRP and total ammonium (NH4+ and NH3) into pore water. At elevated pH, high sediment-water effluxes of SRP and total ammonium were associated with reduction in nitrification, denitrification and oxygen consumption rates. Alkaline pH and the toxicity of NH3 may inhibit nitrification in the thin aerobic zone, simultaneously constraining coupled nitrification-denitrification with limited NO3- supply and high pH penetration into the anaerobic zone. Geochemical feedbacks to pH elevation, such as enhancement of dissolved nutrient effluxes and reduction in N2 loss via denitrification, may be responsible for the persistence of cyanobacterial blooms in shallow water ecosystems.

Gao, Y.; Cornwell, J. C.; Stoecker, D. K.; Owens, M. S.

2012-01-01

152

Avian Influenza Virus (H11N9) in Migratory Shorebirds Wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV). Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America. PMID:25329399

de Araujo, Jansen; de Azevedo Júnior, Severino M.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hurtado, Renata F.; Walker, David; Thomazelli, Luciano M.; Ometto, Tatiana; Seixas, Marina M. M.; Rodrigues, Roberta; Galindo, Daniele B.; da Silva, Adriana C. S.; Rodrigues, Arlinéa M. M.; Bomfim, Leonardo L.; Mota, Marcelo A.; Larrazábal, Maria E.; Branco, Joaquim O.; Serafini, Patricia; Neto, Isaac S.; Franks, John; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Durigon, Edison L.

2014-01-01

153

Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations???30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti. PMID:24713267

2014-01-01

154

Dynamics of violaxanthin and lutein epoxide xanthophyll cycles in Lauraceae tree species under field conditions.  

PubMed

Two xanthophyll cycles have been described in higher plants: the violaxanthin xanthophyll (V or VAZ) cycle, which is present in all species, and the taxonomically restricted lutein epoxide xanthophyll (Lx) cycle, which involves the light-induced de-epoxidation of Lx to lutein (L) and its epoxidation back to Lx in low light. Laboratory experiments indicate that the first reaction occurs quickly, but the second reaction is much slower. We investigated the Lx cycle under field conditions in several tree species of the Lauraceae family to determine its relationship with the ubiquitous V cycle. The field study was conducted in two natural laurel forests: one in the Canary Islands, where Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco, Ocotea foetens (Aiton.) Benth, Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm. and Persea indica (L.) Spreng were studied; and one in the Basque Atlantic coast where Laurus nobilis L. was studied. The results were complemented by a taxonomic study. The presence of Lx was widespread among Lauraceae species, but its concentration varied even among closely related species. The V pool size correlated positively with growth irradiance, whereas the relationship between Lx pool size and growth irradiance varied with species. A functional Lx cycle was confirmed under field conditions only in O. foetens and L. nobilis. Furthermore, in O. foetens, a correlation between Lx de-epoxidation and photoinhibition suggested a protective role for this cycle. We conclude that, unlike the V cycle, which is normally correlated with irradiance, the operation and light dependence of the Lx cycle is species-dependent. PMID:17669731

Esteban, Raquel; Jiménez, Eduardo T; Jiménez, M Soledad; Morales, Domingo; Hormaetxe, Koldobika; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

2007-10-01

155

Native leaf-tying caterpillars influence host plant use by the invasive Asiatic oak weevil through ecosystem engineering.  

PubMed

We tested the effect of leaf-tying caterpillars, native ecosystem engineers, on the abundance and host feeding of an invasive insect, the Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs). Leaf quality was previously thought to be the sole factor determining host use by C. castaneus, but adult weevils congregate in leaf ties made by lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars). Adult weevil abundance was naturally higher on Quercus alba and Q. velutina compared to four other tree species tested (Acer rubrum, Carya ovata, Cornus florida, and Sassafras albidum). These differences were associated with more natural leaf ties on the two Quercus species. In the laboratory, weevils fed on all six species but again preferred Q. alba and Q. velutina. When artificial ties were added to all six tree species, controlling for differences in leaf-tie density, adult weevil density increased on all six tree species, damage increased on all species but A. rubrum, and host ranking changed based on both abundance and damage. We conclude that leaf ties increase the local abundance of C. castaneus adults and their feeding. Thus, these native leaf-tying caterpillars engender the success of an invasive species via structural modification of potential host plants, the first described example of this phenomenon. PMID:25039212

Baer, Christina S; Marquis, Robert J

2014-06-01

156

Coumarins and phenolic fingerprints of oak and Brazilian woods extracted by sugarcane spirit.  

PubMed

A total of 25 sugarcane spirit extracts of six different Brazilian woods and oak, commonly used by cooperage industries for aging cachaça, were analyzed for the presence of 14 phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde, synapaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, vanillic acid, syringic acid, quercetin, trans-resveratrol, catechin, epicatechin, eugenol, and myricetin) and two coumarins (scopoletin and coumarin) by HPLC-DAD-fluorescence and HPLC-ESI-MS(n). Furthermore, an HPLC-DAD chromatographic fingerprint was build-up using chemometric analysis based on the chromatographic elution profiles of the extracts monitored at 280 nm. Major components identified and quantified in Brazilian wood extracts were coumarin, ellagic acid, and catechin, whereas oak extracts shown a major contribution of catechin, vanillic acid, and syringaldehyde. The main difference observed among oak and Brazilian woods remains in the concentration of coumarin, catechin, syringaldehyde, and coniferaldehyde. The chemometric analysis of the quantitative profile of the 14 phenolic compounds and two coumarins in the wood extracts provides a differentiation between the Brazilian wood and oak extracts. The chromatographic fingerprint treated by multivariate analysis revealed significant differences among Brazilian woods themselves and oak, clearly defining six groups of wood extracts: (i) oak extracts, (ii) jatobá extracts, (iii) cabreúva-parda extracts, (iv) amendoim extracts, (v) canela-sassafrás extracts and (vi) pequi extracts. PMID:20029907

da Silva, Alexandre Ataide; do Nascimento, Eduardo Sanches Pereira; Cardoso, Daniel Rodrigues; Franco, Douglas Wagner

2009-11-01

157

Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.  

PubMed

Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available. PMID:10030529

Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

1999-01-15

158

Phytotoxicity of nitroaromatic energetic compounds freshly amended or weathered and aged in sandy loam soil.  

PubMed

The toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) to terrestrial plants alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Japanese millet (Echinochloa crusgalli L.), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were determined in Sassafras sandy loam soil using seedling emergence, fresh shoot, and dry mass measurement endpoints. A 13-week weathering and aging of energetic materials in soils, which included wetting and drying cycles, and exposure to sunlight of individual soil treatments, was incorporated into the study design to better reflect the soil exposure conditions in the field than toxicity determinations in freshly amended soils. Definitive toxicity tests showed that dinitrotoluenes were more phytotoxic for all plant species in freshly amended treatments based on EC20 values for dry shoot ranging from 3 to 24mgkg(-1) compared with values for TNB or TNT ranging from 43 to 62mgkg(-1). Weathering and aging of energetic materials (EMs) in soil significantly decreased the toxicity of TNT, TNB or 2,6-DNT to Japanese millet or ryegrass based on seedling emergence, but significantly increased the toxicity of all four EMs to all three plant species based on shoot growth. Exposure of the three plant species to relatively low concentrations of the four compounds initially stimulated plant growth before the onset of inhibition at greater concentrations (hormesis). PMID:16112172

Rocheleau, Sylvie; Kuperman, Roman G; Martel, Majorie; Paquet, Louise; Bardai, Ghalib; Wong, Stephen; Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine; Gong, Ping; Hawari, Jalal; Checkai, Ronald T; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

2006-01-01

159

Ideology and wildlands management: The case of Rondeau Provincial Park, Ontario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a critical examination of some of the basic concepts that have guided management of parks and related reserves, often termed wildlands. Study is focussed on Rondeau Provincial Park, Ontario, and on concepts such as wilderness, primeval forest, and the Carolinian forest. Deer culling and other management policies and practices have been based upon the idea that the highly valued sassafras, tulip, and other species of the Carolinian forest are decreasing due to browsing. Field mapping and analysis of historic vegetation records indicate that this trend is not in fact occurring. Historic research also reveals difficulties in defining the Carolinian or other perceived types of forest for management purposes. A major reassessment of ideology and management policy and practice seem to be required in Rondeau and other wildlands. Vague or general concepts such as wilderness or preservation should be strongly complemented and supported by more precise statements of objectives, a learning attitude, and experimentation and research. As a result of the technical uncertainties and value judgments frequently involved, management should also be based upon the expressed preferences and continuing involvement of citizens.

