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Sassafras oil overdose  


... root bark of the sassafras tree. Sassafras oil overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more ... and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap ...


Phytochemical and antiprotozoal activity of Ocotea lancifolia.  


Thirteen known isoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from Ocotea lancifolia, popularly known as < canela pilosa > in Brasil and < laurel né > by the Guarani people which means smell laurel. Their activities against the promastigote forms of three Leishmania strains and the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated, as well as their hepatocytotoxicity. Among them, the noraporphine alkaloid (-) caaverine has shown the most interesting antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania and T. cruzi parasites. PMID:17499454

Fournet, Alain; Ferreira, Maria Elena; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Guy, Isabelle; Guinaudeau, Hélène; Heinzen, Horacio



Ocotea quixos, American cinnamon.  


Among the three South American Lauraceae with cinnamon odours, Ocotea quixos Lam. is distinguished with the richest historical legacy. Cinnamaldehyde, its odoriferous principle, occurs besides o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid and methyl cinnamate in the fruit calyx. In contradistinction, 1-nitro-2-phenylethane is responsible for the cinnamon odour of bark and leaves of Aniba canelilla (H..B.K.) Mez and Ocotea pretiosa (Nees) Mez. PMID:7311599

Naranjo, P; Kijjoa, A; Giesbrecht, A M; Gottlieb, O R



The Canela Indians of Northeastern Central Brazil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based largely on the pioneering research of Bill Crocker, this site on the Canela Indians of Central Brazil is hosted by the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Designed to educate a general audience about the life and activities of the Canela, the site contains numerous sections that allow visitors to explore a world that few persons will be able to visit. First-time visitors will want to read the short essay ("About the Canela") before proceeding to the Daily Life chronology, which lists the activities of the Canela on an average day, including a men's council meeting and sing-dancing. A literature section offers numerous papers written by Bill Crocker on various aspects of Canela life, such as their initiation festivals and their relationships with ghosts. Finally, visitors will want to check out a short video showing Canela men engaging in one of their most unique daily activities, log racing.



75 FR 81125 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sassafras River, Georgetown, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The deviation is necessary to facilitate mechanical repairs and gate replacement. This deviation allows the drawbridge to remain...33 CFR 117.570 to facilitate mechanical repairs and barrier gate replacement. The Sassafras River Bridge (Route 213), at...



Alkaloids of Ocotea brachybotra.  


Aporphine, proaporphine and morphinane alkaloids were isolated from the leaves of a Brazilian Lauracea, Ocotea brachybotra (Meiss.) Mez. The known alkaloids were identified through their physico-chemical properties as: (I) (+/-)-glaziovine, (II) dicentrine, (III) ocopodine, (IV) cassynthicine, (V) predicentrine, (VI) leucoxine, (IX) sinacutine and (X) pallidine. The structure of (VI) leucoxine was confirmed by a detailed analysis of the N.M.R. spectra recorded in various conditions. New morphinane alkaloids, (XI) ocobotrine and (XII) 14-espisinomenine, having the unusual B/C-trans configuration were also isolated. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods and chemical correlations. PMID:923790

Vecchietti, V; Casagrande, C; Ferrari, G



Supporting concurrency, communication, and synchronization in human-computer interaction—the Sassafras UIMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sassafras is a prototype User Interface Management System (UIMS) specifically designed to support a wide range of user interface styles. In particular, it supports the implementation of user interfaces where the user is free to manipulate multiple input devices and perform several (possibly related) tasks concurrently. These interfaces can be compactly represented and efficiently implemented without violating any of the

Ralph D. Hill



Cytotoxic aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea acutifolia.  


Two new aporphinoid alkaloids, (+)-6 S-ocoteine N-oxide and (+)-norocoxylonine, were isolated from the leaves and trunk bark of OCOTEA ACUTIFOLIA (Lauraceae) along with thirteen aporphine analogues, one morphinan alkaloid, and one flavonoid. The aporphine alkaloids (+)-thalicsimidine and (+)-neolitsine are reported for the first time for the genus OCOTEA. The structures of all compounds were established on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques, optical rotation and/or mass spectrometry data. The cytotoxic potential of eight of the aporphine alkaloids against four human cancer cell lines (Hep-2, MCF-7, B16-F10 and 786-0) was also evaluated. PMID:20922653

Garcez, Fernanda R; Francisca da Silva, Ana G; Garcez, Walmir S; Linck, Gabriela; de Fatima Matos, Maria C; Santos, Evelyn C S; Queiroz, Lyara M M



Antifungal effects of Ellagitannin isolated from leaves of Ocotea odorifera (Lauraceae).  


Ocotea odorifera is a medicinal plant that is popularly known in Brazil as "canela-sassafrás" and is used to treat dermatosis. This study investigated the antifungal properties of O. odorifera. The methanol extract of O. odorifera was submitted to successive chromatographic separation and yielded Tellimagrandin II (TEL). Candida parapsilosis strain ATCC 22019 was used to determine the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and fungicidal concentrations, and to study the synergistic action with nystatin (NYS), amphotericin (AMP), and fluconazole (FLU). After treatment, the morphology of the yeast was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity was assessed in Vero cells, and genotoxicity by the micronucleus test. The TEL structure was proposed based on NMR and comparison with literature data and ESI-MSMS analysis. The compound showed potent inhibitory activity against C. parapsilosis, with a MIC of 1.6 ?M. TEL acted synergistically with NYS, AMP, and FLU, and caused morphological alterations in the yeast cells. The methanolic extract showed low cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and was not mutagenic in mice (P < 0.05). The use of O. odorifera in traditional medicine seems to have a valid basis, in view of the antifungal activity of TEL demonstrated in this study, and may contribute to potential drug development. PMID:20922478

Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda; Garcia, Francielle Pelegrin; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru



New aporphine alkaloids of Ocotea minarum.  


Fourteen aporphine alkaloids were isolated from the leaves of a Brazilian Lauracea, Ocotea minarum Nees (Mez). The known alkaloids were identified through their physico-chemical properties as: leucoxylonine (VII), dicentrine (IV), ocoteine (V), leucoxine (VI), ocopodine (VIII), predicentrine (IX), dicentrinone (XIV) and thalicminine (XV). Six new aporphine alkaloids were also isolated: ocotominarine (I), ocominarine (III), nor-leucoxylonine (XI), iso-oconovine (xii), 4-hydroxydicentrine (XIII) and ocominarone (XVI). Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods and chemical correlations. PMID:510527

Vecchietti, V; Casagrande, C; Ferrari, G; Severini Ricca, G



Asaricin, the main component of Ocotea opifera Mart. essential oil.  


Investigation of the volatile fraction from the stem bark of Ocotea opifera Mart. led to the isolation and characterization of asaricin, a phenolic derivative with antifungal and insecticidal activity, as the main component, which is described for the first time for the genus Ocotea. The structure has been established by a study of its mono- and bidimensional NMR spectra and mass spectrometry. PMID:11858548

Lorenzo, D; Loayza, I; Leigue, L; Frizzo, C; Dellacass, E; Moyna, P



Some demographic aspects of the Canela Indians of Brazil.  


Census and ethnographic information were used to explain population change between 1970 and 1988 among the Canela population of Ramkokamekra living at Escalvado in northeast Brazil. The first ethnographic evidence was collected by William Crocker in 1957. An official census was conducted in 1970 and was followed by censuses in 1975, 1979, and 1988. The Canela were exposed to white contact in 1750, but their geographic location in the hills made settler contact minimal between 1840 and 1940. In 1963, after attacks on the cattle of the backlanders, the Canela were moved to the Guajajara Indian reservation at Sardinha, and eventually were returned to their homeland. Society was matrilocal and matrilateral; during the study period, mortality declined and the population became younger. Fertility remained stable because extramarital sex declined and an increase in age at marriage offset fertility-enhancing declines in breast feeding. There were improvements in health and nutrition. The crude death rate declined from 53/1000 population for 1970-75 to 29/1000 for 1975-79, and mostly affected mortality among women and children. Age distribution of the population showed changes from a young population to a population with a high proportion of young and old. The dependency ratio between 1970 and 1988 went from .84 to 1.38. A high sex ratio was evidenced, which may have been due in 1988 to the need for old-age pensions. Marriage was matrilocal and endogamous to the tribe. Divorce and separation increased over time, but was still low, particularly for men. Multiple sex partners made certain that women did not remain childless. Adult female status was achieved when childbirth occurred. Young husbands joined their wives in the maternal household, which reduced extramarital relations. When a mother died, the child was secure in having a home with her mother's mother or her mother's sister. The arrival of health services in 1970 and an anthropologist trained nurse led to better treatment for tuberculosis and improvements in health, particularly alcohol misuse. A missionary couple in 1968 added new wells for improved sanitation. The Canela, having been influenced by the backlanders on whom they depended for economic support and by the Indian service, have gradually been moving toward a more rigid and Western definition of sex roles, greater disapproval of homosexuality, and less extramarital sex. PMID:12319066

Greene, M E; Crocker, W H



Forensic profiling of sassafras oils based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.  


Safrole, the main compound in the essential oil of several plants of the Laurel family (Lauraceae), and its secondary product piperonylmethylketone are the predominantly used precursors for the illicit synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) which is, in turn, the most common active ingredient in Ecstasy tablets. Analytical methods with adequate capacity to identify links and origin of precursors, such as safrole, provide valuable information for drug-related police intelligence. Authentic sassafras oil samples from police seizures were subjected to comparative analysis based on their chemical profiles obtained by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). The enhanced separation power and increased sensitivity of GC × GC allowed for the detection of minor compounds present in the essential oils which were of particular interest in case of very pure samples whose impurity profiles were not very pronounced. Discrimination of such samples was still possible even in the absence of characteristic main compounds. PMID:23683915

Schäffer, M; Gröger, T; Pütz, M; Zimmermann, R



Essential oil of trees of the genus Ocotea (Lauraceae) in Costa Rica. I. Ocotea brenesii.  


The chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves and wood of Ocotea brenesii Standl. growing wild in Costa Rica was determined by capillary GC/FID and GC/MS. From the leaves, 64 compounds were identified, corresponding to 85.9% of the oil, and from the wood 57 compounds were identified corresponding to 69.0% of the oil. The major constituents identified in the leaf oil were alpha-copaene (21. 1%), 8-cadinene (9.2%), spathulenol (7.3%), globulol (5.6%) and beta-caryophyllene (5.2%). The major constituents of the wood oil were alpha-copaene (6.6%), caryophyllene oxide (6.3%). beta-caryophyllene (6.1%) and humulene epoxide (4.6%). PMID:17354452

Chaverri, Carlos; Cicció, José F



Caparratriene, an active sesquiterpene hydrocarbon from Ocotea caparrapi.  


Caparratriene (1), a new sesquiterpene hydrocarbon with significant growth inhibitory activity (IC50 = 3.0 +/- 0.5 x 10(-6) M) against CEM leukemia cells, was isolated from the oil of Ocotea caparrapi (Nates) Dugand. The structure of 1, determined by spectroscopic techniques, corresponded to (E,E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,4,10-dodecatriene (C15H26). PMID:8984157

Palomino, E; Maldonado, C; Kempff, M B; Ksebati, M B



Mutagenicity and recombinagenicity of Ocotea acutifolia (Lauraceae) aporphinoid alkaloids.  


The somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in wing cells of Drosophila melanogaster was used to test the mutagenic and recombinogenic activities of five aporphinoid alkaloids isolated from Ocotea acutifolia: thalicminine (1), (+)-dicentrine (2), (+)-ocoteine (3), (+)-6S-ocoteine N-oxide (4), and (+)-leucoxine (5). Third-stage larvae derived from the standard cross with wing cell markers mwh and/or flr(3) were treated chronically. The frequencies of mutant spots observed in marked heterozygous descendants revealed significant dose-dependent genotoxicity for alkaloids 1-4; compounds 1 and 2 were the most active. Alkaloids 1-4 also induced mitotic recombination. The presence of a methoxyl group at C-3 (as in compound 3) lowers its genotoxic effect relative to that of unsubstituted analogue 2, and the introduction of an N-oxide functionality (3 vs. 4) further reduces genotoxicity. The very planar conformation of oxo-aporphine alkaloid 1 may account for its higher genotoxicity vs. its less-planar analogues 3 and 4. As previously reported for (+)-dicentrine (2), alkaloids 1, 3, and 4 may also be DNA intercalating agents, interfering with the catalytic activity of topoisomerases. PMID:23892138

Guterres, Zaira da Rosa; da Silva, Ana Francisca Gomes; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Felipe Rodrigues; Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues



Structural analysis of female and hermaphroditic flowers of a gynodioecious tree, Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae).  


The evolution of gynodioecy from hermaphroditism involves modifications of floral structure such that male or female fitness is enhanced in hermaphrodites and females, respectively. We present an analysis of structural specialization of flowers of Ocotea tenera, in order to evaluate gender system evolution in this tropical tree species. Significant morphological and anatomical variation was found between high fruiting and low or nonfruiting trees. Female flowers were significantly smaller than hermaphroditic flowers, produced no viable pollen, and made relatively greater allocation to structures that increase female fitness. Hermaphroditic flowers were significantly larger than female flowers, produced copious quantities of pollen, and made relatively greater allocation to male structures. Analyses indicated that changes in allometries between whole-flower growth and growth of reproductive structures may have occurred, which enhance function of the flower and plant as a male or female. Efficiency of nutrient allocation for reproduction is argued to be a factor driving gender system evolution in Ocotea tenera. PMID:21708583

Gibson, J; Diggle, P



Central depressant effects of reticuline extracted from Ocotea duckei in rats and mice.  


Neuropharmacological studies were carried out with reticuline, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, isolated from Ocotea duckei Vattimo. It was found that reticuline (50-100 mg/kg i.p.) produced alteration of behaviour pattern, prolongation of pentobarbital-induced sleep, reduction in motor coordination and D-amphetamine-induced hypermotility and suppression of the conditioned avoidance response. These observations suggest that reticuline possesses potent central nervous system depressant action. PMID:9720612

Morais, L C; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Almeida, R N



Antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of essential oil from wild Ocotea quixos (Lam.) Kosterm. (Lauraceae) calices from Amazonian Ecuador.  


Ocotea quixos essential oil was shown to possess significant inhibitory activity of platelet aggregation and clot retraction in rodent plasma. This study is aimed at fully characterizing the antiplatelet activity of the whole essential oil and its main components trans-cinnamaldehyde and methyl cinnamate also in human plasma, at investigating the mechanism underlying such activity and at evaluating the potential antithrombotic activity of subacute treatment of mice with Ocotea essential oil. In vitro Ocotea essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde inhibited arachidonic acid-, U46619-, ADP-, phorbol12-myristate13-alcetate-, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and thrombin-induced clot retraction in human and rodent plasma; Ocotea oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde competitively antagonized contractions induced by thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619 in rat isolated aortic ring (K(B) = 18 and 3.2 microg ml(-1), respectively). In vivo Ocotea oil, orally administered in a subacute treatment (30-100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 5 days) to mice, prevented acute thrombosis induced by collagen-epinephrine intravenous injection. This antithrombotic activity was not accompanied by pro-haemorragic side effect, as detected by the inactivity in bleeding test, thus showing a favourable safety profile compared to the conventional antiplatelet agent, acetylsalicylic acid. Present findings indicate that Ocotea essential oil possesses potent and safe antithrombotic activity attributable to its antiplatelet and vasorelaxant effects. The main constituent trans-cinnamaldehyde seems to be the primary responsible for this activity through a putative mechanism involving the inhibition of thromboxane A2 receptors. PMID:17079160

Ballabeni, Vigilio; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Bertoni, Simona; Bruni, Renato; Guerrini, Alessandra; Rueda, Gabriela Moreno; Barocelli, Elisabetta



Stereostructure and anti-inflammatory activity of three diastereomers of ocobullenone from Ocotea bullata.  


