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1

Elucidating the spread of the emerging canid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum between Palaearctic and Nearctic ecozones.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus vasorum is an emerging parasite that is currently distributed through Western Europe and parts of South America. An isolated population is also present in Newfoundland, Canada. This presents a risk of onward spread into North America, but its origin is unknown. To ascertain the phylogeographic relationships and genetic diversity of A. vasorum within the western Palaearctic and eastern Nearctic ecozones, a total of 143 adult and larval nematode specimens were collected from foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Portugal and the United Kingdom, and a coyote (Canis latrans) in Canada. DNA was extracted and the second internal transcribed spacer and two mitochondrial loci were amplified and sequenced. Multiple haplotypes (n=35) based on combined mitochondrial sequences (1078bp) of the partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), large subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnL) and the complete nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 3 (NADH3) sequences, were observed throughout the Palaearctic countries sampled; however, only a single haplotype was observed for the Canadian A. vasorum population. The likely origin of A. vasorum in Newfoundland is therefore inferred to be within the western Palaearctic. There was no evidence of genetic segregation of parasites in dogs, foxes and coyotes, supporting the hypothesis that transmission occurs between wild and domestic canids. The transmission dynamics and population structure of this nematode are further discussed. PMID:20139034

Jefferies, R; Shaw, S E; Willesen, J; Viney, M E; Morgan, E R

2010-05-01

2

Elucidating the spread of the emerging canid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum between Palaearctic and Nearctic ecozones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiostrongylus vasorum is an emerging parasite that is currently distributed through Western Europe and parts of South America. An isolated population is also present in Newfoundland, Canada. This presents a risk of onward spread into North America, but its origin is unknown. To ascertain the phylogeographic relationships and genetic diversity of A. vasorum within the western Palaearctic and eastern Nearctic

R. Jefferies; S. E. Shaw; J. Willesen; M. E. Viney; E. R. Morgan

2010-01-01

3

Serologic detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiostrongylus vasorum, French Heartworm, is a metastrongylid nematode infecting the pulmonary arteries and right heart of wild and domestic canids in various regions of the world. Infection in dogs can result in fatal cardiopulmonary disease. A single endemic focus of A. vasorum in North America occurs in the southeastern portion of Newfoundland, Canada. Dogs are currently diagnosed by detection of

I. Verzberger-Epshtein; R. J. F. Markham; J. A. Sheppard; H. Stryhn; H. Whitney; G. A. Conboy

2008-01-01

4

Angiostrongylus vasorum and Eucoleus aerophilus in foxes ( Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematode parasite Angiostrongylus vasorum is a source of increasing concern in several parts of the world, where it causes significant disease in dogs. Wild canids, especially foxes, are likely to have a role in the epidemiology of canine infection, and the parasite could also affect fox health and population dynamics. The heart and pulmonary vasculature of 546 foxes culled

E. R. Morgan; A. Tomlinson; S. Hunter; T. Nichols; E. Roberts; M. T. Fox; M. A. Taylor

2008-01-01

5

Light and electron microscopic studies on two nematodes, Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Trichuris muris , differing in their mode of nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological characteristics of the adult heteroxenous blood nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the adult monoxenous intestinal nematode Trichuris muris were compared with special regard to the ultrastructure of their digestive systems. The small circular mouth of A. cantonensis appears sucker like. The very narrow mouth of T. muris is surrounded by three lips covered by the cuticle that extends into

Maria Hüttemann; Günter Schmahl; Heinz Mehlhorn

2007-01-01

6

Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode: Metastrongyloidea) in molluscs from harbour areas in Brazil.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common aetiological agent of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Following a report indicating the presence of this parasite in Brazil in 2007, the present study was undertaken to investigate the presence of A. cantonensis in the surrounding Brazilian port areas. In total, 30 ports were investigated and the following molluscs were identified: Achatina fulica, Belocaulus sp., Bradybaena similaris sp., Cyclodontina sp., Helix sp., Leptinaria sp., Melampus sp., Melanoides tuberculata, Phyllocaulis sp., Pomacea sp., Pseudoxychona sp., Rhinus sp., Sarasinula marginata, Streptaxis sp., Subulina octona, Succinea sp., Tomigerus sp., Wayampia sp. and specimens belonging to Limacidae and Orthalicinae. Digestion and sedimentation processes were performed and the sediments were examined. DNA was extracted from the obtained larvae and the internal transcribed spacer region 2 was analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism after digestion with the endonuclease ClaI. Of the 30 ports investigated in this study, 11 contained molluscs infected with A. cantonensis larvae. The set of infected species consisted of S. octona, S. marginata, A. fulica and B. similaris. A total of 36.6% of the investigated ports were positive for A. cantonensis, indicating a wide distribution of this worm. It remains uncertain when and how A. cantonensis was introduced into South America. PMID:22990962

Carvalho, Omar Dos Santos; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; Mendonça, Cristiane Lafeta Furtado de; Passos, Liana Konovaloff Jannotti; Caldeira, Roberta Lima

2012-09-01

7

Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode: Metastrongiloidea): in vitro cultivation of infective third-stage larvae to fourth-stage larvae.  

PubMed

The present study to attempt to cultivate Angiostrongylus cantonensis from third-stage larvae (AcL3) to fourth-stage larvae (AcL4) in vitro in defined complete culture medium that contained with Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEM), supplemented amino acid (AA), amine (AM), fatty acid (FA), carbohydrate (CA) and 20% fetal calf serum (FCS) was successful. When AcL3 were cultured in the defined complete culture medium at 37°C in a 5% CO2 atmosphere, the larvae began to develop to AcL4 after 30 days of cultivation, and were enclosed within the sheaths of the third molts of the life cycle. Under these conditions, the larvae developed uniformly and reached to the fourth-stage 36 days. The morphology of AcL3 develop to AcL4 were recording and analyzing. Then comparison of A. cantonensis larval morphology and development between in vitro cultivation in defined complete culture medium and in vivo cultivation in infective BALB/c mice. The larvae that had been cultivated in vitro were smaller than AcL4 of infective BALB/c mice. However the AcL3 that were cultured using defined incomplete culture medium (MEM plus 20% FCS with AA+AM, FA, CA, AA+AM+FA, FA+CA, CA+AA+AM or not) did not adequately survive and develop. Accordingly, the inference is made that only the defined complete medium enable AcL3 develop to AcL4 in vitro. Some nematodes have been successfully cultured into mature worms but only a few researches have been made to cultivate A. cantonensis in vitro. The present study is the first to have succeeded in developing AcL3 to AcL4 by in vitro cultivation. Finally, the results of in vitro cultivation studies herein contribute to improving media for the effective development and growth of A. cantonensis. The gap in the A. cantonensis life cycle when the larvae are cultivated in vitro from third-stage larvae to fourth-stage larvae can thus be solved. PMID:23977214

Lin, Rong-Jyh; He, Jie-Wen; Chung, Li-Yu; Lee, June-Der; Wang, Jiun-Jye; Yen, Chuan-Min

2013-01-01

8

Pneumonia from Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).  

PubMed

A 9-year-old, male, captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) in an urban zoo in the United Kingdom presented with respiratory distress and weight loss. The animal was euthanatized, and a postmortem examination was performed. The lungs were diffusely consolidated with extensive mineralization. Microscopically, there was extensive obliteration of normal pulmonary architecture by sheets and coalescing nodules of partially mineralized fibrous tissue and granulomatous inflammation centered on large numbers of nematode larvae and eggs. First stage nematode larvae were isolated from lung tissue and were characterized as Angiostrongylus vasorum on the basis of their morphology and sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene and the entire second internal transcribed spacer. Although A. vasorum has previously been reported in red pandas in a zoological collection in Denmark, this study is the first reported case in the United Kingdom and occurs against a background of geographical spread and increased incidence of disease in domestic and wild canids. Angiostrongylus vasorum should be considered a differential diagnosis for respiratory disease in the red panda and taken into account when planning parasite and pest control programs for zoological collections. PMID:19286513

Patterson-Kane, Janet C; Gibbons, Lynda M; Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Wenzlow, Nanny; Redrobe, Sharon P

2009-03-01

9

Molecular identification of novel intermediate host species of Angiostrongylus vasorum in Greater London.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode that can cause serious and potentially fatal disease in dogs and other canids. The aim of this study was to determine the intermediate slug species infected in nature by sampling sites in Greater London and Hertfordshire located within a known hyperendemic region. Overall, A. vasorum larvae were recovered from 6/381 slugs (1.6 %) by tissue digestion, and their identity was confirmed by PCR. Infected slugs originated from three different sites in the Greater London area: one in Waltham Forest and two in Bromley. Slugs parasitised by A. vasorum were identified by a combination of external morphological characteristics and molecular techniques and belonged to three different families: the Arionidae, the Milacidae and the Limacidae. This includes two new host records for the parasite: Arion distinctus and Tandonia sowerbyi. This is the first record of A. vasorum in the family Milacidae, indicating that the parasite has a broader intermediate host range than previously recognised. PMID:25195057

Patel, Zainab; Gill, A Christina; Fox, Mark T; Hermosilla, Carlos; Backeljau, Thierry; Breugelmans, Karin; Keevash, Esther; McEwan, Claudia; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Elson-Riggins, Jocelyn G

2014-12-01

10

Serologic detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in dogs.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus vasorum, French Heartworm, is a metastrongylid nematode infecting the pulmonary arteries and right heart of wild and domestic canids in various regions of the world. Infection in dogs can result in fatal cardiopulmonary disease. A single endemic focus of A. vasorum in North America occurs in the southeastern portion of Newfoundland, Canada. Dogs are currently diagnosed by detection of first-stage larvae shed in feces using the Baermann technique or fecal flotation. However, these procedures may lack sensitivity due to intermittent fecal larval shedding. The potential for using detection of circulating worm antigen for diagnosis was investigated by developing a sandwich-ELISA using rabbit anti-whole adult worm antiserum. This test detected circulating antigen in sera from 22/24 Baermann positive dogs naturally infected with A. vasorum. Negative results (0/52) were obtained from sera collected from Baermann negative dogs from outside of the endemic region, and from sera (0/30) from dogs from non-endemic regions that were infected with Crenosoma vulpis, the fox lung worm. Receiver operating curve analysis gave a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 92% for the sandwich-ELISA at an optical density cut-off of 0.19. Subsequently, 239 dogs from Newfoundland displaying clinical signs of cardiopulmonary disease, were examined using both the Baermann fecal examination and the sandwich-ELISA. Larvae were detected in 10% (24/239) of these dogs by fecal examination, whereas the sandwich-ELISA detected circulating antigen of A. vasorum in serum from 18.8% (45/239) of the dogs. This suggests that fecal diagnostics may have missed approximately half of the A. vasorum infected dogs, and that the sandwich-ELISA may be a useful tool in the diagnosis of this parasite. PMID:17981397

Verzberger-Epshtein, I; Markham, R J F; Sheppard, J A; Stryhn, H; Whitney, H; Conboy, G A

2008-01-25

11

Angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

A survey of Angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. Nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. The animal species included in this study were Eurasian badger (Meles meles), Weasel (Mustela nivalis), Beech marten (Martes foina), Pine marten (Martes martes), Polecat (Mustela putorius), American mink (Mustela vison), Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Wolf (Canis lupus), Wild cat (Felis silvestris), and Small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta). Angiostrongylus parasites were only found in foxes and badgers at prevalences of 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Identification of the nematodes by morphometrical features revealed that foxes were infected with A. vasorum while badgers were infected by a different species of Angiostrongylus most likely A. daskalovi. Sequencing data of the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of isolates from each species confirmed the species difference. The high prevalence of Angiostrongylus found in the present survey, indicates that the wild cycle of two different species of Angiostrongylus is present in the Basque Country. To our knowledge this is the first report of A. daskalovi in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:20728995

Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Juste, R A

2010-11-24

12

Detection of specific antibodies in dogs infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine angiostrongylosis, caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum, is an emerging cardiopulmonary disease in Europe which can be fatal if left untreated. We determined the diagnostic value of the specific detection of antibodies against A. vasorum adult somatic antigen, adult excretory\\/secretory (E\\/S) antigen and first stage larvae (L1) somatic antigen in ELISAs. Also, A. vasorum adult somatic antigen purified by

A. Schucan; M. Schnyder; I. Tanner; D. Barutzki; D. Traversa; P. Deplazes

13

Angiostrongylus vasorum in wolves in Italy?  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum has attracted attention for its emergence in previously free areas and for the rise in clinical cases in domestic dogs. Italy is regarded as one of the countries where this potentially life-threatening parasite is spreading, especially due to bridging infections between wildlife and domestic dogs. The present article describes the presence of A. vasorum in wolves from Italy. Nematodes were observed in histological sections of three wolves found dead in Rome province, central Italy. Morphological and molecular identification of the nematodes, by polymerase chain reaction of rDNA ITS-2 and sequencing, confirmed the nematodes to be A. vasorum, with 99% genetic homology with A. vasorum from sympatric dogs. This is the second report of this species in wolves and the first in this host in Italy, and coincides with increasing records of A. vasorum in dogs and foxes in Italy. Implications for the epidemiology of this emerging parasite and for wildlife health are concisely discussed. PMID:24918072

Eleni, Claudia; De Liberato, Claudio; Azam, Dena; Morgan, Eric R.; Traversa, Donato

2013-01-01

14

The first report of Angiostrongylus vasorum (Nematoda; Metastrongyloidea) in Poland, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus vasorum belongs to the superfamily of Metastrongyloidea. This nematode occurs in foxes, dogs and other predators. The Nematode A. vasorum place themselves in the pulmonary artery and its branches, and in the right ventricle and atrium of the heart. Numerous species of land snails are the intermediate hosts of the parasite. In 2013, lungs and hearts of 76 foxes shot in the Forest District G??boki Bród in Augustowska Primeval Forest were parasitologically necropsied. Four of the examined foxes were infected with the nematode A. vasorum, a prevalence of 5.2%. In one fox pericardium there were 6 male and 6 female nematodes. In the remaining three foxes nematodes were localized in the pulmonary artery. In two foxes 2 specimens of nematodes were detected (male and female, and two females) while 1 female was detected in the other fox. This is the first report of the presence of the nematode A. vasorum in fox in Poland. PMID:25236289

Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Kuligowska, Izabela; Lachowicz, Jacek

2014-10-01

15

Extraintestinal nematode infections of red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence and worm burden of extraintestinal nematodes in 100 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Hungary. The overall prevalence of nematode infections of the respiratory tract was 76%. Eucoleus aerophilus (Capillaria aerophila) was the predominant species (66%), followed by Crenosoma vulpis (24%), Eucoleus (Capillaria) böhmi (8%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (5%). Pearsonema (Capillaria) plica

T. Sréter; Z. Széll; G. Marucci; E. Pozio; I. Varga

2003-01-01

16

Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae): migration route in experimental infection of Omalonyx sp. (Gastropoda: Succineidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiostrongylus costaricensis can infect several mollusks, and its migration route in intermediate hosts has been studied only in Sarasinula marginata. To verify the susceptibility of Omalonyx sp. as an intermediate host of A. costaricensis and to analyze the nematode migration route, individuals were infected with stage 1 larvae. Obtained stage 3 larvae were\\u000a orally inoculated in mice, and after 30 days,

Lângia C. Montresor; Teofânia H. D. A. Vidigal; Cristiane L. G. F. Mendonça; André A. Fernandes; Karyne N. de Souza; Omar S. Carvalho; Luzia F. G. Caputo; Ester M. Mota; Henrique L. Lenzi

2008-01-01

17

On the diversity of mollusc intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Cespedes, 1971 in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Veronicellid slugs are considered the most important intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis, an intra-arterial nematode of rodents. Studies undertaken in three localities in southern Brazil led to identification of molluscs other than veronicellid slugs as hosts of A. costaricensis: Limax maximus, Limax flavus and Bradybaena similaris. These data indicate a low host specificity of larval stages of A. costaricensis, as it has been reported to other congeneric species. PMID:8107609

Teixeira, C G; Thiengo, S C; Thome, J W; Medeiros, A B; Camillo-Coura, L; Agostini, A A

1993-01-01

18

Expression of Recombinant Antigenic Proteins from Angiostrongylus cantonensis: A Brief Report  

PubMed Central

Cerebral angiostrongyliasis is an acute inflammation caused by the infection of the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis that results in eosinophilic meningitis. The current immunological assay of choice is an immunoblot that detects antibodies to a 31 kDa protein present in crude extracts of the female worm. Recently we have identified diagnostic targets from excretion and secretion products and determined the composition of the 31 kDa antigen after 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Here we cloned and expressed five proteins in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Recombinant proteins were purified and analysed by Western blot assays and among them 14-3-3, Lec5 and ES7 were recognized by Angiostrongylus-specific serum, although the signal was weak. PMID:23900614

Perelygin, Andrey; Levert, Keith; Lin, Seh-Ching; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; da Silva, Alexandre J; Wilkins, Patricia P; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

2013-01-01

19

Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a coyote (Canis latrans) from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

Tissue samples and feces were collected from a dead, adult female coyote (Canis latrans) found at the side of the road in late March 2003 in the Avalon Peninsula region of Newfoundland, Canada. The coyote apparently died of vehicular-related trauma. Samples of lung, brain, heart, liver, and kidney were fixed in formalin and submitted for histologic examination. The entire remaining lung and heart also were submitted for examination. The coyote was diagnosed with moderate, multifocal, granulomatous interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic vasculitis and many intralesional nematode eggs, larvae, and occasional intravascular adult worms. Adult nematodes recovered from the pulmonary arteries were identified as Angiostrongylus vasorum. Small foci of granulomatous inflammation, often containing nematode eggs and larvae, were scattered in the brain and kidney. To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. vasorum infection in a coyote from the only endemic area of infection in North America. PMID:16456176

Bourque, Andrea; Whitney, Hugh; Conboy, Gary

2005-10-01

20

Enolase of Angiostrongylus cantonensis: more likely a structural component?  

PubMed

The cloned enolase gene of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (AcEno) comprised 1,667 bp and encoded a peptide with 434 amino acid residues which lacked of a signal peptide but contained a transmembrane region, indicating that AcEno tends to be a structural component (intracellular or membrane protein). The real-time PCR revealed a meaningful difference in the expression level of AcEno in varied development stages. By immunolocalization, native AcEno was detected mainly in the cytoplasm in most tissues, such as parietal muscle, genital tracts, nerve ring, and alimentary canal where the energy consumption is high, but not as expected on the cuticle and hypodermis layer of the nematode. This suggests that the AcEno may be involved in a host of other biological functions, rather than a receptor of plasminogen or a component of excretory-secretory antigen. In addition, AcEno expressed alike in the nucleus, indicating that AcEno also involved in regulating the continuous growth and development of A. cantonensis in hosts. Despite of living in the vasculature at a certain stage of life cycle, AcEno was not localized in the outer surface of L3 and adults, indicating that A. cantonensis may have other virulence and immune evasion mechanisms. PMID:25079705

Zhang, Jing; Yu, Changmao; Wang, Yinan; Fang, Wenzhen; Luo, Damin

2014-11-01

21

Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus

Donato Traversa; Angela Di Cesare; Gary Conboy

2010-01-01

22

Canine and Feline Infections by Cardiopulmonary Nematodes in Central and Southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillaria aerophila, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis are cardiopulmonary nematodes affecting dogs and cats and presently emerging in several countries. The results obtained in\\u000a 2009 – 2010 during a study aiming to investigate the occurrence of these nematodes in regions from Central (Marche and Abruzzo\\u000a regions – Sites A and B, respectively) and southern (Apulia – Site C)

Angela Di Cesare; Giuseppe Castagna; Silvana Meloni; Piermarino Milillo; Stefania Latrofa; Domenico Otranto; Donato Traversa

2011-01-01

23

Filaroides osleri (Oslerus osleri): two case reports and a review of canid infections in North America.  

PubMed

Infections of domesticated dogs by a worldwide parasitic nematode Filaroides osleri (Oslerus osleri) lead to verminous tracheobronchitis that are often misdiagnosed clinically as kennel cough, due to infection with the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica. Diagnosis of two canine cases in Wyoming, USA prompted a search of the literature of canid infections in North America. Infections of domestic dogs are reported in nine US states and four Canadian provinces. Dogs of multiple breeds and both sexes were infected. Most were two years old or younger at diagnosis. Anthelmintic treatments were effective in relieving clinical symptoms, as well as causing resolution of tracheobronchial nodules. Other canid species, including coyotes (Canis latrans) and wolves (Canis lupus), have been infected across North America with a prevalence of 23% and 4%, respectively. Infection with F. osleri should be included in the differential diagnosis of infectious tracheobronchitis of dogs. It can be confirmed most readily by endoscopic detection of distinctive submucosal parasite-filled nodules, combined with histological examination of endoscopic biopsies. PMID:21411228

Yao, Chaoqun; O'Toole, Donal; Driscoll, Mike; McFarland, Warner; Fox, Jonathan; Cornish, Todd; Jolley, William

2011-06-30

24

Diverse Gastropod Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm, Globally and with a Focus on the Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

Kim, Jaynee R.; Hayes, Kenneth A.; Yeung, Norine W.; Cowie, Robert H.

2014-01-01

25

Molecular epidemiology of canid rabies in Zimbabwe and South Africa.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of rabies in southern Africa is complex, due to a large number of vector species and the presence of at least two distinct biotypes of the virus. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology of rabies in the southern African subcontinent by studying the genetic relationship of 89 rabies virus isolates from this region. In this study, we have focused on an analysis of viruses that cycle in canid host species (canid biotype) throughout South Africa and Zimbabwe. By phylogenetic analysis of the cytoplasmic domain of the glycoprotein and the non-coding G-L intergenic region, all the southern African canid viruses were found to be closely related and no apparent general distinction could be made between them. Although there was a minor degree of phylogenetic branching, with certain branches associated with cycles defined by species, location and time, the phylogenetic pattern indicated that canid rabies in southern Africa is derived from a single virus lineage, which has spread opportunistically within whatever canid host population is ecologically capable of sustaining prolonged cycles. This molecular epidemiological study presents the first comprehensive comparison of rabies viruses from South Africa and Zimbabwe and has demonstrated the need for multinational approaches towards the control of this important zoonotic disease in Africa. PMID:12573499

Sabeta, C T; Bingham, J; Nel, L H

2003-02-01

26

Pathological findings in dogs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

Fifty-six dogs from St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, were evaluated for Angiostrongylus vasorum infection. Small numbers of nematodes were found within pulmonary arteries of 6 dogs. Larvae were identified in fecal samples in 2 of 6 dogs. All 6 dogs had multifocal granulomatous pneumonia and sometimes foci of chronic thrombosis, which varied from very mild to severe. One dog had extensive pulmonary lesions resulting in cor pulmonale. Right heart failure was characterized by right ventricular hypertrophy, hepatic congestion, ascites, and hydrothorax. Microscopically, in most cases, eggs, larvae, and sometimes intravascular adults, were present within lung tissue sections. Small foci of granulomatous inflammation with and without larvae were present in kidney and brain in 4 dogs. An additional dog, diagnosed antemortem with angiostrongylosis via fecal examination, was also examined. Pathological findings consisted of severe pyogranulomatous interstitial pneumonia with myriad eggs, larvae, and numerous intravascular pulmonary adult nematodes with extensive arterial thrombosis. Five hundred and seventy-two adult worms were removed from pulmonary arteries. Foci of granulomatous inflammation, often associated with larvae and/or eggs, were present in tracheobronchial lymph nodes, adrenal gland, brain, and kidneys. Severe seizuring noted antemortem was attributed to several large, discrete areas of acute hemorrhagic infarction within the cerebrum and cerebellum. Natural A. vasorum infection in domestic dogs in eastern Newfoundland causes lung pathology of variable severity, which in some cases, may progress to cor pulmonale and which may be associated with extrapulmonary lesions and clinical signs. PMID:18182502

Bourque, Andrea C; Conboy, Gary; Miller, Lisa M; Whitney, Hugh

2008-01-01

27

Nematode Songs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nematode Songs is a wonderful, straightforward resource maintained by Nematologist Kathy Merrifield of Oregon State University, who makes light of these microscopic worms and parasites. A collection of 15 titles, including such notables as "Good King Nematode," "The Golden Sun" and "The Parasitic Nematode Rag," offer clever (and nematode-ish) lyrics to familiar songs. An option to sing along is included (requires MIDI sound), and each feature includes sheet music as well as complete lyrics. For the more serious, links to scientific nematode resources are provided at the bottom of the page.

Merrifield, Kathy.

1998-01-01

28

Transcriptome profiling of the fifth-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis by next-generation sequencing.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an important zoonotic nematode. It is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. However, information of this parasite at the genomic level is very limited. In the present study, the transcriptomic profiles of the fifth-stage larvae (L5) of A. cantonensis were investigated by next-generation sequencing (NGS). In the NGS database established from the larvae isolated from the brain of Sprague-Dawley rats, 31,487 unique genes with a mean length of 617 nucleotides were assembled. These genes were found to have a 46.08% significant similarity to Caenorhabditis elegans by BLASTx. They were then compared with the expressed sequence tags of 18 other nematodes, and significant matches of 36.09-59.12% were found. Among these genes, 3,338 were found to participate in 124 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. These pathways included 1,514 metabolisms, 846 genetic information processing, 358 environmental information processing, 264 cellular processes, and 91 organismal systems. Analysis of 30,816 sequences with the gene ontology database indicated that their annotations included 5,656 biological processes (3,364 cellular processes, 3,061 developmental processes, and 3,191 multicellular organismal processes), 7,218 molecular functions (4,597 binding and 3,084 catalytic activities), and 4,719 cellular components (4,459 cell parts and 4,466 cells). Moreover, stress-related genes (112 heat stress and 33 oxidation stress) and genes for proteases (159) were not uncommon. This study is the first NGS-based study to set up a transcriptomic database of A. cantonensis L5. The results provide new insights into the survival, development, and host-parasite interactions of this blood-feeding nematode. PMID:23828188

Wang, Lian-chen; Chen, Kuang-yao; Chang, Shih-hsin; Chung, Li-yu; Gan, Ruei-chi Richie; Cheng, Chien-ju; Tang, Petrus

2013-09-01

29

Abolition of Peroxiredoxin-5 Mitochondrial Targeting during Canid Evolution  

PubMed Central

In human, the subcellular targeting of peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5), a thioredoxin peroxidase, is dependent on the use of multiple alternative transcription start sites and two alternative in-frame translation initiation sites, which determine whether or not the region encoding a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is translated. In the present study, the abolition of PRDX5 mitochondrial targeting in dog is highlighted and the molecular mechanism underlying the loss of mitochondrial PRDX5 during evolution is examined. Here, we show that the absence of mitochondrial PRDX5 is generalized among the extant canids and that the first events leading to PRDX5 MTS abolition in canids involve a mutation in the more 5? translation initiation codon as well as the appearance of a STOP codon. Furthermore, we found that PRDX5 MTS functionality is maintained in giant panda and northern elephant seal, which are phylogenetically closely related to canids. Also, the functional consequences of the restoration of mitochondrial PRDX5 in dog Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were investigated. The restoration of PRDX5 mitochondrial targeting in MDCK cells, instead of protecting, provokes deleterious effects following peroxide exposure independently of its peroxidase activity, indicating that mitochondrial PRDX5 gains cytotoxic properties under acute oxidative stress in MDCK cells. Altogether our results show that, although mitochondrial PRDX5 cytoprotective function against oxidative stress has been clearly demonstrated in human and rodents, PRDX5 targeting to mitochondria has been evolutionary lost in canids. Moreover, restoration of mitochondrial PRDX5 in dog MDCK cells, instead of conferring protection against peroxide exposure, makes them more vulnerable. PMID:24023783

Van der Eecken, Valerie; Clippe, Andre; Dekoninck, Sophie; Goemaere, Julie; Walbrecq, Geoffroy; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Knoops, Bernard

2013-01-01

30

Abolition of peroxiredoxin-5 mitochondrial targeting during canid evolution.  

PubMed

In human, the subcellular targeting of peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5), a thioredoxin peroxidase, is dependent on the use of multiple alternative transcription start sites and two alternative in-frame translation initiation sites, which determine whether or not the region encoding a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is translated. In the present study, the abolition of PRDX5 mitochondrial targeting in dog is highlighted and the molecular mechanism underlying the loss of mitochondrial PRDX5 during evolution is examined. Here, we show that the absence of mitochondrial PRDX5 is generalized among the extant canids and that the first events leading to PRDX5 MTS abolition in canids involve a mutation in the more 5' translation initiation codon as well as the appearance of a STOP codon. Furthermore, we found that PRDX5 MTS functionality is maintained in giant panda and northern elephant seal, which are phylogenetically closely related to canids. Also, the functional consequences of the restoration of mitochondrial PRDX5 in dog Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were investigated. The restoration of PRDX5 mitochondrial targeting in MDCK cells, instead of protecting, provokes deleterious effects following peroxide exposure independently of its peroxidase activity, indicating that mitochondrial PRDX5 gains cytotoxic properties under acute oxidative stress in MDCK cells. Altogether our results show that, although mitochondrial PRDX5 cytoprotective function against oxidative stress has been clearly demonstrated in human and rodents, PRDX5 targeting to mitochondria has been evolutionary lost in canids. Moreover, restoration of mitochondrial PRDX5 in dog MDCK cells, instead of conferring protection against peroxide exposure, makes them more vulnerable. PMID:24023783

Van der Eecken, Valérie; Clippe, André; Dekoninck, Sophie; Goemaere, Julie; Walbrecq, Geoffroy; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Knoops, Bernard

2013-01-01

31

Hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in Brazil.  

PubMed

Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids. PMID:22946419

André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

2011-06-01

32

Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1-8% and 20-22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Geffen, E.; Kam, M.; Hefner, R.; Hersteinsson, P.; Angerbjorn, A.; Dalen, L.; Fuglei, E.; Noren, K.; Adams, J.R.; Vucetich, J.; Meier, T.J.; Mech, L.D.; Vonholdt, B.M.; Stahler, D.R.; Wayne, R.K.

2011-01-01

33

Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in 2 dogs from Newfoundland.  

PubMed

Described are the first antemortem diagnosis made via fecal examination using the Baermann technique and the first postmortem recovery of endemic Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs from North America, specifically the Avalon peninsula of Newfoundland. In one dog, A. vasorum was recovered and identified at postmortem; gross and histologic lesions are described. PMID:12497965

Bourque, Andrea; Conboy, Gary; Miller, Lisa; Whitney, Hugh; Ralhan, Sanjay

2002-11-01

34

Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae): migration route in experimental infection of Omalonyx sp. (Gastropoda: Succineidae).  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus costaricensis can infect several mollusks, and its migration route in intermediate hosts has been studied only in Sarasinula marginata. To verify the susceptibility of Omalonyx sp. as an intermediate host of A. costaricensis and to analyze the nematode migration route, individuals were infected with stage 1 larvae. Obtained stage 3 larvae were orally inoculated in mice, and after 30 days, adult worms and stage 1 larvae were recovered, demonstrating Omalonyx susceptibility and suitability to infection. To define the parasite migration routes, specimens of Omalonyx with 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 2 days, 5 days, 10 days, 12 days, 15 days, 20 days, 21 days, 25 days, 28 days, and 30 days of infection were fixed and serially sectioned. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The results were compared to those described in S. marginata. Oral and cutaneous infections were noted. After the penetration, larvae were retained, mainly in the fibromuscular tissue, by hemocytes, or they spread to the whole organism through the circulation, following the anatomical structure of the vasculature. The perilarval hemocyte reaction in Omalonyx was more intense until stage 2 larva instar, decreasing in the presence of stage 3 larvae. Differences in some aspects of hemocyte reaction between S. marginata and Omalonyx exemplify interspecific peculiarities in snail response to the same parasite. PMID:18712530

Montresor, Lângia C; Vidigal, Teofânia H D A; Mendonça, Cristiane L G F; Fernandes, André A; de Souza, Karyne N; Carvalho, Omar S; Caputo, Luzia F G; Mota, Ester M; Lenzi, Henrique L

2008-11-01

35

The suitability of several aquatic snails as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Sixteen species of aquatic snails of four families were tested by quantitative technique under standardized conditions for their suitability as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis. These species were the planorbid snails Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbis intermixtus, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus contortus, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus and Helisoma sp.; the lymnaeid snails Lymnaea natalensis, Lymnaea tomentosa, Lymnaea stagnalis, and Stagnicola elodes; the physid snail Physa acuta (an Egyptian and a German strain) and the ampullariid snails Marisa cornuarietis and Lanistes carinatus. All these snail species proved to be susceptible to infection with A. cantonensis, and first stage larvae reached the infective third stage in all of them. However, the rate and intensity of infection varied with different species. B. glabrata was the most susceptible snail species with a 100% infection rate and an average percentage recovery of third stage larvae of 26.1. This was followed by S. elodes and B. africanus, with a 100% infection rate and an average percentage recovery of third stage larvae of 15.6 and 14.6 respectively. The rest of snail species proved to be less susceptible. For comparative evaluation of the suitability of the various snail species as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis a "Capacity Index" was determined. This index should provide a useful method for the evaluation of the suitability of various snails as intermediate hosts of nematode parasites under standardized conditions in the laboratory. PMID:1189583

Yousif, F; Lämmler, G

1975-10-16

36

Respiratory and olfactory turbinal size in canid and arctoid carnivorans  

PubMed Central

Within the nasal cavity of mammals is a complex scaffold of paper-thin bones that function in respiration and olfaction. Known as turbinals, the bones greatly enlarge the surface area available for conditioning inspired air, reducing water loss, and improving olfaction. Given their functional significance, the relative development of turbinal bones might be expected to differ among species with distinct olfactory, thermoregulatory and/or water conservation requirements. Here we explore the surface area of olfactory and respiratory turbinals relative to latitude and diet in terrestrial Caniformia, a group that includes the canid and arctoid carnivorans (mustelids, ursids, procyonids, mephitids, ailurids). Using high-resolution computed tomography x-ray scans, we estimated respiratory and olfactory turbinal surface area and nasal chamber volume from three-dimensional virtual models of skulls. Across the Caniformia, respiratory surface area scaled isometrically with estimates of body size and there was no significant association with climate, as estimated by latitude. Nevertheless, one-on-one comparisons of sister taxa suggest that arctic species may have expanded respiratory turbinals. Olfactory surface area scaled isometrically among arctoids, but showed positive allometry in canids, reflecting the fact that larger canids, all of which are carnivorous, had relatively greater olfactory surface areas. In addition, among the arctoids, large carnivorous species such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and wolverine (Gulo gulo) also displayed enlarged olfactory turbinals. More omnivorous caniform species that feed on substantial quantities of non-vertebrate foods had less expansive olfactory turbinals. Because large carnivorous species hunt widely dispersed prey, an expanded olfactory turbinal surface area may improve a carnivore's ability to detect prey over great distances using olfactory cues. PMID:23035637

Green, Patrick A; Valkenburgh, Blaire; Pang, Benison; Bird, Deborah; Rowe, Timothy; Curtis, Abigail

2012-01-01

37

Linkage disequilibrium and demographic history of wild and domestic canids.  

PubMed

Assessing the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in natural populations of a nonmodel species has been difficult due to the lack of available genomic markers. However, with advances in genotyping and genome sequencing, genomic characterization of natural populations has become feasible. Using sequence data and SNP genotypes, we measured LD and modeled the demographic history of wild canid populations and domestic dog breeds. In 11 gray wolf populations and one coyote population, we find that the extent of LD as measured by the distance at which r2=0.2 extends <10 kb in outbred populations to >1.7 Mb in populations that have experienced significant founder events and bottlenecks. This large range in the extent of LD parallels that observed in 18 dog breeds where the r2 value varies from approximately 20 kb to >5 Mb. Furthermore, in modeling demographic history under a composite-likelihood framework, we find that two of five wild canid populations exhibit evidence of a historical population contraction. Five domestic dog breeds display evidence for a minor population contraction during domestication and a more severe contraction during breed formation. Only a 5% reduction in nucleotide diversity was observed as a result of domestication, whereas the loss of nucleotide diversity with breed formation averaged 35%. PMID:19189949

Gray, Melissa M; Granka, Julie M; Bustamante, Carlos D; Sutter, Nathan B; Boyko, Adam R; Zhu, Lan; Ostrander, Elaine A; Wayne, Robert K

2009-04-01

38

First report of the activity of predatory fungi on Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) first-stage larvae.  

PubMed

The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans and thus alternative methods of control should be studied. The objective of this work was to evaluate the predatory capacity of eight fungal isolates of the species Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001, CG768 and CG722), Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34), M. sinense (SF53) and Arthrobotrys robusta (I31), A. cladodes (CG719) and A. conoides (I40) on first-stage larvae (L?) of A. cantonensis under laboratory conditions. The treated groups contained 1000 conidia of the fungal isolates and 1000 A. cantonensis L? in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar medium (2% WA). The control group (without fungi) contained only 1000 A. cantonensis L? in 2% WA. Evidence of predation was observed at the end of 7 days. Percentage reductions in L? were: AC001, 82.8%; CG768, 71.0%; CG722, 72.8%; NF34, 86.7%; SF53, 89.7%; I40, 48.3%; CG719, 84.7%; and I31, 80.4%. No significant difference was observed (p>0.01) between the actions of the isolates used; however, a difference was noted (p<0.01) in relation to the control group. The results of the present work, confirm previous reports of the effectiveness of the fungi D. flagrans, M. thaumasium, M. sinense and A. robusta in controlling larvae of potentially zoonotic nematodes, this being the first report on A. cantonensis L?. PMID:23664843

de Paula, Alessandra Teixeira; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; Lelis, Rosane Teixeira; de Mello, Ingrid Ney Kramer; Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; Soares, Fillipe Elias de Freitas; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Garcia, Juberlan da Silva; de Araújo, Jackson Victor

2013-09-01

39

A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids.  

PubMed

One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (Canis latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical "less/more" discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber's Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family - one domesticated, and one wild - make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition. Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given nine trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs' performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes' performance on this same task reported by Baker et al. (2011). The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar non-verbal quantitative abilities across multiple species. PMID:23060847

Baker, Joseph M; Morath, Justice; Rodzon, Katrina S; Jordan, Kerry E

2012-01-01

40

Survey of antibodies to Leishmania spp. in wild canids from Pennsylvania and Tennessee.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Infections with the Leishmania donovani complex, including Leishmania infantum, cause the VL. Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir host for human VL, and wild canids are also susceptible. In the United States, infections with L. infantum are common in the foxhound dog breed. Little information is available regarding L. infantum in wild canids in the Unites States. Sera from 11 foxes and 256 coyotes originating in Pennsylvania and Tennessee (USA) were tested for antibodies to visceralizing Leishmania spp. with rapid immunochromatographic dipstick assays, which utilize recombinant antigen K39. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were found in 5 of 267 (1.9%) of wild canids from Pennsylvania, including four coyotes and one red fox. These results suggest that wild canids are exposed to Leishmania spp. at a low level in the United States. PMID:24450086

Rosypal, Alexa C; Alexander, Andrew; Byrd, Darrica; Weaver, Melanie; Stewart, Richard; Gerhold, Richard; Houston, Allan; Van Why, Kyle; Dubey, Jitender P

2013-12-01

41

Functional diversity of nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematodes are the most abundant metazoa. Their food specificity, the high number of species and high abundance in every habitat where decomposition takes place indicates that the structure of the nematode community has a high information content. Since nematodes respond rapidly to new resources, and the nematode fauna can be efficiently analyzed, the structure of the nematode community offers an

Tom Bongers; Marina Bongers

1998-01-01

42

Seroprevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Wild Rodents from the Canary Islands  

PubMed Central

Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a lungworm of rats (Muridae) that is the causative agent of human cerebral angiostrongyliasis. The life cycle of A. cantonensis involves rats and mollusks as the definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. This study was designed to increase the knowledge about the occurrence and distribution of A. cantonensis in its definitive host in the Canary Islands, using parasitological and serological analysis in different areas and age groups. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2009 and 2010, 54 black rats (Rattus rattus) from Tenerife were captured from six human-inhabited areas and sera samples were obtained. The lung nematodes were identified by morphological and molecular tools as A. cantonensis. The 31-kDa glycoprotein antigen was purified from A. cantonensis adult worms by electrophoresis and electroelution. Of the 54 tested rodents, 30 showed IgG antibodies against A. cantonensis 31-kDa antigen by ELISA. Therefore, the overall seroprevalence was 55.6% (95% CI: 42.4–68). Seroprevalent rodents were found in all the 6 areas. This 31-kDa antigen was not recognized by some sera of rats infected by other helminth species (but not A. cantonensis). Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against A. cantonensis and prevalence based on the presence of adult worms showed significant correlation (R2?=?0.954, p<0.05). Conclusions/Significance The present results could indicate a high prevalence of A. cantonensis in Tenerife and suggest the inclusion of two new zones in the distribution area of the parasite. The commonness and wide distribution of A. cantonensis in rats implies the presence of intermediate hosts, indicating that humans may be at risk of getting infected. PMID:22110752

Martin-Alonso, Aaron; Foronda, Pilar; Quispe-Ricalde, Maria Antonieta; Feliu, Carlos; Valladares, Basilio

2011-01-01

43

Angiostrongylus cantonensis: Scanning Electron Microscopic Observations on the Cuticle of Moulting Larvae  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic nematode that needs to develop in different hosts in different larval stages. Freshwater snails, such as Pomacea canaliculata, are the intermediate host, and rats are the definitive host. Periodic shedding of the cuticle (moulting) is an important biological process for the survival and development of the parasite in the intermediate and definitive hosts. However, there are few studies on the cuticle alterations between different stages of this parasite. In this study, we observed the ultrastructural appearance and changes of the cuticle of the 2nd/3rd stage larvae (L2/L3) and the 3rd/4th stage larvae (L3/L4) using a scanning electron microscope. We also first divided L2/L3 into late L2 and early L3. The late L2 lacked alae, but possessed a pull-chain-like fissure. Irregular alignment of spherical particles on the cuticle were noted compared to the L3. Alae appeared in the early L3. The old cuticle turned into a thin film-like structure which adhered to the new cuticle, and spherical particles were seen regularly arranged on the surface of this structure. Regular rectangular cavities were found on the surface of L3/L4. The caudal structure of L3/L4 was much larger than that of L3, but caudal inflation, such as seen in L4, was not observed. These results are the first to reveal the ultrastructural changes of the cuticle of A. cantonensis before and after moulting of L2/L3 and L3/L4. PMID:24516266

Zeng, Xin; Wei, Jie; Wang, Juan; Wu, Feng; Fung, Feng; Wu, Xiaoying; Sun, Xi; Zheng, Huanqing

2013-01-01

44

Infectious diseases in Yellowstone’s canid community  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Each summer Yellowstone Wolf Project staff visit den sites to monitor the success of wolf reproduction and pup rearing behavior. For the purposes of wolf monitoring, Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is divided into two study areas, the northern range and the interior, each distinguished by their ecological and physiographical differences. The 1,000 square kilometer northern range, characterized by lower elevations (1,500–2,200 m), serves as prime winter habitat for ungulates and supports a higher density of wolves than the interior (20–99 wolves/1,000 km2 versus 2–11 wolves/1,000 km2). The interior of the park encompasses 7,991 square kilometers, is higher in elevation, receives higher annual snowfall, and generally supports lower densities of wolves and ungulates. During the Yellowstone Wolf Project’s 2005 observations on the northern range, researchers noticed that some wolf pups were disappearing and those that remained were unusually listless. The Slough Creek pups, at first numbering 18, dwindled to three survivors. Similar findings were mirrored at other den sites across the northern range. When annual den surveys were conducted in late July, all that remained were scattered piles of bones and fur. Coyotes suffered similar setbacks in 2005, with many of the survivors exhibiting neurological shakes and tremors. The park’s canids had been affected by something, but what? Prompted by what seemed to be a disease outbreak, the Yellowstone Wolf Project, the Yellowstone Ecological Research Center (YERC), and the University of Minnesota decided to take several collaborative approaches toward improving our understanding of the presence and role of infectious disease in Yellowstone’s canid community. Several serological studies have been conducted in the past among the park’s coyotes (Gese et al. 1997) and cougars (Biek 2006), providing a helpful foundation on which to build and compare. A serological survey was conducted, using serum samples collected during routine wolf and coyote captures over a period of 18 years (Almberg et al. 2009). Simulation models were used to explore the dynamics of canine distemper virus (Almberg et al. 2010)—one of the more prominent pathogens in terms of its effects on its hosts—and several long-term pathogen surveillance projects were initiated which are intended to someday provide a foundation for more advanced genetic-based analyses of pathogen dynamics. Since these initial efforts, the group has also expanded the research to include a study of sarcoptic mange, which began affecting wolves and coyotes in YNP in 2006 and 2007.

Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Doug W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.