Mann, D. L.; Nelson, J. G.

1980-03-01

160

Toxicity benchmarks for antimony, barium, and beryllium determined using reproduction endpoints for Folsomia candida, Eisenia fetida, and Enchytraeus crypticus.  

PubMed

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs) for the ecological risk assessment of contaminants at Superfund sites. The Eco-SSLs for several soil contaminants have been developed from toxicity benchmarks for soil invertebrates in the existing literature. Insufficient information to generate Eco-SSLs for Sb, Ba, and Be necessitated toxicity testing to fill the data gaps. We used standardized toxicity tests with the earthworm Eiseniafetida, enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus, and collembolan Folsomia candida in the present study. These tests were selected on the basis of their ability to measure chemical toxicity to ecologically relevant test species during chronic assays and their inclusion of at least one reproduction component among the measurement endpoints. Tests were conducted in Sassafras Sandy Loam soil, which supports relatively high bioavailability of metals. Weathering and aging procedures for metals in amended soil were incorporated into these studies to better reflect exposure conditions in the field. The relative toxicity of metals to the soil invertebrates tested was Be > Sb > Ba based on the median effective concentration values for reproduction. These studies produced toxicological data that can contribute to the development of Eco-SSLs for Sb, Ba, and Be for soil invertebrates. PMID:16566160

Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Speicher, Jason A; Barclift, David J

2006-03-01

161

Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal  

PubMed Central

The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader) and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs. PMID:17472740

Botsaris, Alexandros S

2007-01-01

162

Seasonal activity of nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in different habitats in New Jersey.  

PubMed

Activity patterns of nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say were compared between habitat types (dominant tree types: mixed deciduous, oak, white pine, red cedar, sassafras, and spicebush). Both the time of peak abundance and the relative abundance of questing nymphs at the peak were compared. Several smoothing algorithms were tested with the data to determine if they could be used to estimate the time of peak abundance more accurately. Determination of the time of peak abundance using the raw data or simple moving averages was susceptible to outliers. Weighted averages were less susceptible to outliers. The seasonal pattern of nymphal abundance was similar in all habitat types. Variation in the time of peak abundance between habitats was low. Peak densities were lower in deciduous habitats (0.24 +/- 0.05 nymphs per square meter) than in nondeciduous habitats (0.85 +/- 0.15 nymphs per square meter); this could have resulted from higher host use of the nondeciduous areas. These data suggest that there are differences in the population dynamics of nymphs found in different habitats. PMID:7869344

Lord, C C

1995-01-01

163

Evaluation of two herbicide techniques on electric transmission rights-of-way: Development of relatively stable shrublands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Postmanagement vegetation patterns were studied on five transmission rights-of-way subjected to over a decade of basal or stem-foliar herbicide applications designed to eliminate tall-growing trees. The basally treated lines had a mean of 100% greater shrub and 50% less herbaceous cover than stem-foliar treated lines due primarily to the lack of overspray damage to nontarget plant species with the basal technique. Persisting tree growth was also 50% less with basal treatments when Sassafras albidum, a rootsuckering problem species on all areas, was excluded. Tree seedling establishment on basally treated rights-of-way was 34% less than on stem-foliar treated lines. The creation of stable shrublands can potentially reduce the amount of future herbicide usage. These findings also lend support to the Initial Floristic Composition concept in vegetation development proposed by Egler. In southern New England, commercial basal applications can effectively control unwanted tree growth on rights-of-way while promoting the development of relatively stable shrublands which tend to inhibit the invasion of tree seedlings.

Dreyer, Glenn D.; Niering, William A.

1986-01-01

164

Taxonomic and nomenclatural aspects of Hypoxylon taxa from southern South America proposed by Spegazzini.  

PubMed

The holotypes and isotypes of 20 Hypoxylon taxa described by Spegazzini have been examined and their taxonomic positions and nomenclatural problems are discussed. Two new combinations, Annulohypoxylon apiahynum comb. nov. and A. subeffusum comb. nov., are proposed. H. goliath is considered a synonym of Rosellinia bunodes. H. albostigmatosum and H. guarapiense are synonyms of H. anthochroum, H. anthracoderma of H. monticulosum, H. mbaiense of H. notatum, H. paulistanum of H. diatrypeoides, H. plumbeum and H. rubiginosum var. microcarpum of H. perforatum. H. porteri and H. intermedium belong in Biscogniauxia capnodes, H. puiggarii in Annulophypoxylon subeffusum, H. subvinosum. in H. lenormandii, H. turbinatum var. guaraniticum in Phylacia turbinata and H. valsarioides in Creosphaeria sassafras. H. leptascum is transferred to A. leptascum, H. circostomum to Nemania circostoma and H. latissimum to N. latissima. The holotype of H. albostigmatosum has been recovered, thus the lectotypification by Shear no longer is needed. H. subnigricans and H. umbilicatum are confirmed as good taxa. H. anthochroum and H. lenormandii are reported as first records from Argentina (Tucumán). PMID:19750953

Hladki, Adriana I; Romero, Andrea I

2009-01-01

165

Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes  

PubMed Central

To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

Morris, E. Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S.

2011-01-01

166

Foraging strategies in trees of different root morphology: the role of root lifespan.  

PubMed

Resource exploitation of patches is influenced not simply by the rate of root production in the patches but also by the lifespan of the roots inhabiting the patches. We examined the effect of sustained localized nitrogen (N) fertilization on root lifespan in four tree species that varied widely in root morphology and presumed foraging strategy. The study was conducted in a 12-year-old common garden in central Pennsylvania using a combination of data from minirhizotron and root in-growth cores. The two fine-root tree species, Acer negundo L. and Populus tremuloides Michx., exhibited significant increases in root lifespan with local N fertilization; no significant responses were observed in the two coarse-root tree species, Sassafras albidum Nutt. and Liriodendron tulipifera L. Across species, coarse-root tree species had longer median root lifespan than fine-root tree species. Localized N fertilization did not significantly increase the N concentration or the respiration of the roots growing in the N-rich patch. Our results suggest that some plant species appear to regulate the lifespan of different portions of their root system to improve resource acquisition while other species do not. Our results are discussed in the context of different strategies of foraging of nutrient patches in species of different root morphology. PMID:24128849

Adams, Thomas S; McCormack, M Luke; Eissenstat, David M

2013-09-01

167

Soil properties affect the toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to the enchytraeid worm Enchytraeus crypticus.  

PubMed

The authors investigated individual toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to the potworm Enchytraeus crypticus using the enchytraeid reproduction test. Studies were designed to generate ecotoxicological benchmarks that can be used for developing ecological soil-screening levels for ecological risk assessments of contaminated soils and to identify and characterize the predominant soil physicochemical parameters that can affect the toxicities of TNT and RDX to E. crypticus. Soils, which had a wide range of physicochemical parameters, included Teller sandy loam, Sassafras sandy loam, Richfield clay loam, Kirkland clay loam, and Webster clay loam. Analyses of quantitative relationships between the toxicological benchmarks for TNT and soil property measurements identified soil organic matter content as the dominant property mitigating TNT toxicity for juvenile production by E. crypticus in freshly amended soil. Both the clay and organic matter contents of the soil modulated reproduction toxicity of TNT that was weathered and aged in soil for 3 mo. Toxicity of RDX for E. crypticus was greater in the coarse-textured sandy loam soils compared with the fine-textured clay loam soils. The present studies revealed alterations in toxicity to E. crypticus after weathering and aging TNT in soil, and these alterations were soil- and endpoint-specific. PMID:23955807

Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Kolakowski, Jan E; Lanno, Roman

2013-11-01

168

Preliminary ecotoxicological characterization of a new energetic substance, CL-20.  

