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Sample records for canid nematode angiostrongylus

  1. Elucidating the spread of the emerging canid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum between Palaearctic and Nearctic ecozones.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, R; Shaw, S E; Willesen, J; Viney, M E; Morgan, E R

    2010-05-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is an emerging parasite that is currently distributed through Western Europe and parts of South America. An isolated population is also present in Newfoundland, Canada. This presents a risk of onward spread into North America, but its origin is unknown. To ascertain the phylogeographic relationships and genetic diversity of A. vasorum within the western Palaearctic and eastern Nearctic ecozones, a total of 143 adult and larval nematode specimens were collected from foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Portugal and the United Kingdom, and a coyote (Canis latrans) in Canada. DNA was extracted and the second internal transcribed spacer and two mitochondrial loci were amplified and sequenced. Multiple haplotypes (n=35) based on combined mitochondrial sequences (1078bp) of the partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), large subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnL) and the complete nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 3 (NADH3) sequences, were observed throughout the Palaearctic countries sampled; however, only a single haplotype was observed for the Canadian A. vasorum population. The likely origin of A. vasorum in Newfoundland is therefore inferred to be within the western Palaearctic. There was no evidence of genetic segregation of parasites in dogs, foxes and coyotes, supporting the hypothesis that transmission occurs between wild and domestic canids. The transmission dynamics and population structure of this nematode are further discussed. PMID:20139034

  2. Increased prevalence and geographic spread of the cardiopulmonary nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum in fox populations in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C S; Garcia Gato, R; Learmount, J; Aziz, N A; Montgomery, C; Rose, H; Coulthwaite, C L; McGarry, J W; Forman, D W; Allen, S; Wall, R; Morgan, E R

    2015-08-01

    The nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum is becoming more widely recorded globally, and is of increasing concern as a cause of disease in dogs. Apparent geographic spread is difficult to confirm due to a lack of standardized disease recording systems, increasing awareness among veterinary clinicians, and recent improvements in diagnostic technologies. This study examines the hypothesis that A. vasorum has spread in recent years by repeating the methods of a previous survey of the fox population. The hearts and lungs of 442 foxes from across Great Britain were collected and examined by dissection and flushing of the pulmonary circulation and microscopic inspection of tracheal scrapes. Sampling and parasite extraction methods were identical to an earlier survey in 2005 to ensure comparability. Prevalence of A. vasorum was 183% (exact binomial confidence bounds 149-223), compared with 73% previously (53-99, n = 546), and had increased significantly in most regions, e.g. 74% in the Northern UK (previously zero) and 508% in the south-east (previously 232%). Other nematodes identified were Crenosoma vulpis (prevalence 108%, CI 81-142) and Eucoleus aerophilus (316%, CI 273-362). These data support the proposal that A. vasorum has increased in prevalence and has spread geographically in Great Britain. PMID:26027539

  3. Comparison of three methods for the detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum in the final host.

    PubMed

    Houpin, E; McCarthy, G; Ferrand, M; De Waal, T; O'Neill, E J; Zintl, A

    2016-04-15

    Angiostrongylosis is potentially fatal parasitic nematode infection affecting dogs which can be difficult to diagnose. In recent years several microscopical, serological and molecular detection methods have been developed, however there are few studies that have compared the relative performance of these methods. Screening necropsy material from an opportunistic sample of 140 foxes (82 of which were considered to be infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum), indicated sensitivities of 84.1% for dissection and visual examination of plucks, 69.5% for nested PCR of an 18S rRNA fragment and 76.8% for a canine A. vasorum antigen detection test (IDEXX Angio Detect) of tissue fluid samples respectively. Agreement between the tests ranged from 45.6 to 79.7%. A novel nested PCR-RFLP for the detection and identification of canid lungworm spp. is described. PMID:26995721

  4. Detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Härtwig, Vera; Schulze, Christoph; Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus (A.) vasorum is a nematode that causes angiostrongylosis in domestic and wild canids. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are suspected of providing a wildlife reservoir for A. vasorum infections in pet dogs. To obtain data on the occurrence of A. vasorum in wildlife, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and examined for the presence of A. vasorum DNA by means of real-time PCR. A. vasorum DNA was detected in 11 out of 122 (9.0 %) lungs of red foxes and in none of the lung samples of raccoon dogs. These data suggest that red foxes are a reservoir of A. vasorum infections for pet dogs in this area. PMID:26152419

  5. The development of Angiostrongylus vasorum (Baillet, 1866) in the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822).

    PubMed

    Mozzer, L R; Coaglio, A L; Dracz, R M; Ribeiro, V M A; Lima, W S

    2015-11-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode that infects the heart and pulmonary artery and its branches of domestic and wild canids. The parasite can use several species of terrestrial and aquatic molluscs as intermediate hosts, although susceptibility varies. Pomacea canaliculata is a mollusc found in lakes, swamps and rivers in South America. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility, parasite growth, oviposition and larval development of 282 P. canaliculata infected with 500 A. vasorum first-instar larvae (L1). From day 5 post-infection (pi) to day 30 pi, seven specimens per day were sacrificed to recover the larval instars. We compared 50 egg masses from infected and uninfected molluscs to determine the number of eggs per clutch, the hatching rate and the growth of the molluscs. The percentage of recovered larvae ranged from 39.17% to 67.5%. First-stage larvae (L1) were found until day 19 pi, second-stage larvae (L2) were found from days 11 to 25 pi, and third-stage larvae (L3) were recovered only after day 19 pi. Infected snails exhibited the most eggs during spawning, although the rate of hatching and shell size were lower in the infected snails compared with controls. This is the first report of an experimental infection of P. canaliculata with A. vasorum, and the results confirm the non-specificity of the nematode in relation to the intermediate host and indicate the importance of epidemiological surveys of this parasite and mollusc. PMID:26442708

  6. Geographical distribution of Angiostrongylus vasorum in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, G; Ferrand, M; DE Waal, T; Zintl, A; McGrath, G; Byrne, W; O'Neill, E J

    2016-04-01

    The reported incidence of the metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum, that infects dogs and other canids, is increasing worldwide outside recognized endemic foci. This apparent expansion of the parasite's range is causing concern to veterinary clinicians as the disease caused in dogs can be life threatening and its treatment is not straightforward. The red fox is thought to be a reservoir host for dogs. To investigate the spatial distribution of infection in foxes in Ireland, the hearts and lungs of 542 foxes from all over Ireland were examined. The incidence of infection was found to be 39·9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 35·7-44·1] with positive samples occurring in each of the country's 26 counties. This report confirms that the parasite is endemic in Ireland and the overall prevalence is the second highest in Europe. This is the first survey of A. vasorum infection in Irish foxes and highlights the potential exposure of the Irish dog population to high risk of cross-infection. Additionally, Crenosoma vulpis was found in seven of the foxes, a parasite not previously reported in the Irish fox. PMID:26940534

  7. Eosinophilic meningitis beyond the Pacific Basin: the global dispersal of a peridomestic zoonosis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the nematode lungworm of rats.

    PubMed

    Kliks, M M; Palumbo, N E

    1992-01-01

    The principal etiologic agent of human eosinophilic meningitis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was first detected in rats in Canton, China in 1933. The first human case was detected on Taiwan in 1944. Epidemic outbreaks were noted on Ponape (E. Caroline Is.) from 1944 to 1948. The disease may present as transient meningitis or a more severe disease involving the brain, spinal cord and nerve roots, with a characteristic eosinophilia of the peripheral blood and CSF. Since 1961 it has been known that human infections are usually acquired by purposeful or accidental ingestion of infective larvae in terrestrial mollusks, planaria and fresh-water crustacea. There is no effective specific treatment. The African land snail, Achatina fulica played an important role in the panpacific dispersal of the organism: it will be important in Africa in the future as well. Rats were, and will continue to be the principal agents of expansion of the parasite beyond the Indopacific area. During and just after WWII the parasite was introduced, and/or spread passively from South and Southeast Asia into the Western Pacific islands and eastward and southward through Micronesia, Melanesia, Australia and into Polynesia, sequestered in shipments of war material and facilitated by post-war commerce. In the 1950s numerous cases were identified for the first time on Sumatra, the Philippines, Taiwan, Saipan, New Caledonia, and as far east as Rarotonga and Tahiti. Then cases were detected in Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Java, Sarawak, the New Hebrides, Guam and Hawaii during the 1960s. Subsequently in the Pacific Basin the disease has appeared on Okinawa, other Ryukyu islands, Honshu, Kyushu, New Britain, American Samoa and Western Samoa, Australia, Hong Kong, Bombay, India, Fiji and most recently in mainland China. The parasite in rats now occurs throughout the Indopacific Basin and littoral. Beyond the Indopacific region, the worm has been found in rodents in Madagascar (ca 1963), Cuba (1973), Egypt (1977), Puerto Rico (1984), New Orleans, Louisiana (1985) and Port Harcourt, Nigeria (1989). Human infections have now been detected in Cuba (1973), Runion Island (1974) and Cte d'Ivoire (1979) and should be anticipated wherever infected rats of mollusks have been introduced. Caged primates became infected in zoos in Hong Kong (1978) and New Orleans and Nassau, Bahamas (1987). The use of mollusks and crustacea as famine foods, favored delicacies and medicines has resulted in numerous outbreaks and isolated infections. Economic and political instability, illicit trade, unsanitary peridomestic conditions and lack of health education promote the local occurrence and insidious global expansion of parasitic eosinophilic meningitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1738873

  8. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in wildlife: A review

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20) given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100–500 larvae) often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna parks where captive rearing of endangered species programmes may exist and where Rattus spp. are invariably a problem. PMID:25853051

  9. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in wildlife: A review.

    PubMed

    Spratt, David M

    2015-08-01

    Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20) given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100-500 larvae) often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna parks where captive rearing of endangered species programmes may exist and where Rattus spp. are invariably a problem. PMID:25853051

  10. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Rat Lungworm Disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Simões, Raquel; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Júnior, Arnaldo Maldonado

    2013-01-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil. PMID:23901376

  11. Angiostrongylus vasorum in wolves in Italy☆

    PubMed Central

    Eleni, Claudia; De Liberato, Claudio; Azam, Dena; Morgan, Eric R.; Traversa, Donato

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum has attracted attention for its emergence in previously free areas and for the rise in clinical cases in domestic dogs. Italy is regarded as one of the countries where this potentially life-threatening parasite is spreading, especially due to bridging infections between wildlife and domestic dogs. The present article describes the presence of A. vasorum in wolves from Italy. Nematodes were observed in histological sections of three wolves found dead in Rome province, central Italy. Morphological and molecular identification of the nematodes, by polymerase chain reaction of rDNA ITS-2 and sequencing, confirmed the nematodes to be A. vasorum, with 99% genetic homology with A. vasorum from sympatric dogs. This is the second report of this species in wolves and the first in this host in Italy, and coincides with increasing records of A. vasorum in dogs and foxes in Italy. Implications for the epidemiology of this emerging parasite and for wildlife health are concisely discussed. PMID:24918072

  12. Neuroparasitic infections: nematodes.

    PubMed

    Walker, M D; Zunt, J R

    2005-09-01

    Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system--Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.--is reviewed. PMID:16170738

  13. PCR-based detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in tissue and mucus secretions from molluscan hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a common cause of human eosinophilic meningitis. Recent outbreaks of this infection in endemic regions have prompted a need to determine the distribution of this nematode in the environment to control transmission. A. cantonensis is generally identified morphologically...

  14. The Prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis/mackerrasae Complex in Molluscs from the Sydney Region

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Douglas; Barratt, Joel; Roberts, Tamalee; Lee, Rogan; Shea, Michael; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Malik, Richard; Jones, Malcolm; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus mackerrasae are metastrongyloid nematodes that infect various rat species. Terrestrial and aquatic molluscs are intermediate hosts of these worms while humans and dogs are accidental hosts. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the major cause of angiostrongyliasis, a disease characterised by eosinophilic meningitis. Although both A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae are found in Australia, A. cantonensis appears to account for most infections in humans and animals. Due to the occurrence of several severe clinical cases in Sydney and Brisbane, the need for epidemiological studies on angiostrongyliasis in this region has become apparent. In the present study, a conventional PCR and a TaqMan assay were compared for their ability to amplify Angiostrongylus DNA from DNA extracted from molluscs. The TaqMan assay was more sensitive, capable of detecting the DNA equivalent to one hundredth of a nematode larva. Therefore, the TaqMan assay was used to screen molluscs (n=500) of 14 species collected from the Sydney region. Angiostrongylus DNA was detected in 2 of the 14 mollusc species; Cornu aspersum [14/312 (4.5%)], and Bradybaenia similaris [1/10 (10%)], which are non-native terrestrial snails commonly found in urban habitats. The prevalence of Angiostrongylus spp. was 3.0% ± 0.8% (CI 95%). Additionally, experimentally infected Austropeplea lessoni snails shed A. cantonensis larvae in their mucus, implicating mucus as a source of infection. This is the first Australian study to survey molluscs using real-time PCR and confirms that the garden snail, C. aspersum, is a common intermediate host for Angiostrongylus spp. in Sydney. PMID:26000568

  15. Angiostrongylus cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Pien, F D; Pien, B C

    1999-01-01

    In the past 50 years, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis, has spread from Southeast Asia to the South Pacific, Africa, India, the Caribbean, and recently, to Australia and North America, mainly carried by cargo ship rats. Humans are accidental, "dead-end" hosts infected by eating larvae from snails, slugs, or contaminated, uncooked vegetables. These larvae migrate to the brain, spinal cord, and nerve roots, causing eosinophilia in both spinal fluid and peripheral blood. Infected patients present with severe headache, vomiting, paresthesias, weakness, and occasionally visual disturbances and extraocular muscular paralysis. Most patients have a full recovery; however, heavy infections can lead to chronic, disabling disease and even death. There is no proven treatment for this disease. In the authors' experience, corticosteroids have been helpful in severe cases to relieve intracranial pressure as well as neurologic symptoms due to inflammatory responses to migrating and eventually dying worms. PMID:10460929

  16. Combined Serological Detection of Circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum Antigen and Parasite-specific Antibodies in Dogs from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Manuela; Schaper, Roland; Lukács, Zoltán; Hornok, Sándor; Farkas, Róbert

    2015-08-01

    The occurrence of the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum, also known as the French heartworm, is increasingly being reported from various European countries. The adults of this parasite species live in the pulmonary arteries and right cardiac ventricle of wild canids and domestic dogs. Larval stages and eggs in the lungs induce inflammatory verminous pneumonia, causing severe respiratory disease in dogs. Furthermore, haematological and neurological signs and even death may occur. In Hungary, A. vasorum has been identified in red foxes, golden jackals and in two dogs and some slugs. In this first large-scale survey, 1247 sera from pet dogs were collected and tested by an ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of A. vasorum and by a separate ELISA to detect specific antibodies against the parasite. A total of 1.36% (n = 17, 95 % confidence intervals, CI: 0.80 - 2.17 %) of the animals were positive in both ELISAs, while 1.76 % (n = 22, CI: 1.11 - 2.66 %) of the tested dogs were antigen-positive only and 2.73 % (n = 34, CI: 1.90 - 3.79 %) were positive for specific antibodies only. Regions with antigen- and antibody-positive animals overlapped and were distributed over nearly the whole sampled areas of the country. A considerable number of cases was observed in Budapest and also in the southern part of the country bordering Croatia, while in the most eastern part bordering Ukraine no positive samples were detected. These results confirm the endemic occurrence of A. vasorum in dogs originating from different parts of Hungary and the significant advantages of A. vasorum serology in epidemiological studies. PMID:26152415

  17. Gallus gallus domesticus: paratenic host of Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    PubMed

    Mozzer, L R; Lima, W S

    2015-01-15

    Angiostrongylus vasorum, a parasite of the cardiorespiratory system in canids, has a heteroxenous biological cycle in which the intermediate hosts are terrestrial and aquatic mollusks. Generally, canids become infected by ingesting the intermediate host or paratenic hosts, such as amphibians, that contain infective larvae (L3). However, there are no reports of birds as paratenic hosts of A. vasorum. To evaluate the susceptibility and viability of Gallus gallus domesticus as a paratenic host of A. vasorum, 17 Cobb chickens were randomly divided into two groups. The animals in group A were inoculated with third stage larvae of A. vasorum, and those in group B ate snails inoculated with A. vasorum L3. At 30 days post-infection, the chickens were killed, and the muscles and organs were placed in a pepsin-HCl solution (1% HCl (37%), 1% pepsin) for 3h in an oven at 40°C to recover the L3. In group A, 1863 L3 were recovered per chicken. In group B, 2585 L3 were recovered. A dog that ingested organs and tissues from a chicken from group A released first-stage larvae of A. vasorum in its feces 51 days after infection; the dynamics of this process were monitored for 107 days, when treatment with 25 mg fenbendazole/kg body weight was performed for 21 days. Chickens nourished with infected snails or with infective L3 may be a source of infection for dogs indicate that G. gallus is a potential paratenic host for this parasite. PMID:25468671

  18. Angiostrongylus chabaudi (Biocca, 1957) in wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris, S) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Gherman, Călin Mircea; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Otranto, Domenico; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Angiostrongylus chabaudi is a rare cardio-pulmonary nematode infecting felids. Although almost 60 years have passed since the original description of the species in Italy, this parasite has been seldom found in domestic and wildcats in southern Europe. The present study aims to report a new case of patent A. chabaudi infection in a road-killed wildcat from Maramureș County in Northern Romania. The necropsy revealed the presence of parasites in the pulmonary arteries and the right ventricle, and the fecal examination showed the presence of L1 larvae. Parasites were morphologically and morphometrically characterized as A. chabaudi, showing 100 % nucleotide similarity to an Angiostrongylus sp. originating from a wildcat from Germany and 99 % to A. chabaudi from Italy. This study reports A. chabaudi for the first time in Eastern Europe, expanding knowledge about the distribution range of this species. PMID:27106235

  19. Biology, Systematics, Life Cycle, and Distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Cause of Rat Lungworm Disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode in the family Angiostrongylidae. It is the cause of angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease), which manifests as eosinophilic meningitis. First described in 1935 from rats in China, A. cantonensis was placed in the genus Parastrongylus in 1986, but most workers have not adopted this treatment. The taxonomy of A. cantonensis and related worms is largely based on adult morphology, notably of the male bursa. However, identification of infective third stage larvae is more difficult. The natural life cycle involves rats as the definitive host and snails or slugs as the intermediate host. Human infection, as accidental hosts, results in worms maturing in the brain, but dying there instead of moving back into the bloodstream, as in rats, thereby leading to eosinophilic meningitis. The disease is an emerging infectious disease; Angiostrongylus cantonensis continues to be reported in new regions beyond its native range. PMID:23901372

  20. Biology, systematics, life cycle, and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the cause of rat lungworm disease.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode in the family Angiostrongylidae. It is the cause of angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease), which manifests as eosinophilic meningitis. First described in 1935 from rats in China, A. cantonensis was placed in the genus Parastrongylus in 1986, but most workers have not adopted this treatment. The taxonomy of A. cantonensis and related worms is largely based on adult morphology, notably of the male bursa. However, identification of infective third stage larvae is more difficult. The natural life cycle involves rats as the definitive host and snails or slugs as the intermediate host. Human infection, as accidental hosts, results in worms maturing in the brain, but dying there instead of moving back into the bloodstream, as in rats, thereby leading to eosinophilic meningitis. The disease is an emerging infectious disease; Angiostrongylus cantonensis continues to be reported in new regions beyond its native range. PMID:23901372

  1. Environmental determinants of the spatial distribution of Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-01-30

    Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) are the most important lungworm species infecting wild and domesticated canids in Europe. To investigate the spatial distribution of these parasites and the factors influencing their circulation in the fox populations, 937 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were tested for lungworm infection in Hungary. The prevalence of A. vasorum, C. vulpis and E. aerophilus infection was high (17.9, 24.6 and 61.7%). The distribution pattern of infection in foxes and the relationship of this pattern with landscape and climate was analyzed by geographic information system. Based on the analysis, the annual precipitation was the major determinant of the spatial distribution of A. vasorum and C. vulpis and E. aerophilus. Nevertheless, the mean annual temperature also influenced the distribution of A. vasorum and E. aerophilus. The positive relationship with annual precipitation and the negative relationship with mean annual temperature can be attributed to the sensitivity of larvae, eggs and intermediate hosts (snails and slugs) of lungworms for desiccation. Based on the highly clumped distribution of A. vasorum and C. vulpis, the indirect life cycle (larvae, slugs and snails) of these parasites seems to be particularly sensitive for environmental effects. The distribution of E. aerophilus was considerably less clumped indicating a lower sensitivity of the direct life cycle (eggs) of this parasite for environmental factors. Based on these results, lungworm infections in canids including dogs can be expected mainly in relatively wet and cool areas. PMID:25547643

  2. First evidence of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) as definitive host of Angiostrongylus chabaudi.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Psalla, Dimitra; Migli, Despina; Di Cesare, Angela; Youlatos, Dionisios; Marcer, Federica; Traversa, Donato

    2016-03-01

    Angiostrongylus chabaudi (Strongylida, Angiostrongylidae) is a parasitic nematode described for the first time last century from the pulmonary arteries of six European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris) in central Italy. Since then, this parasite remained practically unknown until recently, when immature A. chabaudi have been reported from one wildcat in Germany and two domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) in Italy. The present report describes the first record of A. chabaudi in Greece and, most importantly, the first known case of patent infection by A. chabaudi. The necropsy of a road-killed F. s. silvestris found near the lake Kerkini, in the municipality of Serres (Macedonia, Greece), revealed the presence of nematodes of both sexes in the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery of the heart. All parasites were mature adults and numerous eggs were present in the uteruses of females. The morphological characteristics of the parasites were consistent with those of A. chabaudi. Moreover, Angiostrongylus-like first stage larvae (L1) were present in the faeces of the animal that was negative for any other cardio-pulmonary parasite. Genetic examination of adult parasites and L1 confirmed the morphological identification as A. chabaudi. Histopathological examination of the lungs showed severe, multifocal to coalescing, chronic, interstitial granulomatous pneumonia due to the presence of adult parasites, larvae and eggs. These findings demonstrate for the first unequivocal time that this nematode reproduces in the European wildcat which should be ultimately considered a definitive host of A. chabaudi. Finally, the L1 of A. chabaudi are described here for the first time, opening new prospects for further studies on this neglected parasite. PMID:26637312

  3. Diverse Gastropod Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm, Globally and with a Focus on the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaynee R.; Hayes, Kenneth A.; Yeung, Norine W.; Cowie, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

  4. Neuroparasitic Infections: Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M.D.; Zunt, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system—Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.—is reviewed. Objectives On completion of this article, the reader should be able to summarize the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the common nematodal infections of the nervous system. Accreditation The Indiana University School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Credit The Indiana University School of Medicine designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1 Category 1 credit toward the AMA Physicians Recognition Award. Each physician should claim only those credits that he/she actually spent in the educational activity. Disclosure Statements of disclosure have been obtained regarding the authors’ relevant financial relationships. The authors have nothing to disclose. PMID:16170738

  5. Mitochondrial Genome Supports Sibling Species of Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Goh, Share-Yuan; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chow, Wan-Loo; Chan, Kok-Gan; Abrahams-Sandi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a zoonotic parasitic nematode that causes abdominal or intestinal angiostrongyliasis in humans. It is endemic to the Americas. Although the mitochondrial genome of the Brazil taxon has been published, there is no available mitochondrial genome data on the Costa Rica taxon. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of the Costa Rica taxon and its genetic differentiation from the Brazil taxon. The whole mitochondrial genome was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 13,652 bp, comprising 36 genes (12 protein-coding genesPCGs, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes) and a control region (A + T rich non-coding region). It is longer than that of the Brazil taxon (13,585 bp). The larger mitogenome size of the Costa Rica taxon is due to the size of the control region as the Brazil taxon has a shorter length (265 bp) than the Costa Rica taxon (318 bp). The size of 6 PCGs and the start codon for ATP6, CYTB and NAD5 genes are different between the Costa Rica and Brazil taxa. Additionally, the two taxa differ in the stop codon of 6 PCGs. Molecular phylogeny based on 12 PCGs was concordant with two rRNA, 22 tRNA and 36 mitochondrial genes. The two taxa have a genetic distance of p = 16.2% based on 12 PCGs, p = 15.3% based on 36 mitochondrial genes, p = 13.1% based on 2 rRNA genes and p = 10.7% based on 22 tRNA genes, indicating status of sibling species. The Costa Rica and Brazil taxa of A. costaricensis are proposed to be accorded specific status as members of a species complex. PMID:26230642

  6. Intermediate Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Tenerife, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Alonso, Aarón; Abreu-Yanes, Estefanía; Feliu, Carlos; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, María Dolores; Valladares, Basilio; Foronda, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis, the main clinical manifestation of which is eosinophilic meningitis. Although this parasite has been found recently in its definitive rat host in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), showing a widespread distribution over the north-east part of the island, there are no available data regarding which snail and/or slug species are acting as intermediate hosts on this island. Consequently, the objective of this work was to determine the possible role of three mollusc species, Plutonia lamarckii, Cornu aspersum and Theba pisana, as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in Tenerife. Between 2011 and 2014, 233 molluscs were collected from five biotopes where rats had been found previously to harbor either adult worms or antibodies against A. cantonensis, and the identification was carried out on the basis of morphological features and a LAMP technique. The prevalence of A. cantonensis larvae in the mollusc samples, based on morphological identification, was 19.3%, whereas 59 out of the 98 individuals (60.2%) analyzed by LAMP were positive. Positive results were obtained for the three mollusc species analyzed and two of the positive samples, both obtained from P. lamarckii, were confirmed as positive by 18S rRNA and ITS1 PCR. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA PCR products showed 100% similarity with previously published A. cantonensis sequences. These results may be relevant from a public health point of view, since all the biotopes from which the samples were obtained were in inhabited areas or areas with human activity, but it is also important from the perspective of a possible transmission to other accidental hosts, such as dogs and horses, animals that are present in some of the areas analyzed. PMID:25803658

  7. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis: an emergent disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morassutti, Alessandra Loureiro; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Fernandez, Monica; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis (EoM) is an acute disease that affects the central nervous system. It is primarily caused by infection with the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This infection was previously restricted to certain Asian countries and the Pacific Islands, but it was first reported in Brazil in 2007. Since then, intermediate and definitive hosts infected with A. cantonensis have been identified within the urban areas of many states in Brazil, including those in the northern, northeastern, southeastern and southern regions. The goals of this review are to draw the attention of the medical community and health centres to the emergence of EoM in Brazil, to compile information about several aspects of the human infection and mode of transmission and to provide a short protocol of procedures for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:25075779

  8. Clinical manifestations of Eosinophilic meningitis due to infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis in children.

    PubMed

    Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Senthong, Vichai; Limpawattana, Panita; Auvichayapat, Narong; Tassniyom, Sompon; Chotmongkol, Verajit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2013-12-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis, caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is prevalent in northeastern Thailand, most commonly in adults. Data regarding clinical manifestations of this condition in children is limited and may be different those in adults. A chart review was done on 19 eosinophilic meningitis patients aged less than 15 years in Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. Clinical manifestations and outcomes were reported using descriptive statistics. All patients had presented with severe headache. Most patients were males, had fever, nausea or vomiting, stiffness of the neck, and a history of snail ingestion. Six patients had papilledema or cranial nerve palsies. It was shown that the clinical manifestations of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis in children are different from those in adult patients. Fever, nausea, vomiting, hepatomegaly, neck stiffness, and cranial nerve palsies were all more common in children than in adults. PMID:24516281

  9. Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in the Ryukyu Islands tree rat (Diplothrix legata).

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Haga, Atsushi; Mizuno, Eriko; Onuma, Manabu; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode with rodents serving as natural definitive hosts. We report A. cantonensis in the Ryukyu Islands tree rat (Diplothrix legata, Thomas, 1906), a native endangered species in Japan. Adult and larvae of A. cantonensis were macroscopically, histologically, and genetically detected in three tree rats collected between August 2011 and January 2012 in the Yambaru area of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Pathologic observations of the lungs of rats showed that infection may be lethal. We also conducted a retrospective genetic survey of helminths parasitic in lung in cryopreserved lung samples of Ryukyu Islands tree rats collected between 2007 and 2011 in the Yambaru area and found A. cantonensis DNA in one of 29 samples, which was collected in December 2010. PMID:24499332

  10. First report of Ancylostoma ceylanicum in wild canids.

    PubMed

    Smout, Felicity A; Thompson, R C Andrew; Skerratt, Lee F

    2013-12-01

    The parasitic nematode Ancylostoma ceylanicum is common in dogs, cats and humans throughout Asia, inhabiting the small intestine and possibly leading to iron-deficient anaemia in those infected. It has previously been discovered in domestic dogs in Australia and this is the first report of A. ceylanicum in wild canids. Wild dogs (dingoes and dingo hybrids) killed in council control operations (n = 26) and wild dog scats (n = 89) were collected from the Wet Tropics region around Cairns, Far North Queensland. All of the carcasses (100%) were infected with Ancylostoma caninum and three (11.5%) had dual infections with A. ceylanicum. Scats, positively sequenced for hookworm, contained A. ceylanicum, A. caninum and Ancylostoma braziliense, with A. ceylanicum the dominant species in Mount Windsor National Park, with a prevalence of 100%, but decreasing to 68% and 30.8% in scats collected from northern and southern rural suburbs of Cairns, respectively. Due to the ability of A. ceylanicum to cause a patent infection in humans, the zoonotic risk arising from this wild dog reservoir to communities in the Wet Tropics should be determined. PMID:24533332

  11. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (genera Heterorhabditis, Steinernema, and Neosteinernema) are used as bioinsecticides. The nematodes are ubiquitous and have been isolated in soil of every continent except Antarctica. The nematodes kill insects through a mutualism with a bacterium (Photorhabdus spp. or ...

  12. A survey of Angiostrongylus species in definitive hosts in Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Reid, Simon A.; Aland, Kieran V.; Restrepo, Angela Cadavid; Traub, Rebecca J.; McCarthy, James S.; Jones, Malcolm K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent sporadic reports of angiostrongyliasis in humans, dogs and wildlife in eastern Australia there has been no systematic study to explore the epidemiology of Angiostrongylus spp. in definitive and intermediate hosts in the region. Little is known about the epidemiology of Angiostrongylus species in the definitive host in southeast Queensland, since the only survey conducted in this region was performed in the late 1960s. In this study, free-living populations of Rattus spp. were sampled and examined for the presence of adult and larval Angiostrongylus in the lungs, and of larvae in faeces. The prevalence of infection with Angiostrongylus spp. was 16.5% in Rattus spp. trapped in urban Brisbane and surrounds. This prevalence is much higher than estimates of earlier studies. This highlights the possible risk of zoonotic infection in children, dogs and wildlife in this region and indicates the necessity for public awareness as well as more detailed epidemiological studies on this parasite in eastern Australia. PMID:26236633

  13. Fatal Angiostrongylus dujardini infection in callitrichid monkeys and suricates in an Italian zoological garden.

    PubMed

    Eleni, Claudia; Di Cesare, Angela; Cavicchio, Paolo; Tonnicchia, Maria Cristina; Meoli, Roberta; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Paoletti, Barbara; Pietrobelli, Mario; De Liberato, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports four fatal cases of metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus dujardini infection observed in a Saguinus oedipus and a Callimico goeldii monkey and in two suricates (Suricata suricatta). All animals were kept in captivity in a zoo of central Italy. The two monkeys died with no premonitory signs, while the two-month-old suricates showed malaise, anorexia and tachypnea for a few days prior to death. Cardiomegaly and/or granulomatous pneumonia were the major anatomo-pathological findings. Inflammatory lesions were observed in the liver, heart and kidney of the suricates at histology. A. dujardini diagnosis was confirmed through both morphological identification of adult worms recovered at necropsy and molecular characterization of larvae in tissue samples. Callitrichidae and suricates are active predators and maintain their hunting behaviour in captivity and it is then likely that they were exposed to infection by preying on parasitized gastropods, intermediate hosts of A. dujardini, entering zoo enclosures from the surrounding environment. This is the first report of A. dujardini in Italy and in S. suricatta. PMID:27094227

  14. Larval development of Angiostrongylus vasorum in the land snail Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Crisi, Paolo Emidio; Bartolini, Roberto; Iorio, Raffaella; Talone, Tonino; Filippi, Laura; Traversa, Donato

    2015-10-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum affects the heart and pulmonary arteries of dogs and wild animals. Over the recent years, dog angiostrongylosis has gained great attention in the veterinary community for the expansion of its geographic range and for a rise in the number of clinical cases. Global warming, changes in phenology of mollusc intermediate hosts and movements of wild reservoirs have been evocated in the spreading of mollusc-borne parasites, including A. vasorum. The land snail Helix aspersa, a vector of other respiratory metastrongyloids, is endemic in most regions of the World, where it is a pest outside its native Mediterranean range. In the present study, the susceptibility and suitability of H. aspersa as an intermediate host of A. vasorum were investigated along with the characteristics of larval recovery and development following two different ways of inoculation, i.e. experimental (group A) vs natural infection (group B). After infections, the snails were kept at environmental conditions for 2 months. Five snails from groups A and B were randomly selected, digested and examined at 15-day intervals for 2 months. L1s, L2s and L3s were microscopically identified based on key morphological and morphometric characteristics and their identity was genetically confirmed. The results showed that A. vasorum may reach the infective stage in H. aspersa and that uptake of larvae and parasitic burden within the snails depend on the grazing capability of the molluscs. Biological and epidemiological implications are discussed. PMID:26122991

  15. Genetic Diversity of the Rat Lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Major Cause of Eosinophilic Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Phaik Eem; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2013-01-01

    Various aspects of the genetics of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, are reviewed. This nematode has an XX/XO sex-determination mechanism, with the female having a 2n = 12 (XX) and the male 2n = 11 (XO) chromosome constitution. Allozymes (12 loci) exhibit a low proportion of polymorphic loci (P = .08) and low mean heterozygosity (H = 0.43) in specimens from Hawai‘i, and no polymorphism or heterozygosity in specimens from Thailand. The phosphoglucomutase-2 (PGM-2) locus exhibits sex-limited expression, with no detectable enzyme activity in the male worms from either location. Based on the 12 allozyme loci, Nei's genetic distance between the Hawai‘i and Thailand isolates is D = 0.03. The p-distance (proportion of nucleotide sites) based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is 3.61% between the Thailand and China isolates as well as between Thailand and Hawai‘i isolates, and 0.83% between China and Hawai‘i isolates. The partial DNA sequences of the 66 kDa protein gene show a great diversity of haplotypes, indicating both inter- and intra-population variation. Intra-specifc sequence variation is also found in the internal transcribed spacer regions. For the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, two distinct genotypes have been recorded. PMID:23901375

  16. Assisted reproductive technology in canid species.

    PubMed

    Farstad, W

    2000-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies in dogs began as early as the 18th century. The first scientifically recorded artificial insemination (AI) was performed in Italy by Spallanzani and lead to the birth of three pups. Progress in the area was slow, and subsequent development included AI equipment and methods for short-term preservation of fresh, and later, for frozen semen which led to the world's first litter produced from frozen semen in 1969. Improvement of freezing methods and AI equipment from 1970 onwards has rendered AI useful as a breeding technique for dogs. In parallel, AI in foxes was developed in Scandinavia in the early 1980's; this resulted in the economically valuable crossbreeding of silver and blue foxes for the production of bluefrost pelts. Unfortunately, due to the particular physiology of the canine female, progress in other artificial breeding techniques has lagged behind. Only in the last few years have these techniques been successfully applied in basic research to study oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization, embryo cryopreservation and embryo transfer in canids. PMID:10735072

  17. [Intestinal perforation by Angiostrongylus costaricensis. A report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, G A

    1992-05-01

    Two cases of abdominal angiostronylosis with terminal ileum perforation are reported. The first two cases diagnosed in Panama of a well established eosinophilic granulomatous process which affects mostly children in Costa Rica. The parasite Angiostrongylus costaricensis has been demonstrated in cases with a geographic range, from Mexico down to Brazil. The parasite has been found in rodents in Panama (Sigmodon hispidus and Rattus rattus) with an still pending further epidemiological and serological studies in order to determine the true disease morbidity. PMID:1620898

  18. Molecular epidemiology of canid rabies in Zimbabwe and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sabeta, C T; Bingham, J; Nel, L H

    2003-02-01

    The epidemiology of rabies in southern Africa is complex, due to a large number of vector species and the presence of at least two distinct biotypes of the virus. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology of rabies in the southern African subcontinent by studying the genetic relationship of 89 rabies virus isolates from this region. In this study, we have focused on an analysis of viruses that cycle in canid host species (canid biotype) throughout South Africa and Zimbabwe. By phylogenetic analysis of the cytoplasmic domain of the glycoprotein and the non-coding G-L intergenic region, all the southern African canid viruses were found to be closely related and no apparent general distinction could be made between them. Although there was a minor degree of phylogenetic branching, with certain branches associated with cycles defined by species, location and time, the phylogenetic pattern indicated that canid rabies in southern Africa is derived from a single virus lineage, which has spread opportunistically within whatever canid host population is ecologically capable of sustaining prolonged cycles. This molecular epidemiological study presents the first comprehensive comparison of rabies viruses from South Africa and Zimbabwe and has demonstrated the need for multinational approaches towards the control of this important zoonotic disease in Africa. PMID:12573499

  19. Lung and hearth nematodes in some Spanish mammals.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, F; Iglesias, R; Bos, J; Rey, J; Sanmartin Durán, M L

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen host species belonging to the orders Rodentia, Insectivora and Carnivora from various localities in Galicia (NW Spain) were examined for heart and lung parasites. The following species were found: Parastrongylus dujardini (5.5%) in Apodemus sylvaticus, Crenosoma striatum in Erinaceus europaeus (83%), Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus in Vulpes vulpes (3, 3.46 and 0.50%, respectively), Crenosoma taiga in Putorius putorius (100%) and Crenosoma sp. in Meles meles (25%). In Crocidura russula nematode larvae were found (3.3%). Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus, Talpa caeca, Sorex araneus, Genetta genetta and Canis lupus were not parasitized by lung or heart parasites. PMID:1844789

  20. Angiostrongylus cantonensis cathepsin B-like protease (Ac-cathB-1) is involved in host gut penetration

    PubMed Central

    Long, Ying; Cao, Binbin; Yu, Liang; Tukayo, Meks; Feng, Chonglv; Wang, Yinan; Luo, Damin

    2015-01-01

    Although the global spread of the emerging zoonosis, human angiostrongyliasis, has attracted increasing attention, understanding of specific gene function has been impeded by the inaccessibility of genetic manipulation of the pathogen nematode causing this disease, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Many parasitic proteases play key roles in host-parasite interactions, but those of A. cantonensis are always expressed as the inactive form in prokaryotic expression systems, thereby impeding functional studies. Hence, a lentiviral system that drives secreted expression of target genes fused to a Myc-His tag was used to obtain recombinant Ac-cathB-1 with biological activity. Although this class of proteases was always reported to function in nutrition and immune evasion in parasitic nematodes, recombinant Ac-cathB-1 was capable of hydrolysis of fibronectin and laminin as well as the extracellular matrix of IEC-6 monolayer, so that the intercellular space of the IEC-6 monolayer increased 5.15 times as compared to the control, while the shape of the adherent cells partly rounded up. This suggests a probable role for this protease in intestinal epithelial penetration. The inhibition of Ac-cathB-1 enzymatic activity with antiserum partly suppressed larval penetration ability in the isolated intestine. Thus, an effective system for heterologous expression of parasite proteases is presented for studying gene function in A. cantonensis; and Ac-cathB-1 was related to larval penetration ability in the host small intestine. PMID:26682577

  1. Abolition of Peroxiredoxin-5 Mitochondrial Targeting during Canid Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Van der Eecken, Valérie; Clippe, André; Dekoninck, Sophie; Goemaere, Julie; Walbrecq, Geoffroy; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Knoops, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    In human, the subcellular targeting of peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5), a thioredoxin peroxidase, is dependent on the use of multiple alternative transcription start sites and two alternative in-frame translation initiation sites, which determine whether or not the region encoding a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is translated. In the present study, the abolition of PRDX5 mitochondrial targeting in dog is highlighted and the molecular mechanism underlying the loss of mitochondrial PRDX5 during evolution is examined. Here, we show that the absence of mitochondrial PRDX5 is generalized among the extant canids and that the first events leading to PRDX5 MTS abolition in canids involve a mutation in the more 5′ translation initiation codon as well as the appearance of a STOP codon. Furthermore, we found that PRDX5 MTS functionality is maintained in giant panda and northern elephant seal, which are phylogenetically closely related to canids. Also, the functional consequences of the restoration of mitochondrial PRDX5 in dog Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were investigated. The restoration of PRDX5 mitochondrial targeting in MDCK cells, instead of protecting, provokes deleterious effects following peroxide exposure independently of its peroxidase activity, indicating that mitochondrial PRDX5 gains cytotoxic properties under acute oxidative stress in MDCK cells. Altogether our results show that, although mitochondrial PRDX5 cytoprotective function against oxidative stress has been clearly demonstrated in human and rodents, PRDX5 targeting to mitochondria has been evolutionary lost in canids. Moreover, restoration of mitochondrial PRDX5 in dog MDCK cells, instead of conferring protection against peroxide exposure, makes them more vulnerable. PMID:24023783

  2. Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geffen, Eli; Kam, Michael; Hefner, Reuven; Hersteinsson, Pall; Angerbjorn, Anders; Dalen, Love; Fuglei, Eva; Noren, Karin; Adams, Jennifer R.; Vicetich, John; Meier, Thomas J.; Mech, L.D.; VonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1–8% and 20–22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk.