2011-01-01

45

First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Southeast and South Brazil.  

PubMed

The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay) and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville). The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized. PMID:21120369

Maldonado Jr, Arnaldo; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Motta, Esther M; Fernandez, Mônica A; Pereira, Zilene M; Monteiro, Simone S; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

2010-11-01

46

First report of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Hepatozoon from a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from West Virginia, USA.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus vasorum was identified in the lungs of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from West Virginia, United States (US), indicating a new geographical location for this metastrongylid nematode. The fox was euthanized and submitted for necropsy after displaying erratic behavior. We did not detect rabies virus or canine distemper virus from the fox. We observed bronchopneumonia associated with A. vasorum infection disseminated in both lungs. In addition, protozoal meronts were observed in the liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph node, and were identified as Hepatozoon canis. Lymphoid depletion was also observed in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node. In addition to A. vasorum and H. canis infections, Eucoleus aerophilus eggs and adult worms were observed in the lungs of the fox. Severe lesions associated with A. vasorum infection were observed in the lungs and these were determined to be the likely cause of morbidity; however, synergistic effects among the multiple infections detected in this fox cannot be ruled out. This is the first report of an autochthonous A. vasorum infection in the US and from outside of Newfoundland Canada, the only place in North America where the parasite is known to be endemic. Additionally, this is the first report of a H. canis infection in a red fox from the US. PMID:24412356

Kistler, Whitney M; Brown, Justin D; Allison, Andrew B; Nemeth, Nicole M; Yabsley, Michael J

2014-02-24

47

Study on the elimination of Angiostrongylus costaricensis first stage larvae in the experimental infection of Swiss mice.  

PubMed

Abdominal angiostrongylosis is a nematode infection wild rodents. Human infection may result in severe abdominal disease and has been reported from several countries in the Americas. The domestic mouse, Mus musculus, has not been found with natural infection and, like other urban rodents, should not be considered a natural host for Angiostrongylus costaricensis. Quantification of parasitic forms released for transmission may better express the coevolutionary status in parasite-host relationship. With this objective, five groups of experimentally infected Swiss mice were followed for up to 155 days post-infection (PI) days and the quantification of first stage larvae (L1) output revealed: an irregular elimination of L1 and a huge variation in the patency period (1 to 114 days) and in the number of L1 eliminated daily by individual animals (1 to 6340 L1/g). Overall mortality was 72% (range: 28% to 100%) at seven weeks PI. In conclusion, abdominal angiostrongylosis in M. musculus presents high mortality and a very variable and irregular elimination of L1 in feces. PMID:9698907

Canali, C; Goulart, A H; Graeff-Teixeira, C

1998-01-01

48

Control measures for slug and snail hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, with special reference to the semi-slug Parmarion martensi.  

PubMed

Slugs and snails (class Gastropoda) are the obligate intermediate hosts of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This nematode is the causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis and the most common cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Humans can become infected by accidental consumption of slugs or snails and possibly flatworms (or a portion of one of these animals) in fresh produce, but the slime from these animals can contain nematodes and may also constitute a disease risk. Gastropod carriers in Hawa'i include, among other species, giant African snails, veronicellid slugs, and the semi-slug Parmarion martensi. This latter species was first discovered on the island of Hawa'i in 2004 and is now common in the area where the majority of the state's documented cases of human angiostrongyliasis occurred between 2005 and 2011. This species is considered a high risk carrier of A. cantonensis because of its climbing behavior, abundance around human dwellings, and high worm burdens. One individual collected from east Hawa'i Island contained >6,800 infective third stage A. cantonensis larvae. Common and efficient control methods for slugs and snails include sanitation (eg, removal of objects that serve as hiding places) and the use of poison food baits, such as those containing metaldehyde and iron. An iron-containing bait that is relatively safe to non-target organisms was effective in controlling semi-slugs in cage experiments, although it killed more slowly than a metaldehyde-containing bait and the majority of slugs affected did not die until 1-2 weeks following ingestion. PMID:23901389

Hollingsworth, Robert G; Howe, Kathleen; Jarvi, Susan I

2013-06-01

49

Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi in wild canids from South Carolina.  

PubMed

Wild canids are reservoir hosts for Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi. The present study examined the prevalence of antibodies to these zoonotic parasites in a population of wild canids from a nonagricultural setting in South Carolina. Sera from 26 gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and 2 coyotes (Canis latrans) were examined for antibodies to L. infantum and T. cruzi using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test and commercially available parasite-specific immunochromatigraphic strip assays. Antibodies to L. infantum were not detected by either assay in gray foxes or coyotes. Two (8%) of 26 gray foxes were positive in both the T. cruzi immunofluorescent antibody and strip assays. Antibodies to T. cruzi were not detected in coyotes. Results from this study indicate that wild canids are exposed to T. cruzi, but not L. infantum. in this geographic region. PMID:17918387

Rosypal, Alexa C; Tidwell, Richard R; Lindsay, David S

2007-08-01

50

Pathological findings of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Central Italy, with the first report of a disseminated infection in this host species.  

PubMed

In Europe, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered the reservoir of Angiostrongylus vasorum, nematode residing in the pulmonary arteries and right heart of dogs and many species of wild carnivores. Italy is considered one of the European countries where this nematode is actually spreading. Between May 2007 and November 2013, 62 foxes found dead in Central Italy were necropsied. Right heart and pulmonary arteries were opened and checked for the presence of adult parasites. Impression smears from sectioned lungs were examined for the presence of first-stage larvae, and samples of lungs were processed for histological examination. In order to detect eventual disseminated infections, samples of heart, pulmonary lymph nodes, liver, kidneys, and brain of foxes positive for A. vasorum at necropsy or lungs histological examination were processed for histological examination. An overall prevalence of 43.5% was recorded. Light, mild, and severe lung lesions were detected in 33.3, 22.2, and 25.9% of infected animals, respectively. Severe lesions were more frequent in animals younger than 12 months. In five infected foxes (18.5%), no gross lesions were observed, while for three animals, angiostrongylosis was considered the cause of death. A case of disseminated angiostrongylosis was detected and another one was suspected. This is the firs report of disseminated angiostrongylosis in the fox. PMID:24532011

Eleni, Claudia; Grifoni, Goffredo; Di Egidio, Alessandra; Meoli, Roberta; De Liberato, Claudio

2014-03-01

51

Hunting behaviour of a sympatric felid and canid in relation to vegetative cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnivore foraging behaviour is suited for hunting in specific vegetative cover types and therefore is largely stereotypical within taxonomic families. Felids typically employ dense cover to stalk or ambush prey, whereas canids do not make use of vegetation when hunting. Sympatric lynx, Lynx canadensis, and coyotes, Canis latrans, were tracked in snow for three winters and hunting behaviour in relation

Dennis L. Murray; Stan Boutin; Mark O'Donoghue; Vilis O. Nams

1995-01-01

52

Social communication in canids: evidence for the evolution of a stereotyped Mammalian display.  

PubMed

The variability in the duration and form of the canid play bow was studied in infant coyotes, wolves, wolf-dog hybrids, beagles, and adult free-ranging dogs. Both duration and form showed marked stereotypy. It appears that the role of this context-specific social signal in the communication of play intention has been fostered by selection for "morphological" stereotypy. PMID:17836077

Bekoff, M

1977-09-01

53

Cross-fostering in coyotes: Evaluation of a potential conservation and research tool for canids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-fostering has been attempted opportunistically with endangered canids as a means of increasing populations. Due to the usefulness of cross-fostering for conservation, an understanding of factors influencing success rates is essential. Using captive coyotes (Canis latrans) as a model, we assessed the willingness of adult pairs to foster young born to other parents. We assessed the efficacy of fostering pups

Ann M. Kitchen; Frederick F. Knowlton

2006-01-01

54

How nematode sperm crawl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm of the nematode, Ascaris suum, crawl using lamellipodial protrusion, adhesion and retraction, a process analogous to the amoeboid motility of other eukaryotic cells. However, rather than employing an actin cytoskeleton to generate locomotion, nematode sperm use the major sperm protein (MSP). Moreover, nematode sperm lack detectable molecular motors or the battery of actin-binding proteins that characterize actin-based motility. The

Dean Bottino; Alexander Mogilner; Tom Roberts; Murray Stewart; George Oster

55

Seroprevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in humans in China.  

PubMed

A seroepidemiological survey was carried out in China during 2009-2010 to determine the extent of circulating antigens (CAg) for Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Chinese population using the gold immunochromatographic assay, with the objective of elucidating the nationwide prevalence of angiostrongyliasis in China. A total of 1,730 blood samples was collected and assayed from the general adult population (the "general group"), and those involved in aquaculture or processing of snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculat (the "occupational group") from 5 provinces (Fujian, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Zhejiang) and 1 municipal city (Beijing). The overall seroprevalence for the "occupational group" was 7.4% (40/540), which was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that of the "general group" (0.8%, 9/1,190). The seroprevalence in males (9.5%) was significantly higher than in females (4.2%) (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that angiostrongyliasis represents a significant zoonotic disease in China, requiring the strengthening of food safety for control of this food-borne disease. PMID:21348622

Chen, Mu-Xin; Zhang, Ren-Li; Ai, Lin; Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Shao-Hong; Huang, Da-Na; Gao, Shi-Tong; Geng, Yi-Jie; Li, Xiao-Heng; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2011-02-01

56

Identification and characterization of an asparaginyl endopeptidase from Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Asparaginyl endopeptidase, also known as legumain, is a family of cysteine proteases in many organisms. In this study, an asparaginyl endopeptidase (Ac-AEP) was identified from the cDNA library of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The full-length of Ac-AEP was determined to be 1,472 bp with an open reading frame of 1,341 bp encoding a putative protein with 446 amino acids. This putative protein was determined to have 37-65% identity in the amino acid sequences of the asparaginyl endopeptidases of other parasitic helminths. By real-time quantitative PCR analysis, Ac-AEP was revealed to be more abundantly expressed in the female adult worms than in other development stages. A recombinant asparaginyl endopeptidase (rAc-AEP) was then produced by a Pichia pastoris expression system. Posttranslational modification was shown to occur via N-linked glycosylation in this recombinant enzyme. The proteolytic activity of rAc-AEP was inhibited by iodoacetamide but not affected by E64, pepatain A, AEBSF, and EDTA. Moreover, the purified rAc-AEP was recognized by IgG in serum samples from BALB/c or ICR mice with A. cantonensis infection and patients with eosinophilic meningitis. These findings indicate that the rAc-AEP may have the potential for detecting A. cantonensis infection. PMID:24696276

Chang, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Kuang-Yao; Wang, Lian-Chen

2014-06-01

57

Definitive, Intermediate, Paratenic, and Accidental Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and its Molluscan Intermediate Hosts in Hawa'i  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic meningitis caused by infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a parasitic nematode, is an emerging infectious disease of humans and other animals, known as angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Symptoms range from headache and muscle spasms in mild cases to coma and even death. Many human cases have been recorded around the world, with the majority in tropical and subtropical locations. The increase in numbers of human cases and the expansion of the geographic distribution of cases make this parasite and its hosts important research foci. Definitive hosts include various rat species such as Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus, and R. exulans, and a number of land and freshwater snails and slugs have previously been identified as intermediate hosts.1 Both definitive and intermediate hosts are obligate to the life cycle of A. cantonensis. Paratenic hosts span a wide range of fauna and are not needed in the nematode's life cycle, but act as reservoirs in which different larval stages of the parasite can persist but not develop further; they include freshwater shrimp, flatworms, and frogs.2–4 Accidental hosts, including humans and other mammals, as well as birds, permit development from the third larval stage to the subadult (fifth) stage but are then dead ends for the parasite.5,6 These hosts are infected primarily through consumption of raw or undercooked intermediate or paratenic hosts, either intentionally or accidentally via contaminated produce.7 In Hawa‘i, there have been recent outbreaks with cases of infection on four of the main islands. Since there is currently a limited consensus on appropriate therapy, steps to prevent infection should be taken. The first step to facilitate this and to lay the groundwork for future management of the hosts is to identify the intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis and to determine its geographic distribution within the Hawaiian Islands. To do this over 1000 specimens of 37 terrestrial and freshwater snail and slug species (30 introduced, 7 native) from the six largest Hawaiian Islands were screened using a molecular approach.8 Total DNA was extracted from foot tissue of each specimen and was amplified using Angiostrongylus-specific primers.8 Amplicons were visualized on agarose gels to determine if specimens were positive or negative for A. cantonensis. All of the positive specimens and a random sample of all other specimens tested were also reamplified using species-specific primers.9 All positive samples were still positive with the newer primers. The parasite was present in 16 (14 alien, 2 native) of these species, from five of the six largest Hawaiian Islands. These species represent 10 phylogenetically diverse terrestrial pulmonate families and 2 more distantly related caenogastropod families (one terrestrial and one freshwater). This broad phylogenetic representation demonstrates that this parasite is not host specific, to the extent that perhaps even any snail or slug species could act as an intermediate host.

Kim, Jaynee R; Hayes, Kenneth A; Yeung, Norine W

2013-01-01

58

Cross-reactions of sera from dogs infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum in commercially available Dirofilaria immitis test kits  

PubMed Central

Background Dirofilaria immitis and Angiostrongylus vasorum are both important potentially fatal canine nematodes with overlapping endemic areas, especially in Europe. The preadult and adult stages of both species are living in the Arteria pulmonalis and the right heart, and diagnostically detectable circulating parasite antigens have been demonstrated for both species. For the detection of D. immitis infections, a variety of commercial tests have been developed, however, they have not been evaluated for cross-reactions against circulating antigens of A. vasorum. Methods In this study, potential cross-reactions of sera from 16 dogs, which were experimentally infected with A. vasorum and which had circulating antigens as confirmed by a species-specific ELISA, were evaluated for the detection of A. vasorum antigen in six commercially available D. immitis test kits. Results In three fast tests (Witness® Dirofilaria, SensPERT® Canine Heartworm, SNAP® 4Dx® Plus), all sera were negative. One fast membrane ELISA (SNAP® HTWM RT Test) was positive with four sera (25%), and one serum delivered a non-valid result twice. In the PetChek® HTWM PF Test, depending on the interpretation protocol, 5 or 8 dogs (31.2 – 50%) were positive. With the DiroCHEK®-ELISA, a single A. vasorum-infected dog (6.2%) tested positive. Conclusions Due to potential cross-reactions with A. vasorum in commercially available test kits for the detection of D. immitis antigen, the simultaneous use of highly specific diagnostic methods for the differentiation of these two canine heart worms is recommended. PMID:23148786

2012-01-01

59

Autochtonous infection of dogs and slugs with Angiostrongylus vasorum in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the course of a helminthological survey of the dogs of Baranya County, Hungary Angiostrongylus vasorum infection was detected in two asymptomatic dogs. Identification of the parasite was based on morphology of the first-stage larvae (L1) isolated from droppings, and successful experimental infection with first stage larvae to laboratory reared Discus rotundatus and Lissachatina fulica snails, in order to exclude

Gábor Majoros; Orsolya Fukár; Róbert Farkas

2010-01-01

60

The suitability of several aquatic snails as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen species of aquatic snails of four families were tested by quantitative technique under standardized conditions for their suitability as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis. These species were the planorbid snails Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbis intermixtus, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus contortus, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus and Helisoma sp.; the lymnaeid snails Lymnaea natalensis, Lymnaea tomentosa, Lymnaea stagnalis, and

Fouad Yousif; Georg Lämmler

1975-01-01

61

Blood–brain barrier dysfunction occurring in mice infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several indices were used to assess whether blood–brain barrier (BBB) damage occurs in neurological disorders. Dysfunction of the BBB was surmised to be involved in the pathological changes of eosinophilic meningitis caused by the infection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The mean concentration of protein and albumin in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infected mice gradually increased from days 0 to 18

June-Der Lee; Li-Yu Tsai; Chun-Hsiang Chen; Jiun-Jye Wang; Jen-Kuei Hsiao; Chuan-Min Yen

2006-01-01

62

Severe hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis among young children in Sydney, Australia.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. We describe 2 cases among young children from Sydney, Australia, where locally acquired infection of children has not been reported previously. Both cases manifested as severe hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis, one resulting in death. Angiostrongyliasis must be considered in acute neurological presentations occurring among individuals who live in endemic areas. PMID:23843445

Morton, Nikola J; Britton, Philip; Palasanthiran, Pamela; Bye, Ann; Sugo, Ella; Kesson, Alison; Ardern-Holmes, Simone; Snelling, Thomas L

2013-10-01

63

Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in captive Geoffroy's tamarins (Saguinus geoffroyi).  

PubMed

Case Description-3 Geoffroy's tamarins (Saguinus geoffroyi) in a zoo in east central Alabama developed neurologic signs shortly after a tamarin kept in the same enclosure was found dead. Clinical Findings-Neurologic abnormalities varied among animals and were progressive. One female tamarin with a head tilt, nystagmus, mild ataxia, and paresis of a thoracic limb had gram-positive cocci present in an ear canal with otitis media and interna suspected. Another female with mild ataxia attributed to previous tail amputation developed seizures, and a male tamarin with tail tip trauma also developed ataxia. Treatment and Outcome-The tamarin with suspected otitis received cephalexin and prednisolone, but neurologic signs worsened, and the patient died. Preliminary examination of necropsy samples revealed severe meningoencephalitis in both deceased tamarins. Prednisolone and phenobarbital treatment was initiated for the tamarin with seizures, but rapid neurologic deterioration led to euthanasia. Further histologic examination of the 3 deceased tamarins revealed meningitis and acute perivascular hemorrhage in the meninges. Parasites morphologically consistent with Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus) cantonensis were present in the lungs of 1 animal and in the meninges of 2. The surviving tamarin received cephalexin for tail tip trauma and prednisolone and albendazole for presumed meningoencephalitis and parasitic infection but had permanent neurologic deficits. Clinical Relevance-To our knowledge, these represent the first cases of A cantonensis infection in Geoffroy's tamarins and the first report of its presence in the United States not associated with a major shipping port. The presence of a mature worm in the lungs of 1 tamarin suggested completion of the parasite life cycle, previously reported only in rats. PMID:25229535

Kottwitz, Jack J; Perry, Kaylee K; Rose, Heidi H; Hendrix, Charles M

2014-10-01

64

Ancient DNA analysis affirms the canid from Altai as a primitive dog.  

PubMed

The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication. PMID:23483925

Druzhkova, Anna S; Thalmann, Olaf; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Leonard, Jennifer A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Wayne, Robert K

2013-01-01

65

Ancient DNA Analysis Affirms the Canid from Altai as a Primitive Dog  

PubMed Central

The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication. PMID:23483925

Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Wayne, Robert K.

2013-01-01

66

[Seroprevalence of antibodies anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii in captive wild canids].  

PubMed

Neosporosis is considered one of the main cause of abortion in dairy cattle in the world. The prevalence of Neospora caninum in wild species has been studied since the coyote (Canis latrans), a North American wild canid specie was discovered as definitive host of this parasite. The aim of the present study was to determine the serum prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in wild native canids species from Brazil. Serum samples of 25 crab-eating dogs (Cerdocyon thous), five pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), six bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) e 14 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) were tested. The animals were from zoos and sanctuaries from the states of Parana, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro and the Federal District. The total prevalence obtained for N. caninum was 36% (18/50) and for T. gondii was 40% (20/50). The present study demonstrated for the first time the presence of antibodies to N. caninum in bush dogs and the prevalence found was 33,3% (2/6). This study showed the presence of these protozoans in captive wild canids species and to alert about possible contamination sources. PMID:20059860

Mattos, Bianca C; Patrício, Lia L F; Plugge, Nicolle F; Lange, Rogério R; Richartz, Rosária R T B; Dittrich, Rosângela Locatelli

2008-09-01

67

Prevalence of Zoonotic Intestinal Helminths of Canids in Moghan Plain, Northwestern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The present study was aimed to elucidate the status of intestinal helminth infections in canids of Moghan Plain, northwestern Iran. Methods Eighty-five intestine samples from dead or shot wild canids, 59 fecal samples from sheepdogs and 5 from red foxes were collected from 2006 to 2008 and examined in Parasitology department of Pasteur Institute of Iran. Results Generally, adult worms, larvae, and eggs of 13 species of various parasitic helminths were recovered. Necropsy examinations showed that 96.47% animals harbored at least one helminth species. The prevalence of different species in necropsy were Mesocestoides sp. 84.7%, Rictolaria spp. 55.3%, Macranthorhynchus hirudinaceus 45.9%, Toxocara canis 43.5%, Toxascaris spp. 35.3%, Joyeuxiella sp. 34.1%; hookworms; 22.4%, Taenia spp. 11.8%, Alaria spp. 2.4% and Dipylidium caninum 1.2%. Besides, eggs belonging to 10 species of parasitic helminths were identified in 46 fecal samples and generally, 30.9% of samples harbored eggs of at least one helminth species. Conclusion The high prevalence of various helminth infections among canids in Moghan plain and contamination of environment by helminths eggs may increase the risk of infection for native people. PMID:22347243

Zare-Bidaki, M; Mobedi, I; Ahari, S Sadeghieh; Habibizadeh, S; Naddaf, SR; Siavashi, MR

2010-01-01

68

Comparative genomics of 3 farm canids in relation to the dog.  

PubMed

There are 3 canids besides the dog (Canis familiaris): the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and Chinese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides), which have been extensively studied with the use of cytogenetic and molecular genetics techniques. These 3 species are considered as farm fur-bearing animals. In addition, they are also useful models in comparative genomic studies of the canids. In this review genome organization, karyotype evolution, comparative marker maps, DNA polymorphism and similarity of selected gene sequences of the 3 farm species are discussed in relation to the dog. Also the nature and variability of the B chromosomes, present in the red fox and the Chinese raccoon dog, were considered. These comparative analyses showed that among the studied canids the Chinese raccoon dog is phylogenetically the closest species to the dog. On the other hand, the most advanced linkage and cytogenetic marker maps of the red fox genome facilitate genome scanning studies with the aim to search for chromosome locations of QTL regions for behavior and production traits. PMID:20016159

Switonski, M; Szczerbal, I; Nowacka-Woszuk, J

2009-01-01

69

[Histological studies of the African giant snail (Achatina fulica) experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum or Angiostrongylus cantonensis (author's transl)].  

PubMed

African Giant Snails (Achatina fulica) about 6 weeks old were experimentally infected with each 5,000 to 20,000 first stage larvae of Angiostrongylus vasorum or A. cantonensis by exposure to a larval suspension. The snails were histologically examined after various intervals after infection: 1 hour post infectionem (p.i.) larvae were present in the foot and 2 hours p.i. in addition in the gastrointestinal tract. 12 hours p.i. larvae were seen for the first time in the lung which reached nearly half of the total number of larvae via the hemolymph system. 24 hours p.i. or later 80-90% of the total larval population were detected in the foot and the lung. In the various organs (lung, mantle, hepatopancreas, gastro-intestinal tract, foot) the larvae were found in the loose connective tissue near or within the hemolymph vessels. The cellular defense mechanism of the snail is activated 12 hours p.i. and the parasites are surrounded by large numbers of leucocytes (leucocytic encapsulation). Three days p.i. the nuclei of the cells become spindle shaped and are forming concentric layers in the outer part of the capsule (fibroblastic type of encapsulation). Later on the wall of the encapsulation becomes thinner and a karyolysis can be recognized in the centre, consequently a cavity occurs. Encapsulations in organs poor in muscle cells can histologically not be differentiated from those located in the foot, which consists mainly of muscle cells; a myofibrous type of encapsulation has to be doubted. The effects of the infection on the snail are discussed. PMID:790803

Sauerländer, R

1976-06-10

70

Nematodes in Texas Golf Courses  

E-print Network

construction require 90 percent sand content in the root zone mixture, an ideal habitat for the sting nematode. Awl nematodes (Dolichodorus ssp.):Awl nematodes are rare in Texas, but are as damaging as sting nematodes. Awl nematodes are usually found only... in moist soil near ponds or ditches, and are ectoparasitic. Lance nematodes (Hoplolaimus ssp.): Lance nematodes also can be very damaging to turf grasses. They are more common in Texas than sting nematodes, and are more common in soils with a higher silt...

Crow, William T.

2000-04-10

71

The Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses advantages of nematode use for studying patterns of cell division, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Describes nematode development. Cites experimental approaches available for genetic studies. Reviews the topics of control of cell division and differentiation, the nervous system, and muscle assembly and function of the organism. (RT)

Kenyon, Cynthia

1988-01-01

72

Unique inhibitory cascade pattern of molars in canids contributing to their potential to evolutionary plasticity of diet  

PubMed Central

Developmental origins that guide the evolution of dental morphology and dental formulae are fundamental subjects in mammalian evolution. In a previous study, a developmental model termed the inhibitory cascade model was established. This model could explain variations in relative molar sizes and loss of the lower third molars, which sometimes reflect diet, in murine rodents and other mammals. Here, I investigated the pattern of relative molar sizes (inhibitory cascade pattern) in canids, a taxon exhibiting a wide range of dietary habits. I found that interspecific variation in canid molars suggests a unique inhibitory cascade pattern that differs from that in murine rodents and other previously reported mammals, and that this variation reflects dietary habits. This unique variability in molars was also observed in individual variation in canid species. According to these observations, canid species have greater variability in the relative sizes of first molars (carnassials), which are functionally important for dietary adaptation in the Carnivora. In conclusion, an inhibitory cascade that differs from that in murine rodents and other mammals may have contributed to diverse dietary patterns and to their parallel evolution in canids. PMID:23467478

Asahara, Masakazu

2013-01-01

73

Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in dogs experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this comparative study was to investigate the development of clinical signs and accompanying haematological, coproscopic\\u000a and pathological findings as a basis for the monitoring of health condition of Angiostrongylus vasorum infected dogs. Six beagles were orally inoculated with 50 (n?=?3) or 500 (n?=?3) A. vasorum third stage larvae (L3) obtained from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Two

Manuela Schnyder; Anna Fahrion; Barbara Riond; Pete Ossent; Pia Webster; Asja Kranjc; Tony Glaus; Peter Deplazes

2010-01-01

74

Worm burden and leukocyte response in Angiostrongylus malaysiensis -infected rats: the influence of testosterone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gonadectomized male albino rats aged 7 weeks were given 1.5 mg\\/kg testosterone propionate daily and inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae ofAngiostrongylus malaysiensis. The treatment significantly increased the number of larvae and adult worms recovered from the brain and pulmonary arteries, respectively, and the rats exhibited smaller thymus glands. The total numbers of leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and especially eosinophils increased significantly

A. B. Kamis; R. A. Ahmad; M. Z. Badrul-Munir

1992-01-01

75

Artificial insemination in canids: a useful tool in breeding and conservation.  

PubMed

Artificial insemination (AI) and semen freezing have become services available to dog owners worldwide, and the demand for services to freeze semen is increasing. In other canids such as the fox, the fur industry utilizes fresh or frozen semen to artificially inseminate vixens to produce pelts. Clearly, AI facilitates the use of a male to sire several females by diluting the ejaculate, increases breeding hygiene, and allows crossing between species with slightly different breeding seasons. The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is currently considered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as one of most endangered canids. In captive populations of African wild dogs, semen has been frozen with encouraging results, using a standard cryopreservation protocol for domestic dogs, but successful AI has not been reported. In wolves, there is one report regarding the live birth of an offspring after intravaginal AI of a deslorelin-induced estrous female. In 2005, three Mexican gray wolf females were artificially bred by intrauterine insemination with freshly collected semen from unrelated males, and all females whelped. Artificial insemination may be vaginal, intrauterine or intratubal, and the semen may be fresh, fresh and chilled (diluted), or frozen-thawed, and the source of semen may be epididymal or ejaculated. In the domestic dog, the results are good to excellent for AI with all three types of processed semen when the source is ejaculated semen, whereas epididymal sperm still yields poorer results. Species differences in female physiology, as well as differences in the cryotolerance of the sperm from various canid species, warrant further research and development. PMID:18947865

Thomassen, R; Farstad, W

2009-01-01

76

Presence of antibotulinum neurotoxin antibodies in selected wild canids in Israel.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 35 golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus), eight wolves (Canis lupus), and four red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from various regions of Israel were collected during the years 2001-04 and tested for antibodies to Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types C and D. Antibodies against BoNT types C and D were detected in 10 (29%) and in 3 (9%) of 35 golden jackals, respectively, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This report describes detection of anti BoNT antibodies in wild canids other than coyotes (Canis latrans) for the first time and demonstrates that C. botulinum type C is prevalent in Israel. PMID:17699099

Steinman, Amir; Millet, Neta; Frenkel, Chana; King, Roni; Shpigel, Nahum Y

2007-07-01

77

Wild canids as sentinels of ecological health: a conservation medicine perspective  

PubMed Central

The extinction of species across the globe is accelerating, directly or indirectly due to human activities. Biological impoverishment, habitat fragmentation, climate change, increasing toxification, and the rapid global movement of people and other living organisms have worked synergistically to diminish ecosystem function. This has resulted in unprecedented levels of disease emergence, driven by human-induced environmental degradation, which poses a threat to the survival and health of biodiversity. The emerging discipline of conservation medicine addresses these concerns through the following entities: humans; global climate; habitat destruction and alteration; biodiversity, including wildlife populations; domestic animals; and pathogens, parasites and pollutants. Furthermore, conservation medicine focuses on explicit linkages between these entities. As a crisis discipline, the usefulness of conservation medicine ultimately will depend on its applicability to solving problems. The perspectives and scientific findings of conservation medicine provide input into biomedical education; and policy and management of ecosystems, habitats and imperiled species. A sentinel species is one that has presented itself, or has been selected, to provide insight into the state (health) of an ecosystem, based on user-defined (e.g., researchers, conservationists or policymakers) objectives (e.g., disease, parasites, toxics, climate change, habitat destruction), coupled with the utility and vulnerability of this species to the perceived stress. The scientific information generated by the sentinel species should empower stakeholders and decision-makers to take mitigative action or support predictive capabilities; the "utility" of the species selected should consider its value and relevance to conservationists and to society at large (e.g., education and outreach; social sciences). Wild canids may serve as excellent sentinel species of emerging canine vector-borne diseases. Several canine vector-borne diseases or antibodies to these pathogens have been identified in wild canids including visceral leishmaniosis, Lyme disease, heartworm, hepatozoonosis and anaplasmosis to name a few. These reports are relatively recent as they relate to wildlife-domestic animal interactions, globalisation, translocations, habitat fragmentation and climate change. These pathogens and their relationship to wild canids are described herein. Further research needs to be performed to elucidate the role of the 36 extant species of wild canids in the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases. PMID:19426446

Aguirre, A Alonso

2009-01-01

78

Assessment of the combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime in preventing the development of canine Angiostrongylus vasorum infections.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus vasorum is an increasingly reported parasite in Europe that develops in dogs after ingestion of infective third stage larvae (L3) that reside in gastropod molluscs which are needed to complete the parasite's life-cycle. Infection can produce a diversity of clinical signs, determined by involvement of the respiratory, neurological, and/or coagulation system, with a likely fatal outcome in the absence of treatment. Few drugs have been shown to reliably prevent infection, and data on treatment of infections is limited. A controlled, randomized, partially blinded laboratory study was therefore executed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination tablet of spinosad/milbemycin oxime in dogs inoculated with approximately 250 A. vasorum L3. Sixteen healthy nematode free adult dogs were randomly allocated to two study groups of 8 dogs each. Thirty days post inoculation (dpi) all dogs in the fed state were treated: dogs in group B were treated with spinosad and milbemycin oxime at the dose rates of 45-60 mg/kg and 0.75-1.0mg/kg bodyweight, respectively, approximately the lower half portion of the expected full unit dose range; dogs in group A were treated with placebo tablets. All dogs were euthanized and necropsied 56-58 dpi. The heart and lungs were examined to determine the presence of A. vasorum. All placebo group dogs were infected at necropsy with counts ranging from 22 to 98 adult worms and a geometric mean worm count of 55.2. In contrast, the geometric mean worm count in the spinosad/milbemycin oxime group was 0.7 with worm numbers ranging from 0 to 8. The results of this study demonstrate that a single treatment with the tablet combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime administered 30 dpi provided 98.8% preventive efficacy against development of adult A. vasorum infections. Monthly treatments with spinosad and milbemycin oxime have the potential to prevent the establishment of infections with A. vasorum in dogs. PMID:24269160

Böhm, Claudia; Schnyder, Manuela; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Thompson, Caryn M; Trout, Candace; Wolken, Sonja; Schnitzler, Beate

2014-01-31

79

Permissibility of Mongolian gerbil for Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection and utility of this animal model for anthelmintic studies.  

PubMed

The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) has been indicated to be a useful experimental model host for studying nematode. To understand the possibility of the Mongolian gerbil as an animal model of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection, we investigated the development, migration, and tissue distribution of A. cantonensis and pathological changes in the brain and lungs of the infected Mongolian gerbils. The first stage larvae of A. cantonensis in the stool of the infected gerbils were examined by direct smear method at 45th day postinfection (PI). In addition, a group of the infected gerbils were orally fed with albendazole (100 mg/kg/day/gerbil) at the 8th day PI and continued for 3 consecutive days. The results showed that mortality rate of Mongolian gerbils infected with 10 third stage larvae of A. cantonensis was about 62% at the 30th day PI; the peak period of death was from the 23rd to 30th day PI. About 93% (27/29) of the worms in survivors of infected gerbils could develop to complete sexual maturity at the 46th day PI, and the examinations of 12 gerbils in G3 group revealed that first stage larvae of A. cantonensis could be found in the feces of 4 gerbils at the 45th day PI. About 80% of the worms were in the brain of infected gerbils and 20% in the lungs from the 23rd to 25th day PI; during migration of the worms from the brain to lungs, more than 90% of the worms arrived to the lungs and less than 10% of them still stayed in the brain during from the 45th to 46th day PI. Pathological examination revealed that injuries induced by A. cantonensis in infected gerbils were characterized by eosinophilic meningitis and granulomatous pneumonia. Otherwise, albendazole exhibited a good larvicidal activity in the infected Mongolian gerbils. In contrast with infected control group, no gerbils died in administering albendazole, no worms were recovered, and no nervous system symptoms caused by the infection occurred at the 26th day PI. These findings clearly indicated that Mongolian gerbils should be a potential incomplete permissive host for A. cantonensis and are very susceptive to A. cantonensis infection. Moreover, it has been certified that gerbils as an experimental animal can be used in screening of drug against A. cantonensis. The study provides us a new, selectable experimental animal model for research of A. cantonensis. PMID:24556845

Wei, Yongfang; Hong, Qing; Chen, Daixiong; Liang, Chenjie; Liu, Haiying; Luo, Xiaodong; Zhu, Xunmin

2014-05-01

80

Natural infection of the wild canid, Cerdocyon thous, with the piroplasmid Rangelia vitalii in Brazil.  

PubMed

Canine rangeliosis, caused by the piroplasmid protozoon Rangelia vitalii, is currently recognized as a reemerging disease that affects domestic dogs in Brazil. In the present study, piroplasmid infection was searched in wild canids (20 Cerdocyon thous and 4 Lycalopex gymnocercus) in Brazil. Molecular analysis, based on PCR and DNA sequencing of a portion of the 18S rRNA gene, revealed that 30% (6/20) C. thous were infected by R. vitalii. Blood and bone marrow samples from one of the R. vitalii-infected C. thous were inoculated into a domestic dog, which developed clinical rangeliosis that was confirmed by molecular tests. However, the C. thous donor showed no clinical, hematological or biochemical alterations, even though its R. vitalii infection status was confirmed for at least 80 days. These observations suggest that R. vitalii is not as highly pathogenic for C. thous as it is for domestic dogs. Phylogenetic analysis inferred by the 18S rRNA gene placed R. vitalii embedded in the clade 'Babesia sensu stricto', consisting of a number of species that represent truly the genus Babesia. It is proposed that the species R. vitalii should be transferred to the genus Babesia. The present study expands our knowledge on the natural history of R. vitalii, suggesting that it might have a natural cycle involving the wild canid C. thous. Further studies are needed to confirm that C. thous is a natural reservoir of R. vitalii in Brazil. PMID:24685025

Soares, João F; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Costa, Francisco B; Krawczak, Felipe S; Comerlato, Alexandra T; Rossato, Bruna C D; Linck, Camila M; Sigahi, Eduardo K O; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Sonne, Luciana; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Gregori, Fabio; Vieira, Maria Isabel B; Martins, João R; Reck, José; Labruna, Marcelo B

2014-05-28

81

First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.  

PubMed

Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans. PMID:25410390

Cirovi?, Duško; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Pavlovi?, Ivan; Kuliši?, Zoran; Cosi?, Nada; Burazerovi?, Jelena; Maleti?, Vladimir

2014-12-01

82

A pathological Late Pleistocene canid from San Sidero (Italy): implications for social- and feeding-behaviour.  

PubMed

Evidence of diseases on vertebrate fossil bones can provide detailed information on many aspects of extinct animals. This study focused on pathological craniodental remains (left maxilla and dentary) referred to the canid Cuon alpinus unearthed from a Late Pleistocene karst filling deposit at San Sidero (Apulia, southern Italy). These fossils show clear evidence of a chronic periodontitis that caused the animal's death. Clinical diagnosis of the disease and the timing of its development have been defined on the basis of a veterinary odontostomatology approach, in addition to radiographic and tomographic techniques. From the initiation of the infection until death, a time span of at least 6 months occurred, and three main steps have been defined: (1) the bacterial infections of the buccal cavity turning into severe periodontitis, (2) the fracture of the lower carnassial and (3) the loss of teeth due to the worsening infection that deformed and/or eroded maxillary and mandibular bones and enlarged alveoli. The analysis of the palaeopathology also provides information about the biomechanics of the bite, on the feeding behaviour and on the relationships of injured members in a pack of Late Pleistocene canids. PMID:23371350

Iurino, Dawid Adam; Fico, Rosario; Petrucci, Mauro; Sardella, Raffaele

2013-03-01

83

DNA extraction from hair shafts of wild Brazilian felids and canids.  

PubMed

Wild felids and canids are usually the main predators in the food chains where they dwell and are almost invisible to behavior and ecology researchers. Due to their grooming behavior, they tend to swallow shed hair, which shows up in the feces. DNA found in hair shafts can be used in molecular studies that can unravel, for instance, genetic variability, reproductive mode and family structure, and in some species, it is even possible to estimate migration and dispersion rates in given populations. First, however, DNA must be extracted from hair. We extracted successfully and dependably hair shaft DNA from eight wild Brazilian felids, ocelot, margay, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, pampas cat, jaguarundi, puma, and jaguar, as well as the domestic cat and from three wild Brazilian canids, maned wolf, crab-eating fox, and hoary fox, as well as the domestic dog. Hair samples came mostly from feces collected at the São Paulo Zoo and were also gathered from non-sedated pet or from recently dead wild animals and were also collected from museum specimens. Fractions of hair samples were stained before DNA extraction, while most samples were not. Our extraction protocol is based on a feather DNA extraction technique, based in the phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol general method, with proteinase K as digestive enzyme. PMID:21174262

Alberts, C C; Ribeiro-Paes, J T; Aranda-Selverio, G; Cursino-Santos, J R; Moreno-Cotulio, V R; Oliveira, A L D; Porchia, B F M M; Santos, W F; Souza, E B

2010-01-01

84

On the function of the greeting ceremony in social canids - exempli- fied by African wild dogs Lycaon pictus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutual greeting ceremony is one of the most conspicuous behaviours in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). This highly ritualised pat- tern of behaviour is a lively, noisy and playful activity with frequent annulment of social status of all pack members through appease- ment signals. Greeting behaviour also appears in other pack-living canids, and the domestic dog's greeting of the

Sylvia Rütten; Günther Fleissner

2004-01-01

85

A strategic approach to mitigating the impacts of wild canids: proposed activities of the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild canids (wild dogs and European red foxes) cause substantial losses to Australian livestock industries and environmental values. Both species are actively managed as pests to livestock production. Contemporaneously, the dingo proportion of the wild dog population, being considered native, is protected in areas designated for wildlife conservation. Wild dogs particularly affect sheep and goat production because of the behavioural

P. J. S. Fleming; L. R. Allen; S. J. Lapidge; A. Robley; G. R. Saunders; P. C. Thomson

2006-01-01

86

Nematode gastrulation: having a BLASTocoel!  

PubMed

During gastrulation of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, individual cells ingress into a solid ball of cells. Gastrulation in a basal nematode, in contrast, has now been found to occur by invagination into a blastocoel, revealing an unanticipated embryological affinity between nematodes and all other triploblastic metazoans. PMID:16005279

Joshi, Pradeep M; Rothman, Joel H

2005-07-12

87

Nematode cholinergic pharmacology  

SciTech Connect

Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs.

Segerberg, M.A.

1989-01-01

88

Reibergram of Intrathecal Synthesis of C4 in Patients with Eosinophilic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus cantonensis produces eosinophilic meningitis in humans and is endemic in Thailand, Taiwan, China, and the Caribbean region. During infection with this parasite, it is important to know if the complement system may be activated by the classical or lectin pathway. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 20 patients with meningitic angiostrongyliasis were used to quantify C4 levels and albumin. Results were plotted on a C4 CSF/serum quotient diagram or Reibergram. Twelve patients showed intrathecal synthesis of C4. Antibody-dependent complement cytotoxicity should be considered as a possible mechanism that destroys third-stage larvae of this helminth in cerebrospinal fluid of affected patients. PMID:20519605

Padilla-Docal, Barbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto Juan; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa; Rodriguez-Rey, Alexis; Gutierrez-Hernandez, Juan Carlos; de Paula-Almeida, Susana Olga

2010-01-01

89

Differences in microglia activation between rats-derived cell and mice-derived cell after stimulating by soluble antigen of IV larva from Angiostrongylus cantonensis in vitro.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a rodent nematode. Adult worms of A. cantonensis live in the pulmonary arteries of rats. Humans and mice are accidental hosts or named nonpermissive hosts. The larva cannot develop into an adult worm and only causes serious eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis if humans or mice eat food containing larva of A. cantonensis in the third stage. The differing consequences largely depend on differing immune responses of the host to parasite during A. cantonensis invasion and development. Microglia is considered to be the key immune cell in the central nervous system like macrophage. To further understand the reasons for why mice and rats attain different outcomes in A. cantonensis infection, we set up the method to isolate and culture newborn rats' primary microglia and observe the activation of the microglia cells, comparing with mice microglia cell line N9. We treated cells with soluble antigen of the fourth larva of A. cantonensis (L4 larva) and measured mRNA levels of IL-1?, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, eotaxin, iNOS, and TNF-? by real-time PCR. The results showed that N9 expressed high mRNA level of IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?, iNOS, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin, but primary microglia only had IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin mRNA level. It implies that microglia from rats and mice had different reaction to soluble antigen of A. cantonensis. Therefore, we supposed that microglia may play an immune modulation role during the brain inflammation induced by A. cantonensis. PMID:23073569

Wei, Jie; Wu, Feng; Sun, Xi; Zeng, Xin; Liang, Jin-Yi; Zheng, Huan-Qin; Yu, Xin-Bing; Zhang, Kou-Xing; Wu, Zhong-Dao

2013-01-01

90

Natural infections of Crenosoma vulpis and Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs in Atlantic Canada and their treatment with milbemycin oxime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milbemycin oxime was used to treat dogs with natural infections of the fox lungworm, Crenosoma vulpis and the French heartworm, Angiostrongylus vasorum. Crenosomosis was identified in 42 of 202 dogs with clinical signs of coughing, dyspnoea or exercise intolerance by a Baermann analysis of faecal samples taken between October 2000 and October 2001. It occurred throughout Atlantic Canada (New Brunswick,

G. Conboy

2004-01-01

91

Antibody responses in rats infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the passive transfer of protective immunity with immune serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little haemagglutinating antibody was detected in the serum of rats with primaryAngiostrongylus cantonensis infections until the juvenile worms left the brain and lodged in the lungs about 35 days after infection. Antibody titres reached a peak 50 days after infection and were maintained for at least a further 95 days. Increasing the infective dose ofA. cantonensis larvae increased the peak

W. K. Yong; C. Dobson

1982-01-01

92

The effect of temperature on the development of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen 1935) in Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1822)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis, clinically presented as eosinophilic meningitis, is a snail-borne parasitic disease. We studied the effects of different temperatures on the larval development of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata. Six groups of snails were infected and each group was cultured under different temperature conditions. At predefined intervals, four snails from each group were dissected to examine the

Shan Lv; Xiao-Nong Zhou; Yi Zhang; He-Xiang Liu; Dan Zhu; Wei-Gang Yin; Peter Steinmann; Xian-Hong Wang; Tie-Wu Jia

2006-01-01

93

Anisakid Nematodes and Anisakiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anisakiasis (anisakidosis) refers to infection of people with larval stages of ascaridoid nematodes belonging to the family\\u000a Anisakidae (and possibly also\\u000a Raphidascarididae). These worms, commonly called anisakids, utilize aquatic mammals, piscivorous birds, aquatic reptiles,\\u000a or fish as definitive hosts, and aquatic invertebrates and fish as intermediate or paratenic hosts.