A novel diastereomer of ocobullenone. designated as sibyllenone, was isolated from the stem bark of mature Ocotea bullata in the course of a search for anti-inflammatory compounds from this plant. The stereostructure was established by X-ray crystallography and corroborated by NOESY analysis. Ocobullenone, obtained previously, was re-isolated and crystallised successfully for X-ray analysis, thus making possible an accurate spatial comparison of ocobullenone, iso-ocobullenone and the new stereoisomer. Tested pharmacologically for cyclooxygenase-1 and 2, and 5-lipoxygenase inhibition, sibyllenone was the only compound from O. bullata which showed good inhibitory activity towards 5-lipoxygenase. PMID:10963452

Zschocke, S; van Staden, J; Paulus, K; Bauer, R; Horn, M M; Munro, O Q; Brown, N J; Drewes, S E



Chemical, biological, morphoanatomical and antimicrobial study of Ocotea puchury-major Mart.  


Ocotea puchury-major Mart. is a tree native to the Brazilian rain forest, where it is popularly known as puxurì. In local folk medicine the leaves are used for their sedative, gastroenteric and antireumatic properties. The morphoanatomical study determined those features useful in distinguishing this species from other closely related taxa. Chemical analysis was focused on the study of the volatile oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses indicated safrol as the main compound of the volatile oil (39%). The results confirm and authenticate the use of its leaves in folk medicine. Furthermore, safrol is economically important as the starting material for hemisynthesis of several products. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was studied which showed promising activity against environmental microorganisms as well as anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24274027

Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Pintore, Giorgio; Foddai, Marzia; Chessa, Mario; Piana, Andrea; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Masia, Maria Dolores; Mangano, Giuseppe; Nicoletti, Marcello



Crude ethanolic extract, lignoid fraction and yangambin from Ocotea duckei (Lauraceae) show antileishmanial activity.  


Crude ethanolic extract, lignoid fraction and the purified compound yangambin were obtained from Ocotea duckei (Lauraceae) and their antileishmanial activity was tested against promastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis cultivated in Schneider medium, supplemented with 20% of fetal bovine serum. All substances presented antileishmanial activity with IC50 values of 135.7 microg/mL for the crude ethanolic extract, 26.5 microg/mL for the lignoid fraction and 49.0 microg/mL for yangambin on L. chagasi. For L. amazonensis the IC50 values were 143.7 microg/mL, 48.2 microg/mL and 64.9 microg/mL for the crude ethanolic extract, the lignoid fraction, and the purified compound yangambin, respectively. The crude ethanolic extract, lignoid fraction, and yangambin caused an inhibition higher than Glucantime, a reference drug used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:17708438

Monte, Rubens L Neto; Barbosa, José M Filho; Sousa, Louisa M A; Athayde, Petrônio F Filho; Dias, Celidarque S; Oliveira, Márcia R



Germination of Ocotea pulchella (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae) seeds in laboratory and natural restinga environment conditions.  


The germination response of Ocotea pulchella (Nees) Mez seeds to light, temperature, water level and pulp presence is introduced. The laboratory assays were carried out in germination chambers and thermal-gradient apparatus, whereas the field assays were performed in environments with distinct light, temperature and soil moisture conditions within a permanent parcel of Restinga forest of the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananéia, São Paulo. The seeds do not exhibit dormancy, they are non photoblastic, and a loss of viability in dry stored seeds can be related to a decrease in water content of the seed. The presence of the pulp and the flooded substratum influenced negatively the germination of O. pulchella seeds tested in the laboratory. Otherwise, light and temperature probably are not limiting factors of the germination of O. pulchella seeds in the natural environment of Restinga. The optimum temperature range for germination of Ocotea pulchella seeds was 20 to 32 degrees C, the minimum or base temperature estimated was 11 degrees C and the maximum ranged between 33 and 42 degrees C. The isotherms exhibited a sigmoidal pattern well described by the Weibull model in the sub-optimal temperature range. The germinability of O. pulchella seeds in the understorey, both in wet and dry soil, was higher than in gaps. Germination was not affected by fluctuations in soil moisture content in the understorey environment, whereas in gaps, germination was higher in wet soils. Thus, the germination of this species involves the interaction of two or more factors and it cannot be explained by a single factor. PMID:19802455

Pires, L A; Cardoso, V J M; Joly, C A; Rodrigues, R R



Ocotea quixos Lam. essential oil: in vitro and in vivo investigation on its anti-inflammatory properties.  


Here we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Ocotea quixos essential oil and of its main components, trans-cinnamaldehyde and methyl cinnamate, in in vitro and in vivo models. Ocotea essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde but not methyl cinnamate significantly reduced LPS-induced NO release from J774 macrophages at non-toxic concentrations, inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 expression and increased forskolin-induced cAMP production. The essential oil (30-100mg/kg os) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (10mg/kg os) in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema showed anti-inflammatory effect without damaging gastric mucosa. In conclusion we provide the first evidence of a significant anti-inflammatory gastro-sparing activity of O.quixos essential oil. PMID:19825398

Ballabeni, Vigilio; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Giorgio, Carmine; Bertoni, Simona; Bruni, Renato; Barocelli, Elisabetta



Fine-scale spatial genetic structure and allozymic diversity in natural populations of Ocotea catharinensis Mez. (Lauraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to establish a strategy for conservation, the distribution of genetic diversity in four natural populations of Ocotea catharinensis in the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest was investigated using 18 allozyme loci. Estimates of the average number of alleles\\u000a per loci (2.2), percentage of polymorphic loci (83.3%) and expected genetic diversity (0.427) in adult individuals were high;\\u000a suggesting that all

Roberto Tarazi; Adelar Mantovani; Maurício Sedrez dos Reis




Microsoft Academic Search

In the ovules of some angiosperms a definite nutritive tissue invests the embryo-sac, while in others no such layer exists. This nutritive jacket appears in all cases to be simply a modifica- tion of one or more layers of cells on the inner wall of the ovule. It is purely a physiological tissue and is usually described as consisting of



Benzopyrans from Curvularia sp., an endophytic fungus associated with Ocotea corymbosa (Lauraceae).  


An isolate of Curvularia sp. was obtained from the leaves of Ocotea corymbosa, a native plant of the Brazilian Cerrado. The ethyl acetate extract from culture of this fungus afforded two benzopyran derivatives: (2'S)-2-(propan-2'-ol)-5-hydroxy-benzopyran-4-one (2) and 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-benzopyran-4,5-diol (4); and two known benzopyrans: 2-methyl-5-methoxy-benzopyran-4-one (1) and (2R)-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-5-methoxy-benzopyran-4-one (3). The structures of 2 and 4 were established on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, mainly using 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The benzopyrans 1 and 2 showed weak in vitro antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum and C. cladosporioides. Analyses of the biological activities were also carried out on HeLa (human cervix tumor) and CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells, aiming to evaluate their potential effects on mammalian cell line proliferation. Results from both cell lines indicated that compound 2 was able to induce cell proliferation: 70% on HeLa cells and 25% on CHO cells. PMID:16038954

Teles, Helder Lopes; Silva, Geraldo Humberto; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Pereira, José Odair; Costa-Neto, Claudio Miguel; Haddad, Renato; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Araújo, Angela Regina



Yangambin cytotoxicity: a pharmacologically active lignan obtained from Ocotea duckei vattimo (Lauraceae).  


The in vitro cytotoxic potential of yangambin was evaluated. Yangambin is a pharmacologically active furofuran lignan obtained from the leaves of Ocotea duckei. It is the major compound from the lignoids fraction. Yangambin presented low cytotoxicity in all in vitro models analyzed. Its cytotoxicity to murine macrophages was measured by the Trypan blue dye exclusion test and MTT reduction assay, resulting in high CC50 values of 187.0 microg/mL (383.3 microM) and 246.7 microg/mL (504.3 microM), respectively. The difference obtained in the inhibitory concentrations aforementioned can be explained, at least in part, by the different principles of the methods. While the MTT reduction assay evaluates the ability of yangambin to inhibit the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, the Trypan blue dye exclusion test evaluates possible damages to the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane which result in cell death. The capacity of yangambin to inhibit the sea urchin embryonic development showed that it has low antimitotic and teratogenic potential, once continued exposure of embryos to concentrations up to 500 microg/mL (1.025 microM) did not result in an inhibitory effect on the first egg cleavages. Such low in vitro cytotoxicity is correlated with the low acute toxicity previously studied. All these data, together with the various therapeutic properties of yangambin, make this lignan a promising one for a new drug. PMID:19040107

Monte Neto, Rubens L; Sousa, Louisa M A; Dias, Celidarque S; Filho, José M Barbosa; Oliveira, Márcia R



Morphological and physiological changes in Leishmania promastigotes induced by yangambin, a lignan obtained from Ocotea duckei.  


We have previously demonstrated that yangambin, a lignan obtained from Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae), shows antileishmanial activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro effects of yangambin against these parasites using electron and confocal microscopy. L. chagasi and L. amazonensis promastigotes were incubated respectively with 50 ?g/mL and 65 ?g/mL of pure yangambin and stained with acridine orange. Treated-parasites showed significant alterations in fluorescence emission pattern and cell morphology when compared with control cells, including the appearance of abnormal round-shaped cells, loss of cell motility, nuclear pyknosis, cytoplasm acidification and increased number of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs), suggesting important physiological changes. Ultrastructural analysis of treated-promatigotes showed characteristics of cell death by apoptosis as well as by autophagy. The presence of parasites exhibiting multiples nuclei suggests that yangambin may also affect the microtubule dynamic in both Leishmania species. Taken together our results show that yangambin is a promising agent against Leishmania. PMID:20691682

Monte Neto, Rubens L; Sousa, Louisa M A; Dias, Celidarque S; Barbosa Filho, José M; Oliveira, Márcia R; Figueiredo, Regina C B Q



Metabolomic analysis of Ocotea odorifera cell cultures: a model protocol for acquiring metabolite data.  


Metabolomics constitutes a quantitative and qualitative survey of the whole metabolites of an organism as well as a tissue, reflecting the genome and proteome of a sample as analyzed. Advanced analytical spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques are used along with uni- or multivariate statistical data analysis, rapidly identifying up- or down-regulated metabolites in complex matrices. In this chapter, protocols for the analysis of target compounds (protocol I) and metabolomics (protocol II) of Ocotea odorifera cell cultures are described. In the first case, the target compound safrole, an aromatic ether used as a flavoring agent and also in the manufacture of insecticides, is analyzed in the organosolvent fraction of stable prototrophic cell lines of O. odorifera by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For metabolomics studies the protocol is designed to detect and quantify metabolites in the aqueous extract of O. odorifera cell lines by using high-resolution 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, followed by chemometric analysis of the 1H NMR spectra dataset. Protocol I has been successfully used, for example, in screening studies of cell lines able of producing safrole. Protocol II is suitable to detect the chemical features of a number of metabolite compounds in aqueous extracts of O. odorifera cell lines cultured under certain conditions, leading to new insights into metabolomics of that species. PMID:19521858

Maraschin, Marcelo; Dias, Paulo Fernando; Pedrotti, Enio Luiz; Nunes, Hiliana; Morais, Hiliana Nunes Ferreira; Viana, Ana Maria; Wood, Karl Vernon



Analytical and pharmacological investigation of Ocotea bullata (black stinkwood) bark and leaves.  


Ocotea bullata (Lauraceae), one of the top-ten traditional medicinal plants used in KwaZulu-Natal, is close to extinction through high demand and destructive harvesting methods. The stem bark is traditionally used to cure headaches, urinary disorders and stomach problems. Substitution of leaves for bark provides a possible resource management solution for this threatened medicinal plant. One aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of O. bullata leaves and bark using TLC, HPLC and GC-MS analysis. The characteristic analytical fingerprints of leaf and bark extracts showed great similarities. A second aim was to investigate the pharmacological properties of O. bullata as a remedy against headaches. Leaf and bark extracts were tested in terms of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase inhibition. Extracts from the bark exhibited moderate inhibitory activity in both test systems. Extracts from fresh leaves were superior to bark extracts in terms of their in vitro inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. Volatiles obtained from n-hexane extracts of leaves and bark showed better inhibitory activity towards cyclooxygenase-1 and especially towards 5-lipoxygenase than the original n-hexane extracts. Volatiles were therefore recognized as one of the main active principles in O. bullata with regards to the anti-inflammatory properties of this medicinal plant. This lends support to the traditional usage of O. bullata bark as an inhalant or snuff. PMID:10904166

Zschocke, S; Drewes, S E; Paulus, K; Bauer, R; van Staden, J



Isolation and biochemical characterization of a new topoisomerase I inhibitor from Ocotea leucoxylon.  


In a continuation of our search for potential tumor inhibitors from plants, we found that a crude extract from Ocotea leucoxylon showed selective activity typical of inhibitors of the enzyme topoisomerase I in a yeast assay for DNA-damaging agents. Using a bioassay-directed fractionation approach, the major bioactive compound was isolated and identified as the known aporphine alkaloid dicentrinone (4); the inactive alkaloid dicentrine (3) was also isolated. Compound 4 showed selective bioactivity against the rad52 repair-deficient yeast strain RS322 (IC(12) 49 microg/mL) and was inactive against the rad52- and topo1-deficient strain RS321 (IC(12) > 2000 microg/mL) and against the repair-proficient strain RJ03 (IC(12) > 2000 microg/mL). Biochemical studies with recombinant human topoisomerase I indicated that dicentrinone (4) is an inhibitor of the human enzyme. Colony formation studies suggest that it is weakly cytotoxic, but that its mechanism of toxicity differs from that of camptothecin and its derivatives. PMID:10691712

Zhou, B N; Johnson, R K; Mattern, M R; Wang, X; Hecht, S M; Beck, H T; Ortiz, A; Kingston, D G



Central nervous system activity of yangambin from Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae) in mice.  


This work presents behavioral effects of yangambin isolated from the leaves of Ocotea duckei on open field, rota rod, barbiturate sleeping time, forced swimming and elevated plus maze test in mice. Yangambin was intraperitoneally administered to male mice at single doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg. The results showed that yangambin in the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg decreased the locomotor activity and the number of rearing. However, no change was observed in the rota rod test between the yangambin groups as compared to the control group. Reduction on the sleep latency and a prolongation of the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital was observed only with the yangambin dose of 50 mg/kg. In the forced swimming test, yangambin (25 and 50 mg/kg) increased the immobility time. Yangambin, in the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg, decreased the number of entries and the time of permanence in the open arms of the elevated plus maze test. However, this effect can not be related to anxiogenic effects, but to a decrease in locomotor activity. The results showed that yangambin presents a depressant activity in the open field, forced swimming and pentobarbital sleeping time tests. These effects probably were not due to peripheral neuromuscular blockade, since there was no alteration on the rota rod test. Also, no anxiolytic effect was observed after the treatment with yangambin. PMID:16041767

de Sousa, F C F; Pereira, B A; Lima, V T M; Lacerda, C D G; Melo, C T V; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Vasconcelos, S M M; Viana, G S B



Evaluation of the mutagenic potential of yangambin and of the hydroalcoholic extract of Ocotea duckei by the Ames test.  