PubMed

A new energetic substance hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (or CL-20) was tested for its toxicities to various ecological receptors. CL-20 (epsilon-polymorph) was amended to soil or deionized water to construct concentration gradients. Results of Microtox (15-min contact) and 96-h algae growth inhibition tests indicate that CL-20 showed no adverse effects on the bioluminescence of marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the cell density of freshwater green algae Selenastrum capricornutum respectively, up to its water solubility (ca. 3.6 mg l(-1)). CL-20 and its possible biotransformation products did not inhibit seed germination and early seedling (16-19 d) growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) up to 10,000 mg kg(-1) in a Sassafras sandy loam soil (SSL). Indigenous soil microorganisms in SSL and a garden soil were exposed to CL-20 for one or two weeks before dehydrogenase activity (DHA) or potential nitrification activity (PNA) were assayed. Results indicate that up to 10,000 mg kg(-1) soil of CL-20 had no statistically significant effects on microbial communities measured as DHA or on the ammonium oxidizing bacteria determined as PNA in both soils. Data indicates that CL-20 was not acutely toxic to the species or microbial communities tested and that further studies are required to address the potential long-term environmental impact of CL-20 and its possible degradation products. PMID:15234161

Gong, Ping; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Rocheleau, Sylvie; Dodard, Sabine G; Robidoux, Pierre Yves; Hawari, Jalal

2004-08-01

169

Safrole induces cell death in human tongue squamous cancer SCC-4 cells through mitochondria-dependent caspase activation cascade apoptotic signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Safrole is one of important food-borne phytotoxin that exhibits in many natural products such as oil of sassafras and spices such as anise, basil, nutmeg, and pepper. This study was performed to elucidate safrole-induced apoptosis in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells. The effect of safrole on apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and DAPI staining and its regulatory molecules were studied by Western blotting analysis. Safrole-induced apoptosis was accompanied with up-regulation of the protein expression of Bax and Bid and down-regulation of the protein levels of Bcl-2 (up-regulation of the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2), resulting in cytochrome c release, promoted Apaf-1 level and sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner. We also used real-time PCR to show safrole promoted the mRNA expressions of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in SCC-4 cells. These findings indicate that safrole has a cytotoxic effect in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells by inducing apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis of SCC-4 cells by safrole is involved in mitochondria- and caspase-dependent signal pathways. PMID:21591240

Yu, Fu-Shun; Huang, An-Cheng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chung, Jing-Gung

2012-07-01

170

Quantitative resistance traits and suitability of woody plant species for a polyphagous scarab, Popillia japonica Newman.  

PubMed

The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, has an unusually broad host range among deciduous woody plants, yet it feeds only sparingly, or not at all, on certain species in the field. We evaluated beetles' preference, survival over time and fecundity on eight woody plant species historically rated as susceptible or resistant and, after verifying those ratings, tested whether resistance is correlated with so-called quantitative defense traits including leaf toughness, low nutrient content (water, nitrogen, and sugars), and relatively high amounts of tannins or saponins, traditionally associated with such plants. We further tested whether species unsuitable for Japanese beetles are also rejected by fall webworms, Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), the expected outcome if the aforementioned traits serve as broad-based defenses against generalists. Choice tests supported historical resistance ratings for the selected species: tuliptree, lilac, dogwood, and Bradford callery pear were rejected by Japanese beetles, whereas sassafras, cherry plum, Virginia creeper, and littleleaf linden were readily eaten. Rejected species also were unsuitable for survival over time, or egg-laying, indicating beetles' inability to overcome the resistance factors through habituation, compensatory feeding, or detoxification. None of the aforementioned leaf traits was consistently higher or lower in the resistant or susceptible plants, and plant species rejected by Japanese beetles often were not rejected by fall webworms. Specialized secondary chemistry, not quantitative defenses, likely determines the Japanese beetle's dietary range among deciduous woody plant species it may encounter. PMID:19161699

Keathley, Craig P; Potter, Daniel A

2008-12-01

171

Toxicity and uptake of cyclic nitramine explosives in ryegrass Lolium perenne.  

PubMed

Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), and 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) are cyclic nitramines used as explosives. Their ecotoxicities have been characterized incompletely and little is known about their accumulation potential in soil organisms. We assessed the toxicity and uptake of these explosives in perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne L. exposed in a Sassafras sandy loam (SSL) or in a sandy soil (DRDC, CL-20 only) containing contrasting clay contents (11% and 0.3%, respectively). A 21-d exposure to RDX, HMX or CL-20 in either soil had no adverse effects on ryegrass growth. RDX and HMX were translocated to ryegrass shoots, with bioconcentration factors (BCF) of up to 15 and 11, respectively. In contrast, CL-20 was taken up by the roots (BCF up to 19) with no translocation to the shoots. These studies showed that RDX, HMX, and CL-20 can accumulate in plants and may potentially pose a risk of biomagnification across the food chain. PMID:18358578

Rocheleau, Sylvie; Lachance, Bernard; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

2008-11-01

172

Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils from aromatic plants against the strain INRA L2104 of the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus grown in carrot broth at 16 degrees C was studied. The quantity needed by the essential oils of nutmeg, mint, clove, oregano, cinnamon, sassafras, sage, thyme or rosemary to produce 14-1110% relative extension of the lag phase was determined. Total growth inhibition of bacterial spores was observed for some of the antimicrobial agents assayed. The addition of 5 microl cinnamon essential oil per 100 ml of broth in combination with refrigeration temperatures of

Valero, M; Salmerón, M C

2003-08-15

173

Phytotoxicity and uptake of nitroglycerin in a natural sandy loam soil.  

PubMed

Nitroglycerin (NG) is widely used for the production of explosives and solid propellants, and is a soil contaminant of concern at some military training ranges. NG phytotoxicity data reported in the literature cannot be applied directly to development of ecotoxicological benchmarks for plant exposures in soil because they were determined in studies using hydroponic media, cell cultures, and transgenic plants. Toxicities of NG in the present studies were evaluated for alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) exposed to NG in Sassafras sandy loam soil. Uptake and degradation of NG were also evaluated in ryegrass. The median effective concentration values for shoot growth ranged from 40 to 231 mg kg(-1) in studies with NG freshly amended in soil, and from 23 to 185 mg kg(-1) in studies with NG weathered-and-aged in soil. Weathering-and-aging NG in soil did not significantly affect the toxicity based on 95% confidence intervals for either seedling emergence or plant growth endpoints. Uptake studies revealed that NG was not accumulated in ryegrass but was transformed into dinitroglycerin in the soil and roots, and was subsequently translocated into the ryegrass shoots. The highest bioconcentration factors for dinitroglycerin of 685 and 40 were determined for roots and shoots, respectively. Results of these studies will improve our understanding of toxicity and bioconcentration of NG in terrestrial plants and will contribute to ecological risk assessment of NG-contaminated sites. PMID:21975007

Rocheleau, Sylvie; Kuperman, Roman G; Dodard, Sabine G; Sarrazin, Manon; Savard, Kathleen; Paquet, Louise; Hawari, Jalal; Checkai, Ronald T; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

2011-11-15

174

Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes.  

PubMed

To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

Morris, E Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S

2011-09-01

175

Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by the natural hepatotoxin safrole.  

PubMed

The hepatotoxin, safrole is a methylenedioxy phenyl compound, found in sassafras oil and certain other essential oils. Recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP, P450) and human liver microsomes were studied to investigate the selective inhibitory effects of safrole on human P450 enzymes and the mechanisms of action. Using Escherichia coli-expressed human P450, our results demonstrated that safrole was a non-selective inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 in the IC(50) order CYP2E1 < CYP1A2 < CYP2A6 < CYP3A4 < CYP2D6. Safrole strongly inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 activities with IC(50) values less than 20 microM. Safrole caused competitive, non-competitive, and non-competitive inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 activities, respectively. The inhibitor constants were in the order CYP1A2 < CYP2E1 < CYP2A6. In human liver microsomes, 50 microM safrole strongly inhibited 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, coumarin hydroxylation, and chlorzoxazone hydroxylation activities. These results revealed that safrole was a potent inhibitor of human CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1. With relatively less potency, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were also inhibited. PMID:15778010

Ueng, Yune-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Hang; Don, Ming-Jaw

2005-05-01

176

Avian influenza virus (H11N9) in migratory shorebirds wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil.  

