Ocotea odorifera is a medicinal plant that is popularly known in Brazil as “canela-sassafrás” and is used to treat dermatosis. This study\\u000a investigated the antifungal properties of O. odorifera. The methanol extract of O. odorifera was submitted to successive chromatographic separation and yielded Tellimagrandin II (TEL). Candida parapsilosis strain ATCC 22019 was used to determine the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and
Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi; Francielle Pelegrin Garcia; Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez; Tânia Ueda-Nakamura; Benedito Prado Dias Filho; Celso Vataru Nakamura
Based largely on the pioneering research of Bill Crocker, this site on the Canela Indians of Central Brazil is hosted by the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Designed to educate a general audience about the life and activities of the Canela, the site contains numerous sections that allow visitors to explore a world that few persons will be able to visit. First-time visitors will want to read the short essay ("About the Canela") before proceeding to the Daily Life chronology, which lists the activities of the Canela on an average day, including a men's council meeting and sing-dancing. A literature section offers numerous papers written by Bill Crocker on various aspects of Canela life, such as their initiation festivals and their relationships with ghosts. Finally, visitors will want to check out a short video showing Canela men engaging in one of their most unique daily activities, log racing.
...The additive is the aqueous extract obtained from the root bark of the plant Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees (Fam. Lauraceae). (b) It is obtained by extracting the bark with dilute alcohol, first concentrating the alcoholic solution by...
...The additive is the aqueous extract obtained from the root bark of the plant Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees (Fam. Lauraceae). (b) It is obtained by extracting the bark with dilute alcohol, first concentrating the alcoholic solution by...
The results of this study show that (1) black cherry seed remains viable in the forest floor for 3 years, with a small amount of seed germinating after 4 or 5 years, (2) sassafras seed remains viable for 5 years in the forest floor, and (3) some wild grap...
G. W. Wendel
Isolation of the major components from the bark of mature Cryptocarya liebertiana shows that ocobullenone and its precursor (both previously isolated from Ocotea bullata) are present in detectable concentrations in this source. These particular compounds are absent in other South African Cryptocarya species. The result is significant since Cryptocarya bark is currently being utilized by traditional healers as an alternative
Siegried E. Drewes; Marion H. Horn; Stephen Mavi
The somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in wing cells of Drosophila melanogaster was used to test the mutagenic and recombinogenic activities of five aporphinoid alkaloids isolated from Ocotea acutifolia: thalicminine (1), (+)-dicentrine (2), (+)-ocoteine (3), (+)-6S-ocoteine N-oxide (4), and (+)-leucoxine (5). Third-stage larvae derived from the standard cross with wing cell markers mwh and/or flr(3) were treated chronically. The frequencies of mutant spots observed in marked heterozygous descendants revealed significant dose-dependent genotoxicity for alkaloids 1-4; compounds 1 and 2 were the most active. Alkaloids 1-4 also induced mitotic recombination. The presence of a methoxyl group at C-3 (as in compound 3) lowers its genotoxic effect relative to that of unsubstituted analogue 2, and the introduction of an N-oxide functionality (3 vs. 4) further reduces genotoxicity. The very planar conformation of oxo-aporphine alkaloid 1 may account for its higher genotoxicity vs. its less-planar analogues 3 and 4. As previously reported for (+)-dicentrine (2), alkaloids 1, 3, and 4 may also be DNA intercalating agents, interfering with the catalytic activity of topoisomerases. PMID:23892138
Guterres, Zaira da Rosa; da Silva, Ana Francisca Gomes; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Felipe Rodrigues; Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues
Dying trees of Ocotea bullata (Lauraceae) occurred in small groups in certain areas in the medium-moist forests of the southern Cape. Crown health declined significantly (P > 0,01) in the dying groups, but this was not the general trend for the study period of four years. In general, the population is in a healthy state. Group decline is related to
W. A. Lübbe; C. J. Geldenhuys
The Atlantic rainforest species Ocotea catharinensis, Ocotea odorifera, and Ocotea porosa have been extensively harvested in the past for timber and oil extraction and are currently listed as threatened due to overexploitation. To investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of these species, we developed 8 polymorphic microsatellite markers for O. odorifera from an enriched microsatellite library by using 2 dinucleotide repeats. The microsatellite markers were tested for cross-amplification in O. catharinensis and O. porosa. The average number of alleles per locus was 10.2, considering all loci over 2 populations of O. odorifera. Observed and expected heterozygosities for O. odorifera ranged from 0.39 to 0.93 and 0.41 to 0.92 across populations, respectively. Cross-amplification of all loci was successfully observed in O. catharinensis and O. porosa except 1 locus that was found to lack polymorphism in O. porosa. Combined probabilities of identity in the studied Ocotea species were very low ranging from 1.0 x 10-24 to 7.7 x 10-24. The probability of exclusion over all loci estimated for O. odorifera indicated a 99.9% chance of correctly excluding a random nonparent individual. The microsatellite markers described in this study have high information content and will be useful for further investigations on genetic diversity within these species and for subsequent conservation purposes. PMID:25061738
Martins, E M; Martinelli, G; Arbetman, M P; Lamont, R W; Simões-Araújo, J L; Powell, D; Ciampi-Guillardi, M; Baldauf, C; Quinet, A; Galisa, P; Shapcott, A
Although understanding the timing of the deposition of recent photosynthate into fine roots is critical for determining root lifespan and turnover using isotopic techniques, few studies have directly examined the deposition and subsequent age of root carbon. To gain a better understanding of the timing of the deposition of root carbon, we labeled four individual Sassafras albidum trees with 99% 13C CO2. We then tracked whether the label appeared in roots that were at least two weeks old and no longer elongating, at the time of labeling. We found that not only were the non-structural carbon pools (soluble sugars and starch) of existing first-order tree roots incorporating carbon from current photosynthate, but so were the structural components of the roots, even in roots that were more than one year old at the time of labeling.Our findings imply that carbon used in root structural and nonstructural pools is not derived solely from photosynthate at root initiation and have implications regarding the determination of root age and turnover using isotopic techniques.
Adams, Thomas S.; Eissenstat, David M.
Ocotea bullata (Lauraceae), one of the top-ten traditional medicinal plants used in KwaZulu-Natal, is close to extinction through high demand and destructive harvesting methods. The stem bark is traditionally used to cure headaches, urinary disorders and stomach problems. Substitution of leaves for bark provides a possible resource management solution for this threatened medicinal plant. One aim of this study was
S Zschocke; S. E Drewes; K Paulus; R Bauer; J van Staden
In response to the serious scarcity of Ocotea bullata (Burch.) Baillon (Lauraceae), an important medicinal plant in South Africa, Cryptocarya species (Lauraceae) are frequently used as substitute plants. Our investigation was aimed at a pharmacological comparison of O. bullata and the Cryptocarya species C. latifolia Sonder, C. myrtifolia Stapf., C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy, C. woodii Engl. and C. wyliei Stapf.,
S Zschocke; J van Staden
The germination response of Ocotea pulchella (Nees) Mez seeds to light, temperature, water level and pulp presence is introduced. The laboratory assays were carried out in germination chambers and thermal-gradient apparatus, whereas the field assays were performed in environments with distinct light, temperature and soil moisture conditions within a permanent parcel of Restinga forest of the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananéia, São Paulo. The seeds do not exhibit dormancy, they are non photoblastic, and a loss of viability in dry stored seeds can be related to a decrease in water content of the seed. The presence of the pulp and the flooded substratum influenced negatively the germination of O. pulchella seeds tested in the laboratory. Otherwise, light and temperature probably are not limiting factors of the germination of O. pulchella seeds in the natural environment of Restinga. The optimum temperature range for germination of Ocotea pulchella seeds was 20 to 32 degrees C, the minimum or base temperature estimated was 11 degrees C and the maximum ranged between 33 and 42 degrees C. The isotherms exhibited a sigmoidal pattern well described by the Weibull model in the sub-optimal temperature range. The germinability of O. pulchella seeds in the understorey, both in wet and dry soil, was higher than in gaps. Germination was not affected by fluctuations in soil moisture content in the understorey environment, whereas in gaps, germination was higher in wet soils. Thus, the germination of this species involves the interaction of two or more factors and it cannot be explained by a single factor. PMID:19802455
Pires, L A; Cardoso, V J M; Joly, C A; Rodrigues, R R
An obligate symbiosis between Ocotea\\u000a dendrodaphne Mez and O. atirrensis Mez & Donn.Sm. (Lauraceae) and their cryptic ant symbiont, Myrmelachista\\u000a flavocotea, is common in lowland wet forests of Costa Rica, yet it is unclear whether the association is typically mutualistic or parasitic.\\u000a Ants impose costs by tending trophobionts inside the plant body and further compromise the structural integrity of their
K. McNett; J. Longino; P. Barriga; O. Vargas; K. Phillips; C. L. Sagers
Ocotea bullata (Lauraceae), one of the top-ten traditional medicinal plants used in KwaZulu-Natal, is close to extinction through high demand and destructive harvesting methods. The stem bark is traditionally used to cure headaches, urinary disorders and stomach problems. Substitution of leaves for bark provides a possible resource management solution for this threatened medicinal plant. One aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of O. bullata leaves and bark using TLC, HPLC and GC-MS analysis. The characteristic analytical fingerprints of leaf and bark extracts showed great similarities. A second aim was to investigate the pharmacological properties of O. bullata as a remedy against headaches. Leaf and bark extracts were tested in terms of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase inhibition. Extracts from the bark exhibited moderate inhibitory activity in both test systems. Extracts from fresh leaves were superior to bark extracts in terms of their in vitro inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. Volatiles obtained from n-hexane extracts of leaves and bark showed better inhibitory activity towards cyclooxygenase-1 and especially towards 5-lipoxygenase than the original n-hexane extracts. Volatiles were therefore recognized as one of the main active principles in O. bullata with regards to the anti-inflammatory properties of this medicinal plant. This lends support to the traditional usage of O. bullata bark as an inhalant or snuff. PMID:10904166
Zschocke, S; Drewes, S E; Paulus, K; Bauer, R; van Staden, J
In response to the serious scarcity of Ocotea bullata (Burch.) Baillon (Lauraceae), an important medicinal plant in South Africa, Cryptocarya species (Lauraceae) are frequently used as substitute plants. Our investigation was aimed at a pharmacological comparison of O. bullata and the Cryptocarya species C. latifolia Sonder, C. myrtifolia Stapf., C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy, C. woodii Engl. and C. wyliei Stapf., in terms of in vitro cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition, as an indication of O. bullatas' repute as a remedy against headache. Furthermore, we also compared bark and leaf extracts of the species investigated in order to address the problem of destructive ring-barking. The utilization of leaves instead of bark would help in the management of threatened medicinal plants. All Cryptocarya species were superior to O. bullata with regard to bark extracts. C. woodii bark extracts showed outstanding equipotent activity towards COX-1 and COX-2. The activity of extracts of fresh leaves was comparable to the activity of the respective bark extracts. Drying the leaves before extraction resulted in a loss of activity, with the exception of C. wyliei. Extracts of dried C. wyliei leaves exhibited high inhibitory activity, with a COX-2/COX-1 ratio of 5.8. PMID:10940585
Zschocke, S; van Staden, J
The essential oil of Ishpingo (Ocotea quixos, Lauraceae) fruit calices was analysed by GC (gas chromatography) and GC–MS (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry). Fourty-four compounds were identified. The main components detected were trans-cinnamaldehyde (27.9%), methylcinnamate (21.6%), 1,8-cineole (8.0%), benzaldehyde (3.6%), and ?-selinene (2.1%). In vitro antioxidant properties of the essential oil, obtained by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ?-carotene bleaching assays, were also evaluated.