  3. Hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2011-06-01

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids. PMID:22946419

  4. Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geffen, E.; Kam, M.; Hefner, R.; Hersteinsson, P.; Angerbjorn, A.; Dalen, L.; Fuglei, E.; Noren, K.; Adams, J.R.; Vucetich, J.; Meier, T.J.; Mech, L.D.; Vonholdt, B.M.; Stahler, D.R.; Wayne, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1-8% and 20-22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Southeast and South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maldonado Jr, Arnaldo; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Motta, Esther M; Fernandez, Mônica A; Pereira, Zilene M; Monteiro, Simone S; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2010-11-01

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay) and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville). The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized. PMID:21120369

  6. Biochemical profile of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Amaral, Ludimila Santos; Mota, Esther Maria; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Garcia, Juberlan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of experimental infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode, Metastrongylidae) on the activities of the aminotransferases and concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of total proteins in the exposed snails to 5000 or more larvae. This change was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of urea and uric acid in the hemolymph, suggesting a higher rate of deamination of the amino acids. Besides this, variations in the activities of the aminotransferases were also observed, with the highest values recorded in the groups exposed to greater parasite load. These results suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities. Infection was verified by the fact that L3 larvae recovered from the snails was proportion to the exposure dose of L1 larvae. Histopathological results also indicated presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, favoring an increase of both transaminases. PMID:25308279

  7. Spread of the Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) in Giant African Land Snails (Lissachatina fulica) in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Sanders, Lakyn R; Schill, W Bane; Xayavong, Maniphet V; da Silva, Alexandre J; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Smith, Trevor

    2015-07-01

    The rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is a parasitic nematode that causes rat lungworm disease. It is the leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis and is a zoonotic health risk. We confirmed the presence of A. cantonensis using species-specific, quantitative PCR in 18 of 50 (36%) giant African land snails (Lissachatina fulica) collected from Miami, Florida, US in May 2013. These snails were collected from seven of 21 core areas that the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services monitor weekly. Rat lungworms have not previously been identified in these areas. Duplicate DNA extractions of foot muscle tissue from each snail were tested. Of the seven core areas we examined, six were positive for A. cantonensis and prevalence of infection ranged from 27% to 100%. Of the 18 positive snails, only five were positive in both extractions. Our results confirm an increase in the range and prevalence of rat lungworm infection in Miami. We also emphasize the importance of extracting sufficient host tissue to minimize false negatives. PMID:25973628

  8. Identification and characterisation of microRNAs in young adults of Angiostrongylus cantonensis via a deep-sequencing approach

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Hsin; Tang, Petrus; Lai, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Wang, Lian-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an important causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that participate in a wide range of biological processes. This study employed a deep-sequencing approach to study miRNAs from young adults of A. cantonensis. Based on 16,880,456 high-quality reads, 252 conserved mature miRNAs including 10 antisense miRNAs that belonging to 90 families, together with 10 antisense miRNAs were identified and characterised. Among these sequences, 53 miRNAs from 25 families displayed 50 or more reads. The conserved miRNA families were divided into four groups according to their phylogenetic distribution and a total of nine families without any members showing homology to other nematodes or adult worms were identified. Stem-loop real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of aca-miR-1-1 and aca-miR-71-1 demonstrated that their level of expression increased dramatically from infective larvae to young adults and then decreased in adult worms, with the male worms exhibiting significantly higher levels of expression than female worms. These findings provide information related to the regulation of gene expression during the growth, development and pathogenesis of young adults of A. cantonensis. PMID:24037191

  9. First report of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Hepatozoon from a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from West Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Whitney M; Brown, Justin D; Allison, Andrew B; Nemeth, Nicole M; Yabsley, Michael J

    2014-02-24

    Angiostrongylus vasorum was identified in the lungs of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from West Virginia, United States (US), indicating a new geographical location for this metastrongylid nematode. The fox was euthanized and submitted for necropsy after displaying erratic behavior. We did not detect rabies virus or canine distemper virus from the fox. We observed bronchopneumonia associated with A. vasorum infection disseminated in both lungs. In addition, protozoal meronts were observed in the liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph node, and were identified as Hepatozoon canis. Lymphoid depletion was also observed in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node. In addition to A. vasorum and H. canis infections, Eucoleus aerophilus eggs and adult worms were observed in the lungs of the fox. Severe lesions associated with A. vasorum infection were observed in the lungs and these were determined to be the likely cause of morbidity; however, synergistic effects among the multiple infections detected in this fox cannot be ruled out. This is the first report of an autochthonous A. vasorum infection in the US and from outside of Newfoundland Canada, the only place in North America where the parasite is known to be endemic. Additionally, this is the first report of a H. canis infection in a red fox from the US. PMID:24412356

  10. Angiostrongylus vasorum: Experimental Infection and Larval Development in Omalonyx matheroni

    PubMed Central

    Mozzer, L. R.; Montresor, L. C.; Vidigal, T. H. D. A.; Lima, W. S.

    2011-01-01

    The susceptibility and suitability of Omalonyx matheroni as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus vasorum and the characteristics of larval recovery and development were investigated. Mollusks were infected, and from the 3rd to the 25th day after infection, larvae were recovered from groups of 50 individuals. The first observation of L2 was on the 5th day, and the first observation of L3 was on the 10th day. From the 22nd day on, all larvae were at the L3 stadium. Larval recovery varied from 78.2% to 95.2%. We found larval development to be faster in O. matheroni than in Biomphalaria glabrata. Our findings indicate that this mollusk is highly susceptible to A. vasorum. Infective L3 were orally inoculated into a dog, and the prepatent period was 39 days. This is the first study to focus on O. matheroni as an intermediate host of A. vasorum. PMID:21687642

  11. Control measures for slug and snail hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, with special reference to the semi-slug Parmarion martensi.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Robert G; Howe, Kathleen; Jarvi, Susan I

    2013-06-01

    Slugs and snails (class Gastropoda) are the obligate intermediate hosts of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This nematode is the causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis and the most common cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Humans can become infected by accidental consumption of slugs or snails and possibly flatworms (or a portion of one of these animals) in fresh produce, but the slime from these animals can contain nematodes and may also constitute a disease risk. Gastropod carriers in Hawa'i include, among other species, giant African snails, veronicellid slugs, and the semi-slug Parmarion martensi. This latter species was first discovered on the island of Hawa'i in 2004 and is now common in the area where the majority of the state's documented cases of human angiostrongyliasis occurred between 2005 and 2011. This species is considered a high risk carrier of A. cantonensis because of its climbing behavior, abundance around human dwellings, and high worm burdens. One individual collected from east Hawa'i Island contained >6,800 infective third stage A. cantonensis larvae. Common and efficient control methods for slugs and snails include sanitation (eg, removal of objects that serve as hiding places) and the use of poison food baits, such as those containing metaldehyde and iron. An iron-containing bait that is relatively safe to non-target organisms was effective in controlling semi-slugs in cage experiments, although it killed more slowly than a metaldehyde-containing bait and the majority of slugs affected did not die until 1-2 weeks following ingestion. PMID:23901389

  12. Control Measures for Slug and Snail Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, with Special Reference to the Semi-slug Parmarion martensi

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Kathleen; Jarvi, Susan I

    2013-01-01

    Slugs and snails (class Gastropoda) are the obligate intermediate hosts of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This nematode is the causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis and the most common cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Humans can become infected by accidental consumption of slugs or snails and possibly flatworms (or a portion of one of these animals) in fresh produce, but the slime from these animals can contain nematodes and may also constitute a disease risk. Gastropod carriers in Hawai‘i include, among other species, giant African snails, veronicellid slugs, and the semi-slug Parmarion martensi. This latter species was first discovered on the island of Hawai‘i in 2004 and is now common in the area where the majority of the state's documented cases of human angiostrongyliasis occurred between 2005 and 2011. This species is considered a high risk carrier of A. cantonensis because of its climbing behavior, abundance around human dwellings, and high worm burdens. One individual collected from east Hawai‘i Island contained >6,800 infective third stage A. cantonensis larvae. Common and efficient control methods for slugs and snails include sanitation (eg, removal of objects that serve as hiding places) and the use of poison food baits, such as those containing metaldehyde and iron. An iron-containing bait that is relatively safe to non-target organisms was effective in controlling semi-slugs in cage experiments, although it killed more slowly than a metaldehyde-containing bait and the majority of slugs affected did not die until 1–2 weeks following ingestion. PMID:23901389

  13. First Report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) Infections in Invasive Rodents from Five Islands of the Ogasawara Archipelago, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Takuma; Yabe, Tatsuo; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Akao, Nobuaki; Ohta, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) is a parasite of murid rodents and causative agent of human neuro-angiostrongyliasis. In 2011, the Ogasawara Islands in the western North Pacific were assigned a World Natural Heritage site status. The occurrence of A. cantonensis is well documented in the Chichijima, Hahajima, and Anijima Islands. However, the occurrence of A. cantonensis in the other islands of the Ogasawara Islands has not been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Between March 2010 and July 2011, 57 Rattus norvegicus and 79 R. rattus were collected from 9 islands (the Hahajima group: Anejima, Imoutojima, Meijima, Mukohjima, and Hirajima; Chichijima group: Minamijima; Mukojima group: Nakoudojima and Yomejima; and Iwojima group: Iwojima). Adult nematodes were found in the pulmonary artery of 46 R. norvegicus collected in the 5 islands of the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hrajima, and Mukohjima Islands). These nematodes were identified by molecular analysis as A. cantonensis. Comparison of the mitochondrial DNA sequences confirmed that all the samples from the Ogasawara Islands shared only a single lineage of A. cantonensis, which has been previously detected in the Okinawa, Hawaii, and Brazil. Conclusions/Significance We describe new endemic foci of rat angiostrongyliasis in the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hirajima, and Mukohjima Islands) of the Ogasawara Islands. These findings indicate that the endemic foci of A. cantonensis are widely distributed in the Ogasawara Islands. Although human cases have not yet been reported in the Ogasawara Islands, the widespread detection of A. cantonensis could be of importance from the perspective of public health. PMID:23950989

  14. Low seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild canids in Israel.

    PubMed

    Steinman, A; Shpigel, N Y; Mazar, S; King, R; Baneth, G; Savitsky, I; Shkap, V

    2006-04-15

    The role of domestic dogs in the epidemiology of Neospora caninum as well as the relationship between N. caninum infection of farm dogs and cattle were demonstrated, however, evidence is scarce regarding the role of wild canids in domestic animal neosporosis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of wild canids in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis in Israel by analyzing the prevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in wild canids. Sera samples were collected from 114 free ranging wild golden jackals (Canis aureus), 24 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and nine wolves (Canis lupus), which were collected in Israel during the years 1999-2004. Of a total of 147 wild canids tested antibodies to N. caninum were only found in two golden jackals with IFAT titers of 1:50, and in one red fox and one wolf with IFAT titer of 1:400. The low seroprevalence found in this study (2.7%) indicated that wild canids probably do not have an important role in the epidemiology of N. caninum in Israel. However, since the diet of different species of wild canids and even diverse populations of the same canid species vary, it is possible that other results might be obtained from specific wild canids populations, which scavenge in the vicinity of infected bovines. PMID:16436314

  15. Respiratory and olfactory turbinal size in canid and arctoid carnivorans

    PubMed Central

    Green, Patrick A; Valkenburgh, Blaire; Pang, Benison; Bird, Deborah; Rowe, Timothy; Curtis, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    Within the nasal cavity of mammals is a complex scaffold of paper-thin bones that function in respiration and olfaction. Known as turbinals, the bones greatly enlarge the surface area available for conditioning inspired air, reducing water loss, and improving olfaction. Given their functional significance, the relative development of turbinal bones might be expected to differ among species with distinct olfactory, thermoregulatory and/or water conservation requirements. Here we explore the surface area of olfactory and respiratory turbinals relative to latitude and diet in terrestrial Caniformia, a group that includes the canid and arctoid carnivorans (mustelids, ursids, procyonids, mephitids, ailurids). Using high-resolution computed tomography x-ray scans, we estimated respiratory and olfactory turbinal surface area and nasal chamber volume from three-dimensional virtual models of skulls. Across the Caniformia, respiratory surface area scaled isometrically with estimates of body size and there was no significant association with climate, as estimated by latitude. Nevertheless, one-on-one comparisons of sister taxa suggest that arctic species may have expanded respiratory turbinals. Olfactory surface area scaled isometrically among arctoids, but showed positive allometry in canids, reflecting the fact that larger canids, all of which are carnivorous, had relatively greater olfactory surface areas. In addition, among the arctoids, large carnivorous species such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and wolverine (Gulo gulo) also displayed enlarged olfactory turbinals. More omnivorous caniform species that feed on substantial quantities of non-vertebrate foods had less expansive olfactory turbinals. Because large carnivorous species hunt widely dispersed prey, an expanded olfactory turbinal surface area may improve a carnivore's ability to detect prey over great distances using olfactory cues. PMID:23035637

  16. Respiratory and olfactory turbinal size in canid and arctoid carnivorans.

    PubMed

    Green, Patrick A; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Pang, Benison; Bird, Deborah; Rowe, Timothy; Curtis, Abigail

    2012-12-01

    Within the nasal cavity of mammals is a complex scaffold of paper-thin bones that function in respiration and olfaction. Known as turbinals, the bones greatly enlarge the surface area available for conditioning inspired air, reducing water loss, and improving olfaction. Given their functional significance, the relative development of turbinal bones might be expected to differ among species with distinct olfactory, thermoregulatory and/or water conservation requirements. Here we explore the surface area of olfactory and respiratory turbinals relative to latitude and diet in terrestrial Caniformia, a group that includes the canid and arctoid carnivorans (mustelids, ursids, procyonids, mephitids, ailurids). Using high-resolution computed tomography x-ray scans, we estimated respiratory and olfactory turbinal surface area and nasal chamber volume from three-dimensional virtual models of skulls. Across the Caniformia, respiratory surface area scaled isometrically with estimates of body size and there was no significant association with climate, as estimated by latitude. Nevertheless, one-on-one comparisons of sister taxa suggest that arctic species may have expanded respiratory turbinals. Olfactory surface area scaled isometrically among arctoids, but showed positive allometry in canids, reflecting the fact that larger canids, all of which are carnivorous, had relatively greater olfactory surface areas. In addition, among the arctoids, large carnivorous species such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and wolverine (Gulo gulo) also displayed enlarged olfactory turbinals. More omnivorous caniform species that feed on substantial quantities of non-vertebrate foods had less expansive olfactory turbinals. Because large carnivorous species hunt widely dispersed prey, an expanded olfactory turbinal surface area may improve a carnivore's ability to detect prey over great distances using olfactory cues. PMID:23035637

  17. Diseases caused by nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter comprises an updated review of plant-parasitic nematodes of alfalfa. Many species of plant-parasitic nematodes are associated with alfalfa, but the stem nematode, root-knot nematodes, and root-lesion nematodes are economically the most important. As a result of root injury, aboveground ...

  18. Historical and ecological determinants of genetic structure in arctic canids.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, L E; Krizan, J; Nagy, J A; Fuglei, E; Dumond, M; Johnson, D; Veitch, A; Berteaux, D; Strobeck, C

    2007-08-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) and arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) are the only canid species found throughout the mainland tundra and arctic islands of North America. Contrasting evolutionary histories, and the contemporary ecology of each species, have combined to produce their divergent population genetic characteristics. Arctic foxes are more variable than wolves, and both island and mainland fox populations possess similarly high microsatellite variation. These differences result from larger effective population sizes in arctic foxes, and the fact that, unlike wolves, foxes were not isolated in discrete refugia during the Pleistocene. Despite the large physical distances and distinct ecotypes represented, a single, panmictic population of arctic foxes was found which spans the Svalbard Archipelago and the North American range of the species. This pattern likely reflects both the absence of historical population bottlenecks and current, high levels of gene flow following frequent long-distance foraging movements. In contrast, genetic structure in wolves correlates strongly to transitions in habitat type, and is probably determined by natal habitat-biased dispersal. Nonrandom dispersal may be cued by relative levels of vegetation cover between tundra and forest habitats, but especially by wolf prey specialization on ungulate species of familiar type and behaviour (sedentary or migratory). Results presented here suggest that, through its influence on sea ice, vegetation, prey dynamics and distribution, continued arctic climate change may have effects as dramatic as those of the Pleistocene on the genetic structure of arctic canid species. PMID:17688546

  19. Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii exposure in captive wild canids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, D A; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; André, M R; Gonçalves, L R; Machado, R Z

    2015-02-01

    SUMMARY Wild canids are potential hosts for numerous species of Bartonella, yet little research has been done to quantify their infection rates in South America. We sought to investigate Bartonella seroprevalence in captive wild canids from 19 zoos in São Paulo and Mato Grosso states, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 97 wild canids belonging to four different native species and three European wolves (Canis lupus). Indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing was performed to detect the presence of B. henselae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. rochalimae. Overall, Bartonella antibodies were detected in 11 of the canids, including five (12·8%) of 39 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three (11·1%) of 27 bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), two (8·7%) of 23 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and one (12·5%) of eight hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), with titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:512. Knowing that many species of canids make excellent reservoir hosts for Bartonella, and that there is zoonotic potential for all Bartonella spp. tested for, it will be important to conduct further research in non-captive wild canids to gain an accurate understanding of Bartonella infection in free-ranging wild canids in South America. PMID:24892580

  20. Human Parasitic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2013-01-01

    The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophlic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection. PMID:23901378

  1. Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the vector snails Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica in China: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Langui; Wang, Xiaowen; Yang, Zi; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao

    2016-03-01

    Angiostrongyliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease induced by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been recognized as the main cause leading to human eosinophilic meningitis. Humans usually acquire infection by digestion of infected Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica, the most predominant intermediate hosts found in China. This meta-analysis was aimed to assess the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection among these two snails in China in the past 10 years. Data were systematically collected in electronic databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, CNKI, SinoMed, VIP, CSCD, and Wanfang from 2005 to 2015. Thirty-eight studies with a total of 41,299 P. canaliculata and 21,138 Ac. fulica were included in the present study. The overall infection rate of A. cantonensis in China was estimated to be 7.6 % (95 % confidential interval (CI) = 0.063 to 0.090) in P. canaliculata and 21.5 % in Ac. fulica (95 % CI = 0.184 to 0.245), respectively. No significant difference was observed in prevalence rates among publication year and sample size for both snails. Also, it was found that the prevalence in Ac. fulica is significantly higher than that in P. canaliculata (odds ratio (OR) = 3.946, 95 % CI = 3.070 to 5.073). The present study reveals that snail infection with A. cantonensis is clearly prevalent in China. Further studies are required to improve strategies for control of infections of snails, particularly those of Ac. fulica, and to detect further factors and conditions such as geographic region, temperatures, and diagnosis method. PMID:26621284

  2. Cross-reactions of sera from dogs infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum in commercially available Dirofilaria immitis test kits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dirofilaria immitis and Angiostrongylus vasorum are both important potentially fatal canine nematodes with overlapping endemic areas, especially in Europe. The preadult and adult stages of both species are living in the Arteria pulmonalis and the right heart, and diagnostically detectable circulating parasite antigens have been demonstrated for both species. For the detection of D. immitis infections, a variety of commercial tests have been developed, however, they have not been evaluated for cross-reactions against circulating antigens of A. vasorum. Methods In this study, potential cross-reactions of sera from 16 dogs, which were experimentally infected with A. vasorum and which had circulating antigens as confirmed by a species-specific ELISA, were evaluated for the detection of A. vasorum antigen in six commercially available D. immitis test kits. Results In three fast tests (Witness Dirofilaria, SensPERT Canine Heartworm, SNAP 4Dx Plus), all sera were negative. One fast membrane ELISA (SNAP HTWM RT Test) was positive with four sera (25%), and one serum delivered a non-valid result twice. In the PetChek HTWM PF Test, depending on the interpretation protocol, 5 or 8 dogs (31.2 50%) were positive. With the DiroCHEK-ELISA, a single A. vasorum-infected dog (6.2%) tested positive. Conclusions Due to potential cross-reactions with A. vasorum in commercially available test kits for the detection of D. immitis antigen, the simultaneous use of highly specific diagnostic methods for the differentiation of these two canine heart worms is recommended. PMID:23148786

  3. Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Southeastern Pre-Columbian Canids.

    PubMed

    Brzeski, Kristin E; DeBiasse, Melissa B; Rabon, David R; Chamberlain, Michael J; Taylor, Sabrina S

    2016-05-01

    The taxonomic status of the red wolf (Canis rufus) is heavily debated, but could be clarified by examining historic specimens from the southeastern United States. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 3 ancient (350-1900 year olds) putative wolf samples excavated from middens and sinkholes within the historic red wolf range. We detected 3 unique mtDNA haplotypes, which grouped with the coyote mtDNA clade, suggesting that the canids inhabiting southeastern North America prior to human colonization from Europe were either coyotes, which would vastly expand historic coyote distributions, an ancient coyote-wolf hybrid, or a North American evolved red wolf lineage related to coyotes. Should the red wolf prove to be a distinct species, our results support the idea of either an ancient hybrid origin for red wolves or a shared common ancestor between coyotes and red wolves. PMID:26774058

  4. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in different canid populations.

    PubMed

    Barber, J S; Gasser, R B; Ellis, J; Reichel, M P; McMillan, D; Trees, A J

    1997-12-01

    A total of 1,554 dogs from 5 countries on 3 continents were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. In Australia, overall, 42/451 (9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6-12%) dogs were seropositive (Melbourne 11/207 [5%, 95% CI 2-9%]; Sydney 18/150 [12%, 95% CI 7-18%]; Perth 13/94 [14%, 95% CI 8-22%]). Antibodies to N. caninum were also detected in dogs in South America (Uruguay [20%, 95% CI 16-24%, n = 414]) and sub-Saharan Africa (Tanzania [22%, 95% CI 12-36%, n = 49]). In contrast, only 1 of 500 dogs tested from the Falkland Islands and none of 140 dogs from Kenya was seropositive. Of wild canids, 1/54 (2%, 95% CI 0-10%) British foxes and 15/169 (9%, 95% CI 5-14%) Australian dingoes had antibodies to N. caninum. PMID:9406778

  5. A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph M; Morath, Justice; Rodzon, Katrina S; Jordan, Kerry E

    2012-01-01

    One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (Canis latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical "less/more" discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber's Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family - one domesticated, and one wild - make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition. Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given nine trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs' performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes' performance on this same task reported by Baker et al. (2011). The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar non-verbal quantitative abilities across multiple species. PMID:23060847

  6. Fleas infesting pets in the era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato

    2013-01-01

    Modifications in climatic conditions, movements of hosts and goods, changes in animal phenology and human behaviour and increase of wildlife, are presently concurring in the geographic spread of vectors and cardio-respiratory nematodes, e.g. Dirofilaria immitis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Capillaria aerophila. All these factors may also influence dispersion and clinical significance of fleas, thus posing relevant challenges in those regions where other parasites are emerging at the same time. Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis and Pulex irritans cause discomfort, nuisance, allergic reactions, anaemia, and may transmit several pathogens, some of them are of importance for public health. The present article reviews the importance of fleas in small animal practice and their sanitary relevance for dogs, cats and humans, and discusses current control methods in the present era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes, towards a possible changing perspective for controlling key parasites affecting companion animals. PMID:23497511

  7. Fleas infesting pets in the era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Modifications in climatic conditions, movements of hosts and goods, changes in animal phenology and human behaviour and increase of wildlife, are presently concurring in the geographic spread of vectors and cardio-respiratory nematodes, e.g. Dirofilaria immitis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Capillaria aerophila. All these factors may also influence dispersion and clinical significance of fleas, thus posing relevant challenges in those regions where other parasites are emerging at the same time. Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis and Pulex irritans cause discomfort, nuisance, allergic reactions, anaemia, and may transmit several pathogens, some of them are of importance for public health. The present article reviews the importance of fleas in small animal practice and their sanitary relevance for dogs, cats and humans, and discusses current control methods in the present era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes, towards a possible changing perspective for controlling key parasites affecting companion animals. PMID:23497511

  8. Survey of antibodies to Leishmania spp. in wild canids from Pennsylvania and Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Alexander, Andrew; Byrd, Darrica; Weaver, Melanie; Stewart, Richard; Gerhold, Richard; Houston, Allan; Van Why, Kyle; Dubey, Jitender P

    2013-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Infections with the Leishmania donovani complex, including Leishmania infantum, cause the VL. Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir host for human VL, and wild canids are also susceptible. In the United States, infections with L. infantum are common in the foxhound dog breed. Little information is available regarding L. infantum in wild canids in the Unites States. Sera from 11 foxes and 256 coyotes originating in Pennsylvania and Tennessee (USA) were tested for antibodies to visceralizing Leishmania spp. with rapid immunochromatographic dipstick assays, which utilize recombinant antigen K39. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were found in 5 of 267 (1.9%) of wild canids from Pennsylvania, including four coyotes and one red fox. These results suggest that wild canids are exposed to Leishmania spp. at a low level in the United States. PMID:24450086

  9. Nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are roundworms in the phylum Nematoda. Although most are free-living, some nematodes are parasites of plants, humans, or livestock. Entomopathogenic nematodes in the families Steinernematidae & Heterorhabditidae only parasitize insects. These nematodes are used as environmentally friend...

  10. Infectious diseases in Yellowstone’s canid community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Doug W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Each summer Yellowstone Wolf Project staff visit den sites to monitor the success of wolf reproduction and pup rearing behavior. For the purposes of wolf monitoring, Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is divided into two study areas, the northern range and the interior, each distinguished by their ecological and physiographical differences. The 1,000 square kilometer northern range, characterized by lower elevations (1,500–2,200 m), serves as prime winter habitat for ungulates and supports a higher density of wolves than the interior (20–99 wolves/1,000 km2 versus 2–11 wolves/1,000 km2). The interior of the park encompasses 7,991 square kilometers, is higher in elevation, receives higher annual snowfall, and generally supports lower densities of wolves and ungulates. During the Yellowstone Wolf Project’s 2005 observations on the northern range, researchers noticed that some wolf pups were disappearing and those that remained were unusually listless. The Slough Creek pups, at first numbering 18, dwindled to three survivors. Similar findings were mirrored at other den sites across the northern range. When annual den surveys were conducted in late July, all that remained were scattered piles of bones and fur. Coyotes suffered similar setbacks in 2005, with many of the survivors exhibiting neurological shakes and tremors. The park’s canids had been affected by something, but what? Prompted by what seemed to be a disease outbreak, the Yellowstone Wolf Project, the Yellowstone Ecological Research Center (YERC), and the University of Minnesota decided to take several collaborative approaches toward improving our understanding of the presence and role of infectious disease in Yellowstone’s canid community. Several serological studies have been conducted in the past among the park’s coyotes (Gese et al. 1997) and cougars (Biek 2006), providing a helpful foundation on which to build and compare. A serological survey was conducted, using serum samples collected during routine wolf and coyote captures over a period of 18 years (Almberg et al. 2009). Simulation models were used to explore the dynamics of canine distemper virus (Almberg et al. 2010)—one of the more prominent pathogens in terms of its effects on its hosts—and several long-term pathogen surveillance projects were initiated which are intended to someday provide a foundation for more advanced genetic-based analyses of pathogen dynamics. Since these initial efforts, the group has also expanded the research to include a study of sarcoptic mange, which began affecting wolves and coyotes in YNP in 2006 and 2007.

  11. Clinical Aspects of Eosinophilic Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis is caused by human infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The clinical presentation includes a spectrum of disease, from meningitis through radiculitis, cranial nerve abnormalities, ataxia, encephalitis, coma, and rarely death. The condition is diagnosed by recognizing the triad of: the clinical syndrome, eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood, and exposure history. A history of eating raw or poorly cooked snails is classic, but ingestion of other intermediate hosts or unwashed produce (such as lettuce) harboring hosts is not uncommon. Several serologic tests exist but none has yet been fully validated. There is good evidence that a 2 week course of high dose corticosteroids shortens the duration and severity of symptoms. There is somewhat weaker evidence that albendazole reduces symptoms. The combination of prednisolone and albendazole is being used more commonly for treatment. Some suggestions for future research are given. PMID:23901382

  12. Using Domestic and Free-Ranging Arctic Canid Models for Environmental Molecular Toxicology Research.

    PubMed

    Harley, John R; Bammler, Theo K; Farin, Federico M; Beyer, Richard P; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Dunlap, Kriya L; Knott, Katrina K; Ylitalo, Gina M; O'Hara, Todd M

    2016-02-16

    The use of sentinel species for population and ecosystem health assessments has been advocated as part of a One Health perspective. The Arctic is experiencing rapid change, including climate and environmental shifts, as well as increased resource development, which will alter exposure of biota to environmental agents of disease. Arctic canid species have wide geographic ranges and feeding ecologies and are often exposed to high concentrations of both terrestrial and marine-based contaminants. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) has been used in biomedical research for a number of years and has been advocated as a sentinel for human health due to its proximity to humans and, in some instances, similar diet. Exploiting the potential of molecular tools for describing the toxicogenomics of Arctic canids is critical for their development as biomedical models as well as environmental sentinels. Here, we present three approaches analyzing toxicogenomics of Arctic contaminants in both domestic and free-ranging canids (Arctic fox, Vulpes lagopus). We describe a number of confounding variables that must be addressed when conducting toxicogenomics studies in canid and other mammalian models. The ability for canids to act as models for Arctic molecular toxicology research is unique and significant for advancing our understanding and expanding the tool box for assessing the changing landscape of environmental agents of disease in the Arctic. PMID:26730740

  13. Metastrongyloid infection by Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Troglostrongylus brevior and Angiostrongylus chabaudi in a domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Lepri, Elvio; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Paoletti, Barbara; Simonato, Giulia; Diaferia, Manuela; Di Cesare, Angela

    2015-09-01

    The "cat lungworm", Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, affects cats worldwide. Recently, other cardio-pulmonary parasites, e.g. Troglostrongylus brevior and Angiostrongylus chabaudi, have been isolated from cats either for the first time or a long time after they were first described. This paper describes the first known mixed infection by A. abstrusus, T. brevior and A. chabaudi in a domestic cat. Biological and epidemiological implications of old and "new" metastrongyloid-caused infections in cats are discussed. PMID:26149643

  14. Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia associated with angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a Jack Russell terrier.

    PubMed

    Jo'neill, Emma; Acke, Els; Tobin, Emma; McCarthy, Grainne

    2010-01-01

    A twenty-month-old Jack Russell terrier was presented with a four-day history of thrombocytopenia, echymotic inguinal haemorrhages, coughing and reduced exercise tolerance. Clinical examination revealed several petechial haemorrhages on the gingivae and small echymotic haemorrhages in the inguinal region, along with mild bilateral epistaxis. Haematology confirmed a platelet count of 1.0 × 10/L. Thoracic radiographs revealed a wide-spread mixed alveolar-interstitial lung pattern, apparent throughout the entire lungfield, but particularly marked within the left lung lobes. A presumptive diagnosis of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia was made and the dog was treated with vincristine and immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone. Initially anaemia developed following gastrointestinal haemorrhage; however, after symptomatic treatment the dog showed a marked clinical improvement. Evaluation for an underlying cause of the disease revealed Angiostrongylus vasorum L1 larvae on faecal analysis and treatment with fenbendazole was commenced. The dog made a full clinical recovery with all treatment was withdrawn within five weeks of diagnosis. This is the second report of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum infection and it is the first to be successfully managed. The report highlights that Angiostrongylus vasorum should be considered in young dogs presented with thrombocytopenia. PMID:21851748

  15. Complete mitochondrial genomes of ancient canids suggest a European origin of domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Thalmann, O; Shapiro, B; Cui, P; Schuenemann, V J; Sawyer, S K; Greenfield, D L; Germonpré, M B; Sablin, M V; López-Giráldez, F; Domingo-Roura, X; Napierala, H; Uerpmann, H-P; Loponte, D M; Acosta, A A; Giemsch, L; Schmitz, R W; Worthington, B; Buikstra, J E; Druzhkova, A; Graphodatsky, A S; Ovodov, N D; Wahlberg, N; Freedman, A H; Schweizer, R M; Koepfli, K-P; Leonard, J A; Meyer, M; Krause, J; Pääbo, S; Green, R E; Wayne, R K

    2013-11-15

    The geographic and temporal origins of the domestic dog remain controversial, as genetic data suggest a domestication process in East Asia beginning 15,000 years ago, whereas the oldest doglike fossils are found in Europe and Siberia and date to >30,000 years ago. We analyzed the mitochondrial genomes of 18 prehistoric canids from Eurasia and the New World, along with a comprehensive panel of modern dogs and wolves. The mitochondrial genomes of all modern dogs are phylogenetically most closely related to either ancient or modern canids of Europe. Molecular dating suggests an onset of domestication there 18,800 to 32,100 years ago. These findings imply that domestic dogs are the culmination of a process that initiated with European hunter-gatherers and the canids with whom they interacted. PMID:24233726

  16. A novel bacterial symbiont in the nematode Spirocerca lupi

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The parasitic nematode Spirocerca lupi (Spirurida: Thelaziidae), the canine esophageal worm, is the causative agent of spirocercosis, a disease causing morbidity and mortality in dogs. Spirocerca lupi has a complex life cycle, involving an obligatory coleopteran intermediate host (vector), an optional paratenic host, and a definitive canid host. The diagnosis of spirocercosis is challenging, especially in the early disease stages, when adult worms and clinical signs are absent. Thus, alternative approaches are needed to promote early diagnosis. The interaction between nematodes and their bacterial symbionts has recently become a focus of novel treatment regimens for other helminthic diseases. Results Using 16S rDNA-based molecular methods, here we found a novel bacterial symbiont in S. lupi that is closely related to Comamonas species (Brukholderiales: Comamonadaceae) of the beta-proteobacteria. Its DNA was detected in eggs, larvae and adult stages of S. lupi. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization technique, we localized Comamonas sp. to the gut epithelial cells of the nematode larvae. Specific PCR enabled the detection of this symbiont's DNA in blood obtained from dogs diagnosed with spirocercosis. Conclusions The discovery of a new Comamonas sp. in S. lupi increase the complexity of the interactions among the organisms involved in this system, and may open innovative approaches for diagnosis and control of spirocercosis in dogs. PMID:22762265

  17. An investigation of palaeodietary variability in European Pleistocene canids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, Lucy O. H.; Schreve, Danielle C.

    2014-07-01

    Temporal and interspecific dietary variability were investigated in three canid taxa, Canis lupus, Canis mosbachensis and Canis etruscus, across a range of British and mainland European wolf assemblages from the Early Pleistocene to Recent periods. Using established cranio-dental indicators to reveal dietary specialisations towards bone eating, flesh slicing, and non-flesh food crushing, inferences were made concerning the proportions of flesh to non-flesh foods in the diet, and hence the level of carnivory adopted by each taxon. Significant temporal differences were found in the diet and frequency of tooth wear of C. lupus from MIS 3, 5a and 7 in Britain. Relative body size comparisons based on lower carnassial length also revealed variation in body size for the Pleistocene age groups, correlating with differences in diet. Stepwise Discriminant Function Analyses revealed large-bodied MIS 5a C. lupus to be hypercarnivorous and specialised in fast flesh slicing and to some extent bone consumption, whereas relatively smaller-bodied MIS 3 and 7 C. lupus were both less carnivorous and more specialised in crushing non-meat foods. Modern wolves from central Sweden are smaller than those of MIS 5a and hypercarnivorous, although with greater specialisation towards crushing of non-meat foods. Temporal variations in diet were related to changes in prey diversity, competition from other carnivores, openness of the environment, and ultimately climate, and reflect the cranio-dental plasticity of C. lupus. In contrast, no temporal differences in diet were found in age groups of C. mosbachensis and C. etruscus, which may relate to more stable overall conditions in comparison to the later Pleistocene. The cranio-dental characteristics of the smaller-bodied mesocarnivore C. etruscus indicate adaptations to non-meat food crushing, whereas in the similarly small C. mosbachensis, enhanced flesh slicing capabilities and reduced crushing abilities indicate that it was more carnivorous than C. etruscus. C. etruscus and C. mosbachensis were both more specialised than C. lupus.

  18. [Helminthofauna of wild canids in Azerbaijan and ways of its formation].

    PubMed

    Fataliev, G G

    2011-01-01

    The complete list of helminthes parasitizing canids in Azerbaijan is given; ways of formation of the canids' helminthofauna in Azerbaijan are reconstructed. As a result of our study, 42 helminth species were recorded; 25 of them parasitize jackals, 16 parasitize wolfs, and 39 species were found in foxes. The helminthofauna includes 5 species of Trematoda, 14 species of Cestoda, 1 species of Acanthocephala, and 22 species of Nematoda. By the life cycle, 32 species belong to biohelminthes and 10 species are geohelminthes. PMID:21874846

  19. Assessment of the combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime in preventing the development of canine Angiostrongylus vasorum infections.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Claudia; Schnyder, Manuela; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Thompson, Caryn M; Trout, Candace; Wolken, Sonja; Schnitzler, Beate

    2014-01-31

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is an increasingly reported parasite in Europe that develops in dogs after ingestion of infective third stage larvae (L3) that reside in gastropod molluscs which are needed to complete the parasite's life-cycle. Infection can produce a diversity of clinical signs, determined by involvement of the respiratory, neurological, and/or coagulation system, with a likely fatal outcome in the absence of treatment. Few drugs have been shown to reliably prevent infection, and data on treatment of infections is limited. A controlled, randomized, partially blinded laboratory study was therefore executed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination tablet of spinosad/milbemycin oxime in dogs inoculated with approximately 250 A. vasorum L3. Sixteen healthy nematode free adult dogs were randomly allocated to two study groups of 8 dogs each. Thirty days post inoculation (dpi) all dogs in the fed state were treated: dogs in group B were treated with spinosad and milbemycin oxime at the dose rates of 45-60 mg/kg and 0.75-1.0mg/kg bodyweight, respectively, approximately the lower half portion of the expected full unit dose range; dogs in group A were treated with placebo tablets. All dogs were euthanized and necropsied 56-58 dpi. The heart and lungs were examined to determine the presence of A. vasorum. All placebo group dogs were infected at necropsy with counts ranging from 22 to 98 adult worms and a geometric mean worm count of 55.2. In contrast, the geometric mean worm count in the spinosad/milbemycin oxime group was 0.7 with worm numbers ranging from 0 to 8. The results of this study demonstrate that a single treatment with the tablet combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime administered 30 dpi provided 98.8% preventive efficacy against development of adult A. vasorum infections. Monthly treatments with spinosad and milbemycin oxime have the potential to prevent the establishment of infections with A. vasorum in dogs. PMID:24269160

  20. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views. PMID:26319524

  1. The evolutionary dynamics of canid and mongoose rabies virus in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Davis, P L; Rambaut, A; Bourhy, H; Holmes, E C

    2007-01-01

    Two variants of rabies virus (RABV) currently circulate in southern Africa: canid RABV, mainly associated with dogs, jackals, and bat-eared foxes, and mongoose RABV. To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of these variants, we performed coalescent-based analyses of the G-L inter-genic region, allowing for rate variation among viral lineages through the use of a relaxed molecular clock. This revealed that mongoose RABV is evolving more slowly than canid RABV, with mean evolutionary rates of 0.826 and 1.676 x 10(-3) nucleotide substitutions per site, per year, respectively. Additionally, mongoose RABV exhibits older genetic diversity than canid RABV, with common ancestors dating to 73 and 30 years, respectively, and while mongoose RABV has experienced exponential population growth over its evolutionary history in Africa, populations of canid RABV have maintained a constant size. Hence, despite circulating in the same geographic region, these two variants of RABV exhibit striking differences in evolutionary dynamics which are likely to reflect differences in their underlying ecology. PMID:17401615

  2. Disentangling canid howls across multiple species and subspecies: Structure in a complex communication channel.

    PubMed

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Root-Gutteridge, Holly; Habib, Bilal; Koler-Matznick, Janice; Mitchell, Brian; Palacios, Vicente; Waller, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Wolves, coyotes, and other canids are members of a diverse genus of top predators of considerable conservation and management interest. Canid howls are long-range communication signals, used both for territorial defence and group cohesion. Previous studies have shown that howls can encode individual and group identity. However, no comprehensive study has investigated the nature of variation in canid howls across the wide range of species. We analysed a database of over 2000 howls recorded from 13 different canid species and subspecies. We applied a quantitative similarity measure to compare the modulation pattern in howls from different populations, and then applied an unsupervised clustering algorithm to group the howls into natural units of distinct howl types. We found that different species and subspecies showed markedly different use of howl types, indicating that howl modulation is not arbitrary, but can be used to distinguish one population from another. We give an example of the conservation importance of these findings by comparing the howls of the critically endangered red wolves to those of sympatric coyotes Canis latrans, with whom red wolves may hybridise, potentially compromising reintroduced red wolf populations. We believe that quantitative cross-species comparisons such as these can provide important understanding of the nature and use of communication in socially cooperative species, as well as support conservation and management of wolf populations. PMID:26809021

  3. Entomopathogenic nematodes and insect management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (genera Heterorhabditis, Steinernema, and Neosteinernema) are used as bioinsecticides. The nematodes are ubiquitous and have been isolated in soil of every continent except Antarctica. The nematodes kill insects through a mutualism with a bacterium (Photorhabdus spp. or ...