A. J. Lymbery; F. Y. Cheah

94

Analysis of Circulating Haemocytes from Biomphalaria glabrata following Angiostrongylus vasorum Infection Using Flow Cytometry  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus vasorum is an emerging parasite of dogs and related to carnivores that have an indirect life cycle, with a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic gastropods as the obligatory intermediate host. Unfortunately, the relationship between A. vasorum and their snail hosts remains poorly understood. Circulating haemocytes are the main line of cellular defence involved in the destruction of helminths in snails. Aiming to further characterize the haemocyte subsets in Biomphalaria snails, we have performed a flow cytometric analysis of whole haemolymph cellular components using a multiparametric dual colour labelling procedure. Our findings demonstrated that B. glabrata infected with A. vasorum have two major circulating haemocyte subsets, referred to as small and large haemocytes. Differences in the cell proportion occurred over time. The development of better invertebrate infection control strategies would certainly result in the better control of human diseases caused by other species of the genus Angiostrongylus. Such knowledge will assist in the establishment of novel control strategies aimed at parasites that use molluscs as intermediate hosts and clarify new aspects of the parasite-host relationship regarding cell recognition and activation mechanisms, which are also found in the innate response of vertebrates. PMID:22545202

Barcante, Thales A.; Barcante, Joziana M. P.; Fujiwara, Ricardo T.; Lima, Walter S.

2012-01-01

95

PEST&CROP INDEX 2006 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

and Soil Testing Available for Soybean Cyst Nematode - 1 Nematode Updates: What Should We Expect From: Latest on Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) - 22 Nematode Updates ­ Winter Annuals and Management of Soybean Nematodes This Spring? - 8 Nematode Updates: Following the Corn and Soybean Nematodes - 16 Nematode Updates

Ginzel, Matthew

96

Toward 959 nematode genomes  

PubMed Central

The sequencing of the complete genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was a landmark achievement and ushered in a new era of whole-organism, systems analyses of the biology of this powerful model organism. The success of the C. elegans genome sequencing project also inspired communities working on other organisms to approach genome sequencing of their species. The phylum Nematoda is rich and diverse and of interest to a wide range of research fields from basic biology through ecology and parasitic disease. For all these communities, it is now clear that access to genome scale data will be key to advancing understanding, and in the case of parasites, developing new ways to control or cure diseases. The advent of second-generation sequencing technologies, improvements in computing algorithms and infrastructure and growth in bioinformatics and genomics literacy is making the addition of genome sequencing to the research goals of any nematode research program a less daunting prospect. To inspire, promote and coordinate genomic sequencing across the diversity of the phylum, we have launched a community wiki and the 959 Nematode Genomes initiative (www.nematodegenomes.org/). Just as the deciphering of the developmental lineage of the 959 cells of the adult hermaphrodite C. elegans was the gateway to broad advances in biomedical science, we hope that a nematode phylogeny with (at least) 959 sequenced species will underpin further advances in understanding the origins of parasitism, the dynamics of genomic change and the adaptations that have made Nematoda one of the most successful animal phyla. PMID:24058822

Kumar, Sujai; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Kaur, Gaganjot; Blaxter, Mark

2012-01-01

97

Intestinal nematodes: biology and control.  

PubMed

A variety of nematodes occur in dogs and cats. Several nematode species inhabit the small and large intestines. Important species that live in the small intestine are roundworms of the genus Toxocara (T canis, T cati) and Toxascaris (ie, T leonina), and hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma (A caninum, A braziliense, A tubaeforme) or Uncinaria (U stenocephala). Parasites of the large intestine are nematodes of the genus Trichuris (ie, whipworms, T vulpis). After a comprehensive description of their life cycle and biology, which are indispensable for understanding and justifying their control, current recommendations for nematode control are presented and discussed thereafter. PMID:19932365

Epe, Christian

2009-11-01

98

High within-host genetic variation of the nematode Spirocerca lupi in a high-density urban dog population.  

PubMed

The nematode worm Spirocerca lupi has a cosmopolitan distribution and can cause the death of its final canid host, typically dogs. While its life cycle, which involves a coprophagous beetle intermediate host, a number of non-obligatory vertebrate paratenic hosts and a canid final host, is well understood, surprisingly little is known about its transmission dynamics and population genetic structure. Here we sequenced cox1 to quantify genetic variation and the factors that limit gene flow in a 300 km(2) area in South Africa. Three quarters of the genetic variation, was explained by differences between worms from the same host, whereas a quarter of the variation was explained by differences between worms from different hosts. With the help of a newly derived model we conclude that while the offspring from different infrapopulations mixes fairly frequently in new hosts, the level of admixture is not enough to homogenize the parasite populations among dogs. Small infrapopulation sizes along with clumped transmission may also result in members of infrapopulations being closely related. PMID:22226763

de Waal, Pamela J; Gous, Annemarie; Clift, Sarah J; Greeff, Jaco M

2012-06-01

99

Evidence of Coat Color Variation Sheds New Light on Ancient Canids  

PubMed Central

We have used a paleogenetics approach to investigate the genetic landscape of coat color variation in ancient Eurasian dog and wolf populations. We amplified DNA fragments of two genes controlling coat color, Mc1r (Melanocortin 1 Receptor) and CBD103 (canine-?-defensin), in respectively 15 and 19 ancient canids (dogs and wolf morphotypes) from 14 different archeological sites, throughout Asia and Europe spanning from ca. 12 000 B.P. (end of Upper Palaeolithic) to ca. 4000 B.P. (Bronze Age). We provide evidence of a new variant (R301C) of the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) and highlight the presence of the beta-defensin melanistic mutation (CDB103-K locus) on ancient DNA from dog-and wolf-morphotype specimens. We show that the dominant KB allele (CBD103), which causes melanism, and R301C (Mc1r), the variant that may cause light hair color, are present as early as the beginning of the Holocene, over 10 000 years ago. These results underline the genetic diversity of prehistoric dogs. This diversity may have partly stemmed not only from the wolf gene pool captured by domestication but also from mutations very likely linked to the relaxation of natural selection pressure occurring in-line with this process. PMID:24098367

Ollivier, Morgane; Tresset, Anne; Hitte, Christophe; Petit, Coraline; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Pionnier-Capitan, Maud; Lagoutte, Laetitia; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Balasescu, Adrian; Boroneant, Adina; Mashkour, Marjan; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Hanni, Catherine

2013-01-01

100

Serum lipid concentrations in six canid and four ursid species in four zoos.  

PubMed

Serum lipid levels were measured in healthy captive wild canids and ursids, and the values were compared with previously published data. Serum lipid levels were evaluated in blood samples collected from eight African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), three arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus), nine gray wolves (Canis lupus), four maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), two Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baleiyi), nine red wolves (Canis rufus), two brown bears (Ursus arctos), six polar bears (Ursus maritimus), six spectacled bears (Tremarctos ornatus), and five sun bears (Ursus malayanus). Samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Although the results showed a great variation among species, circulating lipids appeared especially high, sometimes extremely so, in the spectacled bears, polar bears, sun bears, and maned wolves compared with all other species sampled. The study provides a substantial basis for comparing lipid levels in presumed healthy animals and indicates a need for controlled study of the effects of diet on circulating lipid levels. PMID:15193071

Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Slifka, Kerri A; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann M

2004-03-01

101

Canid scavenging/disarticulation sequence of human remains in the Pacific Northwest.  

PubMed

Greater understanding of animal scavenging of human remains can assist forensic science investigators in locating and recovering dispersed skeletal elements, in recognizing damage produced by scavengers, and in making more informed estimates of the postmortem interval. The pattern of skeletal damage can indicate whether the body was scavenged while intact or at some time after other natural processes of disarticulation had begun. This study analyzed thirty partially to fully skeletonized human remains with respect to scavenging at the time of body discovery in order to determine if a patterned consumption sequence existed. The scavengers were primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and domestic dogs (C. familiaris). Sixteen non-carnivore-scavenged remains were also examined and contrasted with the carnivore-scavenged sample. Observed postmortem intervals from death to recovery ranged from 4 h to 52 months. Results demonstrate that canid scavenging of human remains takes place in sequential stages: Stage 0 = no bony involvement; Stage 1 = ventral thorax damaged and one or both extremities removed; Stage 2 = lower extremity involvement; Stage 3 = only vertebral segments remain articulated; and Stage 4 = total disarticulation. Results revealed a clear correspondence between stages of disarticulation and the postmortem interval. PMID:2738562

Haglund, W D; Reay, D T; Swindler, D R

1989-05-01

102

Cerebral Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in a captive African pygmy falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) in southern California.  

PubMed

A 10-month-old, female African pygmy falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) hatched and housed at the San Diego Zoo developed neurologic signs and died from a cerebral infection with the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. There was an associated mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. This infection was diagnosed on histology and confirmed by detection of species-specific A. cantonensis DNA in formalin-fixed and frozen brain tissue by a polymerase chain reaction assay. To the authors' knowledge, this infection has not previously been reported in a bird in the United States and has not been known to be naturally acquired in any species in this region of the world. The source of the infection was not definitively determined but was possibly feeder geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus) imported from Southeast Asia where the parasite is endemic. PMID:25085869

Burns, Rachel E; Bicknese, Elizabeth J; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; DeLeon-Carnes, Marlene; Drew, Clifton P; Gardiner, Chris H; Rideout, Bruce A

2014-09-01

103

The effects of different plant extracts on nematodes.  

PubMed

The anthelminthic efficacy of some differently obtained extracts of several plants was tested in vivo in laboratory animals and in vitro. The extracts were obtained by ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, or chloroform, respectively, acetonitrile polyethylenglycol (PEG) and/or propylencarbonate (PC) elution at room temperature or at 37°C. The plants used were bulbs of onions, garlic, chives, coconut, birch tree, ananas, cistrose, banana, chicory, date palm fruit, fig, pumpkin, and neem tree seeds. The worm systems tested both in vivo and in vitro were Trichuris muris and Angiostrongylus cantonensis but only in vivo Toxocara cati. The tests clearly showed that the different extraction methods eluted different components and different mass amounts, which had different efficacies against the above-cited worms. In vitro effects against A. cantonensis and T.muris were best with aqueous extracts, followed by chloroform extracts. The other plant extracts showed only low or no effects on A. cantonensis in vitro. In the case of T. muris, best results were obtained in vivo and in vitro with PEG/PC extracts of the onion followed by the aqueous extract of coconut. The complete elimination of worms in the in vivo experiments with T. muris was obtained when infected mice were treated with a 1:1 mixture of extracts of coconut and onion being produced by elutions with a mixture of 1:1 PEG and PC and fed daily for 8 days. T. cati in a naturally infected cat was eliminated by daily oral application of 6 ml coco's fluid for 5 days. This study shows that a broad spectrum of plants has anti-nematodal activities, the intensity of which, however, depends on the mode of extraction. This implicates that, if results should be really comparable, the same extraction methods at the same temperatures have to be used. Furthermore, efficacy in in vitro systems does not guarantee as good--if at all--efficacy in vivo. PMID:21110041

Klimpel, Sven; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Aksu, Gülendem; Fischer, Katja; Strassen, Bianca; Mehlhorn, Heinz

2011-04-01

104

Canine and feline infections by cardiopulmonary nematodes in central and southern Italy.  

PubMed

Capillaria aerophila, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis are cardiopulmonary nematodes affecting dogs and cats and presently emerging in several countries. The results obtained in 2009 - 2010 during a study aiming to investigate the occurrence of these nematodes in regions from Central (Marche and Abruzzo regions--Sites A and B, respectively) and southern (Apulia--Site C) Italy are here reported. A total of 534 and 436 individual faecal samples collected from dogs and cats were examined, together with 471 and 34 faecal environmental samples taken from dog shelters and catteries. One hundred and ninety-two individual blood samples were also collected from dogs. Faeces were examined using copromicroscopical flotations and Baermann technique, whereas blood samples were tested by Knott's method. Eggs of C. aerophila were detected in 1.48 % and 20 % (Site A), 8.67 % and 2.71 % (Site B), and 16.67 % and 0 % (Site C) of individual and environmental canine samples. C. aerophila was found in 2.90 % (Site A), 3.03 % (Site B) and 14.29 % (Site C) of individual cats. Larvae of A. vasorum were found in 0.96 % and 2.48 % of individual and environmental samples from Site B, respectively, while those of A. abstrusus in 1.82 % (Site A) and 9.96 % (Site B) of individual faeces. Microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis, identified on the basis of key morphological and morphometric features, were detected in 2.56 % of samples collected from Site B. Despite the small sample size, these results indicate that cardiopulmonary nematodes occur in Central and southern Italy, thus they should be included in the differential diagnosis of pet cardiorespiratory diseases. Larger surveys are necessary to gain more information on the diffusion of these parasites, especially for C. aerophila and A. vasorum, for which the actual distribution is poorly known. PMID:21739378

Di Cesare, Angela; Castagna, Giuseppe; Meloni, Silvana; Milillo, Piermarino; Latrofa, Stefania; Otranto, Domenico; Traversa, Donato

2011-08-01

105

Mediastinal lymph node cells of Angiostrongylus cantonenesis-infected rats respond to antigens and release interleukin-5 in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of eosinophil growth and\\/or survival stimulating factor (Eo-stimulating factor) production in Angiostrongylus cantonensis-infected rats was assessed by in vitro marrow cultures. When lymphocytes, obtained from cervical, mediastinal or mesenteric lymph nodes of infected WKAH rats, were cultured with A. cantonensis antigens, Eo-stimulating factor activity was detected in the conditioned media obtained only from mediastinal lymph node cells at

Hiroko Sugaya; Kentaro Yoshimura; Tatsuya Abe

1996-01-01

106

Immunodiagnosis of human eosinophilic meningitis using an antigen of Angiostrongylus cantonensis L 5 with molecular weight 204 kD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An antigen from Angiostrongylus cantonensis fifth-stage larvae was purified by immuno-affinity chromatography with a specific monoclonal antibody. The purified antigen showed only a single band with a molecular weight of 204 kD in SDS–PAGE, and no cross-reactivity to antibodies induced by several other species of helminths were observed in ELISA. When the purified antigen was used to examine serum and

Soi-Moi Chye; Jui-Hsien Chang; Chuan-Min Yen

2000-01-01

107

Kinetics of change in the eotaxin concentration in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of mice infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of changes in the eotaxin concentration in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of BALB\\/c mice after infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the correlation between the concentration of eotaxin and worm recovery were investigated. The mean concentration of eotaxin in serum of infected mice gradually increased from 46.3±6.5 pg\\/ml at week 0 to 104.9±44.8 pg\\/ml at week 3 after infection, while the

EddyEssen Chang; Lee-Yi Chung; Chuan-Min Yen

2004-01-01

108

Changes in worm burden, haematological and serological response in rats after single and multiple Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen groups of rats were first sensitized with single or double doses of 5–30 third-stage larvae ofAngiostrongylus cantonensis, followed by a challenge infection with 100 larvae at various periods after the primary infection. Seven other groups of rats receiving only the sensitizing infection served as the controls. In all the sensitized rats, a significantly (p<0.05) smaller mean number of adult

Andrew C. S. Au; Ronald C. Ko

1979-01-01

109

2010 Rootknot nematode variety trial results  

E-print Network

2010 Rootknot nematode variety trial results Dr. Terry A. Wheeler Research Plant Pathologist)7466101 #12;Root-knot nematodes infest approximately 40% of the cotton acreage in the Southern High Plains with partial resistance to root-knot nematode. The known commercial cultivars with partial nematode resistance

Mukhtar, Saqib

110

Pristionchus pacificus: a well-rounded nematode  

E-print Network

Pristionchus pacificus: a well-rounded nematode Ray L. Hong and Ralf J. Sommer* Summary Nematodes as a model for developmental processes has encouraged us to cultivate a second nematode, Pris- tionchus in nematode evolution. We hope that this endeavor, now more than a decade underway, will allow us to project

Cohen, Randy W.

111

Date: Lab. Ref. No. NEMATODE SAMPLE FORM  

E-print Network

(Soybean cyst nematode): To determine soil nematode field population levels, one quart of soil should. It is sometimes possible to detect soybean cyst nematode (SCN) on roots early in the growing season. Later cysts be discarded. This procedure can be followed for other corn and non-cyst soybean nematodes. Turf : Soil

Ginzel, Matthew

112

Functional characterization of nematode effectors in plants.  

PubMed

Secreted effectors represent the molecular interface between the nematode and its host plant. Studies that aimed at deciphering molecular plant-nematode interactions are hampered by technical hurdles that prevent the generation of transgenic nematodes. However, RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a valuable tool to specifically knock-down nematode effector genes, both ex planta and in planta. Plant-mediated RNAi of nematode genes not only facilitates functional characterization of effectors but also lends itself to a novel control strategy against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we describe currently used methods to silence genes in plant-parasitic cyst and root-knot nematodes. PMID:24643556

Elling, Axel A; Jones, John T

2014-01-01

113

Water Developments and Canids in Two North American Deserts: A Test of the Indirect Effect of Water Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic modifications to landscapes intended to benefit wildlife may negatively influence wildlife communities. Anthropogenic provisioning of free water (water developments) to enhance abundance and distribution of wildlife is a common management practice in arid regions where water is limiting. Despite the long-term and widespread use of water developments, little is known about how they influence native species. Water developments may negatively influence arid-adapted species (e.g., kit fox, Vulpes macrotis) by enabling water-dependent competitors (e.g., coyote, Canis latrans) to expand distribution in arid landscapes (i.e., indirect effect of water hypothesis). We tested the two predictions of the indirect effect of water hypothesis (i.e., coyotes will visit areas with free water more frequently and kit foxes will spatially and temporally avoid coyotes) and evaluated relative use of free water by canids in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts from 2010 to 2012. We established scent stations in areas with (wet) and without (dry) free water and monitored visitation by canids to these sites and visitation to water sources using infrared-triggered cameras. There was no difference in the proportions of visits to scent stations in wet or dry areas by coyotes or kit foxes at either study area. We did not detect spatial (no negative correlation between visits to scent stations) or temporal (no difference between times when stations were visited) segregation between coyotes and kit foxes. Visitation to water sources was not different for coyotes between study areas, but kit foxes visited water sources more in Mojave than Great Basin. Our results did not support the indirect effect of water hypothesis in the Great Basin or Mojave Deserts for these two canids. PMID:23844097

Hall, Lucas K.; Larsen, Randy T.; Knight, Robert N.; Bunnell, Kevin D.; McMillan, Brock R.

2013-01-01

114

Water developments and canids in two North American deserts: a test of the indirect effect of water hypothesis.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic modifications to landscapes intended to benefit wildlife may negatively influence wildlife communities. Anthropogenic provisioning of free water (water developments) to enhance abundance and distribution of wildlife is a common management practice in arid regions where water is limiting. Despite the long-term and widespread use of water developments, little is known about how they influence native species. Water developments may negatively influence arid-adapted species (e.g., kit fox, Vulpes macrotis) by enabling water-dependent competitors (e.g., coyote, Canis latrans) to expand distribution in arid landscapes (i.e., indirect effect of water hypothesis). We tested the two predictions of the indirect effect of water hypothesis (i.e., coyotes will visit areas with free water more frequently and kit foxes will spatially and temporally avoid coyotes) and evaluated relative use of free water by canids in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts from 2010 to 2012. We established scent stations in areas with (wet) and without (dry) free water and monitored visitation by canids to these sites and visitation to water sources using infrared-triggered cameras. There was no difference in the proportions of visits to scent stations in wet or dry areas by coyotes or kit foxes at either study area. We did not detect spatial (no negative correlation between visits to scent stations) or temporal (no difference between times when stations were visited) segregation between coyotes and kit foxes. Visitation to water sources was not different for coyotes between study areas, but kit foxes visited water sources more in Mojave than Great Basin. Our results did not support the indirect effect of water hypothesis in the Great Basin or Mojave Deserts for these two canids. PMID:23844097

Hall, Lucas K; Larsen, Randy T; Knight, Robert N; Bunnell, Kevin D; McMillan, Brock R

2013-01-01

115

A Comparison of Facial Color Pattern and Gazing Behavior in Canid Species Suggests Gaze Communication in Gray Wolves (Canis lupus)  

PubMed Central

As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication. PMID:24918751

Ueda, Sayoko; Kumagai, Gaku; Otaki, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kohshima, Shiro

2014-01-01

116

An evaluation of the PCR-RFLP technique to aid molecular-based monitoring of felids and canids in India  

PubMed Central

Background The order Carnivora is well represented in India, with 58 of the 250 species found globally, occurring here. However, small carnivores figure very poorly in research and conservation policies in India. This is mainly due to the dearth of tested and standardized techniques that are both cost effective and conducive to small carnivore studies in the field. In this paper we present a non-invasive genetic technique standardized for the study of Indian felids and canids with the use of PCR amplification and restriction enzyme digestion of scat collected in the field. Findings Using existing sequences of felids and canids from GenBank, we designed primers from the 16S rRNA region of the mitochondrial genome and tested these on ten species of felids and five canids. We selected restriction enzymes that would cut the selected region differentially for various species within each family. We produced a restriction digestion profile for the potential differentiation of species based on fragment patterns. To test our technique, we used felid PCR primers on scats collected from various habitats in India, representing varied environmental conditions. Amplification success with field collected scats was 52%, while 86% of the products used for restriction digestion could be accurately assigned to species. We verified this through sequencing. A comparison of costs across the various techniques currently used for scat assignment showed that this technique was the most practical and cost effective. Conclusions The species-specific key developed in this paper provides a means for detailed investigations in the future that focus on elusive carnivores in India and this approach provides a model for other studies in areas of Asia where many small carnivores co-occur. PMID:20525407

2010-01-01

117

Management strategies for control of soybean cyst nematode and their effect on the nematode community.  

E-print Network

??Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is the major yield-limiting pathogen on soybean and various plant-parasitic nematodes can damage corn. Additionally, the nematode community is… (more)

Grabau, Zane Joseph

2013-01-01

118

A serological survey of infectious disease in yellowstone national park's canid community  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background: Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991-2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5-0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [???1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5-1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [???1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6-4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [???5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals' odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Conclusions/Significance: Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics might be expected might be useful for future management of the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf population.

Almberg, E. S.; Mech, L. D.; Smith, D. W.; Sheldon, J. W.; Crabtree, R. L.

2009-01-01

119

A Serological Survey of Infectious Disease in Yellowstone National Park's Canid Community  

PubMed Central

Background Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991–2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5–0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [?1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5–1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [?1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6–4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [?5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals’ odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Conclusions/Significance Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics might be expected might be useful for future management of the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf population. PMID:19756151

Almberg, Emily S.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.

2009-01-01

120

Nematode effectors and plant responses to infection.  

PubMed

Genomic resources in Arabidopsis have made possible the discovery of plant genes that mediate the nematode infection process, particularly the complex process of root re-differentiation into either knots or cysts. The genomic DNA sequences of two root knot nematodes have been characterized and considerable sequence coverage of cDNA from several cyst nematodes is available. These resources have enabled the discovery of several nematode effectors that play roles in causing susceptibility. RNAi has been used to create Arabidopsis plants that are resistant to root knot or to cyst nematodes and this has been extended to make soybean resistant to the cyst nematode. PMID:20542724

Bellafiore, Stephane; Briggs, Steven P

2010-08-01

121

Angiostrongylus malaysiensis from Tuaran, Sabah, with reference to the distribution of the parasite in Malaysia.  

PubMed

A survey of Angiostrongylus malaysiensis among wild rodent and molluscan hosts was made in the Tuaran Central Agricultural Research Station and within the vicinity of Tuaran, Sabah. Three of 19 Rattus rattus diardii, one of 2 R. exulans and one R. argentiventer were found naturally infected with the parasite. In this survey 56 of 382 molluscs comprising of Pila scutata, Achatina fulica and two species of land slugs, Laevicaulis alte and Microparmarion malayanus, were found naturally infected with the parasite. Samples of larvae from each of these molluscs were experimentally transferred to laboratory albino rats and adult worms consistent with A. malaysiensis were recovered. Comparison of the rat hosts and the molluscan intermediate hosts of the parasite in Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah was made, and the finding of A. malaysiensis in Tuaran is the first report of the parasite from Sabah. The distribution of the parasite throughout Malaysia is discussed. Observation on the human consumption of the freshwater snail, P. scutata, was made. Although the infection rate of this snail is low compared with other molluscan hosts examined. The importance of this mollusc as a potential source of human infection should not be overlooked. Hospital records for 1974 and 1975 were examined and clinical human angiostrongyliasis was rarely recorded in Sabah. PMID:1030843

Liat, L B; Wah, L T; Cheah, W; Cheah, W; Fong, Y L; Fong, Y L

1976-09-01

122

Experimental infection of five subspecies of Oncomelania snails with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Five subspecies of Oncomelania snails, Oncomelania hupensis nosophora, O.h. hupensis, O.h.chiui, O.h.formosana and O.h.quadrasi, were experimentally exposed to the first stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonesis. The presence of third stage larvae was observed in all of the five subspecies of Oncomelania snails 20 days after infection. Infection rates of the third stage larvae of the parasite in Oncomelania snails were 38.0-40.0%. There were no differences in preferences among Oncomelania snails. The third stage larvae in Oncomelania snails almost distributed in kidney and intestine region, and most of the larvae were active and free in tissues. The distribution pattern of the larvae in Oncomelania snails was quite different from that in Achatina fulica and Ampullarium sp. These third stage larvae were ingested by rats, and developed to adults. These data suggest that Oncomelania snails may play important role when A. cantonensis will spread, and indicate the possibility of human infection with A. cantonensis. PMID:9139392

Iwanaga, Y

1995-12-01

123

Autochtonous infection of dogs and slugs with Angiostrongylus vasorum in Hungary.  

PubMed

On the course of a helminthological survey of the dogs of Baranya County, Hungary Angiostrongylus vasorum infection was detected in two asymptomatic dogs. Identification of the parasite was based on morphology of the first-stage larvae (L1) isolated from droppings, and successful experimental infection with first stage larvae to laboratory reared Discus rotundatus and Lissachatina fulica snails, in order to exclude species of the family Filaroididae that have similar larvae to A. vasorum. While angiostrongylosis is widespread among foxes, this is the first report of A. vasorum infection in housedog in Hungary. In gardens, where infected dogs were being kept 91 specimens of 6 species of limacid and arionid slugs were collected of which 5 specimens of Arion lusitanicus were found to carry larvae of A. vasorum. Dogs usually do not ingest such large slugs willingly. Frogs are known to act as paratenic hosts in the life cycle of A. vasorum. Since one of the infected dogs harboured also infection with the intestinal trematode Alaria alata, of which frogs certainly play the role of the second intermediate host, therefore it is assumed that in this case the dog became infected with A. vasorum by eating frogs. PMID:20947255

Majoros, Gábor; Fukár, Orsolya; Farkas, Róbert

2010-12-15

124

Hematological and histopathological changes in Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935).  

PubMed

Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonosis endemic to Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands. It is considered an emerging disease because it has been expanding both geographically and in terms of the range of hosts. In South America, the first cases were reported in Brazil and were attributed to eating infected snails. In this study, 70 adult females of Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) were used to evaluate hematology, blood gases, cardiac markers and lung histopathology changes caused by this parasite. Of them, 60 were individually infected by orogastric gavage with 100 L(3) larvae and 10 uninfected animals formed the control group. The results obtained demonstrate that infection caused by A. cantonensis in R. norvegicus promotes significant hematological changes induced in the vertebrate host, manifested mainly in the form of regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia and eosinophilia. Additionally, histopathological changes in the lung parenchyma demonstrated in rodents reveal the occurrence of areas of necrosis and extensive fibrosis, being directly related to the development of cellular hypoxia and enzyme cardiac changes. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between A. cantonensis and R. norvegicus. PMID:24786730

Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Dos Santos Bonfim, Tatiane Cristina; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Mota, Esther Maria; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Santana, André Campos; Hooper, Cleber; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bóia, Marcio Neves

2014-08-01

125

Angiostrongylus cantonensis: experimental study on the susceptibility of apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata compared to Pila polita.  

PubMed

Six groups (15 snails/group) of Pomacea canaliculata and Pila polita were infected orally with 0 (control), 200, 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 first-stage Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae (L1). The respective mean+/-SD third stage larvae (L3) worm recovery 1-month post-infection (p.i.) for P. canaliculata was 0, 1.4+/-5.42 (0.7%), 0.13+/-0.35 (0.03%), 0.07+/-0.26 (0.009%), 0.07+/-0.26 (0.004%), 0, and for P. polita 0, 64.33+/-21.38 (32.25%), 115.36+/-36.82 (28.93%), 265.33+/-90.01 (33.27%), 471.33+/-92.98 (29.60%) and 849.00+/-243.23 (26.61%). The susceptibility of A. cantonensis in P. polita was dose-dependent (p<0.001). In the three groups (nine snails/group) of P. polita given 500 L1, we studied the distribution of L3 in the internal organs (i.e., foot, head+esophagus, kidney, albumin gland, mantle, intestine, digestive gland) and found the highest density after 1, 2 and 3 months p.i. in the mantle at 29.37%, 31.09% and 37.45%. The infection rate in P. canaliculata was too low to study distribution rates. PMID:18154954

Tesana, Smarn; Srisawangwong, Tuanchai; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Laha, Thewarach

2008-04-01

126

Changes in the calcium metabolism of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Levels of calcium in the haemolymph and reserves in the shell of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined for the first time. At the same time, histochemical analyses of the digestive gland of infected and uninfected snails were performed to better understand the possible changes in metabolism of calcium in these organisms. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks of infection, the snails were dissected for collection of haemolymph and separation of tissues. The highest calcium concentrations in the haemolymph were found 2 weeks after infection, with a 39.61% increase in relation to the respective control group. However, there was a significant reduction in the concentration of this ion in the haemolymph of infected snails after 1 week of infection in relation to the uninfected specimens. In parallel, intense hypocalcification was shown in the shell of infected snails 1 and 2 weeks after infection, differing significantly in relation to the respective control groups. Morphological changes in the digestive gland of infected snails were also observed, confirming the role of this ion as an important element in the parasite encapsulation process. PMID:23290340

Tunholi-Alves, V M; Tunholi, V M; Garcia, J Silva; Costa-Neto, S F; Maldonado, A; Santos, M A J; Thiengo, S C; Pinheiro, J

2014-06-01

127

PEST&CROP INDEX 2007 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

Top Soil is Dry - 9 Nematodes Nematode Updates 2007: Soybean Cyst Nematode ­ 4 Nematode Updates Corn Cyst Nematode - 22 Other Potato Leafhopper It's Potato Leafhopper in Alfalfa Time ­ 10 LeafhopperPEST&CROP INDEX 2007 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES Asian Lady Beetle Asiatic Garden Beetle A New Field

Ginzel, Matthew

128

Nematodes of Plants and Soils: Genus 'Ditylenchus'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Taxonomic Review of Nematodes of the Genus; Genetic Basis and Inheritance of Pathogenicity; Development and Propagation of Nematodes of the Genus Ditylenchus; Physiological Reaction of Ditylenchus; Plants as Medium of Habitat for stem In...

V. G. Gubina

1988-01-01

129

Biogenic magnetite in the nematode Caenorhabditis  

E-print Network

Biogenic magnetite in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Charles G. Cranfield1 , Adam Dawe2.04.04; Published online 28.06.04 The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used as a model system in biological as implications for the use of this nematode as a model system for iron biomineralization in multi- cellular

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

130

Original article Nematode genera diversity in cattle  

E-print Network

Original article Nematode genera diversity in cattle: similarity of between-sire progenies Enrique (Received 25 August 1997; accepted I6December 1997) Abstract - Breeding cattle for resistance to nematode of the nematodes involved. Unless we know whether the selected resistance is directed against one or several

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

Tansley review Nematode effector proteins: an emerging  

E-print Network

Tansley review Nematode effector proteins: an emerging paradigm of parasitism Author Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA Contents Summary 1 I. Introduction 1 II. Nematode effector regulation and delivery into host cells 3 III. Nematode effectors as probes of plant cell biology

Hussey, Richard S.

132

Nematodes that Economically Impact Cotton in Texas Root-knot nematode: These nematodes get their name because of the galls that form on roots  

E-print Network

Nematodes that Economically Impact Cotton in Texas Root-knot nematode: These nematodes get-knot nematode is that the plants require more water to get the same amount of growth as a plant that does not have root-knot nematode. In a water-limited environment it may be impossible to supply the plant

Mukhtar, Saqib

133

Diversity and prevalence of metastrongyloid nematodes infecting the red panda ( Ailurus fulgens) in European zoos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastrongyloid induced pneumonia has been described sporadically in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens). Early descriptions in pandas recently imported to the USA from China involved parasites morphologically similar to Angiostrongylus spp. and Crenosomatidae. More recently, four cases of severe verminous pneumonia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum have been reported from European zoos. A coprological survey of the red panda population within

Mads F. Bertelsen; Frederik Meyland-Smith; Jakob L. Willesen; Ryan Jefferies; Eric R. Morgan; Jesper Monrad

2010-01-01

134

Metabolic and histopathological profile of Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935).  

PubMed

Eosinophilic meningitis is a disease characterized by increased eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the most commonly caused by invasion of the central nervous system by helminths, as occurs in Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections. The rodent Rattus norvegicus is the definitive natural host and humans act as accidental hosts and can become infected by eating raw or undercooked snails or food contaminated with infective L3 larvae. Recently in Brazil there have been four cases of eosinophilic meningitis due to ingestion of infected Achatina fulica. To evaluate biochemical and histopathological changes caused by this parasite, R. norvegicus were experimentally infected with 100 L3 larvae of A. cantonensis. After the anesthetic procedure, serum from the rodents was collected from the inferior vena cava for evaluation of the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein and its fractions. During the necropsy, the liver was collected and weighed. Then a 1-g fragment was extracted from the major lobe to quantify the hepatic glycogen and fragment remainder was taken from the same lobe and fixed in Milloning's formalin for histopathological examination. Additionally, helminths were collected from the brain and lungs of the rodents. The activities of AST, ALT, ALKP and GGT in the serum and hepatic glycogen increased in response to infection, while the levels of globulin and total protein increased only in the eighth week of infection and there was a reduction in the levels of serum glucose. Albumin and bilirubin concentrations remained stable during the experiment. Infection with A. cantonensis caused metabolic and histopathological changes in the rodents. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between A. cantonensis and R. norvegicus. PMID:24333291

Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Lúcio, Camila dos Santos; Bonfim, Tatiane Cristina dos Santos; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Mota, Esther Maria; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Santana, André Campos; Hooper, Cleber; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bóia, Marcio Neves

2014-02-01

135

Plant and Insect Parasitic Nematode Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Nebraska at Lincoln provides this site. Created as "an aid for nematode identification and systematic research," the website also serves as an excellent general resource on the science of Nematology. Users will find sections on Nematodes of the Great Plains, an Illustrated Diagnostic Key, Nematode Genera, the Molecular Identification of Nematodes, and others. Resource information at the site includes the Nematology Mailing List (NEMA-L), a Nematode Bibliography Server, the Nematology Employment Bulletin Board, and links to other websites such as the Society of Nematologists.

136

Wolbachia Bacteria of Filarial Nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding that the intracellular bacteria of filarial nematodes are related to the Wolbachia symbionts of arthropods has generated great interest. Here, Mark Taylor and Achim Hoerauf review recent studies by several groups on the structure, distribution and phylogeny of these endosymbionts, and discuss the potential role for these bacteria in filarial disease and as a target for chemotherapy.

M. J Taylor; A Hoerauf

1999-01-01

137

Behavioral ecology of entomopathogenic nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the behavior and ecology of entomopathogenic nematodes in relation to their successes and failures as biological control agents. Four categories of studies have been reviewed herein; infective juvenile foraging strategies, recognition and evaluation of the host by infective juveniles, the actual behaviors of infective juveniles that result in infection, and the protective role of the symbiotic bacteria during

Edwin E. Lewis; James Campbell; Christine Griffin; Harry Kaya; Arne Peters

2006-01-01

138

Hosts of two canid genera, the red fox and the dog, as alternate vectors in the transmission of Sarcocystis tenella from sheep.  

PubMed

Microscopic sarcocysts recovered from naturally infected sheep were infective to both the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The parasite was passaged through experimental specific-parasite-free (SPF) sheep three times: infection was transmitted twice with sporocysts from foxes and subsequently with sporocysts from dogs. The sarcocysts from sheep muscle were infective to both dogs and foxes on each occasion. A cat was not infected. The prepatent period in individual canids ranged from 7 to 15 days. Sporocyst excretion was still detectable 60 days post infection. This study establishes that canids of two genera may act as vectors for a single isolate of the same Sarcocystis species from sheep. PMID:2964118

Ford, G E

1987-12-01

139

MicroRNA expression profile in the third- and fourth-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of angiostrongyliasis, resulting from the third-stage and the fourth-stage Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae invasion of the human central nervous system, remains elusive. MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression and involved in many biological processes. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize miRNAs of third (L3) and fourth (L4) larvae of A. cantonensis by Solex deep sequencing. A total of 629 conserved miRNAs (526 and 376 miRNAs in L3 and L4 larvae of A. cantonensis, respectively) and three novel candidate miRNA from L3 and L4 larva of A. cantonensis were identified with bioinformatic analysis. There were 163 miRNAs upregulated and 54 miRNAs downregulated (fold changes ?5.0) in the L4 of A. cantonensis compared with that of L3 of A. cantonensis. Interestingly, Gene Ontology "biological process" classifications revealed that 26 miRNAs of significantly differential expression are associated with the immune system, which implies that these miRNAs might participate in the pathogenesis of angiostrongyliasis by regulating genes involved in immune response pathways. Furthermore, the differential expression patterns of 26 conserved miRNAs between L3 and L4 of A. cantonensis were verified. The results of real-time PCR and Northern blot showed that the aca-miR-124 and aca-miR-146a-5p have a low level expression in L3 larvae but high level expression in L4 larvae. Transfection of aca-miR-124 mimics alone significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-1? and TNF-a in the N9 cells, compared to the combination transfection of aca-miR-124 mimics and inhibitor (P?

Li, Zhengyu; Chen, Xiaoguang; Zen, Xin; Liang, Jinyi; Wei, Jie; Lv, Zhiyue; Sun, Xi; Wu, Zhong-Dao

2014-05-01

140

76 FR 60357 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2011-0036] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas AGENCY...SUMMARY: We are amending the golden nematode regulations by removing the townships...these two townships are free of golden nematode, and we have determined that...

2011-09-29

141

Original article Parasite nematode infections in Awassi adult sheep  

E-print Network

Original article Parasite nematode infections in Awassi adult sheep: distribution through Syrian. Faecal egg and larval nematode outputs were studied. Marshallagia and Nematodirus infections were higher in the driest areas; infections by other nematodes, Dictyocaulus and small lung- worms (Cystocaulus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

142

75 FR 11111 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. APHIS-2010-0010] Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY...quarantined to prevent the spread of pale cyst nematode. The description of the quarantined...INFORMATION: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a...

2010-03-10

143

77 FR 22185 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2011-0036] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas AGENCY...interim rule that amended the golden nematode regulations by removing the townships...these two townships are free of golden nematode, and we determined that regulation...

2012-04-13

144

Root-knot Nematodes and Giant Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Of all the economically important plant parasitic nematodes, root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) are amongst the most widespread, the best recognized and most widely studied. This is partly because infected roots\\u000a develop galls where the nematodes feed, which with severe infection give roots a ‘knotted’ appearance. They have a remarkably\\u000a wide host range, and are ubiquitous especially in tropical and sub-tropical

Michael G. K. Jones; Derek B. Goto

145

Metabolism of plant sterols by nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic nematodes do not biosynthesize sterolsde novo and therefore possess a nutritional requirement for sterol, which must be obtained from their hosts. Consequently, the metabolism\\u000a of phytosterols by plant-parasitic nematodes is an important process with potential for selective exploitation. The sterol\\u000a compositions of several species of plant-parasitic nematodes were determined by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry\\u000a and compared with the sterol

David J. Chitwood; William R. Lusby

1991-01-01

146

The occurrence of Angiostrongylus vasorum in terrestrial slugs from forests and parks in the Copenhagen area, Denmark.  

PubMed

A total of 298 slugs belonging to four species, Arion lusitanicus, A. ater, A. ater rufus and Limax maximus, were collected from six different localities within a radius of 30 km from Copenhagen and examined for naturally acquired Angiostrongylus vasorum infection. Overall, 28 slugs (9%) were infected, but the prevalence varied among the studied localities: Rude Forest (26%), West Amager Forest (18%), Jaegersborg Forest and Deer Park (8%), Frederiksberg Park (4%), Assistens Cemetery Park (0%) and Frederiksberg Botanical Garden (0%). Only third-stage larvae (L3) were recovered from the slugs, in numbers ranging from 1 to 392 per slug. Overall 82% of the infected slugs harboured fewer than 10 larvae and only 14% harboured over 100 larvae. PMID:19460193

Ferdushy, T; Kapel, C M O; Webster, P; Al-Sabi, M N S; Grønvold, J

2009-12-01

147

The Current Status of Laboratory Diagnosis of Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infections in Humans Using Serologic and Molecular Methods  

PubMed Central

Laboratory diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis relies on serological techniques, since definitive diagnosis is insensitive. Modern antibody detection methods focus on antibodies to the 29 and 31 kDa proteins of the parasite. Antigen detection may ultimately prove to be more reliable than antibody detection but no method has been adopted for clinical diagnostic use. Diagnosis using PCR amplification of DNA sequences specific to Angiostrongylus cantonensis have been developed but have not yet been validated for clinical use. Diagnostic tests have not been developed commercially and in the United States tests developed experimentally by non-commercial laboratories have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration before they can be sold to other laboratories for diagnostic purposes. PMID:23901386

Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Whelen, A Christian; Saucier, Caitlin; da Silva, Alexandre J; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

2013-01-01

148

Complete sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mitochondrial genome and its phylogenetic relationship with other Canids ( Canis, Canidae).  

PubMed

In this study, the complete sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) was determined, and the phylogenetic relationships between the Tibetan Mastiff and other species of Canidae were analyzed using the coyote (Canis latrans) as an outgroup. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mtDNA was 16 710 bp, and included 22 tRNA genes, 2S rRNA gene, 13 protein-coding genes and one non-coding region (D-loop region), which is similar to other mammalian mitochondrial genomes. The characteristics of the protein-coding genes, non-coding region, tRNA and rRNA genes among Canidae were analyzed in detail. Neighbor-joining and maximum-parsimony trees of Canids constructed using 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes showed that as the coyotes and Tibetan wolves clustered together, so too did the gray wolves and domestic dogs, suggesting that the Tibetan Mastiff originated from the gray wolf as did other domestic dogs. Domestic dogs clustered into four clades, implying at least four maternal origins (A to D). The Tibetan Mastiff, which belongs to clade A, appears to be closely related to the Saint Bernard and the Old English Sheepdog. PMID:22440697

Li, Yinxia; Li, Qifa; Zhao, Xingbo; Xie, Zhuang; Xu, Yinxue

2011-01-01

149

Detection of antibodies to Neospora caninum in two species of wild canids, Lycalopex gymnocercus and Cerdocyon thous from Brazil.  

PubMed

Domestic dog (Canis domesticus) and the coyote (Canis latrans) are the only known definitive hosts for the protozoan Neospora caninum that causes abortion in dairy cattle. In the present study, antibodies to N. caninum were sought in three species of wild canids, Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex gymnocercus and Dusicyon vetulus from Brazil. Antibodies to N. caninum were assayed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and the Neospora agglutination test (NAT). N. caninum antibodies were found in five of 12 L. gymnocercus with IFAT titers of 1:50 in three, 1:100 in one, and 1:1600 in one, and NAT titers of 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, 1:320, and 1:640 in five animals. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in four of 15 C. thous with IFAT titers of 1:50 in one, and 1:100 in three, and NAT titer of 1:40 in one animal. All 30 D. ventulus were seronegative by IFAT and NAT. PMID:15325054

Cañón-Franco, W A; Yai, L E O; Souza, S L P; Santos, L C; Farias, N A R; Ruas, J; Rossi, F W; Gomes, A A B; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

2004-09-01

150

An ELISA for sensitive and specific detection of circulating antigen of Angiostrongylus vasorum in serum samples of naturally and experimentally infected dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine angiostrongylosis is an emerging cardiopulmonary disease in Europe which can be fatal if left untreated. We developed a sandwich-ELISA based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb Av 56\\/1\\/2) and on polyclonal rabbit antibodies directed against Angiostrongylus vasorum adult excretory\\/secretory – antigen for the detection of circulating serum antigen of A. vasorum. The sensitivity of the test was 95.7% (78.1–99.9, 95%

M. Schnyder; I. Tanner; P. Webster; D. Barutzki; P. Deplazes

2011-01-01

151

The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States.  