Ocotea duckei Vattimo is a plant popularly known as "louro-de-cheiro" found in the northeast of Brazil. Traditional medicinal uses of this plant are not known, but recent pharmacological studies with the isolated major constituent yangambin have shown various qualities: platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonist, protective effects against cardiovascular collapse and anaphylactic shock, anti-allergic properties, analgesic activity, and depressant effect in the central nervous system. In this work, the Ames test was used to evaluate the mutagenic potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of O. duckei leaves and of yangambin. Using TA97a, TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1535 strains of Salmonella typhimurium, positive results were obtained only with the hydroalcoholic extract, with or without metabolic activation. Yangambin was not mutagenic, which is of interest due to its pharmacological properties. PMID:12694751

Marques, Regina Célia Pereira; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo; Dias, Celidarque da Silva; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella



Cryptocarya species--substitute plants for Ocotea bullata? A pharmacological investigation in terms of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 inhibition.  


In response to the serious scarcity of Ocotea bullata (Burch.) Baillon (Lauraceae), an important medicinal plant in South Africa, Cryptocarya species (Lauraceae) are frequently used as substitute plants. Our investigation was aimed at a pharmacological comparison of O. bullata and the Cryptocarya species C. latifolia Sonder, C. myrtifolia Stapf., C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy, C. woodii Engl. and C. wyliei Stapf., in terms of in vitro cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition, as an indication of O. bullatas' repute as a remedy against headache. Furthermore, we also compared bark and leaf extracts of the species investigated in order to address the problem of destructive ring-barking. The utilization of leaves instead of bark would help in the management of threatened medicinal plants. All Cryptocarya species were superior to O. bullata with regard to bark extracts. C. woodii bark extracts showed outstanding equipotent activity towards COX-1 and COX-2. The activity of extracts of fresh leaves was comparable to the activity of the respective bark extracts. Drying the leaves before extraction resulted in a loss of activity, with the exception of C. wyliei. Extracts of dried C. wyliei leaves exhibited high inhibitory activity, with a COX-2/COX-1 ratio of 5.8. PMID:10940585

Zschocke, S; van Staden, J



PAF-antagonistic bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoid neolignans from leaves of Ocotea macrophylla Kunth. (Lauraceae).  


Di-nor-benzofuran neolignan aldehydes, Delta(7)-3,4-methylenedioxy-3'-methoxy-8',9'-dinor-4',7-epoxy-8,3'-neolignan-7'-aldehyde (ocophyllal A) 1, Delta(7)-3,4,5,3'-tetramethoxy-8',9'-dinor-4',7-epoxy-8,3'-neolignan-7'-aldehyde (ocophyllal B) 2, and macrophyllin-type bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoid neolignans (7R, 8R, 3'S, 4'S, 5'R)-Delta(8)'-4'-hydroxy-5'-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy-2',3',4',5'-tetrahydro-2'-oxo-7.3',8.5'-neolignan (ocophyllol A) 3, (7R, 8R, 3'S, 4'S, 5'R)-Delta(8)'-4'-hydroxy-3,4,5'-trimethoxy-2',3',4',5'-tetrahydro-2'-oxo-7.3',8.5'-neolignan (ocophyllol B) 4, (7R, 8R, 3'S, 4'S, 5'R)-Delta(8)'-4'-hydroxy-3,4,5,5'-tetramethoxy-2',3',4',5'-tetrahydro-2'-oxo-7.3',8.5'-neolignan (ocophyllol C) 5, as well as 2'-epi-guianin 6 and (+)-licarin B 7, were isolated and characterized from leaves of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae). The structures and configuration of these compounds were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Inhibition of platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced aggregation of rabbit platelets were tested with neolignans 1-7. Although compound 6 was the most potent PAF-antagonist, compounds 3-5 showed some activity. PMID:19674762

Coy-Barrera, Ericsson D; Cuca-Suárez, Luis E; Sefkow, Michael



Yangambin, a lignan obtained from Ocotea duckei, differentiates putative PAF receptor subtypes in the gastrointestinal tract of rats.  


We investigated the presence of PAF receptor subtypes in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, airways, blood vessels and in murine macrophages. For this purpose we have used a competitive PAF receptor antagonist, yangambin (YAN), extracted from the Brazilian plant "louro de cheiro" (Ocotea duckei Vattimo). Rat duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, stomach fundus, trachea and bronchia were removed and 1.5-2 cm muscle segments from those regions were mounted in a 10 ml organ bath with aerated physiological solution at 37 degrees C. PAF evoked a contraction of the rat jejunum, ileum, colon and stomach fundus. The contraction was slow and resistant to wash and was followed by desensitization to further doses of PAF. Contractions induced by PAF (10(-6) M) were inhibited by YAN (10(-7) to M-2 x 10(-5) M) and WEB 2086 (10(-6) m to M-5 M) in rat jejunum, ileum and colon but not in the stomach fundus. In the rat stomach fundus only WEB 2086 (5 x 10(-6) M) was able to block PAF-induced contraction. The contractions induced by acetylcholine, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and vasopressin were not inhibited by prior administration of YAN. Yangambin also significantly inhibited PAF-induced vascular permeability in rat duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and mesentery. Yangambin significantly inhibited PAF-induced lipid body formation in mice peritoneal macrophages. We suggest that YAN is a selective PAF antagonist which is able to discriminate putative PAF receptors subtypes present in the stomach fundus. PMID:10821044

Jesus-Morais, C M; Assis, E F; Cordeiro, R S; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Lima, W T; Silva, Z L; Bozza, P T; Castro-Faria-Neto, H C



Polyamines, IAA and ABA during germination in two recalcitrant seeds: Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant growth regulators play an important role in seed germination. However, much of the current knowledge about their function during seed germination was obtained using orthodox seeds as model systems, and there is a paucity of information about the role of plant growth regulators during germination of recalcitrant seeds. In the present work, two endangered woody species with recalcitrant seeds, Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm), native to the Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil, were used to study the mobilization of polyamines (PAs), indole-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. Methods Data were sampled from embryos of O. odorifera and embryos and megagametophytes of A. angustifolia throughout the germination process. Biochemical analyses were carried out in HPLC. Key Results During seed germination, an increase in the (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio was recorded in embryos in both species. An increase in IAA and PA levels was also observed during seed germination in both embryos, while ABA levels showed a decrease in O. odorifera and an increase in A. angustifolia embryos throughout the period studied. Conclusions The (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio could be used as a marker for germination completion. The increase in IAA levels, prior to germination, could be associated with variations in PA content. The ABA mobilization observed in the embryos could represent a greater resistance to this hormone in recalcitrant seeds, in comparison to orthodox seeds, opening a new perspective for studies on the effects of this regulator in recalcitrant seeds. The gymnosperm seed, though without a connective tissue between megagametophyte and embryo, seems to be able to maintain communication between the tissues, based on the likely transport of plant growth regulators. PMID:21685432

Pieruzzi, Fernanda P.; Dias, Leonardo L. C.; Balbuena, Tiago S.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; dos Santos, Andre L. W.; Floh, Eny I. S.



Study of the antinociceptive action of the ethanolic extract and the triterpene 24-hydroxytormentic acid isolated from the stem bark of Ocotea suaveolens.  


We describe here the antinociceptive action of the crude extract (CE), the chemical isolation and characterisation and preliminary pharmacological analysis of 24-hydroxytormentic acid, isolated from the stem bark of Ocotea suaveolens (Lauraceae). The CE given by i.p. or p.o. routes, 30 min and 1 h prior, produced significant inhibition of abdominal constrictions caused by acetic acid and also inhibited both phases of formalin-induced licking in mice. The antinociception caused by the CE, given by i.p. and p.o. routes, lasted up to 4 and 2h, respectively. When assessed in the hot-plate test, the CE was inactive. Its antinociceptive action was not associated with non-specific effects such as muscle relaxation or sedation. The antinociception of CE was not influenced by naloxone, L-arginine or DL-p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester, when assessed against the formalin assay. The triterpene 24-hydroxytormentic acid, given i.p. 30 min before testing, produced significant, dose-related and equipotent antinociceptive action against both phases of formalin-induced licking in mice. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the occurrence of the triterpene 24-hydroxytormentic acid in the stem bark of Ocotea suaveolens, and show that the CE and 24-hydroxytormentic acid exhibit marked antinociception against the neurogenic and the inflamamtory algesic responses induced by formalin in mice. The mechanism by which this compound and CE produces antinociception still remains unclear, but is unlikely to involve the activation of opioid, nitric oxide or serotonin systems or non-specific peripheral or central depressant actions. PMID:10083846

Beirith, A; Santos, A R; Calixto, J B; Hess, S C; Messana, I; Ferrari, F; Yunes, R A



The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia.  


Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae). PMID:23805052

Feuillet, Christian



The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae). PMID:23805052

Feuillet, Christian



Composition of the volatile fraction of Ocotea bofo Kunth (Lauraceae) calyces by GC-MS and NMR fingerprinting and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.  


The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the floral calyces of Ocotea bofo Kunth (Lauraceae) was studied by means of GC, GC-MS, and 1H, 13C, and bidimensional NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC). Twenty-five constituents were identified, and estragole (48.7%), alpha-phellandrene (19.6%) and sabinene (10.4%) were found to be the major components. Antimicrobial activity against six aerobic bacteria and five yeasts and antioxidant activity performed by photochemiluminescence (PCL), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and beta-carotene bleaching assays are reported. The oil showed fair inhibiting properties against bacteria and a good inhibition against most yeasts. Its radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant properties were comparable to or better than those provided by synthetic controls. Particular emphasis has been given to the use of NMR as a fast and reliable tool to discriminate O. bofo essential oil from other commercial anethole- and estragole-rich oils, namely, Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Artemisia dracunculus. PMID:17002452

Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Moreno Rueda, Gabriela; Medici, Alessandro; Besco, Elena; Bruni, Renato



Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of N-substituted thiosemicarbazones of 3-(3,4-methylenedioxy)phenylpropanal.  


Five new N-substituted thiosemicarbazones of 3-(3,4-methylenedioxy)phenylpropanal were synthesized. Safrole, a natural product obtained from sassafras oil (Ocotea pretiosa), was oxidized to alcohol using BH3-THF and H2O2, followed by oxidation to aldehyde using pyridinium dichromate (PDC) and condensation with five N-substituted derivatives of thiosemicarbazide. Tests were performed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity with continuous chain KB cells (epidermoide carcinoma of the floor of the mouth). Compounds 5 and 6 showed IC50 values of 1.5 and 4.6 micrograms/ml, respectively. PMID:9639871

Joselice e Silva, M; Alves, A J; Do Nascimento, S C



Foxfire 4: Fiddle Making, Springhouses, Horse Trading, Sassafras Tea, Berry Buckets, Gardening, and Further Affairs of Plain Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planting by the signs of the moon, well digging, hewing logs, wood carving, knife making, bird trapping, and horsetrading are but a few of the aspects of Appalachian culture explored in "Foxfire 4." Like its predecessors, the volume was compiled by high school students at Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School. Information on the cultural heritage of…

Wigginton, Eliot, Ed.


Synthesis and antiplatelet evaluation of novel aryl-sulfonamide derivatives, from natural safrole.  


In the scope of a research program aiming at the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel possible antiplatelet prototype compounds, exploring bioisosterism principles for molecular design, we describe in this paper the synthesis of new aryl-sulfonamides derivatives, structurally similar to known thromboxane A2 receptor antagonists. The synthetic route used to access the new compounds described herein starts from safrole, an abundant Brazilian natural product, which occurs in Sassafras oil (Ocotea pretiosa). The results from preliminary evaluation of these novel aryl-sulfonamide compounds by the platelet aggregation inhibitory test, using rabbit PRP, induced by ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid, and U46619, identified the N-[2-(4-carboxymethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-6-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyphe nyl- sulfonamido derivative as the most active among them, presenting in IC50 value for the U-46619-induced platelet aggregation in rabbit platelet-rich plasma: 329 microM. PMID:10443173

Lima, L M; Ormelli, C B; Brito, F F; Miranda, A L; Fraga, C A; Barreiro, E J



Anti-inflammatory properties of new bioisosteres of indomethacin synthesized from safrole which are sulindac analogues.  


The anti-inflammatory activities of new compounds (I, II, III and IV) synthesized in 30% overall yield from the abundant natural product safrole, the principal chemical constituent of the oil of sassafras (Ocotea pretiosa, Lauraceae), were determined in mice. The synthesis of these new indenyl-acetic acids (I and II) and indenyl-propionic acids (III and IV) was based on the minimal structural features of non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents of the aryl- or heteroarylcarboxylic acid group. The compounds exhibited potencies 4- to 10-fold less than that of indomethacin in inhibiting carrageenan-induced hindpaw edema. In contrast, like sulindac, all the new compounds were more potent than indomethacin in antagonizing writhing pain and increased vascular permeability caused by acetic acid. The results confirm the anticipated bioisosteric relationship between these synthetic derivatives, designed as sulindac analogues, and the classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. PMID:2638933

Pereira, E F; Pereira, N A; Lima, M E; Coelho, F A; Barreiro, E J



Wildlife Plants Georgia Southern Botanical Garden  

E-print Network

Cherry (Prunus serotina) Crossvine (Bignonia capreolata) Deerberry (Vaccinium stamineum) Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) Flowering (Diospyros virginiana) Possum Haw (Ilex decidua) Prickly Pear (Opuntia humifusa) Sassafras (Sassafras albidum

Hutcheon, James M.


[Morphology and anatomy of the fruit development of Ocotea puberula (Rich.) Nees and Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng.) Mez (Lauraceae)].  


The morphology and anatomy of the fruit development of Ocotee puberula (Rich.) Nees and Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng.) Mez (Lauraceae) was studied in flowers and fruits collected in secondary forests of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil. The fruits of the species are drupes, with epidermic exocarp, parenchymatous mesocarp and endocarp which consists of macrosclereids. The origin of endocarp is the internal epidermis of ovary. The exalbuminous seeds develop from the anatropous ovules and they have testa and tegmen with parenchymatous cells frequently compressed. In the hilum region these teguments show sciereids in radial arrangement. The straight embryo has thick cotyledons which contain reserve substances such as starch and oil. The plumule and hypocotyl-radicle axis are reduced. PMID:11220223

de Souza, L A; Moscheta, I S



21 CFR 189.180 - Safrole.  

...Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.180 Safrole. (a) Safrole is the chemical 4-allyl-1,2-methylenedioxy-benzene, C10 H10 O2. It is a natural constituent of the sassafras plant. Oil of sassafras is about 80 percent...



Plant availability of phosphorus in sewage sludge compost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to compare the effectiveness of Blue Plains sewage sludge compost (BLU), Parkway sewage sludge compost (PAR), and triple superphosphate (TSP) as sources of P for corn. These amendments were applied to a Sassafras sandy loam in a field study and to the Sassafras soil and a Christian silty clay loam in a greenhouse study.