  4. Application technology for entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse technology is available for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes. Application usually consists of nematode distribution via aqueous suspension in various irrigation systems and spray equipment. The choice of application equipment, and method in which the nematodes are applied, can...

  5. Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila). The reasons of this emergence are little known but many drivers such as global warming, changes in vector epidemiology and movements in animal populations, may be taken into account. The purpose of this article is to review the knowledge of the most important heartworm and lungworm infections of dogs and cats in Europe. In particular recent advances in epidemiology, clinical and control are described and discussed. PMID:20653938

  6. Reibergram of Intrathecal Synthesis of C4 in Patients with Eosinophilic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Docal, Bárbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto Juan; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa; Rodríguez-Rey, Alexis; Gutiérrez-Hernández, Juan Carlos; de Paula-Almeida, Susana Olga

    2010-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis produces eosinophilic meningitis in humans and is endemic in Thailand, Taiwan, China, and the Caribbean region. During infection with this parasite, it is important to know if the complement system may be activated by the classical or lectin pathway. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 20 patients with meningitic angiostrongyliasis were used to quantify C4 levels and albumin. Results were plotted on a C4 CSF/serum quotient diagram or Reibergram. Twelve patients showed intrathecal synthesis of C4. Antibody-dependent complement cytotoxicity should be considered as a possible mechanism that destroys third-stage larvae of this helminth in cerebrospinal fluid of affected patients. PMID:20519605

  7. Sacral myeloradiculitis (Elsberg syndrome) secondary to eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jui-Jen; Chuang, Shin-Hung; Chen, Chia-Hsin; Huang, Mao-Hsiung

    2009-01-01

    Elsberg syndrome secondary to eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is uncommon. Clinicians should consider a wide differential diagnosis including tumour, spinal cord infarction, necrosis, vasculitis, drug induced or other sources of infection. In addition, acute urinary retention is a urological emergency and clinicians should keep in mind the prevention of bladder overdistension. The intervention of rehabilitation programmes and clean intermittent catheterisation education for bladder management, in accordance with the patient’s condition, is also important. Earlier rehabilitation is important to ensure a speedy recovery and to prevent further complications. PMID:21811516

  8. Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Blood and Peripheral Tissues of Wild Hawaiian Rats (Rattus rattus) by a Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assay

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a rat lungworm, a zoonotic pathogen that causes human eosinophilic meningitis and ocular angiostrongyliasis characteristic of rat lungworm (RLW) disease. Definitive diagnosis is made by finding and identifying A. cantonensis larvae in the cerebral spinal fluid or by using a custom immunological or molecular test. This study was conducted to determine if genomic DNA from A. cantonensis is detectable by qPCR in the blood or tissues of experimentally infected rats. F1 offspring from wild rats were subjected to experimental infection with RLW larvae isolated from slugs, then blood or tissue samples were collected over multiple time points. Blood samples were collected from 21 rats throughout the course of two trials (15 rats in Trial I, and 6 rats in Trial II). In addition to a control group, each trial had two treatment groups: the rats in the low dose (LD) group were infected by approximately 10 larvae and the rats in the high dose (HD) group were infected with approximately 50 larvae. In Trial I, parasite DNA was detected in cardiac bleed samples from five of five LD rats and five of five HD rats at six weeks post-infection (PI), and three of five LD rats and five of five HD rats from tail tissue. In Trial II, parasite DNA was detected in peripheral blood samples from one of two HD rats at 53 minutes PI, one of two LD rats at 1.5 hours PI, one of two HD rats at 18 hours PI, one of two LD rats at five weeks PI and two of two at six weeks PI, and two of two HD rats at weeks five and six PI. These data demonstrate that parasite DNA can be detected in peripheral blood at various time points throughout RLW infection in rats. PMID:25910229

  9. Root-knot nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) can reduce crop yields worldwide, methods for their identification are often difficult to implement. This review summarizes the diagnostic morphological and molecular features for distinguishing the ten major previously described root-knot nematode ...

  10. The Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    Discusses advantages of nematode use for studying patterns of cell division, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Describes nematode development. Cites experimental approaches available for genetic studies. Reviews the topics of control of cell division and differentiation, the nervous system, and muscle assembly and function of the organism. (RT)

  11. Chapter 10: Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes may play a major role in limiting persistence and production of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) in the southeastern United States. These parasites tend to cause greater plant damage in sandy soils than in soils of heavier texture because light-textured soils are conducive to nematode act...

  12. Nematode genome evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Coghlan, Avril

    2005-01-01

    Nematodes are the most abundant type of animal on earth, and live in hot springs, polar ice, soil, fresh and salt water, and as parasites of plants, vertebrates, insects, and other nematodes. This extraordinary ability to adapt, which hints at an underlying genetic plasticity, has long fascinated biologists. The fully sequenced genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae, and ongoing sequencing projects for eight other nematodes, provide an exciting opportunity to investigate the genomic changes that have enabled nematodes to invade many different habitats. Analyses of the C. elegans and C. briggsae genomes suggest that these include major changes in gene content; as well as in chromosome number, structure and size. Here I discuss how the data set of ten genomes will be ideal for tackling questions about nematode evolution, as well as questions relevant to all eukaryotes. PMID:18050393

  13. Ancient DNA Analysis Affirms the Canid from Altai as a Primitive Dog

    PubMed Central

    Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication. PMID:23483925

  14. Ancient DNA analysis affirms the canid from Altai as a primitive dog.

    PubMed

    Druzhkova, Anna S; Thalmann, Olaf; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Leonard, Jennifer A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Wayne, Robert K

    2013-01-01

    The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication. PMID:23483925

  15. New host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) in rodents from Argentina with updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Robles, María del Rosario; Kinsella, John M; Galliari, Carlos; Navone, Graciela T

    2016-01-01

    To date, 21 species of the genus Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) have been reported around the world, 15 of which are parasites of rodents. In this study, new host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp in sigmodontine rodents from Argentina, with an updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment, are provided. Records of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from Akodon montensis andAngiostrongylus morerai from six new hosts and geographical localities in Argentina are reported. The gross and histopathologic changes in the lungs of the host species due to angiostrongylosis are described. Published records of the genus Angiostrongylus from rodents and patterns of host specificity are presented. Individual Angiostrongylusspecies parasitise between one-19 different host species. The most frequent values of the specificity index (STD) were between 1-5.97. The elevated number of host species (n = 7) of A. morerai with a STD = 1.86 is a reflection of multiple systematic studies of parasites from sigmodontine rodents in the area of Cuenca del Plata, Argentina, showing that an increase in sampling effort can result in new findings. The combination of low host specificity and a wide geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus spp indicates a troubling epidemiological scenario although, as yet, no human cases have been reported. PMID:26982178

  16. The role of clade competition in the diversification of North American canids

    PubMed Central

    Silvestro, Daniele; Antonelli, Alexandre; Salamin, Nicolas; Quental, Tiago B.

    2015-01-01

    The history of biodiversity is characterized by a continual replacement of branches in the tree of life. The rise and demise of these branches (clades) are ultimately determined by changes in speciation and extinction rates, often interpreted as a response to varying abiotic and biotic factors. However, understanding the relative importance of these factors remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Here we analyze the rich North American fossil record of the dog family Canidae and of other carnivores to tease apart the roles of competition, body size evolution, and climate change on the sequential replacement of three canid subfamilies (two of which have gone extinct). We develop a novel Bayesian analytic framework to show that competition from multiple carnivore clades successively drove the demise and replacement of the two extinct canid subfamilies by increasing their extinction rates and suppressing their speciation. Competitive effects have likely come from ecologically similar species from both canid and felid clades. These results imply that competition among entire clades, generally considered a rare process, can play a more substantial role than climate change and body size evolution in determining the sequential rise and decline of clades. PMID:26124128

  17. [Seroprevalence of antibodies anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii in captive wild canids].

    PubMed

    Mattos, Bianca C; Patrício, Lia L F; Plugge, Nicolle F; Lange, Rogério R; Richartz, Rosária R T B; Dittrich, Rosângela Locatelli

    2008-09-01

    Neosporosis is considered one of the main cause of abortion in dairy cattle in the world. The prevalence of Neospora caninum in wild species has been studied since the coyote (Canis latrans), a North American wild canid specie was discovered as definitive host of this parasite. The aim of the present study was to determine the serum prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in wild native canids species from Brazil. Serum samples of 25 crab-eating dogs (Cerdocyon thous), five pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), six bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) e 14 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) were tested. The animals were from zoos and sanctuaries from the states of Parana, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro and the Federal District. The total prevalence obtained for N. caninum was 36% (18/50) and for T. gondii was 40% (20/50). The present study demonstrated for the first time the presence of antibodies to N. caninum in bush dogs and the prevalence found was 33,3% (2/6). This study showed the presence of these protozoans in captive wild canids species and to alert about possible contamination sources. PMID:20059860

  18. Prevalence of Zoonotic Intestinal Helminths of Canids in Moghan Plain, Northwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Bidaki, M; Mobedi, I; Ahari, S Sadeghieh; Habibizadeh, S; Naddaf, SR; Siavashi, MR

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study was aimed to elucidate the status of intestinal helminth infections in canids of Moghan Plain, northwestern Iran. Methods Eighty-five intestine samples from dead or shot wild canids, 59 fecal samples from sheepdogs and 5 from red foxes were collected from 2006 to 2008 and examined in Parasitology department of Pasteur Institute of Iran. Results Generally, adult worms, larvae, and eggs of 13 species of various parasitic helminths were recovered. Necropsy examinations showed that 96.47% animals harbored at least one helminth species. The prevalence of different species in necropsy were Mesocestoides sp. 84.7%, Rictolaria spp. 55.3%, Macranthorhynchus hirudinaceus 45.9%, Toxocara canis 43.5%, Toxascaris spp. 35.3%, Joyeuxiella sp. 34.1%; hookworms; 22.4%, Taenia spp. 11.8%, Alaria spp. 2.4% and Dipylidium caninum 1.2%. Besides, eggs belonging to 10 species of parasitic helminths were identified in 46 fecal samples and generally, 30.9% of samples harbored eggs of at least one helminth species. Conclusion The high prevalence of various helminth infections among canids in Moghan plain and contamination of environment by helminths eggs may increase the risk of infection for native people. PMID:22347243

  19. The role of clade competition in the diversification of North American canids.

    PubMed

    Silvestro, Daniele; Antonelli, Alexandre; Salamin, Nicolas; Quental, Tiago B

    2015-07-14

    The history of biodiversity is characterized by a continual replacement of branches in the tree of life. The rise and demise of these branches (clades) are ultimately determined by changes in speciation and extinction rates, often interpreted as a response to varying abiotic and biotic factors. However, understanding the relative importance of these factors remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Here we analyze the rich North American fossil record of the dog family Canidae and of other carnivores to tease apart the roles of competition, body size evolution, and climate change on the sequential replacement of three canid subfamilies (two of which have gone extinct). We develop a novel Bayesian analytic framework to show that competition from multiple carnivore clades successively drove the demise and replacement of the two extinct canid subfamilies by increasing their extinction rates and suppressing their speciation. Competitive effects have likely come from ecologically similar species from both canid and felid clades. These results imply that competition among entire clades, generally considered a rare process, can play a more substantial role than climate change and body size evolution in determining the sequential rise and decline of clades. PMID:26124128

  20. First report of a naturally patent infection of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Gutierrez, Natalia; Chinchilla, Adriana; Annoscia, Giada; Colella, Vito; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico; Santoro, Mario

    2015-09-15

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is the zoonotic agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in several countries in North and South America. Rodents are recognized as the main definitive hosts of A. costaricensis, but other wildlife species can develop patent infections. Although, several human cases have been described in the literature, the role of domestic animals in the epidemiology of the infection is not clear. Here we review the literature available on A. costaricensis in mammals and describe the first confirmed fatal case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in a 4-month-old dog, presented with intestinal perforation, peritonitis and faecal shedding of first-stage larvae. Parasite identity was confirmed by morphology, histology and molecular characterization of target genes. This is the first record of a naturally infected dog acting as a definitive host for A. costaricensis. These data suggest that dogs may potentially spread this parasite in urbanized areas. PMID:26321134

  1. Cerebral Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in a captive African pygmy falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) in southern California.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rachel E; Bicknese, Elizabeth J; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; DeLeon-Carnes, Marlene; Drew, Clifton P; Gardiner, Chris H; Rideout, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    A 10-month-old, female African pygmy falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) hatched and housed at the San Diego Zoo developed neurologic signs and died from a cerebral infection with the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. There was an associated mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. This infection was diagnosed on histology and confirmed by detection of species-specific A. cantonensis DNA in formalin-fixed and frozen brain tissue by a polymerase chain reaction assay. To the authors' knowledge, this infection has not previously been reported in a bird in the United States and has not been known to be naturally acquired in any species in this region of the world. The source of the infection was not definitively determined but was possibly feeder geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus) imported from Southeast Asia where the parasite is endemic. PMID:25085869

  2. Ancient DNA Analysis of the Oldest Canid Species from the Siberian Arctic and Genetic Contribution to the Domestic Dog

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Esther J.; Merriwether, D. Andrew; Kasparov, Alexei K.; Nikolskiy, Pavel A.; Sotnikova, Marina V.; Pavlova, Elena Yu; Pitulko, Vladimir V.

    2015-01-01

    Modern Arctic Siberia provides a wealth of resources for archaeological, geological, and paleontological research to investigate the population dynamics of faunal communities from the Pleistocene, particularly as the faunal material coming from permafrost has proven suitable for genetic studies. In order to examine the history of the Canid species in the Siberian Arctic, we carried out genetic analysis of fourteen canid remains from various sites, including the well-documented Upper Paleolithic Yana RHS and Early Holocene Zhokhov Island sites. Estimated age of samples range from as recent as 1,700 years before present (YBP) to at least 360,000 YBP for the remains of the extinct wolf, Canis cf. variabilis. In order to examine the genetic affinities of ancient Siberian canids species to the domestic dog and modern wolves, we obtained mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and compared them to published ancient and modern canid sequences. The older canid specimens illustrate affinities with pre-domestic dog/wolf lineages while others appear in the major phylogenetic clades of domestic dogs. Our results suggest a European origin of domestic dog may not be conclusive and illustrates an emerging complexity of genetic contribution of regional wolf breeds to the modern Canis gene pool. PMID:26018528

  3. Ancient DNA analysis of the oldest canid species from the Siberian Arctic and genetic contribution to the domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther J; Merriwether, D Andrew; Kasparov, Alexei K; Nikolskiy, Pavel A; Sotnikova, Marina V; Pavlova, Elena Yu; Pitulko, Vladimir V

    2015-01-01

    Modern Arctic Siberia provides a wealth of resources for archaeological, geological, and paleontological research to investigate the population dynamics of faunal communities from the Pleistocene, particularly as the faunal material coming from permafrost has proven suitable for genetic studies. In order to examine the history of the Canid species in the Siberian Arctic, we carried out genetic analysis of fourteen canid remains from various sites, including the well-documented Upper Paleolithic Yana RHS and Early Holocene Zhokhov Island sites. Estimated age of samples range from as recent as 1,700 years before present (YBP) to at least 360,000 YBP for the remains of the extinct wolf, Canis cf. variabilis. In order to examine the genetic affinities of ancient Siberian canids species to the domestic dog and modern wolves, we obtained mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and compared them to published ancient and modern canid sequences. The older canid specimens illustrate affinities with pre-domestic dog/wolf lineages while others appear in the major phylogenetic clades of domestic dogs. Our results suggest a European origin of domestic dog may not be conclusive and illustrates an emerging complexity of genetic contribution of regional wolf breeds to the modern Canis gene pool. PMID:26018528

  4. Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a potential new zoonotic Bartonella species in canids from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi; Diniz, Pedro P V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2012-01-01

    Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n = 97), 40.4% in jackals (n = 57) and 12.8% in red foxes (n = 39). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from whole blood and representative strains were sequenced. DNA of a new Bartonella species similar to but distinct from B. bovis, was amplified from 37.1% of the dogs and 12.3% of the jackals. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was also amplified from one jackal and no Bartonella DNA was amplified from foxes. Adjusting for age, the odds of dogs being Bartonella PCR positive were 11.94 times higher than for wild canids (95% CI: 4.55-31.35), suggesting their role as reservoir for this new Bartonella species. This study reports on the prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic and wild canids of Iraq and provides the first detection of Bartonella in jackals. We propose Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii for this new Bartonella species. Most of the Bartonella species identified in sick dogs are also pathogenic for humans. Therefore, seroprevalence in Iraqi dog owners and bacteremia in Iraqi people with unexplained fever or culture negative endocarditis requires further investigation as well as in United States military personnel who were stationed in Iraq. Finally, it will also be essential to test any dog brought back from Iraq to the USA for presence of Bartonella bacteremia to prevent any accidental introduction of a new Bartonella species to the New World. PMID:23029597

  5. Patterns of differentiation and hybridization in North American wolflike canids, revealed by analysis of microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Roy, M S; Geffen, E; Smith, D; Ostrander, E A; Wayne, R K

    1994-07-01

    Genetic divergence and gene flow among closely related populations are difficult to measure because mutation rates of most nuclear loci are so low that new mutations have not had sufficient time to appear and become fixed. Microsatellite loci are repeat arrays of simple sequences that have high mutation rates and are abundant in the eukaryotic genome. Large population samples can be screened for variation by using the polymerase chain reaction and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to separate alleles. We analyzed 10 microsatellite loci to quantify genetic differentiation and hybridization in three species of North American wolflike canids. We expected to find a pattern of genetic differentiation by distance to exist among wolflike canid populations, because of the finite dispersal distances of individuals. Moreover, we predicted that, because wolflike canids are highly mobile, hybrid zones may be more extensive and show substantial changes in allele frequency, relative to nonhybridizing populations. We demonstrate that wolves and coyotes do not show a pattern of genetic differentiation by distance. Genetic subdivision in coyotes, as measured by theta and Gst, is not significantly different from zero, reflecting persistent gene flow among newly established populations. However, gray wolves show significant subdivision that may be either due to drift in past Ice Age refugia populations or a result of other causes. Finally, in areas where gray wolves and coyotes hybridize, allele frequencies of gray wolves are affected, but those of coyotes are not. Past hybridization between the two species in the south-central United States may account for the origin of the red wolf. PMID:8078397

  6. Artificial insemination in canids: a useful tool in breeding and conservation.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, R; Farstad, W

    2009-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) and semen freezing have become services available to dog owners worldwide, and the demand for services to freeze semen is increasing. In other canids such as the fox, the fur industry utilizes fresh or frozen semen to artificially inseminate vixens to produce pelts. Clearly, AI facilitates the use of a male to sire several females by diluting the ejaculate, increases breeding hygiene, and allows crossing between species with slightly different breeding seasons. The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is currently considered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as one of most endangered canids. In captive populations of African wild dogs, semen has been frozen with encouraging results, using a standard cryopreservation protocol for domestic dogs, but successful AI has not been reported. In wolves, there is one report regarding the live birth of an offspring after intravaginal AI of a deslorelin-induced estrous female. In 2005, three Mexican gray wolf females were artificially bred by intrauterine insemination with freshly collected semen from unrelated males, and all females whelped. Artificial insemination may be vaginal, intrauterine or intratubal, and the semen may be fresh, fresh and chilled (diluted), or frozen-thawed, and the source of semen may be epididymal or ejaculated. In the domestic dog, the results are good to excellent for AI with all three types of processed semen when the source is ejaculated semen, whereas epididymal sperm still yields poorer results. Species differences in female physiology, as well as differences in the cryotolerance of the sperm from various canid species, warrant further research and development. PMID:18947865

  7. Roles of Steroids in Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability of nematodes to biosynthesize steroids de novo and the resulting dependence of parasitic nematodes upon their hosts have enhanced the importance of elucidating the metabolism of sterols and the hormonal and other functions of steroids in nematodes. Biochemical research has revealed th...

  8. Presence of antibotulinum neurotoxin antibodies in selected wild canids in Israel.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Amir; Millet, Neta; Frenkel, Chana; King, Roni; Shpigel, Nahum Y

    2007-07-01

    Serum samples from 35 golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus), eight wolves (Canis lupus), and four red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from various regions of Israel were collected during the years 2001-04 and tested for antibodies to Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types C and D. Antibodies against BoNT types C and D were detected in 10 (29%) and in 3 (9%) of 35 golden jackals, respectively, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This report describes detection of anti BoNT antibodies in wild canids other than coyotes (Canis latrans) for the first time and demonstrates that C. botulinum type C is prevalent in Israel. PMID:17699099

  9. Wild canids as sentinels of ecological health: a conservation medicine perspective

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2009-01-01

    The extinction of species across the globe is accelerating, directly or indirectly due to human activities. Biological impoverishment, habitat fragmentation, climate change, increasing toxification, and the rapid global movement of people and other living organisms have worked synergistically to diminish ecosystem function. This has resulted in unprecedented levels of disease emergence, driven by human-induced environmental degradation, which poses a threat to the survival and health of biodiversity. The emerging discipline of conservation medicine addresses these concerns through the following entities: humans; global climate; habitat destruction and alteration; biodiversity, including wildlife populations; domestic animals; and pathogens, parasites and pollutants. Furthermore, conservation medicine focuses on explicit linkages between these entities. As a crisis discipline, the usefulness of conservation medicine ultimately will depend on its applicability to solving problems. The perspectives and scientific findings of conservation medicine provide input into biomedical education; and policy and management of ecosystems, habitats and imperiled species. A sentinel species is one that has presented itself, or has been selected, to provide insight into the state (health) of an ecosystem, based on user-defined (e.g., researchers, conservationists or policymakers) objectives (e.g., disease, parasites, toxics, climate change, habitat destruction), coupled with the utility and vulnerability of this species to the perceived stress. The scientific information generated by the sentinel species should empower stakeholders and decision-makers to take mitigative action or support predictive capabilities; the "utility" of the species selected should consider its value and relevance to conservationists and to society at large (e.g., education and outreach; social sciences). Wild canids may serve as excellent sentinel species of emerging canine vector-borne diseases. Several canine vector-borne diseases or antibodies to these pathogens have been identified in wild canids including visceral leishmaniosis, Lyme disease, heartworm, hepatozoonosis and anaplasmosis to name a few. These reports are relatively recent as they relate to wildlife-domestic animal interactions, globalisation, translocations, habitat fragmentation and climate change. These pathogens and their relationship to wild canids are described herein. Further research needs to be performed to elucidate the role of the 36 extant species of wild canids in the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases. PMID:19426446

  10. Wild canids as sentinels of ecological health: a conservation medicine perspective.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2009-01-01

    The extinction of species across the globe is accelerating, directly or indirectly due to human activities. Biological impoverishment, habitat fragmentation, climate change, increasing toxification, and the rapid global movement of people and other living organisms have worked synergistically to diminish ecosystem function. This has resulted in unprecedented levels of disease emergence, driven by human-induced environmental degradation, which poses a threat to the survival and health of biodiversity. The emerging discipline of conservation medicine addresses these concerns through the following entities: humans; global climate; habitat destruction and alteration; biodiversity, including wildlife populations; domestic animals; and pathogens, parasites and pollutants. Furthermore, conservation medicine focuses on explicit linkages between these entities. As a crisis discipline, the usefulness of conservation medicine ultimately will depend on its applicability to solving problems. The perspectives and scientific findings of conservation medicine provide input into biomedical education; and policy and management of ecosystems, habitats and imperiled species. A sentinel species is one that has presented itself, or has been selected, to provide insight into the state (health) of an ecosystem, based on user-defined (e.g., researchers, conservationists or policymakers) objectives (e.g., disease, parasites, toxics, climate change, habitat destruction), coupled with the utility and vulnerability of this species to the perceived stress. The scientific information generated by the sentinel species should empower stakeholders and decision-makers to take mitigative action or support predictive capabilities; the "utility" of the species selected should consider its value and relevance to conservationists and to society at large (e.g., education and outreach; social sciences). Wild canids may serve as excellent sentinel species of emerging canine vector-borne diseases. Several canine vector-borne diseases or antibodies to these pathogens have been identified in wild canids including visceral leishmaniosis, Lyme disease, heartworm, hepatozoonosis and anaplasmosis to name a few. These reports are relatively recent as they relate to wildlife-domestic animal interactions, globalisation, translocations, habitat fragmentation and climate change. These pathogens and their relationship to wild canids are described herein. Further research needs to be performed to elucidate the role of the 36 extant species of wild canids in the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases. PMID:19426446

  11. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs.

  12. A longitudinal study of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in an urban population of Rattus norvegicus in Brazil: the influences of seasonality and host features on the pattern of infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite and the most important cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide in humans. In Brazil, this disease has been reported in the states of Espírito Santo and Pernambuco. The parasite has been detected in the naturally infected intermediate host, in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco and Santa Catarina. The murid Rattus norvegicus R. rattus were recently reported to be naturally infected in Brazil. In this study, we conducted a two-year investigation of the dissemination pattern of A. cantonensis in R. norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and examined the influence of seasonality, year, host weight and host gender on parasitological parameters of A. cantonensis in rats. Methods The study was conducted in an area of Trindade, São Gonçalo municipality, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Prevalence of infected rats, intensity and abundance of A. cantonensis were calculated, and generalized linear models were created and compared to verify the contribution of host gender, host weight, year and seasonality to the variations in A. cantonensis abundance and prevalence in rats. Results The prevalence of A. cantonensis infection was stable during the rainy (71%, CI 58.9- 81.6) and dry seasons (71%, CI 57.9-80.8) and was higher in older rats and in females. Seasonality, host weight (used as a proxy of animal age) and gender were all contributing factors to variation in parasite abundance, with females and heavier (older) animals showing larger abundance of parasites, and extreme values of parasite abundance being more frequent in the dry season. Conclusions The high prevalence of this parasite throughout the study suggests that its transmission is stable and that conditions are adequate for the spread of the parasite to previously unaffected areas. Dispersion of the parasite to new areas may be mediated by males that tend to have larger dispersal ability, while females may be more important for maintaining the parasite on a local scale due to their higher prevalence and abundance of infection. A multidisciplinary approach considering the ecological distribution of the rats and intermediate hosts, as well as environmental features is required to further understand the dynamics of angiostrongyliasis. PMID:24612453

  13. A Pathological Late Pleistocene canid from San Sidero (Italy): implications for social- and feeding-behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iurino, Dawid Adam; Fico, Rosario; Petrucci, Mauro; Sardella, Raffaele

    2013-03-01

    Evidence of diseases on vertebrate fossil bones can provide detailed information on many aspects of extinct animals. This study focused on pathological craniodental remains (left maxilla and dentary) referred to the canid Cuon alpinus unearthed from a Late Pleistocene karst filling deposit at San Sidero (Apulia, southern Italy). These fossils show clear evidence of a chronic periodontitis that caused the animal's death. Clinical diagnosis of the disease and the timing of its development have been defined on the basis of a veterinary odontostomatology approach, in addition to radiographic and tomographic techniques. From the initiation of the infection until death, a time span of at least 6 months occurred, and three main steps have been defined: (1) the bacterial infections of the buccal cavity turning into severe periodontitis, (2) the fracture of the lower carnassial and (3) the loss of teeth due to the worsening infection that deformed and/or eroded maxillary and mandibular bones and enlarged alveoli. The analysis of the palaeopathology also provides information about the biomechanics of the bite, on the feeding behaviour and on the relationships of injured members in a pack of Late Pleistocene canids.

  14. Detection of Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens in Australian canids with natural or experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Fraser, A; Bradshaw, H; Craig, P S

    2000-02-01

    Coproparasitological and purging methods for diagnosing canids infected with the intestinal helminth Echinococcus granulosus, an important zoonotic parasite, are unreliable. Detection of coproantigens in feces of infected dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is suitable for detecting patent and prepatent infections with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, natural and experimental infections in domestic and wild Australian canids were investigated using a coproantigen capture ELISA. Experimental infection of dogs with E. granulosus was detected at between 14 and 22 days postinfection (PI), and optical density (OD) values remained high until termination of experiments 35 days PI. After chemotherapy, coproantigen levels in infected dogs dropped rapidly, becoming negative 2-4 days after treatment. In experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the coproantigen excretion profile was different, with ELISA OD levels peaking 15-17 days PI, then falling to low or undetectable levels by 30 days PI. Coproantigens were detected in the feces of naturally infected Australian wild dogs (dingoes, dingo/domestic dog hybrids) with infection levels ranging between 2 worms and 42,600. Preliminary data on the stability of coproantigen in dog feces exposed to environmental conditions indicated that there was no change in antigenicity over 6 days. The results suggest the coproantigen ELISA could be successfully used to monitor E. granulosus prevalence rates in Australian domestic dogs, foxes, and wild dogs. PMID:10701577

  15. Natural infection of the wild canid, Cerdocyon thous, with the piroplasmid Rangelia vitalii in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Joo F; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Costa, Francisco B; Krawczak, Felipe S; Comerlato, Alexandra T; Rossato, Bruna C D; Linck, Camila M; Sigahi, Eduardo K O; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Sonne, Luciana; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Gregori, Fabio; Vieira, Maria Isabel B; Martins, Joo R; Reck, Jos; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-05-28

    Canine rangeliosis, caused by the piroplasmid protozoon Rangelia vitalii, is currently recognized as a reemerging disease that affects domestic dogs in Brazil. In the present study, piroplasmid infection was searched in wild canids (20 Cerdocyon thous and 4 Lycalopex gymnocercus) in Brazil. Molecular analysis, based on PCR and DNA sequencing of a portion of the 18S rRNA gene, revealed that 30% (6/20) C. thous were infected by R. vitalii. Blood and bone marrow samples from one of the R. vitalii-infected C. thous were inoculated into a domestic dog, which developed clinical rangeliosis that was confirmed by molecular tests. However, the C. thous donor showed no clinical, hematological or biochemical alterations, even though its R. vitalii infection status was confirmed for at least 80 days. These observations suggest that R. vitalii is not as highly pathogenic for C. thous as it is for domestic dogs. Phylogenetic analysis inferred by the 18S rRNA gene placed R. vitalii embedded in the clade 'Babesia sensu stricto', consisting of a number of species that represent truly the genus Babesia. It is proposed that the species R. vitalii should be transferred to the genus Babesia. The present study expands our knowledge on the natural history of R. vitalii, suggesting that it might have a natural cycle involving the wild canid C. thous. Further studies are needed to confirm that C. thous is a natural reservoir of R. vitalii in Brazil. PMID:24685025

  16. A genome-wide perspective on the evolutionary history of enigmatic wolf-like canids

    PubMed Central

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Pollinger, John P.; Earl, Dent A.; Knowles, James C.; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi; Geffen, Eli; Pilot, Malgorzata; Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz; Jedrzejewska, Bogumila; Sidorovich, Vadim; Greco, Claudia; Randi, Ettore; Musiani, Marco; Kays, Roland; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput genotyping technologies developed for model species can potentially increase the resolution of demographic history and ancestry in wild relatives. We use a SNP genotyping microarray developed for the domestic dog to assay variation in over 48K loci in wolf-like species worldwide. Despite the high mobility of these large carnivores, we find distinct hierarchical population units within gray wolves and coyotes that correspond with geographic and ecologic differences among populations. Further, we test controversial theories about the ancestry of the Great Lakes wolf and red wolf using an analysis of haplotype blocks across all 38 canid autosomes. We find that these enigmatic canids are highly admixed varieties derived from gray wolves and coyotes, respectively. This divergent genomic history suggests that they do not have a shared recent ancestry as proposed by previous researchers. Interspecific hybridization, as well as the process of evolutionary divergence, may be responsible for the observed phenotypic distinction of both forms. Such admixture complicates decisions regarding endangered species restoration and protection. PMID:21566151

  17. Habitat changes and changing predatory habits in North American fossil canids.

    PubMed

    Figueirido, B; Martín-Serra, A; Tseng, Z J; Janis, C M

    2015-01-01

    The spread of open grassy habitats and the evolution of long-legged herbivorous mammals with high-crowned cheek teeth have been viewed as an example of coevolution. Previous studies indicate that specialized predatory techniques in carnivores do not correlate with the spread of open habitats in North America. Here we analyse new data on elbow-joint shape for North American canids over the past ∼37 million years and show that incipiently specialized species first appeared along with the initial spread of open habitats in the late Oligocene. Elbow-joint morphologies indicative of the behavior of modern pounce-pursuit predators emerged by the late Miocene coincident with a shift in plant communities from C3 to C4 grasses. Finally, pursuit canids first emerged during the Pleistocene. Our results indicate that climate change and its impact on vegetation and habitat structure can be critical for the emergence of ecological innovations and can alter the direction of lineage evolution. PMID:26285033

  18. Fatal Canid Herpesvirus 1 Respiratory Infections in 4 Clinically Healthy Adult Dogs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Driskell, E A; Cooley, A J; Jia, K; Blackmon, S; Wan, X-F; Uhl, E W; Saliki, J T; Sanchez, S; Krimer, P M; Hogan, R J

    2015-07-01

    Four healthy adult dogs (Golden Retrievers aged 6 years and 9 years, Dalmatian aged 13 years, and Mastiff aged 5 years) developed clinical signs of acute respiratory disease and died within 2 to 7 days of onset of clinical signs. The lungs of the 3 dogs submitted for necropsy were diffusely and severely reddened due to hyperemia and hemorrhage. Microscopic lesions in all dogs were suggestive of acute viral or toxic respiratory damage and varied from acute severe fibrinonecrotic or hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia to fibrinous or necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Necropsied dogs also had hemorrhagic rhinitis and tracheitis with necrosis. Virus isolation, transmission electron microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction were used to confirm the presence of canid herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1) in the lung samples of these dogs. Lung tissues were negative for influenza A virus, canine distemper virus, canine parainfluenza virus, canine respiratory coronavirus, and canine adenovirus 2. Canid herpesvirus 1 has been isolated from cases of acute infectious respiratory disease in dogs but has only rarely been associated with fatal primary viral pneumonia in adult dogs. The cases in the current report document lesions observed in association with CaHV-1 in 4 cases of fatal canine herpesvirus pneumonia in adult dogs. PMID:25358536

  19. First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Penezić, Aleksandra; Pavlović, Ivan; Kulišić, Zoran; Cosić, Nada; Burazerović, Jelena; Maletić, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans. PMID:25410390

  20. Iterative adaptive radiations of fossil canids show no evidence for diversity-dependent trait evolution.

    PubMed

    Slater, Graham J

    2015-04-21

    A long-standing hypothesis in adaptive radiation theory is that ecological opportunity constrains rates of phenotypic evolution, generating a burst of morphological disparity early in clade history. Empirical support for the early burst model is rare in comparative data, however. One possible reason for this lack of support is that most phylogenetic tests have focused on extant clades, neglecting information from fossil taxa. Here, I test for the expected signature of adaptive radiation using the outstanding 40-My fossil record of North American canids. Models implying time- and diversity-dependent rates of morphological evolution are strongly rejected for two ecologically important traits, body size and grinding area of the molar teeth. Instead, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes implying repeated, and sometimes rapid, attraction to distinct dietary adaptive peaks receive substantial support. Diversity-dependent rates of morphological evolution seem uncommon in clades, such as canids, that exhibit a pattern of replicated adaptive radiation. Instead, these clades might best be thought of as deterministic radiations in constrained Simpsonian subzones of a major adaptive zone. Support for adaptive peak models may be diagnostic of subzonal radiations. It remains to be seen whether early burst or ecological opportunity models can explain broader adaptive radiations, such as the evolution of higher taxa. PMID:25901311

  1. Iterative adaptive radiations of fossil canids show no evidence for diversity-dependent trait evolution

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Graham J.

    2015-01-01

    A long-standing hypothesis in adaptive radiation theory is that ecological opportunity constrains rates of phenotypic evolution, generating a burst of morphological disparity early in clade history. Empirical support for the early burst model is rare in comparative data, however. One possible reason for this lack of support is that most phylogenetic tests have focused on extant clades, neglecting information from fossil taxa. Here, I test for the expected signature of adaptive radiation using the outstanding 40-My fossil record of North American canids. Models implying time- and diversity-dependent rates of morphological evolution are strongly rejected for two ecologically important traits, body size and grinding area of the molar teeth. Instead, Ornstein–Uhlenbeck processes implying repeated, and sometimes rapid, attraction to distinct dietary adaptive peaks receive substantial support. Diversity-dependent rates of morphological evolution seem uncommon in clades, such as canids, that exhibit a pattern of replicated adaptive radiation. Instead, these clades might best be thought of as deterministic radiations in constrained Simpsonian subzones of a major adaptive zone. Support for adaptive peak models may be diagnostic of subzonal radiations. It remains to be seen whether early burst or ecological opportunity models can explain broader adaptive radiations, such as the evolution of higher taxa. PMID:25901311

  2. Nematode management in pecans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2002, the pecan root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne partityla = PRKN) was found on pecan in the southeastern U.S. and was associated with stressed trees exhibiting dead branches in the upper canopy and (or) typical mouse ear (ME) associated foliar symptoms. This research evaluates the host susceptib...

  3. Production of entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production technology is critical for the success of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in biological control. Production approaches include in vivo and in vitro methods (solid or liquid fermentation). For laboratory use and small scale field experiments, in vivo production of EPNs appears to be th...

  4. Hematological and histopathological changes in Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935).

    PubMed

    Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Dos Santos Bonfim, Tatiane Cristina; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Mota, Esther Maria; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Santana, André Campos; Hooper, Cleber; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bóia, Marcio Neves

    2014-08-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonosis endemic to Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands. It is considered an emerging disease because it has been expanding both geographically and in terms of the range of hosts. In South America, the first cases were reported in Brazil and were attributed to eating infected snails. In this study, 70 adult females of Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) were used to evaluate hematology, blood gases, cardiac markers and lung histopathology changes caused by this parasite. Of them, 60 were individually infected by orogastric gavage with 100 L(3) larvae and 10 uninfected animals formed the control group. The results obtained demonstrate that infection caused by A. cantonensis in R. norvegicus promotes significant hematological changes induced in the vertebrate host, manifested mainly in the form of regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia and eosinophilia. Additionally, histopathological changes in the lung parenchyma demonstrated in rodents reveal the occurrence of areas of necrosis and extensive fibrosis, being directly related to the development of cellular hypoxia and enzyme cardiac changes. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between A. cantonensis and R. norvegicus. PMID:24786730

  5. Changes in the calcium metabolism of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Tunholi-Alves, V M; Tunholi, V M; Garcia, J Silva; Costa-Neto, S F; Maldonado, A; Santos, M A J; Thiengo, S C; Pinheiro, J

    2014-06-01

    Levels of calcium in the haemolymph and reserves in the shell of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined for the first time. At the same time, histochemical analyses of the digestive gland of infected and uninfected snails were performed to better understand the possible changes in metabolism of calcium in these organisms. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks of infection, the snails were dissected for collection of haemolymph and separation of tissues. The highest calcium concentrations in the haemolymph were found 2 weeks after infection, with a 39.61% increase in relation to the respective control group. However, there was a significant reduction in the concentration of this ion in the haemolymph of infected snails after 1 week of infection in relation to the uninfected specimens. In parallel, intense hypocalcification was shown in the shell of infected snails 1 and 2 weeks after infection, differing significantly in relation to the respective control groups. Morphological changes in the digestive gland of infected snails were also observed, confirming the role of this ion as an important element in the parasite encapsulation process. PMID:23290340

  6. Brazilian Angiostrongylus cantonensis haplotypes, ac8 and ac9, have two different biological and morphological profiles.