PubMed

Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas. PMID:23901374

Teem, John L; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S; da Silva, Alexandre J; Carter, Jacoby; White-McLean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

2013-06-01

152

INSECTS, MITES, AND NEMATODES 2004 PEST&CROP INDEX  

E-print Network

Fields ­ 20 Soybean Cyst Nematode Update ­ 20 Root Knot Nematodes in Soybean ­ How Widespread of Soybean Cyst Nematode - 26 Proper Grain Storage Part II: Insect Pest Management Practices - 26 JapaneseINSECTS, MITES, AND NEMATODES 2004 PEST&CROP INDEX Alfalfa Weevil Alfalfa Weevil Damage Beginning

Ginzel, Matthew

153

Calibration of estimated biting forces in domestic canids: comparison of post-mortem and in vivo measurements  

PubMed Central

Estimates of biting forces are widely used in paleontological and comparative studies of feeding mechanics and performance, and are usually derived from lever models based on measurements made on the skull that are relevant to the mechanics of the masticatory system. Owing to assumptions and unmeasurable errors in their estimation, such values are used comparatively rather than as absolute estimates. The purpose of this paper was to provide calibration of post-mortem calculated bite force estimates by comparing them to in vivo forces derived from a sample of 20 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) during muscle stimulation under general anaesthesia. Two lever models previously described in the literature were used to estimate post-mortem values, and regression analysis was also performed to derive best-fit equations against a number of morphometric measurements on the skull. The ranges of observed forces in vivo were 147–946 N at the canine, and 524–3417 N at the second molar. The lever models substantially underestimated these forces, giving mean values between 39% and 61% of the observed means. Predictability was considerably improved by removing the linear bias and deviation of the regression slope from unity with an adjustment equation. Best-fit statistical models developed on these animals performed considerably better (calculated means within 0.54% of observed means) and included easily measureable variables such as bodyweight, dimensions of the temporalis fossa and out-lever from the jaw joint to the biting tooth. These data should lead to more accurate absolute, rather than relative, estimates of biting forces for other extant and fossil canids, and other carnivorans by extrapolation. PMID:18510505

Ellis, Jennifer Lynn; Thomason, Jeffrey J; Kebreab, Ermias; France, James

2008-01-01

154

Radiographic analysis of vocal tract length and its relation to overall body size in two canid species  

PubMed Central

Body size is an important determinant of resource and mate competition in many species. Competition is often mediated by conspicuous vocal displays, which may help to intimidate rivals and attract mates by providing honest cues to signaler size. Fitch proposed that vocal tract resonances (or formants) should provide particularly good, or honest, acoustic cues to signaler size because they are determined by the length of the vocal tract, which in turn, is hypothesized to scale reliably with overall body size. There is some empirical support for this hypothesis, but to date, many of the effects have been either mixed for males compared with females, weaker than expected in one or the other sex, or complicated by sampling issues. In this paper, we undertake a direct test of Fitch’s hypothesis in two canid species using large samples that control for age- and sex-related variation. The samples involved radiographic images of 120 Portuguese water dogs Canis lupus familiaris and 121 Russian silver foxes Vulpes vulpes. Direct measurements were made of vocal tract length from X-ray images and compared against independent measures of body size. In adults of both species, and within both sexes, overall vocal tract length was strongly and significantly correlated with body size. Effects were strongest for the oral component of the vocal tract. By contrast, the length of the pharyngeal component was not as consistently related to body size. These outcomes are some of the clearest evidence to date in support of Fitch’s hypothesis. At the same time, they highlight the potential for elements of both honest and deceptive body signaling to occur simultaneously via differential acoustic cues provided by the oral versus pharyngeal components of the vocal tract. PMID:24363497

Plotsky, K.; Rendall, D.; Riede, T.; Chase, K.

2013-01-01

155

Molecular assessment of hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: adeleorina) infections in wild canids and rodents from north Africa, with implications for transmission dynamics across taxonomic groups.  

PubMed

Parasites play a major role in ecosystems, and understanding of host-parasite interactions is important for predicting parasite transmission dynamics and epidemiology. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the distribution, diversity, and impact of parasites in wildlife, especially from remote areas. Hepatozoon is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that is transmitted by ingestion of infected arthropod vectors. However, alternative modes of transmission have been identified such as trophic transmission. Using the 18S rRNA gene as a marker, we provide an assessment of Hepatozoon prevalence in six wild canid and two rodent species collected between 2003 and 2012 from remote areas in North Africa. By combining this with other predator-prey systems in a phylogenetic framework, we investigate Hepatozoon transmission dynamics in distinct host taxa. Prevalence was high overall among host species (African jerboa Jaculus jaculus [17/47, 36%], greater Egyptian jerboa Jaculus orientalis [5/7, 71%], side-striped jackal Canis adustus [1/2, 50%], golden jackal Canis aureus [6/32, 18%], pale fox Vulpes pallida [14/28, 50%], Rüppell's fox Vulpes rueppellii [6/11, 55%], red fox Vulpes vulpes [8/16, 50%], and fennec fox Vulpes zerda [7/11, 42%]). Phylogenetic analysis showed further evidence of occasional transmission of Hepatozoon lineages from prey to canid predators, which seems to occur less frequently than in other predator-prey systems such as between snakes and lizards. Due to the complex nature of the Hepatozoon lifecycle (heteroxenous and vector-borne), future studies on these wild host species need to clarify the dynamics of alternative modes of Hepatozoon transmission and identify reservoir and definitive hosts in natural populations. We also detected putative Babesia spp. (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) infections in two canid species from this region, V. pallida (1/28) and V. zerda (1/11). PMID:25050803

Maia, João P; Alvares, Francisco; Boraty?ski, Zbyszek; Brito, José C; Leite, João V; Harris, D James

2014-10-01

156

Laser capture microdissection of nematode feeding cells.  

PubMed

Obligate plant-parasitic nematodes, such as cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) and root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), form specialized feeding cells in host plant roots. These feeding cells provide the sole source of nutrition for the growth and reproduction of the nematode to complete its life cycle. Feeding cell formation involves complex physiological and morphological changes to normal root cells and is accompanied by dramatic changes in plant gene expression. The distinct features of feeding cells suggest that their formation entails a unique gene expression profile, a better understanding of which will assist in building models to explain signaling pathways that modulate transcriptional changes in response to nematodes. Ultimately, this knowledge can be used to design strategies to develop resistance against nematodes in crop plants. Feeding cells comprise a small fraction of the total root cell population, and identification of plant gene expression changes specific to these cells is difficult. Until recently, the specific isolation of nematode feeding cells could be accomplished only by manual dissection or microaspiration. These approaches are limited in that only mature feeding cells can be isolated. These limitations in tissue accessibility for macromolecule isolation at different stages of feeding cell development can be overcome through the use of laser microdissection (LM), a technique that enables the specific isolation of feeding cells from early to late stages for RNA isolation, amplification, and downstream analysis. PMID:21359812

Ithal, Nagabhushana; Mitchum, Melissa G

2011-01-01

157

Culturing the Antarctic nematode Plectus murrayi.  

PubMed

The Antarctic terrestrial nematode Plectus murrayi is an excellent model organism for the study of stress response mechanisms in various types of environmental conditions. In this procedure, we describe a method for culturing P. murrayi extracted from soil and sediment samples from the McMurdo (MCM) Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Nematodes are cultured on sand agar plates and incubated at various temperatures, and feed on bacteria growing on the agar media. They can be subcultured and stored at 15°C for >2 mo. This method is easy to carry out and can produce nematodes in quantities sufficient for ecological and molecular studies. PMID:21041395

Adhikari, Bishwo N; Tomasel, Cecilia M; Li, Grace; Wall, Diana H; Adams, Byron J

2010-11-01

158

[Nematodes of humans in the Primorye Territory].  

PubMed

Nematodes occupy the top in the general pattern of human parasitic diseases in the Primorye Territory. In the south of the Far East, there are a total of 28 nematode species that can parasitize man. However, the authors have identified only 8 nematode-induced diseases, such as ascariasis, enterobiasis, toxocariasis, trichocephaliasis, anisakiasis, trichinosis, dirofilariasis, dioctophymosis. The latter has been found only once in the 1920s. According to official statistical data, the proportion of ascariasis and enterobiasis accounted for 43.8 and 53.5% of the total number of helminthiases, respectively. PMID:23805486

Ermolenko, A V; Rumiantseva, E E; Bartkova, A D; Voronok, V M; Poliakova, L F

2013-01-01

159

Nematodes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods have caused a lot of controversy among environmentalists. Some worry that these so-called "Frankenfoods" might disrupt the ecosystems they grow in, or even threaten human health. But others praise their potential to offset other environmental problems. For example, in this Science Update, you'll hear how genetically engineered tomatoes may be able to resist parasitic worms without the use of toxic pesticides.

Science Update;

2002-05-28

160

The pathogenesis of optic neuritis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in BALB/c mice  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most common causes of meningitis in South East Asia is angiostrongyliasis or infection by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis. Although this nematode usually resides in the pulmonary arteries of rats, its incidental occurence in other hosts such as humans can cause optic neuritis and lead to serious vision sequelae. Nevertheless, there are currently no systematic studies conducted in this area. Methods In order to study the pathogenesis of optic neuritis, mice were tried as a new animal model to study and challenge with A. cantonensis on 7d, 14d and 21d, respectively. Electroretinogram (ERG), visual evoked potential (VEP), ophthalmoscopy and histology were examined on day 7d, 14d and 21d and tribendimidine (TBD) was later used to treat optic neuritis on day 14d for a week to evaluate its therapeutic effects. Results Infection of A. cantonensis caused obvious inflammatory cell infiltration in the retina and optic nerve adventitia in day 14d and 21d followed by optic nerve fiber demyelination and retinal ganglion swelling at day 21d in the challenged mice. Prolonged VEP latency and decreased ERG amplitude were also observed on day 21. After treatment of TBD in the infected mice, retinal and optic nerve inflammation were alleviated, but VEP latency and ERG amplitude did not improve on day 21d and 28d. Conclusions The current study provides evidence that A. cantonensis can cause optic neuritis along with optic nerve demyelination and retinal ganglion cell damage in a mouse model. TBD alone treatment can improve the symptoms of optic neuritis, but does not aid in vision recovery, suggesting that both neuroprotective agents and Dexamethasone should be administered, along with treatment for the infection, to protect the optic nerve and ganglion cells. Furthermore, as the symptoms of optic neuritis caused by A. cantonensis in mice are similar to the optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis (MS) human patients, we suggest that the BALB/c mouse model provided in this study may be useful to explore therapies of optic neuritis in MS patients. PMID:25052055

2014-01-01

161

Nematode.net update 2008: improvements enabling more efficient data mining and comparative nematode genomics  

PubMed Central

Nematode.net (http://nematode.net) is a publicly available resource dedicated to the study of parasitic nematodes. In 2000, the Genome Center at Washington University (GC) joined a consortium including the Nematode Genomics group in Edinburgh, and the Pathogen Sequencing Unit of the Sanger Institute to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs) as an inexpensive and efficient solution for gene discovery in parasitic nematodes. As of 2008 the GC, sampling key parasites of humans, animals and plants, has generated over 500 000 ESTs and 1.2 million genome survey sequences from more than 30 non-Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. Nematode.net was implemented to offer user-friendly access to data produced by this project. In addition to sequence data, the site hosts: assembled NemaGene clusters in GBrowse views characterizing composition and protein homology, functional Gene Ontology annotations presented via the AmiGO browser, KEGG-based graphical display of NemaGene clusters mapped to metabolic pathways, codon usage tables, NemFam protein families which represent conserved nematode-restricted coding sequences not found in public protein databases, a web-based WU-BLAST search tool that allows complex querying and other assorted resources. The primary aim of Nematode.net is the dissemination of this diverse collection of information to the broader scientific community in a way that is useful, consistent, centralized and enduring. PMID:18940860

Martin, John; Abubucker, Sahar; Wylie, Todd; Yin, Yong; Wang, Zhengyuan; Mitreva, Makedonka

2009-01-01

162

Barcoding marine nematodes: an improved set of nematode 18S rRNA primers to overcome eukaryotic co-interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematodes form an important component of many benthic marine ecosystems and DNA barcoding approaches could provide an insight\\u000a into nematode community composition from different environments globally. We have amplified nematode 18S rRNA sequences using\\u000a standard nematode18S rRNA primers from environmental DNA extracted from intertidal sediment collected from New Jersey coast,\\u000a USA to test whether the published marine nematode 18S rRNA

Punyasloke BhaduryMelanie; Melanie C. Austen

2010-01-01

163

Optimization of protease production by the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium and its action against Angiostrongylus vasorum larvae.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to optimize protease production from the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) and evaluate its larvicidal activity and biological stability. An isolate of the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) was used to produce the enzyme. The Plackett-Burman design was used in order to scan which components of the culture medium could have a significant influence on protease production by the fungus NF34a. An in vitro assay was also performed to evaluate the larvicidal activity of NF34a. It was observed that only one component of the culture medium (yeast extract), at the levels studied, had any significant effect (p < 0.05) on protease production. There was a reduction (p < 0.01) in the mean number of larvae recovered from the treated groups, compared with the control groups. The results confirm previous reports on the efficiency of nematophagous fungi for controlling nematode larvae that are potentially zoonotic. Thus, given the importance of biological control, we suggest that further studies should be conducted on the protease produced by the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium. PMID:23856736

Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor de; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Mozzer, Lanuze Rose; Queiroz, José Humberto de

2013-01-01

164

Nematodes of Plants and Soils: Neotylenchoidea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents information on the morphology, ecology, and taxonomy of nematodes of the superfamily Neotylenchoidea, which live in the rhizophere and root system of cultivated and wild plants. An analysis of the different morphological and ecological c...

N. I. Sumenkova

1988-01-01

165

Enhancing Anthelmintic Uptake in Nematodes by Phagostimulants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anthelmintic compounds typically rely on selective absorption or toxicity between helminth and host to allow high concentrations of drug in the parasite's habitat. In the case of intestinal nematodes, anthelmintics must be ingested or absorbed by the worm...

L. W. Bone, K. P. Bottjer

1986-01-01

166

Cell cycle activation by plant parasitic nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedentary nematodes are important pests of crop plants. They are biotrophic parasites that can induce the (re)differentiation of either differentiated or undifferentiated plant cells into specialized feeding cells. This (re)differentiation includes the reactivation of the cell cycle in specific plant cells finally resulting in a transfer cell-like feeding site. For growth and development the nematodes fully depend on these cells.

Aska Goverse; Janice de Almeida Engler; John Verhees; Sander van der Krol; Johannes Helder; Godelieve Gheysen

2000-01-01

167

Conserving and Enhancing Biological Control of Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and duration of biological control. In future research, greater use should be made of bioassays that measure nematode suppression because changes in abundance of particular antagonists may not affect biological control of plant parasites. PMID:24987159

Timper, Patricia

2014-01-01

168

Natural infections of Crenosoma vulpis and Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs in Atlantic Canada and their treatment with milbemycin oxime.  

PubMed

Milbemycin oxime was used to treat dogs with natural infections of the fox lungworm, Crenosoma vulpis and the French heartworm, Angiostrongylus vasorum. Crenosomosis was identified in 42 of 202 dogs with clinical signs of coughing, dyspnoea or exercise intolerance by a Baermann analysis of faecal samples taken between October 2000 and October 2001. It occurred throughout Atlantic Canada (New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island). The clinical signs resolved and shedding of larvae in faeces ceased in all 32 Crenosoma-infected dogs given a single oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg milbemycin oxime for which the results of faecal examinations were available. Angiostrongylosis was identified in 16 of the 202 dogs and was restricted to the Avalon peninsula of Newfoundland, where 67 dogs were tested. The clinical signs resolved and shedding of larvae ceased in 14 of the 16 dogs treated with four, weekly oral doses of 0.5 mg/kg milbemycin oxime. One dog with severe clinical signs died during the course of treatment and one owner failed to provide a faecal sample from their dog but reported that the clinical signs had resolved. PMID:15264484

Conboy, G

2004-07-01

169

Animal model of human disease with optic neuritis: neuropapillitis in a rat model infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is a food-borne parasitic disease and can cause optic neuritis. Increasing clinical angiostrongyliasis cases with optic neuritis have been reported, but the pathogenesis has not been fully understood until now. Here, we applied rats with A. cantonensis infection as an animal model to study the pathogenesis of optic neuritis caused by the infection. We observed that the optic disk of experimental rats appeared hyperemic, the retina vein became thick, and the visual evoked potential (VEP) latency was prolonged. There were obvious inflammatory cell infiltration in the retina and optic nerve adventitia followed with obvious optic nerve fiber demyelination and retina ganglion swelling. We also evaluated the effect of dexamethasone combined with albendazole on optic neuritis of rats infected with A. cantonensis. The results showed it had no obvious effect to prevent progressive visual deterioration for optic neuritis caused by A. cantonensis. The studies provided evidence that the pathogenesis of optic neuritis in infected rats was correlated to optic nerve demyelination and ganglion cell damage caused by optic nerve inflammation, and the common therapy to this disease was not so effective. Based on the above results, it may be necessary to combine neuroprotective agents with common therapy to treat and protect optic nerve and ganglion cells from their secondary injury. PMID:25172599

Feng, Ying; Zeng, Xin; Li, Wei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Cong; Ou-Yang, Li-Si; Sun, Xi; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhong-Dao

2014-11-01

170

IL-33 mediates the expressions of IL-5 and IL-13 in Angiostrongylus cantonensis-infected mice.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the major cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. C57BL/6 mice were experimentally infected with 35 infectious larvae. Two groups of infected mice received intraperitoneal injections of mouse IL-33 (1?g) or anti-IL-33 monoclonal antibody (mAb) (10?g) 3days post infection (dpi) and subsequent booster shots of the same dose at 5day intervals. Blood samples from each group were collected weekly for assays. IgE levels were significantly increased in all infected mice. The eosinophil percentage and levels of IL-5 and IL-13 significantly increased in the IL-33-treated group relative to infected but non-treated animals. The level of IL-5 decreased in the mAb-treated group. The severity of eosinophilic meningitis was exacerbated in the IL-33 injected group. Taken together, these results suggest that IL-33 mediates the expressions of IL-5 and IL-13, and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of angiostrongylosis. PMID:24076431

Du, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Wu; Lin, Feng-Kuan; Chuang, Chih-Cheng

2013-11-01

171

Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a South American canid, as a definitive host for Hammondia heydorni.  

PubMed

Hammondia heydorni is a cyst forming coccidia closely related to other apicomplexans, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Hammondia hammondi with a two-host life cycle. Dogs and other canids as red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) may serve as definitive hosts for H. heydorni. Sporulated oocysts are infective for cattle, sheep and goats, which may serve as intermediate hosts. Herein, we describe the ability of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a wild carnivore that is commonly found from northern Argentina to northern South America, to serve as definitive host of H. heydorni. The whole masseter muscle and brain from two 2-year-old bovines were collected, minced and pooled together for the fox infection. The bovine pooled tissues were equally administered to four foxes, in two consecutive days. Two foxes shed subspherical unsporulated oocysts measuring 10-15microm, after 8 and 9 days post-infection, respectively. One of the foxes eliminated oocysts for 5 days, while the other fox shed oocysts for 9 days. A DNA sample of oocysts detected at each day of oocyst elimination was tested by two PCRs, one of them carried out employing primers directed to the common toxoplasmatiid 18S and 5.8S ribosomal RNA coding genes (PCR-ITS1) and the other based on heat-shock protein 70kDa coding gene (PCR-HSP70). These samples were also submitted to a N. caninum specific nested-PCR protocol based on a N. caninum specific gene (Nc5-nPCR). All of them were positive by PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 but negative by Nc5-nPCR. The PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 nucleotide sequences amplified from the oocysts shed by the foxes revealed 100% identity with homologous sequences of H. heydorni. In conclusion, it is clear that H. heydorni also uses the crab-eating fox as a definitive host. The crab-eating fox is usually reported to live in close contact with livestock in several regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that such carnivores may play an important role in the sylvatic and domestic cycles of H. heydorni infection. PMID:19303215

Soares, Rodrigo M; Cortez, Luiz R P B; Gennari, Solange M; Sercundes, Michelle K; Keid, Lara B; Pena, Hilda F J

2009-05-26

172

On the Book “Biologiya morskikh nematod” (Biology of Marine Nematodes) by A.V. Chesunov  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is a review devoted to marine free-living nematodes. The language of the book would be understood by both professional nematode experts and also by persons with just a basic biological education. In this regard, the book is of great interest, as it can be used as a textbook, as an introduction to nematology. The book is comprehensively illustrated

A. Yu. Ryss

2007-01-01

173

Interactions between two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungivorous nematodes and control of the nematode with fenamifos  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the control of fungal feeding nematodes (Aphelenchus avenae Bastian) inoculated at two densities (1000 and 2000 per pot) with the nematicide fenamiphos in pot cultures of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Gigaspora margarita Becker and Hall and Glomus coronatum Giovannetti grown with clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.). Nematode populations increased in mycorrhizal pots, with a concomitant decrease in percent

Yenni Bakhtiar; Debbie Miller; Tim Cavagnaro; Sally Smith

2001-01-01

174

Eosinophilia and intracranial worm recovery in interleukin-5 transgenic and interleukin-5 receptor ? chain-knockout mice infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We infected interleukin-5 (IL-5)-transgenic (IL-5-Tg) and IL-5 receptor ? knockout (IL-5R??\\/?) mice with Angiostrongylus cantonensis to determine the possible roles of IL-5 and eosinophils in A. cantonensis infection in mice. IL-5-Tg mice demonstrated significantly higher eosinophilia in bone marrow, blood and cerebrospinal fluid\\u000a (CSF), lower intracranial worm recovery and smaller female worms than naive C3H\\/HeN mice. Both IL-5-Tg and C3H\\/HeN

Hiroko Sugaya; Mikiko Aoki; Toshimi Yoshida; Kiyoshi Takatsu; Kentaro Yoshimura

1997-01-01

175

UDP-Galactopyranose Mutase in Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Nematodes represent a diverse phylum of both free living and parasitic species. While the species Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a valuable model organism, parasitic nematodes or helminths pose a serious threat to human health. Indeed, helminths cause many neglected tropical diseases that afflict humans. Nematode glycoconjugates have been implicated in evasive immunomodulation, a hallmark of nematode infections. One monosaccharide residue present in the glycoconjugates of several human pathogens is galactofuranose (Galf). This five-membered ring isomer of galactose has not been detected in mammals, making Galf metabolic enzymes attractive therapeutic targets. The only known pathway for biosynthetic incorporation of Galf into glycoconjugates depends upon generation of the glycosyl donor UDP-Galf by the flavoenzyme uridine 5’-diphosphate (UDP) galactopyranose mutase (UGM or Glf). A putative UGM encoding gene (glf-1) was recently identified in C. elegans. Because Galf has yet to be identified in any nematode glycan, we sought to assess the catalytic activity of the C. elegans glf-1 gene product (CeUGM). We found that CeUGM catalyzes the isomerization of UDP-Galf and UDP-galactopyranose (UDP-Galp). In the presence of enzyme, substrate, and a hydride source, a galactose–N5-FAD adduct was isolated, suggesting the CeUGM flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor serves as a nucleophile in covalent catalysis. Homology modeling and protein variants indicate that CeUGM possesses an active site similar to that of prokaryotic enzymes, despite the low sequence identity (~15%) between eukaryotic and prokaryotic UGM proteins. Even with the primary sequence differences, heterocyclic UGM inhibitors developed against prokaryotic proteins also inhibit CeUGM activity. We postulate that these inhibitors can serve as chemical probes of Galf in nematodes and as anthelmintic leads. Together, our data suggest that CeUGM facilitates the biosynthetic incorporation of Galf into nematode glycoconjugates through generation of the glycosyl donor UDP-Galf. PMID:23697711

Wesener, Darryl A.; May, John F.; Huffman, Elizabeth M.; Kiessling, Laura L.

2013-01-01

176

Interspecific Nematode Signals Regulate Dispersal Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2) of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective juveniles (IJ)s of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), e.g., Steinernema feltiae. Regulation of dispersal behavior has not been thoroughly investigated for C. elegans or any other nematode species. Based on the fact that ascarosides regulate entry in dauer stage as well as multiple behaviors in C. elegans adults including mating, avoidance and aggregation, we hypothesized that ascarosides might also be involved in regulation of dispersal behavior in C. elegans and for other nematodes such as IJ of phylogenetically related EPNs. Methodology/Principal Findings Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of C. elegans dauer conditioned media, which shows strong dispersing activity, revealed four known ascarosides (ascr#2, ascr#3, ascr#8, icas#9). A synthetic blend of these ascarosides at physiologically relevant concentrations dispersed C. elegans dauer in the presence of food and also caused dispersion of IJs of S. feltiae and J2s of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. Assay guided fractionation revealed structural analogs as major active components of the S. feltiae (ascr#9) and C. elegans (ascr#2) dispersal blends. Further analysis revealed ascr#9 in all Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp. infected insect host cadavers. Conclusions/Significance Ascaroside blends represent evolutionarily conserved, fundamentally important communication systems for nematodes from diverse habitats, and thus may provide sustainable means for control of parasitic nematodes. PMID:22701701

Kaplan, Fatma; Alborn, Hans T.; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Ajredini, Ramadan; Ali, Jared G.; Akyazi, Faruk; Stelinski, Lukasz L.; Edison, Arthur S.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Teal, Peter E.

2012-01-01

177

Evolutionary dynamics of nematode operons: Easy come, slow go  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operons are widespread in prokaryotes, but are uncommon in eukaryotes, except nematode worms, where ?15% of genes reside in over 1100 operons in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. It is unclear how operons have become abundant in nematode genomes. The \\

Wenfeng Qian; Jianzhi Zhang

2008-01-01

178

Effectiveness of intranasal vaccination against Angiostrongylus costaricensis using a serine/threonine phosphatase 2 A synthetic peptide and recombinant antigens.  

PubMed

Intranasal immunization was assayed in C57BL/6 mice against Angiostrongylus costaricensis using a synthetic and a recombinant peptide belonging to the catalytic region of the serine/threonine phosphatase 2 A (PP2A) of the parasite. Immunization was carried out with the synthetic peptide (SP) polymerized either with itself or with the beta fraction of the cholera toxin (CTB) and then enclosed in nanocapsules of phosphatidyl choline, cholesterol and Quil A (ISCOM). Another group of mice was immunized with recombinant peptide. Immunization consisted of two intranasal inoculations at two-week intervals, and the challenge with L3 larvae was made one month after the last vaccination. The effectiveness of immunization was evaluated 30 days after infection by analysis of the number of parasites in the arteries of the immunized mice, as well as by measuring spleen sizes in the experimental groups. The response induced was determined by identifying the isotypes of IgG as well as the IgE and IgA specific antigen response. The interleukins produced by the splenocyte culture of the different groups were assessed after exposing them to the peptide used in the immunization. From our results, 60%, 80%, and 100% protection against the A. costaricensis challenge was achieved in mice immunized with polymerized synthetic peptide in ISCOM, synthetic peptide polymerized with the CTB in ISCOM and inclusion bodies respectively. Splenomegaly was found to be less evident in the immunized mice than in the controls. A significant increase in IFN gamma and IL-17 levels was observed in the group with 100% protection. The results showed that vaccination through the nasal mucosa may constitute a useful method of immunization and result in a protective immune response against A. costaricensis. PMID:20558243

Solano-Parada, J; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, G; Torró, L M de Pablos; dos Santos, M F Brazil; Espino, A M; Burgos, M; Osuna, A

2010-07-19

179

In vitro activity of a serine protease from Monacrosporium thaumasium fungus against first-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus vasorum.  

PubMed

A serine protease from the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) was purified, partially characterized and tested in vitro in control of the first larval stage of Angiostrongylus vasorum. NF34a grew in liquid culture medium, producing its crude extract that was purified by ion exchange chromatography. The fractions with high protease activity were collected in a pool, and elution of proteases was monitored by enzymatic assay and protein content. Purification steps were monitored by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protease activity was determined under different pH and temperature conditions, and the inhibitor effects of metal ions and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) were assessed. In an experimental test, the infection process of NF34a on first-stage larvae of A. vasorum was investigated. A purified serine protease (Mt1) was identified, with an approximate molecular mass of 40 kDa and apparent homogeneity in SDS-PAGE, having optimal activity at pH 7.0 to 8.0 and temperature of 60°C. Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) partially inhibited the activity of Mt1 while PMSF inhibited it completely. Mt1 production was observed when NF34a was grown using first-stage larvae of A. vasorum as the only source of carbon and nitrogen. These results show that the enzyme may have a possible role in the infection process of the larvae. In the in vitro test of applicability against A. vasorum L(1), we observed a reduction in the number of larvae of 23.9% (p?

Soares, Filippe E F; Braga, Fabio R; Araújo, Jackson V; dos Santos Lima, Walter; Mozer, Lanuze R; Queiróz, José H

2012-06-01

180

Comparative studies on the proteomic expression patterns in the third- and fifth-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an important zoonotic parasite causing eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. In this study, the protein expression profiles of the infective third- and pathogenic fifth-stage larvae (L3 and L5) of this parasite were compared by proteomic techniques. Isolated protein samples were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), stained with silver nitrate, and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Proteins from L5 were mainly at pH 5-7 and with molecular weight (MW) 40-100 kDa, whereas those from L3 were at pH 5-6 and with 5-35 kDa. Of 100 protein spots identified, 33 were from L3 whereas 67 from L5 and 63 had known identities, whereas 37 were hypothetical proteins. There were 15 spots of stress proteins, and HSP60 was the most frequently found heat stress proteins in L5. More binding and protein transport-related proteins were found in L5 including peptidylprolyl isomerase (cyclophilin)-like 2, serum albumin, preproalbumin precursor, and dilute class unconventional myosin. L3 had a higher expression of cytoskeleton and membrane proteins than L5. In addition, four protein spots were identified in the sera of the rat host by Western blot analysis. The present proteomic study revealed different protein expression profiles in L3 and L5 of A. cantonensis. These changes may reflect the development of L3 from the poikilothermic snails to L5 in the homoeothemic rats. This information may be useful for the finding of stage-specific proteins and biomarker for diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis. PMID:25028210

Chen, Kuang-Yao; Cheng, Chien-Ju; Yen, Chuan-Min; Tang, Petrus; Wang, Lian-Chen

2014-10-01

181

An 8-week brain MRI follow-up analysis of rat eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection.  

PubMed

Early differential diagnosis and timely follow-up are advantageous in the management of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. This study aimed to characterize angiostrongyliasis in the rat brain for an 8-week period using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) and R2 mapping sequences. The data were analysed with Mathematica and Matlab software programs for weekly changes in each brain following the infection of 20, 50, 100 and 300 third-stage larvae (L3), respectively. The results showed that the average subarachnoid space detected by T2WI technique was peaked up to 10% increase of original size on day 35 after 100 or 300 larvae infection, while those infected with 20 or 50 larvae showed less than 4% increase during the entire course of observation. This increase was relevant to the mortality of the infected rats, because those with 100 or 300 larvae infections showed a sharp decrease in survival rate before day 40. After day 40, the average subarachnoid space was decreased, but the average ventricle size was persistently increased, with the highest increase observed in the group infected with 300 larvae on day 56. Furthermore, the R2 mapping mean and R2 mapping size were significantly different between the brains with severe infection (100 and 300 larvae groups together) and those with mild infection (20 and 50 larvae groups together) on day 49, but not on day 35. Our results showed that diagnosis for different quantity of larvae infection using MRI is possible and follow-up characterization is informative in revealing the effects of angiostrongyliasis on different brain areas. In conclusion, our results support the use of MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic technique for eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection. PMID:24207053

Shyu, L Y; Tsai, H H; Lin, D P; Chang, H H; Tyan, Y S; Weng, J C

2014-09-01

182

Immunolocalization and developmental expression patterns of two cathepsin B proteases (AC-cathB-1, -2) of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

In this study we have investigated the anatomic sites of expression and developmental expression patterns of two cathepsin B-like cysteine proteases (AC-cathB-1, -2) of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The immunolocalization results revealed that native AC-cathBs were found present in the L1 and L3 larvae, female and male adults, and the AC-cathBs were localized mainly on the digestive tract of A. cantonensis and expressed at varied levels and in different patterns in the internal tissues according to their developmental stage. Consistent with the infective stage of L3 is a much more intense staining of AC-cathBs in the esophagus compared with the intestine. In contrast to L3, more abundant signals were located to the intestine of adults, suggesting that nutrition digestion likely to be the main function of the protease at this point. AC-cathBs fluorescent signals were present in excretory pore, excretory tube in lateral cords, and muscular esophagus of larvae, further supported the AC-cathB-1, -2 likely to be released by A. cantonensis as excretory/secretory products. Additionally, only the protein AC-cathB-2 was detected in the reproductive system, especially in the wall of vas deferens, uterus, and oviduct of the parasites, whether the AC-cathB-2 has some function in germ cells development and maturation need to be further characterized. Although the anatomic sites and expression patterns were different in larvae and adults and the corresponding function might not the same, AC-cathB-1 and -2 involved in the host-parasite interaction in addition to digestive function. PMID:24929149

Yu, Changmao; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Jing; Fang, Wenzhen; Luo, Damin

2014-09-01

183

Eosinophil chemotactic chemokine profilings of the brain from permissive and non-permissive hosts infected with Angiostrongylus cantonenis.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis invasion primarily cause heavy or negligible eosinophic meningitis and meningoencephalitis in the brain of non-permissive and permissive hosts, respectively. Chemokines are effective leukocyte chemoattractants and may play an essential role in mediating eosinophil recruitment in angiostrongyliasis. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed changes in peripheral and CSF eosinophil counts, and expression profilings of eosinophil chemotactic chemokines in A. cantonensis-infected mice (CCL 2, CCL 3, CCL 5, CCL7, CCL 8, CCL 11, CCL 12, CCL 24 and CCL 28) and rats (CCL 2, CCL 3, CCL 5, CCL 11 and CCL 12) were explored at 1, 2, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (dpi), and found significantly elevated numbers of eosinophils in blood and CSF of infected mice after 5 dpi, while significant increases of eosinophils in blood and CSF of infected rats were detected after 5 and 14 dpi, respectively. The kinetics of CSF eosinophilia is basically correlated with eosinophil chemotactic chemokine levels in brains of infected animals at each time point. Interestingly, less CSF eosinophils and infiltration of eosinophils in the brain were noted in rats than in mice, though extremely high levels of chemokines were also maintained in the brains of infected rats at 21 dpi. We further described CCL 11 (eotaxin), a previously reported eosinophil chemotactic factor in angiostrongyliasis, was mainly released from activated microglia in mice and rats infected with A. cantonensis. Our results reveal that different complicated chemokine networks mediate recruitment of eosinophils between permissive and non-permissive hosts during A. cantonensis infection, and provide promising targets for clinical treatment of angiostrongyliasis. PMID:24233410

Li, Shuting; Yang, Fan; Ji, Pengyu; Zeng, Xin; Wu, Xiaoying; Wei, Jie; Ouyang, Lisi; Liang, Jinyi; Zheng, Huanqin; Wu, Zhongdao; Lv, Zhiyue

2014-02-01

184

Suppression of nematodes in a coastal grassland soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematophagous fungi Arthrobotrys oligospora and Myzocytiopsis glutinospora increase to large numbers (>103 propagules\\/g of soil) when moth larvae killed by entomopathogenic nematodes are added to soil microcosms. In spite of these\\u000a increases, it is unclear how effective these nematophagous fungi are in suppressing nematodes. We measured nematode mortality\\u000a in microcosms with small numbers of assay nematodes, and we examined

B. A. Jaffee; J. L. Bastow; D. R. Strong

2007-01-01

185

Integration of Biological Control with other Methods of Nematode Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes measures used to improve the performance of biological control agents for nematode management. Suppressive\\u000a soils have been associated with the continuous cultivation of nematode-susceptible crops, which support increases in the natural\\u000a enemy community. Soils that become suppressive to nematode pests and the agronomic practices that may destroy such natural\\u000a control and lead to increased nematode infestations are

L. Hildalgo-Diaz; B. R. Kerry

186

Microbial Ecology and Nematode Control in Natural Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plant-parasitic nematodes have traditionally been studied in agricultural systems, where they can be pests of importance on\\u000a a wide range of crops. Nevertheless, nematode ecology in natural ecosystems is receiving increasing interest because of the\\u000a role of nematodes in soil food webs, nutrient cycling, influences on vegetation composition, and because of their indicator\\u000a value. In natural ecosystems, plant-parasitic nematode populations

Sofia R. Costa; Wim H. van der Putten; Brian R. Kerry

2011-01-01

187

Nematode Assay Laboratory P.O. Box 110820  

E-print Network

Nematode Assay Laboratory P.O. Box 110820 NEMATODE ASSAY FORM Building 970 Natural Area Drive Field Q Landscaping Q Containerized/Interior Ornamental Q Other MAIN SOIL TYPE (T): Q Sand Q Clay Q Muck Q Artificial Mix Q Marl Size of crop area Recent nematicide use, prior history of nematodes, other

Jawitz, James W.

188

Nematode Communities in Organically and Conventionally Managed Agricultural Soils1  

E-print Network

Nematode Communities in Organically and Conventionally Managed Agricultural Soils1 Deborah A. Neher2 Abstract: Interpretation of nematode community indices requires a reference to a relatively undis (nitrate, ammonium) was estimated at various lag periods relative to times of sampling for nematode

Neher, Deborah A.

189

Original article Effect of strategic gastrointestinal nematode control  

E-print Network

Original article Effect of strategic gastrointestinal nematode control on faecal egg count parameters. gastrointestinal nematodes / N'Dama cattle / faecal egg count / strategic control / fenbendazole and Haemonchus spp. in N'Dama cattle, which emphasises the importance of gastrointestinal nematode control

Boyer, Edmond

190

PLANT PROBLEM CLINIC & NEMATODE ASSAY LAB SUPPLIES ORDER FORM  

E-print Network

PLANT PROBLEM CLINIC & NEMATODE ASSAY LAB SUPPLIES ORDER FORM Type the name of your County and Nematode Assay Laboratory Forms Plant Problem/Disease Diagnosis Form Plant/Weed Identification & Control Form Turf Problem/Disease Diagnosis Form Nematode Assay Form Insect Identification & Control Form

Duchowski, Andrew T.

191

Ecosystem type affects interpretation of soil nematode community measures  

E-print Network

Ecosystem type affects interpretation of soil nematode community measures D.A. Neher a,*, J. Wu b understanding of performance among major ecosystem types is necessary before nematode community indices can and agricultural ecosystems; (2) compare nematode community composition among and within ecosystem types and report

Neher, Deborah A.

192

Texture Analysis for Nematode Genera Classification Bilson Jake Libres Campana  

E-print Network

Texture Analysis for Nematode Genera Classification Bilson Jake Libres Campana Department, 92521 bcampana@cs.ucr.edu ABSTRACT Nematodes are the most diverse animals and the most numerous multi worms to large classes such as Cestoda, which can grow to over 30 meters. Not only are nematodes greatly

Zordan, Victor

193

Evolutionary dynamics of nematode operons: Easy come, slow go  

E-print Network

Evolutionary dynamics of nematode operons: Easy come, slow go Wenfeng Qian and Jianzhi Zhang1 Operons are widespread in prokaryotes, but are uncommon in eukaryotes, except nematode worms, where 15 operons have become abundant in nematode genomes. The "one-way street" hypothesis asserts that once formed

Zhang, Jianzhi

194

Microsporidia Are Natural Intracellular Parasites of the Nematode Caenorhabditis  

E-print Network

Microsporidia Are Natural Intracellular Parasites of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Emily R, United States of America For decades the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been an important model infections in C. elegans. However none of these pathogens has been shown to invade nematode intestinal cells

Ausubel, Frederick M.

195

Original article Species diversity in gastrointestinal nematode communities  

E-print Network

Original article Species diversity in gastrointestinal nematode communities of dairy goats: species; accepted 1July 1996) Summary ― Gastrointestinal nematode communities ( 12species) of dairy goats to the development of the free-living stages of various species of nematodes; ii) age of the farm is unfavourable

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

Plant improvement Resistance to root knot nematode, Meloidogyne naasi  

E-print Network

Plant improvement Resistance to root knot nematode, Meloidogyne naasi (Franklin) transferred from to be resistant to cereal root knot nematode Meloidogyne naasi, although wheat relatives including Aegilops. resistance to nematode / Meloidogyne naasi/ wheat / Aegilops variabilis / introgression Résumé &mdash

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

197

NEMATODE ROOT GALLS IN EMBRYO CULTURES OF CALAMUS ROTANG  

Microsoft Academic Search

PADMANABHAN, D. & ILANGOVAN, R. 1995. Puru akar nematod dalam kultur ernbrio Calamus rotang. Puru akar yang disebabkan oleh nematod diperhatikan dalam anak benih yang tumbuh dari embrio Calamus rotang1 yang dipotong. Sista nematod kelihatan di dalam sel-sel kortikal dan di dalam elemen-elemen xilem. Terdapat pembiakan yang banyak di bahagian luar korteks di bahagian puru akar. Bahagian dalam korteks yang

D. Padmanabhan; R. Ilangovan

198

Pest&Crop INDEX 2005 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

Trip Observations of Soybean Aphid and Soybean Cyst Nematode - 20 Asian Lady Beetle: Beneficial This Spring - 5 Nematode Updates - 12, 18, 22 Road Trip Observations of Soybean Aphid and Soybean Cyst Nematode - 20 Changes in SCN Soil Testing Policy - 22 Winter Annual Weed and Management of Soybean Cyst

Ginzel, Matthew

199

PEST&CROP INDEX 2008 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

/Dying Seedlings ­ 8 Nematode Updates 2008: Soybean Cyst Nematode - 18 Potato Leafhopper Potato LeafhoppersPEST&CROP INDEX 2008 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES Asiatic Garden Beetle Asiatic Garden Beetle is Back Bean Leaf Beetle Pod Feeding on Late Soybean ­ 23 Black Cutworm Black Cutworm Spring Arrival Met

Ginzel, Matthew

200

Mass production of entomopathogenic nematodes for plant protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are commercially used to control pest insects. They are symbiotically associated with bacteria of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, respectively, which are the major food source for the nematodes. The biology of the nematode-bacterium complex is described, a historical review of the development of in vitro cultivation techniques is given and the

Ralf-Udo Ehlers

2001-01-01

201

Strawberry Cultivars Vary in their Resistance to Northern Lesion Nematode.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of commercial cultivars of strawberry Fragaria x ananassa from various parentages, as expressed by their resistance to the northem lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans, was evaluated in nematode-infested field plots for two growing seasons. Data taken for each plant in each season included soil nematode Pi and Pf, end-of-season nematode numbers in each entire root system, and end-of-season fresh and dry top weight and whole root system weight. Resistance was estimated using an index of the nematode load on the plant: Nematode load = {n(root) + (200 x n[soil])}/{root dry weight} where n (root) = number of nematodes in the root, n [soil] = number of nematodes in 50 g of nonfumigated soil, and 200 is a multiplier to convert the soil nematode count to a 10-kg basis. Nineteen strawberry cultivars varied in their resistance to the northern lesion nematode, from a mean load of 382 nematodes/plant for Pajaro to 1,818 nematodes/plant for Veestar. This variability could be related to the original family groupings, with the most resistant cultivars related to Lassen and the least resistant to Sparkle x Valentine. PMID:19274249

Dale, A; Potter, J W

1998-12-01

202

Remote Sensing of Parasitic Nematodes in Plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.

Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John

2007-01-01

203

Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution  

PubMed Central

Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of diplogastrid nematodes and their beetle hosts. Instead, frequent host switching is observed. The molecular phylogeny of the Diplogastridae provides a framework for further examinations of the evolution of these associations, for the study of interactions within the ecosystems, and for investigations of diplogastrid genome evolution. PMID:19703296

2009-01-01

204

Nematode CLE signaling in Arabidopsis requires CLAVATA2 and CORYNE.  