Renato Bruni; Alessandro Medici; Elisa Andreotti; Carlo Fantin; Mariavittoria Muzzoli; Marco Dehesa; Carlo Romagnoli; Gianni Sacchetti
Background and Aims Plant growth regulators play an important role in seed germination. However, much of the current knowledge about their function during seed germination was obtained using orthodox seeds as model systems, and there is a paucity of information about the role of plant growth regulators during germination of recalcitrant seeds. In the present work, two endangered woody species with recalcitrant seeds, Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm), native to the Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil, were used to study the mobilization of polyamines (PAs), indole-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. Methods Data were sampled from embryos of O. odorifera and embryos and megagametophytes of A. angustifolia throughout the germination process. Biochemical analyses were carried out in HPLC. Key Results During seed germination, an increase in the (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio was recorded in embryos in both species. An increase in IAA and PA levels was also observed during seed germination in both embryos, while ABA levels showed a decrease in O. odorifera and an increase in A. angustifolia embryos throughout the period studied. Conclusions The (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio could be used as a marker for germination completion. The increase in IAA levels, prior to germination, could be associated with variations in PA content. The ABA mobilization observed in the embryos could represent a greater resistance to this hormone in recalcitrant seeds, in comparison to orthodox seeds, opening a new perspective for studies on the effects of this regulator in recalcitrant seeds. The gymnosperm seed, though without a connective tissue between megagametophyte and embryo, seems to be able to maintain communication between the tissues, based on the likely transport of plant growth regulators.
Pieruzzi, Fernanda P.; Dias, Leonardo L. C.; Balbuena, Tiago S.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; dos Santos, Andre L. W.; Floh, Eny I. S.
The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia
Abstract Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae).
The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia.
Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae). PMID:23805052
...deviation is necessary to facilitate mechanical repairs and gate replacement. This deviation...out in 33 CFR 117.570 to facilitate mechanical repairs and barrier gate replacement...need open when at least a six-hour advance notice is given. Under this...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps baited with swampbay (Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent) and camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), which were more attractive than avocado (Persea americana Miller), lancewood (Ocotea coriacea (Swartz) Britton), and sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana L.). These species were more attractive than loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis). X. glabratus entrance hole density and emergence from caged bolts were highest on swampbay and camphortree. In 2010, swampbay was significantly more attractive to X. glabratus than sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). Sassafras bolts end sealed with a liquid wax-and-water emulsion were more attractive to X. glabratus than end-sealed bolts of yellow poplar and redbud. Relative to unsealed bolts, end seal decreased X. glabratus entrance hole density on swampbay and decreased granulate ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)) trap catch, entrance hole density, and adult emergence from swampbay. X. crassiusculus was not attracted to sassafras, yellow poplar, and redbud and was not more attracted to manuka oil than to unbaited traps. Sassafras was more attractive to X. glabratus than previously reported and supported reproducing populations of the insect. End sealing bolts with a wax-and-water emulsion may not be optimal for attracting and rearing ambrosia beetles in small logs. PMID:22606816
Mayfield, A E; Hanula, J L
The aim of this work was to study morphological and biochemical aspects during zygotic embryogenesis in O. catharinensis, by measuring changes in the endogenous concentrations of proteins, amino acids, polyamines (PAs), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Buffer-soluble and insoluble protein contents were determined by spectrometry, and amino acids, PAs, IAA and ABA concentrations were determined by high performance
Vanildo Silveira; Tiago S. Balbuena; Ana Maria Viana; Maria Emilia M. Estelita; Walter Handro; Eny I. S. Floh
...methyl salicylate, oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol...methyl salicylate, oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, thymol, or...
Impurities found in various sources of precursors (sassafras oil, safrol, isosafrol, piperonal), intermediates (?-nitroisosafrol, piperonylmethylketone (PMK)) and final product (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)) are presented and discussed. Particular attention is paid to the chemical origin of each impurity found in the prepared samples. Impurity profiles of isosafrol, piperonal, and PMK samples obtained from industrial sources or from sassafras oil were first compared.
P. Gimeno; F. Besacier; M. Bottex; L. Dujourdy; H. Chaudron-Thozet
We investigated the toxicity of 2,4,6- trinitrotoluene (TNT) to earthworm (Eisenia fetida), potworm (Enchytraeus crypticus), and springtail (Folsomia candida) in five natural soils: Sassafras sandy loam (SSL), Teller sandy loam (TSL), Richfield clay loam ...
M. Simini R. T. Checkai R. G. Kuperman C. T. Phillips J. E. Kolakowski
...alt. R.F.C. LOND660222SE7 (Mexico); C.U.R.P. LOND660222HSLPXM05 (Mexico) (individual) [SDNTK]. 2. CORONEL BARRERAS, Ines, La Angostura, Canelas, Durango 34500, Mexico; Avenida Puebla A No. 2209, Colonia Federal, San...
Eight species of tropical timber woods (Chrysophyllum cainito, Ocotea rodiaei, Pinus caribaea, Pouteria chiricana, Prioria copaifera, Rhizophora mangle, Symphonia globulifers, and Tabebuia pentaphylla) were submerged in estuaries near the entrances of the...
D. D. Ritchie
We used the electroantennogram (EAG) technique to compare the antennal sensitivity of both sexes of the giant swallowtail\\u000a butterfly, Papilio cresphontes to four doses (1, 10, 100, and 1,000 ?g) of the leaf essential oils of Zanthoxylum clava-herculis and Ptelea trifoliata (key host plants) and Sassafras albidum (a marginal or non-host plant). The main hypothesis tested was that P. cresphontes will show greater
Henry Fadamiro; Li Chen; Clement Akotsen-Mensah; William N. Setzer
The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to reactive biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes. Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Quinones (sassafras, kava, black cohosh), quinone methides (sassafras), and epoxides (pennyroyal oil) represent BRIs of intermediate reactivity, which could generate both genotoxic and/or chemopreventive effects. The biological targets of BRIs formed from botanical dietary supplements and their resulting toxic and/or chemopreventive effects are closely linked to the reactivity of BRIs as well as dose and time of exposure.
Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.
We compared the spatial distribution of stem cankers on the canopy tree Ocotea whitei (Lauraceae) in a 20-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, with spatial and temporal patterns of mortality in this host over the previous decade. The cankers occur both on adult and juvenile individuals, aothough juveniles are much more likely the adults to show symptoms. Disease incidence
G. S. Gilbert; R. B. Foster; S. P. Hubbell
Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.
Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.