    PubMed

    Monte, Tainá C C; Gentile, Rosana; Garcia, Juberlan; Mota, Ester; Santos, Jeannie N; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo

    2014-12-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the etiologic agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Cases have been recorded in many parts of the world, including Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in the biology and morphology of two different Brazilian haplotypes of A. cantonensis: ac8 and ac9. A significantly larger number of L1 larvae eliminated in the faeces of rodents at the beginning of the patent period was observed for ac9 haplotype and compared to the total of L1 larvae eliminated, there was a significant difference between the two haplotypes. The ac9 haplotype showed a significant difference in the proportion of female and male specimens (0.6:1), but the same was not observed for ac8 (1.2:1). The morphometric analysis showed that male and female specimens isolated from ac8 haplotype were significantly larger with respect to body length, oesophagus length, spicule length (male) and distance from the anus to the rear end (female) compared to specimens from ac9. The morphological analysis by light microscopy showed little variation in the level of bifurcations at the lateral rays in the right lobe of the copulatory bursa between the two haplotypes. The biological, morphological and morphometric variations observed between the two haplotypes agree with the observed variation at the molecular level using the cytochrome oxidase subunit I marker and reinforce the possible influence of geographical isolation on the development of these haplotypes. PMID:25591110

  7. Eosinophilic Meningitis Attributable to Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection in Hawaii: Clinical Characteristics and Potential Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Natasha S.; Blackburn, Brian G.; Park, Sarah Y.; Sejvar, James J.; Effler, Paul V.; Herwaldt, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    The most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningitis is Angiostrongylus cantonensis, which is transmitted largely by consumption of snails/slugs. We previously identified cases of angiostrongyliasis that occurred in Hawaii from 2001 to 2005; the highest incidence was on the island of Hawaii. We now report symptoms, laboratory parameters, and exposures. Eighteen patients were evaluated; 94% had headache, and 65% had sensory symptoms (paresthesia, hyperesthesia, and/or numbness). These symptoms lasted a median of 17 and 55 days, respectively. Three persons recalled finding a slug in their food/drink. Case-patients on the island of Hawaii were more likely than case-patients on other islands to consume raw homegrown produce in a typical week (89% versus 0%, P < 0.001) and to see snails/slugs on produce (56% versus 0%, P = 0.03). Residents and travelers should be aware of the potential risks of eating uncooked produce in Hawaii, especially if it is from the island of Hawaii and locally grown. PMID:21976573

  8. Acute haemoabdomen associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a dog: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    A one-year-old intact female, Danish shorthaired pointer was referred to the emergency service with a history of acute collapse and pale mucous membranes after a month of reduced activity but with no other clinical signs. An ultrasound examination of the abdomen indicated the presence of a large amount of free fluid with no obvious cause such as neoplasia or splenic rupture. Fluid analysis had the macroscopic appearance of blood with no signs of infection or neoplasia. Multiple Angiostrongylus vasorum L1 larvae were revealed on a direct rectal faecal smear. The dog was treated with fenbendazole 25 mg/kg orally once daily for 20 days and given supportive treatment. The dog was stabilised on this treatment. Haemoabdomen is a clinical sign where surgical intervention is often considered an integral part of the diagnostic investigation (i.e., laparotomy) or treatment. Failing to make the diagnosis of canine angiostrongylosis before performing surgery may have a serious adverse affect on the outcome. Consequently, in areas where A. vasorum is enzootic, a Baermann test and a direct faecal smear should be included in the initial diagnostic investigation of all dogs presenting with bleeding disorders of unknown origin. PMID:21851721

  9. Characterization and immunolocalization of mutated ornithine decarboxylase antizyme from Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Liu, Qian; Yang, Xiao; Wu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Dongjing; He, Ai; Zhan, Ximei

    2013-08-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ), a prominent regulator of cell proliferation, DNA/RNA transformation and tumorigenesis, can bind to ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and facilitate its degradation. Expression of OAZ requires a unique ribosomal frame shift that is regulated by levels of polyamine in the cell. In this study, we cloned an OAZ gene with the +1 ribosomal frame-shift from a fourth-stage larvae cDNA library of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. We removed one nucleotide to express the gene without polyamine. The sequence analysis showed that the deleted-mutation ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (DM-AcOAZ) contained a conservative domain related to other species OAZ. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that DM-AcOAZ was expressed in L3 and L4 stages and adult female worms. More notably the expression level is the highest in the adult female stage. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that DM-AcOAZ was specifically localized in the uterus, oocyte and intestine in adult female worms. MTT assays showed that in DM-AcOAZ transfected HeLa cells, cell proliferation is inhibited. In conclusion, DM-AcOAZ may be a female-enriched protein and may involved in the cell proliferation in A. cantonensis. PMID:23816446

  10. First report of a fatal autochthonous canine Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Sandra; Poncelet, Luc; Lempereur, Laetitia; Caron, Yannick; Bayrou, Calixte; Cassart, Dominique; Grimm, Felix; Losson, Bertrand

    2015-02-01

    Canine angiostrongylosis is considered as an emergent disease in Europe and Canada. A fatal case of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection is described in a four and a half month old puppy born in Belgium. The dog was presented with marked neurological disorders, body weight loss, a profound weakness and mild respiratory signs. The dog was given antibiotics and mucolytic compounds with very little improvement and consequently was referred to a specialist for additional examinations. As the general condition of the dog was rapidly declining, the animal was euthanized shortly after on its owners' request and a necropsy was carried out. Extensive gross pulmonary lesions were observed and histopathological examination revealed the presence of numerous larvae with morphology compatible with A. vasorum. Larvae were also found in the product of a bronchoalveolar lavage but fecal material was not examined. The presence of A. vasorum circulating serum antigen was demonstrated through ELISA; additionally an A. vasorum specific PCR was performed on brain material and yielded a positive result. This case confirms that the clinical diagnosis of canine angiostrongylosis can be very challenging especially when respiratory signs are absent or very mild such in the present case. This is the first reported case of canine angiostrongylosis in Belgium. PMID:25449287

  11. Brazilian Angiostrongylus cantonensis haplotypes, ac8 and ac9, have two different biological and morphological profiles

    PubMed Central

    Monte, Tainá CC; Gentile, Rosana; Garcia, Juberlan; Mota, Ester; Santos, Jeannie N; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the etiologic agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Cases have been recorded in many parts of the world, including Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in the biology and morphology of two different Brazilian haplotypes of A. : ac8 and ac9. A significantly larger number of L1 larvae eliminated in the faeces of rodents at the beginning of the patent period was observed for ac9 haplotype and compared to the total of L1 larvae eliminated, there was a significant difference between the two haplotypes. The ac9 haplotype showed a significant difference in the proportion of female and male specimens (0.6:1), but the same was not observed for ac8 (1.2:1). The morphometric analysis showed that male and female specimens isolated from ac8 haplotype were significantly larger with respect to body length, oesophagus length, spicule length (male) and distance from the anus to the rear end (female) compared to specimens from ac9. The morphological analysis by light microscopy showed little variation in the level of bifurcations at the lateral rays in the right lobe of the copulatory bursa between the two haplotypes. The biological, morphological and morphometric variations observed between the two haplotypes agree with the observed variation at the molecular level using the cytochrome oxidase subunit I marker and reinforce the possible influence of geographical isolation on the development of these haplotypes. PMID:25591110

  12. The effects of different plant extracts on nematodes.

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Sven; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Aksu, Gülendem; Fischer, Katja; Strassen, Bianca; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2011-04-01

    The anthelminthic efficacy of some differently obtained extracts of several plants was tested in vivo in laboratory animals and in vitro. The extracts were obtained by ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, or chloroform, respectively, acetonitrile polyethylenglycol (PEG) and/or propylencarbonate (PC) elution at room temperature or at 37°C. The plants used were bulbs of onions, garlic, chives, coconut, birch tree, ananas, cistrose, banana, chicory, date palm fruit, fig, pumpkin, and neem tree seeds. The worm systems tested both in vivo and in vitro were Trichuris muris and Angiostrongylus cantonensis but only in vivo Toxocara cati. The tests clearly showed that the different extraction methods eluted different components and different mass amounts, which had different efficacies against the above-cited worms. In vitro effects against A. cantonensis and T.muris were best with aqueous extracts, followed by chloroform extracts. The other plant extracts showed only low or no effects on A. cantonensis in vitro. In the case of T. muris, best results were obtained in vivo and in vitro with PEG/PC extracts of the onion followed by the aqueous extract of coconut. The complete elimination of worms in the in vivo experiments with T. muris was obtained when infected mice were treated with a 1:1 mixture of extracts of coconut and onion being produced by elutions with a mixture of 1:1 PEG and PC and fed daily for 8 days. T. cati in a naturally infected cat was eliminated by daily oral application of 6 ml coco's fluid for 5 days. This study shows that a broad spectrum of plants has anti-nematodal activities, the intensity of which, however, depends on the mode of extraction. This implicates that, if results should be really comparable, the same extraction methods at the same temperatures have to be used. Furthermore, efficacy in in vitro systems does not guarantee as good--if at all--efficacy in vivo. PMID:21110041

  13. Bacterial endosymbionts of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several groups of bacteria have been reported as endosymbionts of various orders of nematodes including the filarial nematodes (Brugia malayi, Wucheria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus (Spiruida)), the entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp., and Heterorhabditis spp. (Rhabditida)), and plant-p...

  14. Nematode and snail metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Höckner, Martina; Dallinger, Reinhard; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R

    2011-10-01

    Metallobiologists have, at large, neglected soil dwelling invertebrates; exceptions are the nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) and snails (Helix pomatia and Cantareus aspersus). This review aims to compare and contrast the molecular, protein and cellular mechanisms of the multifunctional nematode and snail metallothioneins (MTs). The C. elegans genome contains two MT genes, mtl-1, which is constitutively expressed in the pharynx and likely to act as an essential and/or toxic metal sensor, and mtl-2, which plays a negligible role under normal physiological conditions but is strongly induced (as mtl-1) in intestinal cells upon metal exposure. It has been possible to follow the intricate phenotypic responses upon the knockdown/knockout of single and multiple MT isoforms and we have started to decipher the multifunctional role of C. elegans MTs. The snails have contributed to our understanding regarding MT evolution and diversity, structure and metal-specific functionality. The H. pomatia and C. aspersus genomes contain at least three MT isoform genes. CdMT is responsible for cadmium detoxification, CuMT is involved in copper homeostasis and Cd/CuMT is a putative ancestral MT possibly only of minor importance in metal metabolism. Further investigations of nematode, snail and other invertebrate MTs will allow the development of alternative biomarker approaches and lead to an improved understanding of metallobiology, protein evolution and toxicogenomics. PMID:21822727

  15. Nematode and snail metallothioneins.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Höckner M; Dallinger R; Stürzenbaum SR

    2011-10-01

    Metallobiologists have, at large, neglected soil dwelling invertebrates; exceptions are the nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) and snails (Helix pomatia and Cantareus aspersus). This review aims to compare and contrast the molecular, protein and cellular mechanisms of the multifunctional nematode and snail metallothioneins (MTs). The C. elegans genome contains two MT genes, mtl-1, which is constitutively expressed in the pharynx and likely to act as an essential and/or toxic metal sensor, and mtl-2, which plays a negligible role under normal physiological conditions but is strongly induced (as mtl-1) in intestinal cells upon metal exposure. It has been possible to follow the intricate phenotypic responses upon the knockdown/knockout of single and multiple MT isoforms and we have started to decipher the multifunctional role of C. elegans MTs. The snails have contributed to our understanding regarding MT evolution and diversity, structure and metal-specific functionality. The H. pomatia and C. aspersus genomes contain at least three MT isoform genes. CdMT is responsible for cadmium detoxification, CuMT is involved in copper homeostasis and Cd/CuMT is a putative ancestral MT possibly only of minor importance in metal metabolism. Further investigations of nematode, snail and other invertebrate MTs will allow the development of alternative biomarker approaches and lead to an improved understanding of metallobiology, protein evolution and toxicogenomics.

  16. Lessons from a non-domestic canid: joint disease in captive raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

    PubMed

    Lawler, Dennis F; Evans, Richard H; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Smith, Gail K

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe pathological changes of the shoulder, elbow, hip and stifle joints of 16 museum skeletons of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides). The subjects had been held in long-term captivity and were probably used for fur farming or research, thus allowing sufficient longevity for joint disease to become recognisable. The prevalence of disorders that include osteochondrosis, osteoarthritis and changes compatible with hip dysplasia, was surprisingly high. Other changes that reflect near-normal or mild pathological conditions, including prominent articular margins and mild bony periarticular rim, were also prevalent. Our data form a basis for comparing joint pathology of captive raccoon dogs with other mammals and also suggest that contributing roles of captivity and genetic predisposition should be explored further in non-domestic canids. PMID:23277118

  17. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon spp. infection in endangered Indian wild felids and canids.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul Mohanchandra; Poornachandar, Anantula; Srinivas, Pasham; Rao, Kancharapu Ramachandra; Lakshmikantan, Uthandaraman; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2012-05-25

    Hepatozoon species are parasites that infect a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. The objective of this study was to perform the molecular detection and characterization of Hepatozoon spp. in Asiatic lion, Indian tiger, Indian leopard, Indian wild dog, Indian domestic dog and cat based on partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from Hepatozoon spp. in the naturally infected animals. Hepatozoon spp. could be detected in blood samples of 5 out of 9 Asiatic lions, 2 out of 5 Indian tigers, 2 out of 4 Indian leopards and 2 out of 2 Indian wild dogs and, 2 out of 4 domestic cats and 2 out of 3 domestic dog samples by PCR. Sequencing of PCR amplicon and BLAST analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Hepatozoon spp. in Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, Indian leopard and domestic cat was Hepatozoon felis (98-99% similarity) and in the Indian wild and domestic dog the phylogenetic neighbour was Hepatozoon canis (97-100% similarity). Presence of H. felis and H. canis in both domestic and wild animals suggested that they are not host specific and the same parasite causes infection in domestic and wild felids and canids in India and from different parts of the world. To our knowledge, this is the first report on detection and molecular characterization of H. felis infection in Asiatic lions, Indian tigers, Indian leopards and H. canis in Indian wild dog. Hepatozoon spp. may be a potential pathogen and an opportunistic parasite in immuno-compromised animals and could thus represent a threat to endangered Indian wild felids and canids. PMID:22154254

  18. Improved molecular detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mollusks and other environmental samples with a species-specific internal transcribed spacer 1-based TaqMan assay.

    PubMed

    Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Teem, John L; Hollingsworth, Robert; Bishop, Henry; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; da Silva, Alexandre J

    2010-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common cause of human eosinophilic meningitis. Humans become infected by ingesting food items contaminated with third-stage larvae that develop in mollusks. We report the development of a real-time PCR assay for the species-specific identification of A. cantonensis in mollusk tissue. PMID:20543049

  19. Improved molecular detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mollusks and other environmental samples with a species-specific ITS1-based TaqMan assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common cause of human eosinophilic meningitis. Humans can become infected by ingesting food items contaminated with the third-stage infectious larvae released from infected mollusks as well as by ingesting mollusks or paratenic hosts carrying the infectious st...

  20. Metabolic and histopathological profile of Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935).

    PubMed

    Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Lúcio, Camila dos Santos; Bonfim, Tatiane Cristina dos Santos; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Mota, Esther Maria; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Santana, André Campos; Hooper, Cleber; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bóia, Marcio Neves

    2014-02-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is a disease characterized by increased eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the most commonly caused by invasion of the central nervous system by helminths, as occurs in Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections. The rodent Rattus norvegicus is the definitive natural host and humans act as accidental hosts and can become infected by eating raw or undercooked snails or food contaminated with infective L3 larvae. Recently in Brazil there have been four cases of eosinophilic meningitis due to ingestion of infected Achatina fulica. To evaluate biochemical and histopathological changes caused by this parasite, R. norvegicus were experimentally infected with 100 L3 larvae of A. cantonensis. After the anesthetic procedure, serum from the rodents was collected from the inferior vena cava for evaluation of the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein and its fractions. During the necropsy, the liver was collected and weighed. Then a 1-g fragment was extracted from the major lobe to quantify the hepatic glycogen and fragment remainder was taken from the same lobe and fixed in Milloning's formalin for histopathological examination. Additionally, helminths were collected from the brain and lungs of the rodents. The activities of AST, ALT, ALKP and GGT in the serum and hepatic glycogen increased in response to infection, while the levels of globulin and total protein increased only in the eighth week of infection and there was a reduction in the levels of serum glucose. Albumin and bilirubin concentrations remained stable during the experiment. Infection with A. cantonensis caused metabolic and histopathological changes in the rodents. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between A. cantonensis and R. norvegicus. PMID:24333291

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome reveals genetic diversity of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Goh, Share-Yuan; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2015-12-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Earlier work on its mitochondrial genome was based on long polymerase chain reaction method. To date, only the mitogenome of the isolates from China has been studied. We report here the complete mitogenome of the Thailand isolate based on next generation sequencing and compare the genetic diversity with other isolates. The mitogenome of the Thailand isolate (13,519bp) is longer than those of the China isolates (13,497-13,502bp). Five protein-coding genes (atp6, cox1, cox2, cob, nad2) show variations in length among the isolates. The stop codon of the Thailand isolate differs from the China and Taiwan isolates in 4 genes (atp6, cob, nad2, nad6). Additionally, the Thailand isolate has 4 incomplete T stop codon compared to 3 in the China and Taiwan isolates. The control region is longer in the Thailand isolate (258bp) than the China (230-236bp) and Taiwan (237bp) isolates. The intergenic sequence between nad4 and cox1 genes in the Thailand isolate lacks 2bp (indels) at the 5'-end of the sequence as well as differs at 7 other sites compared to the China and Taiwan isolates. In the Thailand isolate, 18 tRNAs lack the entire TΨC-arm, compared to 17 in the China isolate and 16 in the Taiwan isolate. Phylogenetic analyses based on 36 mt-genes, 12 PCGs, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and control region all indicate closer genetic affinity between the China and Taiwan isolates compared to the Thailand isolate. Based on 36 mt-genes, the inter-isolate genetic distance varies from p=3.2% between China and Taiwan isolates to p=11.6% between Thailand and China isolates. The mitogenome will be useful for population, phylogenetics and phylogeography studies. PMID:26348256

  2. Characterizing longitudinal changes in rabbit brains infected with Angiostrongylus Cantonensis based on diffusion anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hao-Hung; Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Lim, Seong Yong; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Weng, Jun-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis has become a global source of infection in recent years, and the differential diagnosis and timely follow-up are crucial in the management of the infection. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been suggested as a non-invasive technique in characterizing and localizing lesions during the parasitic infections in the brain. Non-invasive diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to distinguish microscopic cerebral structures but cannot resolve the more complicated neural structure. Several methods have been proposed to overcome this limitation. One such method, generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI), can be applied to a variety of datasets, including the single shell, multi-shell or grid sampling schemes, which are believed to resolve complicated crossing fibers. This study aimed to characterize angiostrongyliasis in the rabbit brain over a 6-week period using anatomical and diffusion MRI, including DTI and GQI. Our anatomical T2WI and R2 mapping results showed that the ventricle size of the rabbit brain increased after A. cantonensis larvae infection, and the DTI and GQI indices both showed pathological changes in the corpus callosum, hippocampus and cortex over a 6-week infection period. These results were consistent with our histopathological findings. Our results demonstrated that the diagnosis of larvae infection using anatomical and diffusion MRI is possible and that follow-up characterization is informative in revealing the effects of angiostrongyliasis in various brain areas. These support the use of anatomical and diffusion MRI was helpful for diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection. This non-invasive MRI platform could be used to improve the management of eosinophilic meningitis or eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. PMID:26808581

  3. Using good nematodes to kill bad nematodes: Applications of entomopathogenic nematodes for control of the pecan root-knot nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meloidogyne partityla is a nematode parasite of pecan and walnut. Our objective was to determine interactions between the entomopathogenic nematode-bacterium complex and M. partityla. Specifically, we investigated suppressive effects of Steinernema feltiae and S. riobrave applied as infective juve...

  4. Managing Nematodes without Methyl Bromide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl bromide is an effective pre-plant soil fumigant used to control nematodes in many high-input, high-value production systems including vegetables, nurseries, ornamentals, tree fruits, strawberries, and grapes. Because methyl bromide has provided a reliable return on investment for nematode c...

  5. Social networks of educated nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate lethal parasitoids of insect larvae that navigate a chemically complex belowground environment while interacting with their insect hosts, plants, and each other. In this environment, prior exposure to volatile compounds appears to prime nematodes in a compound...

  6. Natural Infection of Wild Canids (Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex gymnocercus) with the Intraendothelial Piroplasm Rangelia vitalii in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fredo, Gabriela; Bianchi, Matheus V; De Andrade, Caroline P; De Souza, Suyene O; Leite-Filho, Ronaldo V; Bandinelli, Marcele B; Amorim, Derek B; Driemeier, David; Sonne, Luciana

    2015-10-01

    Rangelia vitalii is a piroplasm that infects canines, causing lesions typical of a hemolytic disorder. Two wild canids, a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and a Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), were presented for necropsy in Setor de Patologia Veterinária at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. On gross examination, both animals had pale mucosae and moderate tick infestation (Amblyomma aureolatum). There was severe splenomegaly, and the liver had a diffusely orange-reddish lobular pattern. The mesenteric lymph nodes were brownish and slightly enlarged. Structures compatible with R. vitalii were observed in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells in the liver, stomach, heart, kidney, lungs, lymph nodes, and bladder. The agent was characterized by PCR and genetic sequencing of liver samples and ticks. We show that parasitism with R. vitalii follows an epidemiologic cycle in which wild canids act as reservoirs. PMID:26251988

  7. New host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies ofAngiostrongylus spp (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) in rodents from Argentina with updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment.

    PubMed

    Robles, María Del Rosario; Kinsella, John M; Galliari, Carlos; Navone, Graciela T

    2016-03-01

    To date, 21 species of the genus Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) have been reported around the world, 15 of which are parasites of rodents. In this study, new host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp in sigmodontine rodents from Argentina, with an updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment, are provided. Records of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from Akodon montensis andAngiostrongylus morerai from six new hosts and geographical localities in Argentina are reported. The gross and histopathologic changes in the lungs of the host species due to angiostrongylosis are described. Published records of the genus Angiostrongylus from rodents and patterns of host specificity are presented. Individual Angiostrongylusspecies parasitise between one-19 different host species. The most frequent values of the specificity index (STD) were between 1-5.97. The elevated number of host species (n = 7) of A. morerai with a STD = 1.86 is a reflection of multiple systematic studies of parasites from sigmodontine rodents in the area of Cuenca del Plata, Argentina, showing that an increase in sampling effort can result in new findings. The combination of low host specificity and a wide geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus spp indicates a troubling epidemiological scenario although, as yet, no human cases have been reported. PMID:26982178

  8. 3D morphometric analysis of fossil canid skulls contradicts the suggested domestication of dogs during the late Paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Drake, Abby Grace; Coquerelle, Michael; Colombeau, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Whether dogs were domesticated during the Pleistocene, when humans were hunter-gatherers, or during the Neolithic, when humans began to form permanent settlements and engage in agriculture, remains controversial. Recently discovered Paleolithic fossil skulls, Goyet dated 31,680 +/- 250 YBP and Eliseevichi MAE 447/5298 dated 13,905 +/- 55 YBP, were previously identified as dogs. However, new genetic studies contradict the identification of these specimens as dogs, questioning the validity of traditional measurements used to morphologically identify canid fossil skulls. We employ 3D geometric morphometric analyses to compare the cranial morphology of Goyet and Eliseevichi MAE to that of ancient and modern dogs and wolves. We demonstrate that these Paleolithic canids are definitively wolves and not dogs. Compared to mesaticephalic (wolf-like breeds) dog skulls, Goyet and Eliseevichi MAE, do not have cranial flexion and the dorsal surface of their muzzles has no concavity near the orbits. Morphologically, these early fossil canids resemble wolves, and thus no longer support the establishment of dog domestication in the Paleolithic. PMID:25654325

  9. RNAi Effector Diversity in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Mitreva, Makedonka; Bird, David McK.; Abad, Pierre; Fleming, Colin C.; Day, Tim A.; Mousley, Angela; Marks, Nikki J.; Maule, Aaron G.

    2011-01-01

    While RNA interference (RNAi) has been deployed to facilitate gene function studies in diverse helminths, parasitic nematodes appear variably susceptible. To test if this is due to inter-species differences in RNAi effector complements, we performed a primary sequence similarity survey for orthologs of 77 Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi pathway proteins in 13 nematode species for which genomic or transcriptomic datasets were available, with all outputs subjected to domain-structure verification. Our dataset spanned transcriptomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Oesophagostomum dentatum, and genomes of Trichinella spiralis, Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi, Haemonchus contortus, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita and Pristionchus pacificus, as well as the Caenorhabditis species C. brenneri, C. briggsae, C. japonica and C. remanei, and revealed that: (i) Most of the C. elegans proteins responsible for uptake and spread of exogenously applied double stranded (ds)RNA are absent from parasitic species, including RNAi-competent plant-nematodes; (ii) The Argonautes (AGOs) responsible for gene expression regulation in C. elegans are broadly conserved, unlike those recruited during the induction of RNAi by exogenous dsRNA; (iii) Secondary Argonautes (SAGOs) are poorly conserved, and the nuclear AGO NRDE-3 was not identified in any parasite; (iv) All five Caenorhabditis spp. possess an expanded RNAi effector repertoire relative to the parasitic nematodes, consistent with the propensity for gene loss in nematode parasites; (v) In spite of the quantitative differences in RNAi effector complements across nematode species, all displayed qualitatively similar coverage of functional protein groups. In summary, we could not identify RNAi effector deficiencies that associate with reduced susceptibility in parasitic nematodes. Indeed, similarities in the RNAi effector complements of RNAi refractory and competent nematode parasites support the broad applicability of this research genetic tool in nematodes. PMID:21666793

  10. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection on Mayotte Island, Indian Ocean, 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Epelboin, Loïc; Blondé, Renaud; Chamouine, Abdourahim; Chrisment, Alexandra; Diancourt, Laure; Villemant, Nicolas; Atale, Agnès; Cadix, Claire; Caro, Valérie; Malvy, Denis; Collet, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human angiostrongyliasis (HA) is a neurological helminthic disease caused by the lung worm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. It is suspected in the combination of travel or a residence in an endemic area and eosinophilic meningitis. In Mayotte, an island in the Indian Ocean, cases are rare but regular. The main objective of our study was to describe the epidemiological and diagnosis clues of HA in Mayotte. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the contribution of Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT- PCR) for the diagnosis of HA, delineate the characteristics of the local transmission and ascertain the presence of A. cantonensis in Achatina fulica, the potential vector of the disease. Materials and Methods Between 2007 and 2012, all cases of eosinophilic meningitis were retrospectively included and investigated by RT- PCR in the CSF. Descriptive analysis was conducted for clinical, biological and radiological features, and were analyzed for all patients together with the search for prognostic factors for mortality. Concurrently, geolocalization and temporal parameters were studied to correlate the occurrence of the cases with rainfall seasons and snails were collected to enhance a parasitic carriage with real time PCR. Results During the 6-year period of the study, 14 cases were identified (2.3 cases/year) and 9 among 10 remaining CSF were positive in PCR. Among 14 cases of EM, 13 were less than 2 year-old children. The 1 year mortality rate was 5/14 (35.7%). Among survivors, 3/7 (42.8%) presented neurological sequelae. Factors associated with mortality were dysfunction of cranial nerves, abnormal brain imaging, and CSF glucose level inferior to 2 mmol/l. Occurrence of cases was temporarily and spatially correlated to the rainy season. Among the 64 collected giant snails, 6 (9.4%) were positive with A. cantonensis PCR. The likely main route of transmission was the children licking snails, carriers of the parasite. Conclusion In Mayotte, HA was mainly found in paediatric cases under 2 years old, and evidenced a life-threatening disease. PCR seems to be a promising tool in the definitive diagnosis of HA. Population should be aware of the role of A. fulica, and not let the children have direct contact with the snails. PMID:27144645

  11. Bacteria can mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Li, Guo-Hong; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ji, Xing-Lai; Liu, Tong; Zhao, Pei-Ji; Liang, Lian-Ming; Xu, Jian-Ping; An, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Xi; Qin, Yue-Ke; Tian, Meng-Qing; Xu, You-Yao; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yu, Ze-Fen; Huang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Qun; Niu, Xue-Mei; Yang, Jin-Kui; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitat, bacteria are consumed by bacterivorous nematodes; however, they are not simply passive preys. Here we report a defensive mechanism used by certain bacteria to mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes. These bacteria release urea, which triggers a lifestyle switch in the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from saprophytic to nematode–predatory form; this predacious form is characterized by formation of specialized cellular structures or ‘traps’. The bacteria significantly promote the elimination of nematodes by A. oligospora. Disruption of genes involved in urea transport and metabolism in A. oligospora abolishes the urea-induced trap formation. Furthermore, the urea metabolite ammonia functions as a signal molecule in the fungus to initiate the lifestyle switch to form trap structures. Our findings highlight the importance of multiple predator–prey interactions in prey defense mechanisms. PMID:25514608

  12. Pregnancy diagnosis in wild canids using a commercially available relaxin assay.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Joan E; Clifford, Deana L; Asa, Cheryl S

    2008-09-01

    Accurate detection of pregnancy is a useful tool in zoo management and husbandry, conservation breeding programs and research settings. Our study evaluated the ability of a commercial relaxin hormone assay used in domestic dogs (ReproCHEK(TM)) to accurately detect pregnancy through plasma analysis in two wolf and two fox species. The relaxin assay detected all of the pregnancies greater than 25 days gestation for island foxes, fennec foxes, gray wolves, and Mexican gray wolves. For island foxes, three negative relaxin results were attributed to using the test earlier postconception than manufacturer recommendation (before day 20). Five other negative results were found for females estimated at 15-25 days gestation, spanning the early and intermediate period (21-30 days gestation) when relaxin may be detected but less reliably. There were no false-positive results in nonmated negative control animals. Relaxin assay results were highly correlated with ultrasound results and the intra-assay replicate agreement was 100%. Our results show that the ReproCHEK(TM) commercial relaxin assay is a minimally invasive and reliable method for pregnancy detection in these wild species when used after 25 days gestation and might be applied to other canids as well. Furthermore, this assay is easy to run and requires no specialized equipment, making it extremely useful for zoo and field research applications. Zoo Biol 27:406-413, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360634

  13. Serum lipid concentrations in six canid and four ursid species in four zoos.

    PubMed

    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Slifka, Kerri A; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann M

    2004-03-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in healthy captive wild canids and ursids, and the values were compared with previously published data. Serum lipid levels were evaluated in blood samples collected from eight African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), three arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus), nine gray wolves (Canis lupus), four maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), two Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baleiyi), nine red wolves (Canis rufus), two brown bears (Ursus arctos), six polar bears (Ursus maritimus), six spectacled bears (Tremarctos ornatus), and five sun bears (Ursus malayanus). Samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Although the results showed a great variation among species, circulating lipids appeared especially high, sometimes extremely so, in the spectacled bears, polar bears, sun bears, and maned wolves compared with all other species sampled. The study provides a substantial basis for comparing lipid levels in presumed healthy animals and indicates a need for controlled study of the effects of diet on circulating lipid levels. PMID:15193071

  14. Evidence of Coat Color Variation Sheds New Light on Ancient Canids

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, Morgane; Tresset, Anne; Hitte, Christophe; Petit, Coraline; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Pionnier-Capitan, Maud; Lagoutte, Laetitia; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Balasescu, Adrian; Boroneant, Adina; Mashkour, Marjan; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Hänni, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    We have used a paleogenetics approach to investigate the genetic landscape of coat color variation in ancient Eurasian dog and wolf populations. We amplified DNA fragments of two genes controlling coat color, Mc1r (Melanocortin 1 Receptor) and CBD103 (canine-β-defensin), in respectively 15 and 19 ancient canids (dogs and wolf morphotypes) from 14 different archeological sites, throughout Asia and Europe spanning from ca. 12 000 B.P. (end of Upper Palaeolithic) to ca. 4000 B.P. (Bronze Age). We provide evidence of a new variant (R301C) of the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) and highlight the presence of the beta-defensin melanistic mutation (CDB103-K locus) on ancient DNA from dog-and wolf-morphotype specimens. We show that the dominant KB allele (CBD103), which causes melanism, and R301C (Mc1r), the variant that may cause light hair color, are present as early as the beginning of the Holocene, over 10 000 years ago. These results underline the genetic diversity of prehistoric dogs. This diversity may have partly stemmed not only from the wolf gene pool captured by domestication but also from mutations very likely linked to the relaxation of natural selection pressure occurring in-line with this process. PMID:24098367

  15. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Red Fox (Vuples vuples) and Phylogenetic Analysis with Other Canid Species.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua-Ming; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Sha, Wei-Lai; Zhang, Cheng-De; Chen, Yu-Cai

    2010-04-01

    The whole mitochondrial genome sequence of red fox (Vuples vuples) was determined. It had a total length of 16 723 bp. As in most mammal mitochondrial genome, it contained 13 protein coding genes, two ribosome RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one control region. The base composition was 31.3% A, 26.1% C, 14.8% G and 27.8% T, respectively. The codon usage of red fox, arctic fox, gray wolf, domestic dog and coyote followed the same pattern except for an unusual ATT start codon, which initiates the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 gene in the red fox. A long tandem repeat rich in AC was found between conserved sequence block 1 and 2 in the control region. In order to confirm the phylogenetic relationships of red fox to other canids, phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods using 12 concatenated heavy-strand protein-coding genes. The result indicated that arctic fox was the sister group of red fox and they both belong to the red fox-like clade in family Canidae, while gray wolf, domestic dog and coyote belong to wolf-like clade. The result was in accordance with existing phylogenetic results. PMID:20545001

  16. Evidence of coat color variation sheds new light on ancient canids.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, Morgane; Tresset, Anne; Hitte, Christophe; Petit, Coraline; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Pionnier-Capitan, Maud; Lagoutte, Laetitia; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Balasescu, Adrian; Boroneant, Adina; Mashkour, Marjan; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Hänni, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    We have used a paleogenetics approach to investigate the genetic landscape of coat color variation in ancient Eurasian dog and wolf populations. We amplified DNA fragments of two genes controlling coat color, Mc1r (Melanocortin 1 Receptor) and CBD103 (canine-β-defensin), in respectively 15 and 19 ancient canids (dogs and wolf morphotypes) from 14 different archeological sites, throughout Asia and Europe spanning from ca. 12 000 B.P. (end of Upper Palaeolithic) to ca. 4000 B.P. (Bronze Age). We provide evidence of a new variant (R301C) of the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) and highlight the presence of the beta-defensin melanistic mutation (CDB103-K locus) on ancient DNA from dog-and wolf-morphotype specimens. We show that the dominant K(B) allele (CBD103), which causes melanism, and R301C (Mc1r), the variant that may cause light hair color, are present as early as the beginning of the Holocene, over 10,000 years ago. These results underline the genetic diversity of prehistoric dogs. This diversity may have partly stemmed not only from the wolf gene pool captured by domestication but also from mutations very likely linked to the relaxation of natural selection pressure occurring in-line with this process. PMID:24098367

  17. Social Networks of Educated Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Denis S.; Alborn, Hans T.; Duncan, Larry W.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate lethal parasitoids of insect larvae that navigate a chemically complex belowground environment while interacting with their insect hosts, plants, and each other. In this environment, prior exposure to volatile compounds appears to prime nematodes in a compound specific manner, increasing preference for volatiles they previously were exposed to and decreasing attraction to other volatiles. In addition, persistence of volatile exposure influences this response. Longer exposure not only increases preference, but also results in longer retention of that preference. These entomopathogenic nematodes display interspecific social behavioral plasticity; experienced nematodes influence the behavior of different species. This interspecific social behavioral plasticity suggests a mechanism for rapid adaptation of belowground communities to dynamic environments. PMID:26404058

  18. Comparative calorie values of nematodes.

    PubMed

    Croll, N A; de Soyza, K

    1980-04-01

    Calorie values for a wide biological selection of nematodes, determined with a microbomb calorimeter, ranged from 3.86 to 6.85 Kcal/g. The mean of 5.095 Kcal from 16 species was lower than means recorded in three previous studies of other invertebrate groups. The nematode values were skewed to the lowest limit. Larvae of Ditylenchus dipsaci showed lower calorie values after storage, and the calorie values of separate tissues of Ascaris lumbricoides were highest for eggs and the intestine and lowest for cuticle and body-wall musculature. No clear calorie distinction exists between nematodes with a parasitic or free-living habit or between large and small nematodes. PMID:19300684

  19. The Occurrence of the Rat Lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in Nonindigenous Snails in the Gulf of Mexico Region of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S; da Silva, Alexandre J; Carter, Jacoby; White-Mclean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas. PMID:23901374

  20. The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teem, John L.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Carter, Jacoby; White-McLean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas.

  1. The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Teem, John L; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S; da Silva, Alexandre J; Carter, Jacoby; White-McLean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

    2013-06-01

    Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas. PMID:23901374

  2. Nematode Indicators of Organic Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Howard; Bongers, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The organisms of the soil food web, dependent on resources from plants or on amendment from other sources, respond characteristically to enrichment of their environment by organic matter. Primary consumers of the incoming substrate, including bacteria, fungi, plant-feeding nematodes, annelids, and some microarthropods, are entry-level indicators of enrichment. However, the quantification of abundance and biomass of this diverse group, as an indicator of resource status, requires a plethora of extraction and assessment techniques. Soluble organic compounds are absorbed by bacteria and fungi, while fungi also degrade more recalcitrant sources. These organisms are potential indicators of the nature of incoming substrate, but current methods of biomass determination do not reliably indicate their community composition. Guilds of nematodes that feed on bacteria (e.g., Rhabditidae, Panagrolaimidae) and fungi (e.g., Aphelenchidae, Aphelenchoididae) are responsive to changes in abundance of their food. Through direct herbivory, plant-feeding nematodes (e.g., many species of Tylenchina) also contribute to food web resources. Thus, analysis of the nematode community of a single sample provides indication of carbon flow through an important herbivore channel and through channels mediated by bacteria and fungi. Some nematode guilds are more responsive than others to resource enrichment. Generally, those bacterivores with short lifecycles and high reproductive potential (e.g., Rhabditidae) most closely mirror the bloom of bacteria or respond most rapidly to active plant growth. The feeding habits of some groups remain unclear. For example, nematodes of the Tylenchidae may constitute 30% or more of the individuals in a soil sample; further study is necessary to determine which resource channels they portray and the appropriate level of taxonomic resolution for this group. A graphic representation of the relative biomass of bacterivorous, fungivorous, and herbivorous nematodes provides a useful tool for assessing the importance of the bacterial, fungal, and plant resource channels in an extant food web. PMID:19259424

  3. Water developments and canids in two North American deserts: a test of the indirect effect of water hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lucas K; Larsen, Randy T; Knight, Robert N; Bunnell, Kevin D; McMillan, Brock R

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic modifications to landscapes intended to benefit wildlife may negatively influence wildlife communities. Anthropogenic provisioning of free water (water developments) to enhance abundance and distribution of wildlife is a common management practice in arid regions where water is limiting. Despite the long-term and widespread use of water developments, little is known about how they influence native species. Water developments may negatively influence arid-adapted species (e.g., kit fox, Vulpes macrotis) by enabling water-dependent competitors (e.g., coyote, Canis latrans) to expand distribution in arid landscapes (i.e., indirect effect of water hypothesis). We tested the two predictions of the indirect effect of water hypothesis (i.e., coyotes will visit areas with free water more frequently and kit foxes will spatially and temporally avoid coyotes) and evaluated relative use of free water by canids in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts from 2010 to 2012. We established scent stations in areas with (wet) and without (dry) free water and monitored visitation by canids to these sites and visitation to water sources using infrared-triggered cameras. There was no difference in the proportions of visits to scent stations in wet or dry areas by coyotes or kit foxes at either study area. We did not detect spatial (no negative correlation between visits to scent stations) or temporal (no difference between times when stations were visited) segregation between coyotes and kit foxes. Visitation to water sources was not different for coyotes between study areas, but kit foxes visited water sources more in Mojave than Great Basin. Our results did not support the indirect effect of water hypothesis in the Great Basin or Mojave Deserts for these two canids. PMID:23844097

  4. A Comparison of Facial Color Pattern and Gazing Behavior in Canid Species Suggests Gaze Communication in Gray Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Sayoko; Kumagai, Gaku; Otaki, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication. PMID:24918751

  5. Water Developments and Canids in Two North American Deserts: A Test of the Indirect Effect of Water Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Lucas K.; Larsen, Randy T.; Knight, Robert N.; Bunnell, Kevin D.; McMillan, Brock R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic modifications to landscapes intended to benefit wildlife may negatively influence wildlife communities. Anthropogenic provisioning of free water (water developments) to enhance abundance and distribution of wildlife is a common management practice in arid regions where water is limiting. Despite the long-term and widespread use of water developments, little is known about how they influence native species. Water developments may negatively influence arid-adapted species (e.g., kit fox, Vulpes macrotis) by enabling water-dependent competitors (e.g., coyote, Canis latrans) to expand distribution in arid landscapes (i.e., indirect effect of water hypothesis). We tested the two predictions of the indirect effect of water hypothesis (i.e., coyotes will visit areas with free water more frequently and kit foxes will spatially and temporally avoid coyotes) and evaluated relative use of free water by canids in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts from 2010 to 2012. We established scent stations in areas with (wet) and without (dry) free water and monitored visitation by canids to these sites and visitation to water sources using infrared-triggered cameras. There was no difference in the proportions of visits to scent stations in wet or dry areas by coyotes or kit foxes at either study area. We did not detect spatial (no negative correlation between visits to scent stations) or temporal (no difference between times when stations were visited) segregation between coyotes and kit foxes. Visitation to water sources was not different for coyotes between study areas, but kit foxes visited water sources more in Mojave than Great Basin. Our results did not support the indirect effect of water hypothesis in the Great Basin or Mojave Deserts for these two canids. PMID:23844097

  6. An evaluation of the PCR-RFLP technique to aid molecular-based monitoring of felids and canids in India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The order Carnivora is well represented in India, with 58 of the 250 species found globally, occurring here. However, small carnivores figure very poorly in research and conservation policies in India. This is mainly due to the dearth of tested and standardized techniques that are both cost effective and conducive to small carnivore studies in the field. In this paper we present a non-invasive genetic technique standardized for the study of Indian felids and canids with the use of PCR amplification and restriction enzyme digestion of scat collected in the field. Findings Using existing sequences of felids and canids from GenBank, we designed primers from the 16S rRNA region of the mitochondrial genome and tested these on ten species of felids and five canids. We selected restriction enzymes that would cut the selected region differentially for various species within each family. We produced a restriction digestion profile for the potential differentiation of species based on fragment patterns. To test our technique, we used felid PCR primers on scats collected from various habitats in India, representing varied environmental conditions. Amplification success with field collected scats was 52%, while 86% of the products used for restriction digestion could be accurately assigned to species. We verified this through sequencing. A comparison of costs across the various techniques currently used for scat assignment showed that this technique was the most practical and cost effective. Conclusions The species-specific key developed in this paper provides a means for detailed investigations in the future that focus on elusive carnivores in India and this approach provides a model for other studies in areas of Asia where many small carnivores co-occur. PMID:20525407

  7. A thyroid peroxidase (TPO) mutation in dogs reveals a canid-specific gene structure.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, John C; Lynch, Mary; Olsen, Jayme; Louёr, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism with goiter (CHG) occurring as an autosomal recessive disorder is typically due to a defect of thyroid hormone synthesis (aka dyshormonogenesis). Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a multifunctional, heme-containing enzyme whose activity is required, and several inactivating TPO mutations causing CHG in humans and dogs have been described. Recently, two half-sib Spanish water dog (SWD) pups were diagnosed with CHG based on clinical signs, endocrine testing, and thyroid histology. TPO enzyme activity was absent, and immuno-cross-reactive TPO was undetectable in affected-dog thyroid tissue. A single guanosine insertion was observed in the first exon of the affected-dog TPO cDNA at a site not previously thought to be within the coding sequence. The insertion allele segregated with the deduced disease allele in the SWD breed and was not observed in unrelated dogs of various breeds. Comparison of the insertion site (an 8-nt poly-G tract) with the orthologous sequences of other mammalian reference genomes revealed that the octa-G tract obliterated the intron 1 splice acceptor site and the exon 2 translation initiation codon found at that position in other species. An in-frame ATG in strong Kozak consensus context was observed in the normal dog sequence 12 codons 5' of the usual mammalian start site, suggesting that dogs have lost the noncoding exon 1 demonstrated in human and mouse. A survey of TPO sequences in other carnivore species indicates that the poly-G tract necessitating an alternative translation initiation site is a canid-specific feature. PMID:23223904

  8. Using entomopathogenic nematodes for crop insect control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview on using entomopathogenic nematodes for insect pest control. Entomopathogenic nematodes (genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis), are be used as natural biopesticides. Unlike plant parasitic nematodes, which can be serious crop pests, entomopat...