PubMed

Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV). Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America. PMID:25329399

de Araujo, Jansen; de Azevedo, Severino M; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hurtado, Renata F; Walker, David; Thomazelli, Luciano M; Ometto, Tatiana; Seixas, Marina M M; Rodrigues, Roberta; Galindo, Daniele B; da Silva, Adriana C S; Rodrigues, Arlinéa M M; Bomfim, Leonardo L; Mota, Marcelo A; Larrazábal, Maria E; Branco, Joaquim O; Serafini, Patricia; Neto, Isaac S; Franks, John; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Durigon, Edison L

2014-01-01

177

A lagrangian-eulerian description of debris transport by a tsunami in the Lisbon waterfront  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several major tsunamis are known to have struck the Portuguese coast over the past millennia (Baptista and Miranda, 2009). The Tagus estuary has great exposure to tsunami occurrences and, being bordered by the largest metropolitan area in the country, is a particularly worrisome location in what concerns safety of populations and economic losses due to disruption of built infrastructures. The last major earthquake and tsunami combination known to have critically affected the Tagus estuary dates back to November 1st 1755. This catastrophe critically damaged Lisbon's infrastructures, led to numerous casualties and priceless heritage losses. The urban tissue of the present city still bears visible the effects of the catastrophe and of the ensuing protection measures. The objective of this work is to simulate the propagation of debris carried by a 1755-like tsunami along the present-day bathimetric and altimetric conditions of Lisbon waterfront. Particular emphasis was directed to the modeling of vehicles since the tsunami is likely to affect areas that are major traffic nodes such as Alcântara, with more than 1500 vehicles in road network of about 3 km. The simulation tool employed is based on a 2DH spatial (eulerian) shallow-flow approach suited to complex and dynamic bottom boundaries. The discretization technique relies on a finite-volume scheme, based on a flux-splitting technique incorporating a reviewed version of the Roe Riemann solver (Canelas et al. 2013). Two formulations were employed to model the advection of debris: a fully coupled continuum approach, where solid bodies are described by the concentration only and an uncoupled material (lagrangian) formulation where solid bodies are tracked between two time-steps once the flow field is determined by the eulerian solver. In the latter case, concentrations are updated after tracking the solid bodies thus correcting the mass and momentum balance to be used for the next time-step. The urban tissue was thoroughly discretized with a mesh finer than street width so that the buildings would act as obstacles and the streets would bind the incoming flow. To simplify the plan-view geometry, it was assumed that buildings would retain its original shape after the earthquake. The results of the eulerian-continuum and of the lagrangian-discrete solutions are presented, compared and discussed. It was found that the patterns of deposition of the eulerian-continuum model can be considerably different to those obtained by the lagrangian-discrete solution if the latter assumes that vehicles have a small equivalent density and if momentum losses due to inter-particle collisions are neglected. Results become more similar if vehicles are considered much denser than water and that the mixture of water and solid bodies loses momentum due to particle collisions. Acknowledgements: Project PTDC/ECM/117660/2010, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) has partially supported this work. References Canelas, R.; Murillo, J. & Ferreira, R.M.L. (2013) 2DH modelling of discontinuous flows over mobile beds. Accepted, Journal of Hydraulic Research, December 2012 Baptista M.A. Miranda, J.M. (2009). Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 25-42.

Conde, Daniel; Canelas, Ricardo; Baptista, Maria Ana; João Telhado, Maria; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

2013-04-01

178

A study of Solar-Enso correlation with southern Brazil tree ring index (1955- 1991)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of solar activity and El Niño-Southern Oscillation on tree growth in Southern Brazil were studied by correlation analysis. Trees for this study were native Araucaria (Araucaria Angustifolia)from four locations in Rio Grande do Sul State, in Southern Brazil: Canela (29o18`S, 50o51`W, 790 m asl), Nova Petropolis (29o2`S, 51o10`W, 579 m asl), Sao Francisco de Paula (29o25`S, 50o24`W, 930 m asl) and Sao Martinho da Serra (29o30`S, 53o53`W, 484 m asl). From these four sites, an average tree ring Index for this region was derived, for the period 1955-1991. Linear correlations were made on annual and 10 year running averages of this tree ring Index, of sunspot number Rz and SOI. For annual averages, the correlation coefficients were low, and the multiple regression between tree ring and SOI and Rz indicates that 20% of the variance in tree rings was explained by solar activity and ENSO variability. However, when the 10 year running averages correlations were made, the coefficient correlations were much higher. A clear anticorrelation is observed between SOI and Index (r=-0.81) whereas Rz and Index show a positive correlation (r=0.67). The multiple regression of 10 year running averages indicates that 76% of the variance in tree ring INdex was explained by solar activity and ENSO. These results indicate that the effects of solar activity and ENSO on tree rings are better seen on long timescales.

Rigozo, N.; Nordemann, D.; Vieira, L.; Echer, E.

179

Molecular Models of Rosmarinic Acid and DPPH  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The paper by Canelas and da Costa (1) introduces students to the antioxidant rosmarinic acid, and its interaction with the free radical DPPH. Those two molecules are the featured species this month. The original paper shows the 2-dimensional structure of the cis isomer of rosmarinic acid, although the trans isomer exhibits very similar antioxidant properties. Calculations at the DFT/B3LYP 631-G(d) level show that the trans isomer is more stable than the cis isomer in the gas phase, a situation that is expected to carry over into solution. Many antioxidants are phenols, and rosmarinic acid has four such groups available for radical formation. A DFT study by Cao et al. (2) examines the relative stabilities of the radicals formed from loss of each of the phenolic hydrogens. That paper focuses on the trans isomer, and a useful student project would be to repeat the calculations with the cis isomer. An HPLC separation of the isomers of rosmarinic acid has been published (3), and might well lead to an extension of the experiment described in ref 1 in which relative antioxidant efficiencies of the two isomers could be evaluated. DPPH has been used extensively as a standard for determining antioxidant activity. An examination of the molecular orbital occupied by the lone electron shows significant delocalization, providing a partial explanation for the stability of the neutral radical. Our gas phase structure for DPPH, also at the DFT/B3LYP 631-G(d) level, is quite consistent with several crystal structures on DPPH and DPPH in the presence of another species (4).

180

Acute and chronic toxicity of the new explosive CL-20 to the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) exposed to amended natural soils.  

PubMed

Monocyclic nitramine explosives such as 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) are toxic to a number of ecological receptors, including earthworms. The polycyclic nitramine CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) is a powerful explosive that may replace RDX and HMX, but its toxicity is not known. In the present study, the lethal and sublethal toxicities of CL-20 to the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) are evaluated. Two natural soils, a natural sandy forest soil (designated RacFor2002) taken in the Montreal area (QC, Canada; 20% organic carbon, pH 7.2) and a Sassafras sandy loam soil (SSL) taken on the property of U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (Edgewood, MD, USA; 0.33% organic carbon, pH 5.1), were used. Results showed that CL-20 was not lethal at concentrations of 125 mg/kg or less in the RacFor2002 soil but was lethal at concentrations of 90.7 mg/kg or greater in the SSL soil. Effects on the reproduction parameters such as a decrease in the number of juveniles after 56 d of exposure were observed at the initial CL-20 concentration of 1.6 mg/kg or greater in the RacFor2002 soil, compared to 0.2 mg/kg or greater in the SSL soil. Moreover, low concentrations of CL-20 in SSL soil (approximately 0.1 mg/kg; nominal concentration) were found to reduce the fertility of earthworms. Taken together, the present results show that CL-20 is a reproductive toxicant to the earthworm, with lethal effects at higher concentrations. Its toxicity can be decreased in soils favoring CL-20 adsorption (high organic carbon content). PMID:15095901

Robidoux, Pierre Yves; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Savard, Kathleen; Berthelot, Yann; Dodard, Sabine; Martel, Majorie; Gong, Ping; Hawari, Jalal

2004-04-01

181

Toxicity of emerging energetic soil contaminant CL-20 to potworm Enchytraeus crypticus in freshly amended or weathered and aged treatments.  

PubMed

We investigated the toxicity of an emerging polynitramine energetic material hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) to the soil invertebrate species Enchytraeus crypticus by adapting then using the Enchytraeid Reproduction Test (ISO/16387:2003). Studies were designed to develop ecotoxicological benchmark values for ecological risk assessment of the potential impacts of accidental release of this compound into the environment. Tests were conducted in Sassafras Sandy Loam soil, which supports relatively high bioavailability of CL-20. Weathering and aging procedures for CL-20 amended into test soil were incorporated into the study design to produce toxicity data that better reflect soil exposure conditions in the field compared with the toxicity in freshly amended soils. Concentration-response relationships for measurement endpoints were determined using nonlinear regressions. Definitive tests showed that toxicities for E. crypticus adult survival and juvenile production were significantly increased in weathered and aged soil treatments compared with toxicity in freshly amended soil, based on 95% confidence intervals. The median effect concentration (EC50) and EC20 values for juvenile production were 0.3 and 0.1 mg kg-1, respectively, for CL-20 freshly amended into soil, and 0.1 and 0.035 mg kg-1, respectively, for weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments. These findings of increased toxicity to E. crypticus in weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments compared with exposures in freshly amended soils show that future investigations should include a weathering and aging component to generate toxicity data that provide more complete information on ecotoxicological effects of emerging energetic contaminants in soil. PMID:16213571

Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Anthony, J Steven; Kolakowski, Jan E; Davis, Emily A

2006-03-01

182

Toxicity of 2,4-dinitrotoluene to terrestrial plants in natural soils.  