The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo. PMID:11332848
Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G
Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (?2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Chavez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patino, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela
Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees]. Xyleborus glabratus is attracted to manuka oil lures, which are commercially available, and phoebe oil. Variable efficacy of manuka oil lures and insufficient availability of phoebe oil prompted us to investigate the reasons behind changes in manuka oil lure efficacy and to test cubeb oil, a readily available essential oil from Piper cubeba L. seeds, as an alternative attractant. Attraction, release rates and durations, and volatile composition of manuka oil lures manufactured in 2008 were compared with manuka oil lures manufactured in 2012, and to whole and a distilled fraction of cubeb oil. Manuka oil lures from 2008 were more attractive to X. glabratus than controls for 8 wk, whereas lures from 2012 were attractive for only 2 wk. Cubeb oil and the distilled fraction of it were as attractive as or more attractive than manuka oil in three trials. In gravimetric studies, manuka oil lures from 2008 and cubeb oil lures continued to release volatiles for 57 d, whereas lures from 2012 stopped after 16 d. The chemical composition of volatiles released from new manuka oil lures from 2008 was similar to 2012; however, a preservative (butylated hydroxytoluene) was detected in the 2008 lures. Cubeb oil was an effective attractant for X. glabratus that lasted 8-9 wk when released from bubble lures. PMID:23575024
Hanula, James L; Sullivan, Brian T; Wakarchuk, David
Botanical dietary supplements represent a significant share of the growing market for alternative medicine in the USA, where current regulations do not require assessment of their safety. To help ensure the safety of such products, an in vitro assay using pulsed ultrafiltration and LC-MS-MS has been developed to screen botanical extracts for the formation of electrophilic and potentially toxic quinoid species upon bioactivation by hepatic cytochromes P450. Rat liver microsomes were trapped in a flow-through chamber by an ultrafiltration membrane, and samples containing botanical extracts, GSH and NADP(H), were flow-injected into the chamber. Botanical compounds that were metabolized to reactive intermediates formed stable GSH adducts mimicking a common in vivo detoxification pathway. If present in the ultrafiltrate, GSH conjugates were detected using LC-MS-MS with precursor ion scanning followed by additional characterization using product ion scanning and comparison to standard compounds. As expected, no GSH adducts of reactive metabolites were found in extracts of Trifolium pratense L. (red clover), which are under investigation as botanical dietary supplements for the management of menopause. However, extracts of Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees (sassafras), Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey), and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), all of which are known to contain compounds that are either carcinogenic or toxic to mammals, produced GSH adducts during this screening assay. Several compounds that formed GSH conjugates including novel metabolites of rosmarinic acid were identified using database searching and additional LC-MS-MS studies. This assay should be useful as a preliminary toxicity screen during the development of botanical dietary supplements. A positive test suggests that additional toxicological studies are warranted before human consumption of a botanical product. PMID:11712913
Johnson, B M; Bolton, J L; van Breemen, R B
The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of ?-cubebene, ?-copaene, ?-humulene, and calamenene were positively correlated with attraction, and EAG analyses confirmed chemoreception of terpenoids by antennal receptors of X. glabratus.
Kendra, Paul E.; Montgomery, Wayne S.; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A.; Bauchan, Gary R.; Ploetz, Randy C.; Epsky, Nancy D.
The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of ?-cubebene, ?-copaene, ?-humulene, and calamenene were positively correlated with attraction, and EAG analyses confirmed chemoreception of terpenoids by antennal receptors of X. glabratus. PMID:25007073
Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D
Specimens of Metasiro from its three known disjunct population centers in the southeastern US were examined and had a 769 bp fragement of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequenced. These populations are located in the western panhandle of Florida and nearby areas of Georgia, in the Savannah River delta of South Carolina, and on Sassafras Mt. in South Carolina. This range extends over as much as 500 km, which is very large for a species of cyphophthalmid harvestmen and presents a degree of physical separation among populations such that we would expect them to actually be distinguishable species. We examined the morphology, including the spermatopositors of males, and sequences from 221 specimens. We found no discernible differences in the morphologies of specimens from the different populations, but corrected pairwise distances of COI were about 15% among the three population centers. We also analyzed COI data using a General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model implemented in the R package SPLITS; with a single threshold, the most likely model had four species within Metasiro. Given this level of molecular divergence, the monophyly of the population haplotypes, and the number of exclusive COI nucleotide and amino acid differences distinguishing the populations, we here raise the Savannah River and Sassafras Mt. populations to species status: M. savannahensis sp. nov., and M. sassafrasensis sp. nov., respectively. This restricts M. americanus (Davis, 1933) to just the Lower Chattahoochee Watershed, which in this study includes populations along the Apalachicola River and around Florida Caverns State Park. GMYC models reconstructed the two main haplotype clades within M. americanus as different species, but they are not exclusive to different areas. We estimate COI percent divergence rates in certain cyphophthalmid groups and discuss problems with historical measures of this rate. We hypothesize that Metasiro began diversifying over 20 million years ago. PMID:24943422
Clouse, Ronald M; Wheeler, Ward C
Oysters (Ostreidae) manifest a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, whereby morphology is of limited value for species identification and taxonomy. By using molecular data, the aim was to genetically characterize the species of Crassostrea occurring along the Brazilian coast, and phylogenetically relate these to other Crassostrea from different parts of the world. Sequencing of the partial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene (COI), revealed a total of three species of Crassostrea at 16 locations along the Brazilian coast. C. gasar was found from Curuçá (Pará state) to Santos (São Paulo state), and C. rhizophorae from Fortim (Ceará state) to Florianópolis (Santa Catarina state), although small individuals of the latter species were also found at Ajuruteua beach (municipality of Bragança, Pará state). An unidentified Crassostrea species was found only on Canela Island, Bragança. Crassostrea gasar and C. rhizophorae grouped with C. virginica, thereby forming a monophyletic Atlantic group, whereas Crassostrea sp. from Canela Island was shown to be more similar to Indo-Pacific oysters, and either arrived in the Atlantic Ocean before the convergence of the Isthmus of Panama or was accidentally brought to Brazil by ship.
Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of today's plant diversity in the Neotropics has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region rather than vicariance, but more data are needed to substantiate this claim. Guatteria (Annonaceae) is, with 265 species, the third largest genus of Neotropical trees after Inga (Fabaceae) and Ocotea (Lauraceae), and its widespread distribution and frequent occurrence makes the genus an excellent model taxon to study diversification patterns. This study reconstructed the phylogeny of Guatteria and inferred three major biogeographical events in the history of the genus: (1) a trans-oceanic Miocene migration from Central into South America before the closing of the Isthmus of Panama; (2) a major diversification of the lineage within South America; and (3) several migrations of South American lineages back into Central America via the closed Panamanian land bridge. Therefore, Guatteria is not an Amazonian centred-genus sensu Gentry but a major Miocene diversification that followed its dispersal into South America. This study provides further evidence that migration into the Neotropics was an important factor in the historical assembly of its biodiversity. Furthermore, it is shown that phylogenetic patterns are comparable to those found in Ocotea and Inga and that a closer comparison of these genera is desirable. PMID:17433720
Erkens, Roy H J; Chatrou, Lars W; Maas, Jan W; van der Niet, Timotheüs; Savolainen, Vincent
The morphodynamic response of a mixed-energy ebb-tidal delta (Guadiana estuary, southern Portugal) and its down-drift barrier island (Canela Island) to channel relocation and stabilisation by jetties is examined using a series of sequential bathymetric maps and vertical aerial photographs spanning five decades. Morphological analysis indicates that the ebb delta is in an immature state, characterised by weak sediment bypassing. Landward-migrating shoals on the swash platform have been produced by the jetty-induced artificial bank-breaching and by the collapse of the eastern portion of the delta. The welding of these shoals has largely controlled the evolution of the coast, with local accretion and erosion lasting for years, and large amounts of regional accretion occurring over decades due to sand accumulation against jetties located further down-drift. These observations provide insights into the potential response of a coast to very large, locally concentrated sand nourishment in the form of shoals. The main effects of the jetties on the coast are observed at the centre of Canela Island, with the production of an erosion hot-spot associated with a temporally persistent and divergent longshore transport providing sand to the adjacent areas. Significant accretion is anticipated for the next decade along the entire island due to the ongoing attachment of the presently observed shoals. After the depletion of this sediment source, and in the context of weak sediment bypassing, the most severe down-drift erosion induced by the jetties is predicted to occur some decades after their construction. This study demonstrates that the geomorphic response of an ebb-tidal delta to jetty construction must be considered at multiple temporal and spatial scales when assessing the impacts of jetties on the down-drift coast.
Garel, E.; Sousa, C.; Ferreira, Ó.; Morales, J. A.