  9. Parasites of domestic and wild canids in the region of Serra do Cipó National Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Juliana Lúcia Costa; Magalhães, Noele Borges; Dos Santos, Hudson Andrade; Ribeiro, Raul Rio; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi

    2012-01-01

    Over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. Greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. This study had the aim of investigating the presence of intestinal helminths in wild canids (maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, and crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous) in the Serra do Cipó National Park (43-44º W and 19-20º S) and endo and ectoparasites of domestic dogs in the Morro da Pedreira Environmental Protection Area (an area surrounding the National Park). The Serra do Cipó is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Among the enteroparasites found in domestic and wild canids, the following taxons were identified: Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Toxocara sp., Spirocerca sp., Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp., Cestoda, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothriidae, Hymenolepidae, Anoplocephalidae, Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Isospora sp. Domestic dogs were positive for leishmaniasis and Babesia canis in serological tests. Among the ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Ctenocephalides felis felis were observed in domestic dogs. Variations in the chaetotaxy of the meta-episternum and posterior tibia were observed in some specimens of C. felis felis. PMID:23070438

  10. A serological survey of infectious disease in yellowstone national park's canid community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almberg, E.S.; Mech, L.D.; Smith, D.W.; Sheldon, J.W.; Crabtree, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991-2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5-0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [???1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5-1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [???1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6-4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [???5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals' odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Conclusions/Significance: Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics might be expected might be useful for future management of the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf population.

  11. A Serological Survey of Infectious Disease in Yellowstone National Park’s Canid Community

    PubMed Central

    Almberg, Emily S.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991–2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5–0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [≥1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5–1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [≥1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6–4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [≥5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals’ odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Conclusions/Significance Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics might be expected might be useful for future management of the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf population. PMID:19756151

  12. Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    After devastating vast areas of pine forests in Asian countries, the pine wilt disease spread into European forests in 1999 and is causing worldwide concern. This disease involves very complicated interactions between a pathogenic nematode, its vector beetle, host pine species, and fungi in dead hosts. Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode is determined not only by its physical and chemical traits but also by its behavioral traits. Most life history traits of the pine wood nematode, such as its phoretic relationship with vector beetles, seem to be more effective in virulent than in avirulent isolates or species. As the pathogenicity determinants, secreted enzymes, and surface coat proteins are very important, they have therefore been studied intensively. The mechanism of quick death of a large pine tree as a result of infection by a tiny nematode could be ascribed to the dysfunction of the water-conducting system caused by the death of parenchyma cells, which must have originally evolved as an inherent resistant system. PMID:23663004

  13. Trait Modification in Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of beneficial traits such as virulence, reproductive potential, and environmental tolerance are key factors in determining an organisms ability to produce high levels of efficacy in biological control. Beneficial traits in entomopathogenic nematodes have been enhanced through molecular me...

  14. ORAL NEMATODE INFECTION OF TARANTULAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oral nematode infection of Theraphosidae spiders, known as tarantulas, has been recently identified from several collections in the UK and mainland Europe. The disease has also been seen in captive and wild spiders from the Americas, Asia and Africa. Spider symptoms are described from anorexia until...

  15. Free-living nematode peptides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All nematodes employ a wide array of peptide messengers to control nearly all aspects of the life cycle, including hatching, locomotion, feeding, defense, mating, reproduction, and other behavioral and metabolic events. There are molecular and biological similarities, as well as significant differen...

  16. Animal Manure Harms Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure forms an alternative to synthetic fertilizer that provides the additional benefits of reducing nutrient leaching and soil erosion, and promoting greater soil biodiversity. Studies show that animal manures can suppress plant parasitic nematodes by increasing densities of antagonistic mi...

  17. The pathogenesis of optic neuritis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the most common causes of meningitis in South East Asia is angiostrongyliasis or infection by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis. Although this nematode usually resides in the pulmonary arteries of rats, its incidental occurence in other hosts such as humans can cause optic neuritis and lead to serious vision sequelae. Nevertheless, there are currently no systematic studies conducted in this area. Methods In order to study the pathogenesis of optic neuritis, mice were tried as a new animal model to study and challenge with A. cantonensis on 7d, 14d and 21d, respectively. Electroretinogram (ERG), visual evoked potential (VEP), ophthalmoscopy and histology were examined on day 7d, 14d and 21d and tribendimidine (TBD) was later used to treat optic neuritis on day 14d for a week to evaluate its therapeutic effects. Results Infection of A. cantonensis caused obvious inflammatory cell infiltration in the retina and optic nerve adventitia in day 14d and 21d followed by optic nerve fiber demyelination and retinal ganglion swelling at day 21d in the challenged mice. Prolonged VEP latency and decreased ERG amplitude were also observed on day 21. After treatment of TBD in the infected mice, retinal and optic nerve inflammation were alleviated, but VEP latency and ERG amplitude did not improve on day 21d and 28d. Conclusions The current study provides evidence that A. cantonensis can cause optic neuritis along with optic nerve demyelination and retinal ganglion cell damage in a mouse model. TBD alone treatment can improve the symptoms of optic neuritis, but does not aid in vision recovery, suggesting that both neuroprotective agents and Dexamethasone should be administered, along with treatment for the infection, to protect the optic nerve and ganglion cells. Furthermore, as the symptoms of optic neuritis caused by A. cantonensis in mice are similar to the optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis (MS) human patients, we suggest that the BALB/c mouse model provided in this study may be useful to explore therapies of optic neuritis in MS patients. PMID:25052055

  18. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2014-12-01

    Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole), tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel) and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin). Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC)-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop diagnostics that will help define levels of pre-patent infection. This review describes recent advances in each of these areas of research. PMID:25516842

  19. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Eosinophilic Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Xayavong, Maniphet; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Park, Sarah Y; Whelen, A Christian; Calimlim, Precilia S; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Honda, Stacey A A; Higa, Karen; Kitsutani, Paul; Chea, Nora; Heng, Seng; Johnson, Stuart; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Fox, LeAnne M; da Silva, Alexandre J

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningitis. Timely diagnosis of these infections is difficult, partly because reliable laboratory diagnostic methods are unavailable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of A. cantonensis DNA in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. A total of 49 CSF specimens from 33 patients with eosinophilic meningitis were included: A. cantonensis DNA was detected in 32 CSF specimens, from 22 patients. Four patients had intermittently positive and negative real-time PCR results on subsequent samples, indicating that the level of A. cantonensis DNA present in CSF may fluctuate during the course of the illness. Immunodiagnosis and/or supplemental PCR testing supported the real-time PCR findings for 30 patients. On the basis of these observations, this real-time PCR assay can be useful to detect A. cantonensis in the CSF from patients with eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:26526920

  20. Detection of plant-parasitic nematode DNA in the gut of predatory and omnivorous nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A protocol for molecular gut analysis of nematodes was developed to determine if predatory and omnivorous nematodes from five different guilds prey on Rotylenchulus reniformis, Meloidogyne incognita, and Radopholus similis. Mononchoides, Mononchus, Neoactinolaimus, Mesodorylaimus, and Aporcelaimell...

  1. Counting nematodes with a microplate reader.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A F; Veech, J A; Heald, C M

    1992-03-01

    The feasibility of counting plant-parasitic nematodes in aqueous suspensions by measuring light transmittance through aqueous suspensions with an ELISA microplate reader was explored. Absorbance readings for eggs or vermiform stages of three species were linearly related (R(2) > 0.99) to concentrations between 0 and 10,000 nematodes/ml. Coefficients of variation ranged from 12-23%, depending on the species and developmental stage used. The method, therefore, was at least as accurate as direct counts of nematodes in aliquots on a microscope and more than 100 times as fast. The method should have direct application in research programs on plant resistance to nematodes, nematode population dynamics, and nematode behavior. PMID:19283207

  2. Comparison against 186 canid whole-genome sequences reveals survival strategies of an ancient clonally transmissible canine tumor.

    PubMed

    Decker, Brennan; Davis, Brian W; Rimbault, Maud; Long, Adrienne H; Karlins, Eric; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Reiman, Rebecca; Parker, Heidi G; Drögemüller, Cord; Corneveaux, Jason J; Chapman, Erica S; Trent, Jeffery M; Leeb, Tosso; Huentelman, Matthew J; Wayne, Robert K; Karyadi, Danielle M; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2015-11-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a parasitic cancer clone that has propagated for thousands of years via sexual transfer of malignant cells. Little is understood about the mechanisms that converted an ancient tumor into the world's oldest known continuously propagating somatic cell lineage. We created the largest existing catalog of canine genome-wide variation and compared it against two CTVT genome sequences, thereby separating alleles derived from the founder's genome from somatic mutations that must drive clonal transmissibility. We show that CTVT has undergone continuous adaptation to its transmissible allograft niche, with overlapping mutations at every step of immunosurveillance, particularly self-antigen presentation and apoptosis. We also identified chronologically early somatic mutations in oncogenesis- and immune-related genes that may represent key initiators of clonal transmissibility. Thus, we provide the first insights into the specific genomic aberrations that underlie CTVT's dogged perseverance in canids around the world. PMID:26232412

  3. Comparison against 186 canid whole-genome sequences reveals survival strategies of an ancient clonally transmissible canine tumor

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Brennan; Davis, Brian W.; Rimbault, Maud; Long, Adrienne H.; Karlins, Eric; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Reiman, Rebecca; Parker, Heidi G.; Drögemüller, Cord; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Chapman, Erica S.; Trent, Jeffery M.; Leeb, Tosso; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Wayne, Robert K.; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2015-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a parasitic cancer clone that has propagated for thousands of years via sexual transfer of malignant cells. Little is understood about the mechanisms that converted an ancient tumor into the world's oldest known continuously propagating somatic cell lineage. We created the largest existing catalog of canine genome-wide variation and compared it against two CTVT genome sequences, thereby separating alleles derived from the founder's genome from somatic mutations that must drive clonal transmissibility. We show that CTVT has undergone continuous adaptation to its transmissible allograft niche, with overlapping mutations at every step of immunosurveillance, particularly self-antigen presentation and apoptosis. We also identified chronologically early somatic mutations in oncogenesis- and immune-related genes that may represent key initiators of clonal transmissibility. Thus, we provide the first insights into the specific genomic aberrations that underlie CTVT's dogged perseverance in canids around the world. PMID:26232412

  4. Global Decline in Suitable Habitat for Angiostrongylus ( = Parastrongylus) cantonensis: The Role of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    York, Emily M.; Butler, Christopher J.; Lord, Wayne D.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is implicated in the alteration of the ranges of species worldwide. Such shifts in species distributions may introduce parasites/pathogens, hosts, and vectors associated with disease to new areas. The parasite Angiostrongylus ( = Parastrongylus) cantonensis is an invasive species that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans and neurological abnormalities in domestic/wild animals. Although native to southeastern Asia, A. cantonensis has now been reported from more than 30 countries worldwide. Given the health risks, it is important to describe areas with potentially favorable climate for the establishment of A. cantonensis, as well as areas where this pathogen might become established in the future. We used the program Maxent to develop an ecological niche model for A. cantonensis based on 86 localities obtained from published literature. We then modeled areas of potential A. cantonensis distribution as well as areas projected to have suitable climatic conditions under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios by the 2050s and the 2070s. The best model contained three bioclimatic variables: mean diurnal temperature range, minimum temperature of coldest month and precipitation of warmest quarter. Potentially suitable habitat for A. cantonensis was located worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions. Under all climate change RCP scenarios, the center of the projected distribution shifted away from the equator at a rate of 68–152 km per decade. However, the extent of areas with highly suitable habitat (>50%) declined by 10.66–15.66% by the 2050s and 13.11–16.11% by the 2070s. These results conflict with previous studies, which have generally found that the prevalence of tropical pathogens will increase during the 21st century. Moreover, it is likely that A. cantonensis will continue to expand its current range in the near future due to introductions and host expansion, whereas climate change will reduce the total geographic area of most suitable climatic conditions during the coming decades. PMID:25122457

  5. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode’s main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Methods The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. Results The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8) from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. Conclusion The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions. PMID:23130987

  6. Temporal-spatial pathological changes in the brains of permissive and non-permissive hosts experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Chen; Jung, Shih-Ming; Chen, Kuang-Yao; Wang, Tzu-Yi; Li, Chung-Han

    2015-10-01

    Human cerebral angiostrongyliasis becomes an emerging disease in many parts of the world. By postmortem examination, Angiostrongylus cantonensis have been reported to cause severe pathological changes in the central nervous system. The present study was designed to determine the temporal-spatial pathological changes through experimental infections and histopathological examination of permissive (SD rats) and non-permissive (ICR mice) hosts. After infecting SD rats with 25, 50, or 100 third-stage larvae (L3) and ICR mice with 25 L3, one animal from each group was sacrificed daily from day 1 to day 30 post-infection. Each rat brain was cut into six sections and mouse brain into five sections. These sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically. Eosinophilic meningitis was found to be the most commonly pathological change and occurred on day 17 post-infection in rats with 25 L3, day 9 in the 50- or 100-L3 groups, and day 12 in infected mice. Thickness of the meninges increased 9-24 folds in infected rats and 89 folds in an infected mouse on day 28. Encephalitis, congestion, perivascular cuffing, and haemorrhage were revealed in infected mice and rats with 100 L3. Fifth-stage larvae were frequently observed in the meninges but occasionally in the parenchyma. Significant correlations between meningitis and presence of larvae in the meninges were found in the three infected rat groups but not in the infected mice. The results indicate that the clinical course of A. cantonensis infection is not self-limited but becomes more severe with the intensity of infection. PMID:26299243

  7. Invasive Snails and an Emerging Infectious Disease: Results from the First National Survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Hu, Ling; Yang, Kun; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Zhao; Wang, Li-Ying; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2009-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis) caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40×40 km). One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis–infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. Conclusions/Significance The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks. PMID:19190771

  8. Parasitic Nematodes - From Genomes to Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases caused by parasitic nematodes in domestic and companion animals are major factors that decrease production and quality of the agricultural products. Methods available for the control of the parasitic nematode infections are mainly based on chemical treatment, non-chemical management pra...

  9. Managing nematode pests in Midsouth soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean producers must contend with nematode pests, several species of which may inhabit a single field. Significant yield losses caused by soybean cyst (Heterodera glycines), southern root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita), reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) and other nematodes were estimated at 2.6% (...

  10. Interspecific nematode signals regulate dispersal behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2) of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective ...

  11. Biological Control of Nematodes with Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of nematodes is receiving increased attention as environmental considerations with the use of nematicides have increased in importance and their high cost prohibits use on many crops. In addition, nematode resistant cultivars are not available for many crops and resistance that i...

  12. HOST CADAVERS PROTECT ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES DURING FREEZING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of insect-killing nematodes were exposed to freezing temperatures while inside their hosts. Survival was assessed by observing live and dead nematodes inside cadavers and by counting the infective juveniles (IJs) tht emerged after freezing. We 1) measured the effects of 24 hours of fr...

  13. Improved nematode extraction from carrot disk culture.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D T; Davis, E L

    1990-07-01

    Radopholus spp. were reared in carrot tissue culture via established procedures, with slight modification. Several plant tissue maceration enzymes and flotation media (salts and sucrose) were evaluated with regard to nematode toxicity and extraction efficiency. Best extraction of viable nematodes and eggs was attained when carrot tissue infested with Radopholus citrophilus or R. similis was macerated with a mixture of 0.50% driselase and 0.50% cellulysin, w/v each, with 2.5 ml of enzyme solution based for each gram of carrot tissue. Maceration slurries containing carrot tissue and nematodes were maintained in open flasks on a rotary shaker (175 rpm) at 26 C for 24 hours. Nematodes and eggs were extracted from resultant culture slurries by flotation with MgSO-7H0 (sp gr 1.1). A protocol is presented to extract large quantities of viable burrowing nematodes and their eggs from carrot disk cultures. PMID:19287736

  14. Improved Nematode Extraction from Carrot Disk Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, David T.; Davis, Eric L.

    1990-01-01

    Radopholus spp. were reared in carrot tissue culture via established procedures, with slight modification. Several plant tissue maceration enzymes and flotation media (salts and sucrose) were evaluated with regard to nematode toxicity and extraction efficiency. Best extraction of viable nematodes and eggs was attained when carrot tissue infested with Radopholus citrophilus or R. similis was macerated with a mixture of 0.50% driselase and 0.50% cellulysin, w/v each, with 2.5 ml of enzyme solution based for each gram of carrot tissue. Maceration slurries containing carrot tissue and nematodes were maintained in open flasks on a rotary shaker (175 rpm) at 26 C for 24 hours. Nematodes and eggs were extracted from resultant culture slurries by flotation with MgSO₄-7H₂0 (sp gr 1.1). A protocol is presented to extract large quantities of viable burrowing nematodes and their eggs from carrot disk cultures. PMID:19287736

  15. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host–parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  16. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Sara B; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2015-05-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host-parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife. PMID:25680855

  17. Host Plant Resistance to Root-Knot Nematode in Cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-plant resistance is economic and highly effective for root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita control in cotton Gossypium hirsutum. Nematode resistance can protect cotton plants from direct injury due to nematode infection, and can protect against the root-knot nematode-Fusarium wilt dis...

  18. Host Plant Resistance to Root-Knot Nematode in Cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-plant resistance is economic and highly effective for root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita control in cotton Gossypium hirsutum. Nematode resistance can protect cotton plants from direct injury and crop loss from nematode infection, and can protect against the root-knot nematode-Fusar...

  19. Nematodes associated with Dryocoetes uniseriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ai; Tanaka, Ryusei; Akiba, Mitsuteru; Masuya, Hayato; Iwata, Rytar; Fukuda, Kenji; Kanzaki, Natsumi

    2013-02-01

    We examined the nematode fauna associated with a species of bark beetle, Dryocoetes uniseriatus Eggers, as part of a biodiversity survey of forest beetle-associated nematodes. Collections were made in a pine stand at an experimental forest station in Ibaraki, Japan, from April to July of 2011; we examined the nematode association in 273 insects collected during this time. In total, 68% of the insects were associated with at least one species of nematode. Six species of nematodes, including two phoretic microbe feeders (Bursaphelenchus rainulfi Braasch & Burgermeister and Micoletzkya sp.), one insect parasite and nematode predator (Devibursaphelenchus cf. eproctatus), one insect parasite (Contortylenchus sp.), one insect parasite and potential microbe feeder (unidentified rhabditid parasite), and one potential insect parasite and fungal feeder (B. sinensis) were recovered from the beetles. D. cf. eproctatus was enclosed in nematangia on the backsides of the elytra, B. rainulfi was isolated from the backsides of the elytra or enclosed in nematangia, Micoletzkya sp. was isolated from under the elytra, Contortylenchus sp. and a rhabditid parasite parasitized the body cavity, and B. sinensis was found in the digestive tract of the insect. The association patterns of the nematode species varied seasonally, although definitive interactions among species (e.g., segregation, competition) were not observed. PMID:23339788

  20. Replacement names for two nematode junior homonyms.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Ernest C; Phillips, Gary

    2015-01-01

    During taxonomic investigations of nematodes that parasitize millipedes, we reviewed the literature on the nematode genus Robertia Travassos & Kloss, 1961. This literature search also revealed the existence of two other identical genus-group names for taxa in Chordata and Arthropoda: Robertia Boonstra, 1948 (extinct Permian non-mammalian synapsid) and Robertia Saaristo, 2006 (theridiid spider from the Seychelles), respectively. Of these three homonyms, Robertia Boonstra, 1948 clearly has priority. The spider name Robertia recently was replaced with Seycellesa Kocak & Kemal, 2008. The nematode genus-name also is a junior homonym and requires replacement. We propose the new replacement name Traklosia for Robertia Travassos & Kloss, 1961. PMID:26701445

  1. Intraocular Nematode Affixed to Posterior Lens Capsule.

    PubMed

    Karth, Peter A; Swinney, Christian C; Moshfeghi, Darius M; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Pang, Claudine E; Leng, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    The clinical presentation of an intraocular nematode unusually affixed to the posterior lens capsule is described. A 64-year-old female patient presented with a 7-year history of gradually declining vision and enlarging central scotoma, but no inflammation. On follow-up 2 years later, vision had further declined and a non-motile, 8-mm nematode was seen affixed to the posterior lens capsule that remained unchanged through final follow-up. The patient disclosed having resided in Africa as a child. Systemic review revealed no evidence of extraocular involvement. Nematode carcasses may remain preserved in the human eye for extended periods without ongoing inflammation. PMID:26599254

  2. Visualizing bacteria in nematodes using fluorescent microscopy.

    PubMed

    Murfin, Kristen E; Chaston, John; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Symbioses, the living together of two or more organisms, are widespread throughout all kingdoms of life. As two of the most ubiquitous organisms on earth, nematodes and bacteria form a wide array of symbiotic associations that range from beneficial to pathogenic (1-3). One such association is the mutually beneficial relationship between Xenorhabdus bacteria and Steinernema nematodes, which has emerged as a model system of symbiosis (4). Steinernema nematodes are entomopathogenic, using their bacterial symbiont to kill insects (5). For transmission between insect hosts, the bacteria colonize the intestine of the nematode's infective juvenile stage (6-8). Recently, several other nematode species have been shown to utilize bacteria to kill insects (9-13), and investigations have begun examining the interactions between the nematodes and bacteria in these systems (9). We describe a method for visualization of a bacterial symbiont within or on a nematode host, taking advantage of the optical transparency of nematodes when viewed by microscopy. The bacteria are engineered to express a fluorescent protein, allowing their visualization by fluorescence microscopy. Many plasmids are available that carry genes encoding proteins that fluoresce at different wavelengths (i.e. green or red), and conjugation of plasmids from a donor Escherichia coli strain into a recipient bacterial symbiont is successful for a broad range of bacteria. The methods described were developed to investigate the association between Steinernema carpocapsae and Xenorhabdus nematophila (14). Similar methods have been used to investigate other nematode-bacterium associations (9) (,) (15-18)and the approach therefore is generally applicable. The method allows characterization of bacterial presence and localization within nematodes at different stages of development, providing insights into the nature of the association and the process of colonization (14) (,) (16) (,) (19). Microscopic analysis reveals both colonization frequency within a population and localization of bacteria to host tissues (14) (,) (16) (,) (19-21). This is an advantage over other methods of monitoring bacteria within nematode populations, such as sonication (22)or grinding (23), which can provide average levels of colonization, but may not, for example, discriminate populations with a high frequency of low symbiont loads from populations with a low frequency of high symbiont loads. Discriminating the frequency and load of colonizing bacteria can be especially important when screening or characterizing bacterial mutants for colonization phenotypes (21) (,) (24). Indeed, fluorescence microscopy has been used in high throughput screening of bacterial mutants for defects in colonization (17) (,) (18), and is less laborious than other methods, including sonication (22) (,) (25-27)and individual nematode dissection (28) (,) (29). PMID:23117838

  3. Complete sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mitochondrial genome and its phylogenetic relationship with other Canids ( Canis, Canidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yinxia; Li, Qifa; Zhao, Xingbo; Xie, Zhuang; Xu, Yinxue

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the complete sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) was determined, and the phylogenetic relationships between the Tibetan Mastiff and other species of Canidae were analyzed using the coyote (Canis latrans) as an outgroup. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mtDNA was 16 710 bp, and included 22 tRNA genes, 2S rRNA gene, 13 protein-coding genes and one non-coding region (D-loop region), which is similar to other mammalian mitochondrial genomes. The characteristics of the protein-coding genes, non-coding region, tRNA and rRNA genes among Canidae were analyzed in detail. Neighbor-joining and maximum-parsimony trees of Canids constructed using 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes showed that as the coyotes and Tibetan wolves clustered together, so too did the gray wolves and domestic dogs, suggesting that the Tibetan Mastiff originated from the gray wolf as did other domestic dogs. Domestic dogs clustered into four clades, implying at least four maternal origins (A to D). The Tibetan Mastiff, which belongs to clade A, appears to be closely related to the Saint Bernard and the Old English Sheepdog. PMID:22440697

  4. Development and validation of a real-time PCR assay for specific and sensitive detection of canid herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Amorisco, Francesca; Desario, Costantina; Lorusso, Eleonora; Camero, Michele; Bellacicco, Anna Lucia; Sciarretta, Rossana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-10-01

    A TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay targeting the glycoprotein B-encoding gene was developed for diagnosis of canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1) infection. The established assay was highly specific, since no cross-reactions were observed with other canine DNA viruses, including canine parvovirus type 2, canine minute virus, or canine adenovirus types 1 and 2. The detection limit was 10(1) and 1.20 x 10(1) DNA copies per 10 microl(-1) of template for standard DNA and a CHV-1-positive kidney sample, respectively: about 1-log higher than a gel-based PCR assay targeting the thymidine kinase gene. The assay was also reproducible, as shown by satisfactory low intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation. CHV-1 isolates of different geographical origins were recognised by the TaqMan assay. Tissues and clinical samples collected from three pups which died of CHV-1 neonatal infection were also tested, displaying a wide distribution of CHV-l DNA in their organs. Unlike other CHV-1-specific diagnostic methods, this quantitative assay permits simultaneous detection and quantitation of CHV-1 DNA in a wide range of canine tissues and body fluids, thus providing a useful tool for confirmation of a clinical diagnosis, for the study of viral pathogenesis and for evaluation of the efficacy of vaccines and antiviral drugs. PMID:20674611

  5. Nematode.net update 2008: improvements enabling more efficient data mining and comparative nematode genomics.

    PubMed

    Martin, John; Abubucker, Sahar; Wylie, Todd; Yin, Yong; Wang, Zhengyuan; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2009-01-01

    Nematode.net (http://nematode.net) is a publicly available resource dedicated to the study of parasitic nematodes. In 2000, the Genome Center at Washington University (GC) joined a consortium including the Nematode Genomics group in Edinburgh, and the Pathogen Sequencing Unit of the Sanger Institute to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs) as an inexpensive and efficient solution for gene discovery in parasitic nematodes. As of 2008 the GC, sampling key parasites of humans, animals and plants, has generated over 500,000 ESTs and 1.2 million genome survey sequences from more than 30 non-Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. Nematode.net was implemented to offer user-friendly access to data produced by this project. In addition to sequence data, the site hosts: assembled NemaGene clusters in GBrowse views characterizing composition and protein homology, functional Gene Ontology annotations presented via the AmiGO browser, KEGG-based graphical display of NemaGene clusters mapped to metabolic pathways, codon usage tables, NemFam protein families which represent conserved nematode-restricted coding sequences not found in public protein databases, a web-based WU-BLAST search tool that allows complex querying and other assorted resources. The primary aim of Nematode.net is the dissemination of this diverse collection of information to the broader scientific community in a way that is useful, consistent, centralized and enduring. PMID:18940860

  6. Gnathostomiasis: a rare nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Moula, M R

    2006-01-01

    Gnathostoma, primarily an animal nematode, can infect human by the third stage larva by consumption of undercooked or raw fish, poultry, or pork. In Bangladesh gnathostomiasis is a very rare condition. The first case, an ocular infection by gnathostoma was reported in 2001 from Rangpur, a northern district. This is the second case report of gnathostomiasis which also is an ocular infection, occurred in an area of greater district of Rangpur. A female patient of 32 year of age of the northern district, Nilphamari has got infected with a species of Gnathostoma, manifested by the appearance of a live larva near the right lateral margin of anterior surface of iris of her right eye. The larva was removed surgically from her eye and the patient was cured from symptoms. PMID:16467775

  7. Conserving and enhancing biological control of nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from plant-parasitic nematodes. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared to inundative applications of ...

  8. Phenotypic Adaptations in Pasteuria spp. Nematode Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ciancio, Aurelio

    1995-01-01

    The endospore and central core diameters of 69 isolates of Pasteuria spp. showed a relationship with the body wall thickness of their corresponding host nematodes. A relationship was also observed when cuticle and hypodermis layer data were derived from transmission electron microscopy micrographs. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis based on endospore and central core diameters and host nematode body wall thickness delineated six distinct groups. Five groups included nematode species of distinct taxa. Endospore morphometric diversity appears to be the result of an evolutionary adaptation that occurred during host nematode speciation related to the forces acting on adhering endospores and(or) to the host cuticle penetration phase. On this basis, the validity of endospore morphometrics and host taxonomy as significant parameters in discriminating Pasteuria species is questioned. PMID:19277296

  9. Galactosylated Fucose Epitopes in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shi; Bleuler-Martinez, Silvia; Plaza, David Fernando; Künzler, Markus; Aebi, Markus; Joachim, Anja; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Jantsch, Verena; Geyer, Rudolf; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Paschinger, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The modification of α1,6-linked fucose residues attached to the proximal (reducing-terminal) core N-acetylglucosamine residue of N-glycans by β1,4-linked galactose (“GalFuc” epitope) is a feature of a number of invertebrate species including the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A pre-requisite for both core α1,6-fucosylation and β1,4-galactosylation is the presence of a nonreducing terminal N-acetylglucosamine; however, this residue is normally absent from the final glycan structure in invertebrates due to the action of specific hexosaminidases. Previously, we have identified two hexosaminidases (HEX-2 and HEX-3) in C. elegans, which process N-glycans. In the present study, we have prepared a hex-2;hex-3 double mutant, which possesses a radically altered N-glycomic profile. Whereas in the double mutant core α1,3-fucosylation of the proximal N-acetylglucosamine was abolished, the degree of galactosylation of core α1,6-fucose increased, and a novel Galα1,2Fucα1,3 moiety attached to the distal core N-acetylglucosamine residue was detected. Both galactosylated fucose moieties were also found in two parasitic nematodes, Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum. As core modifications of N-glycans are known targets for fungal nematotoxic lectins, the sensitivity of the C. elegans double hexosaminidase mutant was assessed. Although this mutant displayed hypersensitivity to the GalFuc-binding lectin CGL2 and the N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin XCL, the mutant was resistant to CCL2, which binds core α1,3-fucose. Thus, the use of C. elegans mutants aids the identification of novel N-glycan modifications and the definition of in vivo specificities of nematotoxic lectins with potential as anthelmintic agents. PMID:22733825

  10. Conserving and Enhancing Biological Control of Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Timper, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and duration of biological control. In future research, greater use should be made of bioassays that measure nematode suppression because changes in abundance of particular antagonists may not affect biological control of plant parasites. PMID:24987159

  11. Nematode parasites of animals are more prone to develop xenobiotic resistance than nematode parasites of plants.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, A; Cabaret, J

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we concentrate on a comparison of plant and animal-parasitic nematodes, to gain insight into the factors that influence the acquisition of the drug resistance by nematodes. Comparing nematode parasite of domestic animals and cultivated plants, it appears that drug resistance threatens only domestic animal production. Does the paucity of report on nematicide field resistance reflect reality or, is nematicide resistance bypassed by other management practices, specific to cultivated plants (i.e. agricultural control)? First, it seems that selection pressure by treatments in plants is not as efficient as selection pressure in ruminants. Agronomic practices (i.e. sanitation, early planting, usage of nematodes resistant cultivar and crop rotation) are frequently used to control parasitic-plant nematodes. Although the efficiency of such measures is generally moderate to high, integrated approaches are developing successfully in parasitic-plant nematode models. Secondly, the majority of anthelmintic resistance cases recorded in animal-parasitic nematodes concern drug families that are not used in plant-parasitic nematodes control (i.e. benzimidazoles, avermectines and levamisole). Thirdly, particular life traits of parasitic-plant nematodes (low to moderate fecundity and reproductive strategy) are expected to reduce probability of appearance and transmission of drug resistance genes. It has been demonstrated that, for a large number of nematodes such as Meloidogyne spp., the mode of reproduction by mitotic parthenogenesis reduced genetic diversity of populations which may prevent a rapid drug resistance development. In conclusion, anthelmintic resistance develops in nematode parasite of animals as a consequence of an efficient selection pressure. Early detection of anthelmintic resistance is then crucial: it is not possible to avoid it, but only to delay its development in farm animal industry. PMID:15224572

  12. Influence of metalaxyl on three nematodes of citrus.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D T

    1983-07-01

    Metalaxyl significantly reduced population of Pratylenchus coffeae, Radopholus similis, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans in roots of Citrus limon (rough lemon) under greenhouse conditions. Postinoculation treatment of rough lemon seedlings was not as effective i n reducing nematode populations as was treatment before inoculation. Fewer nematodes infected metalaxyl-treated roots than nontreated roots. However, incubation of nematodes in metalaxyl did not inhibit nematode motility or their ability to locate and infect roots. Cellular responses to nematode injection differed between treated and nontreated tissues. Metalaxyl appeared to confer nematode contraol by modifying citrus roots such that a normally susceptible rootstock became tolerant. PMID:19295833

  13. Induced resistance to nematodes in cotton: a novel contribution to nematode management.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced resistance against plant-parasitic nematodes has not previously been shown in cotton. We tested whether co-infection of cotton by Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis affected population levels of either nematode compared to single-species infection. In split-root experiments, ...

  14. Radiographic analysis of vocal tract length and its relation to overall body size in two canid species

    PubMed Central

    Plotsky, K.; Rendall, D.; Riede, T.; Chase, K.

    2013-01-01

    Body size is an important determinant of resource and mate competition in many species. Competition is often mediated by conspicuous vocal displays, which may help to intimidate rivals and attract mates by providing honest cues to signaler size. Fitch proposed that vocal tract resonances (or formants) should provide particularly good, or honest, acoustic cues to signaler size because they are determined by the length of the vocal tract, which in turn, is hypothesized to scale reliably with overall body size. There is some empirical support for this hypothesis, but to date, many of the effects have been either mixed for males compared with females, weaker than expected in one or the other sex, or complicated by sampling issues. In this paper, we undertake a direct test of Fitch’s hypothesis in two canid species using large samples that control for age- and sex-related variation. The samples involved radiographic images of 120 Portuguese water dogs Canis lupus familiaris and 121 Russian silver foxes Vulpes vulpes. Direct measurements were made of vocal tract length from X-ray images and compared against independent measures of body size. In adults of both species, and within both sexes, overall vocal tract length was strongly and significantly correlated with body size. Effects were strongest for the oral component of the vocal tract. By contrast, the length of the pharyngeal component was not as consistently related to body size. These outcomes are some of the clearest evidence to date in support of Fitch’s hypothesis. At the same time, they highlight the potential for elements of both honest and deceptive body signaling to occur simultaneously via differential acoustic cues provided by the oral versus pharyngeal components of the vocal tract. PMID:24363497

  15. Calibration of estimated biting forces in domestic canids: comparison of post-mortem and in vivo measurements.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jennifer Lynn; Thomason, Jeffrey J; Kebreab, Ermias; France, James

    2008-06-01

    Estimates of biting forces are widely used in paleontological and comparative studies of feeding mechanics and performance, and are usually derived from lever models based on measurements made on the skull that are relevant to the mechanics of the masticatory system. Owing to assumptions and unmeasurable errors in their estimation, such values are used comparatively rather than as absolute estimates. The purpose of this paper was to provide calibration of post-mortem calculated bite force estimates by comparing them to in vivo forces derived from a sample of 20 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) during muscle stimulation under general anaesthesia. Two lever models previously described in the literature were used to estimate post-mortem values, and regression analysis was also performed to derive best-fit equations against a number of morphometric measurements on the skull. The ranges of observed forces in vivo were 147-946 N at the canine, and 524-3417 N at the second molar. The lever models substantially underestimated these forces, giving mean values between 39% and 61% of the observed means. Predictability was considerably improved by removing the linear bias and deviation of the regression slope from unity with an adjustment equation. Best-fit statistical models developed on these animals performed considerably better (calculated means within 0.54% of observed means) and included easily measureable variables such as bodyweight, dimensions of the temporalis fossa and out-lever from the jaw joint to the biting tooth. These data should lead to more accurate absolute, rather than relative, estimates of biting forces for other extant and fossil canids, and other carnivorans by extrapolation. PMID:18510505

  16. Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related disease in older puppies and CHV-1 shedding in the vagina of adult pregnant dogs.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Sanjay

    2015-11-01

    A large breeding kennel of Bulldogs (n = 57) experienced several Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related diseases in older puppies (9 weeks of age) in Arkansas. CHV-1 has been repeatedly confirmed in the kennel in several animals for 3 years (January 2012-February 2015) using various virology tests. I was able to detect a partial sequence of CHV DNA (~120 bp) in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks after 3 years of storage. CHV-1 is persistently circulating in this kennel in spite of high serum antibody titers in the adult dogs. The dogs were negative for canine brucellosis antibodies based on Brucella canis rapid card test. PMID:26450840

  17. UDP-Galactopyranose Mutase in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Wesener, Darryl A.; May, John F.; Huffman, Elizabeth M.; Kiessling, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Nematodes represent a diverse phylum of both free living and parasitic species. While the species Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a valuable model organism, parasitic nematodes or helminths pose a serious threat to human health. Indeed, helminths cause many neglected tropical diseases that afflict humans. Nematode glycoconjugates have been implicated in evasive immunomodulation, a hallmark of nematode infections. One monosaccharide residue present in the glycoconjugates of several human pathogens is galactofuranose (Galf). This five-membered ring isomer of galactose has not been detected in mammals, making Galf metabolic enzymes attractive therapeutic targets. The only known pathway for biosynthetic incorporation of Galf into glycoconjugates depends upon generation of the glycosyl donor UDP-Galf by the flavoenzyme uridine 5’-diphosphate (UDP) galactopyranose mutase (UGM or Glf). A putative UGM encoding gene (glf-1) was recently identified in C. elegans. Because Galf has yet to be identified in any nematode glycan, we sought to assess the catalytic activity of the C. elegans glf-1 gene product (CeUGM). We found that CeUGM catalyzes the isomerization of UDP-Galf and UDP-galactopyranose (UDP-Galp). In the presence of enzyme, substrate, and a hydride source, a galactose–N5-FAD adduct was isolated, suggesting the CeUGM flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor serves as a nucleophile in covalent catalysis. Homology modeling and protein variants indicate that CeUGM possesses an active site similar to that of prokaryotic enzymes, despite the low sequence identity (~15%) between eukaryotic and prokaryotic UGM proteins. Even with the primary sequence differences, heterocyclic UGM inhibitors developed against prokaryotic proteins also inhibit CeUGM activity. We postulate that these inhibitors can serve as chemical probes of Galf in nematodes and as anthelmintic leads. Together, our data suggest that CeUGM facilitates the biosynthetic incorporation of Galf into nematode glycoconjugates through generation of the glycosyl donor UDP-Galf. PMID:23697711

  18. Embryological variation during nematode development.

    PubMed Central

    Schierenberg, Einhard

    2006-01-01

    Early cell lineages and arrangement of blastomeres in C. elegans are similar to the pattern found in Ascaris and other studied nematodes leading to the assumption that embryonic development shows little variation within the phylum Nematoda. However, analysis of a larger variety of species from various branches of the phylogenetic tree demonstrate that prominent variations in crucial steps of early embryogenesis exist among representatives of this taxon. So far, most of these variations have only been studied on a descriptive level and thus essentially nothing is known about their molecular or genetic basis. Nevertheless, it is obvious that the limited morphological diversity of the freshly hatched juvenile and the uniformity of the basic body plan contrast with the many modifications in the way a worm is generated from the egg cell. This chapter focuses on the initial phase between egg activation and gastrulation and deals with the following aspects: reproduction and diploidy, polarity, cleavage and germ line, cell lineages; cell cycles and maternal contribution, cell-cell communication and cell specification, gastrulation. PMID:18050475

  19. Biocontrol: The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management

    PubMed Central

    Webster, John M.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the development of entomophilic nematology and a commentary on the potential of entomophilic nematodes in controlling insect pests. The paper considers some of the major contributions to our knowledge of entomophilic nematology; factors involved in insect pest management and how they are applicable to the use of nematodes; nematodes which are most promising as biological control agents; and problems to be solved to facilitate the use of entomophilic nematodes in insect management. PMID:19300702

  20. Nematodes Associated with Blackberry in Arkansas

    PubMed Central

    Wehunt, E. J.; Golden, A. M.; Clark, J. R.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Baker, E. C.; Brown, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of the nematodes in blackberry (Rubus sp.) rhizospheres was conducted in Arkansas from 1986 to 1989. The state was divided arbitrarily into four quadrants. A total of 134 soil samples was collected, and 150-cm 3 subsamples were assayed for nematodes. Twenty-one species of plant-parasitic nematodes in 11 genera were extracted from the samples. There were differences (P = 0.05) among quadrants of the state in percentage occurrence of the nematodes and in population densities in samples. Xiphinema americanum, Helicotylenchus spp. (H. paraplatyurus, H. platyurus, and H. pseudorobustus), and Pratylenchus spp. (P. vulnus and P. zeae) were found in all quadrants. Xiphinema americanum population density was near 1,000 per 150 cm³ soil in soil samples from two locations. Other nematodes found in one or more quadrants were Criconemella spp. (C. axeste, C. curvata, C. denoudeni, C. ornata, C. sphaerocephala, and C. xenoplax), Paratrichodorus minor, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Hirschmanniella oryzae, Hoplolaimus magnistylus, Scutellonema bradys, and undescribed species of Criconema, Tylenchulus, Xiphinema, and Meloidogyne. Criconemella sphaerocephala and Helicotylenchus platyurus are reported from Arkansas for the first time. Helicotylenchus paraplatyurus is reported from the United States for the first time. PMID:19283173

  1. Characterization of biocontrol traits in the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis georgiana (Kesah strain), and phylogenetic analysis of the nematode's symbiotic bacteria.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to estimate the biocontrol potential of the recently discovered entomopathogenic nematode species, Heterorhabditis georgiana (Kesha strain). Virulence and environmental tolerance were tested among several nematode species. Heterorhabditis georgiana expressed low or intermediate c...