PubMed

The presence of energetic materials (used as explosives and propellants) at contaminated sites is a growing international issue, particularly with respect to military base closures and demilitarization policies. Improved understanding of the ecotoxicological effects of these materials is needed in order to accurately assess the potential exposure risks and impacts on the environment and its ecosystems. We studied the toxicity of the nitroaromatic energetic material 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli L. Beauv.), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) using four natural soils varying in properties (organic matter, clay content, and pH) that were hypothesized to affect chemical bioavailability and toxicity. Amended soils were subjected to natural light conditions, and wetting and drying cycles in a greenhouse for 13 weeks prior to toxicity testing to approximate field exposure conditions in terms of bioavailability, transformation, and degradation of 2,4-DNT. Definitive toxicity tests were performed according to standard protocols. The median effective concentration (EC(50)) values for shoot dry mass ranged from 8 to 229 mg kg(-1), depending on the plant species and soil type. Data indicated that 2,4-DNT was most toxic in the Sassafras (SSL) and Teller (TSL) sandy loam soils, with EC(50) values for shoot dry mass ranging between 8 to 44 mg kg(-1), and least toxic in the Webster clay loam soil, with EC(50) values for shoot dry mass ranging between 40 to 229 mg kg(-1). The toxicity of 2,4-DNT for each of the plant species was significantly (p < or = 0.05) and inversely correlated with the soil organic matter content. Toxicity benchmark values determined in the present studies for 2,4-DNT weathered-and-aged in SSL or TSL soils will contribute to development of an Ecological Soil Screening Level for terrestrial plants that can be used for ecological risk assessment at contaminated sites. PMID:20471667

Rocheleau, Sylvie; Kuperman, Roman G; Simini, Mike; Hawari, Jalal; Checkai, Ronald T; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

2010-07-15

183

Toxicities of dinitrotoluenes and trinitrobenzene freshly amended or weathered and aged in a sandy loam soil to Enchytraeus crypticus.  

PubMed

Scientifically based ecological soil-screening levels are needed to identify concentrations of contaminant energetic materials (EMs) in soil that present an acceptable ecological risk at a wide range of military installations. Insufficient information regarding the toxicity of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) to soil invertebrates necessitated toxicity testing. We adapted the standardized Enchytraeid Reproduction Test (International Standardization Organization 16387:2003) and selected Enchytraeus crypticus for these studies. Tests were conducted in Sassafras sandy loam soil, which supports relatively high bioavailability of nitroaromatic EMs. Weathering and aging procedures for EMs amended to test soil were incorporated into the study design to produce toxicity data that better reflect the soil exposure conditions in the field compared with toxicity in freshly amended soils. This included exposing hydrated, EM-amended soils in open glass containers in the greenhouse to alternating wetting and drying cycles. Definitive tests established that the order of EM toxicity to E. crypticus based on the median effect concentration values for juvenile production in either freshly amended or weathered and aged treatments was (from the greatest to least toxicity) TNB > 2,4-DNT > 2,6-DNT. Toxicity to E. crypticus juvenile production was significantly increased in 2,6-DNT weathered and aged soil treatments compared with toxicity in freshly amended soil, based on 95% confidence intervals. This result shows that future investigations should include a weathering and aging component to generate toxicity data that provide more complete information regarding ecotoxicological effects of energetic contaminants in soil. PMID:16704071

Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Kolakowski, Jan E; Kurnas, Carl W

2006-05-01

184

DNA sequences from Miocene fossils: an ndhF sequence of Magnolia latahensis (Magnoliaceae) and an rbcL sequence of Persea pseudocarolinensis (Lauraceae).  

PubMed

We report a partial ndhF sequence (1528 bp) of Magnolia latahensis and a partial rbcL sequence (699 bp) of Persea pseudocarolinensis from the Clarkia fossil beds of Idaho, USA (Miocene; 17-20 million years [my] BP). The ndhF sequence from M. latahensis was identical to those of extant M. grandiflora, M. schiediana, M. guatemalensis, and M. tamaulipana. Parsimony analysis of the ndhF sequence of M. latahensis and previously reported ndhF sequences for Magnoliaceae placed M. latahensis within Magnolia as a member of the Theorhodon clade. This result is reasonable considering that: (1) the morphology of M. latahensis is very similar to that of extant M. grandiflora, and (2) a recent molecular phylogenetic study of Magnoliaceae showed that the maximum sequence divergence of ndhF among extant species is very low (1.05% in subfamily Magnolioideae) compared with other angiosperm families. We reanalyzed the previously reported rbcL sequence of M. latahensis with sequences for all major lineages of extant Magnoliales and Laurales. This sequence is sister to Liriodendron, rather than grouped with a close relative of M. grandiflora as predicted by morphology and the results of the ndhF analysis, possibly due to a few erroneous base calls in the sequences. The rbcL sequence of P. pseudocarolinensis differed from rbcL of extant Persea species by 3-6 nucleotides and from rbcL of extant Sassafras albidum by two nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses of rbcL sequences for all major lineages of Magnoliales and Laurales placed the fossil P. pseudocarolinensis within Lauraceae and as sister to S. albidum. These results reinforce the suggestion that Clarkia and other similar sites hold untapped potential for molecular analysis of fossils. PMID:21653417

Kim, Sangtae; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Suh, Youngbae

2004-04-01

185

Accumulation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine by the earthworm Eisenia andrei in a sandy loam soil.  

PubMed

The heterocyclic polynitramine hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a highly energetic compound found as a soil contaminant at some defense installations. Although RDX is not lethal to soil invertebrates at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg, it decreases earthworm cocoon formation and juvenile production at environmentally relevant concentrations found at contaminated sites. Very little is known about the uptake of RDX in earthworms and the potential risks for food-chain transfer of RDX in the environment. Toxicokinetic studies were conducted to quantify the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) using adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed for up to 14 d to sublethal concentrations of nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX in a Sassafras sandy loam soil. High-performance liquid chromatography of acetonitrile extracts of tissue and soil samples indicated that nonlabeled RDX can be accumulated by the earthworm in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The BAF, expressed as the earthworm tissue to soil concentration ratio, decreased from 6.7 to 0.1 when the nominal soil RDX concentrations were increased from 1 to 10,000 mg/kg. Tissue concentrations were comparable in earthworms exposed to nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX. The RDX bioaccumulation also was estimated using the kinetically derived model (BAFK), based on the ratio of the uptake to elimination rate constants. The established BAFK of 3.6 for [14C]RDX uptake was consistent with the results for nonlabeled RDX. Radioactivity also was present in the tissue residues of [14C]RDX-exposed earthworms following acetonitrile extraction, suggesting the formation of nonextractable [14C]RDX metabolites associated with tissue macromolecules. These findings demonstrated a net accumulation of RDX in the earthworm and the potential for food-chain transfer of RDX to higher-trophic-level receptors. PMID:19432505

Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine G; Savard, Kathleen; Lachance, Bernard; Robidoux, Pierre Y; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

2009-10-01

186

Collecting single and multichannel seismic-reflection data in shallow water near Aberdeen Proving Ground, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

In August and September 1994, single- and multi-channel seismic-reflection data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), to support a regional hydrogeologic framework study at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland. Data were collected in Chesapeake Bay, as well as in the Bush, Gunpowder, and Sassafras Rivers, which are tributaries to Chesapeake Bay. Data were collected along the shoreline in very shallow water, usually less than 1 m. Approximately 100 km of single-channel seismic-reflection data were collected using a water gun and an electromechanical plate as sound sources; about 50 percent of these data contained usable geologic information. A prominent channel in the Quaternary sediments at a depth of 61 m is clearly evident, and the depth to bedrock ranges from approximately 184 to 223 m. Approximately 14 km of multi-channel data were collected in the Gunpowder and Bush Rivers and in Chesapeake Bay; about 40 percent of these data showed subsurface reflectors, often in small, discontinuous segments. Data were processed using established processing techniques. Numerous reflectors were present in the data that were continuous over long distances. The multi-channel data contained more detail and significantly less noise than the single-channel data. The quality and continuity of the single- and multi-channel data were best in shallow water (less than 1 m) where the presence of gassing organic sediments was at a minimum.