During military operations, a small fraction of propellant mass is not consumed during firing and is deposited onto the ground surface (Jenkins et al., 2006). Soluble propellant constituents can be released from particulate residues into the environment. Propellant constituents of interest for this study are nitroglycerine (NG), 2,4-dinitrotoluine (2,4-DNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluine (2,6-DNT), and nitroguanidine (NQ). The goal of this work is to determine fate and transport parameters for these constituents in three soils that represent a range of geographic locations and soil properties. This supports a companion study that looks at dissolution of NG, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and NQ from fired and unfired solid propellant formulations and their transport in soils. The three soils selected for the study are Catlin silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, superactive Oxyaquic Argiudoll), Plymouth sandy loam (mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamment), and Sassafras loam (fine loamy, siliceous, mesic Typic Hapudult). Two of these soils, Plymouth sandy loam and Sassafras loam, were collected on military installations. Linear adsorption coefficients and transformation rates of propellant constituents were determined in batch kinetic experiments. Soils were mixed with propellant constituent solutions (2 mg L-1) at 4:1 solution/soil mass ratio and equilibrated for 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 120 hr at which time samples were centrifuged and supernatant solutions were analyzed for target compounds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using U.S. EPA Method 8330b for NG, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT, and Walsh (1989) method for NQ. Adsorption and transformation of propellant constituents were determined from the decrease in solution concentration of these compounds. It was determined that all studied compounds were subjected to sorption by the solid phase and degradation. Catlin soil, with finer texture and high organic matter content, influenced solution concentration of NG, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and NQ to the greatest extent. Estimated fate and transport parameters will support ongoing release and column transport studies and will allow environmental managers on military installations to better estimate potential for propellant constituent transport off-site. Jenkins, T.F., A.D. Hewitt, C.L. Grant, S. Thiboutot, G. Ampleman, M.E. Walsh, T.A. Ranney, C.A. Ramsey, A.J. Palazzo, and J.C. Pennington. 2006. Identity and distribution of residues of energetic compounds at army live-fire training ranges. Chemosphere 63:1280-1290. Walsh, M.E. 1989. Analytical Methods for Determining Nitroguanidine in Soil and Water. Special Report 89-35. U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH.
Gosch, D. L.; Dontsova, K.; Chorover, J.; Ferré, T.; Taylor, S.
The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands is extremely interesting because of the cultural and biogeographic features of this region, which make it a centre of medicinal plant diversity (richness of endemic flora, geographical isolation in the Atlantic sea, crosscultural influences, and past abundance of local healers). The medicinal flora of Madeira is composed of 259 species. Some noteworthy medicinal taxa, endemic or locally relevant, are: Acanthus mollis, Aeonium glandulosum, Aeonium glutinosum, Bidens pilosa, Borago officinalis, Chamaemelum nobile var. discoideum, Culcita macrocarpa, Echium nervosum, Euphorbia platiphylla, Helichrysum melaleucum, Helichrysum obconicum, Hypericum glandulosum, Hypericum humifussum, Kleinia repens, Laurus azorica, Monizia edulis, Ocotea foetens, Psoralea bituminosa, Rubus bollei, Rumex maderensis, Sambucus lanceolata, Scilla maderensis, Sedum brissemoretii, Sedum farinosum, Sedum nudum, Sibthorpia peregrina, Teucrium betonicum, Thymus caespititius, Trifolium squamosum and Vaccinium padifolium. Among the medicinal cryptogams, one can underline the parasitic fungus Laurobasidium lauri, which grows on the stems of Laurus azorica and is used as an antirheumatic, haemostatic, emmenagogue, insecticide and analeptic. PMID:7650952
Rivera, D; Obón, C
A new energetic substance hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (or CL-20) was tested for its toxicities to various ecological receptors. CL-20 (epsilon-polymorph) was amended to soil or deionized water to construct concentration gradients. Results of Microtox (15-min contact) and 96-h algae growth inhibition tests indicate that CL-20 showed no adverse effects on the bioluminescence of marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the cell density of freshwater green algae Selenastrum capricornutum respectively, up to its water solubility (ca. 3.6 mg l(-1)). CL-20 and its possible biotransformation products did not inhibit seed germination and early seedling (16-19 d) growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) up to 10,000 mg kg(-1) in a Sassafras sandy loam soil (SSL). Indigenous soil microorganisms in SSL and a garden soil were exposed to CL-20 for one or two weeks before dehydrogenase activity (DHA) or potential nitrification activity (PNA) were assayed. Results indicate that up to 10,000 mg kg(-1) soil of CL-20 had no statistically significant effects on microbial communities measured as DHA or on the ammonium oxidizing bacteria determined as PNA in both soils. Data indicates that CL-20 was not acutely toxic to the species or microbial communities tested and that further studies are required to address the potential long-term environmental impact of CL-20 and its possible degradation products. PMID:15234161
Gong, Ping; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Rocheleau, Sylvie; Dodard, Sabine G; Robidoux, Pierre Yves; Hawari, Jalal
Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), and 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) are cyclic nitramines used as explosives. Their ecotoxicities have been characterized incompletely and little is known about their accumulation potential in soil organisms. We assessed the toxicity and uptake of these explosives in perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne L. exposed in a Sassafras sandy loam (SSL) or in a sandy soil (DRDC, CL-20 only) containing contrasting clay contents (11% and 0.3%, respectively). A 21-d exposure to RDX, HMX or CL-20 in either soil had no adverse effects on ryegrass growth. RDX and HMX were translocated to ryegrass shoots, with bioconcentration factors (BCF) of up to 15 and 11, respectively. In contrast, CL-20 was taken up by the roots (BCF up to 19) with no translocation to the shoots. These studies showed that RDX, HMX, and CL-20 can accumulate in plants and may potentially pose a risk of biomagnification across the food chain. PMID:18358578
Rocheleau, Sylvie; Lachance, Bernard; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Sunahara, Geoffrey I
Safrole is one of important food-borne phytotoxin that exhibits in many natural products such as oil of sassafras and spices such as anise, basil, nutmeg, and pepper. This study was performed to elucidate safrole-induced apoptosis in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells. The effect of safrole on apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and DAPI staining and its regulatory molecules were studied by Western blotting analysis. Safrole-induced apoptosis was accompanied with up-regulation of the protein expression of Bax and Bid and down-regulation of the protein levels of Bcl-2 (up-regulation of the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2), resulting in cytochrome c release, promoted Apaf-1 level and sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner. We also used real-time PCR to show safrole promoted the mRNA expressions of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in SCC-4 cells. These findings indicate that safrole has a cytotoxic effect in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells by inducing apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis of SCC-4 cells by safrole is involved in mitochondria- and caspase-dependent signal pathways. PMID:21591240
Yu, Fu-Shun; Huang, An-Cheng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chung, Jing-Gung
Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the metabolic quotient qCO2 - as sensitive and important parameters for soil fertility and C turnover - are strongly affected by land-use changes all over the world. These effects are particularly distinct upon conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems due to very fast carbon (C) and nutrient cycles and high vulnerability, especially in the tropics. In this study, we used an elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to investigate the effects of land-use change and elevation on Corg, MBC and qCO2. Down to a soil depth of 18 cm we compared 4 natural (Helichrysum, Erica forest, Podocarpus forest, Ocotea forest), 5 seminatural (disturbed Podocarpus forest, disturbed Ocotea forest, lower montane forest, grassland, savannah), 1 sustainably used (homegarden) and 2 intensively used ecosystems (coffee plantation, maize field) on an elevation gradient from 950 to 3880 m a.s.l.. Using an incubation device, soil CO2-efflux of 18 cm deep soil cores was measured under field moist conditions and mean annual temperature. MBC to Corg ratios varied between 0.7 and 2.3%. qCO2 increased with magnitude of the disturbance, albeit this effect decreased with elevation. Following the annual precipitation of the ecosystems, both, Corg and MBC showed a hum-shaped distribution with elevation, whereas their maxima were between 2500 and 3000 m a.s.l.. Additionaly, Corg and MBC contents were significantly reduced in intensively used agricultural systems. We conclude that the soil microbial biomass and its activity in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems are strongly altered by land-use. This effect is more distinct in lower than in higher elevated ecosystems and strongly dependent on the magnitude of disturbance.