  2. Nematode CLE signaling in Arabidopsis requires CLAVATA2 and CORYNE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ESR(CLE)-like effector proteins. These proteins have been shown to act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful nematode infection; however, the receptors for nematode CLE-like peptides have not been identified. Her...

  3. Site-Specific Detection and Management of Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematode distribution varies significantly throughout a field and is highly correlated to soil texture and other edaphic factors. Field-wide application results in nematicides being applied to areas without nematodes and the application of sub-effective levels in areas with high nematode densities. ...

  4. How to identify nematode problems and why it is important

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic worms that feed on plants. Several nematode species are serious pathogens of cotton, reducing overall US cotton production by an estimated 4.7%. Though losses in nematode infested fields are frequently 10 to 30%, losses can be greater than 50%. Cotton pla...

  5. Strawberry Cultivars Vary in their Resistance to Northern Lesion Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Adam; Potter, John W.

    1998-01-01

    The genetic diversity of commercial cultivars of strawberry Fragaria x ananassa from various parentages, as expressed by their resistance to the northem lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans, was evaluated in nematode-infested field plots for two growing seasons. Data taken for each plant in each season included soil nematode Pi and Pf, end-of-season nematode numbers in each entire root system, and end-of-season fresh and dry top weight and whole root system weight. Resistance was estimated using an index of the nematode load on the plant: Nematode load = {n(root) + (200 × n[soil])}/{root dry weight} where n (root) = number of nematodes in the root, n [soil] = number of nematodes in 50 g of nonfumigated soil, and 200 is a multiplier to convert the soil nematode count to a 10-kg basis. Nineteen strawberry cultivars varied in their resistance to the northern lesion nematode, from a mean load of 382 nematodes/plant for Pajaro to 1,818 nematodes/plant for Veestar. This variability could be related to the original family groupings, with the most resistant cultivars related to Lassen and the least resistant to Sparkle x Valentine. PMID:19274249

  6. METABOLISM OF AN INSECT NEUROPEPTIDE BY THE NEMATODE C. ELEGANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are interested in neuropeptides in nematodes as leads to new control agents for parasitic nematodes. This includes physiological aspects of neuropeptide action and metabolic regulation of these peptides. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, with its mapped genome, offers unique opport...

  7. A novel flavivirus in the soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a subterranean root pathogen that causes the most damaging disease of soybean in the United States. A novel nematode virus genome, soybean cyst nematode virus 5 (SbCNV5), was identified in RNASeq data from SCN eggs and second-stage juveniles. T...

  8. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part I: Protozoa and tick-borne agents.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Pfeffer, Martin; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Deplazes, Peter; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-09-30

    Over the last few decades, the world has witnessed radical changes in climate, landscape, and ecosystems. These events, together with other factors such as increasing illegal wildlife trade and changing human behaviour towards wildlife, are resulting into thinning boundaries between wild canids and felids and their domestic counterparts. As a consequence, the epidemiology of diseases caused by a number of infectious agents is undergoing profound readjustements, as pathogens adapt to new hosts and environments. Therefore, there is a risk for diseases of wildlife to spread to domestic carnivores and vice versa, and for zoonotic agents to emerge or re-emerge in human populations. Hence, the identification of the hazards arising from the co-habitation of these species is critical in order to plan and develop adequate control strategies against these pathogens. In the first of this two-part article, we review the role that wild canids and felids may play in the transmission of protozoa and arthropod-borne agents to dogs and cats in Europe, and provide an account of how current and future progress in our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of parasites, as well as of host-parasite interactions, can assist efforts aimed at controlling parasite transmission. PMID:26003669

  9. Nematode problems affecting agriculture in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Davide, R G

    1988-04-01

    Nematodes are considered major pests on most economic crops in the Philippines, particularly on banana, pineapple, citrus, tomato, ramie, and sugarcane. Radopholus similis is the most destructive nematode on banana, while Meloidogyne spp. are more serious on various vegetable crops such as tomato, okra, and celery and on fiber crops such as ramie. Tylenchulus semipenetrans is a problem on citrus and Rotylenchulus reniformis on pineapple and some legume crops. Hirschmanniella oryzae and Aphelenchoides besseyi are becoming serious on rice, and Pratylenchus zeae is affecting corn in some areas. Lately, Globodera rostochiensis has been causing serious damage on potato in the highlands. Control measures such as crop rotation, planting resistant varieties, chemical nematicide application, and biological control have been recommended to control these nematodes. PMID:19290204

  10. Isolation of C. elegans and related nematodes.

    PubMed

    Barrière, Antoine; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2014-01-01

    Isolating Caenorhabditis and other nematodes from the wild first requires field sampling (reviewed in Section 1). The easiest and most efficient way to recover the animals from any substrate is to place the sample onto a standard C. elegans culture plate (Section 2.1). Alternative methods used by nematologists to recover soil nematodes (Sections 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4) are in our hands more difficult to implement and only yield a fraction of the individuals in the sample. A tricky step is to recognize your species of interest out of the zoo of nematode species that comes with a typical sample (Section 3). Culture (Section 4) and freezing (Section 5) conditions are then reviewed. Finally, we briefly summarize the organization and timing of an isolation experiment (Section 6), as well as the available collections (Section 7). Bear in mind that this chapter is strongly focused towards the isolation of Caenorhabditis elegans and close relatives. PMID:24803426

  11. Remote Sensing of Parasitic Nematodes in Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John

    2007-01-01

    A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.

  12. All the microbiology nematodes can teach us.

    PubMed

    Bulgheresi, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    Be it their pervasiveness, experimental tractability or their impact on human health and agriculture, nematode-bacterium associations are far-reaching research subjects. Although the omics hype did not spare them and helped reveal mechanisms of communication and exchange between the associated partners, a huge amount of knowledge still awaits to be harvested from their study. Here, I summarize and compare the kind of research that has been already performed on the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and on symbiotic nematodes, both marine and entomopathogenic ones. The emerging picture highlights how complementing genetic studies with ecological ones (in the case of well-established genetic model systems such as C. elegans) and vice versa (in the case of the yet uncultured Stilbonematinae) will deepen our understanding of how microbial symbioses evolved and how they impact our environment. PMID:26839382

  13. Nematode taxonomy: from morphology to metabarcoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M.; Sapp, M.; Prior, T.; Karssen, G.; Back, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nematodes represent a species rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some groups of nematodes are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, knowledge of their diversity is still limited due to the difficulty in achieving species identification using morphological characters. Molecular methodology has provided very useful means of circumventing the numerous limitations associated with classical morphology based identification. We discuss herein the history and the progress made within the field of nematode systematics, the limitations of classical taxonomy and how the advent of high throughput sequencing is facilitating advanced ecological and molecular studies.

  14. Delayed response to ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax) feeding on grape roots linked to vine carbohydrate reserves and nematode feeding pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chronic impact of ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax) feeding on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was studied under controlled conditions. 'Pinot noir' grapevines were exposed to ring nematode or kept nematode-free for three growing seasons, and vines were either grown in full sunlight, 15% of full...

  15. Hsp-90 and the biology of nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Him, Nik AIIN; Gillan, Victoria; Emes, Richard D; Maitland, Kirsty; Devaney, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Background Hsp-90 from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unique in that it fails to bind to the specific Hsp-90 inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA). Here we surveyed 24 different free-living or parasitic nematodes with the aim of determining whether C. elegans Hsp-90 was the exception or the norm amongst the nematodes. We combined these data with codon evolution models in an attempt to identify whether hsp-90 from GA-binding and non-binding species has evolved under different evolutionary constraints. Results We show that GA-binding is associated with life history: free-living nematodes and those parasitic species with free-living larval stages failed to bind GA. In contrast, obligate parasites and those worms in which the free-living stage in the environment is enclosed within a resistant egg, possess a GA-binding Hsp-90. We analysed Hsp-90 sequences from fifteen nematode species to determine whether nematode hsp-90s have undergone adaptive evolution that influences GA-binding. Our data provide evidence of rapid diversifying selection in the evolution of the hsp-90 gene along three separate lineages, and identified a number of residues showing significant evidence of adaptive evolution. However, we were unable to prove that the selection observed is correlated with the ability to bind geldanamycin or not. Conclusion Hsp-90 is a multi-functional protein and the rapid evolution of the hsp-90 gene presumably correlates with other key cellular functions. Factors other than primary amino acid sequence may influence the ability of Hsp-90 to bind to geldanamycin. PMID:19849843

  16. Detecting nematode features from digital images.

    PubMed

    de la Blanca, N P; Fdez-Valdivia, J; Castillo, P; Gómez-Barcina, A

    1992-06-01

    Procedures for estimating and calibrating nematode features from digitial images are described and evaluated by illustration and mathematical formulae. Technical problems, such as capturing and cleaning raw images, standardizing the grey level range of images, and the detection of characteristics of the body habitus, presence or absence of stylet knobs, and tail and lip region shape are discussed. This study is the first of a series aimed at developing a set of automated methods to permit more rapid, objective characterizations of nematode features than is achievable by cumbersome conventional methods. PMID:19282998

  17. [Soil nematode as a bioindicator of environment pollution].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Song, Yufang; Sun, Tieheng; Song, Xueying; Zhou, Qixing

    2004-10-01

    As a part of mesofauna in soil ecosystem, nematode plays an important role in essential soil processes. Because of its unique attributes, nematode was widely used in the study of soil health indication. Based on the current studies at home and abroad, this paper discussed the function and application of nematode in indicating and diagnosing soil pollution, and the indices (maturity index, diversity index, similarity index, key species, N/C ratio, and physiological index) and their characteristics of nematode communities used as indicators. As a useful index of bioindicators in ecotoxicological diagnosis, the prospect of soil nematode application was of potential. PMID:15624847

  18. Unravelling parasitic nematode natural history using population genetics.

    PubMed

    Gilabert, Aude; Wasmuth, James D

    2013-09-01

    The health and economic importance of parasitic nematodes cannot be overstated. Moreover, they offer a complex and diverse array of life strategies, raising a multitude of evolutionary questions. Researchers are applying population genetics to parasitic nematodes in order to disentangle some aspects of their life strategies, improve our knowledge about disease epidemiology, and design control strategies. However, population genetics studies of nematodes have been constrained due to the difficulty in sampling nematodes and developing molecular markers. In this context, new computational and sequencing technologies represent promising tools to investigate population genomics of parasitic, non-model, nematode species in an epidemiological context. PMID:23948430

  19. Patterns of MHC-DRB1 polymorphism in a post-glacial island canid, the Newfoundland red fox (Vulpes vulpes deletrix), suggest balancing selection at species and population timescales.

    PubMed

    Marshall, H Dawn; Langille, Barbara L; Hann, Crystal A; Whitney, Hugh G

    2016-05-01

    As the only native insular Newfoundland canid between the extinction of the wolf in the 1930s and the recent arrival of coyotes, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes deletrix Bangs 1898) poses interesting questions about genetic distinctiveness and the post-glacial colonization history of the island's depauperate mammalian fauna. Here, we characterized genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DR β1 domain (DRB1) locus in 28 red foxes from six sampling localities island-wide and compared it with mitochondrial control region (CR) diversity and DRB1 diversity in other canids. Our goals were to describe novel DRB1 alleles in a new canid population and to make inferences about the role of selection in maintaining their diversity. As in numerous studies of vertebrates, we found an order-of-magnitude higher nucleotide diversity at the DRB1 locus compared with the CR and significantly positive nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratios, indicative of selection in the distant past. Although the evidence is weaker, the Ewens-Watterson test of neutrality and the geographical distribution of variation compared with the CR suggest a role for selection over the evolutionary timescale of populations. We report the first genetic data from the DRB1 locus in the red fox and establish baseline information regarding immunogenetic variation in this island canid population which should inform continued investigations of population demography, adaptive genetic diversity, and wildlife disease in red foxes and related species. PMID:26894280

  20. A Trojan horse mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis against nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Qiuhong; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lin; Xu, Jianping; Yang, Dongmei; Wei, Kangbi; Niu, Xuemei; An, Zhiqiang; Bennett, Joan Wennstrom; Zou, Chenggang; Yang, Jinkui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of hostpathogen interaction can provide crucial information for successfully manipulating their relationships. Because of its genetic background and practical advantages over vertebrate model systems, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans model has become an attractive host for studying microbial pathogenesis. Here we report a Trojan horse mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis against nematodes. We show that the bacterium Bacillus nematocida B16 lures nematodes by emitting potent volatile organic compounds that are much more attractive to worms than those from ordinary dietary bacteria. Seventeen B. nematocida-attractant volatile organic compounds are identified, and seven are individually confirmed to lure nematodes. Once the bacteria enter the intestine of nematodes, they secrete two proteases with broad substrate ranges but preferentially target essential intestinal proteins, leading to nematode death. This Trojan horse pattern of bacteriumnematode interaction enriches our understanding of microbial pathogenesis. PMID:20733068

  1. Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of diplogastrid nematodes and their beetle hosts. Instead, frequent host switching is observed. The molecular phylogeny of the Diplogastridae provides a framework for further examinations of the evolution of these associations, for the study of interactions within the ecosystems, and for investigations of diplogastrid genome evolution. PMID:19703296

  2. Key to nematodes reported in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Malcolm E.

    1974-01-01

    This key, covering 171 species and subspecies of nematodes in 49 genera, is based on the the listings in the author's "Catalogue of Helminths of Waterfowl" (McDonald, 1969b), but includes 19 additional forms from his continuing survey of new literature.

  3. Nematodes: Model Organisms in High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, TJ; Anderson, Margery; Dillman, Adler; Yourick, Debra; Jett, Marti; Adams, Byron J.; Russell, RevaBeth

    2007-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between university researchers and high school science teachers, an inquiry-based laboratory module was designed using two species of insecticidal nematodes to help students apply scientific inquiry and elements of thoughtful experimental design. The learning experience and model are described in this article. (Contains 4…

  4. Entomopathogenic nematode production and application technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production and application technology is critical for the success of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in biological control. Production approaches include in vivo, and in vitro methods (solid or liquid fermentation). For laboratory use and small scale field experiments, in vivo production of EPNs...

  5. Diverse CLE peptides from cyst nematode species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-like peptides play diverse roles in plant growth and development including maintenance of the stem cell population in the root meristem. Small secreted peptides sharing similarity to plant CLE signaling peptides have been isolated from several cyst nematode species including...

  6. The Future of Nematode Management in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Starr, J. L.; Koenning, S. R.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Robinson, A. F.; Roberts, P. A.; Nichols, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of plant-parasitic nematodes as yield-limiting pathogens of cotton has received increased recognition and attention in the United States in the recent past. This paper summarizes the remarks made during a symposium of the same title that was held in July 2007 at the joint meeting of the Society of Nematologists and the American Phytopathological Society in San Diego, California. Although several cultural practices, including crop rotation, can be effective in suppressing the populations of the important nematode pathogens of cotton, the economic realities of cotton production limit their use. The use of nematicides is also limited by issues of efficacy and economics. There is a need for development of chemistries that will address these limitations. Also needed are systems that would enable precise nematicide application in terms of rate and placement only in areas where nematode population densities warrant application. Substantial progress is being made in the identification, characterization and mapping of loci for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. These data will lead to efficient marker-assisted selection systems that will likely result in development and release of nematode-resistant cotton cultivars with superior yield potential and high fiber quality. PMID:19259500

  7. Meloidogyne incognita nematode resistance QTL in carrot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are major pests attacking carrots (Daucus carota) worldwide, causing galling and forking of the storage roots, rendering them unacceptable for market. Genetic resistance could significantly reduce the need for broad-spectrum soil fumigants in carrot production....

  8. Mucosal immunity against parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Onah, Denis Nnabuike

    2000-01-01

    The last two decades witnessed significant advances in the efforts of immunoparasitologists to elucidate the nature and role of the host mucosal defence mechanisms against intestinal nematode parasites. Aided by recent advances in basic immunology and biotechnology with the concomitant development of well defined laboratory models of infection, immunoparasitologists have more precisely analyzed and defined the different immune effector mechanisms during the infection; resulting in great improvement in our current knowledge and understanding of protective immunity against gastrointestinal (GI) nematode parasites. Much of this current understanding comes from experimental studies in laboratory rodents, which have been used as models of livestock and human GI nematode infections. These rodent studies, which have concentrated on Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Strongyloides ratti/S. venezuelensis, Trichinella spiralis and Trichuris muris infections in mice and rats, have helped in defining the types of T cell responses that regulate effector mechanisms and the effector mechanisms responsible for worm expulsion. In addition, these studies bear indications that traditionally accepted mechanisms of resistance such as eosinophilia and IgE responses may not play as important roles in protection as were previously conceived. In this review, we shall, from these rodent studies, attempt an overview of the mucosal and other effector responses against intestinal nematode parasites beginning with the indices of immune protection as a model of the protective immune responses that may occur in animals and man. PMID:11138315

  9. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  10. Evolution of embryonic development in nematodes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nematodes can be subdivided into basal Enoplea (clades 1 and 2) and more derived Chromadorea (clades 3 to 12). Embryogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans (clade 9) has been analyzed in most detail. Their establishment of polarity and asymmetric cleavage requires the differential localization of PAR proteins. Earlier studies on selected other nematodes revealed that embryonic development of nematodes is more diverse than the essentially invariant development of C. elegans and the classic study object Ascaris had suggested. To obtain a more detailed picture of variations and evolutionary trends we compared embryonic cell lineages and pattern formation in embryos of all 12 nematode clades. Methods The study was conducted using 4-D microscopy and 3-D modeling of developing embryos. Results We found dramatic differences compared to C. elegans in Enoplea but also considerable variations among Chromadorea. We discovered 'Polarity Organizing Centers' (POCs) that orient cleavage spindles along the anterior-posterior axis in distinct cells over consecutive cell generations. The resulting lineally arranged blastomeres represent a starting point for the establishment of bilateral symmetry within individual lineages. We can discern six different early cleavage types and suggest that these variations are due to modifications in the activity of the POCs in conjunction with changes in the distribution of PAR proteins. In addition, our studies indicate that lineage complexity advanced considerably during evolution, that is we observe trends towards an increase of somatic founder cells, from monoclonal to polyclonal lineages and from a variable (position-dependent) to an invariable (lineage-dependent) way of cell fate specification. In contrast to the early phase of embryogenesis, the second half ('morphogenesis') appears similar in all studied nematodes. Comparison of early cleavage between the basal nematode Tobrilus stefanskii and the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini revealed surprising similarities indicating that the presence of POCs is not restricted to nematode embryos. Conclusions The pattern of cleavage, spatial arrangement and differentiation of cells diverged dramatically during the history of the phylum Nematoda without corresponding changes in the phenotype. While in all studied representatives the same distinctive developmental steps need to be taken, cell behavior leading to these is not conserved. PMID:21929824

  11. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: tegumental and hypodermic alterations of the fourth-stage larvae following administration of tribendimidine in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xin; Wang, Juan; Wei, Jie; Wu, Feng; Fung, Feng; Wu, Xiaoying; Sun, Xi; Zheng, Huanqing; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao

    2013-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic pathogen whose forth-stage larvae (L4) parasitize in the central nervous system (CNS) of the human cause severe eosinophilic encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. Previous study indicated an impressive anthelmintic efficacy of tribendimidine (TBD) against CNS parasitized L4 of A. cantonensis. Tegument of the larvae is the first physical barrier to protect them from attack by the host immune system. In the present study, tegumental and hypodermic alterations were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy after administration of TBD. During treatment of TBD in vivo, L4 presented wizened side sensor, disappearance of mastoids and longitudinal grain, prominent surface coat, heterogeneous tegumental layers, incompact hypodermic cell junctions, blurred myotube, and small scale of vacuole in a basal layer. After incubation with TBD in vitro, L4 exhibited a swollen side sensor and mastoids disappearance in head end. Abundant tegumental blebs and obvious deformation of both cross-grain and longitudinal grain were detected on the surface, and shrinkage of all tegumental layers, chaotic cell junction, turbid muscle cell, disappearance of myotubes, and vacuole-like changes were visible under the electron microscope. The results implied the potential mechanism of the anthelmintic effect of tribendimidine against L4 of A. cantonensis by direct damages to tegumental and hypodermic. PMID:23728774

  12. Activation of Sonic Hedgehog Leads to Survival Enhancement of Astrocytes via the GRP78-Dependent Pathway in Mice Infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuang-Yao; Cheng, Chien-Ju; Wang, Lian-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection may cause elevation of ROS and antioxidants in the CSF of infected mice. Astrocytes may protect the surrounding neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death by secreting Sonic hedgehog (Shh) via the PI3-K/AKT/Bcl-2 pathway. This study was conducted to determine the role of the Shh signaling pathway in A. cantonensis-infected BABL/c mice by coculturing astrocytes with living fifth-stage larvae or soluble antigens. The Shh pathway was activated with corresponding increases in the level of the Shh. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Shh were increased in astrocyte cocultured with living fifth-stage larvae or soluble antigens. The survival of astrocytes pretreated with Shh was significantly elevated in cocultures with the antigens but reduced by its inhibitor cyclopamine. The expression of GRP78 and Bcl-2 was significantly higher in astrocytes pretreated with recombinant Shh. These findings suggest that the expression of Shh may inhibit cell death by activating Bcl-2 through a GRP78-dependent pathway. PMID:25961032

  13. Considering field physical characteristics in assessing risk and delineating nematode management zones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific management (SSM) of nematodes requires identifying factors affecting nematode distribution, nematode population density, and nematode-induced yield losses, and then using that information to predict where nematode management will cost-effectively reduce yield loss. Using cotton (Gossy...

  14. Overview of nematodes infesting cotton in the U.S., life beyond Temik.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The three primary nematode pathogens of cotton are the cotton root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), the reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis), and the Columbia lance nematode (Hoplolaimus columbus). Those three nematodes are estimated to reduce US cotton production by 4.2%, with the co...

  15. Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, John T; Haegeman, Annelies; Danchin, Etienne G J; Gaur, Hari S; Helder, Johannes; Jones, Michael G K; Kikuchi, Taisei; Manzanilla-López, Rosa; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Wesemael, Wim M L; Perry, Roland N

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a 'top 10' list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10) Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly. PMID:23809086

  16. Characterization of Root-Knot Nematode Resistance in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Dhandaydham, Murali; Charles, Lauren; Zhu, Hongyan; Starr, James L.; Huguet, Thierry; Cook, Douglas R.; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Opperman, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Root knot (Meloidogyne spp.) and cyst (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) nematodes infect all important crop species, and the annual economic loss due to these pathogens exceeds $90 billion. We screened the worldwide accession collection with the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria and M. hapla, soybean cyst nematode (SCN-Heterodera glycines), sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN-Heterodera schachtii) and clover cyst nematode (CLCN-Heterodera trifolii), revealing resistant and susceptible accessions. In the over 100 accessions evaluated, we observed a range of responses to the root-knot nematode species, and a non-host response was observed for SCN and SBCN infection. However, variation was observed with respect to infection by CLCN. While many cultivars including Jemalong A17 were resistant to H. trifolii, cultivar Paraggio was highly susceptible. Identification of M. truncatula as a host for root-knot nematodes and H. trifolii and the differential host response to both RKN and CLCN provide the opportunity to genetically and molecularly characterize genes involved in plant-nematode interaction. Accession DZA045, obtained from an Algerian population, was resistant to all three root-knot nematode species and was used for further studies. The mechanism of resistance in DZA045 appears different from Mi-mediated root-knot nematode resistance in tomato. Temporal analysis of nematode infection showed that there is no difference in nematode penetration between the resistant and susceptible accessions, and no hypersensitive response was observed in the resistant accession even several days after infection. However, less than 5% of the nematode population completed the life cycle as females in the resistant accession. The remainder emigrated from the roots, developed as males, or died inside the roots as undeveloped larvae. Genetic analyses carried out by crossing DZA045 with a susceptible French accession, F83005, suggest that one gene controls resistance in DZA045. PMID:19259519

  17. Nitrogen Addition Regulates Soil Nematode Community Composition through Ammonium Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Cunzheng; Zheng, Huifen; Li, Qi; L, Xiaotao; Yu, Qiang; Zhang, Haiyang; Chen, Quansheng; He, Nianpeng; Kardol, Paul; Liang, Wenju; Han, Xingguo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) enrichment resulting from anthropogenic activities has greatly changed the composition and functioning of soil communities. Nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse groups of soil organisms, and they occupy key trophic positions in the soil detritus food web. Nematodes have therefore been proposed as useful indicators for shifts in soil ecosystem functioning under N enrichment. Here, we monitored temporal dynamics of the soil nematode community using a multi-level N addition experiment in an Inner Mongolia grassland. Measurements were made three years after the start of the experiment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the mechanisms regulating nematode responses to N enrichment. Across the N enrichment gradient, significant reductions in total nematode abundance, diversity (H' and taxonomic richness), maturity index (MI), and the abundance of root herbivores, fungivores and omnivores-predators were found in August. Root herbivores recovered in September, contributing to the temporal variation of total nematode abundance across the N gradient. Bacterivores showed a hump-shaped relationship with N addition rate, both in August and September. Ammonium concentration was negatively correlated with the abundance of total and herbivorous nematodes in August, but not in September. Ammonium suppression explained 61% of the variation in nematode richness and 43% of the variation in nematode trophic group composition. Ammonium toxicity may occur when herbivorous nematodes feed on root fluid, providing a possible explanation for the negative relationship between herbivorous nematodes and ammonium concentration in August. We found a significantly positive relationship between fungivores and fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), suggesting bottom-up control of fungivores. No such relationship was found between bacterivorous nematodes and bacterial PLFA. Our findings contribute to the understanding of effects of N enrichment in semiarid grassland on soil nematode trophic groups, and the cascading effects in the detrital soil food web. PMID:22952671

  18. Loss of the insulator protein CTCF during nematode evolution

    PubMed Central

    Heger, Peter; Marin, Birger; Schierenberg, Einhard

    2009-01-01

    Background The zinc finger (ZF) protein CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) is highly conserved in Drosophila and vertebrates where it has been shown to mediate chromatin insulation at a genomewide level. A mode of genetic regulation that involves insulators and insulator binding proteins to establish independent transcriptional units is currently not known in nematodes including Caenorhabditis elegans. We therefore searched in nematodes for orthologs of proteins that are involved in chromatin insulation. Results While orthologs for other insulator proteins were absent in all 35 analysed nematode species, we find orthologs of CTCF in a subset of nematodes. As an example for these we cloned the Trichinella spiralis CTCF-like gene and revealed a genomic structure very similar to the Drosophila counterpart. To investigate the pattern of CTCF occurrence in nematodes, we performed phylogenetic analysis with the ZF protein sets of completely sequenced nematodes. We show that three ZF proteins from three basal nematodes cluster together with known CTCF proteins whereas no zinc finger protein of C. elegans and other derived nematodes does so. Conclusion Our findings show that CTCF and possibly chromatin insulation are present in basal nematodes. We suggest that the insulator protein CTCF has been secondarily lost in derived nematodes like C. elegans. We propose a switch in the regulation of gene expression during nematode evolution, from the common vertebrate and insect type involving distantly acting regulatory elements and chromatin insulation to a so far poorly characterised mode present in more derived nematodes. Here, all or some of these components are missing. Instead operons, polycistronic transcriptional units common in derived nematodes, seemingly adopted their function. PMID:19712444

  19. Feeding of the Nematode Acrobeloides nanus on Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bird, A F; Ryder, M H

    1993-09-01

    Information on the effect of bacteria-feeding nematodes on bacterial populations in the soil is sparse. We have isolated, cultured, and microscopically examined bacteria and nematodes coexisting within an agricultural soil and have studied their feeding relationship. The bacterium Pseudomonas corrugata isolate 2140R is a biocontrol agent against the pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. The nematode Acrobeloides nanus is a cosmopolitan, bacteria-feeding organism widespread in agricultural and arid soils throughout Australia. Using light and electron microscopy, we observed the ingestion and breakdown of P. corrugata in the pharynx of A. nanus and bacterial passage through the nematode intestine as well as the accumulation of fluorescent compounds from ingested and broken P. fluorescens in the lumen of the nematode's intestine. We also observed A. nanus feeding, growing, and reproducing on the Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter toxicus, the causative agent of the disease annual ryegrass toxicity, and detected crushed bacteria in the nematode's intestine. PMID:19279801

  20. All the microbiology nematodes can teach us

    PubMed Central

    Bulgheresi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Be it their pervasiveness, experimental tractability or their impact on human health and agriculture, nematode–bacterium associations are far-reaching research subjects. Although the omics hype did not spare them and helped reveal mechanisms of communication and exchange between the associated partners, a huge amount of knowledge still awaits to be harvested from their study. Here, I summarize and compare the kind of research that has been already performed on the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and on symbiotic nematodes, both marine and entomopathogenic ones. The emerging picture highlights how complementing genetic studies with ecological ones (in the case of well-established genetic model systems such as C. elegans) and vice versa (in the case of the yet uncultured Stilbonematinae) will deepen our understanding of how microbial symbioses evolved and how they impact our environment. PMID:26839382

  1. Immunity to gastrointestinal nematodes: mechanisms and myths

    PubMed Central

    Grencis, Richard K; Humphreys, Neil E; Bancroft, Allison J

    2014-01-01

    Immune responses to gastrointestinal nematodes have been studied extensively for over 80 years and intensively investigated over the last 30–40 years. The use of laboratory models has led to the discovery of new mechanisms of protective immunity and made major contributions to our fundamental understanding of both innate and adaptive responses. In addition to host protection, it is clear that immunoregulatory processes are common in infected individuals and resistance often operates alongside modulation of immunity. This review aims to discuss the recent discoveries in both host protection and immunoregulation against gastrointestinal nematodes, placing the data in context of the specific life cycles imposed by the different parasites studied and the future challenges of considering the mucosal/immune axis to encompass host, parasite, and microbiome in its widest sense. PMID:24942690

  2. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus. PMID:26568337

  3. Distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in Southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Françoise Ngo; Waeyenberge, Lieven; Hauser, Stefan; Moens, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    A first survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was conducted in three agro-ecological zones of Southern Cameroon in 2007 and 2008. Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 26 of 251 soil samples (10.4%). Three species, Heterorhabditis baujardi, Steinernema sp. A and Steinernema sp. B were found. The two steinernematids were considered unidentified species. Among the positive samples, 23 samples contained only H. baujardi (88.5%), two contained Steinernema sp. A co-occurring with H. baujardi (7.7%), and one sample contained Steinernema sp. B (3.9%). H. baujardi was frequent in forest and fruit crop (cocoa and oil palm plantations). Steinernema sp. A was found in a tree plantation of teak, Steinernema sp. B in a forest habitat. Nematodes were mostly present in acidic soils with pH ranging from 3.7 to 7.0. The highest EPN presence was recorded in sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay and clay soils. EPNs were not recovered in sand, loamy sand and clay loam soils. Using principal component analysis for elucidating the major variation patterns among sampling sites, four factors explaining for 73.64% of the overall variance were extracted. Factors were a combination of geographical (latitude, longitude, altitude), soil (pH, contents of sand, silt and clay, organic carbon, texture), and moisture (wilting point, field capacity) parameters as well as climatic parameters (mean annual rainfall, mean air temperature). Logistic regression and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed that soil pH, longitude, available water and altitude were associated with presence and absence of EPN. Both logistic regression and RDA indicated that, increasing soil pH and longitude, associated with decreasing altitude, led to higher percentages of samples containing entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:21983478

  4. Engineering natural and synthetic resistance for nematode management.

    PubMed

    Vrain, T C

    1999-12-01

    Bioengineering strategies are being developed that will provide specific and durable resistance against plant-parasitic nematodes in crops. The strategies come under three categories: (i) transfer of natural resistance genes from plants that have them to plants that do not, to mobilize the defense mechanisms in susceptible crops; (ii) interference with the biochemical signals that nematodes exchange with plants during parasitic interactions, especially those resulting in the formation of specialized feeding sites for the sedentary endoparasites-many nematode genes and many plant genes are potential targets for manipulation; and (iii) expression in plant cells of proteins toxic to nematodes. PMID:19270915

  5. Engineering Natural and Synthetic Resistance for Nematode Management

    PubMed Central

    Vrain, Thierry C.

    1999-01-01

    Bioengineering strategies are being developed that will provide specific and durable resistance against plant-parasitic nematodes in crops. The strategies come under three categories: (i) transfer of natural resistance genes from plants that have them to plants that do not, to mobilize the defense mechanisms in susceptible crops; (ii) interference with the biochemical signals that nematodes exchange with plants during parasitic interactions, especially those resulting in the formation of specialized feeding sites for the sedentary endoparasites—many nematode genes and many plant genes are potential targets for manipulation; and (iii) expression in plant cells of proteins toxic to nematodes. PMID:19270915

  6. Interactions among selected endoparasitic nematodes and three pseudomonads on alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Bookbinder, M G; Bloom, J R; Lukezic, F L

    1982-01-01

    Meloidogyne hapla, Pratylenchus penetrans, and Helicotylenchus dihystera, reduced the growth of 'Saranac AR alfalfa seedlings when applied at concentrations of 50 nematodes per plant. All except P. penetrans reduced seedling growth when applied at 25 per seedling. M. hapla reduced growth when applied at 12 per seedling. Nematodes interacted with three pseudomonads to produce greater growth reductions than were obtained with single pathogens, suggesting synergistic relationships. Ditylenchus dipsaci, applied at 25 or 50 nematodes per seedling, reduced plant weight compared with weights of control plants, but did not interact with test bacteria. All of the nematodes except D. dipsaci produced root wounds which were invaded by bacteria. PMID:19295682

  7. Extracting DNA of nematodes communities from Argentine Pampas agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Mondino, Eduardo A; Covacevich, Fernanda; Studdert, Guillermo A; Pimentel, João P; Berbara, Ricardo L L

    2015-01-01

    We examined four strategies (Tris/EDTA, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Chelex 100 resin and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide -CTAB-) for extracting nucleic acid (DNA) from communities of nematodes. Nematodes were isolated from an agricultural area under different management of long-term crop rotation experiment from Argentina during three seasons. After DNA extraction, Polymerase Chain Reaction-amplifications were performed and considered as indicators of successful DNA extraction. The CTAB combined with proteinase K and phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol was the unique successful method because positive amplifications were obtained by using both eukaryotic and nematode specific primers. This work could contribute to biodiversity studies of nematodes on agroecosystems. PMID:26131632

  8. Detection and description of soils with specific nematode suppressiveness.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Andreas

    2005-03-01

    Soils with specific suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes are of interest to define the mechanisms that regulate population density. Suppressive soils prevent nematodes from establishing and from causing disease, and they diminish disease severity after initial nematode damage in continuous culturing of a host. A range of non-specific and specific soil treatments, followed by infestation with a target nematode, have been employed to identify nematode-suppressive soils. Biocidal treatments, soil transfer tests, and baiting approaches together with observations of the plant-parasitic nematode in the root zone of susceptible host plants have improved the understanding of nematode-suppressive soils. Techniques to demonstrate specific soil suppressiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes are compared in this review. The overlap of studies on soil suppressiveness with recent advances in soil health and quality is briefly discussed. The emphasis is on methods (or criteria) used to detect and identify soils that maintain specific soil suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes. While biocidal treatments can detect general and specific soil suppressiveness, soil transfer studies, by definition, apply only to specific soil suppressiveness. Finally, potential strategies to exploit suppressive soils are presented. PMID:19262851

  9. Detection and Description of Soils with Specific Nematode Suppressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Soils with specific suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes are of interest to define the mechanisms that regulate population density. Suppressive soils prevent nematodes from establishing and from causing disease, and they diminish disease severity after initial nematode damage in continuous culturing of a host. A range of non-specific and specific soil treatments, followed by infestation with a target nematode, have been employed to identify nematode-suppressive soils. Biocidal treatments, soil transfer tests, and baiting approaches together with observations of the plant-parasitic nematode in the root zone of susceptible host plants have improved the understanding of nematode-suppressive soils. Techniques to demonstrate specific soil suppressiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes are compared in this review. The overlap of studies on soil suppressiveness with recent advances in soil health and quality is briefly discussed. The emphasis is on methods (or criteria) used to detect and identify soils that maintain specific soil suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes. While biocidal treatments can detect general and specific soil suppressiveness, soil transfer studies, by definition, apply only to specific soil suppressiveness. Finally, potential strategies to exploit suppressive soils are presented. PMID:19262851

  10. Entomopathogenic and plant pathogenic nematodes as opposing forces in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Eric; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are responsible for substantial damages within the agriculture industry every year, which is a challenge that has thus far gone largely unimpeded. Chemical nematicides have been employed with varying degrees of success, but their implementation can be cumbersome, and furthermore they could potentially be neutralising an otherwise positive effect from the entomopathogenic nematodes that coexist with plant-parasitic nematodes in soil environments and provide protection for plants against insect pests. Recent research has explored the potential of employing entomopathogenic nematodes to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes, while providing their standard degree of protection against insects. The interactions involved are highly complex, due to both the three-organism system and the assortment of variables present in a soil environment, but a strong collection of evidence has accumulated regarding the suppressive capacity of certain entomopathogenic nematodes and their mutualistic bacteria, in the context of limiting the infectivity of plant-parasitic nematodes. Specific factors produced by certain entomopathogenic nematode complexes during the process of insect infection appear to have a selectively nematicidal, or at least repellant, effect on plant-parasitic nematodes. Using this information, an opportunity has formed to adapt this relationship to large-scale, field conditions and potentially relieve the agricultural industry of one of its most substantial burdens. PMID:26527129

  11. Cold tolerance of an Antarctic nematode that survives intracellular freezing: comparisons with other nematode species.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Wharton, D A; Marshall, C J

    2008-01-01

    Panagrolaimus davidi is an Antarctic nematode with very high levels of cold tolerance. Its survival was compared with that of some other nematodes (P. rigidus, Rhabditophanes sp., Steinernema carpocapsae, Panagrellus redivivus and Ditylenchus dipsaci) in both unacclimated samples and those acclimated at 5 degrees C. Levels of recrystallization inhibition in homogenates were also compared, using the splat-cooling assay. The survival of P. davidi after the freezing of samples was notably higher than that of the other species tested, suggesting that its survival ability is atypical compared to other nematodes. In general, acclimation improved survival. Levels of recrystallization inhibition were not associated with survival but such a relationship may exist for those species that are freezing tolerant. PMID:17712562

  12. Entomopathogenic Nematode Production and Application Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Han, Richou; Dolinksi, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Production and application technology is critical for the success of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in biological control. Production approaches include in vivo, and in vitro methods (solid or liquid fermentation). For laboratory use and small scale field experiments, in vivo production of EPNs appears to be the appropriate method. In vivo production is also appropriate for niche markets and small growers where a lack of capital, scientific expertise or infrastructure cannot justify large investments into in vitro culture technology. In vitro technology is used when large scale production is needed at reasonable quality and cost. Infective juveniles of entomopathogenic nematodes are usually applied using various spray equipment and standard irrigation systems. Enhanced efficacy in EPN applications can be facilitated through improved delivery mechanisms (e.g., cadaver application) or optimization of spray equipment. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in developing EPN formulations, particularly for above ground applications, e.g., mixing EPNs with surfactants or polymers or with sprayable gels. Bait formulations and insect host cadavers can enhance EPN persistence and reduce the quantity of nematodes required per unit area. This review provides a summary and analysis of factors that affect production and application of EPNs and offers insights for their future in biological insect suppression. PMID:23482883

  13. Nematode locomotion in unconfined and confined fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Alejandro; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Vanapalli, Siva A.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-08-01

    The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [V. Padmanabhan et al., PLoS ONE 7, e40121 (2012), 10.1371/journal.pone.0040121] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness of the body of the nematode on its locomotion. These effects are not accounted for by the classical resistive-force and slender-body theories.