PubMed

Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ESR (CLE)-like effector proteins. These proteins have been shown to act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful nematode infection; however, the receptors for nematode CLE-like peptides have not been identified. Here we demonstrate that CLV2 and CORYNE (CRN), members of the receptor kinase family, are required for nematode CLE signaling. Exogenous peptide assays and overexpression of nematode CLEs in Arabidopsis demonstrated that CLV2 and CRN are required for perception of nematode CLEs. In addition, promoter-reporter assays showed that both receptors are expressed in nematode-induced syncytia. Lastly, infection assays with receptor mutants revealed a decrease in both nematode infection and syncytium size. Taken together, our results indicate that perception of nematode CLEs by CLV2 and CRN is not only required for successful nematode infection but is also involved in the formation and/or maintenance of nematode-induced syncytia. PMID:21265896

Replogle, Amy; Wang, Jianying; Bleckmann, Andrea; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J; Sawa, Shinichiro; Davis, Eric L; Wang, Xiaohong; Simon, Rüdiger; Mitchum, Melissa G

2011-02-01

205

A Trojan horse mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis against nematodes  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms of host–pathogen interaction can provide crucial information for successfully manipulating their relationships. Because of its genetic background and practical advantages over vertebrate model systems, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans model has become an attractive host for studying microbial pathogenesis. Here we report a “Trojan horse” mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis against nematodes. We show that the bacterium Bacillus nematocida B16 lures nematodes by emitting potent volatile organic compounds that are much more attractive to worms than those from ordinary dietary bacteria. Seventeen B. nematocida-attractant volatile organic compounds are identified, and seven are individually confirmed to lure nematodes. Once the bacteria enter the intestine of nematodes, they secrete two proteases with broad substrate ranges but preferentially target essential intestinal proteins, leading to nematode death. This Trojan horse pattern of bacterium–nematode interaction enriches our understanding of microbial pathogenesis. PMID:20733068

Niu, Qiuhong; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lin; Xu, Jianping; Yang, Dongmei; Wei, Kangbi; Niu, Xuemei; An, Zhiqiang; Bennett, Joan Wennstrom; Zou, Chenggang; Yang, Jinkui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

2010-01-01

206

Cryopreservation of roe deer abomasal nematodes for morphological identification.  

PubMed

Conventional methods to preserve adult nematodes for taxonomic purposes involve the use of fixative or clearing solutions (alcohol, formaldehyde, AFA and lactophenol), which cause morphological alterations and are toxic. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative method based on glycerol-cryopreservation of nematodes for their subsequent identification. Adults of trichostrongylid nematodes from the abomasum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus) were glycerol-cryopreserved and compared with those fixed in formaldehyde, fresh and frozen without cryoprotectans. Morphology, transparency and elasticity of the anterior and posterior portion of male nematodes were compared, especially the caudal cuticular bursa and genital accessories. The method presented is quick and easy to use, and the quality of nematode specimens is better than that of nematodes fixed by previously used fixatives. Moreover, glycerol cryopreserved nematodes can be stored for a long time at -20 degrees C in perfect condition and they could be suitable for further analyses, such as histological or ultrastructural examinations. PMID:24684056

Beraldo, Paola; Pascotto, Ernesto

2014-02-01

207

EXTRACTING PROTOSTRONGYLID NEMATODE LARVAE FROM UNGULATE FECES  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTIIA( T: A major weakness of the Baermann funnel technique for extracting nematode larvae from feces is the funnel. As umny as 67% of Parclaphostrongylus temiis first-stage larvae lodged on the sloping surface of glass Baermann funnels. The number of larvae collected after 24 hr was not significantly correlated with total numbers in the samples, whether feces were supported over

Sean G. Forrester; Murray W. Lankester

208

The future of nematode management in cotton.  

PubMed

The importance of plant-parasitic nematodes as yield-limiting pathogens of cotton has received increased recognition and attention in the United States in the recent past. This paper summarizes the remarks made during a symposium of the same title that was held in July 2007 at the joint meeting of the Society of Nematologists and the American Phytopathological Society in San Diego, California. Although several cultural practices, including crop rotation, can be effective in suppressing the populations of the important nematode pathogens of cotton, the economic realities of cotton production limit their use. The use of nematicides is also limited by issues of efficacy and economics. There is a need for development of chemistries that will address these limitations. Also needed are systems that would enable precise nematicide application in terms of rate and placement only in areas where nematode population densities warrant application. Substantial progress is being made in the identification, characterization and mapping of loci for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. These data will lead to efficient marker-assisted selection systems that will likely result in development and release of nematode-resistant cotton cultivars with superior yield potential and high fiber quality. PMID:19259500

Starr, J L; Koenning, S R; Kirkpatrick, T L; Robinson, A F; Roberts, P A; Nichols, R L

2007-12-01

209

Sons of blacksmiths and nematode worms  

E-print Network

Sons of blacksmiths and nematode worms Sordid stories of domestic violence Futuristic fridges re? what did the mother look like? what is the sample size? or even, can we swap the children at birth? If you actually got an answer, it would probably focus on differences between the children

Bristol, University of

210

Nematodes: Model Organisms in High School Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a collaborative effort between university researchers and high school science teachers, an inquiry-based laboratory module was designed using two species of insecticidal nematodes to help students apply scientific inquiry and elements of thoughtful experimental design. The learning experience and model are described in this article. (Contains 4…

Bliss, TJ; Anderson, Margery; Dillman, Adler; Yourick, Debra; Jett, Marti; Adams, Byron J.; Russell, RevaBeth

2007-01-01

211

Key to nematodes reported in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This key, covering 171 species and subspecies of nematodes in 49 genera, is based on the the listings in the author's "Catalogue of Helminths of Waterfowl" (McDonald, 1969b), but includes 19 additional forms from his continuing survey of new literature.

McDonald, Malcolm E.

1974-01-01

212

MSP Dynamics Drives Nematode Sperm Locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most eukaryotic cells can crawl over surfaces. In general, this motility requires three sequential actions: polymerization at the leading edge, adhesion to the substrate, and retraction at the rear. Recent in vitro experiments with extracts from spermatozoa from the nematode Ascaris suum suggest that retraction forces are generated by depolymerization of the major sperm protein cytoskeleton. Combining polymer entropy with

Charles W. Wolgemuth; Long Miao; Orion Vanderlinde; Tom Roberts; George Osterz

2005-01-01

213

MSP dynamics and retraction in nematode sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most eukaryotic cells can crawl over surfaces. In general, this motility requires three distinct actions: polymerization at the leading edge, adhesion to the substrate, and retraction at the rear. Recent in vitro experiments with extracts from spermatozoa from the nematode Ascaris suum suggest that retraction forces are generated by depolymerization of the Major Sperm Protein (MSP) cytoskeleton. Combining polymer entropy

Charles W. Wolgemuth; Long Miao; Orion Vanderlinde; Tom Roberts; George Oster

2005-01-01

214

ROTATIONAL EFFECTS ON SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODES  

E-print Network

In 2002 we concluded a three-year study of the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, in commercial soybean fields in Wisconsin. We studied 20 fields in 5 counties during at least one soybean crop plus one rotation crop. The fields were intensively sampled and each sampling location was georeferenced and data collected on multiple dates. Some of the

Ann Macguidwin

215

Plant Disease Lesson: Root-knot nematode  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Root-knot nematode (caused by Meloidogyne ) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Nathaniel A. Mitkowski (University of Rhode Island;); George S. Abawi (NYSAES-Cornell University;)

2003-09-17

216

The Future of Nematode Management in Cotton  

PubMed Central

The importance of plant-parasitic nematodes as yield-limiting pathogens of cotton has received increased recognition and attention in the United States in the recent past. This paper summarizes the remarks made during a symposium of the same title that was held in July 2007 at the joint meeting of the Society of Nematologists and the American Phytopathological Society in San Diego, California. Although several cultural practices, including crop rotation, can be effective in suppressing the populations of the important nematode pathogens of cotton, the economic realities of cotton production limit their use. The use of nematicides is also limited by issues of efficacy and economics. There is a need for development of chemistries that will address these limitations. Also needed are systems that would enable precise nematicide application in terms of rate and placement only in areas where nematode population densities warrant application. Substantial progress is being made in the identification, characterization and mapping of loci for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. These data will lead to efficient marker-assisted selection systems that will likely result in development and release of nematode-resistant cotton cultivars with superior yield potential and high fiber quality. PMID:19259500

Starr, J. L.; Koenning, S. R.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Robinson, A. F.; Roberts, P. A.; Nichols, R. L.

2007-01-01

217

Plant Disease Lesson: Lesion nematode disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Lesion nematode disease (caused by Pratylenchus) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Eric L. Davis (North Carolina State University;); An E. MacGuidwin (University of Wisconsin;)

2000-10-30

218

Plant Disease Lesson: Soybean cyst nematode disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Soybean cyst nematode disease (caused by Heterodera glycines) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Eric L. Davis (North Carolina State University;); Gregory L. Tylka (Iowa State University;)

2000-07-25

219

Evolution of embryonic development in nematodes  

PubMed Central

Background Nematodes can be subdivided into basal Enoplea (clades 1 and 2) and more derived Chromadorea (clades 3 to 12). Embryogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans (clade 9) has been analyzed in most detail. Their establishment of polarity and asymmetric cleavage requires the differential localization of PAR proteins. Earlier studies on selected other nematodes revealed that embryonic development of nematodes is more diverse than the essentially invariant development of C. elegans and the classic study object Ascaris had suggested. To obtain a more detailed picture of variations and evolutionary trends we compared embryonic cell lineages and pattern formation in embryos of all 12 nematode clades. Methods The study was conducted using 4-D microscopy and 3-D modeling of developing embryos. Results We found dramatic differences compared to C. elegans in Enoplea but also considerable variations among Chromadorea. We discovered 'Polarity Organizing Centers' (POCs) that orient cleavage spindles along the anterior-posterior axis in distinct cells over consecutive cell generations. The resulting lineally arranged blastomeres represent a starting point for the establishment of bilateral symmetry within individual lineages. We can discern six different early cleavage types and suggest that these variations are due to modifications in the activity of the POCs in conjunction with changes in the distribution of PAR proteins. In addition, our studies indicate that lineage complexity advanced considerably during evolution, that is we observe trends towards an increase of somatic founder cells, from monoclonal to polyclonal lineages and from a variable (position-dependent) to an invariable (lineage-dependent) way of cell fate specification. In contrast to the early phase of embryogenesis, the second half ('morphogenesis') appears similar in all studied nematodes. Comparison of early cleavage between the basal nematode Tobrilus stefanskii and the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini revealed surprising similarities indicating that the presence of POCs is not restricted to nematode embryos. Conclusions The pattern of cleavage, spatial arrangement and differentiation of cells diverged dramatically during the history of the phylum Nematoda without corresponding changes in the phenotype. While in all studied representatives the same distinctive developmental steps need to be taken, cell behavior leading to these is not conserved. PMID:21929824

2011-01-01

220

Serum aca-mir-146a is a potential biomarker for early diagnosis of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection.  

PubMed

Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, but it lacks an effective early diagnostic tool for the disease. Recently, growing number of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated to serve as potentially noninvasive biomarkers for various diseases. However, it is unclear if the molecule can considered a biomarker for diagnosing the infection of A. cantonensis. Here, we attempted to identify potential A. cantonensis-derived miRNAs for the early diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis. Through Solexa deep sequencing and GO "biological process" classifications, we found that there were 18 miRNAs of significantly differential expression in the fourth-stage larvae (L4) larva of A. cantonensis when compared with the third-stage larvae (L3) larva of A. cantonensis. Among the 18 miRNAs, the sequences of 6 miRNAs, including aca-miR-29a, aca-miR-124, aca-miR-125a, aca-miR-146a, aca-miR-101, and aca-miR-185, were different from human- and mouse-derived miRNAs (both are the nonpermissive hosts of A. cantonensis). The expression patterns of the six A. cantonensis-derived miRNAs in serum were investigated by polymerase chain reaction on the A. cantonensis-infected mice and their controls. We found that aca-miR-146a had a significantly higher expression level in every experimental positive group, which suggested that this miRNA might be useful for early diagnosis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that aca-miR-146a was an effective biomarker for discriminating A. cantonensis-infected mice from healthy control cases, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.90. Its diagnostic accuracy was assessed on patients (n?=?30) and healthy controls (n?=?30), and the sensitivity and specificity reached 83 and 86.7 %, respectively. Our study revealed that aca-mir-146a in serum is an effective biomarker to track infection of A. cantonensis. PMID:24951166

Chen, Xiaoguang; Li, Zheng-Yu; Maleewong, Wanchai; Maleewong, Pewpan; Liang, Jinyi; Zeng, Xin; Zheng, Huanqin; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Sun, Xi

2014-09-01

221

Isolation of naturally associated bacteria of necromenic Pristionchus nematodes and fitness consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Nematodes and bacteria are major components of the soil ecosystem. Many nematodes use bacteria for food, whereas others evolved specialized bacterial interactions ranging from mutualism to parasitism. Little is known about the biological mechanisms by which nematode-bacterial interactions are achieved, largely because in the laboratory nematodes are often cultured under artificial conditions. We investigated the bacterial interactions of nematodes

Robbie Rae; Metta Riebesell; Iris Dinkelacker; Qiong Wang; Matthias Herrmann; Andreas M. Weller; Christoph Dieterich; Ralf J. Sommer

2008-01-01

222

Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology.  

PubMed

The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a 'top 10' list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10) Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly. PMID:23809086

Jones, John T; Haegeman, Annelies; Danchin, Etienne G J; Gaur, Hari S; Helder, Johannes; Jones, Michael G K; Kikuchi, Taisei; Manzanilla-López, Rosa; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Wesemael, Wim M L; Perry, Roland N

2013-12-01

223

Nitrogen Addition Regulates Soil Nematode Community Composition through Ammonium Suppression  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen (N) enrichment resulting from anthropogenic activities has greatly changed the composition and functioning of soil communities. Nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse groups of soil organisms, and they occupy key trophic positions in the soil detritus food web. Nematodes have therefore been proposed as useful indicators for shifts in soil ecosystem functioning under N enrichment. Here, we monitored temporal dynamics of the soil nematode community using a multi-level N addition experiment in an Inner Mongolia grassland. Measurements were made three years after the start of the experiment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the mechanisms regulating nematode responses to N enrichment. Across the N enrichment gradient, significant reductions in total nematode abundance, diversity (H' and taxonomic richness), maturity index (MI), and the abundance of root herbivores, fungivores and omnivores-predators were found in August. Root herbivores recovered in September, contributing to the temporal variation of total nematode abundance across the N gradient. Bacterivores showed a hump-shaped relationship with N addition rate, both in August and September. Ammonium concentration was negatively correlated with the abundance of total and herbivorous nematodes in August, but not in September. Ammonium suppression explained 61% of the variation in nematode richness and 43% of the variation in nematode trophic group composition. Ammonium toxicity may occur when herbivorous nematodes feed on root fluid, providing a possible explanation for the negative relationship between herbivorous nematodes and ammonium concentration in August. We found a significantly positive relationship between fungivores and fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), suggesting bottom-up control of fungivores. No such relationship was found between bacterivorous nematodes and bacterial PLFA. Our findings contribute to the understanding of effects of N enrichment in semiarid grassland on soil nematode trophic groups, and the cascading effects in the detrital soil food web. PMID:22952671

Wei, Cunzheng; Zheng, Huifen; Li, Qi; Lu, Xiaotao; Yu, Qiang; Zhang, Haiyang; Chen, Quansheng; He, Nianpeng; Kardol, Paul; Liang, Wenju; Han, Xingguo

2012-01-01

224

Nitrogen addition regulates soil nematode community composition through ammonium suppression.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) enrichment resulting from anthropogenic activities has greatly changed the composition and functioning of soil communities. Nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse groups of soil organisms, and they occupy key trophic positions in the soil detritus food web. Nematodes have therefore been proposed as useful indicators for shifts in soil ecosystem functioning under N enrichment. Here, we monitored temporal dynamics of the soil nematode community using a multi-level N addition experiment in an Inner Mongolia grassland. Measurements were made three years after the start of the experiment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the mechanisms regulating nematode responses to N enrichment. Across the N enrichment gradient, significant reductions in total nematode abundance, diversity (H' and taxonomic richness), maturity index (MI), and the abundance of root herbivores, fungivores and omnivores-predators were found in August. Root herbivores recovered in September, contributing to the temporal variation of total nematode abundance across the N gradient. Bacterivores showed a hump-shaped relationship with N addition rate, both in August and September. Ammonium concentration was negatively correlated with the abundance of total and herbivorous nematodes in August, but not in September. Ammonium suppression explained 61% of the variation in nematode richness and 43% of the variation in nematode trophic group composition. Ammonium toxicity may occur when herbivorous nematodes feed on root fluid, providing a possible explanation for the negative relationship between herbivorous nematodes and ammonium concentration in August. We found a significantly positive relationship between fungivores and fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), suggesting bottom-up control of fungivores. No such relationship was found between bacterivorous nematodes and bacterial PLFA. Our findings contribute to the understanding of effects of N enrichment in semiarid grassland on soil nematode trophic groups, and the cascading effects in the detrital soil food web. PMID:22952671

Wei, Cunzheng; Zheng, Huifen; Li, Qi; Lü, Xiaotao; Yu, Qiang; Zhang, Haiyang; Chen, Quansheng; He, Nianpeng; Kardol, Paul; Liang, Wenju; Han, Xingguo

2012-01-01

225

Characterization of Root-Knot Nematode Resistance in Medicago truncatula.  

PubMed

Root knot (Meloidogyne spp.) and cyst (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) nematodes infect all important crop species, and the annual economic loss due to these pathogens exceeds $90 billion. We screened the worldwide accession collection with the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria and M. hapla, soybean cyst nematode (SCN-Heterodera glycines), sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN-Heterodera schachtii) and clover cyst nematode (CLCN-Heterodera trifolii), revealing resistant and susceptible accessions. In the over 100 accessions evaluated, we observed a range of responses to the root-knot nematode species, and a non-host response was observed for SCN and SBCN infection. However, variation was observed with respect to infection by CLCN. While many cultivars including Jemalong A17 were resistant to H. trifolii, cultivar Paraggio was highly susceptible. Identification of M. truncatula as a host for root-knot nematodes and H. trifolii and the differential host response to both RKN and CLCN provide the opportunity to genetically and molecularly characterize genes involved in plant-nematode interaction. Accession DZA045, obtained from an Algerian population, was resistant to all three root-knot nematode species and was used for further studies. The mechanism of resistance in DZA045 appears different from Mi-mediated root-knot nematode resistance in tomato. Temporal analysis of nematode infection showed that there is no difference in nematode penetration between the resistant and susceptible accessions, and no hypersensitive response was observed in the resistant accession even several days after infection. However, less than 5% of the nematode population completed the life cycle as females in the resistant accession. The remainder emigrated from the roots, developed as males, or died inside the roots as undeveloped larvae. Genetic analyses carried out by crossing DZA045 with a susceptible French accession, F83005, suggest that one gene controls resistance in DZA045. PMID:19259519

Dhandaydham, Murali; Charles, Lauren; Zhu, Hongyan; Starr, James L; Huguet, Thierry; Cook, Douglas R; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Opperman, Charles

2008-03-01

226

In vitro study of the effects of Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae extracts on apoptosis and dysfunction in the blood-brain barrier (BBB).  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection might be due to the apoptosis of the hosts' BBB cells. Here, we evaluated this hypothesis through several methods, all based on an in vitro mouse BBB model consisting of primary culture brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and brain astrocytic cells (BACs). In the present study, a four-hour percolation and HRP permeability experiment showed that A. cantonensis larvae extracts can increase the permeability of the BBB. Apoptosis among BMECs and BACs after exposure to larvae extracts was monitored by TUNEL and annexin-V-FITC/PI double staining. A. cantonensis larvae extracts were found to induce apoptosis in both BMECs and BACs. For this reason, we concluded that the induction of apoptosis might participate in the BBB dysfunction observed during angiostrongyliasis. Improved fundamental understanding of how A. cantonensis induces apoptosis may lead to new approaches to the treatment or prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:22393387

Hu, Xin; Li, Jiang-Hui; Lan, Lan; Wu, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Er-Peng; Song, Zeng-Mei; Huang, Hui-Cong; Luo, Fang-Jun; Pan, Chang-Wang; Tan, Feng

2012-01-01

227

The Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata, a Novel Vector of the Rat Lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis: its Introduction, Spread, and Control in China  

PubMed Central

The freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata was introduced to Taiwan then to mainland China in the early 1980s from Argentina, its native region, for the purpose of aquaculture. Because of the lack of natural enemies and its tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions, both its abundance and distribution have dramatically increased and it has become a harmful species to local agriculture and other native species in many areas of China. Unfortunately, the snail also acts as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been implicated in transfer of the parasite to people, resulting in angiostrongyliasis manifested as eosinophilic meningitis. Efforts to prevent its further spread and population expansion were initiated many years ago, including the use of chemicals and biological control agents to control the snail. PMID:23901377

Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lun, Zhao-Rong

2013-01-01

228

Serosurvey for canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus, Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging canids in Scandinavia and Svalbard.  

PubMed

Prevalence of antibodies reactive to canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Toxoplasma gondii were examined in free-ranging Scandinavian canids. Sampling included 275 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from mainland Norway, 60 arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from the high-arctic islands of Svalbard, and 98 wolves (Canis lupus) from the joint Swedish-Norwegian population. Methods used included virus neutralization tests for CDV and CAV-1, a microscopic agglutination test for L. interrogans, and a direct agglutination test for T. gondii. High prevalence of antibody to CAV-1 was identified in red foxes (59.6%), wolves (67.7%), and arctic foxes (37.8%). The prevalence of antibody to CDV varied between 9.6% and 12.3% in the three species. Antibodies to L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae were found in 9.9% of the red foxes and 8.4% of the wolves sampled, whereas no antibody-positive arctic foxes were found. All animals were antibody-negative for L. interrogans serovar Canicola. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 66.9, 51.7, and 18.6% of red foxes, arctic foxes and wolves, respectively. Significantly more adults than juveniles were antibody-positive for CDV in red foxes and arctic foxes, for CAV-1 in wolves, and for T. gondii in red foxes and wolves. There was a general tendency for adult female red foxes to have a higher prevalence of antibodies for CDV than adult males; this difference was statistically significant. The results indicate that CDV and CAV-1 are endemic in red foxes and wolves on the Scandinavian mainland and in arctic foxes on Svalbard. Although infection with L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae was relatively common in wild canids on mainland Norway, it was not found on Svalbard, where the maintenance host (Rattus norvegicus) is absent. All three species are commonly exposed to T. gondii through predation on infected intermediate hosts. PMID:20688639

Akerstedt, Johan; Lillehaug, Atle; Larsen, Inger-Lise; Eide, Nina E; Arnemo, Jon M; Handeland, Kjell

2010-04-01

229

Impact of a Nematode-parasitic Fungus on the Effectiveness of Entomopathogenic Nematodes  

PubMed Central

The impact of the nematode-parasitic fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis on the effectiveness of Steinernema carpocapsae, S. glaseri, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora against Galleria mellonella larvae was assessed in the laboratory. The presence of Hirsutella conidia on the third-stage (J3) cuticle of S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora interfered with infection of insect larvae. Conidia on the J3 cuticle of S. glaseri and on the ensheathing second-stage cuticle of H. bacteriophora did not reduce the nematodes' ability to infect larvae. The LD?? values for S. carpocapsae, S. glaseri, and H. bacteriophora in sand containing H. rhossiliensis were not different from those in sterilized sand when Galleria larvae were added at the same time as the nematodes. However, when Galleria larvae were added 3 days after the nematodes, the LD?? of S. glaseri was higher in Hirsutella-infested sand than in sterilized sand, whereas the LD?? of H. bacteriophora was the same in infested and sterilized sand. Although the LD?? of S. carpocapsae was much higher in Hirsutella-infested sand than in sterilized sand, the data were too variable to detect a significant difference. These data suggest that H. bacteriophora may be more effective than Steinernema species at reducing insect pests in habitats with abundant nematode-parasitic fungi. PMID:19283194

Timper, Patricia; Kaya, Harry K.

1992-01-01

230

Plant actin cytoskeleton re-modeling by plant parasitic nematodes  

PubMed Central

The cytoskeleton is an important component of the plant’s defense mechanism against the attack of pathogenic organisms. Plants however, are defenseless against parasitic rootknot and cyst nematodes and respond to the invasion by the development of a special feeding site that supplies the parasite with nutrients required for the completion of its life cycle. Recent studies of nematode invasion under treatment with cytoskeletal drugs and in mutant plants where normal functions of the cytoskeleton have been affected, demonstrate the importance of the cytoskeleton in the establishment of a feeding site and successful nematode reproduction. It appears that in the case of microfilaments, nematodes hijack the intracellular machinery that regulates actin dynamics and modulate the organization and properties of the actin filament network. Intervening with this process reduces the nematode infection efficiency and inhibits its life cycle. This discovery uncovers a new pathway that can be exploited for the protection of plants against nematodes. PMID:20038822

Rodiuc, Natalia; Smertenko, Andrei; Abad, Pierre

2010-01-01

231

Immunity to gastrointestinal nematodes: mechanisms and myths  

PubMed Central

Immune responses to gastrointestinal nematodes have been studied extensively for over 80 years and intensively investigated over the last 30–40 years. The use of laboratory models has led to the discovery of new mechanisms of protective immunity and made major contributions to our fundamental understanding of both innate and adaptive responses. In addition to host protection, it is clear that immunoregulatory processes are common in infected individuals and resistance often operates alongside modulation of immunity. This review aims to discuss the recent discoveries in both host protection and immunoregulation against gastrointestinal nematodes, placing the data in context of the specific life cycles imposed by the different parasites studied and the future challenges of considering the mucosal/immune axis to encompass host, parasite, and microbiome in its widest sense. PMID:24942690

Grencis, Richard K; Humphreys, Neil E; Bancroft, Allison J

2014-01-01

232

Immunity to gastrointestinal nematodes: mechanisms and myths.  

PubMed

Immune responses to gastrointestinal nematodes have been studied extensively for over 80 years and intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. The use of laboratory models has led to the discovery of new mechanisms of protective immunity and made major contributions to our fundamental understanding of both innate and adaptive responses. In addition to host protection, it is clear that immunoregulatory processes are common in infected individuals and resistance often operates alongside modulation of immunity. This review aims to discuss the recent discoveries in both host protection and immunoregulation against gastrointestinal nematodes, placing the data in context of the specific life cycles imposed by the different parasites studied and the future challenges of considering the mucosal/immune axis to encompass host, parasite, and microbiome in its widest sense. PMID:24942690

Grencis, Richard K; Humphreys, Neil E; Bancroft, Allison J

2014-07-01

233

Caenorhabditis Elegans--Applications to Nematode Genomics  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequence of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was published 4 years ago. Since then, we have seen great strides in technologies that seek to exploit this data. Here we describe the application of some of these techniques and other advances that are helping us to understand about not only the biology of this important model organism but also the entire phylum Nematoda. PMID:18629128

Parkinson, John

2003-01-01

234

7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a...

2012-01-01

235

7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a...

2013-01-01

236

7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a...

2010-01-01

237

7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.  

... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a...

2014-01-01

238

7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a...

2011-01-01

239

78 FR 1713 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...reducing the golden nematode regulated area by...847 acres. Golden nematode is a major pest of...tomato plants, and soybeans, among other crops. The golden nematode quarantine negatively...the transport of cysts in soil, in...

2013-01-09

240

Selective Association Between the Free-Living Nematode Acrobeloides maximus and Soil Bacteria  

E-print Network

cysts of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines).as associates of the soybean root cyst nematode Heteroderasoybean cysts (22). Pedobacter was also recently identified as a bacterial associate of the plant parasitic nematode

Sedky, Sammy Farid

2013-01-01

241

Molecular Insights in the Susceptible Plant Response to Nematode Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes have evolved sophisticated strategies to form permanent feeding sites within host plant\\u000a roots to ensure their survival. The process of feeding site formation entails an elaborate transformation of normal root cells\\u000a into enlarged, multinucleate, and metabolically active cell types to supply the nutritional needs of the nematode. The signal-exchange\\u000a that occurs between nematodes and their hosts to

Godelieve Gheysen; Melissa G. Mitchum

242

FUNGAL FERMENTATION PRODUCTS FOR CONTROL OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematodes are a continuing threat to cotton production in Georgia, and only a few management tools are available to control crop losses due to nematodes. The primary goal of this project during calendar-year 2004 was to search for new nematode-killing chemicals produced by a group of soil-inhabiting microbes called fungi. Soil samples were collected from cotton fields in Coffee, Colquit,

James P. Noe

243

Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 ?g Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 ?g NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

2013-01-01

244

Reniform nematode resistance in selected soybean cultivars.  

PubMed

Two hundred eighty-two soybean cultivars from the variety testing programs of Arkansas and Mississippi were tested in greenhouse pot experiments during summer 1998 to identify soybean cultivars with resistance to the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis. Also included in the tests were the resistant cultivars Forrest and Hartwig, the susceptible control Braxton, and fallow infested soil, which were used as controls. Numbers of reniform nematode extracted from the soil and roots and the ratio of the numbers reproducing on each cultivar compared to the number reproducing on Forrest are reported. Cultivars with reproduction not significantly different from Forrest were classified resistant, whereas those with greater reproductive indices were considered susceptible. One of the 18 cultivars of relative maturity group (RMG) /=6.0 were classed as resistant. These data will be useful in the selection of soybean cultivars to use in rotation with cotton to help control the reniform nematode. PMID:19270934

Robbins, R T; Rakes, L; Jackson, L E; Dombek, D G

1999-12-01

245

Nematode locomotion in unconfined and confined fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [V. Padmanabhan et al., PLoS ONE 7, e40121 (2012), 10.1371/journal.pone.0040121] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness of the body of the nematode on its locomotion. These effects are not accounted for by the classical resistive-force and slender-body theories.

Bilbao, Alejandro; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Vanapalli, Siva A.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

2013-08-01

246

Condensed tannins act against cattle nematodes.  

PubMed

The use of natural plant anthelmintics was suggested as a possible alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in ruminants. Direct anthelmintic effects of tannin-containing plants have already been shown in sheep and goat GIN. These anthelmintic properties are mainly associated with condensed tannins. In the present study, we evaluated possible in vitro effects of three tannin-containing plants against bovine GIN. Effects of Onobrychis viciifolia, Lotus pedunculatus and Lotus corniculatus condensed tannin (CT) extracts on Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi were determined by a larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA) and a larval exsheathment assay (LEA). In the LFIA, all three plant extracts significantly inhibited larval feeding behaviour of both C. oncophora and O. ostertagi first stage larvae in a dose-dependent manner. The L. pedunculatus extract, based on EC(50) (effective concentration for 50% inhibition), was the most effective against both nematodes, followed by O. viciifolia and L. corniculatus. The effect of CT extracts upon larval feeding behaviour correlates with CT content and procyanidin/prodelphidin ratio. Larval exsheathment of C. oncophora and O. ostertagi L3 larvae (third stage larvae) was also affected by CT extracts from all three plants. In both in vitro assays, extracts with added polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, an inhibitor of tannins, generated almost the same values as the negative control; this confirms the role of CT in the anthelmintic effect of these plant extracts. Our results, therefore, indicated that tannin-containing plants could act against cattle nematodes. PMID:21726942

Novobilský, Adam; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

2011-12-15

247

Entomopathogenic Nematode Production and Application Technology  

PubMed Central

Production and application technology is critical for the success of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in biological control. Production approaches include in vivo, and in vitro methods (solid or liquid fermentation). For laboratory use and small scale field experiments, in vivo production of EPNs appears to be the appropriate method. In vivo production is also appropriate for niche markets and small growers where a lack of capital, scientific expertise or infrastructure cannot justify large investments into in vitro culture technology. In vitro technology is used when large scale production is needed at reasonable quality and cost. Infective juveniles of entomopathogenic nematodes are usually applied using various spray equipment and standard irrigation systems. Enhanced efficacy in EPN applications can be facilitated through improved delivery mechanisms (e.g., cadaver application) or optimization of spray equipment. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in developing EPN formulations, particularly for above ground applications, e.g., mixing EPNs with surfactants or polymers or with sprayable gels. Bait formulations and insect host cadavers can enhance EPN persistence and reduce the quantity of nematodes required per unit area. This review provides a summary and analysis of factors that affect production and application of EPNs and offers insights for their future in biological insect suppression. PMID:23482883

Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Han, Richou; Dolinksi, Claudia

2012-01-01

248

Recovery of parasitic nematodes from fish by digestion or elution.  

PubMed Central

Two methods, digestion and elution, were used to recover parasitic nematodes from 470 flatfish belonging to species in the family Pleuronectidae. Samples of similar fish were collected from market lots; half of each sample was subjected to digestion, and half was subjected to elution (sedimentation). The edible (flesh) and the inedible (viscera) portions of each fish were analyzed separately. The total number of nematodes recovered by digestion was 1,110, which was not significantly greater than the 922 nematodes recovered by elution. However, digestion recovered 1,062 nematodes of the anisakine genera Anisakis and Phocanema, which are potentially pathogenic for human consumers of raw of semiraw fish. This number is significantly greater than the 608 pathogenic nematodes recovered by elution. Digestion also recovered 242 more nematodes from the edible flesh than did elution. Conversely, more nonpathogenic nematodes were recovered by elution. Approximately half the fish (240) had been collected in Boston markets, and the other half (230) had been collected in San Francisco markets. Fish from San Francisco each contained an average of eight nematodes, and those from Boston contained an average of less than one nematode per fish. PMID:7235710

Jackson, G J; Bier, J W; Payne, W L; McClure, F D

1981-01-01

249

Recovery of parasitic nematodes from fish by digestion or elution.  

PubMed

Two methods, digestion and elution, were used to recover parasitic nematodes from 470 flatfish belonging to species in the family Pleuronectidae. Samples of similar fish were collected from market lots; half of each sample was subjected to digestion, and half was subjected to elution (sedimentation). The edible (flesh) and the inedible (viscera) portions of each fish were analyzed separately. The total number of nematodes recovered by digestion was 1,110, which was not significantly greater than the 922 nematodes recovered by elution. However, digestion recovered 1,062 nematodes of the anisakine genera Anisakis and Phocanema, which are potentially pathogenic for human consumers of raw of semiraw fish. This number is significantly greater than the 608 pathogenic nematodes recovered by elution. Digestion also recovered 242 more nematodes from the edible flesh than did elution. Conversely, more nonpathogenic nematodes were recovered by elution. Approximately half the fish (240) had been collected in Boston markets, and the other half (230) had been collected in San Francisco markets. Fish from San Francisco each contained an average of eight nematodes, and those from Boston contained an average of less than one nematode per fish. PMID:7235710

Jackson, G J; Bier, J W; Payne, W L; McClure, F D

1981-04-01

250

Molecular characterization of CLE peptide mimicry during cyst nematode pathogenesis .  

E-print Network

??Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes establish intimate parasitic relationships with their hosts by penetrating the root as motile juveniles and migrating intracellularly until they reach the root… (more)

Replogle, Amy

2011-01-01

251

Detection and description of soils with specific nematode suppressiveness.  

PubMed

Soils with specific suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes are of interest to define the mechanisms that regulate population density. Suppressive soils prevent nematodes from establishing and from causing disease, and they diminish disease severity after initial nematode damage in continuous culturing of a host. A range of non-specific and specific soil treatments, followed by infestation with a target nematode, have been employed to identify nematode-suppressive soils. Biocidal treatments, soil transfer tests, and baiting approaches together with observations of the plant-parasitic nematode in the root zone of susceptible host plants have improved the understanding of nematode-suppressive soils. Techniques to demonstrate specific soil suppressiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes are compared in this review. The overlap of studies on soil suppressiveness with recent advances in soil health and quality is briefly discussed. The emphasis is on methods (or criteria) used to detect and identify soils that maintain specific soil suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes. While biocidal treatments can detect general and specific soil suppressiveness, soil transfer studies, by definition, apply only to specific soil suppressiveness. Finally, potential strategies to exploit suppressive soils are presented. PMID:19262851

Westphal, Andreas

2005-03-01

252

Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, vitamins A and E, and carotenoids in six canid and four ursid species at four zoos.  

PubMed

Nutritional status for six captive canid species (n=34) and four captive ursid species (n=18) were analyzed. The species analyzed included: African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), gray wolf (Canis lupus), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baleiyi), red wolf (Canis rufus), brown bear (Ursus arctos), polar bear (Ursus maritimus), spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), and sun bear (Ursus malayanus). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diet for each species at each institution met probable dietary requirements. Blood samples were collected from each animal and analyzed for vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D, vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Family differences were found for 25(OH)D, retinol, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol. Species differences were found for all detectable measurements. Carotenoids were not detected in any species. The large number of animals contributing to these data, provides a substantial base for comparing the nutritional status of healthy animals and the differences among them. PMID:11137448

Crissey, S; Ange, K; Slifka, K; Bowen, P; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M; Langman, C; Sadler, W; Ward, A

2001-01-01

253

Cultivation of the Rhabditid Poikilolaimus oxycercus as a Laboratory Nematode for Genetic Analyses  

E-print Network

Cultivation of the Rhabditid Poikilolaimus oxycercus as a Laboratory Nematode for Genetic Analyses. In order to cultivate this gonochoristic nematode into an experimental model with a tractable genetic

Cohen, Randy W.

254

Assessment of four soil nematode communities in Hawaii by different methods.  

E-print Network

??Nematode communities are potentially excellent indicators of soil health. Assessing these nematodes communities using molecular and morphological techniques may seem straight forward. However, many challenges… (more)

Quintero, Tonia G

2008-01-01

255

Granite Rock Outcrops: An Extreme Environment for Soil Nematodes?  

PubMed Central

We studied soil nematode communities from the surface of granite flatrock outcrops in the eastern Piedmont region of the United States. The thin soils that develop here experience high light intensity and extreme fluctuations in temperature and moisture and host unique plant communities. We collected soils from outcrop microsites in Virginia (VA) and North Carolina (NC) in various stages of succession (Primitive, Minimal, and Mature) and compared soil properties and nematode communities to those of adjacent forest soils. Nematodes were present in most outcrop soils, with densities comparable to forest soils (P > 0.05). Nematode communities in Mature and Minimal soils had lower species richness than forest soils (P < 0.05) and contained more bacterial-feeders and fewer fungal-feeders (P < 0.05). Primitive soils contained either no nematodes (NC) or only a single species (Mesodorylaimus sp., VA). Nematode communities were similar between Mature and Minimal soils, according to trophic group representation, MI, PPI, EI, SI, and CI (P > 0.05). Forest soils had a higher PPI value (P < 0.05), but otherwise community indices were similar to outcrop soils (P > 0.05). Outcrop nematode communities failed to group together in a Bray-Curtis cluster analysis, indicating higher variability in community structure than the Forest soils, which did cluster together. A high proportion of the nematodes were extracted from outcrop soils in coiled form (33-89%), indicating that they used anhydrobiosis to persist in this unique environment. PMID:22661780

Austin, Erin; Semmens, Katharine; Parsons, Charles

2009-01-01

256

Inhibition of Nematode Infestation of Wheat Seedlings by Polygonum hydropiper  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOME nematode diseases of crop plants are ameliorated by Brassica, Tagetes or Asparagus grown previously or concurrently in the same soil1-5. Toxic principles within their roots or exuded into the soil are thought to be responsible. Having observed that leaf and root extracts of Polygonum hydropiper L. have nematostatic properties against Rhabditis and other soil nematodes in vitro6, I decided

N. C. Sukul

1970-01-01

257

Plant species effects on soil nematode communities in experimental grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of 12 different plant species on soil nematode abundance and community composition, and rotifer abundance, in an experimental grassland in Northern Sweden. Monocultures were grown for six or seven growing seasons before sampling. Four monocultures were grasses, four were legumes and four were non-leguminous forbs. Plant species identity had an effect on the nematode community, both

Maria Viketoft; Cecilia Palmborg; Björn Sohlenius; Kerstin Huss-Danell; Jan Bengtsson

2005-01-01

258

Golden nematode Globodera rostochiensis Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Golden nematode Globodera rostochiensis Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The golden nematode is a serious

259

Root?knot nematode disease of chickpea in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The root?knot nematode disease of chickpea caused by Meloidogyne spp. was found to be widespread in the tarai region of Nepal. The disease was moderate to severe in Bhairahawa, Gadari, Gopalkoti, and Rampur. In Nawalpur, Nepalganj and Parwanipur, the disease incidence was low. Leucas aspera a common weed in chickpea fields, was found to harbour the root?knot nematode.

S. B. Sharma; R. P. Sah; Onkar Singh; H. A. Van Rheenen

1990-01-01

260

The environmental physiology of Antarctic terrestrial nematodes: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental physiology of terrestrial Antarctic nematodes is reviewed with an emphasis on their cold-tolerance strategies. These nematodes are living in one of the most extreme environments on Earth and face a variety of stresses, including low temperatures and desiccation. Their diversity is low and declines with latitude. They show resistance adaptation, surviving freezing and desiccation in a dormant state

D. A. Wharton

2003-01-01

261

Nemo: a computational tool for analyzing nematode locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to an impressive range of chemical, mechanical and thermal stimuli and is extensively used to investigate the molecular mechanisms that mediate chemosensation, mechanotransduction and thermosensation. The main behavioral output of these responses is manifested as alterations in animal locomotion. Monitoring and examination of such alterations requires tools to capture and quantify features of nematode movement.

George D. Tsibidis; Nektarios Tavernarakis

2008-01-01

262

Nemo: a computational tool for analyzing nematode locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to an impressive range of chemical, mechanical and thermal stimuli and is extensively used to investigate the molecular mechanisms that mediate chemosensation, mechanotransduction and thermosensation. The main behavioral output of these responses is manifested as alterations in animal locomotion. Monitoring and examination of such alterations requires tools to capture and quantify features of nematode

George D. Tsibidis; Nektarios Tavernarakis

2007-01-01

263

Sex-determination gene and pathway evolution in nematodes  

E-print Network

Sex-determination gene and pathway evolution in nematodes Paul Stothard and Dave Pilgrim* Summary at the molecular level. By identifying differences between the sex-determination mechanisms in C. elegans and other nematode species, it should be possible to under- stand how complex sex-determining pathways evolve

McQueen, Heather

264

Nematode community structure as a bioindicator in environmental monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four of every five multicellular animals on the planet are nematodes. They occupy any niche that provides an available source of organic carbon in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. Nematodes vary in sensitivity to pollutants and environmental disturbance. Recent development of indices that integrate the responses of different taxa and trophic groups to perturbation provides a powerful basis for analysis

Tom Bongers; Howard Ferris

1999-01-01

265

Systematics, ecology and feeding biology of estuarine nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of extensive biological and chemical investigations in the Ems estuary, the nematode fauna of this area (mainly located in the sediments of tidal flats) was studied.First, a new method of isolating nematodes was developed, as none of the existing methods appeared to be quantitatively reliable for the isolation of organisms from silty sediments. The new method is based

L. A. Bouwman

1983-01-01

266

Challenges for mass production of nematodes in submerged culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematodes of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis genera are used as agents in insect biocontrol programs. They are associated with specific bacteria which are also involved in the mechanism of pathogenicity and which are consumed by nematodes as living food. S. feltiae has various developmental stages in its life cycle, including four juvenile stages, adults and the free living form. During mating,

Mayra de la Torre

2003-01-01

267

Control for nematodes in cotton DNA story text  

E-print Network

soybean cyst nematode. Plant scientist Halina Knap is exploring the little-under- stood mechanism used by some ancestral soybean varieties to sense the presence of the nematodes and produce a natural defense' costs. Soybeans are a major row crop in the U.S., valued at more than $27 billion. The soybean cyst

Bolding, M. Chad

268

Research Thrusts Molecular Technologies for Plant Resistance to Nematode Pests  

E-print Network

MPRINT Research Thrusts Molecular Technologies for Plant Resistance to Nematode Pests Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) is the most important pest of soybeans in the U.S., with losses ranging from 3. A., J. M. Ferris, V. R. Ferris, and J. Faghihi. Methods for conferring broad-based soybean cyst

Ginzel, Matthew

269

Disease and Nematode Management in Field Crops Table of Contents  

E-print Network

.......................................................................................................................3-12 Sources of soybean commercial cultivar reactions to cyst nematodes..................................................................................................................................... 3-11 Table 3.6 - Resistance of Publicly Developed Soybean Cultivars to Soybean Cyst and RootDisease and Nematode Management in Field Crops Table of Contents Corn and Sorghum Diseases

Liskiewicz, Maciej

270

Nematodes from terrestrial and freshwater habitats in the Arctic  

PubMed Central

Abstract We present an updated list of terrestrial and freshwater nematodes from all regions of the Arctic, for which records of properly identified nematode species are available: Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Iceland, Greenland, Nunavut, Northwest territories, Alaska, Lena River estuary, Taymyr and Severnaya Zemlya and Novaya Zemlya. The list includes 391 species belonging to 146 genera, 54 families and 10 orders of the phylum Nematoda.