Pabst, Holger; Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kiese, Ralf; Kuzyakov, Yakov
We investigated the toxicity of an emerging polynitramine energetic material hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) to the soil invertebrate species Enchytraeus crypticus by adapting then using the Enchytraeid Reproduction Test (ISO/16387:2003). Studies were designed to develop ecotoxicological benchmark values for ecological risk assessment of the potential impacts of accidental release of this compound into the environment. Tests were conducted in Sassafras Sandy Loam soil, which supports relatively high bioavailability of CL-20. Weathering and aging procedures for CL-20 amended into test soil were incorporated into the study design to produce toxicity data that better reflect soil exposure conditions in the field compared with the toxicity in freshly amended soils. Concentration-response relationships for measurement endpoints were determined using nonlinear regressions. Definitive tests showed that toxicities for E. crypticus adult survival and juvenile production were significantly increased in weathered and aged soil treatments compared with toxicity in freshly amended soil, based on 95% confidence intervals. The median effect concentration (EC50) and EC20 values for juvenile production were 0.3 and 0.1 mg kg-1, respectively, for CL-20 freshly amended into soil, and 0.1 and 0.035 mg kg-1, respectively, for weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments. These findings of increased toxicity to E. crypticus in weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments compared with exposures in freshly amended soils show that future investigations should include a weathering and aging component to generate toxicity data that provide more complete information on ecotoxicological effects of emerging energetic contaminants in soil. PMID:16213571
Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Anthony, J Steven; Kolakowski, Jan E; Davis, Emily A
Monocyclic nitramine explosives such as 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) are toxic to a number of ecological receptors, including earthworms. The polycyclic nitramine CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) is a powerful explosive that may replace RDX and HMX, but its toxicity is not known. In the present study, the lethal and sublethal toxicities of CL-20 to the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) are evaluated. Two natural soils, a natural sandy forest soil (designated RacFor2002) taken in the Montreal area (QC, Canada; 20% organic carbon, pH 7.2) and a Sassafras sandy loam soil (SSL) taken on the property of U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (Edgewood, MD, USA; 0.33% organic carbon, pH 5.1), were used. Results showed that CL-20 was not lethal at concentrations of 125 mg/kg or less in the RacFor2002 soil but was lethal at concentrations of 90.7 mg/kg or greater in the SSL soil. Effects on the reproduction parameters such as a decrease in the number of juveniles after 56 d of exposure were observed at the initial CL-20 concentration of 1.6 mg/kg or greater in the RacFor2002 soil, compared to 0.2 mg/kg or greater in the SSL soil. Moreover, low concentrations of CL-20 in SSL soil (approximately 0.1 mg/kg; nominal concentration) were found to reduce the fertility of earthworms. Taken together, the present results show that CL-20 is a reproductive toxicant to the earthworm, with lethal effects at higher concentrations. Its toxicity can be decreased in soils favoring CL-20 adsorption (high organic carbon content). PMID:15095901
Robidoux, Pierre Yves; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Savard, Kathleen; Berthelot, Yann; Dodard, Sabine; Martel, Majorie; Gong, Ping; Hawari, Jalal
The heterocyclic polynitramine hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a highly energetic compound found as a soil contaminant at some defense installations. Although RDX is not lethal to soil invertebrates at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg, it decreases earthworm cocoon formation and juvenile production at environmentally relevant concentrations found at contaminated sites. Very little is known about the uptake of RDX in earthworms and the potential risks for food-chain transfer of RDX in the environment. Toxicokinetic studies were conducted to quantify the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) using adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed for up to 14 d to sublethal concentrations of nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX in a Sassafras sandy loam soil. High-performance liquid chromatography of acetonitrile extracts of tissue and soil samples indicated that nonlabeled RDX can be accumulated by the earthworm in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The BAF, expressed as the earthworm tissue to soil concentration ratio, decreased from 6.7 to 0.1 when the nominal soil RDX concentrations were increased from 1 to 10,000 mg/kg. Tissue concentrations were comparable in earthworms exposed to nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX. The RDX bioaccumulation also was estimated using the kinetically derived model (BAFK), based on the ratio of the uptake to elimination rate constants. The established BAFK of 3.6 for [14C]RDX uptake was consistent with the results for nonlabeled RDX. Radioactivity also was present in the tissue residues of [14C]RDX-exposed earthworms following acetonitrile extraction, suggesting the formation of nonextractable [14C]RDX metabolites associated with tissue macromolecules. These findings demonstrated a net accumulation of RDX in the earthworm and the potential for food-chain transfer of RDX to higher-trophic-level receptors. PMID:19432505
Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine G; Savard, Kathleen; Lachance, Bernard; Robidoux, Pierre Y; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Sunahara, Geoffrey I
Safrole-2',3'-oxide (SAFO) is a reactive electrophilic metabolite of the hepatocarcinogen safrole, the main component of sassafras oil. Safrole occurs naturally in a variety of spices and herbs, including the commonly used Chinese medicine Xi xin (Asari Radix et Rhizoma) and Dong quai (Angelica sinensis). SAFO is the most mutagenic metabolite of safrole tested in the Ames test. However, little or no data are available on the genotoxicity of SAFO in mammalian systems. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of SAFO in human HepG2 cells and male FVB mice. Using MTT assay, SAFO exhibited a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect in HepG2 cells with TC(50) values of 361.9?M and 193.2?M after 24 and 48h exposure, respectively. In addition, treatment with SAFO at doses of 125?M and higher for 24h in HepG2 cells resulted in a 5.1-79.6-fold increase in mean Comet tail moment by the alkaline Comet assay and a 2.6-7.8-fold increase in the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Furthermore, repeated intraperitoneal administration of SAFO (15, 30, 45, and 60mg/kg) to mice every other day for a total of twelve doses caused a significant dose-dependent increase in mean Comet tail moment in peripheral blood leukocytes (13.3-43.4-fold) and in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (1.5-5.8-fold). Repeated administration of SAFO (60mg/kg) to mice caused liver lesions manifested as a rim of ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes immediately surrounding the central vein. Our data clearly demonstrate that SAFO significantly induced cytotoxicity, DNA strand breaks, micronuclei formation both in human cells in vitro and in mice. More studies are needed to explore the role SAFO plays in safrole-induced genotoxicity. PMID:21986196
Chiang, Su-yin; Lee, Pei-yi; Lai, Ming-tsung; Shen, Li-ching; Chung, Wen-sheng; Huang, Hui-fen; Wu, Kuen-yuh; Wu, Hsiu-ching
The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader) and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs. PMID:17472740
Botsaris, Alexandros S
Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175
Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J
Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids. PMID:16274702
Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M
The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader) and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs.
Botsaris, Alexandros S
Two sites with similar environmental parameters, except for the edaphic factor, were selected in the mountainous tropical forest of southern Mexico. Site 1 was established on an Alisol; site 2, on a Phaeozem. Representative soil profiles were examined on each of the sites, and topsoil was sampled on a regular grid pattern. The soil of site 2 was richer in organic matter and major nutrients and had a less acid reaction than the soil of site 1. The species diversity of the trees at site 2 (30 species) was higher than that at site 1 (17 species). The species compositions of the trees were different on the two soils: there were only six species in common for both sites. The coefficients of species similarity on the sites were low. We concluded that the presence of different soils within the same type of forest ecosystem increases its ?-diversity. The examination of edaphic preferences of the species showed that Alstonia longifolia and Thouinidium decandrum preferred rich soils, Inga punctata and Ocotea sinuata preferred poor soils, and Cupania dentata and Hamelia patens did not display preferences in the studied range of soil properties. Thus, the spatial variability of the soil properties affect the spatial pattern of tree species in the studied tropical forest ecosystems.
Kurzmeier, S.; Wiedemann, T.; Biber, P.; Schad, P.; Krasilnikov, P. V.
This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the species most commonly used in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the southernmost state of Brazil, for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms. A four-stage process of documentation and evaluation was conducted: (a). review of RS ethnobotanical studies; (b). analysis of traditional uses; (c). literature survey on phytochemical and pharmacological data; (d). microbiological screening of selected plants. From the 149 species initially identified, 49 were cited as being used for microbial associated conditions in at least two other regions in RS, and 18 were further selected for screening. The crude methanol extract of these 18 plants were evaluated against seven microorganisms using the diffusion agar test. Extracts from Chaptalia nutans, Cordia monosperma, Echinodorus grandiflorus, Eugenia uniflora, Leonurus sibiricus, Luehea divaricata, Malva sylvestris, Ocotea odorifera, Parapiptadenia rigida, Pluchea sagittalis, Psidium cattleyanum and Senna neglecta were active against at least one microorganism. Although preliminary, these results are useful for rationalizing the use of medicinal plants in established systems of traditional medicine in primary health care. PMID:14698521
de Souza, G Coelho; Haas, A P S; von Poser, G L; Schapoval, E E S; Elisabetsky, E
Essential oils from Colombian plants were characterised by GC-MS, and assayed for anti-quorum sensing activity in bacteria sensor strains. Two major chemotypes were found for Lippia alba, the limonene-carvone and the citral (geranial-neral). For other species, the main components included ?-pinene (Ocotea sp.), ?-pinene (Swinglea glutinosa), cineol (Elettaria cardamomun), ?-zingiberene (Zingiber officinale) and pulegone (Minthostachys mollis). Several essential oils presented promising inhibitory properties for the short chain AHL quorum sensing (QS) system, in Escherichia coli containing the biosensor plasmid pJBA132, in particular Lippia alba. Moderate activity as anti-QS using the same plasmid, were also found for selected constituents of essential oils studied here, such as citral, carvone and ?-pinene, although solely at the highest tested concentration (250?µg?mL(-1)). Only citral presented some activity for the long chain AHL QS system, in Pseudomonas putida containing the plasmid pRK-C12. In short, essential oils from Colombian flora have promising properties as QS modulators. PMID:21936639
Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena E; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Kunze, Brigitte
This research evaluated the in vitro acaricidal activity of extracts from 21 plant species from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul. During stage I, a larval immersion test was performed using three extract concentrations (5%, 20%, and 40%). During stage II, we used only plants that showed over 95% efficiency at the 40% concentration in stage I in an amount sufficient for the adult immersion test. Aeschynomene denticulata, Angelonia hirta, Aspilia latissima, Caperonia castaneifolia, Centratherum punctatum, Crotalaria micans, Diodia kuntzei, Echinodorus paniculatus, Hyptis mutabilis, Lantana canescens, Melanthera latifolia, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Richardia grandiflora, Sebastiana hispida, Tocoyena formosa, Zanthoxylum rigidum, and Sesbania virgata (fruit extract) showed acaricidal activity against the larval stage of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus higher than 95% at a 40% (w/v) concentration, while Hippocratea volubilis and Randia armata showed moderate efficacy and Croton glandulosus and Senna obtusifolia had no effect. The M. latifolia, A. hirta, R. grandiflora, and A. latissima raw extracts were evaluated for their activity against adults, and only A. hirta showed an efficacy close to 90%. Eighteen extracts had an efficacy of up to 95% against larvae at a 40% concentration, seven extracts were effective at 20%, and only one (Sebastiana hispida) was effective at a 5% concentration. PMID:24473878
dos Santos, Larissa Bezerra; Souza, Juliana Kátia; Papassoni, Barbara; Borges, Dyego Gonçalves Lino; Damasceno, Geraldo Alves; de Souza, Jeana Mara Escher; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Borges, Fernando de Almeida
Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations???30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti.