  14. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 μg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 μg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  15. Assaying Environmental Nickel Toxicity Using Model Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler D.; Huffnagle, Ian M.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species. PMID:24116204

  16. Electrophysiological recording from parasitic nematode muscle

    PubMed Central

    Puttachary, Sreekanth; Buxton, Samuel K.; Martin, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Infection of man and animals with parasitic nematodes is recognized as a significant global problem (McLeod in Int J Parasitol 25(11):1363–1367, 1994; Hotez et al. in N Engl J Med 357(10):1018–1027, 2007). At present control of these infections relies primarily on chemotherapy. There are a limited number of classes of anthelmintic compounds and the majority of these act on ion-channels of the parasite (Martin et al. in Parasitology 113:S137–S156, 1996). In this report, we describe electrophysiological recording techniques as applied to parasitic nematodes. The aim of this report is: (1) to promote the study of ion channels in nematodes to help further the understanding of antinematodal drug action; (2) to describe our recording equipment and experimental protocols; and (3) provide some examples of the information to be gleaned from this approach and how it can increase our understanding of these important pathogens. PMID:19005711

  17. Abomasal Nematodes in Cattle in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J. O. D.

    1974-01-01

    During 1970, 93 abomasa from cattle in Ontario were examined, and from 63 of these abomasa nematode species of the genera Ostertagia, Haemonchus and/or Trichostrongylus axei were recovered. The abomasa were from cattle six months to two years of age and were collected either from the postmortem room at the Ontario Veterinary College or from two abattoirs near Guelph. The numbers of worms per abomasum were estimated and their genera were identified from a one-twentieth volume of the washings and contents. The prevalence of Ostertagia species was estimated by examining random samples of adult male worms. Morphological variations in the species of the genera Ostertagia and Haemonchus were estimated by examining random samples of adult females. The predominant nematode was Ostertagia ostertagi. Other Ostertagia species recovered were O. trifurcata, O. lyrata and O. circumcincta. The numbers of nematodes recovered were generally low. Adult Ostertagia females had well-developed vulvar flaps. However, in abomasa where adult male O. trifurcata and O. lyrata were found, some adult female Ostertagia worms had reduced or no vulvar flaps. In two abomasa, adult Haemonchus females had large pendulous or “linguiform” vulvar flaps, and adult males had mean spicule lengths of 517 and 512 μ and were, therefore, unlike any of the recognized Haemonchus species. PMID:4272952

  18. Current Surveys of the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Schnyder, Manuela; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schaper, Roland; Tsachev, Ilia

    2015-08-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Some of the CVBDs are zoonotic and may therefore also represent a risk for the human population. Different factors are in discussion to explain the expansion of vectors and pathogens into formerly unaffected areas. Knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs in Bulgaria is scant overall and most data rely on single case descriptions. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of important CVBDs in 167 dogs from central-southern Bulgaria (Stara Zagora), with special emphasis on hitherto uninvestigated babesiosis and angiostrongylosis, on poorly investigated Lyme borreliosis and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, and on the potentially zoonotic dirofilariosis and leishmaniosis. Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while Borrelia burgdorferi seroprevalence was low (2.4 %; 4/167). All samples were negative for Leishmania infantum antibodies and Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and antibodies. In total, 64.7 % (108/167) of the samples indicated infection or exposure to at least one agent and a high proportion of dual infections (39.8 %; 43/108) was demonstrated. Multiple infections with up to four different organisms were also detected. Our data underline the importance of CVBDs and especially of co-infections which could influence the clinical outcome in dogs. PMID:26152413

  19. Unexpected Variation in Neuroanatomy among Diverse Nematode Species

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ziduan; Boas, Stephanie; Schroeder, Nathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Nematodes are considered excellent models for understanding fundamental aspects of neuron function. However, nematodes are less frequently used as models for examining the evolution of nervous systems. While the habitats and behaviors of nematodes are diverse, the neuroanatomy of nematodes is often considered highly conserved. A small number of nematode species greatly influences our understanding of nematode neurobiology. The free-living species Caenorhabditis elegans and, to a lesser extent, the mammalian gastrointestinal parasite Ascaris suum are, historically, the primary sources of knowledge regarding nematode neurobiology. Despite differences in size and habitat, C. elegans and A. suum share a surprisingly similar neuroanatomy. Here, we examined species across several clades in the phylum Nematoda and show that there is a surprising degree of neuroanatomical variation both within and among nematode clades when compared to C. elegans and Ascaris. We found variation in the numbers of neurons in the ventral nerve cord and dye-filling pattern of sensory neurons. For example, we found that Pristionchus pacificus, a bacterial feeding species used for comparative developmental research had 20% fewer ventral cord neurons compared to C. elegans. Steinernema carpocapsae, an insect-parasitic nematode capable of jumping behavior, had 40% more ventral cord neurons than C. elegans. Interestingly, the non-jumping congeneric nematode, S. glaseri showed an identical number of ventral cord neurons as S. carpocapsae. There was also variability in the timing of neurodevelopment of the ventral cord with two of five species that hatch as second-stage juveniles showing delayed neurodevelopment. We also found unexpected variation in the dye-filling of sensory neurons among examined species. Again, sensory neuron dye-filling pattern did not strictly correlate with phylogeny. Our results demonstrate that variation in nematode neuroanatomy is more prevalent than previously assumed and recommend this diverse phylum for future “evo-devo-neuro” studies. PMID:26778973

  20. The Pharmacology of Nematode FMRFamide-related Peptides.

    PubMed

    Maule, A G; Geary, T G; Bowman, J W; Shaw, C; Falton, D W; Thompson, D P

    1996-09-01

    FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) are the largest known family of invertebrate neuropeptides. Immunocytochemical screens of nematode tissues using antisera raised to these peptides have localized extensive FaRP-immunostaining to their nervous systems. Although 21 FaRPs have been isolated and sequenced from extracts of free-living and parasitic nematodes, available evidence indicates that other FaRPs await discovery. While our knowledge of the pharmacology of these native nematode neuropeptides is extremely limited, reports on their physiological activity in nematodes are ever increasing. All the nematode FaRPs examined so far have been found to have potent and varied actions on nematode neuromuscular activity. It is only through the extensive pharmacological and physiological assessment of the tissue, cell and receptor interactions of these peptidic messengers that an understanding of their activity on nematode neuromusculature will be possible. In this review, Aaron Maule and colleagues examine the current understanding of the pharmacology of nematode FaRPs. PMID:15275173

  1. Anthelmintics Are Substrates and Activators of Nematode P Glycoprotein▿

    PubMed Central

    Kerboeuf, Dominique; Guégnard, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    P glycoproteins (Pgp), members of the ABC transporter superfamily, play a major role in chemoresistance. In nematodes, Pgp are responsible for resistance to anthelmintics, suggesting that they are Pgp substrates, as they are in mammalian cells. However, their binding to nematode Pgp and the functional consequences of this interaction have not been investigated. Our study showed that levamisole and most of the macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are Pgp substrates in nematodes. Ivermectin, although a very good substrate in mammalian cells, is poorly transported. In contrast to their inhibitory effect on mammalian Pgp, these drugs had a stimulatory effect on the transport activity of the reference Pgp substrate rhodamine 123 (R123) in the nematode. This may be due to a specific sequence of nematode Pgp, which shares only 44% identity with mammalian Pgp. Other factors, such as the affinity of anthelmintics for Pgp and their concentration in the Pgp microenvironment, could also differ in nematodes, as suggested by the specific relationship observed between the octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) of MLs and R123 efflux. Nevertheless, some similarities were also observed in the functional activities of the mammalian and nematode Pgp. As in mammalian cells, substrates known to bind the H site (Hoechst 33342 and colchicine) activated the R site, resulting in an increased R123 efflux. Our findings thus show that ML anthelmintics, which inhibit Pgp-mediated efflux in mammals, activate transport activity in nematodes and suggest that several substituents in the ML structure are involved in modulating the stimulatory effect. PMID:21300828

  2. Aggregative group behavior in insect parasitic nematode disperal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Movement behavior is critical to determination of spatial ecology and success of foraging in predators and parasites. In this study movement behavior of entomopathogenic nematodes was explored. Movement patterns in sand were investigated when nematodes were applied to a specific locus or when the ne...

  3. Impact of K Fertilization on Reniform Nematode Populations in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mid-South cotton lint yield has stagnated in recent years, while reniform nematode levels have grown progressively higher. This coupling of phenomena circumstantially implicates the nematode as a causative agent for the yield stagnation. A diverse group of nine cotton genotypes were grown from 199...

  4. Conserved nematode signaling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes, which are ubiquitous in soil and are estimated to cause $100 B of agricultural damage annually, produce novel, highly conserved small sugar-based molecules call ascarosides. Ascarosides play critical roles in nematode development and behavior. We report here that plants recognize these un...

  5. Functional characterization of plant-parasitic cyst nematode CLE peptides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During root infection by plant-parasitic cyst nematodes, proteins originating in gland cells are secreted through the stylet into a cell near the vasculature of the host root for the initiation and maintenance of a specialized feeding structure (syncytium). Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera gl...

  6. Characterization of reniform nematode genome through shotgun sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reniform nematode (RN), a major agricultural pest particularly on cotton in the United States(U.S.), is among the major plant parasitic nematodes for which limited genomic information exists. In this study, over 380 Mb of sequence data were generated from four pooled adult female RN and assembl...

  7. Characterization of a New Species of Cyst Nematode Parasitizing Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examination of soil around unthrifty corn roots in northwestern Tennessee (Obion County) in 2006 revealed high population densities of juvenile nematodes and lemon-shaped cysts. This nematode resembles Cactodera spp. in possessing a circumfenestrate vulva but lacking bullae and an underbridge. These...

  8. Nematode resistance and agronomic performance of LONREN and NEMSTACK lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LONREN lines have resistance to reniform nematodes that was obtained from Gossypium longicalyx. The NEMSTACK lines have the same resistance recombined with the rkn-1 gene for resistance to root knot nematode from 'Acala NemX.' Different LONREN lines vary depending on whether the resistance gene was...

  9. Soybean Cyst Nematode in North America - 55 Years Later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was first discovered in North America in 1954 in Hanover County, North Carolina, USA, when it was found on soybean in a field that had been planted to Easter lilies obtained from Japan prior to World War II. The nematode is now distributed throughout soybe...

  10. Directional movement of entomopathogenic nematodes in response to electrical current

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are important regulating agents of insect populations. The infective juvenile nematodes respond to a variety of stimuli that aid in survival and host finding. Identification of novel cues in the nematodes’ environment can help ...

  11. Occurrence and distribution of nematodes in Idaho crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys were conducted in Idaho during the 2000-2006 cropping seasons to study the occurrence, population density, host association and distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with major crops, grasses and weeds. Eighty-four species and 43 genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were record...

  12. Nematode management in Florida vegetable and ornamental production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing restrictions on chemical soil fumigants have necessitated the development of new options for plant-parasitic nematode management in vegetable and ornamental crop production. USDA-ARS researchers with their collaborators are developing new tactics to manage nematodes and weeds in vegetable...

  13. Development of Reniform Nematode Resistance in Upland Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this review is to assess development of resistance to the reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Cotton cultivars with reniform nematode resistance are needed. The development of resistant cultivars appears possible but presents a signifi...

  14. IMPACT OF K FERTILIZATION ON RENIFORM NEMATODE POPULATIONS IN COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mid-South cotton lint yield has stagnated in recent years, while reniform nematode levels have grown progressively higher. This coupling of phenomena circumstantially implicates the nematode as a causative agent for the yield stagnation. A diverse group of nine cotton genotypes were grown from 199...

  15. Granite Rock Outcrops: An Extreme Environment for Soil Nematodes?

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Erin; Semmens, Katharine; Parsons, Charles

    2009-01-01

    We studied soil nematode communities from the surface of granite flatrock outcrops in the eastern Piedmont region of the United States. The thin soils that develop here experience high light intensity and extreme fluctuations in temperature and moisture and host unique plant communities. We collected soils from outcrop microsites in Virginia (VA) and North Carolina (NC) in various stages of succession (Primitive, Minimal, and Mature) and compared soil properties and nematode communities to those of adjacent forest soils. Nematodes were present in most outcrop soils, with densities comparable to forest soils (P > 0.05). Nematode communities in Mature and Minimal soils had lower species richness than forest soils (P < 0.05) and contained more bacterial-feeders and fewer fungal-feeders (P < 0.05). Primitive soils contained either no nematodes (NC) or only a single species (Mesodorylaimus sp., VA). Nematode communities were similar between Mature and Minimal soils, according to trophic group representation, MI, PPI, EI, SI, and CI (P > 0.05). Forest soils had a higher PPI value (P < 0.05), but otherwise community indices were similar to outcrop soils (P > 0.05). Outcrop nematode communities failed to group together in a Bray-Curtis cluster analysis, indicating higher variability in community structure than the Forest soils, which did cluster together. A high proportion of the nematodes were extracted from outcrop soils in coiled form (33-89%), indicating that they used anhydrobiosis to persist in this unique environment. PMID:22661780

  16. 76 FR 60357 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) is a destructive pest of potatoes and other solanaceous plants. Potatoes... no longer required. From 1977 until 2010, potato production fields in the townships of Elba and Byron... nematode quarantine. In 2007, there were 13 farms in Genesee County that harvested potatoes. These...

  17. Influence of symbiotic bacteria on entomopathogenic nematode--host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are three players in the infection process of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae): the nematodes themselves, the host insect, and the nematode’s mutualistic bacteria (Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp.). As a host infection progresses, all three of these players...

  18. Root-Knot Nematodes and Aflatoxin Contamination in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of peanut by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria) can lead to an increase in aflatoxin contamination of kernels when the plants are subjected to drought stress during pod maturation. The nematode can infect both the roots and peanut pods. We recently showed that root infection in t...

  19. Viability and virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure environmental stress such as from ultraviolet radiation. Our objective was to compare UV tolerance among a broad array of nematode species. We compared 9 different EPN species and ...

  20. Collective behavior of nematodes in a thin fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Jung, Sunghwan

    2010-11-01

    Many organisms live in a confined fluidic environment such as in a thin fluid layer on dermal tissues, in saturated soil, and others. In this study, we investigate collective behaviors of nematodes in a thin fluid layer. The actively moving nematodes feel various hydrodynamic forces such as surface tension from the top air-liquid interface, viscous stress from the bottom surface, and more. Two or more nematodes in close proximity can be drawn together by the capillary force between bodies. This capillary force also makes it difficult for nematodes to separate. The Strouhal number and a ratio of amplitude to wavelength are measured before and after nematode aggregation and separation. Grouped and separate nematodes have no significant changes of the Strouhal number and the ratio of amplitude to wavelength, which shows that body stroke and kinematic performance do not change while grouped together. This result implies that nematodes gain no mechanical advantage during locomotion when grouped but that the capillary force draws and keeps nematodes joined together.

  1. Directional movement of parasitic nematodes in response to electrical current

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steinernematid nematodes are parasites that are important natural regulating agents of insect populations. The infective juvenile nematodes respond to a variety of stimuli that aid in survival and host finding. Host finding strategies among steinernematids differ along a continuum from ambush (sit...

  2. A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

  3. Evaluation of Nematode Resistant Grape Rootstock for Managing Mesocriconema xenoplax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to better understand the impact of the ring nematode, Mesocriconema xenoplax, on the productivity and physiology of grapevines grafted onto different rootstocks that showed varying resistance to ring nematodes under greenhouse conditions. Pinot noir grapevines (grafted...

  4. Sex-specific mating pheromones in the nematode Panagrellus redivivus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite advances in medicine and crop genetics, nematodes remain significant human pathogens and agricultural pests. This warrants investigation of alternative strategies for pest control, such as interference with pheromone-mediated reproduction. Because only two nematode species have had their phe...

  5. Utilization of management zones for reniform nematodes in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to record measurements of soil electrical conductivity (EC) and field elevation at precise and closely-spaced GPS coordinates allows us to define nematode management zones based on field physical characteristics which may affect reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) population lev...

  6. High Sensitivity NMR and Mixture Analysis for Nematode Behavioral Metabolomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are the most abundant animal on earth, and they parasitize virtually all plants and animals. Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living nematode that lives in soil and composting material. We have shown that C. elegans releases at least 40 small molecules into its environment including many...

  7. Book review: Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cyst nematodes are an important group of plant-parasitic nematodes that cause billions of dollars in economic damage to crops every year. This article reviews a recently published, two-volume monograph that describes the morphological and molecular characteristics of these agriculturally signif...

  8. Soybean lines evaluated for resistance to reniform nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four wild and domestic soybean (Glycine max and G. soja) lines were evaluated for resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in growth chamber tests with a day length of 16 hours and temperature held constant at 28 C. Several entries for which reactions to reniform nematode w...

  9. Alternatives to methyl bromide for nematode control in ornamental crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematode control options for production of in-ground ornamental crops are extremely limited. Ornamental production has different obstacles to nematode control and chemical application than raised-bed vegetable production. These challenges include a need for flat fumigation, lack of labeled herbicide...

  10. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ACTIN GENE FROM CYST NEMATODES IN COMPARISON WITH THOSE FROM OTHER NEMATODES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Actin is an abundant, highly expressed and very conserved protein from the actin/heat shock protein70/sugar kinase superfamily. The full-length mRNA encoding actin was cloned and characterized from the plant-parasitic cyst nematodes Heterodera glycines and Globodera rostochiensis, and from the free-...

  11. Antagonists of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Florida Citrus.

    PubMed

    Walter, D E; Kaplan, D T

    1990-10-01

    In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare. PMID:19287759

  12. Antagonists of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Florida Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Walter, David Evans; Kaplan, David T.

    1990-01-01

    In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare. PMID:19287759

  13. Loss of susceptibility as an alternative for nematode resistance.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Engler, Janice; Favery, Bruno; Engler, Gilbert; Abad, Pierre

    2005-04-01

    Among plant pathogens, sedentary endoparasitic nematodes are one of the most damaging pests in global agriculture. These obligate parasites interact with their hosts in a quite unique and intriguing way. They induce the redifferentiation of root cells into specialized feeding cells essential for nematode growth and reproduction; thus, nematodes have evolved the ability to exploit plant genes and hijack host functions for their own requirements. Various approaches to engineer plants with resistance to parasitic nematodes have been pursued, most focusing on the introduction of resistance genes. An alternative strategy to achieve resistance is to exploit the susceptibility of plant disease. Better knowledge of the plant response during the compatible interaction should allow the identification of targets to engineer resistance to parasitic nematodes in crop species. PMID:15831374

  14. Serosurvey for canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus, Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging canids in Scandinavia and Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Akerstedt, Johan; Lillehaug, Atle; Larsen, Inger-Lise; Eide, Nina E; Arnemo, Jon M; Handeland, Kjell

    2010-04-01

    Prevalence of antibodies reactive to canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Toxoplasma gondii were examined in free-ranging Scandinavian canids. Sampling included 275 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from mainland Norway, 60 arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from the high-arctic islands of Svalbard, and 98 wolves (Canis lupus) from the joint Swedish-Norwegian population. Methods used included virus neutralization tests for CDV and CAV-1, a microscopic agglutination test for L. interrogans, and a direct agglutination test for T. gondii. High prevalence of antibody to CAV-1 was identified in red foxes (59.6%), wolves (67.7%), and arctic foxes (37.8%). The prevalence of antibody to CDV varied between 9.6% and 12.3% in the three species. Antibodies to L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae were found in 9.9% of the red foxes and 8.4% of the wolves sampled, whereas no antibody-positive arctic foxes were found. All animals were antibody-negative for L. interrogans serovar Canicola. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 66.9, 51.7, and 18.6% of red foxes, arctic foxes and wolves, respectively. Significantly more adults than juveniles were antibody-positive for CDV in red foxes and arctic foxes, for CAV-1 in wolves, and for T. gondii in red foxes and wolves. There was a general tendency for adult female red foxes to have a higher prevalence of antibodies for CDV than adult males; this difference was statistically significant. The results indicate that CDV and CAV-1 are endemic in red foxes and wolves on the Scandinavian mainland and in arctic foxes on Svalbard. Although infection with L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae was relatively common in wild canids on mainland Norway, it was not found on Svalbard, where the maintenance host (Rattus norvegicus) is absent. All three species are commonly exposed to T. gondii through predation on infected intermediate hosts. PMID:20688639

  15. Soil microorganisms control plant ectoparasitic nematodes in natural coastal foredunes

    PubMed Central

    Duyts, Henk; Berg, Matty P.; Costa, Sofia R.; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2007-01-01

    Belowground herbivores can exert important controls on the composition of natural plant communities. Until now, relatively few studies have investigated which factors may control the abundance of belowground herbivores. In Dutch coastal foredunes, the root-feeding nematode Tylenchorhynchus ventralis is capable of reducing the performance of the dominant grass Ammophila arenaria (Marram grass). However, field surveys show that populations of this nematode usually are controlled to nondamaging densities, but the control mechanism is unknown. In the present study, we first established that T. ventralis populations are top-down controlled by soil biota. Then, selective removal of soil fauna suggested that soil microorganisms play an important role in controlling T. ventralis. This result was confirmed by an experiment where selective inoculation of microarthropods, nematodes and microbes together with T. ventralis into sterilized dune soil resulted in nematode control when microbes were present. Adding nematodes had some effect, whereas microarthropods did not have a significant effect on T. ventralis. Our results have important implications for the appreciation of herbivore controls in natural soils. Soil food web models assume that herbivorous nematodes are controlled by predaceous invertebrates, whereas many biological control studies focus on managing nematode abundance by soil microorganisms. We propose that soil microorganisms play a more important role than do carnivorous soil invertebrates in the top-down control of herbivorous ectoparasitic nematodes in natural ecosystems. This is opposite to many studies on factors controlling root-feeding insects, which are supposed to be controlled by carnivorous invertebrates, parasitoids, or entomopathogenic nematodes. Our conclusion is that the ectoparasitic nematode T. ventralis is potentially able to limit productivity of the dune grass A. arenaria but that soil organisms, mostly microorganisms, usually prevent the development of growth-reducing population densities. PMID:17345102

  16. Multifaceted effects of host plants on entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Hazir, Selcuk; Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Canan; Leite, Luis G; Cakmak, Ibrahim; Olson, Dawn

    2016-03-01

    The success of parasites can be impacted by multi-trophic interactions. Tritrophic interactions have been observed in parasite-herbivore-host plant systems. Here we investigate aspects of multi-trophic interactions in a system involving an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), its insect host, and host plant. Novel issues investigated include the impact of tritrophic interactions on nematode foraging behavior, the ability of EPNs to overcome negative tritrophic effects through genetic selection, and interactions with a fourth trophic level (nematode predators). We tested infectivity of the nematode, Steinernema riobrave, to corn earworm larvae (Helicoverpa zea) in three host plants, tobacco, eggplant and tomato. Tobacco reduced nematode virulence and reproduction relative to tomato and eggplant. However, successive selection (5 passages) overcame the deficiency; selected nematodes no longer exhibited reductions in phenotypic traits. Despite the loss in virulence and reproduction nematodes, first passage S. riobrave was more attracted to frass from insects fed tobacco than insects fed on other host plants. Therefore, we hypothesized the reduced virulence and reproduction in S. riobrave infecting tobacco fed insects would be based on a self-medicating tradeoff, such as deterring predation. We tested this hypothesis by assessing predatory success of the mite Sancassania polyphyllae and the springtail Sinella curviseta on nematodes reared on tobacco-fed larvae versus those fed on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, tomato fed larvae, or eggplant fed larvae. No advantage was observed in nematodes derived from tobacco fed larvae. In conclusion, our results indicated that insect-host plant diet has an important effect on nematode foraging, infectivity and reproduction. However, negative host plant effects, might be overcome through directed selection. We propose that host plant species should be considered when designing biocontrol programs using EPNs. PMID:26896698

  17. Digestion of FMRFamide and nematode FMRFamide-like peptides (nematode FLPs) by the soluble fraction from Panagrellus redivivus homogenate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteases in the soluble fraction of homogenates prepared from the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus hydrolyzed the amidated invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFa and FLRFa, and nematode FMRFa-like peptides (FLPs) KPNFLRFa (FLP-1), APKPKFIRFa (FLP-5), KNEFIRFa (FLP-8), KPSFVRFa (FLP-9), RNKFEFIR...

  18. ACTIVITY OF FUNGAL CULTURE FILTRATES AGAINST SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE EGG HATCH AND JUVENILE MOTILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi were isolated from soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) eggs collected in China, and 253 isolates were assayed for production of compounds active against H. glycines and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Fungal isolates were grown for 3 and 7 days in potato dextrose broth (PD...

  19. Expressed sequence tags of the peanut pod nematode Ditylenchus africanus: the first transcriptome analysis of an Anguinid nematode

    PubMed Central

    Haegeman, Annelies; Jacob, Joachim; Vanholme, Bartel; Kyndt, Tina; Mitreva, Makedonka; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 4847 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from mixed stages of the migratory plant-parasitic nematode Ditylenchus africanus (peanut pod nematode) were investigated. It is the first molecular survey of a nematode which belongs to the family of the Anguinidae (order Rhabditida, superfamily Sphaerularioidea). The sequences were clustered into 2596 unigenes, of which 43% did not show any homology to known protein, nucleotide, nematode EST or plant-parasitic nematode genome sequences. Gene ontology mapping revealed that most putative proteins are involved in developmental and reproductive processes. In addition unigenes involved in oxidative stress as well as in anhydrobiosis, such as LEA (late embryogenesis abundant protein) and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase were identified. Other tags showed homology to genes previously described as being involved in parasitism (expansin, SEC-2, calreticulin, 14-3-3b and various allergen proteins). In situ hybridization revealed that the expression of a putative expansin and a venom allergen protein was restricted to the gland cell area of the nematode, being in agreement with their presumed role in parasitism. Furthermore, 7 putative novel candidate parasitism genes were identified based on the prediction of a signal peptide in the corresponding protein sequence and homologous ESTs exclusively in parasitic nematodes. These genes are interesting for further research and functional characterization. Finally, 34 unigenes were retained as good target candidates for future RNAi experiments, because of their nematode specific nature and observed lethal phenotypes of Caenorhabditis elegans homologs. PMID:19383517

  20. Expressed sequence tags of the peanut pod nematode Ditylenchus africanus: the first transcriptome analysis of an Anguinid nematode.

    PubMed

    Haegeman, Annelies; Jacob, Joachim; Vanholme, Bartel; Kyndt, Tina; Mitreva, Makedonka; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2009-09-01

    In this study, 4847 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from mixed stages of the migratory plant-parasitic nematode Ditylenchus africanus (peanut pod nematode) were investigated. It is the first molecular survey of a nematode which belongs to the family of the Anguinidae (order Rhabditida, superfamily Sphaerularioidea). The sequences were clustered into 2596 unigenes, of which 43% did not show any homology to known protein, nucleotide, nematode EST or plant-parasitic nematode genome sequences. Gene ontology mapping revealed that most putative proteins are involved in developmental and reproductive processes. In addition unigenes involved in oxidative stress as well as in anhydrobiosis, such as LEA (late embryogenesis abundant protein) and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase were identified. Other tags showed homology to genes previously described as being involved in parasitism (expansin, SEC-2, calreticulin, 14-3-3b and various allergen proteins). In situ hybridization revealed that the expression of a putative expansin and a venom allergen protein was restricted to the gland cell area of the nematode, being in agreement with their presumed role in parasitism. Furthermore, seven putative novel candidate parasitism genes were identified based on the prediction of a signal peptide in the corresponding protein sequence and homologous ESTs exclusively in parasitic nematodes. These genes are interesting for further research and functional characterization. Finally, 34 unigenes were retained as good target candidates for future RNAi experiments, because of their nematode specific nature and observed lethal phenotypes of Caenorhabditis elegans homologs. PMID:19383517

  1. Discovery and initial analysis of novel viral genomes in the soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are the most abundant multi-cellular animals on earth, yet little is known about their natural viral pathogens and no nematode virus genomes have been published. Consequently, nematode viruses have been overlooked as important biotic factors in the study of nematode ecology. Here we show t...

  2. Association of MC3R gene polymorphisms with body weight in the red fox and comparative gene organization in four canids.

    PubMed

    Skorczyk, A; Flisikowski, K; Szydlowski, M; Cieslak, J; Fries, R; Switonski, M

    2011-02-01

    There are five genes encoding melanocortin receptors. Among canids, the genes have mainly been studied in the dog (MC1R, MC2R and MC4R). The MC4R gene has also been analysed in the red fox. In this report, we present a study of chromosome localization, comparative sequence analysis and polymorphism of the MC3R gene in the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog. The gene was localized by FISH to the following chromosome: 24q24-25 in the dog, 14p16 in the red fox, 18q13 in the arctic fox and NPP4p15 in the Chinese raccoon dog. A high identity level of the MC3R gene sequences was observed among the species, ranging from 96.0% (red fox--Chinese raccoon dog) to 99.5% (red fox--arctic fox). Altogether, eight polymorphic sites were found in the red fox, six in the Chinese raccoon dog and two in the dog, while the arctic fox appeared to be monomorphic. In addition, association of several polymorphisms with body weight was analysed in red foxes (the number of genotyped animals ranged from 319 to 379). Two polymorphisms in the red fox, i.e. a silent substitution c.957A>C and c.*185C>T in the 3'-flanking sequence, showed a significant association (P < 0.01) with body weight. PMID:20477806

  3. Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, vitamins A and E, and carotenoids in six canid and four ursid species at four zoos.

    PubMed

    Crissey, S; Ange, K; Slifka, K; Bowen, P; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M; Langman, C; Sadler, W; Ward, A

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional status for six captive canid species (n=34) and four captive ursid species (n=18) were analyzed. The species analyzed included: African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), gray wolf (Canis lupus), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baleiyi), red wolf (Canis rufus), brown bear (Ursus arctos), polar bear (Ursus maritimus), spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), and sun bear (Ursus malayanus). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diet for each species at each institution met probable dietary requirements. Blood samples were collected from each animal and analyzed for vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D, vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Family differences were found for 25(OH)D, retinol, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol. Species differences were found for all detectable measurements. Carotenoids were not detected in any species. The large number of animals contributing to these data, provides a substantial base for comparing the nutritional status of healthy animals and the differences among them. PMID:11137448

  4. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part II: Helminths and arthropods.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Pfeffer, Martin; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-09-30

    Over the last few decades, ecological factors, combined with everchanging landscapes mainly linked to human activities (e.g. encroachment and tourism) have contributed to modifications in the transmission of parasitic diseases from domestic to wildlife carnivores and vice versa. In the first of this two-part review article, we have provided an account of diseases caused by protozoan parasites characterised by a two-way transmission route between domestic and wild carnivore species. In this second and final part, we focus our attention on parasitic diseases caused by helminth and arthropod parasites shared between domestic and wild canids and felids in Europe. While a complete understanding of the biology, ecology and epidemiology of these parasites is particularly challenging to achieve, especially given the complexity of the environments in which these diseases perpetuate, advancements in current knowledge of transmission routes is crucial to provide policy-makers with clear indications on strategies to reduce the impact of these diseases on changing ecosystems. PMID:26049678

  5. Prerequisites for parasitism in rhabditid nematodes.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Zelmer, Derek A

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate their potential for survival in a vertebrate host, dauer larvae from 7 species of rhabditid nematodes were subjected to in vitro conditions designed to emulate those of a vertebrate digestive tract. Dauer larvae from 3 of the 7 species, selected for their ability to survive elevated temperatures and low pH, and representing differing types of phoretic associations with invertebrate hosts, were fed to frogs to examine their ability to survive passage through a vertebrate digestive system. The degree of invasiveness of the phoretic association that dauer larvae had with their invertebrate hosts did not correspond to patterns of in vitro survivorship for any of the experimental conditions. When consumed with a prey item, dauer larvae from all 3 species were recovered from frogs 72 hr postexposure, and no differences for in vivo survivorship were observed among the 3 species. The contention that invasiveness or facultative parasitism within an invertebrate host is a beneficial or necessary step toward vertebrate parasitism by rhabditid nematodes was not supported by the survivorship data. PMID:19803545

  6. Resistance of Grape Rootstocks to Plant-parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.; Walker, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Candidate grape rootstocks were selected through a rigorous screening program initiated with important sources of resistance to Meloidogyne pathotypes and to Xiphinema index in Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis species native to North America. Based on their rooting capability and horticultural characteristics, 200 candidates were selected from 5,000 progeny of multiple crosses between commercial grape rootstocks and wild grape species that exhibited resistance to nematodes. After a 15-year screening process, 13 selections emerged with either almost complete or complete combined resistance to M. incognita Race 3, M. incognita pathotype Harmony C, M. arenaria pathotype Harmony A, and X. index, important nematode pests of grapevines. Durability of this broad resistance was tested by challenging the selections with the target nematodes in combination and with the target nematodes in combinations with species not included in the screening process. Durability of resistance of the candidate rootstocks was also tested by exposure to the nematode communities of infested field soils from different locations. Breadth of resistance was determined on the basis of their host status to non-target nematodes, including Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus vulnus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Paratylenchus hamatus. After a total of 204 separate trials, the rootstocks were released to the grape industry as UCD GRN1, UCD GRN2, UCD GRN3, UCD GRN4, and UCD GRN5. We provide a compilation of current knowledge of the host status of these five newly released rootstocks and of 27 other rootstock cultivars to plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23482972

  7. Pack hunting by a common soil amoeba on nematodes.

    PubMed

    Geisen, Stefan; Rosengarten, Jamila; Koller, Robert; Mulder, Christian; Urich, Tim; Bonkowski, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Soils host the most complex communities on Earth, including the most diverse and abundant eukaryotes, i.e. heterotrophic protists. Protists are generally considered as bacterivores, but evidence for negative interactions with nematodes both from laboratory and field studies exist. However, direct impacts of protists on nematodes remain unknown. We isolated the soil-borne testate amoeba Cryptodifflugia operculata and found a highly specialized and effective pack-hunting strategy to prey on bacterivorous nematodes. Enhanced reproduction in presence of prey nematodes suggests a beneficial predatory life history of these omnivorous soil amoebae. Cryptodifflugia operculata appears to selectively impact the nematode community composition as reductions of nematode numbers were species specific. Furthermore, we investigated 12 soil metatranscriptomes from five distinct locations throughout Europe for 18S ribosomal RNA transcripts of C. operculata. The presence of C. operculata transcripts in all samples, representing up to 4% of the active protist community, indicates a potential ecological importance of nematophagy performed by C. operculata in soil food webs. The unique pack-hunting strategy on nematodes that was previously unknown from protists, together with molecular evidence that these pack hunters are likely to be abundant and widespread in soils, imply a considerable importance of the hitherto neglected trophic link 'nematophagous protists' in soil food webs. PMID:26079718

  8. Changes in soil nematode communities under the impact of fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruzdeva, L. I.; Matveeva, E. M.; Kovalenko, T. E.

    2007-06-01

    Changes taking place in the communities of soil nematodes of an artificially sown meadow under the impact of annually applied mineral fertilizers have been studied in a field experiment for nine years. It is shown that changes in the species composition, trophic structure, and numbers of nematodes from different genera depend on the fertilizer applied and on the competitiveness of the plant species grown. The spectra of nematode genera sensitive to the complete mineral fertilizer (NPK) and to the particular nutrients have been identified with the use of a number of parameters, including the maturity index of nematode communities, the biotope preferences of the particular nematode genera, and the general pattern of nematode habitats. The results obtained in this study can be used to assess the effect of mineral fertilizers on the soil fauna and to suggest optimum application rates of mineral fertilizers ensuring the sustainable development of meadow herbs. The use of the data on the trophic structure of nematode communities for predicting the ways of organic matter decomposition in the soil is discussed.

  9. Microsporidian Infection in a Free-Living Marine Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Ardila-Garcia, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Microsporidia are unicellular fungi that are obligate endoparasites. Although nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse animal groups, the only confirmed report of microsporidian infection was that of the “nematode killer” (Nematocida parisii). N. parisii was isolated from a wild Caenorhabditis sp. and causes an acute and lethal intestinal infection in a lab strain of Caenorhabditis elegans. We set out to characterize a microsporidian infection in a wild nematode to determine whether the infection pattern of N. parisii in the lab is typical of microsporidian infections in nematodes. We describe a novel microsporidian species named Sporanauta perivermis (marine spore of roundworms) and characterize its infection in its natural host, the free-living marine nematode Odontophora rectangula. S. perivermis is not closely related to N. parisii and differs strikingly in all aspects of infection. Examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the infection was localized in the hypodermal and muscle tissues only and did not involve the intestines. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed infection in the muscle and hypodermis, and surprisingly, it also revealed that the parasite infects O. rectangula eggs, suggesting a vertical mode of transmission. Our observations highlight the importance of studying parasites in their natural hosts and indicate that not all nematode-infecting microsporidia are “nematode killers”; instead, microsporidiosis can be more versatile and chronic in the wild. PMID:23087371

  10. Gongylonema: a parasitic nematode of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Marco Antonio; Yencha, Myron William

    2012-11-01

    We report a rare parasitic nematode infection in a 26-year-old healthy African American man. Gongylonema nematode infections in humans are unique in their ability to localize in the submucosa of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Humans are incidental hosts for the Gongylonema nematode, which is more commonly found in rudimentary animals, birds, and rodents. Approximately 50 cases of human Gongylonema infections have been reported worldwide, including 11 documented cases in the United States.(1) The pathogenesis, characteristic clinic findings, and identification features will be discussed. PMID:23165385

  11. A Method for Staining Nematode Secretions and Structures

    PubMed Central

    Premachandran, D.; Von Mende, N.; Hussey, R. S.; McClure, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Secretions from amphids, phasmids, and excretory system were stained by incubating nematodes in 0.1% coomassie brilliant blue G-250 in 40% aqueous methanol containing 10% acetic acid on slides with coverslips sealed with nail polish or Zut. Nematodes incubated in this staining solution usually produced copious amounts of secretions from their amphids and excretory pore. Phasmids also stained dark blue, enabling them to be easily observed. Other biological dyes stained these secretions or were useful for differentiating specific morphological features of nematodes. PMID:19290186

  12. Effects of catechin polyphenols and preparations from the plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines on protease activity and behavior in three nematode species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protease activities in preparations from the plant-parasitic nematodes Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita and the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus were inhibited by exposure to a series of 8 catechin polyphenol analogs, (+)-catechin, (-)- epicatechin (EC), (-)-gallocatechin (GC)...