J. L. McCoy; L. J. Sikora; R. R. Weil



Sassafrass The Big Tree for August By Anne Krantz, Tree Steward,  

E-print Network

, and when ground and added to boiling water, made sassafras tea, which was popular in Europe as a cure moneymaker for the colonists (easier than catching and salting cod, curing beaver hides or sawing white pine

New Hampshire, University of


Arnold Hague's Chair  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A wooden, collapsible chair from Arnold Hague's expedition. Made of sassafras wood with interchangeable canvas covers. This chair can be collapsed into a roll that is packed up and transported easily. Object ID: USGS-000031...



The Neogene flora from Badaogou of Changbai, NE China — Most similar living relatives of selected taxa and relations to the European record  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diatomites exposed in the surroundings of Badaogou town, in the counties of Linjiang and Changbai, Jilin Province of China, bear a rich Neogene leaf assemblage. Previously, the most similar living relatives (MSLRs) of Sassafras paratsumu Chen (Lauraceae), Acer rotundatum Huzioka (Sapindaceae, subfam. Aceroideae, sect. Platanoidea), and A. trifoliatum Geng (Sapindaceae, subfam. Aceroideae, sect. Trifoliata) have been determined based solely

Johanna Kovar-Eder; Ge Sun



The production of minor essential oils in the united states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oils of dill, lemon-grass, tansy, wormseed and wormwood are distilled from cultivated plants; those of cedarleaf, cedarwood,\\u000a erigeron, pennyroyal, sassafras, sweet birch, wintergreen and witch-hazel from wild plants; and together they all constitute\\u000a a minor industry for which production figures are not readily available.

A. F. Sievers




E-print Network

assignments occur. Cornus altern@ora, C. amomum, Sassafras albidum, and Rhamnus alnfolius, all fruiting, A . spinosa, Bumelia lanuginosa, C. canadensis, Euonymus americanus, P. pumilia, Sambucus glauca, Sambucus pubens, Shepherdia canadensis, and the three Nyssa species). Among fall-fruiting species the only

Herrera, Carlos M.


The Quare Women's Journals: May Stone & Katherine Pettit's Summers in the Kentucky Mountains and the Founding of the Hindman Settlement School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning in 1899, Katherine Pettit and May Stone spent three summers in social settlement work in Kentucky at Camp Cedar Grove, Camp Industrial, and Sassafras Social Settlement before founding the Hindman Settlement School in 1902. The camps taught homemaking skills; provided kindergartens; assisted local people with health, homemaking, and…

Stoddart, Jess, Ed.; Stone, May; Pettit, Katherine


Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils from aromatic plants against the strain INRA L2104 of the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus grown in carrot broth at 16 °C was studied. The quantity needed by the essential oils of nutmeg, mint, clove, oregano, cinnamon, sassafras, sage, thyme or rosemary to produce 14–1110% relative extension of the lag phase was determined. Total

M. Valero; M. C. Salmerón



New Stenella and Parastenella species from the Brazilian cerrado.  


Five new Stenella species were found on native cerrado plants. Stenella erythroxyli-campestris, S. erythroxyli-suberosi and S. erythroxylicola were associated with plant species belonging in the family Erythroxylaceae; S. cyrtopodii was found infecting the rare Cyrtopodium eugenii (Orchidaceae), and S. ocoteae occurred on Ocotea sp. (Lauraceae). Finally Parastenella callisthenis-fasciculatae was collected on a Vochysiaceae (viz. Callisthene fasciculate) endemic to the cerrado. PMID:18268908

Dornelo-Silva, Denise; Pereira-Carvalho, Rita de Cássia; Dianese, José Carmine



Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA.  


During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001>1995>1994>1993>2003>2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. PMID:16458398

Davis, Donald D; Orendovici, Teodora



Biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) formed from botanical dietary supplements.  


The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes. Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Quinones (sassafras, kava, black cohosh), quinone methides (sassafras), and epoxides (pennyroyal oil) represent BRIs of intermediate reactivity, which could generate both genotoxic and/or chemopreventive effects. The biological targets of BRIs formed from botanical dietary supplements and their resulting toxic and/or chemopreventive effects are closely linked to the reactivity of BRIs as well as dose and time of exposure. PMID:20970412

Dietz, Birgit M; Bolton, Judy L



Spatio-temporal analysis of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae [corrected] Scolytinae) invasion in eastern U.S. forests.  


The non-native redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), has recently emerged as a significant pest of southeastern U.S. coastal forests. Specifically, a fungal symbiont (Raffaelea sp.) of X. glabratus has caused mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) trees in the region; several other Lauraceae species also seem susceptible. Although the range of X. glabratus continues to expand rapidly, little is known about the species' biology and behavior. In turn, there has been no broad-scale assessment of the threat it poses to eastern U.S. forests. To provide a basic information framework, we performed analyses exploiting relevant spatio-temporal data available for X. glabratus. First, we mapped the densities of redbay and sassafras from forest inventory data. Second, we used climate matching to delineate potential geographic limits for X. glabratus. Third, we used county infestation data to estimate the rate of spread and modeled spread through time, incorporating host density as a weighting factor. Our results suggest that (1) key areas with high concentrations of redbay have yet to be invaded, but some are immediately threatened; (2) climatic conditions may serve to constrain X. glabratus to the southeastern U.S. coastal region; and (3) if unchecked, X. glabratus may spread throughout the range of redbay in <40 yr. Disruption of anthropogenic, long-distance dispersal could reduce the likelihood of this outcome. PMID:18419916

Koch, F H; Smith, W D



Compte Rendu de la mission GPS d'Avril/Mai 2008 Participants: Christophe Vigny  

E-print Network

Compte Rendu de la mission GPS d'Avril/Mai 2008 Participants: Christophe Vigny Objectifs: 1 Baja Mardi 29/avr installation ESPI,EALM,COGO,LISL,CHAN,CENT,CHIP, nuit à Canela Baja mercredi 30/avr, MPAT, AGUA, nuit à Ovalle Mardi 06/mai installation LCAN, SPED, démontage CENT, CHIP, installation PIDN

Vigny, Christophe


Comparative study of two anti-ulcerogenic drugs--glaziovine and sulpiride.  


The anti-ulcer effect of glaziovine, a major psychotropic alkaloid isolated from Ocotea glaziovii (Laureaceae) and belonging to a new chemical class, has been studied in different types of experimentally induced ulcers in the guinea-pig and the rat. The effect of glaziovine was compared with that of sulpiride. PMID:582915

Chaumontet, M; Capt, M; Gold-Aubert, P



Cooking with Trail Mix (Spanish)  

E-print Network

y nuez (rinde 24 barritas) Ingredientes ? taza de az?car ? taza de pur? de manzana 2 cucharadas de aceite vegetal 1 huevo ? cantidad necesaria de leche 1 taza de harina de uso general ? cucharadita de bicarbonato de sodio ? cucharadita de polvo para... hornear ? de cucharadita de canela (si gusta) ? de taza de mezcla de frutos secos Ingredientes ? taza de harina de uso general ? taza de polvo para hornear ? cucharadita de sal 2 huevos ? taza de az?car...

Anding, Jenna



Biology and host associations of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), exotic vector of laurel wilt killing redbay trees in the southeastern United States.  


The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions to the southeastern United States responsible for the wilt of mature redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., trees. In 2006 and 2007, we investigated the seasonal flight activity of X. glabratus, its host associations, and population levels at eight locations in South Carolina and Georgia where infestations ranged from very recent to at least several years old. Adults were active throughout the year with peak activity in early September. Brood development seems to take 50-60 d. Wood infested with beetles and infected with the Raffaelea sp. was similar in attraction to uninfested redbay wood, whereas both were more attractive than a nonhost species. Sassafras, Sassafras albidium (Nutt.) Nees, another species of Lauraceae, was not attractive to X. glabratus and very few beetle entrance holes were found in sassafras wood compared with redbay. Conversely, avocado, Persea americana Mill., was as attractive to X. glabratus as swampbay, P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg., and both were more attractive than the nonhost red maple, Acer rubrum L. However, avocado had relatively few entrance holes in the wood. In 2007, we compared X. glabratus populations in areas where all mature redbay have died to areas where infestations were very active and more recent. Trap catches of X. glabratus and numbers of entrance holes in trap bolts of redbay were correlated with the number of dead trees with leaves attached. Older infestations where mature host trees had been eliminated by the wilt had low numbers of beetles resulting in trap catches ranging from 0.04 to 0.12 beetles per trap per d compared with 4-7 beetles per trap per d in areas with numerous recently dead trees. Our results indicate beetle populations drop dramatically after suitable host material is gone and provide hope that management strategies can be developed to restore redbay trees. The lack of attraction of X. glabratus to sassafras suggests that spread of X. glabratus may slow once it is outside the range of redbay. PMID:18767737

Hanula, James L; Mayfield, Albert E; Fraedrich, Stephen W; Rabaglia, Robert J



Use of remote sensing in agriculture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.

Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.



Significant genetic differentiation among populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791): A bivalve with planktonic larval dispersion  

PubMed Central

Four Brazilian populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana were tested for mutual genetic homogeneity, using data from 123 sequences of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene. A total of 36 haplotypes were identified, those shared being H3 (Canela Island, Prainha and Acupe) and both H5 and H9 (Prainha and Acupe). Haplotype diversity values were high, except for the Camurupim population, whereas nucleotide values were low in all the populations, except for that of Acupe. Only the Prainha population showed a deviation from neutrality and the SSD test did not reject the demographic expansion hypothesis. Fst values showed that the Prainha and Acupe populations represent a single stock, whereas in both the Canela Island and Camurupim stocks, population structures are different and independent. The observed structure at Canela Island may be due to the geographic distance between this population and the remainder. The Camurupim population does not share any haplotype with the remaining populations in northeastern Brazil. The apparent isolation could be due to the rocky barrier located facing the mouth of the Mamanguape River. The results highlight the importance of wide-scale studies to identify and conserve local genetic diversity, especially where migration is restricted. PMID:21637701



Anti-quorum sensing activity of essential oils from Colombian plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils from Colombian plants were characterised by GC–MS, and assayed for anti-quorum sensing activity in bacteria sensor strains. Two major chemotypes were found for Lippia alba, the limonene-carvone and the citral (geranial-neral). For other species, the main components included ?-pinene (Ocotea sp.), ?-pinene (Swinglea glutinosa), cineol (Elettaria cardamomun), ?-zingiberene (Zingiber officinale) and pulegone (Minthostachys mollis). Several essential oils presented

Beatriz Jaramillo-Colorado; Jesus Olivero-Verbel; Elena E. Stashenko; Irene Wagner-Döbler; Brigitte Kunze



Anti-quorum sensing activity of essential oils from Colombian plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils from Colombian plants were characterised by GC–MS, and assayed for anti-quorum sensing activity in bacteria sensor strains. Two major chemotypes were found for Lippia alba, the limonene-carvone and the citral (geranial-neral). For other species, the main components included ?-pinene (Ocotea sp.), ?-pinene (Swinglea glutinosa), cineol (Elettaria cardamomun), ?-zingiberene (Zingiber officinale) and pulegone (Minthostachys mollis). Several essential oils presented

Beatriz Jaramillo-Colorado; Jesus Olivero-Verbel; Elena E. Stashenko; Irene Wagner-Döbler; Brigitte Kunze



Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.  


Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (?2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela



Cooking with Applesauce (Spanish)  

E-print Network

E-86S 12/08 Recetas con pur? de manzana El pur? de manzana est? hecho de manzana. A ciertos tipos de pur? se les a?ade az?car y a otros no. El pur? de manzana es bajo en grasas y sodio. Una porci?n es ? taza. Usos El pur? de manzana solo es un...) Panquecitos de pasitas y pur? de papa (rinde 12 panquecitos aproximadamente) Ingredientes ? taza de margarina o mantequilla 1 taza de az?car 1 taza de pur? de manzana fr?o 2 tazas de harina 1 cucharadita de bicarbonato de sodio 1 cucharadita de canela molida...

Anding, Jenna



Variation in manuka oil lure efficacy for capturing Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and cubeb oil as an alternative attractant.  


Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees]. Xyleborus glabratus is attracted to manuka oil lures, which are commercially available, and phoebe oil. Variable efficacy of manuka oil lures and insufficient availability of phoebe oil prompted us to investigate the reasons behind changes in manuka oil lure efficacy and to test cubeb oil, a readily available essential oil from Piper cubeba L. seeds, as an alternative attractant. Attraction, release rates and durations, and volatile composition of manuka oil lures manufactured in 2008 were compared with manuka oil lures manufactured in 2012, and to whole and a distilled fraction of cubeb oil. Manuka oil lures from 2008 were more attractive to X. glabratus than controls for 8 wk, whereas lures from 2012 were attractive for only 2 wk. Cubeb oil and the distilled fraction of it were as attractive as or more attractive than manuka oil in three trials. In gravimetric studies, manuka oil lures from 2008 and cubeb oil lures continued to release volatiles for 57 d, whereas lures from 2012 stopped after 16 d. The chemical composition of volatiles released from new manuka oil lures from 2008 was similar to 2012; however, a preservative (butylated hydroxytoluene) was detected in the 2008 lures. Cubeb oil was an effective attractant for X. glabratus that lasted 8-9 wk when released from bubble lures. PMID:23575024

Hanula, James L; Sullivan, Brian T; Wakarchuk, David



Molecular identification, phylogeny and geographic distribution of Brazilian mangrove oysters (Crassostrea)  

PubMed Central

Oysters (Ostreidae) manifest a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, whereby morphology is of limited value for species identification and taxonomy. By using molecular data, the aim was to genetically characterize the species of Crassostrea occurring along the Brazilian coast, and phylogenetically relate these to other Crassostrea from different parts of the world. Sequencing of the partial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene (COI), revealed a total of three species of Crassostrea at 16 locations along the Brazilian coast. C. gasar was found from Curuçá (Pará state) to Santos (São Paulo state), and C. rhizophorae from Fortim (Ceará state) to Florianópolis (Santa Catarina state), although small individuals of the latter species were also found at Ajuruteua beach (municipality of Bragança, Pará state). An unidentified Crassostrea species was found only on Canela Island, Bragança. Crassostrea gasar and C. rhizophorae grouped with C. virginica, thereby forming a monophyletic Atlantic group, whereas Crassostrea sp. from Canela Island was shown to be more similar to Indo-Pacific oysters, and either arrived in the Atlantic Ocean before the convergence of the Isthmus of Panama or was accidentally brought to Brazil by ship. PMID:21637433



In vitro inhibitory activities of Lauraceae aporphine alkaloids.  


The in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of eight aporphine alkaloids isolated from the leaves of two Lauraceae plants (Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla) was evaluated through inhibition of two isozymes of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and platelet aggregation induced by PAF, AA and ADP. All alkaloids exhibited inhibitory activities against COX-2 (IC50 25.9-116 microM range) and PAF- and AA-induced platelet aggregation, while only four and three of them were good COX-1 and 5-LOX inhibitors, respectively. (+)-N-acetyl-nornantenine 6 was the most potent COX-2, 5-LOX, AA and PAF inhibitor. PMID:20420312

Coy Barrera, Ericsson David; Cuca Suárez, Luis Enrique



Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors.  


Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine to treat headache or inflammatory diseases were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. Extracts were tested in an in vitro assay for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In general, ethanolic extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous extracts. Two-thirds of the plants screened had high inhibitory activity. The highest inhibition was obtained with ethanolic extracts of Bidens pilosa, Eucomis autumnalis, Harpephyllum caffrum, Helichrysum nudifolium, Leonotis intermedia, L. leonorus, Ocotea bullata, Rumex saggitatus, Solanum mauritianum, Synadenium cupulare and Trichilia dregeana. PMID:8735453

Jäger, A K; Hutchings, A; van Staden, J



Effects of black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) seed ingestion on insect larvae.  


Fig (Ficus monckii) and laurel (Ocotea puberula) seeds were obtained from Alouatta caraya feces (ingested seeds) and from trees (noningested) in northeastern Argentina. Seeds were examined to detect the presence (infested) or absence (noninfested) of larvae. Sixty percent (N = 315) of noningested fig seeds were galls with insect larvae inside, while 23% (N = 331) were encountered in the ingested group. Eighty-two percent (N = 28) of noningested laurel seeds were infested, and only 19% (N = 63) of ingested seeds were infested. According to the present data, the insects' larvae are digested by howlers intaking animal protein, but the laurel seeds were not destroyed. PMID:9702285

Bravo, S P; Zunino, G E



Biological activity of yangambin on the postembryonic development of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).  


Phytochemicals endowed with hormonal, antihormonal, or toxic activity are potential agents for insect control. Thus, we became interested in testing Brazilian plant metabolites on Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a public health menace that is one of the most prevalent flies in Brazilian urban areas. We tested the lignan yangambin, from the leaves of Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae). Topical treatment of eggs and first instars with yangambin as well as feeding larvae a yangambin-treated diet resulted in inhibition of postembryonic development, morphological alteration, and oviposition reduction. PMID:17427693

Cabral, Marise Maleck de Oliveira; Mendonça, Paloma Martins; Gomes, Celma Marinho da Silva; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Dias, Celidarque da Silva; Soares, Maurilio José; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho



A rapid diversification of rainforest trees (Guatteria; Annonaceae) following dispersal from Central into South America.  


Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of today's plant diversity in the Neotropics has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region rather than vicariance, but more data are needed to substantiate this claim. Guatteria (Annonaceae) is, with 265 species, the third largest genus of Neotropical trees after Inga (Fabaceae) and Ocotea (Lauraceae), and its widespread distribution and frequent occurrence makes the genus an excellent model taxon to study diversification patterns. This study reconstructed the phylogeny of Guatteria and inferred three major biogeographical events in the history of the genus: (1) a trans-oceanic Miocene migration from Central into South America before the closing of the Isthmus of Panama; (2) a major diversification of the lineage within South America; and (3) several migrations of South American lineages back into Central America via the closed Panamanian land bridge. Therefore, Guatteria is not an Amazonian centred-genus sensu Gentry but a major Miocene diversification that followed its dispersal into South America. This study provides further evidence that migration into the Neotropics was an important factor in the historical assembly of its biodiversity. Furthermore, it is shown that phylogenetic patterns are comparable to those found in Ocotea and Inga and that a closer comparison of these genera is desirable. PMID:17433720

Erkens, Roy H J; Chatrou, Lars W; Maas, Jan W; van der Niet, Timotheüs; Savolainen, Vincent



Seed predation by mammals in forest fragments in Monteverde, Costa Rica.  


Few studies have evaluated seed predation in fragmented landscapes, in which lower species diversity is expected to modifying ecological interactions. The rates of seed removal by mammals were investigated in a continuous forest and two fragmented patches of Premontane Tropical Moist Forest, in Monteverde, Costa Rica. The composition of mammalian seed-predators in each site was recorded during 16 months. The removal of four native tree species of experimental seeds: Ocotea valeriana and Ocotea whitei (Lauraceae), Panopsis costaricensis (Proteaceae) and Billia colombiana (Hippocastanaceae) in forest understories was followed during two annual fruiting seasons for each species. Results indicated similar species composition of seed-predators between continuous forest, the largest fragment (350 ha). However the smaller fragment (20 ha), had fewer seed predators. In this fragment, the specialized seed predator Heteromys desmarestianus (Rodentia) was more abundant. Unexpectedly, seed-predation in the two forest fragments and the continuous forest did not differ statistically for any of the seed species. Apparently, the higher abundance of small seed-predators in the fragments was compensated by the absence of medium and large seed-predators, like Agouti paca, Dasyprocta punctata (both Rodentia) and Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla) recorded in continuous forest. Removal of experimentally-placed seeds was higher when the number of naturally occurring seeds in the sites was lower. This result could best be attributed to differential satiation of seed predators rather than differences in richness or abundance of seed predators. PMID:19928478

Chinchilla, Federico A



Determining fate and transport parameters for nitroglycerine, 2,4-dinitrotoluine, and nitroguanidine in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During military operations, a small fraction of propellant mass is not consumed during firing and is deposited onto the ground surface (Jenkins et al., 2006). Soluble propellant constituents can be released from particulate residues into the environment. Propellant constituents of interest for this study are nitroglycerine (NG), 2,4-dinitrotoluine (2,4-DNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluine (2,6-DNT), and nitroguanidine (NQ). The goal of this work is to determine fate and transport parameters for these constituents in three soils that represent a range of geographic locations and soil properties. This supports a companion study that looks at dissolution of NG, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and NQ from fired and unfired solid propellant formulations and their transport in soils. The three soils selected for the study are Catlin silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, superactive Oxyaquic Argiudoll), Plymouth sandy loam (mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamment), and Sassafras loam (fine loamy, siliceous, mesic Typic Hapudult). Two of these soils, Plymouth sandy loam and Sassafras loam, were collected on military installations. Linear adsorption coefficients and transformation rates of propellant constituents were determined in batch kinetic experiments. Soils were mixed with propellant constituent solutions (2 mg L-1) at 4:1 solution/soil mass ratio and equilibrated for 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 120 hr at which time samples were centrifuged and supernatant solutions were analyzed for target compounds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using U.S. EPA Method 8330b for NG, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT, and Walsh (1989) method for NQ. Adsorption and transformation of propellant constituents were determined from the decrease in solution concentration of these compounds. It was determined that all studied compounds were subjected to sorption by the solid phase and degradation. Catlin soil, with finer texture and high organic matter content, influenced solution concentration of NG, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and NQ to the greatest extent. Estimated fate and transport parameters will support ongoing release and column transport studies and will allow environmental managers on military installations to better estimate potential for propellant constituent transport off-site. Jenkins, T.F., A.D. Hewitt, C.L. Grant, S. Thiboutot, G. Ampleman, M.E. Walsh, T.A. Ranney, C.A. Ramsey, A.J. Palazzo, and J.C. Pennington. 2006. Identity and distribution of residues of energetic compounds at army live-fire training ranges. Chemosphere 63:1280-1290. Walsh, M.E. 1989. Analytical Methods for Determining Nitroguanidine in Soil and Water. Special Report 89-35. U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH.

Gosch, D. L.; Dontsova, K.; Chorover, J.; Ferré, T.; Taylor, S.



Dissolution of Unfired and Fired Propellants and Transport of Released Nitroglycerine, 2,4-Dinitrotoluine, and Nitroguanidine in Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground water contamination due to deposition of military-related compounds during training activities on the firing ranges presents a potential problem for military land management. Small particles of propellant residue have been found around firing points on military installations (Jenkins et al., 2006). Understanding release of soluble propellant constituents, such as nitroglycerine (NG), 2,4-dinitrotoluine (2,4-DNT) and nitroguanidine (NQ) from insoluble nitrocellulose matrix of commonly-used propellants will allow estimating environmental impact of these residues. Studies of unfired propellants (Dontsova et al., 2009) showed that they can serve as potential sources of ground water contamination when exposed to rainwater. However, fired residues have not been examined. This study compared dissolution and subsequent transport of NG, 2,4-DNT, and NQ from unfired and fired residues of several common propellant formulations, M1 (2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT), WC860 (NG), and M31 (NG and NQ). Propellants were placed on soil surface in the columns and exposed to saturated flow. Two water fluxes were used, 0.55 and 0.9 cm h-1. Water flow was followed using conservative tracer, (Br-), while fate of propellant constituents was tracked by measuring their concentrations in outflow using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Dissolution and transport parameters were estimated using a water flow and solute transport model, HYDRUS-1D (Šimunek et al., 2005). Initial spike in outflow concentrations of NG, 2,4-DNT, and NQ observed after flow initiation for both fired and unfired propellants was followed by gradual decrease in dissolution rate, until it reached near steady-state. This decrease is explained by limitation that is placed on dissolution rate by diffusion of these compounds from particle interior. Of the two soils used, Plymouth sandy loam (mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamment), and Sassafras loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, mesic Typic Hapudult), Sassafras loam exhibited greater potential for adsorption and transformation of propellant constituents. Water flow rate also was shown to impact release of propellant constituents into solution. This work provides critical information about dissolution of propellant constituents from propellant formulations and their fate in soils necessary for making decisions about environmental management of firing ranges.

Dontsova, K.; Hunt, E.; Gosch, D. L.; Taylor, S.; Simunek, J.; Chorover, J.; Huxman, T. E.



Foraging strategies in trees of different root morphology: the role of root lifespan.  


Resource exploitation of patches is influenced not simply by the rate of root production in the patches but also by the lifespan of the roots inhabiting the patches. We examined the effect of sustained localized nitrogen (N) fertilization on root lifespan in four tree species that varied widely in root morphology and presumed foraging strategy. The study was conducted in a 12-year-old common garden in central Pennsylvania using a combination of data from minirhizotron and root in-growth cores. The two fine-root tree species, Acer negundo L. and Populus tremuloides Michx., exhibited significant increases in root lifespan with local N fertilization; no significant responses were observed in the two coarse-root tree species, Sassafras albidum Nutt. and Liriodendron tulipifera L. Across species, coarse-root tree species had longer median root lifespan than fine-root tree species. Localized N fertilization did not significantly increase the N concentration or the respiration of the roots growing in the N-rich patch. Our results suggest that some plant species appear to regulate the lifespan of different portions of their root system to improve resource acquisition while other species do not. Our results are discussed in the context of different strategies of foraging of nutrient patches in species of different root morphology. PMID:24128849

Adams, Thomas S; McCormack, M Luke; Eissenstat, David M



Safrole induces cell death in human tongue squamous cancer SCC-4 cells through mitochondria-dependent caspase activation cascade apoptotic signaling pathways.  


Safrole is one of important food-borne phytotoxin that exhibits in many natural products such as oil of sassafras and spices such as anise, basil, nutmeg, and pepper. This study was performed to elucidate safrole-induced apoptosis in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells. The effect of safrole on apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and DAPI staining and its regulatory molecules were studied by Western blotting analysis. Safrole-induced apoptosis was accompanied with up-regulation of the protein expression of Bax and Bid and down-regulation of the protein levels of Bcl-2 (up-regulation of the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2), resulting in cytochrome c release, promoted Apaf-1 level and sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner. We also used real-time PCR to show safrole promoted the mRNA expressions of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in SCC-4 cells. These findings indicate that safrole has a cytotoxic effect in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells by inducing apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis of SCC-4 cells by safrole is involved in mitochondria- and caspase-dependent signal pathways. PMID:21591240

Yu, Fu-Shun; Huang, An-Cheng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chung, Jing-Gung



Toxicity and uptake of cyclic nitramine explosives in ryegrass Lolium perenne.  


Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), and 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) are cyclic nitramines used as explosives. Their ecotoxicities have been characterized incompletely and little is known about their accumulation potential in soil organisms. We assessed the toxicity and uptake of these explosives in perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne L. exposed in a Sassafras sandy loam (SSL) or in a sandy soil (DRDC, CL-20 only) containing contrasting clay contents (11% and 0.3%, respectively). A 21-d exposure to RDX, HMX or CL-20 in either soil had no adverse effects on ryegrass growth. RDX and HMX were translocated to ryegrass shoots, with bioconcentration factors (BCF) of up to 15 and 11, respectively. In contrast, CL-20 was taken up by the roots (BCF up to 19) with no translocation to the shoots. These studies showed that RDX, HMX, and CL-20 can accumulate in plants and may potentially pose a risk of biomagnification across the food chain. PMID:18358578

Rocheleau, Sylvie; Lachance, Bernard; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Sunahara, Geoffrey I



Ideology and wildlands management: The case of Rondeau Provincial Park, Ontario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a critical examination of some of the basic concepts that have guided management of parks and related reserves, often termed wildlands. Study is focussed on Rondeau Provincial Park, Ontario, and on concepts such as wilderness, primeval forest, and the Carolinian forest. Deer culling and other management policies and practices have been based upon the idea that the highly valued sassafras, tulip, and other species of the Carolinian forest are decreasing due to browsing. Field mapping and analysis of historic vegetation records indicate that this trend is not in fact occurring. Historic research also reveals difficulties in defining the Carolinian or other perceived types of forest for management purposes. A major reassessment of ideology and management policy and practice seem to be required in Rondeau and other wildlands. Vague or general concepts such as wilderness or preservation should be strongly complemented and supported by more precise statements of objectives, a learning attitude, and experimentation and research. As a result of the technical uncertainties and value judgments frequently involved, management should also be based upon the expressed preferences and continuing involvement of citizens.

Mann, D. L.; Nelson, J. G.



In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae plants.  


The in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of seven known lignans and one dihydrochalcone isolated from the leaves of two Lauraceae species (Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla), were evaluated through the inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, 5-LOX and the aggregation of rabbit platelets induced by PAF, AA and ADP. (+)-de-4"-O-methylmagnolin 4 was found to be a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor and PAF-antagonist (COX-2 IC(50) 2.27 µM; 5-LOX IC(50) 5.05 µM; PAF IC(50) 2.51 µM). However, all compounds exhibited an activity at different levels, indicating good anti-inflammatory properties to be considered in further structural optimization studies. PMID:22011769

Coy-Barrera, Ericsson D; Cuca-Suarez, Luis E



The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands, a review.  


The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands is extremely interesting because of the cultural and biogeographic features of this region, which make it a centre of medicinal plant diversity (richness of endemic flora, geographical isolation in the Atlantic sea, crosscultural influences, and past abundance of local healers). The medicinal flora of Madeira is composed of 259 species. Some noteworthy medicinal taxa, endemic or locally relevant, are: Acanthus mollis, Aeonium glandulosum, Aeonium glutinosum, Bidens pilosa, Borago officinalis, Chamaemelum nobile var. discoideum, Culcita macrocarpa, Echium nervosum, Euphorbia platiphylla, Helichrysum melaleucum, Helichrysum obconicum, Hypericum glandulosum, Hypericum humifussum, Kleinia repens, Laurus azorica, Monizia edulis, Ocotea foetens, Psoralea bituminosa, Rubus bollei, Rumex maderensis, Sambucus lanceolata, Scilla maderensis, Sedum brissemoretii, Sedum farinosum, Sedum nudum, Sibthorpia peregrina, Teucrium betonicum, Thymus caespititius, Trifolium squamosum and Vaccinium padifolium. Among the medicinal cryptogams, one can underline the parasitic fungus Laurobasidium lauri, which grows on the stems of Laurus azorica and is used as an antirheumatic, haemostatic, emmenagogue, insecticide and analeptic. PMID:7650952

Rivera, D; Obón, C



Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts and naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae species.  