2014-01-01

271

Harmful effects of mustard bio-fumigants on entomopathogenic nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mustard (Brassica and Sinapis spp.) green manures tilled into the soil preceding potato crops act as bio-fumigants that are toxic to plant–parasitic nematodes, providing an alternative to synthetic soil fumigants. However, it is not known whether mustard green manures also kill beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) that contribute to the control of pest insects. We used sentinel insect prey (Galleria mellonella

Ricardo A. Ramirez; Donna R. Henderson; Ekaterini Riga; Lawrence A. Lacey; William E. Snyder

2009-01-01

272

Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Pelecitus sp. Nematode, Brazil  

PubMed Central

A male nematode was extracted from iris fibers of a man from the Brazilian Amazon region. This nematode belonged to the genus Pelecitus but was distinct from the 16 known species in this genus. Similarities with Pelecitus spp. from neotropical birds suggested an avian origin for this species. PMID:21529397

Bain, Odile; Diniz, Daniel G.; Nascimento dos Santos, Jeannie; Pinto de Oliveira, Norimar; Frota de Almeida, Izabela Negrao; Frota de Almeida, Rafael Negrao; Frota de Almeida, Luciana Negrao; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Sobrinho, Edmundo Frota de Almeida

2011-01-01

273

Gizzard nematodes of Canada geese wintering in southern Illinois.  

PubMed

Gizzards from 64 hunter-shot Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were collected in southern Illinois (USA) in December 1991 and January 1992 to determine the prevalence and intensity of gizzard nematodes. Three species of gizzard nematodes were recovered: Amidostomum anseris, Amidostomum spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The prevalence of infection was 98%. Mean intensity was 17.8 nematodes per host and was significantly greater for immature geese (40.3 nematodes/host) than for adult geese (10.9 nematodes/host). The intensity of both A. anseris and E. crami was greater in immature geese, but even the most heavily infected birds did not display serious lesions. Despite a dramatic increase in the population of geese, mean intensity in adult geese was similar to mean intensity reported from earlier studies at the same site. Mean intensity in immature geese in 1991 and 1992 was greater than in earlier studies. PMID:8592349

Nowicki, A; Roby, D D; Woolf, A

1995-07-01

274

Pathogenicity of the lesion nematodes on sorghum  

E-print Network

population (Pf) divided by the initial population (Pi). Data were subjected to an analysis of variance. Inoculation Techniques Three inoculation techniques were tested to determine which gave th h'gh t 1 1 f ' 't' 1 p t t' f ~pt1 h p into sorghum roots... nematode populations and on the reproduction index (Pf/Pi). RESULTS Reproduction In both greenhouse and microplot tests, only P. zeae had substantial population increases on sorghum. In greenhouse tests, th P 1 t' ' !' f P. ~bl d P. t 1 than 1. 0...

Motalaote, Baikabile

2012-06-07

275

Co-adaptation mechanisms in plant-nematode systems.  

PubMed

The review is aimed to analyze the biochemical and immune-breaking adaptive mechanisms established in evolution of plant parasitic nematodes. Plant parasitic nematodes are obligate, biotrophic pathogens of numerous plant species. These organisms cause dramatic changes in the morphology and physiology of their hosts. The group of sedentary nematodes which are among the most damaging plant-parasitic nematodes cause the formation of special organs called nematode feeding sites in the root tissue called syncytium (cyst nematodes, CN; Heterodera and Globodera spp.) or giant cells (root-knot nematodes, RKN; Meloidogyne spp.). The most pronounced morphological adaptations of nematodes for plant parasitism include a hollow, protrusible stylet (feeding spear) connected to three esophageal gland cells that express products secreted into plant tissues through the stylet. Several gene products secreted by the nematode during parasitism have been identified. The current battery of candidate parasitism proteins secreted by nematodes to modify plant tissues for parasitism includes cell-wall-modifying enzymes, multiple regulators of host cell cycle and metabolism, proteins that can localize near the plant cell nucleus, potential suppressors of host defense, and mimics of plant molecules. Plants are usually able to recognize and react to parasites by activating various defense responses. When the response of the plant is too weak or too late, a successful infection (compatible interaction) will result. A rapid and strong defense response (e. g. due to the presence of a resistance gene) will result in the resistant (incompatible) reaction. Defense responses include the production of toxic oxygen radicals and systemic signaling compounds as well as the activation of defense genes that lead to the production of structural barriers or other toxins. PMID:25272462

Zinovieva, S V

2014-01-01

276

Soil microorganisms control plant ectoparasitic nematodes in natural coastal foredunes  

PubMed Central

Belowground herbivores can exert important controls on the composition of natural plant communities. Until now, relatively few studies have investigated which factors may control the abundance of belowground herbivores. In Dutch coastal foredunes, the root-feeding nematode Tylenchorhynchus ventralis is capable of reducing the performance of the dominant grass Ammophila arenaria (Marram grass). However, field surveys show that populations of this nematode usually are controlled to nondamaging densities, but the control mechanism is unknown. In the present study, we first established that T. ventralis populations are top-down controlled by soil biota. Then, selective removal of soil fauna suggested that soil microorganisms play an important role in controlling T. ventralis. This result was confirmed by an experiment where selective inoculation of microarthropods, nematodes and microbes together with T. ventralis into sterilized dune soil resulted in nematode control when microbes were present. Adding nematodes had some effect, whereas microarthropods did not have a significant effect on T. ventralis. Our results have important implications for the appreciation of herbivore controls in natural soils. Soil food web models assume that herbivorous nematodes are controlled by predaceous invertebrates, whereas many biological control studies focus on managing nematode abundance by soil microorganisms. We propose that soil microorganisms play a more important role than do carnivorous soil invertebrates in the top-down control of herbivorous ectoparasitic nematodes in natural ecosystems. This is opposite to many studies on factors controlling root-feeding insects, which are supposed to be controlled by carnivorous invertebrates, parasitoids, or entomopathogenic nematodes. Our conclusion is that the ectoparasitic nematode T. ventralis is potentially able to limit productivity of the dune grass A. arenaria but that soil organisms, mostly microorganisms, usually prevent the development of growth-reducing population densities. PMID:17345102

Duyts, Henk; Berg, Matty P.; Costa, Sofia R.; van der Putten, Wim H.

2007-01-01

277

Expressed sequence tags of the peanut pod nematode Ditylenchus africanus: the first transcriptome analysis of an Anguinid nematode  

PubMed Central

In this study, 4847 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from mixed stages of the migratory plant-parasitic nematode Ditylenchus africanus (peanut pod nematode) were investigated. It is the first molecular survey of a nematode which belongs to the family of the Anguinidae (order Rhabditida, superfamily Sphaerularioidea). The sequences were clustered into 2596 unigenes, of which 43% did not show any homology to known protein, nucleotide, nematode EST or plant-parasitic nematode genome sequences. Gene ontology mapping revealed that most putative proteins are involved in developmental and reproductive processes. In addition unigenes involved in oxidative stress as well as in anhydrobiosis, such as LEA (late embryogenesis abundant protein) and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase were identified. Other tags showed homology to genes previously described as being involved in parasitism (expansin, SEC-2, calreticulin, 14-3-3b and various allergen proteins). In situ hybridization revealed that the expression of a putative expansin and a venom allergen protein was restricted to the gland cell area of the nematode, being in agreement with their presumed role in parasitism. Furthermore, 7 putative novel candidate parasitism genes were identified based on the prediction of a signal peptide in the corresponding protein sequence and homologous ESTs exclusively in parasitic nematodes. These genes are interesting for further research and functional characterization. Finally, 34 unigenes were retained as good target candidates for future RNAi experiments, because of their nematode specific nature and observed lethal phenotypes of Caenorhabditis elegans homologs. PMID:19383517

Haegeman, Annelies; Jacob, Joachim; Vanholme, Bartel; Kyndt, Tina; Mitreva, Makedonka; Gheysen, Godelieve

2009-01-01

278

Nematodes and Regulatory T Cells Katherine A Smith and Rick M Maizels  

E-print Network

Nematodes and Regulatory T Cells Katherine A Smith and Rick M Maizels Institute of Immunology and Infection Research University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK For "Parasitic Nematodes, Second Edition.maizels@ed.ac.uk #12;Smitn & Maizels, Nematodes and T Regulatory Cells Page 2 Introduction The survival of nematode

Maizels, Rick

279

Applied Soil Ecology 14 (2000) 515 Successional trends in the characteristics of soil nematode communities  

E-print Network

Applied Soil Ecology 14 (2000) 5­15 Successional trends in the characteristics of soil nematode in revised form 25 November 1999; accepted 9 December 1999 Abstract Soil nematode communities in the 0­15 cm-arid zone of West Africa (Senegal). Abundance of plant feeding nematodes, non-plant feeding nematodes, plant

Thioulouse, Jean

280

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 TOBACCO NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 283 TOBACCO NEMATODE CONTROL Bruce Fortnum, Extension Specialist Damage caused by nematodes are difficult to estimate because damage to roots with moderate levels of nematodes. Nematodes may increase the incidence of other diseases such as black shank

Stuart, Steven J.

281

Nematode sampling instructions for cotton producers on the Southern High Plains of Texas  

E-print Network

Nematode sampling instructions for cotton producers on the Southern High Plains of Texas Jason E populations of plant parasitic nematodes capable of reducing yield. Nematode samples are typically taken after estimation of nematode populations. In collecting soil samples, several factors, such as sampling method

Behmer, Spencer T.

282

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 40 (2008) 978985 Belowground nematode herbivores are resistant to elevated atmospheric  

E-print Network

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 40 (2008) 978�985 Belowground nematode herbivores are resistant of herbivorous nematode populations to elevated CO2 concentrations from three distinct grassland experiments, elevated CO2 did not affect the abundance of nematode families; only two nematode families were

Wall, Diana

283

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 TOBACCO NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 296 TOBACCO NEMATODE CONTROL Bruce Fortnum, Extension Specialist Damage caused by nematodes are difficult to estimate because damage to roots with moderate levels of nematodes. Nematodes may increase the incidence of other diseases such as black shank

Duchowski, Andrew T.

284

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

lance nematodes in cotton. Field Crop Hosts for Common Nematodes Crop Root-knot Lesion Lance SoybeanSouth Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 198 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL W. Scott Monfort, Extension Peanut Specialist Fortunately nematodes have been a relatively minor problem

Duchowski, Andrew T.

285

Nematode Locomotion in Unconfined and Confined Fluids  

E-print Network

The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode {\\it C. elegans} propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [PLoS ONE \\textbf{7}, e40121 (2012)] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature (PHC) model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness...

Bilbao, Alejandro; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

2013-01-01

286

Nematodes as bioindicators of soil degradation due to heavy metals.  

PubMed

The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community was investigated on four sampling sites along an 4 km transect originating at the Kovohuty a.s. Krompachy (pollution source). The soil nematode communities were exposed to heavy metal influence directly and through soil properties changes. We quantified the relative effects of total and mobile fraction of metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) on soil ecosystem using the nematode community structure (trophic and c-p groups,) and ecological indices (Richness of genera, H', MI2-5, etc.). Pollution effects on the community structure of soil free living nematodes was found to be the highest near the pollution source, with relatively low population density and domination of insensitive taxa. A decrease in heavy metals contents along the transect was linked with an increase in complexity of nematode community. The majority of used indices (MI2-5, SI, H') negatively correlated (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) with heavy metals content and were sensitive to soil ecosystem disturbance. Contamination by heavy metals has negatively affected the soil environment, which resulted in nematode community structure and ecological indices changes. Results showed that the free-living nematodes are useful tools for bioindication of contamination and could be used as an alternative to the common approaches based on chemical methods. PMID:22923372

Šalamún, Peter; Ren?o, Marek; Kucanová, Eva; Brázová, Tímea; Papajová, Ingrid; Miklisová, Dana; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

2012-11-01

287

Microsporidian infection in a free-living marine nematode.  

PubMed

Microsporidia are unicellular fungi that are obligate endoparasites. Although nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse animal groups, the only confirmed report of microsporidian infection was that of the "nematode killer" (Nematocida parisii). N. parisii was isolated from a wild Caenorhabditis sp. and causes an acute and lethal intestinal infection in a lab strain of Caenorhabditis elegans. We set out to characterize a microsporidian infection in a wild nematode to determine whether the infection pattern of N. parisii in the lab is typical of microsporidian infections in nematodes. We describe a novel microsporidian species named Sporanauta perivermis (marine spore of roundworms) and characterize its infection in its natural host, the free-living marine nematode Odontophora rectangula. S. perivermis is not closely related to N. parisii and differs strikingly in all aspects of infection. Examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the infection was localized in the hypodermal and muscle tissues only and did not involve the intestines. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed infection in the muscle and hypodermis, and surprisingly, it also revealed that the parasite infects O. rectangula eggs, suggesting a vertical mode of transmission. Our observations highlight the importance of studying parasites in their natural hosts and indicate that not all nematode-infecting microsporidia are "nematode killers"; instead, microsporidiosis can be more versatile and chronic in the wild. PMID:23087371

Ardila-Garcia, A M; Fast, N M

2012-12-01

288

Dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) for the rapid detection of specific antibodies against the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) using purified 31-kDa antigen.  

PubMed

A rapid dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) was adopted for specific immunodiagnosis of human cerebral angiostrongyliasis, using purified 31-kDa glycoprotein specific to Angiostrongylus cantonensis as diagnostic antigen and protein A colloidal gold conjugate as antigen-antibody detector. A total of 59 serum samples were assayed - 11 samples from clinically diagnosed patients with detectable A. cantonensis-specific antibody in immunoblotting; 23 samples from patients with other related parasitic diseases, i.e. gnathostomiasis (n= 8), cysticercosis (n= 5), toxocariasis (n= 2), filariasis (n= 4), paragonimiasis (n= 2) and malaria (n= 2); and 25 samples from normal healthy subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of DIGFA to detect anti-A. cantonensis specific antibodies in serologically confirmed angiostrongyliasis cases, were both 100%. No positive DIGFA was observed in cases with other parasitic diseases, and the healthy control subjects. The 3-min DIGFA is as sensitive and specific as the 3-h immunoblot test in angiostrongyliasis confirmed cases that revealed a 31-kDa reactive band. The gold-based DIGFA is more rapid and easier to perform than the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The test utilizing purified A. cantonensis antigen is reliable and reproducible for specific immunodiagnosis of human infection with A. cantonensis - thus can be applied as an additional routine test for clinical diagnostic support. Large-scale sero-epidemiological studies in endemic communities in north-east Thailand are under way to evaluate its usefulness under field conditions. PMID:23710755

Eamsobhana, P; Gan, X X; Ma, A; Wang, Y; Wanachiwanawin, D; Yong, H S

2014-12-01

289

Activation of anaerobic metabolism in Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae) by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

The activity of lactate dehydrogenase and the concentrations of glucose in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis were evaluated. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the hemolymph concentrations of some carboxylic acids (oxalic, piruvic, lactic and succinic). After one, two and three weeks of infection, the snails were dissected to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. A significant reduction of the levels of glucose in the hemolymph was observed as of the first week of infection in relation to the control group. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of the infected group was significantly higher than the average of the control group. This increase was accompanied by a reduction of the levels of piruvic acid and an increase in the levels of lactic acid in the hemolymph of the parasited snails, confirming the acceleration of the anaerobic metabolism, necessary for the host to obtain energy and maintain its redox balance. In parallel, there was a decrease in the glycogen content of the storage tissues, with that reduction being significantly greater in the cephalopedal mass than the digestive gland, demonstrating that in this interaction system, the mobilization of glycogen was not sufficient to maintain and reestablish the normal glycemia of the infected snails. PMID:24042059

Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Castro, Rosane N; Sant'Ana, Luiza D'Oliveira; Santos-Amaral, Luciana; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Martins; Garcia, Juberlan; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Pinheiro, Jairo; Maldonado, Arnaldo

2014-02-01

290

Dynamic expression of miR-132, miR-212, and miR-146 in the brain of different hosts infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence shows that microRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of regulatory molecules involved in many physiological processes, including the inflammation in central nervous system (CNS) and neurological disorders. Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is the major cause of human infectious eosinophilic meningitis and can induce CNS injury. In the present study, we investigated the expression of miRNAs involved in neuronal functions such as miR-132-3p/212-3p, and miR-146a-5p, inflammation-related miRNA, in the modulation of inflammation of CNS of mice and rats induced by A. cantonensis. The functions of differentially expressed miRNAs were analyzed through bioinformatics methods, and the expression of chosen target genes were investigated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that miR-146a-5p upregulated in the brain of rats after 21 days; A. cantonensis infection and the expression of miR-132-3p and miR-146a-5p upregulated in the brain of mice model infected by A. cantonensis. The expression of the target genes of mmu-miR-146a-5p such as Irak1 and Traf6 downregulated in 14 days and 21 days after A. cantonensis infection. Our results supply more information about the involvement of the miRNAs in the regulation of inflammation of CNS induced by A. cantonensis. PMID:24142285

Yu, Liping; Liao, Qi; Chen, Xiaoguang; Xu, Lian; Zeng, Xin; Lv, Zhiyue; Sun, Xi; Zhen, Huanqin; Wu, Zhongdao

2014-01-01

291

Dexamethasone downregulated the expression of CSF 14-3-3? protein in mice with eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the main causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. A previous study demonstrated that the 14-3-3? protein is a neuropathological marker in monitoring neuronal damage in meningitis. Steroids are commonly used in patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection. However, the mechanism by which steroids act in eosinophilic meningitis is unknown. We hypothesized that the beneficial effect of steroids on eosinophilic meningitis is partially mediated by the down-regulation of 14-3-3? protein expression in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this animal study, we determined the dynamic changes of 14-3-3? protein in mice with eosinophilic meningitis. The 14-3-3? protein in serum and CSF was increased in week 2 and 3 after infections. Dexamethasone administration significantly decreased the amounts of CSF 14-3-3? protein. By developing an in-house ELISA to measure 14-3-3? protein, it was found that the amounts of 14-3-3? protein in the CSF and serum increased over a three-week period after infection. There was a remarkable reduction of 14-3-3? protein in the CSF after 2 weeks of dexamethasone treatment. In conclusion, the administration of corticosteroids in mice with eosinophilic meningitis decreased the expression of 14-3-3? protein in the CSF. PMID:24361722

Tsai, Hung-Chin; Lee, Bi-Yao; Yen, Chuan-Min; Wann, Shue-Ren; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Chen, Yao-Shen; Tai, Ming-Hong

2014-03-01

292

The Lance Nematode, Hoplolaimus magnistylus, on Cotton in Arkansas.  

PubMed

The population density of Hoplolaimus magnistylus, a lance nematode, in cotton was determined at planting, mid-season, and harvest during the 1995 and 1996 growing seasons for a Poinsett County, Arkansas field. Nematode populations increased from planting to harvest in 1995 but declined in 1996. Application of aldicarb at planting at rates of 0.59 or 0.84 kg a.i./ha did not influence either nematode population density or cotton yield. This study indicates that H. magnistylus is not a serious pest of irrigated cotton in Arkansas. PMID:19274251

Robbins, R T; McNeely, V M; Lorenz, G M

1998-12-01

293

Nematode parasite genes: what's in a name?  

PubMed

The central theme of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is that names are meaningless, artificial constructs, detached from any underlying reality. By contrast, we argue that a well chosen gene name can concisely convey a wealth of relevant biological information. A consistent nomenclature adds transparency that can have a real impact on our understanding of gene function. Currently, genes in parasitic nematodes are often named ad hoc, leading to confusion that can be resolved by adherence to a nomenclature standard adapted from Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate this with ligand-gated ion-channels and propose that the flood of genome data and differences between parasites and the free living C. elegans will require modification of the standard. PMID:20478743

Beech, Robin N; Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Neveu, Cédric; Dent, Joseph A

2010-07-01

294

Parasitic success without sex – the nematode experience.  

PubMed

Asexual reproduction is usually considered as an evolutionary dead end, and difficulties for asexual lineages to adapt to a fluctuating environment are anticipated due to the lack of sufficient genetic plasticity. Yet, unlike their sexual congeners, mitotic parthenogenetic root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne spp., are remarkably widespread and polyphagous, with the ability to parasitize most flowering plants. Although this may reflect in part the short-term stability of agricultural environments, the extreme parasitic success of these clonal species points them as an outstanding evolutionary paradox regarding current theories on the benefits of sex. The discovery that most of the genome of the clonal species M. incognita is composed of pairs of homologous but divergent segments that have presumably been evolving independently in the absence of sexual recombination has shed new light on this evolutionary paradox. Together with recent studies on other biological systems, including the closely related sexual species M. hapla and the ancient asexual bdelloid rotifers, this observation suggests that functional innovation could emerge from such a peculiar genome architecture, which may in turn account for the extreme adaptive capacities of these asexual parasites. Additionally, the higher proportion of transposable elements in M. incognita compared to M. hapla and other nematodes may also be responsible in part for genome plasticity in the absence of sexual reproduction. We foresee that ongoing sequencing efforts should lead soon to a genomic framework involving genetically diverse Meloidogyne species with various different reproductive modes. This will undoubtedly promote the entire genus as a unique and valuable model system to help deciphering the evolution of asexual reproduction in eukaryotes. PMID:25105196

Castagnone-Sereno, P; Danchin, E G J

2014-07-01

295

Combination of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and the nematode-trapping fungi Dactylaria brochopaga and Arthrobotrys conoides for controlling Meloidogyne incognita in tomato fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of combining an entomopathogenic nematode (EPNs) and nematode-trapping fungi to control root-knot nematode were studied in the laboratory and in a tomato field. Bioassay effects of EPNs (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) on growth of the two nematode-trapping fungi (Dactylaria brochopaga and Arthrobotrys conoides) attacking J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were studied in the laboratory. A field experiment was conducted in a tomato

E. A. Noweer; N. E. El-Wakeil

2007-01-01

296

Life cycle variation and the genetic structure of nematode populations  

E-print Network

information on genetic structure for only a handful of nematode species, and almost all of these are human sexes), parthenogenetic or hermaphroditic. They range from highly host-speci®c to undiscriminating

Blouin, Michael S.

297

Morphological and Biological Parameters of the Knapweed Nematode, Subanguina picridis  

PubMed Central

Specimens of the knapweed nematode Subanguina picridis (Kirjanova) Brzeski obtained from different host plants were highly variable in measurement and structure. This variability refutes the validity of six Subanguina species attacking plants in the Asteraceae. PMID:19294157

Watson, A. K.

1986-01-01

298

Morphological and Biological Parameters of the Knapweed Nematode, Subanguina picridis.  

PubMed

Specimens of the knapweed nematode Subanguina picridis (Kirjanova) Brzeski obtained from different host plants were highly variable in measurement and structure. This variability refutes the validity of six Subanguina species attacking plants in the Asteraceae. PMID:19294157

Watson, A K

1986-04-01

299

Nematode Hsp90: highly conserved but functionally diverse.  

PubMed

Nematodes are amongst the most successful and abundant organisms on the planet with approximately 30 000 species described, although the actual number of species is estimated to be one million or more. Despite sharing a relatively simple and invariant body plan, there is considerable diversity within the phylum. Nematodes have evolved to colonize most ecological niches, and can be free-living or can parasitize plants or animals to the detriment of the host organism. In this review we consider the role of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in the nematode life cycle. We describe studies on Hsp90 in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and comparative work on the parasitic species Brugia pahangi, and consider whether a dependence upon Hsp90 can be exploited for the control of parasitic species. PMID:24721950

Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

2014-08-01

300

A uniform genetic nomenclature for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A uniform system of genetic nomenclature for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is described. Convenient ways are specified to designate genes, mutations and strains, and to attempt to avoid name duplications.

H. Robert Horvitz; Sydney Brenner; Jonathan Hodgkin; Robert K. Herman

1979-01-01

301

Nematode parasites of waterfowl (Anseriformes) from western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirty-four species of nematodes were found in 415 Anseriformes (Anatidae) of 27 species; 93.7% of birds over 4 weeks old were infected. Data on prevalence, host specificity, age of host, and geographic distribution are given. Infections were more intense in sick birds and birds in poor physical condition. Accidental or abnormal infection was more likely in sick than in normal birds. From 1 to 13 species of nematodes are reported from each host species, including 118 new host records, 3 nematodes new for North America, and 1 new species. Multiple infections were present in 76.5% of birds parasitized; eight species of nematodes were found in one whistling swan (Olor columbianus).

McDonald, M.E.

1974-01-01

302

Survey of fresh vegetables for nematodes, amoebae, and Salmonella.  

PubMed

Contamination by nematodes, amoebae, and bacteria of the genus Salmonella was estimated in a 2-year survey of salad vegetables obtained from wholesale and retail sources. The vegetables examined were cucumbers, cabbage, lettuce, celery, carrots, radishes, tomatoes, mushrooms, cauliflower, and spinach. Nematode eggs and larvae were recovered by the Nacconol-ether centrifugation method. Some nematode eggs were identified as parasitic Ascaris sp.; the majority of larval nematodes were thought to be soil-dwelling species. Amoebae were recovered by rinsing the vegetables with distilled water, centrifuging the rinse water, and transferring the sediment to agar plates on which a bacterial lawn had previously been grown; trophozoites identified as the potentially pathogenic species--Acanthamoeba polyphaga, A. rhysodes, and A. castellanii--were the most common amoebae recovered on the plates. Salmonella spp. were grown from 4 of 50 samples. PMID:6540260

Rude, R A; Jackson, G J; Bier, J W; Sawyer, T K; Risty, N G

1984-01-01

303

Ecological biogeography of the terrestrial nematodes of victoria land, antarctica.  

PubMed

The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems. PMID:25061360

Adams, Byron J; Wall, Diana H; Virginia, Ross A; Broos, Emma; Knox, Matthew A

2014-01-01

304

Control of Parasitic Nematode Ova with 'Bacillus sphaericus'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Typically, high concentrations of anthelmintic compounds are required for killing parasites in their habitat within a host. In the case of intestinal nematodes, anthelmintics must be ingested or absorbed by the worms for expulsion of the parasite from the...

L. W. Bone

1987-01-01

305

Nematode community and trophic structure along a sand dune succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in below-ground nematode communities, in terms of abundance, diversity and trophic structure and the composition of the community in terms of sex bias and adult:juvenile ratio were related to edaphic factors from sites that represented a known sand dune succession. Nematode abundance increased along a 1-km transect from sandy beach (no vegetation cover, early successional stage) through active dune

John W. Wall; Keith R. Skene; Roy Neilson

2002-01-01

306

Nematodes from terrestrial and freshwater habitats in the Arctic.  

PubMed

WE PRESENT AN UPDATED LIST OF TERRESTRIAL AND FRESHWATER NEMATODES FROM ALL REGIONS OF THE ARCTIC, FOR WHICH RECORDS OF PROPERLY IDENTIFIED NEMATODE SPECIES ARE AVAILABLE: Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Iceland, Greenland, Nunavut, Northwest territories, Alaska, Lena River estuary, Taymyr and Severnaya Zemlya and Novaya Zemlya. The list includes 391 species belonging to 146 genera, 54 families and 10 orders of the phylum Nematoda. PMID:25197239

Holovachov, Oleksandr

2014-01-01

307

Parasitic nematodes of anseriform birds in Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Parasitic nematodes of 176 individuals of 15 bird species belonging to the order Anseriformes from Hokkaido, Japan were investigated.\\u000a A total of 12 nematode species were obtained, namely Amidostomum anseris, A. acutum, Epomidiostomum crami, E. uncinatum, Tetrameres fissispina, Eucoleus contortus, Capillaria\\u000a anatis, Baruscapillaria mergi, Contracaecum rudolphii, Echinuria uncinata, Streptocara crassicauda and Sarconema eurycerca. Among these, E. uncinatum (hosts: Anas platyrhynchos,

T. Yoshino; J. Uemura; D. Endoh; M. Kaneko; Y. Osa; M. Asakawa

2009-01-01

308

Phylogenetic relationships of the Wolbachia of nematodes and arthropods.  

PubMed

Wolbachia are well known as bacterial symbionts of arthropods, where they are reproductive parasites, but have also been described from nematode hosts, where the symbiotic interaction has features of mutualism. The majority of arthropod Wolbachia belong to clades A and B, while nematode Wolbachia mostly belong to clades C and D, but these relationships have been based on analysis of a small number of genes. To investigate the evolution and relationships of Wolbachia symbionts we have sequenced over 70 kb of the genome of wOvo, a Wolbachia from the human-parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, and compared the genes identified to orthologues in other sequenced Wolbachia genomes. In comparisons of conserved local synteny, we find that wBm, from the nematode Brugia malayi, and wMel, from Drosophila melanogaster, are more similar to each other than either is to wOvo. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes on the sequenced fragments supports reciprocal monophyly of nematode and arthropod Wolbachia. The nematode Wolbachia did not arise from within the A clade of arthropod Wolbachia, and the root of the Wolbachia clade lies between the nematode and arthropod symbionts. Using the wOvo sequence, we identified a lateral transfer event whereby segments of the Wolbachia genome were inserted into the Onchocerca nuclear genome. This event predated the separation of the human parasite O. volvulus from its cattle-parasitic sister species, O. ochengi. The long association between filarial nematodes and Wolbachia symbionts may permit more frequent genetic exchange between their genomes. PMID:17040125

Fenn, Katelyn; Conlon, Claire; Jones, Martin; Quail, Michael A; Holroyd, Nancy E; Parkhill, Julian; Blaxter, Mark

2006-10-01

309

Glutathione peroxidases of the potato cyst nematode Globodera Rostochiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the cloning and characterisation of full-length DNAs complementary to RNA (cDNAs) encoding two glutathione peroxidases (GpXs) from a plant parasitic nematode, the potato cyst nematode (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis. One protein has a functional signal peptide that targets the protein for secretion from animal cells while the other is predicted to be intracellular. Both genes are expressed in all

J. T. Jones; B. Reavy; G. Smant; A. E. Prior

2004-01-01

310

A Device to Measure the Propulsive Power of Nematodes  

E-print Network

In the fluid dynamics video, we present a microfluidic device to measure the propulsive power of nematodes. The device consists of a tapered conduit filled with aqueous solution. The conduit is subjected to a DC electric field with the negative pole at the narrow end and to pressure-driven flow directed from the narrow end. The nematode is inserted at the conduit's wide end. Directed by the electric field (through electrotaxis), the nematode swims deliberately upstream toward the negative pole of the DC field. As the conduit narrows, the average fluid velocity and the drag force on the nematode increase. Eventually, the nematode arrives at an equilibrium position, at which its propulsive force balances the viscous drag force induced by the adverse flow. The equilibrium position of different animals, with similar body lengths, was measured as a function of the flow rate. The flow field around the nematode was obtained by direct numerical simulations with the experimentally imaged gait and the tapered geometry ...

Yuan, J; Gnatt, M; Raizen, D M; Bau, H H

2011-01-01

311

Soil sampling and isolation of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae).  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic nematodes (a.k.a. EPN) represent a group of soil-inhabiting nematodes that parasitize a wide range of insects. These nematodes belong to two families: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae. Until now, more than 70 species have been described in the Steinernematidae and there are about 20 species in the Heterorhabditidae. The nematodes have a mutualistic partnership with Enterobacteriaceae bacteria and together they act as a potent insecticidal complex that kills a wide range of insect species. Herein, we focus on the most common techniques considered for collecting EPN from soil. The second part of this presentation focuses on the insect-baiting technique, a widely used approach for the isolation of EPN from soil samples, and the modified White trap technique which is used for the recovery of these nematodes from infected insects. These methods and techniques are key steps for the successful establishment of EPN cultures in the laboratory and also form the basis for other bioassays that consider these nematodes as model organisms for research in other biological disciplines. The techniques shown in this presentation correspond to those performed and/or designed by members of S. P. Stock laboratory as well as those described by various authors. PMID:25046023

Orozco, Rousel A; Lee, Ming-Min; Stock, S Patricia

2014-01-01

312

Diverse Host-Seeking Behaviors of Skin-Penetrating Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Skin-penetrating parasitic nematodes infect approximately one billion people worldwide and are responsible for some of the most common neglected tropical diseases. The infective larvae of skin-penetrating nematodes are thought to search for hosts using sensory cues, yet their host-seeking behavior is poorly understood. We conducted an in-depth analysis of host seeking in the skin-penetrating human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, and compared its behavior to that of other parasitic nematodes. We found that Str. stercoralis is highly mobile relative to other parasitic nematodes and uses a cruising strategy for finding hosts. Str. stercoralis shows robust attraction to a diverse array of human skin and sweat odorants, most of which are known mosquito attractants. Olfactory preferences of Str. stercoralis vary across life stages, suggesting a mechanism by which host seeking is limited to infective larvae. A comparison of odor-driven behavior in Str. stercoralis and six other nematode species revealed that parasite olfactory preferences reflect host specificity rather than phylogeny, suggesting an important role for olfaction in host selection. Our results may enable the development of new strategies for combating harmful nematode infections. PMID:25121736

Castelletto, Michelle L.; Gang, Spencer S.; Okubo, Ryo P.; Tselikova, Anastassia A.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Platzer, Edward G.; Lok, James B.; Hallem, Elissa A.

2014-01-01

313

Effects of chelators (EGTA, EDTA) and calcium ions on nematode capture by the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys ellipsospora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematode-trapping fungusArthrobotrys ellipsospora developed an adhesive knob and trapped nematodes when cultured on a low-nutrient medium. It also trapped polystyrene beads\\u000a in the same way. The adhesive knob produced mucus that was stained with alcian blue, while mycelium of the fungus was stained\\u000a with periodic acid\\/Schiff (PAS). The amount of mucus increased with in days after culturing in the

Tsukasa Mori; Chiharu Morikawa; Takashi Noda; Syuhei Ban

2000-01-01

314

Utilization of Phylogenetic Systematics, Molecular Evolution, and Comparative Transcriptomics to Address Aspects of Nematode and Bacterial Evolution.  

E-print Network

??Both insect parasitic/entomopathogenic nematodes and plant parasitic nematodes are of great economic importance. Insect parasitic/entomopathogenic nematodes provide an environmentally safe and effective method to control… (more)

Peat, Scott M.

2010-01-01

315

40 CFR 180.1316 - Pasteuria spp. (Rotylenchulus reniformis nematode)-Pr3; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pasteuria spp. (Rotylenchulus reniformis nematode)-Pr3; exemption from the requirement...Pasteuria spp. (Rotylenchulus reniformis nematode)—Pr3; exemption from the requirement... spp. (Rotylenchulus reniformis nematode)—Pr3 in or on all food...

2013-07-01

316

Effect of irrigation systems, partial root zone drying irrigation and regulated deficit, on plant parasitic nematode populations in grapevine.  

E-print Network

??[Truncated abstract] Nematodes are known to significantly affect productivity of grapevines worldwide. Although major surveys have been carried out on nematodes infesting roots of grapevines… (more)

Shin, Hae Soo

2005-01-01

317

Rangiferine Brucellosis In Alaskan Canids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first known case of rangiferine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biotype 4 in a sled dog has been proven by isolation of the organ- ism from the naturally infected animal. The infection was undoubtedly contracted from eating raw, infected barren-grcund caribou, Rangifer tarandus gramiti, in which the disease is enzootic. Limited experience with infections in sled dogs suggests that

K. A. NEILAND

318

GABA localization in the nematode Ascaris  

SciTech Connect

A histochemical approach was used to examine the distribution of GABA-associated neurons in the nematode Ascaris, an organism whose small number of morphologically simple neurons make it an excellent preparation for analyzing neuronal phenotypes. Two GABAergic markers were examined: GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR), a marker for endogenous stores of GABA; and ({sup 3}H)-GABA uptake, a marker for GABA uptake sites. Strong GLIR was present in the cell bodies, neurites and commissures of dorsal and ventral inhibitory motorneurons present in this region. Strong GLIR was also present in the cell bodies and processes of the four RME neurons in the nerve ring and in several other ganglionic neurons. Staining was absent in excitatory motorneurons, in ventral cord interneurons and in muscle cells and hypodermis. GABA uptake sites were found in single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. ({sup 3}H)-GABA labeling was also observed in the other two RME cells and several other cephalic neurons. Four putative cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the retrovesicular ganglion (RVG) were heavily labeled. Ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motorneurons did not take up ({sup 3}H)-GABA. Labeling of the ventral cord excitatory motorneuron somata and cell bodies was at or slightly above background. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed.

Guastella, J.

1988-01-01

319

[Intestinal nematodes of the Aythyini ducks in Western Pomerania].  

PubMed

Intestinal nematodes of the Aythyini ducks in Western Pomerania. Biology, including ecology, of the Aythyini renders them particularly attractive subjects of parasitological studies. The tribe is represented in Poland by 4 nesting species; two of them, Aythya fuligula and A. ferina, are very abundant game birds. However, their helminth fauna, including nematodes, is still very poorly known. This study was aimed at quantifying the structure of parasitic intestinal nematodes of the Western Pomeranian Aythyini. The study, performed in 1999-2004, involved a total of 71 ducks representing 3 species: A. ferina, A. fuligula, and A. marila. The nematodes, isolated from the intestines, were fixed in 75% ethyl alcohol and cleared in lactic acid. Among the 9668 helminth individuals found, 589 (6.1%) represented the phylum Nematoda. They were found in 57 ducks (80.3% of all the ducks examined). The nematodes belonged to the following 4 families: Amidostomatidae, Tetrameridae, Acuariidae, and Trichuridae. They were identified as representing 8 species, 2 genera (Amidostomoides sp. and Tetrameres sp.), and 1 subfamily (Capillariinae gen. sp.); in addition, 1 damaged individual could be identified as a nematode only. The highest prevalence (57.8%), at mean intensity (4.8 inds), was typical of Amidostomoides petrovi (Shakhtahtinskaya, 1956) Lomakin, 1991, while Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1914 occurred with the highest intensity (15.1 inds) and 12.7% prevalence. Nematodes of the subfamily Capillariinae occurred with a fairly high intensity (averaging 10.0 inds) as well, although their prevalence was not high, either (4.2% of all ducks were infected). The nematofauna studied was clearly dominated by A. petrovi, T. fissispina, and Capillaria anatis (Schrank, 1790). The total frequency of occurrence of those species was close to 80%; their dominance indices exceeded the threshold value of 0.1 and amounted to 1.6 (the dominant A. petrovi), 0.2, and 0.5 (the subdominants T. fissispina and C. anatis, respectively). The three species listed occurred with the highest mean density (2.8; 1.9; and 1.8 nematode per duck examined). No age- (adult vs. immature) or sex- (males vs. females) related differences in the quantitative structure of the parasitic Aythyini nematodes were observed. PMID:16838626

Kavetska, Katarzyna M

2005-01-01

320

BACTERIAL PREFERENCES OF THE BACTERIVOROUS SOIL NEMATODE CEPHALOBUS BREVICAUDA (CEPHALOBIDATE): EFFECT OF BACTERIAL TYPE AND SIZE  

EPA Science Inventory

Cell size and type may affect availability of bacteria for consumption by bacterivorous nematodes in the soil and in culture. This study explored the bacterial preferences of the bacterivorous soil nematode Cephalobus brevicauda (Cephalobidae) by comparing bactgeria isolated dir...

321

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF A GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE GENE FROM RENIFORM NEMATODE ON SOYBEAN.  

E-print Network

??Nematode glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) have been implicated in plant-nematode interactions as effector proteins with an important role in the establishment of feeding sites. Studies with… (more)

Hou, Jing

2013-01-01

322

Steinernema Sp. Nematode for Suppression of 'Helicoverpa zea' and 'Spodoptera frugiperda'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel entomopathogenic nematode of the genus Steinernema, which is effective as a biopesticide for the control of insects, and particularly the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. The nematode has been identified...

J. R. Raulston, S. D. Pair, C. Enrique

1992-01-01

323

The FMRFamide-Like Peptide Family in Nematodes  

PubMed Central

In the three decades since the FMRFamide peptide was isolated from the mollusk Macrocallista nimbosa, structurally similar peptides sharing a C-terminal RFamide motif have been identified across the animal kingdom. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) represent the largest known family of neuropeptides in invertebrates. In the phylum Nematoda, at least 32 flp-genes are classified, making the FLP system of nematodes unusually complex. The diversity of the nematode FLP complement is most extensively mapped in Caenorhabditis elegans, where over 70 FLPs have been predicted. FLPs have shown to be expressed in the majority of the 302 C. elegans neurons including interneurons, sensory neurons, and motor neurons. The vast expression of FLPs is reflected in the broad functional repertoire of nematode FLP signaling, including neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory effects on locomotory activity, reproduction, feeding, and behavior. In contrast to the many identified nematode FLPs, only few peptides have been assigned a receptor and there is the need to clarify the pathway components and working mechanisms of the FLP signaling network. Here, we review the diversity, distribution, and functions of FLPs in nematodes. PMID:24982652

Peymen, Katleen; Watteyne, Jan; Frooninckx, Lotte; Schoofs, Liliane; Beets, Isabel

2014-01-01

324

Nematode Chemotaxis: Gradual Turns, Sharp Turns, and Modulated Turn Angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine strategies used by the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans for chemotaxis in complex environments. The proposed description is based on our recently developed piecewise-harmonic-curvature model of nematode locomotion [PLoS ONE, 7(7) e40121 (2012)], where random harmonic-curvature modes represent elementary locomotory movements. We show that the previously described gradual-turn and sharp-turn chemotaxis strategies can be unified in our model. The gradual-turn mechanism relies on crawling amplitude changes commensurate with the undulation frequency. The sharp-turn mechanism consists in modulation of the frequency of jumps to large-amplitude modes. We hypothesize that there exists a third strategy, where the nematode adjusts the variance of the amplitude distribution. Such adjustments result in a modulation of the magnitude of random turns, with smaller turns performed when the nematode moves toward the increasing chemoatractant concentration. Experiments are proposed to determine if the third strategy is present in the nematode behavior.

Patel, Amar; Padmanabhan, Venkat; Rumbaugh, Kendra; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

2013-03-01

325

Susceptibility of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes.  

PubMed

We investigated differential susceptibility of lady beetles to entomopathogenic nematodes, for two reasons: (1) to estimate potential nontarget effects on natural lady beetle populations, (2) to compare the susceptibility of exotic versus native lady beetle species. We hypothesize that successful establishment of some exotically introduced arthropods may be due, in part, to a lower susceptibility relative to competing native species. In laboratory studies, we compared the pathogenicity, virulence, and reproductive capacity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae among two native (Coleomegilla maculata and Olla v-nigrum) and two successfully established exotic (Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata) lady beetles, and a known susceptible lepidopteran host, Agrotis ipsilon. After 1 and 2 days of exposure to either nematode species, mortality of A. ipsilon was higher than in all lady beetles. Thus, we predict that nematode field applications would have significantly less impact on lady beetle populations than on a susceptible target pest. Additionally, the impact of soil-applied nematodes may be lower on lady beetles than on soil-dwelling hosts because the former spends relatively less time on the soil. Exotic lady beetles were less susceptible to nematode infection than native species. Reproductive capacity data also indicated lower host suitability in H. axyridis, but not in C. septempunctata. Overall, the hypothesis that low susceptibility to pathogens in certain exotic lady beetles may have contributed to competitive establishment was supported (especially for H. axyridis). Additional studies incorporating different hosts and pathogens from various geographic locations will be required to further address the hypothesis. PMID:15913642

Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E

2005-06-01

326

A novel flavivirus in the soybean cyst nematode.  