Haeni, F.P.; Banks, W.L.; Versteeg, R.J.

1995-12-31

187

Identification of sinicuichi alkaloids in human serum after intoxication caused by oral intake of a Heimia salicifolia extract.  

PubMed

A 26-year-old male came to hospital around midnight complaining about muscle pain of the extremities as well as the tongue and slightly raised temperature. He reported the intake of an unknown amount of sinicuichi tea he had fermented over 24 h by adding yeast and sugar. The patient was treated with Vomex A (dimenhydrinate) and released from hospital the following afternoon. A blood sample taken shortly after submission and a small amount of the used plant material were available for analysis. Herbal drugs are widely used as stimulants as a legal alternative to illegal psychoactive drugs or in traditional context. Among many others like Sassafras officinalis, Salvia divinorum or Ephedra, Heimia salicifolia ("sinicuichi"), a species of the lythraceae family, is available via several online shops. Brewed up or fermented and consumed, the so-called sinicuichi tea may cause exhilarating feelings and an alteration of awareness accompanied by bradycardia, relaxation of the muscles and a pleasant faintness. Therefore Sinicuichi brew and heimia leaves are widely used for medication by the natives of Central and South America. After liquid extraction with acetone five different alkaloids were detected in the plant material by LC-MS/MS operated in the Q1 scan mode applying a TurboIonSpray source. Subsequently, Product Ion Spectra were recorded and after confirming the molecular formula by determining the accurate masses, possible structures of H. salicifolia alkaloids were assigned. The information of the Product Ion Spectra was then used to set up a sensitive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method. Applying the MRM method to the patient's serum sample after alkaline liquid-liquid extraction all of the five heimia alkaloids detected in the plant material were also detected qualitatively in the serum extract, confirming the ingestion. PMID:18621494

Kempf, Jürgen; Stedtler, Uwe; Neusüss, Christian; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Auwärter, Volker

2008-08-01

188

Safrole-2',3'-oxide induces cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells and in mice.  

PubMed

Safrole-2',3'-oxide (SAFO) is a reactive electrophilic metabolite of the hepatocarcinogen safrole, the main component of sassafras oil. Safrole occurs naturally in a variety of spices and herbs, including the commonly used Chinese medicine Xi xin (Asari Radix et Rhizoma) and Dong quai (Angelica sinensis). SAFO is the most mutagenic metabolite of safrole tested in the Ames test. However, little or no data are available on the genotoxicity of SAFO in mammalian systems. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of SAFO in human HepG2 cells and male FVB mice. Using MTT assay, SAFO exhibited a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect in HepG2 cells with TC(50) values of 361.9?M and 193.2?M after 24 and 48h exposure, respectively. In addition, treatment with SAFO at doses of 125?M and higher for 24h in HepG2 cells resulted in a 5.1-79.6-fold increase in mean Comet tail moment by the alkaline Comet assay and a 2.6-7.8-fold increase in the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Furthermore, repeated intraperitoneal administration of SAFO (15, 30, 45, and 60mg/kg) to mice every other day for a total of twelve doses caused a significant dose-dependent increase in mean Comet tail moment in peripheral blood leukocytes (13.3-43.4-fold) and in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (1.5-5.8-fold). Repeated administration of SAFO (60mg/kg) to mice caused liver lesions manifested as a rim of ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes immediately surrounding the central vein. Our data clearly demonstrate that SAFO significantly induced cytotoxicity, DNA strand breaks, micronuclei formation both in human cells in vitro and in mice. More studies are needed to explore the role SAFO plays in safrole-induced genotoxicity. PMID:21986196

Chiang, Su-yin; Lee, Pei-yi; Lai, Ming-tsung; Shen, Li-ching; Chung, Wen-sheng; Huang, Hui-fen; Wu, Kuen-yuh; Wu, Hsiu-ching

2011-12-24

189

Identification of the main human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in safrole 1'-hydroxylation.  

PubMed

Safrole is a natural plant constituent, found in sassafras oil and certain other essential oils. The carcinogenicity of safrole is mediated through 1'-hydroxysafrole formation, followed by sulfonation to an unstable sulfate that reacts to form DNA adducts. To identify the main cytochrome P450 (P450) involved in human hepatic safrole 1'-hydroxylation (SOH), we determined the SOH activities of human liver microsomes and Escherichia coli membranes expressing bicistronic human P450s. Human liver (n = 18) microsomal SOH activities were in the range of 3.5-16.9 nmol/min/mg protein with a mean value of 8.7 +/- 0.7 nmol/min/mg protein. In human liver (n = 3) microsomes, the mean K(m) and V(max) values of SOH were 5.7 +/- 1.2 mM and 0.14 +/- 0.03 micromol/min/nmol P450, respectively. The mean intrinsic clearance (V(max)/K(m)) was 25.3 +/- 2.3 microL/min/nmol P450. SOH was sensitive to the inhibition by a CYP2C9 inhibitor, sulfaphenazole, and CYP2E1 inhibitors, 4-methylpyrazole and diethyldithiocarbamate. The liver microsomal SOH activity showed significant correlations with tolbutamide hydroxylation (r = 0.569) and chlorzoxazone hydroxylation (r = 0.770) activities, which were the model reactions catalyzed by CYP2C9 and CYP2E1, respectively. Human CYP2C9 and CYP2E1 showed SOH activities at least 2-fold higher than the other P450s. CYP2E1 showed an intrinsic clearance 3-fold greater than CYP2C9. These results demonstrated that CYP2C9 and CYP2E1 were the main P450s involved in human hepatic SOH. PMID:15310247

Ueng, Yune-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Hang; Don, Ming-Jaw; Chi, Chin-Wen; Ho, Li-Kang

2004-08-01

190

Weathering and aging of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soil increases toxicity to potworm Enchytraeus crypticus.  

PubMed

Energetic materials are employed in a wide range of commercial and military activities and often are released into the environment. Scientifically based ecological soil-screening levels (Eco-SSLs) are needed to identify contaminant explosive levels in soil that present an acceptable ecological risk. Insufficient information for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to generate Eco-SSLs for soil invertebrates necessitated toxicity testing. We adapted the standardized Enchytraeid Reproduction Test and selected Enchytraeus crypticus for these studies. Tests were conducted in Sassafras sandy loam soil, which supports relatively high bioavailability of TNT. Weathering and aging procedures for TNT amended to test soil were incorporated into the study design to produce toxicity data that better reflect the soil exposure conditions in the field compared with toxicity in freshly amended soils. This included exposing hydrated TNT-amended soils in open glass containers in the greenhouse to alternating wetting and drying cycles. Definitive tests showed that toxicity for E. crypticus adult survival and juvenile production was increased significantly in weathered and aged soil treatments compared with toxicity in freshly amended soil based on 95% confidence intervals. The median effect concentration and 20% effective concentration for reproduction were 98 and 77 mg/kg, respectively, for TNT freshly amended into soil and 48 and 37 mg/kg, respectively, for weathered and aged TNT soil treatments. These findings of increased toxicity to E. crypticus in weathered and aged TNT soil treatments compared with exposures in freshly amended soils show that future investigations should include a weathering and aging component to generate toxicity data that provide more complete information on ecotoxicological effects of energetic contaminants in soil. PMID:16268152

Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Kolakowski, Jan E; Kurnas, Carl W