The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of ethanolic extracts and fifteen naturally-occurring compounds (five lignans, eight neolignans, a diterpene and a dihydrochalcone), obtained from Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla, were evaluated on promastigotes of Leishmania panamensis and L. braziliensis. In addition, in order to determine the selective action on Leishmania species as a safety principle, in vitro cytotoxicity on J774 cells was also evaluated for test compounds and extracts. One extract and seven compounds showed activity against Leishmania parasites at different levels. Dihydroflavokawin B (8) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial compound on both parasites, whilst (+)-otobaphenol (14), was found to be the most selective compound on L. panamensis. PMID:21425681

Sánchez-Suárez, Jeysson; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Delgado, Gabriela



Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of some plants native to the West-Central region of Brazil.  


A total of 42 ethanolic extracts from 30 different plant species, native to the Pantanal and Cerrado of the West-Central region of Brazil, have been evaluated for their larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, the vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fevers. Among the extracts tested, that obtained from the trunk bark of Ocotea velloziana was the most active. Using a bioassay-directed fractionation of this extract, the active constituent was isolated and characterized as the aporphine alkaloid (+)-dicentrine. Its structure was established on the basis of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra, optical rotation and by comparison with an authentic sample. This is the first report on the larvicidal activity against A. aegypti of this alkaloid. Our results suggest that (+)-dicentrine may be considered as a promising natural mosquito larvicidal agent. PMID:19664915

Garcez, Walmir S; Garcez, Fernanda R; da Silva, Lilliam M G E; Hamerski, Lidilhone



COX, LOX and platelet aggregation inhibitory properties of Lauraceae neolignans.  


The anti-inflammatory potential of 26 neolignans (14 of the bicyclooctane-type and 12 of the benzofuran-type), isolated from three Lauraceae species (Pleurothyrium cinereum, Ocotea macrophylla and Nectandra amazonum), was evaluated in vitro through inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, 5-LOX and agonist-induced aggregation of rabbit platelets. Benzofuran neolignans were found to be selective COX-2 inhibitors, whereas bicyclooctane neolignans inhibit selectively the PAF-action as well as COX-1 and 5-LOX. The neolignan 9-nor-7,8-dehydro-isolicarin B 15 and cinerin C 7 were found to be the most potent COX-2 inhibitor and PAF-antagonist, respectively. Nectamazin C 10 exhibited dual 5-LOX/COX-2 inhibition. PMID:19880317

Coy, Ericsson David; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Sefkow, Michael



Soil microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) of twelve ecosystems of Mt. Kilimanjaro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the metabolic quotient qCO2 - as sensitive and important parameters for soil fertility and C turnover - are strongly affected by land-use changes all over the world. These effects are particularly distinct upon conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems due to very fast carbon (C) and nutrient cycles and high vulnerability, especially in the tropics. In this study, we used an elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to investigate the effects of land-use change and elevation on Corg, MBC and qCO2. Down to a soil depth of 18 cm we compared 4 natural (Helichrysum, Erica forest, Podocarpus forest, Ocotea forest), 5 seminatural (disturbed Podocarpus forest, disturbed Ocotea forest, lower montane forest, grassland, savannah), 1 sustainably used (homegarden) and 2 intensively used ecosystems (coffee plantation, maize field) on an elevation gradient from 950 to 3880 m a.s.l.. Using an incubation device, soil CO2-efflux of 18 cm deep soil cores was measured under field moist conditions and mean annual temperature. MBC to Corg ratios varied between 0.7 and 2.3%. qCO2 increased with magnitude of the disturbance, albeit this effect decreased with elevation. Following the annual precipitation of the ecosystems, both, Corg and MBC showed a hum-shaped distribution with elevation, whereas their maxima were between 2500 and 3000 m a.s.l.. Additionaly, Corg and MBC contents were significantly reduced in intensively used agricultural systems. We conclude that the soil microbial biomass and its activity in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems are strongly altered by land-use. This effect is more distinct in lower than in higher elevated ecosystems and strongly dependent on the magnitude of disturbance.

Pabst, Holger; Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kiese, Ralf; Kuzyakov, Yakov



Toxicity of emerging energetic soil contaminant CL-20 to potworm Enchytraeus crypticus in freshly amended or weathered and aged treatments.  


We investigated the toxicity of an emerging polynitramine energetic material hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) to the soil invertebrate species Enchytraeus crypticus by adapting then using the Enchytraeid Reproduction Test (ISO/16387:2003). Studies were designed to develop ecotoxicological benchmark values for ecological risk assessment of the potential impacts of accidental release of this compound into the environment. Tests were conducted in Sassafras Sandy Loam soil, which supports relatively high bioavailability of CL-20. Weathering and aging procedures for CL-20 amended into test soil were incorporated into the study design to produce toxicity data that better reflect soil exposure conditions in the field compared with the toxicity in freshly amended soils. Concentration-response relationships for measurement endpoints were determined using nonlinear regressions. Definitive tests showed that toxicities for E. crypticus adult survival and juvenile production were significantly increased in weathered and aged soil treatments compared with toxicity in freshly amended soil, based on 95% confidence intervals. The median effect concentration (EC50) and EC20 values for juvenile production were 0.3 and 0.1 mg kg-1, respectively, for CL-20 freshly amended into soil, and 0.1 and 0.035 mg kg-1, respectively, for weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments. These findings of increased toxicity to E. crypticus in weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments compared with exposures in freshly amended soils show that future investigations should include a weathering and aging component to generate toxicity data that provide more complete information on ecotoxicological effects of emerging energetic contaminants in soil. PMID:16213571

Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Anthony, J Steven; Kolakowski, Jan E; Davis, Emily A



Avian Influenza Virus (H11N9) in Migratory Shorebirds Wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil.  


Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV). Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America. PMID:25329399

de Araujo, Jansen; de Azevedo Júnior, Severino M; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hurtado, Renata F; Walker, David; Thomazelli, Luciano M; Ometto, Tatiana; Seixas, Marina M M; Rodrigues, Roberta; Galindo, Daniele B; da Silva, Adriana C S; Rodrigues, Arlinéa M M; Bomfim, Leonardo L; Mota, Marcelo A; Larrazábal, Maria E; Branco, Joaquim O; Serafini, Patricia; Neto, Isaac S; Franks, John; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Durigon, Edison L



Avian Influenza Virus (H11N9) in Migratory Shorebirds Wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV). Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America. PMID:25329399

de Araujo, Jansen; de Azevedo Junior, Severino M.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hurtado, Renata F.; Walker, David; Thomazelli, Luciano M.; Ometto, Tatiana; Seixas, Marina M. M.; Rodrigues, Roberta; Galindo, Daniele B.; da Silva, Adriana C. S.; Rodrigues, Arlinea M. M.; Bomfim, Leonardo L.; Mota, Marcelo A.; Larrazabal, Maria E.; Branco, Joaquim O.; Serafini, Patricia; Neto, Isaac S.; Franks, John; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Durigon, Edison L.



Naturally occurring compounds affect glutamatergic neurotransmission in rat brain.  


Natural products, including those derived from plants, have largely contributed to the development of therapeutic drugs. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and it is also considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter, by acting on peripheral nervous system. For this reason, in this study we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Drymis winteri (polygodial and drimanial), Phyllanthus (rutin and quercetine), Jathopha elliptica (jatrophone), Hedyosmum brasiliense (13HDS), Ocotea suaveolens (Tormentic acid), Protium kleinii (alphabeta-amyrin), Citrus paradise (naringin), soybean (genistein) and Crataeva nurvala (lupeol), described as having antinociceptive effects, on glutamatergic transmission parameters, such as [(3)H]glutamate binding, [(3)H]glutamate uptake by synaptic vesicles and astrocyte cultures, and synaptosomal [(3)H]glutamate release. All the glutamatergic parameters were affected by one or more of these compounds. Specifically, drimanial and polygodial presented more broad and profound effects, requiring more investigation on their mechanisms. The putative central side effects of these compounds, via the glutamatergic system, are discussed. PMID:17577666

Martini, Lucia Helena; Jung, Fernanda; Soares, Felix Antunes; Rotta, Liane Nanci; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio dos Santos; Yunes, Rosendo A; Calixto, João Batista; Wofchuk, Susana; Souza, Diogo O



Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal.  


The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader) and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs. PMID:17472740

Botsaris, Alexandros S



Dynamics of violaxanthin and lutein epoxide xanthophyll cycles in Lauraceae tree species under field conditions.  


Two xanthophyll cycles have been described in higher plants: the violaxanthin xanthophyll (V or VAZ) cycle, which is present in all species, and the taxonomically restricted lutein epoxide xanthophyll (Lx) cycle, which involves the light-induced de-epoxidation of Lx to lutein (L) and its epoxidation back to Lx in low light. Laboratory experiments indicate that the first reaction occurs quickly, but the second reaction is much slower. We investigated the Lx cycle under field conditions in several tree species of the Lauraceae family to determine its relationship with the ubiquitous V cycle. The field study was conducted in two natural laurel forests: one in the Canary Islands, where Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco, Ocotea foetens (Aiton.) Benth, Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm. and Persea indica (L.) Spreng were studied; and one in the Basque Atlantic coast where Laurus nobilis L. was studied. The results were complemented by a taxonomic study. The presence of Lx was widespread among Lauraceae species, but its concentration varied even among closely related species. The V pool size correlated positively with growth irradiance, whereas the relationship between Lx pool size and growth irradiance varied with species. A functional Lx cycle was confirmed under field conditions only in O. foetens and L. nobilis. Furthermore, in O. foetens, a correlation between Lx de-epoxidation and photoinhibition suggested a protective role for this cycle. We conclude that, unlike the V cycle, which is normally correlated with irradiance, the operation and light dependence of the Lx cycle is species-dependent. PMID:17669731

Esteban, Raquel; Jiménez, Eduardo T; Jiménez, M Soledad; Morales, Domingo; Hormaetxe, Koldobika; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio



Previous-year reproduction reduces photosynthetic capacity and slows lifetime growth in females of a neotropical tree.  


Females of dioecious plant species typically invest more in reproduction than males because they produce seeds, fruits, and associated structures in addition to flowers. If females are unable to compensate by up-regulating rates of photosynthesis or by reproducing less frequently than males, their greater reproductive investment may result in reduced growth or higher mortality. Here we provide evidence of the cost of reproduction in Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae), a dioecious neotropical tree common in lower montane forests of Monteverde, Costa Rica. Over periods of 12-21 years, females grew more slowly than males in a natural population and in two experimental plots where we were able to control for genotype, age, habitat, and reproductive history. Simultaneous measurements of 10 matched pairs of sibling trees of the opposite sex but same age demonstrated that the photosynthetic capacities of females were 13% lower than those of males. Among females, photosynthetic capacity was negatively correlated with fruit production during the most recent reproductive season but not with lifetime fruit production. Sexual size dimorphism in adult O. tenera trees appears to be a nonadaptive consequence of trading off recent reproduction against maintenance of the photosynthetic apparatus, with long-term negative effects on growth. PMID:15148383

Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Logan, Barry A



Efficacy of extracts from plants of the Brazilian Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.  


This research evaluated the in vitro acaricidal activity of extracts from 21 plant species from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul. During stage I, a larval immersion test was performed using three extract concentrations (5%, 20%, and 40%). During stage II, we used only plants that showed over 95% efficiency at the 40% concentration in stage I in an amount sufficient for the adult immersion test. Aeschynomene denticulata, Angelonia hirta, Aspilia latissima, Caperonia castaneifolia, Centratherum punctatum, Crotalaria micans, Diodia kuntzei, Echinodorus paniculatus, Hyptis mutabilis, Lantana canescens, Melanthera latifolia, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Richardia grandiflora, Sebastiana hispida, Tocoyena formosa, Zanthoxylum rigidum, and Sesbania virgata (fruit extract) showed acaricidal activity against the larval stage of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus higher than 95% at a 40% (w/v) concentration, while Hippocratea volubilis and Randia armata showed moderate efficacy and Croton glandulosus and Senna obtusifolia had no effect. The M. latifolia, A. hirta, R. grandiflora, and A. latissima raw extracts were evaluated for their activity against adults, and only A. hirta showed an efficacy close to 90%. Eighteen extracts had an efficacy of up to 95% against larvae at a 40% concentration, seven extracts were effective at 20%, and only one (Sebastiana hispida) was effective at a 5% concentration. PMID:24473878

dos Santos, Larissa Bezerra; Souza, Juliana Kátia; Papassoni, Barbara; Borges, Dyego Gonçalves Lino; Damasceno, Geraldo Alves; de Souza, Jeana Mara Escher; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Borges, Fernando de Almeida



Effects of edaphic factors on the tree stand diversity in a tropical forest of Sierra Madre del Sur, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two sites with similar environmental parameters, except for the edaphic factor, were selected in the mountainous tropical forest of southern Mexico. Site 1 was established on an Alisol; site 2, on a Phaeozem. Representative soil profiles were examined on each of the sites, and topsoil was sampled on a regular grid pattern. The soil of site 2 was richer in organic matter and major nutrients and had a less acid reaction than the soil of site 1. The species diversity of the trees at site 2 (30 species) was higher than that at site 1 (17 species). The species compositions of the trees were different on the two soils: there were only six species in common for both sites. The coefficients of species similarity on the sites were low. We concluded that the presence of different soils within the same type of forest ecosystem increases its ?-diversity. The examination of edaphic preferences of the species showed that Alstonia longifolia and Thouinidium decandrum preferred rich soils, Inga punctata and Ocotea sinuata preferred poor soils, and Cupania dentata and Hamelia patens did not display preferences in the studied range of soil properties. Thus, the spatial variability of the soil properties affect the spatial pattern of tree species in the studied tropical forest ecosystems.

Kurzmeier, S.; Wiedemann, T.; Biber, P.; Schad, P.; Krasilnikov, P. V.



Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?  


Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175

Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J



Nantenine blocks muscle contraction and Ca2+ transient induced by noradrenaline and K+ in rat vas deferens.  


The effect of nantenine, an aporphine alkaloid isolated from Ocotea macrophylla H.B.K., was studied on contractions and Ca(2+) translocation induced by noradrenaline, Ca(2+), or K(+) in the isolated rat vas deferens from reserpinized animals. Concentration-response curves of calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) were performed in the vas deferens, in a Ca(2+)-free nutrient solution, using potassium chloride (KCl, 80 mM) as a depolarizing agent. In these conditions, nantenine (2.35 x 10(-4) and 4.7 x 10(-4) M) significantly reduced the maximum contractions (E(max)) of Ca(2+) (IC(50)=2.6 x 10(-4) M) and noradrenaline (IC(50)=2.9 x 10(-4) M). The contractile responses were totally recovered after the withdrawal of nantenine. In addition, experiments performed to measure simultaneously the contraction and the increase of intracellular Ca(2+) induced by noradrenaline (10(-5) M) or KCl (80 mM) showed that nantenine (2.35 x 10(-4) and 4.7 x 10(-4) M) significantly decreased both effects. The results suggest that a reversible block of Ca(2+) entry could be involved on the non-competitive-like antagonism of nantenine in rat vas deferens. PMID:12787829

Ribeiro, Rosana de A; do Carmo, Lucia Garcez; Vladimirova, Irina; Jurkiewicz, Neide H; Jurkiewicz, Aron



Protective effects of Yangambin - a naturally occurring platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist - on anaphylactic shock in rats.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of yangambin to inhibit cardiovascular collapse and to reduce the mortality due to systemic anaphylaxis induced by antigen challenge in actively sensitized rats. The i.v. injection of the antigen (ovalbumin, 250 or 500 ?g/kg), induced a systemic anaphylactic reaction mainly characterized by sudden and marked arterial hypotension and high mortality rates. Yangambin, a PAF receptor antagonist isolated from the Brazilian plant Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae), as well as the reference PAF receptor antagonist SR 27417, significantly prevented and partially reversed the circulatory collapse elicited by antigen challenge. Moreover, yangambin and SR 27417, when administered 5 min before re-exposure of the animals to the antigen, markedly improved the survival rate at 120 min. These results confirm that PAF plays an important role in the pathophysiology of anaphylactic shock and show that yangambin presents good therapeutic potential in the treatment of the cardiovascular alterations observed during immediate hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:23195079

Ribeiro, R; Carvalho, F A; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Cordeiro, R S; Tibiriçá, E V



Yangambin: a new naturally-occurring platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist: in vivo pharmacological studies.  