PubMed

Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), is a subterranean root pathogen that causes the most damaging disease of soybean in the USA. A novel nematode virus genome, soybean cyst nematode virus 5 (SbCNV-5), was identified in RNA sequencing data from SCN eggs and second-stage juveniles. The SbCNV-5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA helicase domains had homology to pestiviruses in the family Flaviviridae, suggesting that SbCNV-5 is a positive-polarity ssRNA virus. SbCNV-5 RNA was present in all nematode developmental stages, indicating a transovarial mode of transmission, but is also potentially sexually transmitted via the male. SbCNV-5 was common in SCN laboratory cultures and in nematode populations isolated from the field. Transmission electron microscopy of sections from a female SCN showed virus particles budding from the endoplasmic reticulum and in endosomes. The size of the viral genome was 19?191 nt, which makes it much larger than other known pestiviruses. Additionally, the presence of a methyltransferase in the SbCNV-5 genome is atypical for a pestivirus. When cDNA sequences were mapped to the genome of SbCNV-5, a disproportionate number aligned to the 3' NTR, suggesting that SbCNV-5 produces a subgenomic RNA, which was confirmed by RNA blot analysis. As subgenomic RNAs and methyltransferases do not occur in pestiviruses, we conclude that SbCNV-5 is a new flavivirus infecting SCNs. PMID:24643877

Bekal, Sadia; Domier, Leslie L; Gonfa, Biruk; McCoppin, Nancy K; Lambert, Kris N; Bhalerao, Kaustubh

2014-06-01

327

Nucleic acid transfection and transgenesis in parasitic nematodes  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Transgenesis is an essential tool for assessing gene function in any organism, and it is especially crucial for parasitic nematodes given the dwindling armamentarium of effective anthelmintics and the consequent need to validate essential molecular targets for new drugs and vaccines. Two of the major routes of gene delivery evaluated to date in parasitic nematodes, bombardment with DNA-coated microparticles and intragonadal microinjection of DNA constructs, draw upon experience with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Bombardment has been used to transiently transfect Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi and Litomosoides sigmodontis with both RNA and DNA. Microinjection has been used to achieve heritable transgenesis in Strongyloides stercoralis, S. ratti and Parastrongyloides trichosuri and for additional transient expression studies in B. malayi. A third route of gene delivery revisits a classic method involving DNA transfer facilitated by calcium-mediated permeabilization of recipient cells in developing B. malayi larvae and results in transgene inheritance through host and vector passage. Assembly of microinjected transgenes into multi-copy episomal arrays likely results in their transcriptional silencing in some parasitic nematodes. Methods such as transposon-mediated transgenesis that favour low-copy number chromosomal integration may remedy this impediment to establishing stable transgenic lines. In the future, stable transgenesis in parasitic nematodes could enable loss-of-function approaches by insertional mutagenesis, in situ expression of inhibitory double-stranded RNA or boosting RNAi susceptibility through heterologous expression of dsRNA processing and transport proteins. PMID:21880161

LOK, JAMES B.

2012-01-01

328

developmental stages of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis  

E-print Network

Background: DNA methylation plays an essential role in regulating gene expression under a variety of conditions and it has therefore been hypothesized to underlie the transitions between life cycle stages in parasitic nematodes. So far, however, 5’-cytosine methylation has not been detected during any developmental stage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Given the new availability of high-resolution methylation detection methods, an investigation of life cycle methylation in a parasitic nematode can now be carried out. Results: Here, using MethylC-seq, we present the first study to confirm the existence of DNA methylation in the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis, and we characterize the methylomes of the three life-cycle stages of this food-borne infectious human pathogen. We observe a drastic increase in DNA methylation during the transition from the new born to mature stage, and we further identify parasitism-related genes that show changes in DNA methylation status between life cycle stages. Conclusions: Our data contribute to the understanding of the developmental changes that occur in an important human parasite, and raises the possibility that targeting DNA methylation processes may be a useful strategy in developing therapeutics to impede infection. In addition, our conclusion that DNA methylation is a mechanism for life cycle transition in T. spiralis prompts the question of whether this may also be the case in any other metazoans. Finally, our work constitutes the first report, to our knowledge, of DNA methylation in a nematode,

Fei Gao; Xiaolei Liu; Xiu-ping Wu; Xue-lin Wang; Desheng Gong; Hanlin Lu; Yudong Xia; Yanxia Song; Junwen Wang; Jing Du; Siyang Liu; Xu Han; Yizhi Tang; Huanming Yang; Qi Jin; Xiuqing Zhang; Mingyuan Liu

329

PCR Primers with Enhanced Specificity for Nematode-Trapping Fungi ( Orbiliales )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematode-trapping fungi, a monophyletic lineage within the Orbiliales (Ascomycota), use specialized structures to capture and consume nematodes in soil, leaf litter, and other substrates. These fungi have\\u000a been studied both because of their unique predatory life history and because they are potential control agents of important\\u000a plant- and animal-parasitic nematodes. Ecological studies of nematode-trapping fungi have primarily used culture-based methods,

Matthew E. Smith; Bruce A. Jaffee

2009-01-01

330

INVESTIGATIONS OF WEEDS AS RESERVOIRS OF PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES IN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS IN NORTHERN FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to their direct effects on crop production through competition and allelopathy, weeds can serve as reservoirs of other pests including plant-parasitic nematodes, resulting indirectly in yield loss. Weeds enable plant-parasitic nematodes to survive in the absence or even presence of the crop, thus providing a source of nematode infection for the following season. The purpose of this study

Lisa Myers; Koon-Hui Wang; Robert McSorley; Carlene Chase

331

Distribution and abundance of alfalfa-field nematodes at various spatial scales  

E-print Network

, surface litter and soil substrates. At the regional scale of river basins, nematode communities wereDistribution and abundance of alfalfa-field nematodes at various spatial scales B.L. Simmons *, R of Agriculture, National Agricul- tural Statistics Service). The alfalfa stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kuhn

Wall, Diana

332

Historical perspective n Idaho, the first species of nematode was discovered in  

E-print Network

1 Historical perspective I n Idaho, the first species of nematode was discovered in 1943. Idaho plant pathologist Earl Blodgett reported the discovery of the potato rot nematode in a potato field nematode infestation and to provide appropriate solutions. By 1955, Dallimore had determined

O'Laughlin, Jay

333

Nematode faunal analysis in an aquic brown soil fertilised with slow-release urea, Northeast China  

E-print Network

Nematode faunal analysis in an aquic brown soil fertilised with slow-release urea, Northeast China October 2004; accepted 27 October 2004 Abstract In this study, faunal analysis of nematode communities was conducted through a single wheat growth season, aimed to assess nematode faunal response to the application

Neher, Deborah A.

334

Association of Pine Wood Nematode with Stressed Trees in Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin  

E-print Network

Association of Pine Wood Nematode with Stressed Trees in Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin M. J. 1982. Association of pine wood nematode with stressed trees in Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin. Plant Disease 66:934- 937. Trees infected with the pine wood nematode BursapheJenchus xylophiJusin Minnesota

335

The pine-wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Minnesota and Wisconsin: insect associates and transmission studies'  

E-print Network

1068 The pine-wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Minnesota and Wisconsin: insect-wood nematode, Bursaphe/enchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer). was most commonly extracted from Ccrambycidac emerging from nematode-infested pines in Minnesota and Wisconsin during 1981 and 1982. The greatest number

336

A New Worldwide Database of Insect, Mite and Nematode Cultures Available for Distribution  

E-print Network

A New Worldwide Database of Insect, Mite and Nematode Cultures Available for Distribution of producers and suppliers who are willing to sell or donate live insects, mites or nematodes. This database and nematode producers and suppliers. Producers and suppliers are required to submit contact information

Ray, David

337

Bacterivory of a mudflat nematode community under different1 environmental conditions2  

E-print Network

1 Bacterivory of a mudflat nematode community under different1 environmental conditions2 Pierre fauna. The trophic role of bacteria for a nematode community on the Brouage mudflat14 (Marennes of bacteria by nematodes. In order to assess simultaneously bacteria and algal21 assimilation rates, algal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

338

Nematode (Roundworm) Infections in Fish1 Roy P. E. Yanong2  

E-print Network

Cir 91 Nematode (Roundworm) Infections in Fish1 Roy P. E. Yanong2 1. This document is Circular 91 Dean Introduction Nematodes, or roundworms, infect many different species of aquacultured and wild fish. Small numbers of nematodes often occur in healthy fish, but high numbers cause illness or even death

Watson, Craig A.

339

The effect of the host immune response on the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti  

E-print Network

The effect of the host immune response on the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti C. P. WILKES1 2003) SUMMARY The host immune response has profound effects on parasitic nematode infections. Here we by the host immune response. Key words: immune response, Strongyloides ratti, nematode infections

Paterson, Steve

340

Book: Aging and Oxidants in Animals and Plants Aging and oxidants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

E-print Network

Book: Aging and Oxidants in Animals and Plants Aging and oxidants in the nematode Caenorhabditis metabolic rate, mitochondria, and reactive oxygen species are determinants of aging in the nematode carried out using this model organism. C. elegans is a free-living nematode that can be found in soil rich

Gems, David

341

A NEMATODE (DELADENUS SP.: NEOTYLENCHIDAE) ASSOCIATED WITH RHYSSA SPP. (HYMENOPTERA:ICHNEUMONIDAE),PARASITES  

E-print Network

52 A NEMATODE (DELADENUS SP.: NEOTYLENCHIDAE) ASSOCIATED WITH RHYSSA SPP. (HYMENOPTERA:ICHNEUMONIDAE),PARASITES OF SIRICID WOODWASPS By HELENHOCKING* [Manuscript received February 22, 19671 Abstract In 1965 nematodes were recorded from three species of Rhyssa in shipments received from India and Euro . The nematodes from

342

Species-specific recognition of beetle cues by the nematode Pristionchus maupasi  

E-print Network

Species-specific recognition of beetle cues by the nematode Pristionchus maupasi Ray L. Hong,a Ales have to be investigated in their environmental context. We have recently shown that the nematode cockchafers of the genus Melolontha in Europe. Here, we investigate how Pristionchus nematodes identify

Cohen, Randy W.

343

Relationships between plant-parasitic nematode community, fallow duration and soil factors in  

E-print Network

Relationships between plant-parasitic nematode community, fallow duration and soil factors the mechanisms by which changes in vegetation influence the nematode community following abandonment of a field zones. Plant-parasitic nematodes were extracted, identified and enumerated from soil samples

Thioulouse, Jean

344

78 FR 27856 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0079] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston...interim rule that amended the golden nematode regulations by removing areas in Livingston...these two counties are free of golden nematode, and we determined that regulation...

2013-05-13

345

THE ROLE OF MITES AND NEMATODES IN EARLY STAGES OF BURIED LITTER DECOMPOSITION IN A DESERT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied changes in populations of mites, nematodes, bacteria, and fungi in buried creosote bush litter treated with selected inhibitors. Elimination of microarthropods (primarily tydeid mites) resulted in increased numbers of bacteriophagic nematodes and reduction in numbers of bac- teria; elimination of both nematodes and microarthropods resulted in increased numbers of bacteria compared to untreated controls. Fungal grazing mites, Pyemotidae,

PERSEU F. SANTOS; JANICE PHILLIPS; WALTER G. WHITFORD

1981-01-01

346

Aging in a very short-lived nematode Michael P. Gardnera,*, David Gemsb  

E-print Network

Aging in a very short-lived nematode Michael P. Gardnera,*, David Gemsb , Mark E. Vineya a School-living adults of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti. We find that the phenomenology of aging in S. ratti free-living females, resembles that of the short- lived free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

Gems, David

347

A Comparative Study of Fat Storage Quantitation in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Using Label and  

E-print Network

A Comparative Study of Fat Storage Quantitation in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Using Label of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America Abstract The nematode) A Comparative Study of Fat Storage Quantitation in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Using Label and Label

Cheng, Ji-Xin

348

Multilinear Feature Extraction and Classification of Multi-Focal Images, With Applications in Nematode Taxonomy  

E-print Network

in Nematode Taxonomy Min Liu, Amit K. Roy-Chowdhury Department of Electrical Engineering, University just relying on the original or key frames of DMI stacks. The experi- mental results on the nematode. Examples of DMI stacks taken from 3 nematode species (horizontal direction). Each stack contains multiple

Chowdhury, Amit K. Roy

349

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 188 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL W. Scott Monfort, Extension Peanut Specialist Fortunately nematodes have been a relatively minor problem on peanuts in South Carolina. Peanut root-knot (race 1) nematode is capable of causing severe losses

Stuart, Steven J.

350

CROP SCIENCE, VOL. 52, MAYJUNE 2012 1209 Cereal cyst nematode (CCN) describes a group of closely  

E-print Network

CROP SCIENCE, VOL. 52, MAY­JUNE 2012 1209 RESEARCH Cereal cyst nematode (CCN) describes a group, Yu Sun, Shancheng Sun, and Wenhua Tang ABSTRACT Cereal cyst nematode (CCN) is becoming one against this nematode species. The present study was initiated to determine the current status of resis

Murray, Timothy D.

351

Deep-Sea Research I 51 (2004) 701706 The impact of whale falls on nematode abundance  

E-print Network

Deep-Sea Research I 51 (2004) 701­706 The impact of whale falls on nematode abundance in the deep in revised form 2 February 2004; accepted 2 February 2004 Abstract Abundance of nematode assemblages from of nematode abundance at 18 months after implantation showed a non-linear inverse pattern

Smith, Craig

352

Role of Nematodes in Soil Health and Their Use as Indicators1 Deborah A. Neher2  

E-print Network

Role of Nematodes in Soil Health and Their Use as Indicators1 Deborah A. Neher2 Abstract: The composition of nematode communities (plant-parasitic and free-living) may be used as bioindicators of soil of the biology of key taxa may enhance the utility of nematodes as bioindicators. Key words: biodiversity

Neher, Deborah A.

353

Deep small RNA sequencing from the nematode Ascaris reveals conservation, functional diversification,  

E-print Network

Research Deep small RNA sequencing from the nematode Ascaris reveals conservation, functional on small RNA pathways in nematodes, we identified and characterized known and novel small RNA classes through gametogenesis and embryo development in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and compared them

Davis, Richard E.

354

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 COTTON NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 113 COTTON NEMATODE CONTROL John D. Mueller, Extension Cotton Pathologist Nematodes pose a serious threat to cotton production in South Carolina. Not every field is infested with damaging levels of nematodes. But in the fields

Stuart, Steven J.

355

Urbanization alters the functional composition, but not taxonomic diversity, of the soil nematode community  

E-print Network

Urbanization alters the functional composition, but not taxonomic diversity, of the soil nematode Abstract We evaluated the response of riparian forest soil nematode community structure to the physico genus) and functional composition (trophic groups) of the nematode community of forest soils, as well

Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitchell

356

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 COTTON NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 123 COTTON NEMATODE CONTROL John D. Mueller, Extension Cotton Pathologist Nematodes pose a serious threat to cotton production in South Carolina. Not every field is infested with damaging levels of nematodes. However, in the fields

Duchowski, Andrew T.

357

Host immune responses are necessary for density dependence in nematode infections  

E-print Network

283 Host immune responses are necessary for density dependence in nematode infections S. PATERSON (Received 23 November 2001; revised 23 January and 15 April 2002; accepted 18 April 2002) SUMMARY Nematode a host. These effects act to regulate and stabilize the size of nematode populations. Understanding how

Paterson, Steve

358

Relationships between ferrisol properties and the structure of plant parasitic nematode communities on sugarcane in  

E-print Network

Relationships between ferrisol properties and the structure of plant parasitic nematode communities head : Relations between soil and nematode communities * ORSTOM, Nématologie & Pédologie, B.P. 8006 l'existence de fortes teneurs en calcium. Mots clés : Antilles - ferrisol - peuplements - nematodes

Thioulouse, Jean

359

Physical properties of liquid nematode cultures and the design of recovery operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of nematode-based pesticides involves the recovery of a viable nematode life stage known as the infective juvenile (IJ) from fermentation broth. In this paper we report the physical properties of mature liquid nematode cultures of P. hermaphrodita, S. feltiae and H. megidis. Properties determined were composition, IJ `shear' sensitivity, viscosity, particle size and component density. These measurements were then

J. M. Young; P. Dunnill; J. D. Pearce

1998-01-01

360

Communications: Yield Characteristics of the Free-Living Nematode Panagrellus redivivus in Different Culture Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematode Panagrellus redivivus was cultured in media composed of wheat flour, oatmeal, or cornmeal. Total yield of nematodes in wheat flour (4,000 Mg\\/100 cm) was significantly greater than in oatmeal (I, 506 mg\\/ 100 cm) or cornmeal (283 mg\\/ 100 cm). Production of nematodes stopped after day 20 in cornmeal, day 33 in oatmeal, and day 53 in wheat

Ismail A. Radwin; David B. Rouse

1990-01-01

361

Nematode-Trapping in Pleurotus tuberregium D. S. Hibbett; R. G. Thorn  

E-print Network

- berregium cultures on agar produced droplets of toxin on stalked secretory processes. Nematodes that cameNematode-Trapping in Pleurotus tuberregium D. S. Hibbett; R. G. Thorn Mycologia, Vol. 86, No. 5-5126 Nematode-trapping in Pleurotus tuberregium D. S. Hibbett Harvard C'nzverszty Herbarza, 22 Drvznttj Avenue

Hibbett, David S.

362

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 SOYBEAN NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

primarily by Southern root-knot, soybean cyst, Columbia lance, and reniform nematodes. SoybeanSouth Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 261 SOYBEAN NEMATODE CONTROL John D. Mueller, Extension Soybean Pathologist Nematode-induced yield losses in South Carolina soybeans are caused

Duchowski, Andrew T.

363

Active uptake of cyst nematode parasitism proteins into the plant cell nucleus  

E-print Network

cell. The in planta localisation patterns of eight soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera gly- cinesActive uptake of cyst nematode parasitism proteins into the plant cell nucleus Axel A. Elling 13 March 2007 Abstract Cyst nematodes produce parasitism proteins that contain putative nuclear

Hussey, Richard S.

364

Cellulose Binding Protein from the Parasitic Nematode Heterodera schachtii Interacts with Arabidopsis Pectin  

E-print Network

wall­digesting enzymes, which aid in root penetration and migration. The soybean cyst nematode pathogen problem in soybean production worldwide, and the sugar beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 Plant­parasitic cyst nematodes secrete a complex of cell

Hussey, Richard S.

365

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 SOYBEAN NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

are caused primarily by Southern root-knot, soybean cyst, Columbia lance, and reniform nematodes. StingSouth Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 248 SOYBEAN NEMATODE CONTROL John D. Mueller, Extension Soybean Pathologist Yield losses caused by nematodes in South Carolina soybeans

Stuart, Steven J.

366

A Treadmill to Localize, Exercise, and Measure the Propulsive Power of Nematodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nematodes C. elegans is often used as model biological system to study the genetic basis of behavior, disease-progression, and aging, as well as to develop new therapies and screen drugs. On occasion, it is desirable to quantify the nematode's muscle power. Here, we present a kind of nematode treadmill. The device consists of a tapered conduit filled with aqueous solution. The conduit is subjected to a DC electric field and to pressure-driven flow directed from the narrow end. The nematode is inserted at the conduit's wide end. Directed by the electric field (through electrotaxis), the nematode swims deliberately upstream toward the negative pole. As the conduit narrows, the average fluid velocity and the drag force on the nematode increase. Eventually, the nematode arrives at an equilibrium position, at which its propulsive power balances the viscous drag force. The nematode's propulsive power is estimated with direct numerical simulations of the flow field around the nematode. The calculations utilize the experimentally imaged gait as a boundary condition. The device is useful to retain the nematode at a nearly fixed position for prolonged observations under a microscope, to keep the nematode exercising, and to estimate the nematode's power based on the conduit's width at the equilibrium position.

Yuan, Jinzhou; Chuan, Han-Sheng; Gnatt, Michael; Raizen, David; Bau, Haim

2011-11-01

367

Early Colonization Events in the Mutualistic Association between Steinernema carpocapsae Nematodes and Xenorhabdus nematophila Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila is a mutualist of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae. During its life cycle, the bacterium exists both separately from the nematode and as an intestinal resident of a nonfeeding nematode form, the infective juvenile (IJ). The progression of X. nematophila from an ex vivo existence to a specific and persistent colonization of IJs is a model

Eric C. Martens; Kurt Heungens; Heidi Goodrich-Blair

2003-01-01

368

Potato crop growth as influenced by potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida) and abiotic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine the major mechanisms by which potato cyst nematodes reduce potato crop growth and to explain interactions known to occur with cultivar and abiotic factors. Understanding of these interactions may lead to strategies that potato growers can use to minimise nematode damage.The research concentrated on the interaction between nematodes

Ruijter de F. J

1998-01-01

369

Navigation and chemotaxis of nematodes in bulk and confined fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small nematodes, such as the model organism C. elegans, propel themselves by producing sinuous undulations along the body and perform turns by varying the undulation amplitude. We have recently demonstrated [PLoS ONE 7(7) e40121 (2012)] that such motions can be accurately represented in terms of a piecewise-harmonic body curvature. We combine our harmonic-curvature description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead-chain models to investigate the swimming efficiency and turning capabilities of the worm in bulk and confined fluids. Our results indicate that for the same change of the curvature-wave amplitude, a swimming nematode turns by a smaller angle compared to a crawling worm. The difference is due to rotational slip with respect to the surrounding medium, but the angles are sufficiently large to allow for efficient turning maneuvers. We use our description of nematode maneuverability to study chemotaxis in both confined and unconfined fluids.

Bilbao, Alejandro; Padmanabhan, Venkat; Rumbaugh, Kendra; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

2013-03-01

370

A nematode effector protein similar to annexins in host plants.  

PubMed

Nematode parasitism genes encode secreted effector proteins that play a role in host infection. A homologue of the expressed Hg4F01 gene of the root-parasitic soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, encoding an annexin-like effector, was isolated in the related Heterodera schachtii to facilitate use of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model host. Hs4F01 and its protein product were exclusively expressed within the dorsal oesophageal gland secretory cell in the parasitic stages of H. schachtii. Hs4F01 had a 41% predicted amino acid sequence identity to the nex-1 annexin of C. elegans and 33% identity to annexin-1 (annAt1) of Arabidopsis, it contained four conserved domains typical of the annexin family of calcium and phospholipid binding proteins, and it had a predicted signal peptide for secretion that was present in nematode annexins of only Heterodera spp. Constitutive expression of Hs4F01 in wild-type Arabidopsis promoted hyper-susceptibility to H. schachtii infection. Complementation of an AnnAt1 mutant by constitutive expression of Hs4F01 reverted mutant sensitivity to 75 mM NaCl, suggesting a similar function of the Hs4F01 annexin-like effector in the stress response by plant cells. Yeast two-hybrid assays confirmed a specific interaction between Hs4F01 and an Arabidopsis oxidoreductase member of the 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase family, a type of plant enzyme demonstrated to promote susceptibility to oomycete pathogens. RNA interference assays that expressed double-stranded RNA complementary to Hs4F01 in transgenic Arabidopsis specifically decreased parasitic nematode Hs4F01 transcript levels and significantly reduced nematode infection levels. The combined data suggest that nematode secretion of an Hs4F01 annexin-like effector into host root cells may mimic plant annexin function during the parasitic interaction. PMID:19887499

Patel, Nrupali; Hamamouch, Noureddine; Li, Chunying; Hewezi, Tarek; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J; Mitchum, Melissa G; Davis, Eric L

2010-01-01

371

Nematicidal Bacteria Associated to Pinewood Nematode Produce Extracellular Proteases  

PubMed Central

Bacteria associated with the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a pathogen of trees and the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD) may play a role in the disease. In order to evaluate their role (positive or negative to the tree), strains isolated from the track of nematodes from infected Pinus pinaster trees were screened, in vitro, for their nematicidal potential. The bacterial products, from strains more active in killing nematodes, were screened in order to identify and characterize the nematicidal agent. Forty-seven strains were tested and, of these, 21 strains showed capacity to produce extracellular products with nematicidal activity. All Burkholderia strains were non-toxic. In contrast, all Serratia strains except one exhibited high toxicity. Nematodes incubated with Serratia strains showed, by SEM observation, deposits of bacteria on the nematode cuticle. The most nematicidal strain, Serratia sp. A88copa13, produced proteases in the supernatant. The use of selective inhibitors revealed that a serine protease with 70 kDa was majorly responsible for the toxicity of the supernatant. This extracellular serine protease is different phylogenetically, in size and biochemically from previously described proteases. Nematicidal assays revealed differences in nematicidal activity of the proteases to different species of Bursaphelenchus, suggesting its usefulness in a primary screen of the nematodes. This study offers the basis for further investigation of PWD and brings new insights on the role bacteria play in the defense of pine trees against B. xylophilus. Understanding all the factors involved is important in order to develop strategies to control B. xylophilus dispersion. PMID:24244546

Francisco, Romeu; Verissimo, Paula; Santos, Susana S.; Fonseca, Luis; Abrantes, Isabel M. O.; Morais, Paula V.

2013-01-01

372

Nematode Spatial and Ecological Patterns from Tropical and Temperate Rainforests  

PubMed Central

Large scale diversity patterns are well established for terrestrial macrobiota (e.g. plants and vertebrates), but not for microscopic organisms (e.g. nematodes). Due to small size, high abundance, and extensive dispersal, microbiota are assumed to exhibit cosmopolitan distributions with no biogeographical patterns. This assumption has been extrapolated from local spatial scale studies of a few taxonomic groups utilizing morphological approaches. Recent molecularly-based studies, however, suggest something quite opposite. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans on earth, but their diversity patterns are largely unknown. We conducted a survey of nematode diversity within three vertical strata (soil, litter, and canopy) of rainforests at two contrasting latitudes in the North American meridian (temperate: the Olympic National Forest, WA, U.S.A and tropical: La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) using standardized sampling designs and sample processing protocols. To describe nematode diversity, we applied an ecometagenetic approach using 454 pyrosequencing. We observed that: 1) nematode communities were unique without even a single common species between the two rainforests, 2) nematode communities were unique among habitats in both rainforests, 3) total species richness was 300% more in the tropical than in the temperate rainforest, 4) 80% of the species in the temperate rainforest resided in the soil, whereas only 20% in the tropics, 5) more than 90% of identified species were novel. Overall, our data provided no support for cosmopolitanism at both local (habitats) and large (rainforests) spatial scales. In addition, our data indicated that biogeographical patterns typical of macrobiota also exist for microbiota. PMID:22984536

Porazinska, Dorota L.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Powers, Thomas O.; Thomas, W. Kelley

2012-01-01

373

Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks  

PubMed Central

Background Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Results Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100% control in some lines. Conclusions CG and nematode resistance gene stacking controlled CG and RLNs simultaneously in walnuts. Silencing genes encoding iaaM, ipt, and Pv010 decrease CG formation and RLNs populations in walnut. Beneficial plant genotype and phenotype changes are caused by co-transformation using A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes strains. Viable resistance against root lesion nematodes in walnut plants may be accomplished in the future using this gene stacking technology. PMID:24083348

2013-01-01

374

New records of nematodes of passerine migratory birds.  

PubMed

Parasitological examination of three passerine bird species: the Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio, Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus and Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava, revealed the presence of the nematodes Acuaria subula, Diplotriaena ozouxi, Viguiera euryoptera and Microtetrameres inermis. All the birds were obtained in the spring (April-May); the nematodes found were mature, which indicates infection in the hosts' wintering grounds. The gizzard worm Acuaria subula is a new record from Motacilla flava in Europe. Viguiera euryoptera and Diplotriaena ozouxi are new to the Polish fauna. PMID:24881284

Okulewicz, Anna

2013-01-01

375

The complete mitochondrial genomes of three parasitic nematodes of birds: a unique gene order and insights into nematode phylogeny  

PubMed Central

Background Analyses of mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences in recent years challenge the current working hypothesis of Nematoda phylogeny proposed from morphology, ecology and nuclear small subunit rRNA gene sequences, and raise the need to sequence additional mt genomes for a broad range of nematode lineages. Results We sequenced the complete mt genomes of three Ascaridia species (family Ascaridiidae) that infest chickens, pigeons and parrots, respectively. These three Ascaridia species have an identical arrangement of mt genes to each other but differ substantially from other nematodes. Phylogenetic analyses of the mt genome sequences of the Ascaridia species, together with 62 other nematode species, support the monophylies of seven high-level taxa of the phylum Nematoda: 1) the subclass Dorylaimia; 2) the orders Rhabditida, Trichinellida and Mermithida; 3) the suborder Rhabditina; and 4) the infraorders Spiruromorpha and Oxyuridomorpha. Analyses of mt genome sequences, however, reject the monophylies of the suborders Spirurina and Tylenchina, and the infraorders Rhabditomorpha, Panagrolaimomorpha and Tylenchomorpha. Monophyly of the infraorder Ascaridomorpha varies depending on the methods of phylogenetic analysis. The Ascaridomorpha was more closely related to the infraorders Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha (suborder Rhabditina) than they were to the other two infraorders of the Spirurina: Oxyuridorpha and Spiruromorpha. The closer relationship among Ascaridomorpha, Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha was also supported by a shared common pattern of mitochondrial gene arrangement. Conclusions Analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences and gene arrangement has provided novel insights into the phylogenetic relationships among several major lineages of nematodes. Many lineages of nematodes, however, are underrepresented or not represented in these analyses. Expanding taxon sampling is necessary for future phylogenetic studies of nematodes with mt genome sequences. PMID:23800363

2013-01-01

376

Expression of Cry5B protein from Bacillus thuringiensis in plant roots confers resistance to root-knot nematode  

E-print Network

-knot nematode Xiang-Qian Li, Anderson Tan 1 , Michael Voegtline 2 , Senait Bekele 3 , Chang-Shi Chen, Raffi V thuringiensis Crystal protein Endotoxin Cry5B Transgenic hairy roots Plant-parasitic nematode Root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita Nematicide a b s t r a c t Plant-parasitic nematodes are major pests of agricultural

Aroian, Raffi V.

377

to appear in the Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics, 2013 COMPLEX MODAL DECOMPOSITION APPLIED TO NEMATODE POSTURING  

E-print Network

APPLIED TO NEMATODE POSTURING B. F. Feeny Department of Mechanical Engineering Michigan State University. The decomposition is applied to the posturing of Caenorhabditis elegans, an intensively studied nematode ensembles of the wave-like pos- turing movements of a nematode worm as it crawls. Nematodes are roundworms

Feeny, Brian

378

Nematology, 2011, Vol. 13(6), 687-699 Effect of soil disturbance and biocides on nematode  

E-print Network

communities and extracellular enzyme activity in soybean cyst nematode suppressive soil Yong BAO 1, Deborah A December 2010 Summary ­ Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, remains a major yield, Heterodera glycines, nematode diversity, soil suppression. Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines

Neher, Deborah A.

379

Discovery and initial analysis of novel viral genomes in the soybean cyst nematode.  

PubMed

Nematodes are the most abundant multicellular animals on earth, yet little is known about their natural viral pathogens. To date, only two nematode virus genomes have been reported. Consequently, nematode viruses have been overlooked as important biotic factors in the study of nematode ecology. Here, we show that one plant parasitic nematode species, Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), harbours four different RNA viruses. The nematode virus genomes were discovered in the SCN transcriptome after high-throughput sequencing and assembly. All four viruses have negative-sense RNA genomes, and are distantly related to nyaviruses and bornaviruses, rhabdoviruses, bunyaviruses and tenuiviruses. Some members of these families replicate in and are vectored by insects, and can cause significant diseases in animals and plants. The novel viral sequences were detected in both eggs and the second juvenile stage of SCN, suggesting that these viruses are transmitted vertically. While there was no evidence of integration of viral sequences into the nematode genome, we indeed detected transcripts from these viruses by using quantitative PCR. These data are the first finding of virus genomes in parasitic nematodes. This discovery highlights the need for further exploration for nematode viruses in all tropic groups of these diverse and abundant animals, to determine how the presence of these viruses affects the fitness of the nematode, strategies of viral transmission and mechanisms of viral pathogenesis. PMID:21490246

Bekal, Sadia; Domier, Leslie L; Niblack, Terry L; Lambert, Kris N

2011-08-01

380

Infection Behavior and Overwintering Survival of Foliar Nematodes, Aphelenchoides fragariae, on Hosta  

PubMed Central

We studied the pathogenicity and overwintering survival of the foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides fragariae, infecting Hosta spp. Nematodes applied to either lower or upper sides of noninjured and injured hosta leaves were able to infect and produce typical symptoms on nine cultivars. Leaves of only four cultivars (Borschi, Fragrant Blue, Patomic Pride, and Olive Bailey Langdon) showed no symptoms of nematode infection. The nematodes overwintered as juveniles and adults in soil, dry leaves, and dormant buds, but not in roots. Nematode winter survival was higher in dormant buds and soil from the polyhouse than in an open home garden. Of the nematodes found in the dormant buds, 35% to 79% were located between the first two outside layers of the buds. The nematodes tolerated 8 hr exposure to 40°C and ?80°C in leaf tissues. Relative humidity influenced nematode migration from soil to leaves. The presence of nematodes only on the outer surface of foliage (leaves and petioles) confirmed the migration of A. fragariae on the surface of the plants. Of the total number of nematodes found on the foliage, 25% to 46% and 66% to 77% were alive at 90% and 100% relative humidity, respectively, suggesting that high moisture is required for the survival and upward movement of nematodes. We conclude that A. fragariae can overwinter in soil, infected dry leaves, and dormant buds and migrate in films of water on the outer surface of the plant during spring to leaves to initiate infection. PMID:19259438

Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Grewal, Parwinder S.

2006-01-01

381

Correlation of Edaphic Factors with Plant-parasitic Nematode Population Densities in a Forage Field.  

PubMed

Two hundred soil samples from the A(p) horizon of a reed canarygrass field overlaying several different but related soils in northern Minnesota were analyzed for plant-parasitic nematodes and 22 edaphic factors. Pratylenchus penetrans was the predominant nematode taxon. Others were Aglenchus agricola, Tylenchorhynchus spp., Heterodera trifolii, Paratylenchus spp., Tylenchus maius, and Criconemella sp. Five nematode taxa, P. penetrans, A, agricola, Tylenchorhynchus spp., H. trifolii, and Paratylenchus spp., were correlated with particle size, Tylenchus maius and Criconemella sp. were correlated with effective cation exchange capacity. Nematode field spatial arrangements were related to a combination of statistically significant positive and negative soil factor effects on the nematode populations. Contour maps derived by geostatistical techniques were used to visually validate statistically significant correlations of nematode and soil data. Contour mapping to supplement traditional statistical techniques can be used to achieve a more holistic approach to studies of nematode-soil interrelationships. PMID:19279821

Wallace, M K; Rust, R H; Hawkins, D M; Macdonald, D H

1993-12-01

382

Resistance to root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., I potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are world-wide one of the most damaging pests to arable farming. In North Western Europe, the species M. chitwoodi, M. fallax and M. hapla are becoming a serious problem in potato growing areas as a result of recent changes in crop rotation, that now include highly profitable host crops, and a reduced use of nematicides in

G. J. W. Janssen

1997-01-01

383

UDP-Galactopyranose Mutase in Nematodes Darryl A. Wesener,  

E-print Network

). This five-membered ring isomer of galactose has not been detected in mammals, making Galf metabolic enzymes to agriculture,1 livestock,2 and human health.3 Plant parasitic nematodes cause estimated crop losses of US$100 Helminth infection and modulation of the host immune response are areas of intense research.6,7 Glycoconju

Kiessling, Laura

384

Vertical Distribution of Bacterivorous Nematodes under Different Wenju Liang,1  

E-print Network

position in the soil food web and play significant roles in ecological processes such as nitrogen cycling of dominant genera of bacterivorous nematodes to 150-cm depth in an aquic brown soil was compared after 14, Eucephalobus, and Monhystera spp. were present in the uppermost soil layer (0 to 5 cm) in the CR treatment

Neher, Deborah A.

385

Trait-mediated diversification in nematode predator-prey systems.  

PubMed

Nematodes are presumably the most numerous Metazoans in terrestrial habitats. They are represented at all trophic levels and are known to respond to nutrient limitation, prey availability, and microbial resources. Predatory nematodes reside at the highest trophic level, and as such their feeding habits could have a major impact on soil food web functioning. Here, we investigate the effects of gender and developmental stage on the nematode body sizes in coarse and loamy soils. Besides Neodiplogasteridae, our predators are much larger than other soil-dwelling nematodes from their early developmental stage onwards. From juvenile to adult, the predatory Aporcelaimellus (Kruskal-Wallis P < 0.001), Dorylaimoides, and Tripyla (both P < 0.01) show great length increases during their developmental growth, in contrast to their possible prey (almost all P < 0.001). Less than 4% of the prey exceeds the length of the predatory adults, but more than 30% of the prey exceeds the length of the predatory juveniles. Potential body size ratios and some physical problems experienced by small fluid feeders attacking large prey are discussed in an attempt to summarize different prey-searching mechanisms and aggregative predatory responses in the soil system. PMID:22393508

Mulder, Christian; Helder, Johannes; Vervoort, Mariëtte T W; Arie Vonk, J

2011-11-01

386

The global burden of intestinal nematode infections — Fifty years on  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty years after Stoll published his ‘This Wormy World’ article, the global prevalence of infections with intestinal nematodes remains virtually unchanged. The main species involved are Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, and there are now approximately one billion infections with each of these, worldwide. Given these large numbers, Man-Suen Chan here focuses on attempting to quantify the disease burden

M. S. Chan

1997-01-01

387

THE GENETICS OF LEVAMISOLE RESISTANCE IN THE NEMATODE CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have characterized a small group of genes (13 loci) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that, when mutated, confer resistance to the potent anthelmintic levamisole. Mutants at the 7 loci conferring the most extreme resistance generally possess almost identical visible and pharmacological phenotypes: uncoordinated motor behavior, most severe in early larval life, extreme resistance to cholinergic agonists and sensitivity to

JAMES A. LEWIS; C.-H. WU; HOWARD BERG; JOSEPH H. LEVINE

1980-01-01

388

IN VITRO CULTURING OF THE PREDATORY SOIL NEMATODE CLARKUS PAPILLATUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Clarkus papillatus is a widely distributed predatory soil nematode and is of interest in the study of soil ecology, yet very little information exists on its in vitro culturing. In this investigation, an artificial environment was created to maintain C. papillatus for multi-gener...

389

Radiation Effects on Nematodes: Results from IML-1 Esperiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed to natural space radiation using the ESA Biorack facility aboard Spacelab on International Microgravity Laboratory 1, STS-42. For the major experimental objective dormant animals were suspended in buffer or on agar or immobilized next to CR-39 plactic nuclear track detectors to correlate fluence of HZE particles with genetic events.

Nelson, G. A.; Schubert, W. W.; Kazarians, G. A.; Righards, G. F.; Benton, E. V; Benton, E. R.; Henke, R.

1993-01-01

390

Strongyloides ratti: A Nematode with Extraordinary Plasticity in Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging has been characterized in detail in relatively few animal species. Here we describe the aging process of a nematode with an unusual life-cycle, Strongyloides ratti. This organism has distinct parasitic and free-living reproductive adult forms, which are genetically identical. S. ratti exhibits a remarkably high degree of pheno- typic plasticity of aging: the maximum lifespan of parasitic adults is

Michael P. Gardner; Mark E. Viney; David Gems

391

Genetic and Pharmacological Factors That Influence Reproductive Aging in Nematodes  

E-print Network

Genetic and Pharmacological Factors That Influence Reproductive Aging in Nematodes Stacie E. Hughes of America Age-related degenerative changes in the reproductive system are an important aspect of aging, because reproductive success is the major determinant of evolutionary fitness. Caenorhabditis elegans

Kornfeld, S. Kerry

392

The Wolbachia endosymbiont as an anti-filarial nematode target  

PubMed Central

Human disease caused by parasitic filarial nematodes is a major cause of global morbidity. The parasites are transmitted by arthropod intermediate hosts and are responsible for lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) or onchocerciasis (river blindness). Within these filarial parasites are intracellular alpha-proteobacteria, Wolbachia, that were first observed almost 30 years ago. The obligate endosymbiont has been recognized as a target for anti-filarial nematode chemotherapy as evidenced by the loss of worm fertility and viability upon antibiotic treatment in an extensive series of human trials. While current treatments with doxycycline and rifampicin are not practical for widespread use due to the length of required treatments and contraindications, anti-Wolbachia targeting nevertheless appears a promising alternative for filariasis control in situations where current programmatic strategies fail or are unable to be delivered and it provides a superior efficacy for individual therapy. The mechanisms that underlie the symbiotic relationship between Wolbachia and its nematode hosts remain elusive. Comparative genomics, bioinfomatic and experimental analyses have identified a number of potential interactions, which may be drug targets. One candidate is de novo heme biosynthesis, due to its absence in the genome sequence of the host nematode, Brugia malayi, but presence in Wolbachia and its potential roles in worm biology. We describe this and several additional candidate targets, as well as our approaches for understanding the nature of the host-symbiont relationship. PMID:20730111

Taylor, Mark J.; Foster, Jeremy M.

2010-01-01

393

Prevalence of anisakin nematodes in fish from Southern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Nematodes from the superfamily Ascaridoidea (families Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae) are worldwide distributed parasites. Their live cycles include many species of water invertebrates and teleostean fish as intermediate hosts, and fish, sea mammals or fish-eating birds being definitive hosts. Humans can be infected with some of these parasites after consumption of raw or wrongly processed fish. The parasitological investigations of fish (herring, cod and flatfish) from southern Baltic (ICES 24-26) provided in the years 80 and 90 showed their infection with larvae of several anisakid species: Anisakis simplex s. str., Contracaecum osculatum C and Hysterothylacium auctum. Sporadically Pseudoterranova decipiens and Raphidascaris acus were also found. Larvae of Anisakis simplex were noted mainly in herrings, C. osculatum primarily in cods and H. auctum in flounders. Additionally, preserved herrings (marinated, smoked) were also investigated and sporadically live larvae of A. simplex were found. The main etiological agent of human anisakidosis worldwide is A. simplex. Although the live cycle of this nematode cannot be completed in the Baltic Sea--this nematode is brought to the Baltic by infected herring migrating from the North Sea for spawning in coastal waters of the Southern Baltic--the prevalence and intensity of infection with larvae of this nematode species were the highest in fish investigated by us. The results obtained suggest the possibility of the human infection with A. simplex larvae in Poland. PMID:16457379

Szostakowska, Beata; Myjak, Przemys?aw; Wyszy?ski, Miros?aw; Pietkiewicz, Halina; Rokicki, Jerzy

2005-01-01

394

Noncanonical cell death programs in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

E-print Network

Review Noncanonical cell death programs in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ES Blum1 , M (caspase), which function in a linear pathway to promote developmental cell death in this organism. While this core pathway functions in many cells, recent studies suggest that additional regulators, acting

Shaham, Shai

395

Overwintering of Bovine Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Southwestern Ontario  

PubMed Central

Several steers, reared in isolation until approximately six months of age, were placed on a small isolated enclosed pasture from late spring to late fall of 1970, 1971 and 1972. The pasture was left vacant and unused during the winters and early springs. The pasture had been used in previous years by cattle, and in the late spring of 1970 was grazed by cattle know to be passing gastrointestinal nematode eggs in their feces. The steers were slaughtered periodically, and the prevalence of nematode species in the abomasum, small intestine, and large intestine, was determined from random samples of up to 100 adult male worms from each segment. The following nematodes were found in the steers in 1971 and 1972 and survived winters on pasture: Ostertagia ostertagi, O. lyrata, Cooperia oncophora, C. mcmasteri, Nematodirus helvetianus and Trichuris discolor. Two nematodes Cooperia punctata and Bunostomum phlebotomum known to be present on pasture in 1970, since they were recovered from the steers in that year, were not found in the steers in 1971 and 1972. PMID:4272963

Slocombe, J. O. D.

1974-01-01

396

ORIGINAL PAPER Antarctic nematode communities: observed and predicted  

E-print Network

Abstract The rapidly changing climate in Antarctica is impacting the ecosystems. Since records began, climate changes have varied considerably throughout Antarctica with both positive and negative trends of climate change on soil communities, and in particular nematode communities, in Antarctica are very limited

Wall, Diana

397

Olfaction shapes host-parasite interactions in parasitic nematodes.  

PubMed

Many parasitic nematodes actively seek out hosts in which to complete their lifecycles. Olfaction is thought to play an important role in the host-seeking process, with parasites following a chemical trail toward host-associated odors. However, little is known about the olfactory cues that attract parasitic nematodes to hosts or the behavioral responses these cues elicit. Moreover, what little is known focuses on easily obtainable laboratory hosts rather than on natural or other ecologically relevant hosts. Here we investigate the olfactory responses of six diverse species of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) to seven ecologically relevant potential invertebrate hosts, including one known natural host and other potential hosts collected from the environment. We show that EPNs respond differentially to the odor blends emitted by live potential hosts as well as to individual host-derived odorants. In addition, we show that EPNs use the universal host cue CO(2) as well as host-specific odorants for host location, but the relative importance of CO(2) versus host-specific odorants varies for different parasite-host combinations and for different host-seeking behaviors. We also identified host-derived odorants by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and found that many of these odorants stimulate host-seeking behaviors in a species-specific manner. Taken together, our results demonstrate that parasitic nematodes have evolved specialized olfactory systems that likely contribute to appropriate host selection. PMID:22851767

Dillman, Adler R; Guillermin, Manon L; Lee, Joon Ha; Kim, Brian; Sternberg, Paul W; Hallem, Elissa A

2012-08-28

398

Influence of Lysobacter enzymogenes Strain C3 on Nematodes.  