2005-10-01

191

Greenhouse gas exchange in tropical mountain ecosystems in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical mountain ecosystems with their mostly immense biodiversity are important regions for natural resources but also for agricultural production. Their supportive ecosystem processes are particularly vulnerable to the combined impacts of global warming and the conversion of natural to human-modified landscapes. Data of impacts of climate and land use change on soil-atmosphere interactions due to GHG (CO2, CH4, and N2O) exchange from these ecosystems are still scarce, in particular for Africa. Tropical forest soils are underestimated as sinks for atmospheric CH4 with regard to worldwide GHG budgets (Werner et al. 2007, J GEOPHYS RES Vol. 112). Even though these soils are an important source for the atmospheric N2O budget, N2O emissions from tropical forest ecosystems are still poorly characterized (Castaldi et al. 2013, Biogeosciences 10). To obtain an insight of GHG balances of selected ecosystems soil-atmosphere exchange of N2O, CH4 and CO2 was investigated along the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. We will present results for tropical forests in three different altitudes (lower montane, Ocotea, and Podocarpus forest), home garden (extensive agro-forestry), and coffee plantation (intensive agro-forestry). Therefore we used a combined approach consisting of a laboratory parameterization experiment (3 temperature and 2 moisture levels) and in situ static chamber measurements for GHG exchange. Field measurements were conducted during different hygric seasons throughout two years. Seasonal variation of temperature and especially of soil moisture across the different ecosystems resulted in distinct differences in GHG exchange. In addition environmental parameters like soil bulk density and substrate availability varying in space strongly influenced the GHG fluxes within sites. The results from parameterization experiments and in situ measurements show that natural forest ecosystems and extensive land use had higher uptakes of CH4. For the investigated forest ecosystems we found considerable differences in soil sink strength for CH4. N2O emissions were highest in natural forest ecosystems even though N input in the intensively managed system was considerably higher. Highest N2O efflux rates were identified in the region of highest mean annual precipitation. CO2 emissions reduced from managed to natural ecosystems. In general an increase in temperature as well as in soil moisture caused higher GHG fluxes throughout all investigated natural and managed ecosystems. With increasing altitude of the investigated forests GHG emissions reduced overall.

Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kikoti, Imani; Kiese, Ralf

2014-05-01

192

Floristic composition and similarity of 15 hectares in Central Amazon, Brazil.  

PubMed

The Amazon region is one of the most diverse areas in the world. Research on high tropical forest diversity brings up relevant contributions to understand the mechanisms that result and support such diversity. In the present study we describe the species composition and diversity of 15 one-ha plots in the Amazonian terra firme dense forest in Brazil, and compare the floristic similarity of these plots with other nine one-ha plots. The 15 plots studied were randomly selected from permanent plots at the Embrapa Experimental site, Amazonas State in 2005. The diversity was analysed by using species richness and Shannon's index, and by applying the Sorensen's index for similarity and unweighted pair-group average (UPGMA) as clustering method. Mantel test was performed to study whether the differences in species composition between sites could be explained by the geographic distance between them. Overall, we identified 8 771 individuals, 264 species and 51 plant families. Most of the species were concentrated in few families and few had large number of individuals. Families presenting the highest species richness were Fabaceae (Faboideae: 22spp., Mimosoideae: 22spp.), Sapotaceae: 22spp., Lecythidaceae: 15 and Lauraceae: 13. Burseraceae had the largest number of individuals with 11.8% of the total. The ten most abundant species were: Protium hebetatum (1 037 individuals), Eschweilera coriacea (471), Licania oblongifolia (310), Pouteria minima (293), Ocotea cernua (258), Scleronema micranthum (197), Eschweilera collina (176), Licania apelata (172), Naucleopsis caloneura (170) and Psidium araca (152), which represented 36.5% of all individuals. Approximately 49% of species had up to ten individuals and 13% appeared only once in all sampled plots, showing a large occurrence of rare species. Our study area is on a forest presenting a high tree species diversity with Shannon's diversity index of 4.49. The dendrogram showed two groups of plots with low similarity between them (less than 0.25), and the closer the plots were one to another, more similar in species composition (Mantel R = 0.3627, p < 0.01). The 15 plots in our study area share more than 50% of their species composition and represent the group of plots that have the shortest distance between each other. Overall, our results highlight the high local and regional heterogeneity of environments in terra firme forests, and the high occurrence of rare species, which should be considered in management and conservation programs in the Amazon rainforest, in order to maintain its structure on the long run. PMID:22208103

da Silva, Kátia Emidio; Martins, Sebastião Venancio; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Santos, Nerilson Terra; de Azevedo, Celso Paulo; Matos, Francisca Dionizia de Almeida; do Amaral, Ieda Leão

2011-12-01

193

Photosynthesis and growth of two rain forest species in simulated gaps under elevated CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Two species common to the temperate rain forests of New South Wales, Australia (Doryphora sassafras and Acmena smithii) were grown for 2 wk in either ambient (350 {mu}L/L) or elevated (700 {mu}L/L) CO{sub 2} concentrations and low light (30 {mu}mol photons{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}) after which the seedlings were exposed for over 9 wk to a midday 2-h highlight period (1250 {mu}mol photons{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}, maximum) to simulate a tree fall gap. For both species, plants grown in elevated CO{sub 2} had greater biomass than plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. However, relative increases in biomass were greater in Acmena, an early-successional species, than Doryphora, a late-successional species. Recovery in quantum efficiencies over time was observed for Doryphora, implying physiological acclimation to the new light environment. Doryphora plants grown in elevated CO{sub 2} had lower values of F{sub v}/F{sub m} than plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. Although exposure to the simulated tree fall gap dramatically increased the conversion of pigments of the xanthophyll cycle, as well as increased the total pool size of xanthophyll cycle pigments relative to total chlorophyll concentration, there were no differences in either parameter between co{sub 2} treatments. Leaves of Doryphora and those seedlings grown in elevated CO{sub 2} had greater starch concentrations than Acmena and those seedlings grown in elevated CO{sub 2} had greater starch concentrations than Acmena and those seedlings grown in ambient CO{sub 2}, respectively. The reduction in quantum efficiencies for plants grown in elevated CO{sub 2} and exposed to a simulated tree fall gap is discussed in the context of the importance of gap phase regeneration for species in rain forest ecosystems and the potential effects of global change on those processes. 37 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Roden, J.S.; Wiggins, D.J.; Ball, M.C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)

1997-03-01

194

Comparative Geomorphology of Salt and Tidal Freshwater Marsh Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate estuaries include a spectrum of coastal marshes ranging from highly saline near the ocean to fresh in tributaries with substantial watershed drainage. While the hydrologic, sedimentary, and geomorphic dynamics of salt marshes have been thoroughly investigated, those aspects of tidal freshwater marshes have only begun to be addressed. Based on a recent burst in research on tidal freshwater systems in Chesapeake Bay by different universities, an attempt is made here to provide comparative geomorphology. In terms of similarities, both have tidal channels whose hydraulic geometry is primarily controlled by the tidal prism. Both show decreasing sedimentation and increasing organics with elevation and distance from channels. At seasonal to interannual time scales, the morphodynamics of both show similarities in the interplay among hydroperiod, vegetation, and geomorphology. Rather than simply evolving from youth to maturity, both systems exhibit strong evidence for dynamic equilibrium between process and morphology. Despite these similarities, there are key differences that motivate further research of tidal freshwater marshes. First, whereas salt marshes are limited by sediment supply, tidal fresh ones may not be limited depending on upstream basin size. E.g., fringing marshes along Pumunkey River have very low sediment supply, while deltaic marshes in Bush River and Sassafras River are not supply-limited. Instead, the growth of deltaic fresh marshes is transport limited, as winds and tides can only generate low momentum and turbulence for sediment transport. As illustrated in multiple systems, a constant availability of sediment leads to higher sedimentation in fresh marshes. Second, in high latitude salt marshes where the tidal range is large and the climate cold, ice acts as a strong erosional agent. In fresh marshes, ice serves to sequester sediment and buffer the erosional impact of autumnal vegetation dieback. Third, the high spatial variation in plant associations in fresh marshes allows for a finer control of spatial patterns in sedimentation and erosion than is possible in salt marshes. Finally, the landscape position of fresh marshes places them near riparian forests that can supply large amounts of organics thereby promoting accretion.

Pasternack, G. B.

2002-05-01

195

Survival and reproduction of enchytraeid worms, Oligochaeta, in different soil types amended with energetic cyclic nitramines.  