The pharmacological profile of a novel specific platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist-yangambin-isolated from the Brazilian plant Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae), was investigated in the pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rabbit. The i.v. administration of PAF (0.03-3.0 microgram kg-1) induced marked but reversible hypotensive effects and mild reductions in the heart rate. Both effects are independent of the respiratory conditions imposed on the animals. Moreover, PAF (3.0 microgram kg-1, i.v.) induced a reversible decrease of the circulating levels of platelets and of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Pretreatment with yangambin (10 and 20 mg kg-1, i.v.) dose-dependently attenuated PAF-induced cardiovascular changes and thrombocytopaenia. Nevertheless, the neutropenic leukopaenia elicited by PAF (3.0 microgram kg-1, i.v.) was not prevented by yangambin whereas the reference PAF antagonists WEB 2086 (2 mg kg-1, i.v.) and SR 27417 (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) significantly inhibited the phenomenon. The hypotensive effects of acetylcholine, histamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine were not affected by prior administration of yangambin. It is concluded that yangambin is a selective antagonist of the cardiovascular effects of PAF which could be useful in pathological states characterized by abnormal PAF release, such as anaphylactic and septic shocks. Furthermore, yangambin might discriminate a PAF receptor subtype present in the cardiovascular system and platelets from the one existing in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the rabbit. PMID:7753914

Castro-Faria-Neto, H C; Araújo, C V; Moreira, S; Bozza, P T; Thomas, G; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Cordeiro, R S; Tibiriçá, E V



Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations???30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti. PMID:24713267



(S)-reticuline induces vasorelaxation through the blockade of L-type Ca(2+) channels.  


In Brazil, various species of the genus Ocotea are used in folk medicine for treating several diseases. The chemical characterization of this plant showed the presence of alkaloids belonging to the benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline family, the major component of which is (S)-reticuline. The present study investigated whether (S)-reticuline exerts an inhibitory effect on smooth muscle L-type Ca(2+) channels. Tension measurements and patch clamp techniques were utilized to study the effects of (S)-reticuline. Whole-cell Ca(2+) currents were measured using the A7r5 smooth muscle cell line. (S)-reticuline antagonized CaCl(2)- and KCl-induced contractions and elicited vasorelaxation. It also reduced the voltage-activated peak amplitude of I (Ca,L) in a concentration-dependent manner. (S)-reticuline did not change the characteristics of current density vs. voltage relationship. (S)-reticuline shifted leftwards the steady-state inactivation curve of I (Ca,L). The application of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate to the cell decreased the amplitude of Ca(2+) currents. In cells pretreated with forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, the addition of (S)-reticuline caused further inhibition of the Ca(2+) currents suggesting an additive effect. The results obtained show that (S)-reticuline elicits vasorelaxation probably due to the blockade of the L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) current in rat aorta. The reported effect may contribute to the potential cardioprotective efficacy of (S)-reticuline. PMID:18825370

Medeiros, Marcos Antônio A; Nunes, Xirley P; Barbosa-Filho, José M; Lemos, Virginia S; Pinho, José F; Roman-Campos, Danilo; de Medeiros, Isac A; Araújo, Demetrius Antonio M; Cruz, Jader S



Ethnopharmacological studies of antimicrobial remedies in the south of Brazil.  


This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the species most commonly used in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the southernmost state of Brazil, for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms. A four-stage process of documentation and evaluation was conducted: (a). review of RS ethnobotanical studies; (b). analysis of traditional uses; (c). literature survey on phytochemical and pharmacological data; (d). microbiological screening of selected plants. From the 149 species initially identified, 49 were cited as being used for microbial associated conditions in at least two other regions in RS, and 18 were further selected for screening. The crude methanol extract of these 18 plants were evaluated against seven microorganisms using the diffusion agar test. Extracts from Chaptalia nutans, Cordia monosperma, Echinodorus grandiflorus, Eugenia uniflora, Leonurus sibiricus, Luehea divaricata, Malva sylvestris, Ocotea odorifera, Parapiptadenia rigida, Pluchea sagittalis, Psidium cattleyanum and Senna neglecta were active against at least one microorganism. Although preliminary, these results are useful for rationalizing the use of medicinal plants in established systems of traditional medicine in primary health care. PMID:14698521

de Souza, G Coelho; Haas, A P S; von Poser, G L; Schapoval, E E S; Elisabetsky, E



Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.  


Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids. PMID:16274702

Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M



Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal  

PubMed Central

The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader) and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs. PMID:17472740

Botsaris, Alexandros S



A lagrangian-eulerian description of debris transport by a tsunami in the Lisbon waterfront  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several major tsunamis are known to have struck the Portuguese coast over the past millennia (Baptista and Miranda, 2009). The Tagus estuary has great exposure to tsunami occurrences and, being bordered by the largest metropolitan area in the country, is a particularly worrisome location in what concerns safety of populations and economic losses due to disruption of built infrastructures. The last major earthquake and tsunami combination known to have critically affected the Tagus estuary dates back to November 1st 1755. This catastrophe critically damaged Lisbon's infrastructures, led to numerous casualties and priceless heritage losses. The urban tissue of the present city still bears visible the effects of the catastrophe and of the ensuing protection measures. The objective of this work is to simulate the propagation of debris carried by a 1755-like tsunami along the present-day bathimetric and altimetric conditions of Lisbon waterfront. Particular emphasis was directed to the modeling of vehicles since the tsunami is likely to affect areas that are major traffic nodes such as Alcântara, with more than 1500 vehicles in road network of about 3 km. The simulation tool employed is based on a 2DH spatial (eulerian) shallow-flow approach suited to complex and dynamic bottom boundaries. The discretization technique relies on a finite-volume scheme, based on a flux-splitting technique incorporating a reviewed version of the Roe Riemann solver (Canelas et al. 2013). Two formulations were employed to model the advection of debris: a fully coupled continuum approach, where solid bodies are described by the concentration only and an uncoupled material (lagrangian) formulation where solid bodies are tracked between two time-steps once the flow field is determined by the eulerian solver. In the latter case, concentrations are updated after tracking the solid bodies thus correcting the mass and momentum balance to be used for the next time-step. The urban tissue was thoroughly discretized with a mesh finer than street width so that the buildings would act as obstacles and the streets would bind the incoming flow. To simplify the plan-view geometry, it was assumed that buildings would retain its original shape after the earthquake. The results of the eulerian-continuum and of the lagrangian-discrete solutions are presented, compared and discussed. It was found that the patterns of deposition of the eulerian-continuum model can be considerably different to those obtained by the lagrangian-discrete solution if the latter assumes that vehicles have a small equivalent density and if momentum losses due to inter-particle collisions are neglected. Results become more similar if vehicles are considered much denser than water and that the mixture of water and solid bodies loses momentum due to particle collisions. Acknowledgements: Project PTDC/ECM/117660/2010, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) has partially supported this work. References Canelas, R.; Murillo, J. & Ferreira, R.M.L. (2013) 2DH modelling of discontinuous flows over mobile beds. Accepted, Journal of Hydraulic Research, December 2012 Baptista M.A. Miranda, J.M. (2009). Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 25-42.

Conde, Daniel; Canelas, Ricardo; Baptista, Maria Ana; João Telhado, Maria; Ferreira, Rui M. L.



Molecular Models of Rosmarinic Acid and DPPH  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The paper by Canelas and da Costa (1) introduces students to the antioxidant rosmarinic acid, and its interaction with the free radical DPPH. Those two molecules are the featured species this month. The original paper shows the 2-dimensional structure of the cis isomer of rosmarinic acid, although the trans isomer exhibits very similar antioxidant properties. Calculations at the DFT/B3LYP 631-G(d) level show that the trans isomer is more stable than the cis isomer in the gas phase, a situation that is expected to carry over into solution. Many antioxidants are phenols, and rosmarinic acid has four such groups available for radical formation. A DFT study by Cao et al. (2) examines the relative stabilities of the radicals formed from loss of each of the phenolic hydrogens. That paper focuses on the trans isomer, and a useful student project would be to repeat the calculations with the cis isomer. An HPLC separation of the isomers of rosmarinic acid has been published (3), and might well lead to an extension of the experiment described in ref 1 in which relative antioxidant efficiencies of the two isomers could be evaluated. DPPH has been used extensively as a standard for determining antioxidant activity. An examination of the molecular orbital occupied by the lone electron shows significant delocalization, providing a partial explanation for the stability of the neutral radical. Our gas phase structure for DPPH, also at the DFT/B3LYP 631-G(d) level, is quite consistent with several crystal structures on DPPH and DPPH in the presence of another species (4).


Survival and reproduction of enchytraeid worms, Oligochaeta, in different soil types amended with energetic cyclic nitramines.  


Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a new polycyclic polynitramine, has the same functional nitramine groups (N-NO2) as the widely used energetic chemicals hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (royal demolition explosive [RDX]) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (high-melting explosive [HMX]). Potential impacts of CL-20 as an emerging contaminant must be assessed before its use. The effects of CL-20, RDX, or HMX on adult survival and juvenile production by potworms Enchytraeus albidus and Enchytraeus crypticus were studied in three soil types, including Sassafras sandy loam (1.2% organic matter [OM], 11% clay, pH 5.5), an agricultural soil (42% OM, 1% clay, pH 8.2), and a composite agricultural-forest soil (23% OM, 2% clay, pH 7.9) by using ISO method 16387 (International Standard Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Results showed that CL-20 was toxic to E. crypticus with median lethal concentration values for adult survival ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 mg/kg dry mass (DM) when using the three tested soils. In addition, CL-20 adversely affected juvenile production by both species in all soils tested, with median effective concentration (EC50) values ranging from 0.08 to 0.62 mg/kg DM. Enchytraeus crypticus and E. albidus were similarly sensitive to CL-20 exposure in the composite agricultural-forest soil, which supported reproduction by both species and enabled comparisons. Correlation analysis showed weak or no relationship overall among the soil properties and reproduction toxicity endpoints. Neither RDX nor HMX affected (p > 0.05) adult survival of either species below 658 and 918 mg/kg DM, respectively, indicating that CL-20 is more toxic to enchytraeids than RDX or HMX. Examination of data shows that CL-20 should be considered as a potential reproductive toxicant to soil invertebrates, and that safeguards should be considered to minimize the potential for release of CL-20 into the environment. PMID:16268160

Dodard, Sabine G; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Kuperman, Roman G; Sarrazin, Manon; Gong, Ping; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Hawari, Jalal



Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants.  


The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of different phytomolecules (flavonoids, organic acids and selenocompounds), presents in leaves of the five traditional medicinal plants endemic to Macaronesia, all exhibiting antioxidant properties. PMID:20428065

Tavares, Lucélia; Carrilho, Dina; Tyagi, Meenu; Barata, David; Serra, Ana Teresa; Duarte, Catarina Maria Martins; Duarte, Rui Oliveira; Feliciano, Rodrigo Pedro; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Chicau, Paula; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; dos Santos, Cláudia Nunes



Severity and exposure associated to tsunami actions in urban waterfronts. The case of Lisbon, Portugal.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tagus estuary is recognized as an exposed location to tsunami occurrences, given its proximity to tsunamigenic faults such as the Marquês de Pombal and the Horseshoe fault system. Lisbon, bordered by the Tagus estuary, is a critical point of Portugal's tsunami hazard map, having been affected by several tsunamis (Baptista and Miranda, 2009) including the notorious event of November 1st 1755, the last major natural disaster known to have inflicted massive destruction in Portugal. The main objective of this work, a joint initiative of CEHIDRO (IST - Universidade de Lisboa) and the Municipal Civil Protection Services of Lisbon, is to contribute to the quantification of severity and exposure of Lisbon waterfront to tsunami events. For that purpose, the propagation of a tsunami similar to that of the 1st November of 1755 in the Tagus estuary was numerically simulated. Several scenarios were considered, articulating the influence of tidal (low and high tides), atmospheric (increase in water level due to storm surges) and hydrological (flow discharge in Tagus river) conditions. Different initial and boundary conditions were defined for each modelling scenario but the magnitude of the tsunami remained what is believed to be an exceptional event. The extent of the inundation and relevant hydrodynamic quantities were registered for all scenarios. The employed simulation tool - STAV-2D - was developed at CEHIDRO (IST) and is based on a 2DH spatial (Eulerian) shallow-flow approach suited to complex and dynamic bottom boundaries. The discretization technique relies on a finite-volume scheme, based on a flux-splitting technique incorporating a reviewed version of the Roe Riemann solver (Canelas et al. 2013, Conde et al. 2013). STAV-2D features conservation equations for the finer solid phase of the flow and also a Lagrangian model for the advection of larger debris elements. The urban meshwork was thoroughly discretized with a mesh finer than average street width. This fine discretization allows for resolving flow resistance associated to obstacles: no ad hoc formulations are needed to express drag on buildings, which is a key innovation in regard to previous studies. Additionally, vehicle-like particles were virtually placed over the major traffic nodes and routes, resulting in over 5000 lagrangian particles along the riverfront. This allows for an assessment of debris deposition patterns on the aftermath of the tsunami inundation. Severity is herein assumed to depend on hydrodynamic features of the tsunami, namely its capacity to impart momentum. Exposure to tsunami actions depends on the extent of the inundation. Both severity and exposure thus vary with the tsunami scenario considered. The obtained results, obtained with a high detail of hydrodynamic behavior, allow for a street-by-street quantification of severity, expressed in terms of the product of the depth-averaged velocity by the flow depth (Karvonen et al., 2000), herein the q-parameter. This parameter is shown to be larger during run-up, particularly in streets and narrow sections. It was observed that the scenario with greater exposure is a combination of a high-tide, a storm surge and a discharge equivalent to a 100 year flood on the Tagus River. The work conducted allows for designing a methodology for exposure assessment due to tsunami propagating over urban meshes, where the influence of the existing infrastructures on the incoming inundation is highly relevant. Such methodology, here applied to Lisbon waterfront, is general since it is defined in terms of quantifiable hydrodynamic variables. Acknowledgements: Project RECI/ECM-HID/0371/2012, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), has partially supported this work. References: Baptista, M.A., Miranda, J.M. (2009). Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 25 - 42. Canelas, R., Murillo, J. & Ferreira, R.M.L. (2013). Two-dimensional depth-averaged modelling of dam-break flows over mobile beds. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 51(4), 392-407. C

Conde, Daniel; Telhado, Maria J.; Viana Baptista, Maria A.; Antunes, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.



Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes) on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil.  


Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation) is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1,680 net-hrs) and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis) in the present study, we confirmed that the tested effect of restinga frugivorous birds on seed germination was generally null. Although there is a need for more detailed studies on specific animal-plant interactions on this habitat, the overall effect of the birds on seed dispersal in restinga is probably positive. PMID:18624238

Gomes, Verônica Souza da Mota; Correia, Maria Célia Rodrigues; de Lima, Heloisa Alves; Alves, Maria Alice S



Cardiovascular effects induced by reticuline in normotensive rats.  


The cardiovascular effects of reticuline, isolated in a pure form from the stem of Ocotea duckei Vattimo, were studied in rats by using a combined in vivo and in vitro approach. In normotensive rats, reticuline (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i. v., randomly) injections produced an intense hypotension. This hypotensive response was attenuated after either, L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i. v.), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, or atropine (2 mg/kg, i. v.), a muscarinic receptor antagonist. In isolated rat aortic rings with intact endothelium, reticuline (3 x 10 ( - 6), 3 x 10 ( - 5), 3 x 10 ( - 4), 9 x 10 ( - 4) and 1.5 x 10 ( - 3) M) inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the contractions induced by phenylephrine (1 microM), KCl (80 mM) and KCl (30 mM), [IC (50) = (0.4 +/- 0.1, 2.4 +/- 0.4 and 3 +/- 0.4) x 10 ( - 4) M, respectively). The effect of reticuline on phenylephrine-induced contractions was attenuated by removal of the vascular endothelium [IC (50) = (2.5 +/- 0.7) x 10 ( - 4) M]. Similar results were obtained after pretreatment of the rings with L-NAME 100 microM [IC (50) = (1.3 +/- 0.1) x 10 ( - 4) M], L-NAME 300 microM [IC (50) = (3 +/- 0.3) x 10 ( - 4) M] or atropine 1 microM [IC (50) = (1.2 +/- 0.2) x 10 ( - 4) M]. On the other hand, the effect of reticuline on phenylephrine-induced contractions was not affected by indomethacin 1 microM [IC (50) = (0.7 +/- 0.3) x 10 ( - 4) M]. Reticuline (3 x 10 ( - 6), 3 x 10 ( - 5), 3 x 10 ( - 4), 9 x 10 ( - 4) and 1.5 x 10 ( - 3) M) antagonized CaCl (2)-induced contractions, and also inhibited the intracellular calcium dependent transient contractions induced by norepinephrine (1 microM), but not those induced by caffeine (20 mM). These results suggest that the hypotensive effect of reticuline is probably due to a peripheral vasodilation in consequence of: 1) muscarinic stimulation and NOS activation in the vascular endothelium, 2) voltage-dependent Ca (2+) channel blockade and/or 3) inhibition of Ca (2+) release from norepinephrine-sensitive intracellular stores. PMID:15095148

Dias, Katy Lísias; Da Silva Dias, Celidarque; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; De Azevedo Correia, Nadja; Medeiros, Isac Almeida



Annual Proxy Records from Tropical Cloud Forest Trees in the Monteverde Cloud Forest, Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extinction of the Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes) from Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest prompted research into the causes of ecological change in the montane forests of Costa Rica. Subsequent analysis of meteorological data has suggested that warmer global surface and tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures contribute to an observed decrease in cloud cover at Monteverde. However, while recent studies may have concluded that climate change is already having an effect on cloud forest environments in Costa Rica, without the context provided by long-term climate records, it is difficult to confidently conclude that the observed ecological changes are the result of anthropogenic climate forcing, land clearance in the lowland rainforest, or natural variability in tropical climate. To address this, we develop high-resolution proxy paleoclimate records from trees without annual rings in the Monteverde Cloud Forest in Costa Rica. Calibration of an age model in these trees is a fundamental prerequisite for proxy paleoclimate reconstructions. Our approach exploits the isotopic seasonality in the ?18O of water sources (fog versus rainfall) used by trees over the course of a single year. Ocotea tenera individuals of known age and measured annual growth increments were sampled in long-term monitored plantation sites in order to test this proposed age model. High-resolution (200?m increments) stable isotope measurements on cellulose reveal distinct, coherent ?18O cycles of 6 to 10‰. The calculated growth rates derived from the isotope timeseries match those observed from basal growth increment measurements. Spatial fidelity in the age model and climate signal is examined by using multiple cores from multiple trees and multiple sites. These data support our hypothesis that annual isotope cycles in these trees can be used to provide chronological control in the absence of rings. The ability of trees to record interannual climate variability in local hydrometeorology and remote climate forcing is evaluated using the isotope signal from multiple trees, local meteorological observations, and climate field data for the well-observed 1997-1998 warm El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. The successful calibration of our age model is a necessary step toward the development of long, annually-resolved paleoclimate reconstructions from old trees, even without rings, which will be used to evaluate the cause of recent observed climate change at Monteverde and as proxies for tropical climate field reconstructions.

Anchukaitis, K. J.; Evans, M. N.; Wheelwright, N. T.; Schrag, D. P.



Calcium influx inhibition is involved in the hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects induced by yangambin.  


The pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular system of yangambin, a lignan isolated from Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae), were studied in rats using combined functional and biochemical approaches. In non-anaesthetized rats, yangambin (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg, i.v.) induced hypotension (-3.5 ± 0.2; -7.1 ± 0.8; -8.9 ± 1.3; -14 ± 2.3, -25.5% ± 2.6%, respectively) accompanied by tachycardia (5.9 ± 0.5; 5.9 ± 1.6; 8.8 ± 1.4; 11.6, 18.8% ± 3.4%, respectively). In isolated rat atria, yangambin (0.1 µM-1 mM) had very slight negative inotropic (Emax = 35.6% ± 6.4%) and chronotropic effects (Emax = 10.2% ± 2.9%). In endothelium-intact rat mesenteric artery, yangambin (0.1 µM-1 mM) induced concentration-dependent relaxation (pD2 = 4.5 ± 0.06) of contractions induced by phenylephrine and this effect was not affected by removal of the endothelium. Interestingly, like nifedipine, the relaxant effect induced by yangambin was more potent on the contractile response induced by KCl 80 mM (pD2 = 4.8 ± 0.05) when compared to that induced by phenylephrine. Furthermore, yangambin inhibited CaCl2-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. This lignan also induced relaxation (pD2 = 4.0 ± 0.04) of isolated arteries pre-contracted with S(-)-Bay K 8644. In fura-2/AM-loaded myocytes of rat mesenteric arteries, yangambin inhibited the Ca2+ signal evoked by KCl 60 mM. In conclusion, these results suggest that the hypotensive effect of yangambin is probably due to a peripheral vasodilatation that involves, at least, the inhibition the Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. PMID:24858272

Araújo, Islania Giselia Albuquerque; Silva, Darizy Flávia; do Carmo de Alustau, Maria; Dias, Katy Lísias Gondim; Cavalcante, Karla Veruska Marques; Veras, Robson Cavalcante; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Neto, Mario Dos Anjos; Bendhack, Lusiane Maria; de Azevedo Correia, Nadja; Almeida de Medeiros, Isac



Floristic composition and similarity of 15 hectares in Central Amazon, Brazil.  


The Amazon region is one of the most diverse areas in the world. Research on high tropical forest diversity brings up relevant contributions to understand the mechanisms that result and support such diversity. In the present study we describe the species composition and diversity of 15 one-ha plots in the Amazonian terra firme dense forest in Brazil, and compare the floristic similarity of these plots with other nine one-ha plots. The 15 plots studied were randomly selected from permanent plots at the Embrapa Experimental site, Amazonas State in 2005. The diversity was analysed by using species richness and Shannon's index, and by applying the Sorensen's index for similarity and unweighted pair-group average (UPGMA) as clustering method. Mantel test was performed to study whether the differences in species composition between sites could be explained by the geographic distance between them. Overall, we identified 8 771 individuals, 264 species and 51 plant families. Most of the species were concentrated in few families and few had large number of individuals. Families presenting the highest species richness were Fabaceae (Faboideae: 22spp., Mimosoideae: 22spp.), Sapotaceae: 22spp., Lecythidaceae: 15 and Lauraceae: 13. Burseraceae had the largest number of individuals with 11.8% of the total. The ten most abundant species were: Protium hebetatum (1 037 individuals), Eschweilera coriacea (471), Licania oblongifolia (310), Pouteria minima (293), Ocotea cernua (258), Scleronema micranthum (197), Eschweilera collina (176), Licania apelata (172), Naucleopsis caloneura (170) and Psidium araca (152), which represented 36.5% of all individuals. Approximately 49% of species had up to ten individuals and 13% appeared only once in all sampled plots, showing a large occurrence of rare species. Our study area is on a forest presenting a high tree species diversity with Shannon's diversity index of 4.49. The dendrogram showed two groups of plots with low similarity between them (less than 0.25), and the closer the plots were one to another, more similar in species composition (Mantel R = 0.3627, p < 0.01). The 15 plots in our study area share more than 50% of their species composition and represent the group of plots that have the shortest distance between each other. Overall, our results highlight the high local and regional heterogeneity of environments in terra firme forests, and the high occurrence of rare species, which should be considered in management and conservation programs in the Amazon rainforest, in order to maintain its structure on the long run. PMID:22208103

da Silva, Kátia Emidio; Martins, Sebastião Venancio; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Santos, Nerilson Terra; de Azevedo, Celso Paulo; Matos, Francisca Dionizia de Almeida; do Amaral, Ieda Leão



Greenhouse gas exchange in tropical mountain ecosystems in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical mountain ecosystems with their mostly immense biodiversity are important regions for natural resources but also for agricultural production. Their supportive ecosystem processes are particularly vulnerable to the combined impacts of global warming and the conversion of natural to human-modified landscapes. Data of impacts of climate and land use change on soil-atmosphere interactions due to GHG (CO2, CH4, and N2O) exchange from these ecosystems are still scarce, in particular for Africa. Tropical forest soils are underestimated as sinks for atmospheric CH4 with regard to worldwide GHG budgets (Werner et al. 2007, J GEOPHYS RES Vol. 112). Even though these soils are an important source for the atmospheric N2O budget, N2O emissions from tropical forest ecosystems are still poorly characterized (Castaldi et al. 2013, Biogeosciences 10). To obtain an insight of GHG balances of selected ecosystems soil-atmosphere exchange of N2O, CH4 and CO2 was investigated along the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. We will present results for tropical forests in three different altitudes (lower montane, Ocotea, and Podocarpus forest), home garden (extensive agro-forestry), and coffee plantation (intensive agro-forestry). Therefore we used a combined approach consisting of a laboratory parameterization experiment (3 temperature and 2 moisture levels) and in situ static chamber measurements for GHG exchange. Field measurements were conducted during different hygric seasons throughout two years. Seasonal variation of temperature and especially of soil moisture across the different ecosystems resulted in distinct differences in GHG exchange. In addition environmental parameters like soil bulk density and substrate availability varying in space strongly influenced the GHG fluxes within sites. The results from parameterization experiments and in situ measurements show that natural forest ecosystems and extensive land use had higher uptakes of CH4. For the investigated forest ecosystems we found considerable differences in soil sink strength for CH4. N2O emissions were highest in natural forest ecosystems even though N input in the intensively managed system was considerably higher. Highest N2O efflux rates were identified in the region of highest mean annual precipitation. CO2 emissions reduced from managed to natural ecosystems. In general an increase in temperature as well as in soil moisture caused higher GHG fluxes throughout all investigated natural and managed ecosystems. With increasing altitude of the investigated forests GHG emissions reduced overall.

Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kikoti, Imani; Kiese, Ralf



NTP Carcinogenesis Studies of Food Grade Geranyl Acetate (71% Geranyl Acetate, 29% Citronellyl Acetate) (CAS No. 105-87-3) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Study).  


Geranyl acetate (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene-1-ol acetate) is a colorless liquid prepared by fractional distillation of selected essential oils or by acetylation of geraniol. It is a natural constituent of more than 60 essential oils, including Ceylon citronella, palmarosa, lemon grass, petit grain, neroli bigarade, geranium, coriander, carrot, and sassafras. Geranyl acetate is used primarily as a component of perfumes for creams and soaps and as a flavoring ingredient. On the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's list of substances "generally recognized as safe," the Food Chemicals Codex (1972) specifies that geranyl acetate must contain at least 90% total esters. Carcinogenesis studies of food-grade geranyl acetate (containing approximately 29% citronellyl acetate) were conducted by administering the test chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats at doses of 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg body weight and to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice at doses of 500 or 1,000 mg/kg. Doses were administered five times per week for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex received corn oil by gavage on the same dosing schedule and served as vehicle controls. The cumulative toxicity of geranyl acetate in the 2-year study was indicated by the significantly shorter survival of high dose male rats (control, 34/50; low dose, 29/50; high dose, 18/50) and of high dose male mice (control, 31/50; low dose, 32/50; high dose, 0/50) and of dosed female mice (38/50; 15/50; 0/50) when compared with controls. Throughout most of the 2-year study, mean body weights of high dose rats and mice of each sex were lower than those of the controls. The occurrence of retinopathy or cataracts in the high dose male rats and low dose female rats as compared with the controls does not appear to be related to the administration of geranyl acetate but rather the proximity of the rats to fluorescent light. The incidence of retinopathy or cataracts (combined) was: males: control, 0/50, 0%; low dose, 1/50, 2%; high dose, 11/50, 22%; females: control, 1/50, 2%; low dose, 13/50, 26%; high dose, 2/50, 4%. Kidney tubular cell adenomas, an uncommon tumor type, were found in 2/50 (4%) low dose male rats. The historical incidence of male corn oil gavage control F344/N rats with kidney tumors is 1/250 (0.4%) at this laboratory and 4/998 (0.4%) in the program. Squamous cell papillomas in the skin were increased marginally in low dose male rats (control, 0/50; low dose, 4/50, 8%; high dose, 1/50, 2%). In addition, one low dose male rat had a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The incidence of low dose male rats with either squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas was greater (P<0.05) in comparison with the controls. The historical incidence of squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas (combined) in gavage control male F344/N rats is 3.6% (9/250) at this laboratory and 2.5% (25/999) throughout the program. The incidence of all epidermal tumors was not significantly elevated in dosed male rats relative to controls (control, 3/50, 6%; low dose, 6/50, 12%; high dose, 1/50, 2%). All high dose (1,000 mg/kg) male and female mice were dead by week 91 as a result of accidentally being administered 2,800 mg/kg for 3 days during week 91; survival of low dose and control male mice was comparable. Survival of high dose male and dosed female mice may have been inadequate for the detection of late-appearing tumors. No evidence of any carcinogenic effect was found in either low or high dose mice of either sex. An infection of the genital tract was probably responsible for the deaths of 14/22 control and 8/32 low dose female mice before the end of the study. Cytoplasmic vacuolization was increased in the liver and in the kidney of male and female mice and was considered to be compound related (liver-- male: control, 1/50, 2%; low dose, 7/50, 14%; high dose, 47/50, 94%; female: 1/50, 2%; 27/50, 54%; 46/50, 92%; kidney or kidney tubule--male: 0/50; 0/50; 41/50, 82%; female: 0/50; 24/49, 49%; 37/50, 74%). Under the conditions of these studi