Several major tsunamis are known to have struck the Portuguese coast over the past millennia (Baptista and Miranda, 2009). The Tagus estuary has great exposure to tsunami occurrences and, being bordered by the largest metropolitan area in the country, is a particularly worrisome location in what concerns safety of populations and economic losses due to disruption of built infrastructures. The last major earthquake and tsunami combination known to have critically affected the Tagus estuary dates back to November 1st 1755. This catastrophe critically damaged Lisbon's infrastructures, led to numerous casualties and priceless heritage losses. The urban tissue of the present city still bears visible the effects of the catastrophe and of the ensuing protection measures. The objective of this work is to simulate the propagation of debris carried by a 1755-like tsunami along the present-day bathimetric and altimetric conditions of Lisbon waterfront. Particular emphasis was directed to the modeling of vehicles since the tsunami is likely to affect areas that are major traffic nodes such as Alcântara, with more than 1500 vehicles in road network of about 3 km. The simulation tool employed is based on a 2DH spatial (eulerian) shallow-flow approach suited to complex and dynamic bottom boundaries. The discretization technique relies on a finite-volume scheme, based on a flux-splitting technique incorporating a reviewed version of the Roe Riemann solver (Canelas et al. 2013). Two formulations were employed to model the advection of debris: a fully coupled continuum approach, where solid bodies are described by the concentration only and an uncoupled material (lagrangian) formulation where solid bodies are tracked between two time-steps once the flow field is determined by the eulerian solver. In the latter case, concentrations are updated after tracking the solid bodies thus correcting the mass and momentum balance to be used for the next time-step. The urban tissue was thoroughly discretized with a mesh finer than street width so that the buildings would act as obstacles and the streets would bind the incoming flow. To simplify the plan-view geometry, it was assumed that buildings would retain its original shape after the earthquake. The results of the eulerian-continuum and of the lagrangian-discrete solutions are presented, compared and discussed. It was found that the patterns of deposition of the eulerian-continuum model can be considerably different to those obtained by the lagrangian-discrete solution if the latter assumes that vehicles have a small equivalent density and if momentum losses due to inter-particle collisions are neglected. Results become more similar if vehicles are considered much denser than water and that the mixture of water and solid bodies loses momentum due to particle collisions. Acknowledgements: Project PTDC/ECM/117660/2010, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) has partially supported this work. References Canelas, R.; Murillo, J. & Ferreira, R.M.L. (2013) 2DH modelling of discontinuous flows over mobile beds. Accepted, Journal of Hydraulic Research, December 2012 Baptista M.A. Miranda, J.M. (2009). Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 25-42.
Conde, Daniel; Canelas, Ricardo; Baptista, Maria Ana; João Telhado, Maria; Ferreira, Rui M. L.
The atmospheric chemistry instruments on board the ENVISAT platform (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY) provide a unique dataset of geophysical parameters (e.g.: trace gases, clouds, and aerosol) that allows a comprehensive characterization of the atmosphere's chemical and climatological processes . These instruments started to provide significant science data shortly after the launch of the ENVISAT satellite (March 2002). At the time of writing this paper, these instruments and the whole payload modules are fully working and are well beyond the expected lifetime of 5 years. In addition the orbit control strategy of the platform will be modified starting from 2010, in order to extend the mission lifetime up to 2013 . This means that if no instrument problems will appear, the ENVISAT atmospheric sensors will provide at the end of their life, three separated, but complementary datasets of the most important atmospheric state parameters, spanning a time interval of about 11 years. This represents an extraordinary source of information for the scientific user community, both for the completeness and quality of the data and for the extent of the dataset. The aim of this paper is to present the actual status of the ESA operational atmospheric chemistry dataset provided by the three ENVISAT atmospheric chemistry instruments and the future evolution. The processing and reprocessing status will be described in details for each instrument. The outcomes of the geophysical validation and the planned validation activities will be discussed. Finally the data availability and the source of information will be specified.  H. Nett, J. Frerick, T. Paulsen, and G. Levrini, "The atmospheric instruments and their applications: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY", ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265), No. 106, p. 77 -87 (2001)  J. Frerick, B. Duesmann, and M. Canela, "2010 and beyond -The ENVISAT mission extension", Proc. `Envisat Symposium 2007', Montreux, Switzerland, 23-27 April 2007 (ESA SP-636, July 2007)
Dehn, Angelika; Brizzi, G.; Barrot, G.; Bovensmann, H.; Canela, M.; Fehr, T.; Laur, H.; Lichtenberg, G.; Niro, F.; Perron, G.; Raspollini, P.; Saavedra de Miguel, L.; Scarpino, G.; Vogel, P.
The atmospheric chemistry instruments on board the ENVISAT platform (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY) provide a unique dataset of geophysical parameters (e.g.: trace gases, clouds, and aerosol) that allows a comprehensive characterization of the atmosphere's chemical and climatological processes . These instruments started to provide significant science data shortly after the launch of the ENVISAT satellite (March 2002). At the time of writing this paper, these instruments and the whole payload modules are fully working and are well beyond the expected lifetime of 5 years. In addition the orbit control strategy of the platform will be modified starting from 2010, in order to extend the mission lifetime up to 2013 . This means that if no instrument problems will appear, the ENVISAT atmospheric sensors will provide at the end of their life, three separated, but complementary datasets of the most important atmospheric state parameters, spanning a time interval of about 11 years. This represents an extraordinary source of information for the scientific user community, both for the completeness and quality of the data and for the extent of the dataset. The aim of this paper is to present the actual status of the ESA operational atmospheric chemistry dataset provided by the three ENVISAT atmospheric chemistry instruments and the future evolution. The processing and reprocessing status will be described in details for each instrument. The outcomes of the geophysical validation and the planned validation activities will be discussed. Finally the data availability and the source of information will be specified.  H. Nett, J. Frerick, T. Paulsen, and G. Levrini, "The atmospheric instruments and their applications: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY", ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265), No. 106, p. 77 - 87 (2001)  J. Frerick, B. Duesmann, and M. Canela, "2010 and beyond - The ENVISAT mission extension", Proc. ‘Envisat Symposium 2007', Montreux, Switzerland, 23-27 April 2007 (ESA SP-636, July 2007)
The paper by Canelas and da Costa (1) introduces students to the antioxidant rosmarinic acid, and its interaction with the free radical DPPH. Those two molecules are the featured species this month. The original paper shows the 2-dimensional structure of the cis isomer of rosmarinic acid, although the trans isomer exhibits very similar antioxidant properties. Calculations at the DFT/B3LYP 631-G(d) level show that the trans isomer is more stable than the cis isomer in the gas phase, a situation that is expected to carry over into solution. Many antioxidants are phenols, and rosmarinic acid has four such groups available for radical formation. A DFT study by Cao et al. (2) examines the relative stabilities of the radicals formed from loss of each of the phenolic hydrogens. That paper focuses on the trans isomer, and a useful student project would be to repeat the calculations with the cis isomer. An HPLC separation of the isomers of rosmarinic acid has been published (3), and might well lead to an extension of the experiment described in ref 1 in which relative antioxidant efficiencies of the two isomers could be evaluated. DPPH has been used extensively as a standard for determining antioxidant activity. An examination of the molecular orbital occupied by the lone electron shows significant delocalization, providing a partial explanation for the stability of the neutral radical. Our gas phase structure for DPPH, also at the DFT/B3LYP 631-G(d) level, is quite consistent with several crystal structures on DPPH and DPPH in the presence of another species (4).
Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a new polycyclic polynitramine, has the same functional nitramine groups (N-NO2) as the widely used energetic chemicals hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (royal demolition explosive [RDX]) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (high-melting explosive [HMX]). Potential impacts of CL-20 as an emerging contaminant must be assessed before its use. The effects of CL-20, RDX, or HMX on adult survival and juvenile production by potworms Enchytraeus albidus and Enchytraeus crypticus were studied in three soil types, including Sassafras sandy loam (1.2% organic matter [OM], 11% clay, pH 5.5), an agricultural soil (42% OM, 1% clay, pH 8.2), and a composite agricultural-forest soil (23% OM, 2% clay, pH 7.9) by using ISO method 16387 (International Standard Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Results showed that CL-20 was toxic to E. crypticus with median lethal concentration values for adult survival ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 mg/kg dry mass (DM) when using the three tested soils. In addition, CL-20 adversely affected juvenile production by both species in all soils tested, with median effective concentration (EC50) values ranging from 0.08 to 0.62 mg/kg DM. Enchytraeus crypticus and E. albidus were similarly sensitive to CL-20 exposure in the composite agricultural-forest soil, which supported reproduction by both species and enabled comparisons. Correlation analysis showed weak or no relationship overall among the soil properties and reproduction toxicity endpoints. Neither RDX nor HMX affected (p > 0.05) adult survival of either species below 658 and 918 mg/kg DM, respectively, indicating that CL-20 is more toxic to enchytraeids than RDX or HMX. Examination of data shows that CL-20 should be considered as a potential reproductive toxicant to soil invertebrates, and that safeguards should be considered to minimize the potential for release of CL-20 into the environment. PMID:16268160
Dodard, Sabine G; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Kuperman, Roman G; Sarrazin, Manon; Gong, Ping; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Hawari, Jalal
Most studies on seed dispersal in time have focused on seed dormancy and the physiological triggers for germination. However, seed dispersed by animals with low metabolic and moving rates, and long gut-passage times such as terrestrial turtles, could be considered another type of dispersal in time. This study tests the hypothesis that seeds dispersed in time may lower predation rates. We predicted that seeds deposited below parent trees after fruiting fall has finished is advantageous to minimize seed predators and should show higher survival rates. Four Amazonian plant species, Dicranostyles ampla, Oenocarpus bataua, Guatteria atabapensis and Ocotea floribunda, were tested for seed survival probabilities in two periods: during fruiting and 10-21 days after fruiting. Experiments were carried out in two biological stations located in the Colombian Amazon (Caparú and Zafire Biological Stations). Seed predation was high and mainly caused by non-vertebrates. Out of the four plant species tested, only Guatteria atabapensis supported the time escape hypothesis. For this species, seed predation by vertebrates after the fruiting period increased (from 4.1% to 9.2%) while seed predation by non-vertebrates decreased (from 54.0% to 40.2%). In contrast, seed predation by vertebrates and by non-vertebrates after the fruiting period in D. ampla increased (from 7.9% to 22.8% and from 40.4% to 50.6%, respectively), suggesting predator satiation. Results suggest that for some species dispersal in time could be advantageous to avoid some type of seed predators. Escape in time could be an additional dimension in which seeds may reach adequate sites for recruitment. Thus, future studies should be address to better understand the survival advantages given by an endozoochory time-dispersal process. PMID:22208093
Guzmán, Adriana; Stevenson, Pablo R
The ENVISAT ESA's satellite was launched on a polar orbit on March 2002. It carries on-board three atmospheric chemistry instruments: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY . At the present time, although the mission expected lifetime of 5 years has been already exceeded, all the payload modules are in good to excellent status. The only limiting factor is the available fuel that is used for orbit control manoeuvre. A new strategy was proposed  that will allow to save fuel and to extend the mission up to 2013. Following this strategy, the altitude of the orbit will be lowered by 17 km starting from end of 2010 and the inclination will be allowed to drift. The new orbit scenario will result in a new repeating cycle with a variation of the Mean Local Solar Time (MLST). This will have an impact on both the in-flight operations, on the science data and on the mission. The simulations carried out for the atmospheric chemistry instruments show that the new orbit strategy will neither have a significant impact in the instrument operations nor on the quality of the science data. Therefore we expect that the atmospheric mission will continue nominally until the end of the platform life time, providing to the scientist a unique dataset of the most important geophysical parameters (e.g., trace gases, clouds, and aerosol) spanning a time interval of about 11 years. The aim of this paper is to review the overall ENVISAT atmospheric mission status for the past, present and future. The evolution of the instrument performances since launch will be analyzed with focus on the life-limited items monitoring. The tuning of the instrument in-flight operations decided to cope with instrument degradation or scientific needs will be described. The lessons learned on how to operate and monitor the instruments will be highlighted. Finally the expected evolution of the instrument performances until the ENVISAT end-of-life will be discussed.  H. Nett, J. Frerick, T. Paulsen, and G. Levrini, "The atmospheric instruments and their applications: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY", ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265), No. 106, p. 77 -87 (2001)  J. Frerick, B. Duesmann, and M. Canela, "2010 and beyond -The ENVISAT mission extension", Proc. `Envisat Symposium 2007', Montreux, Switzerland, 23-27 April 2007 (ESA SP-636, July 2007)
The ENVISAT ESA's satellite was launched on a polar orbit on March 2002. It carries on-board three atmospheric chemistry instruments: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY . At the present time, although the mission expected lifetime of 5 years has been already exceeded, all the payload modules are in good to excellent status. The only limiting factor is the available fuel that is used for orbit control manoeuvre. Recently a new strategy was proposed  that will allow to save fuel and to extend the mission up to 2013. Following this strategy, the altitude of the orbit will be lowered by 17 km starting from end of 2010 and the inclination will be allowed to drift. The new orbit scenario will result in a new repeating cycle with a variation of the Mean Local Solar Time (MLST). This will have an impact on both the in-flight operations, on the science data and on the mission. The simulations carried out for the atmospheric chemistry instruments show that the new orbit strategy will neither have a significant impact in the instrument operations nor on the quality of the science data. Therefore we expect that the atmospheric mission will continue nominally until the end of the platform life time, providing to the scientist a unique dataset of the most important geophysical parameters (e.g., trace gases, clouds, and aerosol) spanning a time interval of about 11 years. The aim of this paper is to review the overall ENVISAT atmospheric mission status for the past, present and future. The evolution of the instrument performances since launch will be analyzed with focus on the life-limited items monitoring. The tuning of the instrument in-flight operations decided to cope with instrument degradation or scientific needs will be described. The lessons learned on how to operate and monitor the instruments will be highlighted. Finally the expected evolution of the instrument performances until the ENVISAT end-of-life will be discussed.  H. Nett, J. Frerick, T. Paulsen, and G. Levrini, "The atmospheric instruments and their applications: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY", ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265), No. 106, p. 77 - 87 (2001)  J. Frerick, B. Duesmann, and M. Canela, "2010 and beyond - The ENVISAT mission extension", Proc. ‘Envisat Symposium 2007', Montreux, Switzerland, 23-27 April 2007 (ESA SP-636, July 2007)
This is a summary of 7 papers given at a South American Indian Conference. The papers varied by the training and interests of the authors, but the unifying characteristics were their attention to the quality of data, the concern with placing the Lowland South American Indian societies in historical time, and the focus on the individual in a social context. The trend for tribal societies to abandon traditional practices of birth limitation is worrisome at a time when the balance between population growth and economic resources has deteriorated. Survival risks are high. The traditional societies range over a region stretching from Guyana to Mato Grosso, and have varying degrees of economic and political autonomy. All have been exposed to Western influences. A four-generation account of Barama River Caribs family in Guyana illustrates how marriage choices that appear anomalous were responses to changing demographic pressures. The problems of the definition of a population were revealed in the paper on the Wanano of the Rio Vaupes in Northwest Amazon; the aim was to examine Boas' ideas about the links between language, race, and culture in a region of culturally mixed marriages. High-quality reproductive history data was collected and examined on the Xavante in Pimentel Barbosa in eastern Mato Grosso. The study of household and settlement composition, marriage, fertility, and mortality data among the Bakairi, located west of Shavante, in Mat Grosso, suggests that population increases were kept small due to fertility-inhibiting cultural practices. The combination of detailed examination of cultural practices and statistical analysis provided insights into the demographic behavior of the Canela in central Maranhao, who have had longstanding contact with the West and maintained traditional practices. The difficulties of collecting birth and death records between 1976-86 among the Nambiquara in western Maso Grosso were expressed, and the anomalies of female mortality explained. Statistical analysis of the Shipibo of the Ucayali River Basin in Peru demonstrated that growth was attributed to the abandonment of traditional practices. PMID:12319062
Adams, K; Price, D
The Tagus estuary is recognized as an exposed location to tsunami occurrences, given its proximity to tsunamigenic faults such as the Marquês de Pombal and the Horseshoe fault system. Lisbon, bordered by the Tagus estuary, is a critical point of Portugal's tsunami hazard map, having been affected by several tsunamis (Baptista and Miranda, 2009) including the notorious event of November 1st 1755, the last major natural disaster known to have inflicted massive destruction in Portugal. The main objective of this work, a joint initiative of CEHIDRO (IST - Universidade de Lisboa) and the Municipal Civil Protection Services of Lisbon, is to contribute to the quantification of severity and exposure of Lisbon waterfront to tsunami events. For that purpose, the propagation of a tsunami similar to that of the 1st November of 1755 in the Tagus estuary was numerically simulated. Several scenarios were considered, articulating the influence of tidal (low and high tides), atmospheric (increase in water level due to storm surges) and hydrological (flow discharge in Tagus river) conditions. Different initial and boundary conditions were defined for each modelling scenario but the magnitude of the tsunami remained what is believed to be an exceptional event. The extent of the inundation and relevant hydrodynamic quantities were registered for all scenarios. The employed simulation tool - STAV-2D - was developed at CEHIDRO (IST) and is based on a 2DH spatial (Eulerian) shallow-flow approach suited to complex and dynamic bottom boundaries. The discretization technique relies on a finite-volume scheme, based on a flux-splitting technique incorporating a reviewed version of the Roe Riemann solver (Canelas et al. 2013, Conde et al. 2013). STAV-2D features conservation equations for the finer solid phase of the flow and also a Lagrangian model for the advection of larger debris elements. The urban meshwork was thoroughly discretized with a mesh finer than average street width. This fine discretization allows for resolving flow resistance associated to obstacles: no ad hoc formulations are needed to express drag on buildings, which is a key innovation in regard to previous studies. Additionally, vehicle-like particles were virtually placed over the major traffic nodes and routes, resulting in over 5000 lagrangian particles along the riverfront. This allows for an assessment of debris deposition patterns on the aftermath of the tsunami inundation. Severity is herein assumed to depend on hydrodynamic features of the tsunami, namely its capacity to impart momentum. Exposure to tsunami actions depends on the extent of the inundation. Both severity and exposure thus vary with the tsunami scenario considered. The obtained results, obtained with a high detail of hydrodynamic behavior, allow for a street-by-street quantification of severity, expressed in terms of the product of the depth-averaged velocity by the flow depth (Karvonen et al., 2000), herein the q-parameter. This parameter is shown to be larger during run-up, particularly in streets and narrow sections. It was observed that the scenario with greater exposure is a combination of a high-tide, a storm surge and a discharge equivalent to a 100 year flood on the Tagus River. The work conducted allows for designing a methodology for exposure assessment due to tsunami propagating over urban meshes, where the influence of the existing infrastructures on the incoming inundation is highly relevant. Such methodology, here applied to Lisbon waterfront, is general since it is defined in terms of quantifiable hydrodynamic variables. Acknowledgements: Project RECI/ECM-HID/0371/2012, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), has partially supported this work. References: Baptista, M.A., Miranda, J.M. (2009). Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 25 - 42. Canelas, R., Murillo, J. & Ferreira, R.M.L. (2013). Two-dimensional depth-averaged modelling of dam-break flows over mobile beds. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 51(4), 392-407. C
Conde, Daniel; Telhado, Maria J.; Viana Baptista, Maria A.; Antunes, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.
The pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular system of yangambin, a lignan isolated from Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae), were studied in rats using combined functional and biochemical approaches. In non-anaesthetized rats, yangambin (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg, i.v.) induced hypotension (-3.5 ± 0.2; -7.1 ± 0.8; -8.9 ± 1.3; -14 ± 2.3, -25.5% ± 2.6%, respectively) accompanied by tachycardia (5.9 ± 0.5; 5.9 ± 1.6; 8.8 ± 1.4; 11.6, 18.8% ± 3.4%, respectively). In isolated rat atria, yangambin (0.1 µM-1 mM) had very slight negative inotropic (Emax = 35.6% ± 6.4%) and chronotropic effects (Emax = 10.2% ± 2.9%). In endothelium-intact rat mesenteric artery, yangambin (0.1 µM-1 mM) induced concentration-dependent relaxation (pD2 = 4.5 ± 0.06) of contractions induced by phenylephrine and this effect was not affected by removal of the endothelium. Interestingly, like nifedipine, the relaxant effect induced by yangambin was more potent on the contractile response induced by KCl 80 mM (pD2 = 4.8 ± 0.05) when compared to that induced by phenylephrine. Furthermore, yangambin inhibited CaCl2-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. This lignan also induced relaxation (pD2 = 4.0 ± 0.04) of isolated arteries pre-contracted with S(-)-Bay K 8644. In fura-2/AM-loaded myocytes of rat mesenteric arteries, yangambin inhibited the Ca2+ signal evoked by KCl 60 mM. In conclusion, these results suggest that the hypotensive effect of yangambin is probably due to a peripheral vasodilatation that involves, at least, the inhibition the Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. PMID:24858272
Araújo, Islania Giselia Albuquerque; Silva, Darizy Flávia; do Carmo de Alustau, Maria; Dias, Katy Lísias Gondim; Cavalcante, Karla Veruska Marques; Veras, Robson Cavalcante; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Neto, Mario Dos Anjos; Bendhack, Lusiane Maria; de Azevedo Correia, Nadja; Almeida de Medeiros, Isac
Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation) is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1,680 net-hrs) and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis) in the present study, we confirmed that the tested effect of restinga frugivorous birds on seed germination was generally null. Although there is a need for more detailed studies on specific animal-plant interactions on this habitat, the overall effect of the birds on seed dispersal in restinga is probably positive. PMID:18624238
Gomes, Verônica Souza da Mota; Correia, Maria Célia Rodrigues; de Lima, Heloisa Alves; Alves, Maria Alice S
Tropical mountain ecosystems with their mostly immense biodiversity are important regions for natural resources but also for agricultural production. Their supportive ecosystem processes are particularly vulnerable to the combined impacts of global warming and the conversion of natural to human-modified landscapes. Data of impacts of climate and land use change on soil-atmosphere interactions due to GHG (CO2, CH4, and N2O) exchange from these ecosystems are still scarce, in particular for Africa. Tropical forest soils are underestimated as sinks for atmospheric CH4 with regard to worldwide GHG budgets (Werner et al. 2007, J GEOPHYS RES Vol. 112). Even though these soils are an important source for the atmospheric N2O budget, N2O emissions from tropical forest ecosystems are still poorly characterized (Castaldi et al. 2013, Biogeosciences 10). To obtain an insight of GHG balances of selected ecosystems soil-atmosphere exchange of N2O, CH4 and CO2 was investigated along the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. We will present results for tropical forests in three different altitudes (lower montane, Ocotea, and Podocarpus forest), home garden (extensive agro-forestry), and coffee plantation (intensive agro-forestry). Therefore we used a combined approach consisting of a laboratory parameterization experiment (3 temperature and 2 moisture levels) and in situ static chamber measurements for GHG exchange. Field measurements were conducted during different hygric seasons throughout two years. Seasonal variation of temperature and especially of soil moisture across the different ecosystems resulted in distinct differences in GHG exchange. In addition environmental parameters like soil bulk density and substrate availability varying in space strongly influenced the GHG fluxes within sites. The results from parameterization experiments and in situ measurements show that natural forest ecosystems and extensive land use had higher uptakes of CH4. For the investigated forest ecosystems we found considerable differences in soil sink strength for CH4. N2O emissions were highest in natural forest ecosystems even though N input in the intensively managed system was considerably higher. Highest N2O efflux rates were identified in the region of highest mean annual precipitation. CO2 emissions reduced from managed to natural ecosystems. In general an increase in temperature as well as in soil moisture caused higher GHG fluxes throughout all investigated natural and managed ecosystems. With increasing altitude of the investigated forests GHG emissions reduced overall.
Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kikoti, Imani; Kiese, Ralf
The extinction of the Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes) from Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest prompted research into the causes of ecological change in the montane forests of Costa Rica. Subsequent analysis of meteorological data has suggested that warmer global surface and tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures contribute to an observed decrease in cloud cover at Monteverde. However, while recent studies may have concluded that climate change is already having an effect on cloud forest environments in Costa Rica, without the context provided by long-term climate records, it is difficult to confidently conclude that the observed ecological changes are the result of anthropogenic climate forcing, land clearance in the lowland rainforest, or natural variability in tropical climate. To address this, we develop high-resolution proxy paleoclimate records from trees without annual rings in the Monteverde Cloud Forest in Costa Rica. Calibration of an age model in these trees is a fundamental prerequisite for proxy paleoclimate reconstructions. Our approach exploits the isotopic seasonality in the ?18O of water sources (fog versus rainfall) used by trees over the course of a single year. Ocotea tenera individuals of known age and measured annual growth increments were sampled in long-term monitored plantation sites in order to test this proposed age model. High-resolution (200?m increments) stable isotope measurements on cellulose reveal distinct, coherent ?18O cycles of 6 to 10‰. The calculated growth rates derived from the isotope timeseries match those observed from basal growth increment measurements. Spatial fidelity in the age model and climate signal is examined by using multiple cores from multiple trees and multiple sites. These data support our hypothesis that annual isotope cycles in these trees can be used to provide chronological control in the absence of rings. The ability of trees to record interannual climate variability in local hydrometeorology and remote climate forcing is evaluated using the isotope signal from multiple trees, local meteorological observations, and climate field data for the well-observed 1997-1998 warm El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. The successful calibration of our age model is a necessary step toward the development of long, annually-resolved paleoclimate reconstructions from old trees, even without rings, which will be used to evaluate the cause of recent observed climate change at Monteverde and as proxies for tropical climate field reconstructions.
Anchukaitis, K. J.; Evans, M. N.; Wheelwright, N. T.; Schrag, D. P.