PubMed

Chitinolytic microflora may contribute to biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes by causing decreased egg viability through degradation of egg shells. Here, the influence of Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3 on Caenorhabditis elegans, Heterodera schachtii, Meloidogyne javanica, Pratylenchus penetrans, and Aphelenchoides fragariae is described. Exposure of C. elegans to L. enzymogenes strain C3 on agar resulted in almost complete elimination of egg production and death of 94% of hatched juveniles after 2 d. Hatch of H. schachtii eggs was about 50% on a lawn of L. enzymogenes strain C3 on agar as compared to 80% on a lawn of E. coli. Juveniles that hatched on a lawn of L. enzymogenes strain C3 on agar died due to disintegration of the cuticle and body contents. Meloidogyne javanica juveniles died after 4 d exposure to a 7-d-old chitin broth culture of L. enzymogenes strain C3. Immersion of A. fragariae, M. javanica, and P. penetrans juveniles and adults in a nutrient broth culture of L. enzymogenes strain C3 led to rapid death and disintegration of the nematodes. Upon exposure to L. enzymogenes strain C3 cultures in nutrient broth, H. schachtii juveniles were rapidly immobilized and then lysed after three days. The death and disintegration of the tested nematodes suggests that toxins and enzymes produced by this strain are active against a range of nematode species. PMID:19259452

Chen, J; Moore, W H; Yuen, G Y; Kobayashi, D; Caswell-Chen, E P

2006-06-01

399

Infection with Mansonella perstans Nematodes in Buruli Ulcer Patients, Ghana.  

PubMed

During August 2010-December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer. PMID:24857346

Phillips, Richard O; Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc

2014-06-01

400

Cattle nematodes resistant to anthelmintics:why so few cases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent lack of anthelmintic resistant nematodes in cattle is due to the management systems used with most cattle and the lack of surveys for resistance. With extensive beef grazing or with beef suckler herds a large percentage of worms are in refugia (not exposed to anthelmintic) and few anthelmintic treatments are used. With dairy replacement heifers resistance can become

Gerald C. Coles

2002-01-01

401

Parasitic Nematodes in the Chimpanzee Population on Rubondo Island, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified 3 nematodes not previously reported in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) introduced on Rubondo Island, Tanzania: Protospirura muricola, Subulura sp., and Anatrichosoma sp. Vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus), rodents, and intermediate insect hosts might maintain Protospirura muricola and Subulura sp., and indigenous monkeys on the island might also maintain Anatrichosoma sp. Low prevalence of Subulura sp. and Anatrichosoma sp. suggests

Klara J. Petrzelkova; Hideo Hasegawa; Liza R. Moscovice; Taranjit Kaur; Mwanahamissi Issa; Michael A. Huffman

2006-01-01

402

Profiling Nematode Communities in Unmanaged Flowerbed and Agricultural Field Soils in Japan by DNA Barcode Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples) and 48 (field samples) isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs) were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds) in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs), indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis. PMID:23284767

Morise, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Erika; Yoshimitsu, Shoko; Eki, Toshihiko

2012-01-01

403

Profiling nematode communities in unmanaged flowerbed and agricultural field soils in Japan by DNA barcode sequencing.  

PubMed

Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples) and 48 (field samples) isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs) were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds) in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs), indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis. PMID:23284767

Morise, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Erika; Yoshimitsu, Shoko; Eki, Toshihiko

2012-01-01

404

Mermithid nematodes found in adult Anopheles from southeastern Senegal  

PubMed Central

Background Over two dozen mermithid nematodes have been described parasitizing mosquitoes worldwide, however, only two species were found in Africa. Mermithid nematodes kill their mosquito host upon emergence, which suggests that they could be developed as biological control agents of mosquitoes. Both Romanomermis culicivorax and Romanomermis iyengari have been reared for mass release to control numerous Anopheles species vector populations, and in one instance this may have led to reduced malaria prevalence in a human population. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected during a malaria study in southeastern Senegal. Two different adult blood fed mosquitoes had a single mermithid nematode emerge from their anus while they were being held post-capture. Primers from the 18?S rDNA were developed to sequence nematode DNA and screen mosquitoes for mermithid DNA. 18?S rDNA from the Senegalese mermithid and other mermithid entries in GenBank were used to create a Maximum Parsimony tree of the Mermithidae family. Results The mermithid was present in 1.8% (10/551) of the sampled adult Anopheles species in our study area. The mermithid was found in An. gambiae s.s., An. funestus, and An. rufipes from the villages of Ndebou, Boundoucondi, and Damboucoye. Maximum parsimony analysis confirmed that the nematode parasites found in Anopheles were indeed mermithid parasites, and of the mermithid sequences available in GenBank, they are most closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of mermithids from adult Anopheles mosquitoes in Senegal. The mermithid appears to infect Anopheles mosquitoes that develop in diverse larval habitats. Although maximum parsimony analysis determined the mermithid was closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus, several characteristics of the mermithid were more similar to the Empidomermis genus. Future mermithid isolations will hopefully allow: formal taxonomic identification, laboratory colonization, determination of life history traits and species specificity, and characterize its usefulness as a biological control agent. PMID:22741946

2012-01-01

405

Rampant gene rearrangement and haplotype hypervariation among nematode mitochondrial genomes.  

PubMed

Rare syntenic conservation, sequence duplication, and the use of both DNA strands to encode genes are signature architectural features defining mitochondrial genomes of enoplean nematodes. These characteristics stand in contrast to the more conserved mitochondrial genome sizes and transcriptional organizations of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) derived from chromadorean nematodes. To address the frequency of gene rearrangement within nematode mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), mitochondrial genome variation has been characterized within a more confined enoplean taxonomic unit, the family Mermithidae. The complete nucleotide sequences of the mosquito parasitic nematodes Romanomermis culicivorax, R. nielseni, and R. iyengari mtDNA have been determined. Duplicated expanses encompassing different regions of the mitochondrial genomes were found in each of these congeners. These mtDNA shared few rRNA and protein gene junctions, indicating extensive gene rearrangement within the Romanomermis lineage. Rapid structural changes are also observed at the conspecific level where no two individual nematodes carry the same haplotype. Rolling circle amplification was used to isolate complete mitochondrial genomes from individuals in local populations of Thaumamermis cosgrovei, a parasite of terrestrial isopods. Mitochondrial DNA length variants ranging from 19 to 34 kb are observed, but haplotypes are not shared between any two individuals. The complete nucleotide sequences of three haplotypes have been determined, revealing a constant region encoding most mitochondrial genes and a hypervariable segment that contains intact and pseudogene copies of several mitochondrial genes, duplicated to different copy numbers, resulting in mtDNA size variation. Constant rearrangement generates new T. cosgrovei mtDNA forms. PMID:21136141

Hyman, Bradley C; Lewis, Samantha C; Tang, Sha; Wu, Zhen

2011-05-01

406

A sensory code for host seeking in parasitic nematodes  

PubMed Central

Summary Nematodes comprise a large phylum of both free-living and parasitic species that show remarkably diverse lifestyles, ecological niches, and behavioral repertoires. Parasitic species in particular often display highly specialized host-seeking behaviors that reflect their specific host preferences. Many host-seeking behaviors can be triggered by the presence of host odors, yet little is known about either the specific olfactory cues that trigger these behaviors or the neural circuits that underlie them. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae are phylogenetically distant insect-parasitic nematodes whose host-seeking and host-invasion behavior resembles that of some of the most devastating human- and plant-parasitic nematodes. Here we compare the olfactory responses of H. bacteriophora and S. carpocapsae infective juveniles (IJs) to those of Caenorhabditis elegans dauers, which are analogous life stages [1]. We show that the broad host range of these parasites results from their ability to respond to the universally-produced signal carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as a wide array of odors, including host-specific odors that we identified using TD-GC-MS. We show that CO2 is attractive for the parasitic IJs and C. elegans dauers despite being repulsive for C. elegans adults [2–4], and we identify an ancient and conserved sensory neuron that mediates CO2 response in both parasitic and free-living species regardless of whether CO2 is an attractive or a repulsive cue. Finally, we show that the parasites’ odor response profiles are more similar to each other than to that of C. elegans despite their greater phylogenetic distance, likely reflecting evolutionary convergence to insect parasitism. Our results suggest that the olfactory responses of parasitic versus free-living nematodes are highly diverse and that this diversity is critical to the evolution of nematode behavior. PMID:21353558

Hallem, Elissa A.; Dillman, Adler R.; Hong, Annie V.; Zhang, Yuanjun; Yano, Jessica M.; DeMarco, Stephanie F.

2011-01-01

407

The Feeding Tube of Cyst Nematodes: Characterisation of Protein Exclusion  

PubMed Central

Plant parasitic nematodes comprise several groups; the most economically damaging of these are the sedentary endoparasites. Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs and modify host root tissue, using a suite of effector proteins, to create a feeding site that is their sole source of nutrition. They feed by withdrawing host cell assimilate from the feeding site though a structure known as the feeding tube. The function, composition and molecular characteristics of feeding tubes are poorly characterised. It is hypothesised that the feeding tube facilitates uptake of host cell assimilate by acting as a molecular sieve. Several studies, using molecular mass as the sole indicator of protein size, have given contradictory results about the exclusion limits of the cyst nematode feeding tube. In this study we propose a method to predict protein size, based on protein database coordinates in silico. We tested the validity of these predictions using travelling wave ion mobility spectrometry – mass spectrometry, where predictions and measured values were within approximately 6%. We used the predictions, coupled with mass spectrometry, analytical ultracentrifugation and protein electrophoresis, to resolve previous conflicts and define the exclusion characteristics of the cyst nematode feeding tube. Heterogeneity was tested in the liquid, solid and gas phase to provide a comprehensive evaluation of three proteins of particular interest to feeding tube size exclusion, GFP, mRFP and Dual PI. The data and procedures described here could be applied to the design of plant expressed defence compounds intended for uptake into cyst nematodes. We also highlight the need to assess protein heterogeneity when creating novel fusion proteins. PMID:24489891

Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J.; Ault, James R.; Ashcroft, Alison E.; Jones, John T.; Urwin, Peter E.

2014-01-01

408

Diversity and prevalence of metastrongyloid nematodes infecting the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) in European zoos.  

PubMed

Metastrongyloid induced pneumonia has been described sporadically in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens). Early descriptions in pandas recently imported to the USA from China involved parasites morphologically similar to Angiostrongylus spp. and Crenosomatidae. More recently, four cases of severe verminous pneumonia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum have been reported from European zoos. A coprological survey of the red panda population within European zoos was conducted in 2008. Faecal samples from 115 pandas originating from 54 zoos were collected on 3 consecutive days. Using Baermann technique, 40 animals (35%) from 20 zoos (37%) were found to shed metastrongyloid first stage larvae (L(1)). Based on their morphology and size, the L(1) observed could be divided into three morphologically distinct types: (1) a Crenosoma sp. type (n=5, overall prevalence: 4.3%), (2) an A. vasorum type (n=3, 2.6%), and (3) an unidentified metastrongyloid species, similar to, but morphologically distinct from A. vasorum (n=32, 27.8%). Further confirmation of species identification was provided by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene, which confirmed three different species. The novel Crenosoma species was most genetically analogous to Crenosoma mephitidis and the unidentified metastrongyloid species was most similar to Stenurus minor and Torynurus convulutus. Routine and quarantine health care of red pandas in captivity should take account of the risk of Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma infection in endemic areas, but should also be cognisant of the widespread presence of an apparently less pathogenic species of lungworm. The identity of the two potentially novel species is subject to further work. PMID:20570049

Bertelsen, Mads F; Meyland-Smith, Frederik; Willesen, Jakob L; Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Monrad, Jesper

2010-09-20

409

Overview of organic amendments for management of plant-parasitic nematodes, with case studies from Florida.  

PubMed

Organic amendments have been widely used for management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Relatively rapid declines in nematode population levels may occur when decomposing materials release toxic compounds, while longer-term effects might include increases in nematode antagonists. Improved crop nutrition and plant growth following amendment use may lead to tolerance of plant-parasitic nematodes. Results depend on a great variety of factors such as material used, processing/composting of material, application rate, test arena, crop rotation and agronomic practices, soil type, climate, and other environmental factors. Reasons for variable performance and interpretation of results from amendment studies are discussed. Case studies of amendments for nematode management are reviewed from Florida, where composts and crop residues are the most frequently used amendments. Plant growth was often improved by amendment application, free-living nematodes (especially bacterivores) were often stimulated, but suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes was inconsistent. Amendments were generally not as effective as soil fumigation with methyl bromide for managing root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), and often population levels or galling of root-knot nematodes in amended plots did not differ from those in non-amended control plots. While amendments may improve plant growth and stimulate soil food webs, additional study and testing are needed before they could be used reliably for management of plant-parasitic nematodes under Florida conditions. PMID:22791915

McSorley, Robert

2011-06-01

410

Distribution and evolution of glycoside hydrolase family 45 cellulases in nematodes and fungi  

PubMed Central

Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been suggested as the mechanism by which various plant parasitic nematode species have obtained genes important in parasitism. In particular, cellulase genes have been acquired by plant parasitic nematodes that allow them to digest plant cell walls. Unlike the typical glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 cellulase genes which are found in several nematode species from the order Tylenchida, members of the GH45 cellulase have only been identified in a cluster including the families Parasitaphelenchidae (with the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and Aphelenchoididae, and their origins remain unknown. Results In order to investigate the distribution and evolution of GH45 cellulase genes in nematodes and fungi we performed a wide ranging screen for novel putative GH45 sequences. This revealed that the sequences are widespread mainly in Ascomycetous fungi and have so far been found in a single major nematode lineage. Close relationships between the sequences from nematodes and fungi were found through our phylogenetic analyses. An intron position is shared by sequences from Bursaphelenchus nematodes and several Ascomycetous fungal species. Conclusions The close phylogenetic relationships and conserved gene structure between the sequences from nematodes and fungi strongly supports the hypothesis that nematode GH45 cellulase genes were acquired via HGT from fungi. The rapid duplication and turnover of these genes within Bursaphelenchus genomes demonstrate that useful sequences acquired via HGT can become established in the genomes of recipient organisms and may open novel niches for these organisms to exploit. PMID:24690293

2014-01-01

411

Overview of Organic Amendments for Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes, with Case Studies from Florida  

PubMed Central

Organic amendments have been widely used for management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Relatively rapid declines in nematode population levels may occur when decomposing materials release toxic compounds, while longer-term effects might include increases in nematode antagonists. Improved crop nutrition and plant growth following amendment use may lead to tolerance of plant-parasitic nematodes. Results depend on a great variety of factors such as material used, processing/composting of material, application rate, test arena, crop rotation and agronomic practices, soil type, climate, and other environmental factors. Reasons for variable performance and interpretation of results from amendment studies are discussed. Case studies of amendments for nematode management are reviewed from Florida, where composts and crop residues are the most frequently used amendments. Plant growth was often improved by amendment application, free-living nematodes (especially bacterivores) were often stimulated, but suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes was inconsistent. Amendments were generally not as effective as soil fumigation with methyl bromide for managing root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), and often population levels or galling of root-knot nematodes in amended plots did not differ from those in non-amended control plots. While amendments may improve plant growth and stimulate soil food webs, additional study and testing are needed before they could be used reliably for management of plant-parasitic nematodes under Florida conditions. PMID:22791915

2011-01-01

412

Abundance of small individuals influences the effectiveness of processing techniques for deep-sea nematodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans of deep-sea benthic communities, but knowledge of their distribution is limited relative to larger organisms. Whilst some aspects of nematode processing techniques, such as extraction, have been extensively studied, other key elements have attracted little attention. We compared the effect of (1) mesh size (63, 45, and 32 ?m) on estimates of nematode abundance, biomass, and body size, and (2) microscope magnification (50× and 100×) on estimates of nematode abundance at bathyal sites (250-3100 m water depth) on the Challenger Plateau and Chatham Rise, south-west Pacific Ocean. Variation in the effectiveness of these techniques was assessed in relation to nematode body size and environmental parameters (water depth, sediment organic matter content, %silt/clay, and chloroplastic pigments). The 63-?m mesh retained a relatively low proportion of total nematode abundance (mean±SD=55±9%), but most of nematode biomass (90±4%). The proportion of nematode abundance retained on the 45-?m mesh in surface (0-1 cm) and subsurface (1-5 cm) sediment was significantly correlated ( P<0.01) with %silt/clay ( R2=0.39) and chloroplastic pigments ( R2=0.29), respectively. Variation in median nematode body weight showed similar trends, but relationships between mean nematode body weight and environmental parameters were either relatively weak (subsurface sediment) or not significant (surface sediment). Using a low magnification led to significantly lower (on average by 43%) nematode abundance estimates relative to high magnification ( P<0.001), and the magnitude of this difference was significantly correlated ( P<0.05) with total nematode abundance ( R2p=0.53) and the number of small (?250 ?m length) individuals ( R2p=0.05). Our results suggest that organic matter input and sediment characteristics influence the abundance of small nematodes in bathyal communities. The abundance of small individuals can, in turn, influence abundance estimates obtained using different mesh sizes and microscope magnifications.

Leduc, D.; Probert, P. K.; Berkenbusch, K.; Nodder, S. D.; Pilditch, C. A.

2010-10-01

413

Effects of a novel entomopathogenic nematode-infected host formulation on cadaver integrity, nematode yield, and suppression of Diaprepes abbreviatus and Aethina tumida  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative approach to applying entomopathogenic nematodes entails the distribution of nematodes in their infected insect hosts. Protection of the infected host from rupturing, and improving ease of handling, may be necessary to facilitate application. In this study our objective was to test the potential of a new method of formulating the infected hosts, i.e., enclosing the infected host in

David I. Shapiro-Ilan; Juan A. Morales-Ramos; Maria G. Rojas; Walker L. Tedders

2010-01-01

414

Sequence mining and transcript profiling to explore cyst nematode parasitism  

PubMed Central

Background Cyst nematodes are devastating plant parasites that become sedentary within plant roots and induce the transformation of normal plant cells into elaborate feeding cells with the help of secreted effectors, the parasitism proteins. These proteins are the translation products of parasitism genes and are secreted molecular tools that allow cyst nematodes to infect plants. Results We present here the expression patterns of all previously described parasitism genes of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, in all major life stages except the adult male. These insights were gained by analyzing our gene expression dataset from experiments using the Affymetrix Soybean Genome Array GeneChip, which contains probeset sequences for 6,860 genes derived from preparasitic and parasitic H. glycines life stages. Targeting the identification of additional H. glycines parasitism-associated genes, we isolated 633 genes encoding secretory proteins using algorithms to predict secretory signal peptides. Furthermore, because some of the known H. glycines parasitism proteins have strongest similarity to proteins of plants and microbes, we searched for predicted protein sequences that showed their highest similarities to plant or microbial proteins and identified 156 H. glycines genes, some of which also contained a signal peptide. Analyses of the expression profiles of these genes allowed the formulation of hypotheses about potential roles in parasitism. This is the first study combining sequence analyses of a substantial EST dataset with microarray expression data of all major life stages (except adult males) for the identification and characterization of putative parasitism-associated proteins in any parasitic nematode. Conclusion We have established an expression atlas for all known H. glycines parasitism genes. Furthermore, in an effort to identify additional H. glycines genes with putative functions in parasitism, we have reduced the currently known 6,860 H. glycines genes to a pool of 788 most promising candidate genes (including known parasitism genes) and documented their expression profiles. Using our approach to pre-select genes likely involved in parasitism now allows detailed functional analyses in a manner not feasible for larger numbers of genes. The generation of the candidate pool described here is an important enabling advance because it will significantly facilitate the unraveling of fascinating plant-animal interactions and deliver knowledge that can be transferred to other pathogen-host systems. Ultimately, the exploration of true parasitism genes verified from the gene pool delineated here will identify weaknesses in the nematode life cycle that can be exploited by novel anti-nematode efforts. PMID:19183474

Elling, Axel A; Mitreva, Makedonka; Gai, Xiaowu; Martin, John; Recknor, Justin; Davis, Eric L; Hussey, Richard S; Nettleton, Dan; McCarter, James P; Baum, Thomas J

2009-01-01

415

SEROPREVALENCIA DE LA DIROFILARIOSIS Y EHRLICHIOSIS CANINA EN TRES DISTRITOS DE LIMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine Heartworm Disease is a parasitic disease caused by the nematode Dirofilaria immitis. The adult forms are found mainly in the pulmonary arteries and the right heart of canids. This nematode is transmitted by intermediate hosts which are blood suckling mosquitoes. Canine Ehrlichiosis is a disease of domestic and wild canids, caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis, that infects mononuclear

416

Reflections on Plant and Soil Nematode Ecology: Past, Present and Future  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to highlight key developments in nematode ecology from its beginnings to where it stands today as a discipline within nematology. Emerging areas of research appear to be driven by crop production constraints, environmental health concerns, and advances in technology. In contrast to past ecological studies which mainly focused on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, current studies reflect differential sensitivity of nematode faunae. These differences, identified in both aquatic and terrestrial environments include response to stressors, environmental conditions, and management practices. Methodological advances will continue to influence the role nematodes have in addressing the nature of interactions between organisms, and of organisms with their environments. In particular, the C. elegans genetic model, nematode faunal analysis and nematode metagenetic analysis can be used by ecologists generally and not restricted to nematologists. PMID:23482864

Ferris, Howard; Griffiths, Bryan S.; Porazinska, Dorota L.; Powers, Thomas O.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Tenuta, Mario

2012-01-01

417

Larval nematodes (Spiruroidea: Cystidicolidae) in Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from the northeastern Atlantic Ocean.  

PubMed

Larval nematode parasites (Spiruroidea: Cystidicolidae) are recorded for the first time in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Prevalence was 16% and mean intensity was 1.46 worms/host. Body length of larval nematodes ranges from 8.3 to 9.3 mm, with a distance from the anterior end to nerve ring from 187.5 to 200 microm, and to excretory pore 194.6-350 microm. Anatomical characteristics, such as deirid, nerve ring, cephalic alae, excretory pore, pseudolabia amphids, sclerotized protuberance, and anus, examined using light microscopy (LM) or scanning electron microscopy (SEM), are illustrated. The nematode was designed as a cystidicolid "Type A" larva. The hemocytic infiltration present in the host tissue around the nematode capsule and the mechanical compression in the infected organs denote the pathogenicity of this nematode. In the study area, O. vulgaris may play the role of an intermediate or paratenic host in the nematode life cycle. PMID:10386445

Gestal, C; Abollo, E; Arias, C; Pascual, S

1999-06-01

418

Distribution, frequency, and population density of nematodes in west virginia peach orchards.  

PubMed

Nematode population densities were determined in soil and root samples collected from 205 peach (Prunus persica L.) orchard blocks between 25 March and 5 May 1986. Representative specimens from 75 blocks were identified to species; 28 species of plant-parasitic nematodes were identified. Predaceous nematodes (Mononchidae) were observed in 71% of the samples. The most common plant-parasitic genera were Paratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Pratylenchus, and Xiphinema, occurring in 85, 84, 77, and 74% of the samples, respectively. Population densities of Xiphinema, Pratylenchus, Meloidogyne, Hoplolaimus, and Criconemella were at potentially damaging levels in 74, 19, 13, 10, and 2% of the samples, respectively. Potentially damaging nematode densities were observed in 78% of orchard blocks surveyed, with 35% having two or more nematodes with densities high enough to warrant concern. Nematode densities differed among soil types and tree rootstocks and were correlated with tree mortality rates. PMID:19287785

Kotcon, J B

1990-10-01

419

Parasitism of Nematodes by the Fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis as Affected by Certain Organic Amendments  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to determine whether the addition of organic matter to soil increased numbers of bacterivorous nematodes and parasitic activity of the nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis. In a peach orchard on loamy sand, parasitism of the plant-parasitic nematode Criconemella xenoplax by H. rhossiliensis was slightly suppressed and numbers of C. xenoplax were not affected by addition of 73 metric tons of composted chicken manure/ha. In the laboratory, numbers of bacterivorous nematodes (especially Acrobeloides spp.) and fungivorous nematodes increased but parasitism of nematodes by H. rhossiliensis usually decreased with addition of wheat straw or composted cow manure to a loamy sand naturally infested with H. rhossiliensis. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic amendments will enhance parasitism of nematodes by H. rhossiliensis. PMID:19279878

Jaffee, B. A.; Ferris, H.; Stapleton, J. J.; Norton, M. V. K.; Muldoon, A. E.

1994-01-01

420

Parasitism of Nematodes by the Fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis as Affected by Certain Organic Amendments.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to determine whether the addition of organic matter to soil increased numbers of bacterivorous nematodes and parasitic activity of the nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis. In a peach orchard on loamy sand, parasitism of the plant-parasitic nematode Criconemella xenoplax by H. rhossiliensis was slightly suppressed and numbers of C. xenoplax were not affected by addition of 73 metric tons of composted chicken manure/ha. In the laboratory, numbers of bacterivorous nematodes (especially Acrobeloides spp.) and fungivorous nematodes increased but parasitism of nematodes by H. rhossiliensis usually decreased with addition of wheat straw or composted cow manure to a loamy sand naturally infested with H. rhossiliensis. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic amendments will enhance parasitism of nematodes by H. rhossiliensis. PMID:19279878

Jaffee, B A; Ferris, H; Stapleton, J J; Norton, M V; Muldoon, A E

1994-06-01

421

Underground leaves of Philcoxia trap and digest nematodes  

PubMed Central

The recently described genus Philcoxia comprises three species restricted to well lit and low-nutrient soils in the Brazilian Cerrado. The morphological and habitat similarities of Philcoxia to those of some carnivorous plants, along with recent observations of nematodes over its subterranean leaves, prompted the suggestion that the genus is carnivorous. Here we report compelling evidence of carnivory in Philcoxia of the Plantaginaceae, a family in which no carnivorous members are otherwise known. We also document both a unique capturing strategy for carnivorous plants and a case of a plant that traps and digests nematodes with underground adhesive leaves. Our findings illustrate how much can still be discovered about the origin, distribution, and frequency of the carnivorous syndrome in angiosperms and, more generally, about the diversity of nutrient-acquisition mechanisms that have evolved in plants growing in severely nutrient-impoverished environments such as the Brazilian Cerrado, one of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots. PMID:22232687

Pereira, Caio G.; Almenara, Daniela P.; Winter, Carlos E.; Fritsch, Peter W.; Lambers, Hans; Oliveira, Rafael S.

2012-01-01

422

WormBase: a comprehensive resource for nematode research  

PubMed Central

WormBase (http://www.wormbase.org) is a central data repository for nematode biology. Initially created as a service to the Caenorhabditis elegans research field, WormBase has evolved into a powerful research tool in its own right. In the past 2 years, we expanded WormBase to include the complete genomic sequence, gene predictions and orthology assignments from a range of related nematodes. This comparative data enrich the C. elegans data with improved gene predictions and a better understanding of gene function. In turn, they bring the wealth of experimental knowledge of C. elegans to other systems of medical and agricultural importance. Here, we describe new species and data types now available at WormBase. In addition, we detail enhancements to our curatorial pipeline and website infrastructure to accommodate new genomes and an extensive user base. PMID:19910365

Harris, Todd W.; Antoshechkin, Igor; Bieri, Tamberlyn; Blasiar, Darin; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; De La Cruz, Norie; Davis, Paul; Duesbury, Margaret; Fang, Ruihua; Fernandes, Jolene; Han, Michael; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Ozersky, Philip; Petcherski, Andrei; Rangarajan, Arun; Rogers, Anthony; Schindelman, Gary; Schwarz, Erich M.; Tuli, Mary Ann; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Yook, Karen; Durbin, Richard; Stein, Lincoln D.; Spieth, John; Sternberg, Paul W.

2010-01-01

423

Nematode effector proteins: an emerging paradigm of parasitism.  

PubMed

Phytonematodes use a stylet and secreted effectors to modify host cells and ingest nutrients to support their growth and development. The molecular function of nematode effectors is currently the subject of intense investigation. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of nematode effectors, with a particular focus on proteinaceous stylet-secreted effectors of sedentary endoparasitic phytonematodes, for which a wealth of information has surfaced in the past 10 yr. We provide an update on the effector repertoires of several of the most economically important genera of phytonematodes and discuss current approaches to dissecting their function. Lastly, we highlight the latest breakthroughs in effector discovery that promise to shed new light on effector diversity and function across the phylum Nematoda. PMID:23691972

Mitchum, Melissa G; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J; Wang, Xiaohong; Elling, Axel A; Wubben, Martin; Davis, Eric L

2013-09-01

424

Infection of Pratylenchus penetrans by Nematode-pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Eleven fungal isolates were tested in agar dishes for pathogenicity to Pratylenchus penetrans. Of the fungi that produce adhesive conidia, Hirsutella rhossiliensis was a virulent pathogen; Verticillium balanoides, Drechmeria coniospora, and Nematoctonus sp. were weak or nonpathogens. The trapping fungi, Arthrobotrys dactyloides, A. oligospora, Monacrosporium dlipsosporum, and M. cionopagum, killed most of the P. penetrans adults and juveniles added to the fungus cultures. An isolate of Nematoctonus that forms adhesive knobs trapped only a small proportion of the nematodes. In 17-cm(3) vials, soil moisture influenced survival of P. penetrans in the presence of H. rhossiliensis; nematode survival decreased with diminishing soil moisture. Hirsutella rhossiliensis and M. ellipsosporum were equally effective in reducing numbers of P. penetrans by 24-25% after 4 days in sand. After 25 days in soil artificially infested with H. rhossiliensis, numbers of P. penetrans were reduced by 28-53%. PMID:19279772

Timper, P; Brodie, B B

1993-06-01

425

Infection of Pratylenchus penetrans by Nematode-pathogenic fungi  

PubMed Central

Eleven fungal isolates were tested in agar dishes for pathogenicity to Pratylenchus penetrans. Of the fungi that produce adhesive conidia, Hirsutella rhossiliensis was a virulent pathogen; Verticillium balanoides, Drechmeria coniospora, and Nematoctonus sp. were weak or nonpathogens. The trapping fungi, Arthrobotrys dactyloides, A. oligospora, Monacrosporium dlipsosporum, and M. cionopagum, killed most of the P. penetrans adults and juveniles added to the fungus cultures. An isolate of Nematoctonus that forms adhesive knobs trapped only a small proportion of the nematodes. In 17-cm³ vials, soil moisture influenced survival of P. penetrans in the presence of H. rhossiliensis; nematode survival decreased with diminishing soil moisture. Hirsutella rhossiliensis and M. ellipsosporum were equally effective in reducing numbers of P. penetrans by 24-25% after 4 days in sand. After 25 days in soil artificially infested with H. rhossiliensis, numbers of P. penetrans were reduced by 28-53%. PMID:19279772

Timper, P.; Brodie, B. B.

1993-01-01

426

Nucleoside diphosphate kinase from the parasitic nematode Brugia malayi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure that exploited the presence of a conserved 22-nucleotide spliced leader (SL) sequence that is trans-spliced to the 5? end of nematode transcripts, a novel Brugia malayi (Bm) infective-stage SL cDNA expression library was constructed and characterized. The library was immunoscreened with rabbit anti-infective-stage antibodies (Ab) and an immunodominant clone, BmG4–7, was identified

Inca Ghosh; Nithyakalyani Raghavan; Peter C. Fitzgerald; Alan L. Scott

1995-01-01

427

Ecology of benthic and epiphytic nematodes in brackish waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundances of benthic nematodes from shallow waters in Tvärminne, Finland and in Ringkøbing Fjord, Denmark averaged 1.2–1.5\\u000a 106 individuals m?2. Less than 20 species were found. More than 80% of the individuals were made up by Anoplostoma viviparum, Chromadorita fennica, Axonolaimus spinosus, Daptonema trabeculosum and Sabatieria pulchra. S. pulchra is designated as an anoxybiotic species and is attracted to the

P. Jensen

1984-01-01

428

OSMOTIC AVOIDANCE DEFECTIVE MUTANTS OF THE NEMATODE CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wild-type strain of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been shown to avoid high concentrations of a number of sugars and salts. Individual and population assays for this response were developed and mutants were selected for their inability to avoid high concentrations of fructose or NaC1. Seven nonavoiding mutants representing six complementation groups were isolated and characterized. Genetic studies indicate

JOSEPH G. CULOTTI; RICHARD L. RUSSELL

1978-01-01

429

Noncanonical cell death programs in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic studies of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have uncovered four genes, egl-1 (BH3 only), ced-9 (Bcl-2 related), ced-4 (apoptosis protease activating factor-1), and ced-3 (caspase), which function in a linear pathway to promote developmental cell death in this organism. While this core pathway functions in many cells, recent studies suggest that additional regulators, acting on or in lieu of these

E S Blum; M Driscoll; S Shaham

2008-01-01

430

Studies on Paecilomyces marquandii from nematode suppressive chinampa soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two applications of isolates ofPaecilomyces marquandii from suppressive chinampa soils or P. lilacinus from Peru, fungi that parasitize nematode eggs, generally gave better control of tomato root-knot due toMeloidogyne incognita than did a single application. The effects on root galling by each of thePaecilomyces isolates varied between experiments; however, the ovicidal potential of the three isolates did not differ significantly.

Nahum Marban-Mendoza; M. Bess Dicklow; Bert M. Zuckerman

1992-01-01

431

Marine meiobenthic and nematode community structure in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong upon recovery from sewage pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment quality, meiofaunal and nematode communities were monitored across six time points at two inside-harbour and three outside-harbour sites over a three-year period in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong, after the implementation of a sewage treatment project. Twenty-one meiofaunal groups comprising mainly free-living nematodes and harpacticoid copepods and 188 species of free-living nematodes were identified. The outside-harbour area had a more

Xiao-Shou Liu; Wen-Zhe Xu; Siu Gin Cheung; Paul K. S. Shin

2011-01-01

432

A soil toxicity test using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and an effective method of recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for recovering nematodes from soils in an efficient, reproducible, and non-destructive manner has been developed. It was used to conduct short-term soil toxicity tests using the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and several different soil types spiked with copper chloride. The recovery method, which involves centrifugation through a colloidal silica suspension, allows the nematodes to be extracted from

Steven G. Donkin; David B. Dusenbery

1993-01-01

433

Population growth kinetics of the nematode, Steinernema feltiae, in submerged monoxenic culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoxenic cultures of the nematode, Steinernema feltiae, were carried out on two complex liquid media: P1, mainly soybean flour\\/egg yolk\\/yeast extract, and P2, mainly egg yolk\\/yeast extract. Up to 140 000–200 000 nematodes ml-1 were produced within 7 days, and more than 95% of the final population was in the infective juvenile stage. The total nematode concentration growth curve had

Norberto Chavarría-Hernández; Mayra de la Torre

2001-01-01

434

POPlJLATION ENERGETICS OF BACTERIAL-FEEDING NEMATODES: CARBON AND NITROGEN BUDGETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary-Ibacterial-feeding nematodes participate in nitrogen mineralization in decomposition food webs to an extent determined by metabolic and behavioral attributes, by life history, and by the relative C-to-N ratios of the nematodes and their bacterial prey. The mean C-to-N ratio for eight nematode species cultured on Escherichia coli on agar was 5.89 (range 5.16-6.83). The mean C-to-N ratio was similar, although

H. FERRIS; R. C. VENETTE; S. S. LAU

435

The use of FUdR can cause prolonged longevity in mutant nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a popular model organism that is used to study longevity and aging. One drawback of nematode lifespan assays is the labour intensive separation of offspring from adults during the reproductive period. To circumvent this, the worm community frequently adds 5-fluoro-2?-deoxyuridine (FUdR), a drug that induces parental sterility, to the nematode culture. Here, we report that

Layla Aitlhadj; Stephen R. Stürzenbaum

2010-01-01

436

Population energetics of bacterial-feeding nematodes: Carbon and nitrogen budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial-feeding nematodes participate in nitrogen mineralization in decomposition food webs to an extent determined by metabolic and behavioral attributes, by life history, and by the relative C-to-N ratios of the nematodes and their bacterial prey. The mean C-to-N ratio for eight nematode species cultured on Escherichia coli on agar was 5.89 (range 5.16–6.83). The mean C-to-N ratio was similar, although

H. Ferris; R. C. Venette; S. S. Lau

1997-01-01

437

Effects of Metal Exposure on Associative Learning Behavior in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the thermotaxis model was used to evaluate the effects of metal exposure at different concentrations\\u000a on associative learning behavior in nematodes. The examined nematodes were cultured at 25 or 17°C, and then shifted to 20°C\\u000a condition. Based on the ability of nematodes to trace the temperature of 20°C, exposure to 10 ?M of all examined metals and

Yanfen Zhang; Boping Ye; Dayong Wang

2010-01-01

438

NemaPath: online exploration of KEGG-based metabolic pathways for nematodes  

PubMed Central

Background Nematode.net is a web-accessible resource for investigating gene sequences from parasitic and free-living nematode genomes. Beyond the well-characterized model nematode C. elegans, over 500,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and nearly 600,000 genome survey sequences (GSSs) have been generated from 36 nematode species as part of the Parasitic Nematode Genomics Program undertaken by the Genome Center at Washington University School of Medicine. However, these sequencing data are not present in most publicly available protein databases, which only include sequences in Swiss-Prot. Swiss-Prot, in turn, relies on GenBank/Embl/DDJP for predicted proteins from complete genomes or full-length proteins. Description Here we present the NemaPath pathway server, a web-based pathway-level visualization tool for navigating putative metabolic pathways for over 30 nematode species, including 27 parasites. The NemaPath approach consists of two parts: 1) a backend tool to align and evaluate nematode genomic sequences (curated EST contigs) against the annotated Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) protein database; 2) a web viewing application that displays annotated KEGG pathway maps based on desired confidence levels of primary sequence similarity as defined by a user. NemaPath also provides cross-referenced access to nematode genome information provided by other tools available on Nematode.net, including: detailed NemaGene EST cluster information; putative translations; GBrowse EST cluster views; links from nematode data to external databases for corresponding synonymous C. elegans counterparts, subject matches in KEGG's gene database, and also KEGG Ontology (KO) identification. Conclusion The NemaPath server hosts metabolic pathway mappings for 30 nematode species and is available on the World Wide Web at . The nematode source sequences used for the metabolic pathway mappings are available via FTP , as provided by the Genome Center at Washington University School of Medicine. PMID:18983679

Wylie, Todd; Martin, John; Abubucker, Sahar; Yin, Yong; Messina, David; Wang, Zhengyuan; McCarter, James P; Mitreva, Makedonka

2008-01-01

439

Grain Yield and Heterosis of Maize Hybrids under Nematode Infested and Nematicide Treated Conditions  

PubMed Central

Plant-parasitic nematodes are present on maize but resistant genotypes have not been identified in Uganda. This study was aimed at determining the level of nematode resistance among F1 hybrids, and to estimate grain yield, heterosis and yield losses associated with maize hybrids under nematode infestation. The 30 F1 hybrids and two local checks were evaluated in a split plot design with nematode treatment (nematode infested versus nematicide treated) as the whole plot factor, and the hybrids as subplot factors arranged in an 8 x 4 alpha-lattice design. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at three sites. The hybrids were also evaluated in a split plot design under greenhouse conditions at IITA-Namulonge. Results revealed 24 P. zeae susceptible hybrids compared to only six P. zeae resistant hybrids. Grain yield across sites was higher by about 400 kg ha-1 under nematicide treatment than under nematode infestation. The nematode tolerant/resistant hybrids exhibited yields ranging from 5.0 to 8.4 t ha-1 compared to 5.0 t ha-1 obtained from the best check. Grain yield loss was up to 28% among susceptible hybrids, indicating substantial economic yield losses due to nematodes. Under field conditions, desired heterosis was recorded on 18 hybrids for P. zeae, and on three hybrids for Meloidogyne spp. Under nematode infestation, only 16 hybrids had higher relative yield compared to the mean of both checks, the best check and the trial mean, whereas it was 20 hybrids under nematicide treated plots. Overall, most outstanding hybrids under nematode infestation were CML395/MP709, CML312/5057, CML312/CML206, CML312/CML444, CML395/CML312 and CML312/CML395. Therefore, grain yield loss due to nematodes is existent but can be significantly reduced by growing nematode resistant hybrids. PMID:23429435

Kagoda, Frank; Derera, John; Tongoona, Pangirayi; Coyne, Daniel L.; Talwana, Herbert L.

2011-01-01

440

A trichodorus (triplonchida: trichodoridae) nematode from thrips (thysanoptera: panchaetothripinae).  

PubMed

A thrips insect Caliothrips sp. (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae) from persimmon fruit (Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.) from an unknown origin, possibly Asia, was intercepted in a passenger bag in November 2012 at the Peace Arch Border Crossing from Canada to Blaine, WA, by a USDA-APHIS-PPQ port inspector. Nematodes were attached to the abdomen of the female insect and sent to us in saline. Seven nematodes (five females, two males) were measured and these and others were processed for permanent slides. An adult female and a female juvenile were prepared for PCR. Morphologically these nematodes belonged to the Trichodorus sparsus group, and the 28S rDNA D2-D3 sequence showed greatest similarity to Trichodorus paragiennensis (94%) and T. giennensis (93%), with greatest morphological similarity to the latter species. Among other morphological differences, the innermost uterus width is wider than in related species. Trichodorus spp. are normally found in soil, so this is the first population seen in the atypical habitat of an insect. Morphological and molecular characteristics of Trichodorus sp. are presented, but a putative new species name is not currently advisable because of relatively poor condition of specimens. Ecological associations are also discussed. PMID:25276005

Carta, L K; Skantar, A M

2014-09-01

441

Microarray analysis of gene expression with age in individual nematodes.  

PubMed

We compare the aging of wild-type and long-lived C. elegans by gene expression profiling of individual nematodes. Using a custom cDNA array, we have characterized the gene expression of 4-5 individuals at 4 distinct ages throughout the adult lifespan of wild-type N2 nematodes, and at the same ages for individuals of the long-lived strain daf-2(e1370). Using statistical tools developed for microarray data analysis, we identify genes that differentiate aging N2 from aging daf-2, as well as classes of genes that change with age in a similar way in both genotypes. Our novel approach of studying individual nematodes provides practical advantages, since it obviates the use of mutants or drugs to block reproduction, as well as the use of stressful mass-culturing procedures, that have been required for previous microarray studies of C. elegans. In addition, this approach has the potential to uncover the molecular variability between individuals of a population, variation that is missed when studying pools of thousands of individuals. PMID:15153179

Golden, Tamara R; Melov, Simon

2004-06-01

442

Host-finding behaviour in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus  

PubMed Central

Costs and benefits of foraging have been studied in predatory animals. In nematodes, ambushing or cruising behaviours represent adaptations that optimize foraging strategies for survival and host finding. A behaviour associated with host finding of ambushing nematode dauer juveniles is a sit-and-wait behaviour, otherwise known as nictation. Here, we test the function of nictation by relating occurrence of nictation in Pristionchus pacificus dauer juveniles to the ability to attach to laboratory host Galleria mellonella. We used populations of recently isolated and mutagenized laboratory strains. We found that nictation can be disrupted using a classical forward genetic approach and characterized two novel nictation-defective mutant strains. We identified two recently isolated strains from la Réunion island, one with a higher proportion of nictating individuals than the laboratory strain P. pacificus PS312. We found a positive correlation between nictation frequencies and host attachment in these strains. Taken together, our combination of genetic analyses with natural variation studies presents a new approach to the investigation of behavioural and ecological functionality. We show that nictation behaviour in P. pacificus nematodes serves as a host-finding behaviour. Our results suggest that nictation plays a role in the evolution of new life-history strategies, such as the evolution of parasitism. PMID:21411455

Brown, Federico D.; D'Anna, Isabella; Sommer, Ralf J.

2011-01-01

443

Prevalence and intensity of nematode parasites in wisconsin ermine.  

PubMed

In the midwestern United States, ermine ( Mustela erminea ) are economically important because they are legally harvested for pelts. Information on parasites of ermine is lacking, and the effects that nematode parasites have on body condition of ermine hosts are unknown. We identified Skrjabingylus nasicola and Filaroides martis in ermine trapped from 2007 to 2013 from 6 counties in Wisconsin. Small mammals, commonly consumed by ermine, serve as paratenic hosts for both parasites. Our goal was to identify how age and sex of ermine, along with year, influence nematode parasitism. We also investigated how infection affected body condition for male and female ermine using body mass standardized by length as an index of body condition. We commonly found S. nasicola and F. martis in male and female ermine, but both prevalence and intensity of infection were higher for males. Relative to juveniles (<1 yr), adult (>1 yr) male ermine did not exhibit significantly higher intensity or prevalence of either parasite. We found that body condition was not compromised by infection for either sex, and intensity of S. nasicola and prevalence of F. martis were highest during the 2010-2011 trapping season. Of the 6 yr studied, precipitation was highest during the summer before the 2010-2011 season, and increased precipitation can cause increases in populations of gastropod intermediate hosts. We think that several distinct natural history components, namely, mating structure, diet, and metabolic rate, influence