PubMed

Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a new polycyclic polynitramine, has the same functional nitramine groups (N-NO2) as the widely used energetic chemicals hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (royal demolition explosive [RDX]) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (high-melting explosive [HMX]). Potential impacts of CL-20 as an emerging contaminant must be assessed before its use. The effects of CL-20, RDX, or HMX on adult survival and juvenile production by potworms Enchytraeus albidus and Enchytraeus crypticus were studied in three soil types, including Sassafras sandy loam (1.2% organic matter [OM], 11% clay, pH 5.5), an agricultural soil (42% OM, 1% clay, pH 8.2), and a composite agricultural-forest soil (23% OM, 2% clay, pH 7.9) by using ISO method 16387 (International Standard Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Results showed that CL-20 was toxic to E. crypticus with median lethal concentration values for adult survival ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 mg/kg dry mass (DM) when using the three tested soils. In addition, CL-20 adversely affected juvenile production by both species in all soils tested, with median effective concentration (EC50) values ranging from 0.08 to 0.62 mg/kg DM. Enchytraeus crypticus and E. albidus were similarly sensitive to CL-20 exposure in the composite agricultural-forest soil, which supported reproduction by both species and enabled comparisons. Correlation analysis showed weak or no relationship overall among the soil properties and reproduction toxicity endpoints. Neither RDX nor HMX affected (p > 0.05) adult survival of either species below 658 and 918 mg/kg DM, respectively, indicating that CL-20 is more toxic to enchytraeids than RDX or HMX. Examination of data shows that CL-20 should be considered as a potential reproductive toxicant to soil invertebrates, and that safeguards should be considered to minimize the potential for release of CL-20 into the environment. PMID:16268160

Dodard, Sabine G; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Kuperman, Roman G; Sarrazin, Manon; Gong, Ping; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Hawari, Jalal

2005-10-01

196

Severity and exposure associated to tsunami actions in urban waterfronts. The case of Lisbon, Portugal.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tagus estuary is recognized as an exposed location to tsunami occurrences, given its proximity to tsunamigenic faults such as the Marquês de Pombal and the Horseshoe fault system. Lisbon, bordered by the Tagus estuary, is a critical point of Portugal's tsunami hazard map, having been affected by several tsunamis (Baptista and Miranda, 2009) including the notorious event of November 1st 1755, the last major natural disaster known to have inflicted massive destruction in Portugal. The main objective of this work, a joint initiative of CEHIDRO (IST - Universidade de Lisboa) and the Municipal Civil Protection Services of Lisbon, is to contribute to the quantification of severity and exposure of Lisbon waterfront to tsunami events. For that purpose, the propagation of a tsunami similar to that of the 1st November of 1755 in the Tagus estuary was numerically simulated. Several scenarios were considered, articulating the influence of tidal (low and high tides), atmospheric (increase in water level due to storm surges) and hydrological (flow discharge in Tagus river) conditions. Different initial and boundary conditions were defined for each modelling scenario but the magnitude of the tsunami remained what is believed to be an exceptional event. The extent of the inundation and relevant hydrodynamic quantities were registered for all scenarios. The employed simulation tool - STAV-2D - was developed at CEHIDRO (IST) and is based on a 2DH spatial (Eulerian) shallow-flow approach suited to complex and dynamic bottom boundaries. The discretization technique relies on a finite-volume scheme, based on a flux-splitting technique incorporating a reviewed version of the Roe Riemann solver (Canelas et al. 2013, Conde et al. 2013). STAV-2D features conservation equations for the finer solid phase of the flow and also a Lagrangian model for the advection of larger debris elements. The urban meshwork was thoroughly discretized with a mesh finer than average street width. This fine discretization allows for resolving flow resistance associated to obstacles: no ad hoc formulations are needed to express drag on buildings, which is a key innovation in regard to previous studies. Additionally, vehicle-like particles were virtually placed over the major traffic nodes and routes, resulting in over 5000 lagrangian particles along the riverfront. This allows for an assessment of debris deposition patterns on the aftermath of the tsunami inundation. Severity is herein assumed to depend on hydrodynamic features of the tsunami, namely its capacity to impart momentum. Exposure to tsunami actions depends on the extent of the inundation. Both severity and exposure thus vary with the tsunami scenario considered. The obtained results, obtained with a high detail of hydrodynamic behavior, allow for a street-by-street quantification of severity, expressed in terms of the product of the depth-averaged velocity by the flow depth (Karvonen et al., 2000), herein the q-parameter. This parameter is shown to be larger during run-up, particularly in streets and narrow sections. It was observed that the scenario with greater exposure is a combination of a high-tide, a storm surge and a discharge equivalent to a 100 year flood on the Tagus River. The work conducted allows for designing a methodology for exposure assessment due to tsunami propagating over urban meshes, where the influence of the existing infrastructures on the incoming inundation is highly relevant. Such methodology, here applied to Lisbon waterfront, is general since it is defined in terms of quantifiable hydrodynamic variables. Acknowledgements: Project RECI/ECM-HID/0371/2012, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), has partially supported this work. References: Baptista, M.A., Miranda, J.M. (2009). Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 25 - 42. Canelas, R., Murillo, J. & Ferreira, R.M.L. (2013). Two-dimensional depth-averaged modelling of dam-break flows over mobile beds. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 51(4), 392-407. C

Conde, Daniel; Telhado, Maria J.; Viana Baptista, Maria A.; Antunes, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

2014-05-01

197

NTP Carcinogenesis Studies of Food Grade Geranyl Acetate (71% Geranyl Acetate, 29% Citronellyl Acetate) (CAS No. 105-87-3) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Study).  

PubMed

Geranyl acetate (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene-1-ol acetate) is a colorless liquid prepared by fractional distillation of selected essential oils or by acetylation of geraniol. It is a natural constituent of more than 60 essential oils, including Ceylon citronella, palmarosa, lemon grass, petit grain, neroli bigarade, geranium, coriander, carrot, and sassafras. Geranyl acetate is used primarily as a component of perfumes for creams and soaps and as a flavoring ingredient. On the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's list of substances "generally recognized as safe," the Food Chemicals Codex (1972) specifies that geranyl acetate must contain at least 90% total esters. Carcinogenesis studies of food-grade geranyl acetate (containing approximately 29% citronellyl acetate) were conducted by administering the test chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats at doses of 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg body weight and to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice at doses of 500 or 1,000 mg/kg. Doses were administered five times per week for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex received corn oil by gavage on the same dosing schedule and served as vehicle controls. The cumulative toxicity of geranyl acetate in the 2-year study was indicated by the significantly shorter survival of high dose male rats (control, 34/50; low dose, 29/50; high dose, 18/50) and of high dose male mice (control, 31/50; low dose, 32/50; high dose, 0/50) and of dosed female mice (38/50; 15/50; 0/50) when compared with controls. Throughout most of the 2-year study, mean body weights of high dose rats and mice of each sex were lower than those of the controls. The occurrence of retinopathy or cataracts in the high dose male rats and low dose female rats as compared with the controls does not appear to be related to the administration of geranyl acetate but rather the proximity of the rats to fluorescent light. The incidence of retinopathy or cataracts (combined) was: males: control, 0/50, 0%; low dose, 1/50, 2%; high dose, 11/50, 22%; females: control, 1/50, 2%; low dose, 13/50, 26%; high dose, 2/50, 4%. Kidney tubular cell adenomas, an uncommon tumor type, were found in 2/50 (4%) low dose male rats. The historical incidence of male corn oil gavage control F344/N rats with kidney tumors is 1/250 (0.4%) at this laboratory and 4/998 (0.4%) in the program. Squamous cell papillomas in the skin were increased marginally in low dose male rats (control, 0/50; low dose, 4/50, 8%; high dose, 1/50, 2%). In addition, one low dose male rat had a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The incidence of low dose male rats with either squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas was greater (P<0.05) in comparison with the controls. The historical incidence of squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas (combined) in gavage control male F344/N rats is 3.6% (9/250) at this laboratory and 2.5% (25/999) throughout the program. The incidence of all epidermal tumors was not significantly elevated in dosed male rats relative to controls (control, 3/50, 6%; low dose, 6/50, 12%; high dose, 1/50, 2%). All high dose (1,000 mg/kg) male and female mice were dead by week 91 as a result of accidentally being administered 2,800 mg/kg for 3 days during week 91; survival of low dose and control male mice was comparable. Survival of high dose male and dosed female mice may have been inadequate for the detection of late-appearing tumors. No evidence of any carcinogenic effect was found in either low or high dose mice of either sex. An infection of the genital tract was probably responsible for the deaths of 14/22 control and 8/32 low dose female mice before the end of the study. Cytoplasmic vacuolization was increased in the liver and in the kidney of male and female mice and was considered to be compound related (liver-- male: control, 1/50, 2%; low dose, 7/50, 14%; high dose, 47/50, 94%; female: 1/50, 2%; 27/50, 54%; 46/50, 92%; kidney or kidney tubule--male: 0/50; 0/50; 41/50, 82%; female: 0/50; 24/49, 49%; 37/50, 74%). Under the conditions of these studi

1987-10-01