  13. The Effects of Root-knot Nematode Infection and Mi-mediated Nematode Resistance in Tomato on Plant Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Brandon P.; Jia, Lingling; Sayler, Ronald J.; Arevalo-Soliz, Lirio Milenka

    2011-01-01

    The Mi-1.2 resistance gene in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) confers resistance against several species of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). This study examined the impact of M. javanica on the reproductive fitness of near-isogenic tomato cultivars with and without Mi-1.2 under field and greenhouse conditions. Surprisingly, neither nematode inoculation or host plant resistance impacted the yield of mature fruits in field microplots (inoculum=8,000 eggs/plant), or fruit or seed production in a follow-up greenhouse bioassay conducted with a higher inoculum level (20,000 eggs/plant). However, under heavy nematode pressure (200,000 eggs/plant), greenhouse-grown plants carrying Mi-1.2 had more than ten-fold greater fruit production than susceptible plants and nearly forty-fold greater estimated lifetime seed production, confirming prior reports of the benefits of Mi-1.2. In all cases Mi-mediated resistance significantly reduced nematode reproduction. These results indicated that tomato can utilize tolerance mechanisms to compensate for moderate levels of nematode infection, but that the Mi-1.2 resistance gene confers a dramatic fitness benefit under heavy nematode pressure. No significant cost of resistance was detected in the absence of nematode infection. PMID:22791916

  14. Goat-nematode interactions: think differently.

    PubMed

    Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Landau, Serge Yan; Jackson, Frank; Beveridge, Ian

    2010-08-01

    Goats (caprine) and sheep (ovine) are infected with the same principal gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) species, which provoke similar pathological changes and economic consequences. However, until now, the majority of data on host-parasite interactions have been accumulated from ovine studies. This article aims to emphasize the need for specific caprine studies. It is hypothesized that, owing to divergent evolutionary processes, sheep and goats have developed two different strategies to regulate GIN infections, respectively, based on immune response versus feeding behavior. Generation of additional comparative data should result in a better understanding of the possible trade-offs between these two basic regulatory processes. Goat studies should also help to avoid past errors in the control of GIN species owing to the lack of relevant information. PMID:20488752

  15. MSP dynamics and retraction in nematode sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolgemuth, Charles; Miao, Long; Vanderlinde, Orion; Roberts, Tom; Oster, George

    2005-03-01

    Most eukaryotic cells can crawl over surfaces. In general, this motility requires three distinct actions: polymerization at the leading edge, adhesion to the substrate, and retraction at the rear. Recent in vitro experiments with extracts from spermatozoa from the nematode Ascaris suum suggest that retraction forces are generated by depolymerization of the Major Sperm Protein (MSP) cytoskeleton. Combining polymer entropy with a simple kinetic model for disassembly I propose a model for disassembly-induced retraction that fit the in vitro experimental data. This model explains the mechanism by which deconstruction of the cytoskeleton produces the force necessary to pull the cell body forward and suggest further experiments that can test the validity of the model.

  16. MSP Dynamics and Retraction in Nematode Sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolgemuth, Charles W.

    2005-03-01

    Most eukaryotic cells can crawl over surfaces. In general, this motility requires three distinct actions: polymerization at the leading edge, adhesion to the substrate, and retraction at the rear. Recent in vitro experiments with extracts from spermatozoa from the nematode Ascaris suum suggest that retraction forces are generated by depolymerization of the Major Sperm Protein (MSP) cytoskeleton. Combining polymer entropy with a simple kinetic model for disassembly I propose a model for disassembly-induced retraction that fit the in vitro experimental data. This model explains the mechanism by which deconstruction of the cytoskeleton produces the force necessary to pull the cell body forward and suggest further experiments that can test the validity of the model.

  17. Atypical Development in Plant and Soil Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Howard; Robbins, Robert; Yeates, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Observations of atypical developmental and anatomical characteristics have been recorded for many taxa of soil nematodes. They include the unusual occurrence of extra feeding structures, aberrant configuration of features of both male and female reproductive systems, and the occurrence of intersexes assumed to be functionally female, functionally male, or non-functional. In many cases, hypotheses have been advanced regarding the genetic or developmental mechanisms and environmental stimuli that control, regulate, or facilitate abnormalities, but many are quite speculative and lack experimental verification. Further, the fitness costs or advantages, and the heritability of aberrant characters are largely unknown, except where they clearly preclude reproduction, either apomictic or amphimictic. Underlying mechanisms and ecological consequences may be difficult to study in organisms that are not readily cultured under axenic or sterile laboratory conditions, however information on developmental processes in Caenorhabditis elegans represents an important resource in which to seek homologies. PMID:23483848

  18. Breeding a super nematode for enhanced insect pest suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are important regulators of natural insect populations, and are used commercially as biological control agents for pest suppression. Successful biocontrol applications depend on the introduced organism having an array of benef...

  19. Motility of small nematodes in disordered wet granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Gabriel; Lu, Kevin; Sznitman, Josue; Arratia, Paulo E.

    2010-11-01

    Organisms that evolve within complex fluidic environments often develop unique methods of locomotion that allow them to exploit the properties of the media. In this talk, we present an investigation on the motility of the worm nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in shallow, wet granular media as a function of particle size dispersity and area density (φ) using both particle- and nematode-tracking methods. Surprisingly, the nematode's propulsion speed is enhanced by the presence of particles in a fluid and is nearly independent of local area density. The undulation speed, often used to differentiate locomotion gaits, is significantly affected by particle size dispersity for area densities above φ> 0.55, and is characterized by a change in the nematode's waveform from swimming to crawling. This change occurs for dense polydisperse media only and highlights the organism's adaptability to subtle differences in local structure between monodisperse and polydisperse media.

  20. Nematode parasites of waterfowl (Anseriformes) from western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, M.E.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-four species of nematodes were found in 415 Anseriformes (Anatidae) of 27 species; 93.7% of birds over 4 weeks old were infected. Data on prevalence, host specificity, age of host, and geographic distribution are given. Infections were more intense in sick birds and birds in poor physical condition. Accidental or abnormal infection was more likely in sick than in normal birds. From 1 to 13 species of nematodes are reported from each host species, including 118 new host records, 3 nematodes new for North America, and 1 new species. Multiple infections were present in 76.5% of birds parasitized; eight species of nematodes were found in one whistling swan (Olor columbianus).

  1. SCREENING OF TRANSGENIC ANTHURIUMS FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT AND NEMATODE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthuriums exhibit limited resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae and to the nematodes Radopholus simile and Meloidogyne javanica. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of embryogenic calli with strains LBA4404, EHA105, and AGLO resulted in transgenic p...

  2. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Byron J.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Broos, Emma; Knox, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems. PMID:25061360

  3. EVOLUTION OF HOST SEARCH STRATEGIES IN ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES (NEMATODA: STEINERNMATIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is interspecific variation in infective juvenile behavior within the entomopathogenic nematode genus Steinernema. This variation is consistent with use of different host searching (foraging) strategies along a continuum between ambush and cruise foraging. To address questions about the evoluti...

  4. Human gastrointestinal nematode infections: are new control methods required?

    PubMed Central

    Stepek, Gillian; Buttle, David J; Duce, Ian R; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections affect 50% of the human population worldwide, and cause great morbidity as well as hundreds of thousands of deaths. Despite modern medical practices, the proportion of the population infected with GI nematodes is not falling. This is due to a number of factors, the most important being the lack of good healthcare, sanitation and health education in many developing countries. A relatively new problem is the development of resistance to the small number of drugs available to treat GI nematode infections. Here we review the most important parasitic GI nematodes and the methods available to control them. In addition, we discuss the current status of new anthelmintic treatments, particularly the plant cysteine proteinases from various sources of latex-bearing plants and fruits. PMID:16965561

  5. Soil organic matter and management of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Widmer, T L; Mitkowski, N A; Abawi, G S

    2002-12-01

    Organic matter and its replenishment has become a major component of soil health management programs. Many of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are a function of organic matter content and quality. Adding organic matter to soil influences diverse and important biological activities. The diversity and number of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes are altered by rotational crops, cover crops, green manures, and other sources of organic matter. Soil management programs should include the use of the proper organic materials to improve soil chemical, physical, and biological parameters and to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens. It is critical to monitor the effects of organic matter additions on activities of major and minor plant-parasitic nematodes in the production system. This paper presents a general review of information in the literature on the effects of crop rotation, cover crops, and green manures on nematodes and their damage to economic crops. PMID:19265946

  6. Soil Organic Matter and Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, T. L.; Mitkowski, N. A.; Abawi, G. S.

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter and its replenishment has become a major component of soil health management programs. Many of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are a function of organic matter content and quality. Adding organic matter to soil influences diverse and important biological activities. The diversity and number of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes are altered by rotational crops, cover crops, green manures, and other sources of organic matter. Soil management programs should include the use of the proper organic materials to improve soil chemical, physical, and biological parameters and to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens. It is critical to monitor the effects of organic matter additions on activities of major and minor plant-parasitic nematodes in the production system. This paper presents a general review of information in the literature on the effects of crop rotation, cover crops, and green manures on nematodes and their damage to economic crops. PMID:19265946

  7. Nematode Hsp90: highly conserved but functionally diverse.

    PubMed

    Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2014-08-01

    Nematodes are amongst the most successful and abundant organisms on the planet with approximately 30 000 species described, although the actual number of species is estimated to be one million or more. Despite sharing a relatively simple and invariant body plan, there is considerable diversity within the phylum. Nematodes have evolved to colonize most ecological niches, and can be free-living or can parasitize plants or animals to the detriment of the host organism. In this review we consider the role of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in the nematode life cycle. We describe studies on Hsp90 in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and comparative work on the parasitic species Brugia pahangi, and consider whether a dependence upon Hsp90 can be exploited for the control of parasitic species. PMID:24721950

  8. Exploring the transcriptome of the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Joachim; Mitreva, Makedonka; Vanholme, Bartel; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2008-07-01

    Radopholus similis is an important nematode pest on fruit crops in the tropics. Unraveling the transcriptome of this migratory plant-parasitic nematode can provide insight in the parasitism process and lead to more efficient control measures. For the first high throughput molecular characterization of this devastating nematode, 5,853 expressed sequence tags from a mixed stage population were generated. Adding 1,154 tags from the EST division of GenBank for subsequent analysis, resulted in a total of 7,007 ESTs, which represent approximately 3,200 genes. The mean G + C content of the nucleotides at the third codon position (GC3%) was calculated to be as high as 64.8%, the highest for nematodes reported to date. BLAST-searches resulted in about 70% of the clustered ESTs having homology to (DNA and protein) sequences from the GenBank database, whereas one-third of them did not match to any known sequence. Roughly 40% of these latter sequences are predicted to be coding, representing putative novel protein coding genes. Functional annotation of the sequences by GO annotation revealed the abundance of genes involved in reproduction and development, which reflects the nematode population biology. Genes with a role in the parasitism process are identified, as well as genes essential for nematode survival, providing information useful for parasite control. No evidence was found for the presence of trans-spliced leader sequences commonly occurring in nematodes, despite the use of various approaches. In conclusion, we found three different sources for the EST sequences: the majority has a nuclear origin, approximately 1% of the EST sequences are derived from the mitochondrial transcriptome, and interestingly, 1% of the tags are with high probability derived from Wolbachia, providing the first molecular indication for the presence of this endosymbiont in a plant-parasitic nematode. PMID:18386064

  9. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Wolbachia of Nematodes and Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Martin; Quail, Michael A; Holroyd, Nancy E; Parkhill, Julian; Blaxter, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Wolbachia are well known as bacterial symbionts of arthropods, where they are reproductive parasites, but have also been described from nematode hosts, where the symbiotic interaction has features of mutualism. The majority of arthropod Wolbachia belong to clades A and B, while nematode Wolbachia mostly belong to clades C and D, but these relationships have been based on analysis of a small number of genes. To investigate the evolution and relationships of Wolbachia symbionts we have sequenced over 70 kb of the genome of wOvo, a Wolbachia from the human-parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, and compared the genes identified to orthologues in other sequenced Wolbachia genomes. In comparisons of conserved local synteny, we find that wBm, from the nematode Brugia malayi, and wMel, from Drosophila melanogaster, are more similar to each other than either is to wOvo. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes on the sequenced fragments supports reciprocal monophyly of nematode and arthropod Wolbachia. The nematode Wolbachia did not arise from within the A clade of arthropod Wolbachia, and the root of the Wolbachia clade lies between the nematode and arthropod symbionts. Using the wOvo sequence, we identified a lateral transfer event whereby segments of the Wolbachia genome were inserted into the Onchocerca nuclear genome. This event predated the separation of the human parasite O. volvulus from its cattle-parasitic sister species, O. ochengi. The long association between filarial nematodes and Wolbachia symbionts may permit more frequent genetic exchange between their genomes. PMID:17040125

  10. Nematodes from terrestrial and freshwater habitats in the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We present an updated list of terrestrial and freshwater nematodes from all regions of the Arctic, for which records of properly identified nematode species are available: Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Iceland, Greenland, Nunavut, Northwest territories, Alaska, Lena River estuary, Taymyr and Severnaya Zemlya and Novaya Zemlya. The list includes 391 species belonging to 146 genera, 54 families and 10 orders of the phylum Nematoda. PMID:25197239

  11. Cryopreservation of Radopholus similis, a tropical plant-parasitic nematode.

    PubMed

    Elsen, Annemie; Vallterra, Salvador Ferrandis; Van Wauwe, Tom; Thuy, Trinh Thi Thu; Swennen, Rony; De Waele, Dirk; Panis, Bart

    2007-10-01

    For obligate plant-parasitic nematodes, cryopreservation has advantages over the usual preservation methods on whole plants or axenic culture systems, because the latter two are labourious and time and space consuming. In addition, cross contamination among different isolates can occur easily. Moreover, specific genetic studies require maintenance of the original population. The nematode under investigation, Radopholus similis, is a plant-parasitic nematode from the humid tropics. Therefore, any treatment at low temperatures is likely to add extra stress to the nematode, making the development of a cryopreservation protocol extremely difficult. In this paper, we describe experiments to achieve a successful cryopreservation protocol for the tropical nematode R. similis using vitrification solution-based methods based on a well defined mixture of cryoprotectants in combination with ultra-rapid cooling and thawing rates. A two-step treatment was used consisting of an incubation in glycerol followed by the application of a vitrifying mixture of methanol, glycerol and glucose. After cryopreservation, the pathogenicity of the nematodes was not altered, since they could infect and reproduce on carrot discs after recovery in the Ringer solution. The cryopreservation method described can be used for routine cryopreservation of R. similis lines from different origins. PMID:17707790

  12. The host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    McRae, K M; Stear, M J; Good, B; Keane, O M

    2015-12-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major threat to the health, welfare and productivity of sheep populations worldwide. Infected lambs have a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in morbidity and occasional mortality. The current chemo-dominant approach to nematode control is considered unsustainable due to the increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is growing consumer demand for food products from animals not subjected to chemical treatment. Future mechanisms of nematode control must rely on alternative, sustainable strategies such as vaccination or selective breeding of resistant animals. Such strategies take advantage of the host's natural immune response to nematodes. The ability to resist gastrointestinal nematode infection is considered to be dependent on the development of a protective acquired immune response, although the precise immune mechanisms involved in initiating this process remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, current knowledge on the innate and acquired host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep and the development of immunity is reviewed. PMID:26480845

  13. Early Crop Root Destruction for Management of Tobacco Cyst Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    LaMondia, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Prompt tillage after crop harvest was investigated as a cultural control for the tobacco cyst nematode, Globodera tabacum tabacum, on stalk-cut broadleaf cigar wrapper tobacco. Stalk stumps and roots remaining after harvest were destroyed by tilling immediately or from 2 to 6 wk after harvest in field experiments over 4 yr. Cyst nematode Pf/Pi ratios ranged from 0.65 to 1.62 when plants were tilled immediately after harvest and 1.13 to 5.88 when tillage was delayed. Nematode population development was monitored by inoculating plants in pots placed in fields with J2 in eggs and sampling over time (8 to 18 wk). Three generations per year were observed, and G. t. tabacum generation time was as short as 6 wk for each generation. Destroying stalks and root systems remaining after harvesting stalk-cut broadleaf cigar wrapper tobacco removes the host to preclude development of nematodes at the end of the second and entire third generation. Early tillage resulted in consistently lower tobacco cyst nematode populations than allowing viable roots to remain in fields for an additional 8 to 18 wk. This management tactic reduces the need for nematicide application to slow nematode population increases over time and can reduce losses due to infection by G. t. tabacum. PMID:19259515

  14. Dispersal and gene flow in free-living marine nematodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal and gene flow determine connectivity among populations, and can be studied through population genetics and phylogeography. We here review the results of such a framework for free-living marine nematodes. Although field experiments have illustrated substantial dispersal in nematodes at ecological time scales, analysis of the genetic diversity illustrated the importance of priority effects, founder effects and genetic bottlenecks for population structuring between patches <1 km apart. In contrast, only little genetic structuring was observed within an estuary (<50 km), indicating that these small scale fluctuations in genetic differentiation are stabilized over deeper time scales through extensive gene flow. Interestingly, nematode species with contrasting life histories (extreme colonizers vs persisters) or with different habitat preferences (algae vs sediment) show similar, low genetic structuring. Finally, historical events have shaped the genetic pattern of marine nematodes and show that gene flow is restricted at large geographical scales. We also discuss the presence of substantial cryptic diversity in marine nematodes, and end with highlighting future important steps to further unravel nematode evolution and diversity. PMID:23356547

  15. Conserved nematode signalling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance.

    PubMed

    Manosalva, Patricia; Manohar, Murli; von Reuss, Stephan H; Chen, Shiyan; Koch, Aline; Kaplan, Fatma; Choe, Andrea; Micikas, Robert J; Wang, Xiaohong; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Sternberg, Paul W; Williamson, Valerie M; Schroeder, Frank C; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Plant-defense responses are triggered by perception of conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), for example, flagellin or peptidoglycan. However, it remained unknown whether plants can detect conserved molecular patterns derived from plant-parasitic animals, including nematodes. Here we show that several genera of plant-parasitic nematodes produce small molecules called ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones. Picomolar to micromolar concentrations of ascr#18, the major ascaroside in plant-parasitic nematodes, induce hallmark defense responses including the expression of genes associated with MAMP-triggered immunity, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, as well as salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated defense signalling pathways. Ascr#18 perception increases resistance in Arabidopsis, tomato, potato and barley to viral, bacterial, oomycete, fungal and nematode infections. These results indicate that plants recognize ascarosides as a conserved molecular signature of nematodes. Using small-molecule signals such as ascarosides to activate plant immune responses has potential utility to improve economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture. PMID:26203561

  16. Conserved nematode signalling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance

    PubMed Central

    Manosalva, Patricia; Manohar, Murli; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Chen, Shiyan; Koch, Aline; Kaplan, Fatma; Choe, Andrea; Micikas, Robert J.; Wang, Xiaohong; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Sternberg, Paul W.; Williamson, Valerie M.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-defense responses are triggered by perception of conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), for example, flagellin or peptidoglycan. However, it remained unknown whether plants can detect conserved molecular patterns derived from plant-parasitic animals, including nematodes. Here we show that several genera of plant-parasitic nematodes produce small molecules called ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones. Picomolar to micromolar concentrations of ascr#18, the major ascaroside in plant-parasitic nematodes, induce hallmark defense responses including the expression of genes associated with MAMP-triggered immunity, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, as well as salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated defense signalling pathways. Ascr#18 perception increases resistance in Arabidopsis, tomato, potato and barley to viral, bacterial, oomycete, fungal and nematode infections. These results indicate that plants recognize ascarosides as a conserved molecular signature of nematodes. Using small-molecule signals such as ascarosides to activate plant immune responses has potential utility to improve economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture. PMID:26203561

  17. Nematode infection: A rare mimic of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Hotchen, Andrew; Chin, Kian; Raja, Mahzar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute appendicitis is a common condition seen in all surgical units. One rare condition that can mimic acute appendicitis is a nematode infection of the bowel. There have been few reported cases of nematode infection within the appendix and none that have been accompanied by intra-operative pictures. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 16-year-old female presented with a 12 h history of right iliac fossa pain and mild pyrexia. Bloods showed a neutrophilia and normal C-reactive protein. Laparoscopy was performed which revealed a non-inflamed appendix. The appendix was dissected and a live nematode was visualised exiting the base of the appendix. Anti-helminthics were given and the infection resolved. DISCUSSION Nematode infection is most commonly seen in Africa, Asia and South America. When seen within the United Kingdom (UK), it is seen most commonly within high-risk populations. Testing for these infections is not routine within the UK and when they are performed, the results take a considerable amount of time to return. These tests should be considered within high-risk populations so that unnecessary surgery can be avoided. CONCLUSION This case highlights the importance of considering rare causes of right iliac fossa pain including nematode infection in a young patient. The case highlights this by giving intra-operative pictures of live nematodes upon dissection of the appendix. PMID:25024022

  18. Diverse host-seeking behaviors of skin-penetrating nematodes.

    PubMed

    Castelletto, Michelle L; Gang, Spencer S; Okubo, Ryo P; Tselikova, Anastassia A; Nolan, Thomas J; Platzer, Edward G; Lok, James B; Hallem, Elissa A

    2014-08-01

    Skin-penetrating parasitic nematodes infect approximately one billion people worldwide and are responsible for some of the most common neglected tropical diseases. The infective larvae of skin-penetrating nematodes are thought to search for hosts using sensory cues, yet their host-seeking behavior is poorly understood. We conducted an in-depth analysis of host seeking in the skin-penetrating human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, and compared its behavior to that of other parasitic nematodes. We found that Str. stercoralis is highly mobile relative to other parasitic nematodes and uses a cruising strategy for finding hosts. Str. stercoralis shows robust attraction to a diverse array of human skin and sweat odorants, most of which are known mosquito attractants. Olfactory preferences of Str. stercoralis vary across life stages, suggesting a mechanism by which host seeking is limited to infective larvae. A comparison of odor-driven behavior in Str. stercoralis and six other nematode species revealed that parasite olfactory preferences reflect host specificity rather than phylogeny, suggesting an important role for olfaction in host selection. Our results may enable the development of new strategies for combating harmful nematode infections. PMID:25121736

  19. First report of the nematode Leidynema appendiculata from Periplaneta fuliginosa.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Sota; Vicente, Cludia S L; Sato, Kazuki; Yoshiga, Toyoshi; Kanzaki, Natsumi; Hasegawa, Koichi

    2014-06-01

    The smokybrown cockroach Periplaneta fuliginosa has spread all over the world, and is now one of the most undesired invasive alien pests in Japan. Because cockroaches are generally infected by thelastomatid nematodes, they are being distributed around the world with their parasitic nematodes. Nothing is known about parasitic nematode species in P. fuliginosa differences, or similarity of the parasite's population structures between the different countries of the host cockroaches. Here we investigated the P. fuliginosa invasive to Japan and found that 100% of individuals were infected with one nematode species. According to the morphology and the sequence of the D2/D3 expansion segment of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene, we identified the parasite as Leidynema appendiculata. This nematode reproduced by haplodiploidy and its developmental timing under various conditions is quite divergent. Their population in the hindgut of P. fuliginosa was controlled with a few adult females and a male. This is the first report of the thelastomatid nematode isolated from the smokybrown cockroach, and is the basis for our future research examining the origin, distribution route and immigration history of the cockroach and the impact of L. appendiculata on native Japanese cockroach species. PMID:24827090

  20. Directional movement of entomopathogenic nematodes in response to electrical fields: Effects of species, magnitude of voltage, and infective juvenile age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes respond to a variety of stimuli when foraging. Previously, we reported a directional response to electrical fields for two entomopathogenic nematode species; specifically, when electrical fields were generated on agar plates Steinernema glaseri (a nematode that utilizes a...

  1. Mitochondrial Analysis of the Most Basal Canid Reveals Deep Divergence between Eastern and Western North American Gray Foxes (Urocyon spp.) and Ancient Roots in Pleistocene California

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Natalie S.; Statham, Mark J.; Sacks, Benjamin N.

    2015-01-01

    Pleistocene aridification in central North America caused many temperate forest-associated vertebrates to split into eastern and western lineages. Such divisions can be cryptic when Holocene expansions have closed the gaps between once-disjunct ranges or when local morphological variation obscures deeper regional divergences. We investigated such cryptic divergence in the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), the most basal extant canid in the world. We also investigated the phylogeography of this species and its diminutive relative, the island fox (U. littoralis), in California. The California Floristic Province was a significant source of Pleistocene diversification for a wide range of taxa and, we hypothesized, for the gray fox as well. Alternatively, gray foxes in California potentially reflected a recent Holocene expansion from further south. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 169 gray foxes from the southeastern and southwestern United States and 11 island foxes from three of the Channel Islands. We estimated a 1.3% sequence divergence in the cytochrome b gene between eastern and western foxes and used coalescent simulations to date the divergence to approximately 500,000 years before present (YBP), which is comparable to that between recognized sister species within the Canidae. Gray fox samples collected from throughout California exhibited high haplotype diversity, phylogeographic structure, and genetic signatures of a late-Holocene population decline. Bayesian skyline analysis also indicated an earlier population increase dating to the early Wisconsin glaciation (~70,000 YBP) and a root height extending back to the previous interglacial (~100,000 YBP). Together these findings support California’s role as a long-term Pleistocene refugium for western Urocyon. Lastly, based both on our results and re-interpretation of those of another study, we conclude that island foxes of the Channel Islands trace their origins to at least 3 distinct female founders from the mainland rather than to a single matriline, as previously suggested. PMID:26288066

  2. Assessment of the efficacy of oral vaccination of livestock guardian dogs in the framework of oral rabies vaccination of wild canids in Israel.

    PubMed

    Yakobson, B A; King, R; Sheichat, N; Eventov, B; David, D

    2008-01-01

    Since 1956, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) have been the primary vectors maintaining wildlife rabies in Israel. Oral rabies vaccination of wild canids, initiated in 1998, resulted in near-elimination of the disease in wildlife by 2005. In 2005 and 2006, an outbreak of rabies was observed in stray dogs in the vaccinated area of the Golan Heights, with no cases in foxes or jackals. Epidemiological investigations showed that the infected dogs were from territories across the border. This was confirmed by molecular analysis, which showed that the virus was different from rabies isolates endemic to this area. The objective of this study was to determine bait acceptance and the feasibility of oral rabies vaccination in packs of livestock guardian dogs. Coated sachets and fishmeal polymer baits of Raboral V-RG (Merial, USA) were tested in five different test zones. Both formats were hand-fed to individual dogs and to dogs belonging to dog packs. Bait uptake and consumption were observed in each dog. The estimated efficacy of oral rabies vaccination was very low (a maximum of 28%). Vaccine delivery problems were observed in dogs belonging to packs, whereby dominant animals consumed multiple baits and in competitive situations baits were swallowed whole. The uncertainty of oral vaccination necessitated turning to other methods to control this outbreak: stray dogs were removed and herd dogs were vaccinated parenterally. This study showed that oral rabies vaccination of dogs in packs using baits designed for wildlife would not be effective. Possibly, different baits or steps to circumvent competition within the pack will make this approach feasible. PMID:18634475

  3. Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Tushar K.; Papolu, Pradeep K.; Banakar, Prakash; Choudhary, Divya; Sirohi, Anil; Rao, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, and soybean) that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1), was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 60–80% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants. PMID:25883594

  4. Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Tushar K; Papolu, Pradeep K; Banakar, Prakash; Choudhary, Divya; Sirohi, Anil; Rao, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, and soybean) that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1), was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 60-80% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants. PMID:25883594

  5. Pan-phylum Comparison of Nematode Metabolic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Rahul; Rosa, Bruce A.; Lewis, Warren G.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are among the most important causative pathogens of neglected tropical diseases. The increased availability of genomic and transcriptomic data for many understudied nematode species provides a great opportunity to investigate different aspects of their biology. Increasingly, metabolic potential of pathogens is recognized as a critical determinant governing their development, growth and pathogenicity. Comparing metabolic potential among species with distinct trophic ecologies can provide insights on overall biology or molecular adaptations. Furthermore, ascertaining gene expression at pathway level can help in understanding metabolic dynamics over development. Comparison of biochemical pathways (or subpathways, i.e. pathway modules) among related species can also retrospectively indicate potential mistakes in gene-calling and functional annotation. We show with numerous illustrative case studies that comparisons at the level of pathway modules have the potential to uncover biological insights while remaining computationally tractable. Here, we reconstruct and compare metabolic modules found in the deduced proteomes of 13 nematodes and 10 non-nematode species (including hosts of the parasitic nematode species). We observed that the metabolic potential is, in general, concomitant with phylogenetic and/or ecological similarity. Varied metabolic strategies are required among the nematodes, with only 8 out of 51 pathway modules being completely conserved. Enzyme comparison based on topology of metabolic modules uncovered diversification between parasite and host that can potentially guide therapeutic intervention. Gene expression data from 4 nematode species were used to study metabolic dynamics over their life cycles. We report unexpected differential metabolism between immature and mature microfilariae of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi. A set of genes potentially important for parasitism is also reported, based on an analysis of gene expression in C. elegans and the human hookworm Necator americanus. We illustrate how analyzing and comparing metabolism at the level of pathway modules can improve existing knowledge of nematode metabolic potential and can provide parasitism related insights. Our reconstruction and comparison of nematode metabolic pathways at a pan-phylum and inter-phylum level enabled determination of phylogenetic restrictions and differential expression of pathways. A visualization of our results is available at http://nematode.net and the program for identification of module completeness (modDFS) is freely available at SourceForge. The methods reported will help biologists to predict biochemical potential of any organism with available deduced proteome, to direct experiments and test hypotheses. PMID:26000881

  6. The environmental physiology of Antarctic terrestrial nematodes: a review.

    PubMed

    Wharton, D A

    2003-11-01

    The environmental physiology of terrestrial Antarctic nematodes is reviewed with an emphasis on their cold-tolerance strategies. These nematodes are living in one of the most extreme environments on Earth and face a variety of stresses, including low temperatures and desiccation. Their diversity is low and declines with latitude. They show resistance adaptation, surviving freezing and desiccation in a dormant state but reproducing when conditions are favourable. At high freezing rates in the surrounding medium the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi freezes by inoculative freezing but can survive intracellular freezing. At slow freezing rates this nematode does not freeze but undergoes cryoprotective dehydration. Cold tolerance may be aided by rapid freezing, the production of trehalose and by an ice-active protein that inhibits recrystallisation. P. davidi relies on slow rates of water loss from its habitat, and can survive in a state of anhydrobiosis, perhaps aided by the ability to synthesise trehalose. Teratocephalus tilbrooki and Ditylenchus parcevivens are fast-dehydration strategists. Little is known of the osmoregulatory mechanisms of Antarctic nematodes. Freezing rates are likely to vary with water content in Antarctic soils. Saturated soils may produce slow freezing rates and favour cryoprotective dehydration. As the soil dries freezing rates may become faster, favouring freezing tolerance. When the soil dries completely the nematodes survive anhydrobiotically. Terrestrial Antarctic nematodes thus have a variety of strategies that ensure their survival in a harsh and variable environment. We need to more fully understand the conditions to which they are exposed in Antarctic soils and to apply more natural rates of freezing and desiccation to our studies. PMID:14615899

  7. Potential of Neoactinolaimus as a biological control agent of root-knot and reniform nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predatory nematode Neoactinolaimus spp. (family Actinolaimidae) was examined as a potential biological control agent against root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) and reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) nematodes in laboratory conditions. Neoactinolaimus possesses a large odontostylet to puncture the cu...

  8. Taxonomy, morphology and phylogenetics of coffee-associated root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Although lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus species) can reduce coffee yield worldwide, methods for their identification are often difficult to implement. This review summarizes the diagnostic morphological features for distinguishing the eight previously described lesion nematode sp...

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CYSTOID NEMATODE MELOIDODERITA KIRJANOVAE (NEMATA: SPHAERONEMATIDAE) FROM SOUTHERN ITALY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cystoid nematode population was detected parasitizing water mint (Mentha aquatica) in Southern Italy. Morphological, morphometric, and SEM studies identified the nematode as Meloidoderita kirjanovae. It was readily distinguished from the closely related species Meloidoderita polygoni with molecula...

  10. BACTERIAL PREFERENCES OF THE BACTERIVOROUS SOIL NEMATODE CEPHALOBUS BREVICAUDA (CEPHALOBIDAE): EFFECT OF BACTERIAL TYPE AND SIZE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cell size and type may affect availability of bacteria for consumption by bacterivorous nematodes in the soil and in culture. This study explored the bacterial preferences of the bacterivorous soil nematode Cephalobus brevicauda (Cephalobidae) by comparing bactgeria isolated dir...

  11. Phenotypic and molecular evaluation of cotton hairy roots as a model system for studying nematode resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cellular mechanisms that mediate resistance of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium spp.) to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) are poorly understood. Here, Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced hairy roots were investigated as a possible research...

  12. Comparison of Early and Normal Planting Dates for Suppression of Reniform Nematode Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira) causes significant yield losses in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the southeastern United States, particularly in Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana. In this region, reniform nematode management relies primarily on the use of ne...

  13. Incidence and influence of plant-parasitic nematodes in southern Illinois peach orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency, distribution and impact of plant-parasitic nematodes in southern Illinois peach orchards were determined. Nine plant parasitic nematode genera were detected comprising 11 different species: Helicotylenchus platyurus, Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, Hoplolaimus spp., Meloidogyne spp., ...

  14. SURVEY OF STYLET BEARING NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH DATE PALM IN KHUZDAR DISTRICT, BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys were conducted during September and October 2002 to identify the stylet-bearing nematodes associated with date palm in Khuzdar district, Balochistan, Pakistan. The nematodes recorded were Tylenchus sp., Merlinius sp., Helicotylenchus indicus, Psilenchus hilarulus, Aphelenchoides sp., Meloido...

  15. Control of endoparasitic nematode infections in goats.

    PubMed

    Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda; de Jesús Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe

    2011-03-01

    In 2007, the world goat population was estimated at 831 million, compared with 1.09 billion sheep, but the goat population is expanding more rapidly. More than 90% of goats are found in developing countries, with the primary commodity being its meat. The commonly used description of the goat as the "cow of the poorest" underlines its importance for small farmers. However, in the developed world (eg, the European Union and much of North America), the value of goats relates to its select ability to produce high yields of milk and the increased returns associated with the dairy products, particularly artisanal cheeses. Therefore, the current success of goats seems to be related to 2 characteristics: (1) its ability to efficiently convert low-quality forages into high-quality protein sources, that is, milk and meat, in developing countries and (2) its ability to produce commodities for valuable niche markets in developed countries. In both systems, parasitism with helminths, and particularly nematodes of the gastrointestinal tract is a major threat for health and production. PMID:21215900

  16. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic. PMID:24721783

  17. [Biology of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants].

    PubMed

    Manfredi, M T

    2006-09-01

    The development and survival of free-living stages of gastro-intestinal nematodes of small ruminants are influenced by several abiotic and biotic factors. Within the abiotic factors, most important are the environmental temperature and humidity. They regulate the development of larvae from eggs dispersed on the pasture by the animals faeces. Each parasite species that infect ruminants requires a different time to development, depending on temperature and humidity. Among trichostrongylids, Ostertagia, Teladorsagia and Nematodirus show a strong adaptation to low temperatures. Nematodirus larvae are able to survive to winter inside the egg shell. Temperature and humidity influence the distribution and survival of larvae on pasture. The larval third stage can migrate from faeces to pasture vegetation and they accumulate at the basis of vegetation where stay during the day or in the soil to avoid the desiccation. The forage species affects the migration of larvae on herbage too. Many biological factors contribute to disperse the larvae on the pasture. Dung burying beetles, coprophagous beetles and earthworms can greatly reduce the larvae of some trichostrongylids on pasture. They contribute to the spread of the faecal material on the pasture and allow the larval death as a consequence of drying. PMID:17176950

  18. The dual effects of root-cap exudates on nematodes: from quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes to frenzy in entomopathogenic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens, plants produce numerous secondary metabolites, either constitutively or de novo in response to attacks. An intriguing constitutive example is the exudate produced by certain root-cap cells that can induce a state of reversible quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes, thereby providing protection against these antagonists. The effect of such root exudates on beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) remains unclear, but could potentially impair their use in pest management programmes. We therefore tested how the exudates secreted by green pea (Pisum sativum) root caps affect four commercial EPN species. The exudates induced reversible quiescence in all EPN species tested. Quiescence levels varied with the green pea cultivars tested. Notably, after storage in root exudate, EPN performance traits were maintained over time, whereas performances of EPNs stored in water rapidly declined. In sharp contrast to high concentrations, lower concentrations of the exudate resulted in a significant increase in EPN activity and infectiousness, but still reduced the activity of two plant-parasitic nematode species. Our study suggests a finely tuned dual bioactivity of the exudate from green pea root caps. Appropriately formulated, it can favour long-term storage of EPNs and boost their infectiousness, while it may also be used to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:25165149

  19. In vitro proteolysis of nematode FLPs by preparations from the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus and two plant-parasitic nematodes (Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteolytic activities in extracts from three nematodes, the plant parasites Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita, and the free-living Panagrellus redivivus, were surveyed for substrate preferences using a battery of seven FRET-modified peptide substrates, all derived from members of the la...

  20. A Bioassay to Estimate Root Penetration by Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, David T.; Davis, Eric L.

    1991-01-01

    An in vitro bioassay with a 96-well microtiter plate was used to study the effect of lectins on burrowing nematode penetration of citrus roots. In each well, one 4-mm root segment, excised from the zone of elongation of rough lemon roots, was buried in 0.88 g dry sand. Addition of a Radopholus citrophilus suspension containing ca. 300 nematodes in 50 μ1 test solution completely moistened the sand in each well. The technique assured uniform treatment concentration throughout the medium. Within 16-24 hours, burrowing nematodes penetrated citrus root pieces, primarily through the cut ends. The lectins (100 μg/ml) Concanavalin A (Con A), soybean agglutinin (SBA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LOT) stimulated an increase in penetration of citrus root segments by Radopholus citrophilus. Concentrations as low as 12.5 μg/ml Con A, LOT, and WGA stimulated burrowing nematode penetration of citrus roots. Heat denaturation of the lectins reversed their effect on penetration; however, incubation of nematodes in lectin (25 μg/ml) with 25 mM competitive sugars did not. The reason for enhanced penetration associated with lectins is unclear. PMID:19283153

  1. A bioassay to estimate root penetration by nematodes.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D T; Davis, E L

    1991-10-01

    An in vitro bioassay with a 96-well microtiter plate was used to study the effect of lectins on burrowing nematode penetration of citrus roots. In each well, one 4-mm root segment, excised from the zone of elongation of rough lemon roots, was buried in 0.88 g dry sand. Addition of a Radopholus citrophilus suspension containing ca. 300 nematodes in 50 mu1 test solution completely moistened the sand in each well. The technique assured uniform treatment concentration throughout the medium. Within 16-24 hours, burrowing nematodes penetrated citrus root pieces, primarily through the cut ends. The lectins (100 mug/ml) Concanavalin A (Con A), soybean agglutinin (SBA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LOT) stimulated an increase in penetration of citrus root segments by Radopholus citrophilus. Concentrations as low as 12.5 mug/ml Con A, LOT, and WGA stimulated burrowing nematode penetration of citrus roots. Heat denaturation of the lectins reversed their effect on penetration; however, incubation of nematodes in lectin (25 mug/ml) with 25 mM competitive sugars did not. The reason for enhanced penetration associated with lectins is unclear. PMID:19283153

  2. The FMRFamide-Like Peptide Family in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Peymen, Katleen; Watteyne, Jan; Frooninckx, Lotte; Schoofs, Liliane; Beets, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    In the three decades since the FMRFamide peptide was isolated from the mollusk Macrocallista nimbosa, structurally similar peptides sharing a C-terminal RFamide motif have been identified across the animal kingdom. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) represent the largest known family of neuropeptides in invertebrates. In the phylum Nematoda, at least 32 flp-genes are classified, making the FLP system of nematodes unusually complex. The diversity of the nematode FLP complement is most extensively mapped in Caenorhabditis elegans, where over 70 FLPs have been predicted. FLPs have shown to be expressed in the majority of the 302 C. elegans neurons including interneurons, sensory neurons, and motor neurons. The vast expression of FLPs is reflected in the broad functional repertoire of nematode FLP signaling, including neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory effects on locomotory activity, reproduction, feeding, and behavior. In contrast to the many identified nematode FLPs, only few peptides have been assigned a receptor and there is the need to clarify the pathway components and working mechanisms of the FLP signaling network. Here, we review the diversity, distribution, and functions of FLPs in nematodes. PMID:24982652

  3. Experimental Studies with Nematodes in Ecotoxicology: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Hägerbäumer, Arne; Höss, Sebastian; Heininger, Peter; Traunspurger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    With respect to their high abundances, their role as intermediaries between microorganisms and higher trophic levels, and their ubiquitous occurrence in all habitats, nematodes are of strong potential interest as environmental indicators. Ecotoxicological methods to evaluate the risk of anthropogenic pollutants on ecosystems require both in vitro and in vivo toxicity tests to investigate either mechanisms or pathways of toxicity and to set accurate toxicity thresholds. For this, the interest in nematodes as model organisms in ecotoxicology increased over the past few decades and existing appropriate experimental methods are reviewed in this manuscript. An overview of the various existing ecotoxicological tools for nematodes, ranging from molecular laboratory methods to experimental model ecosystem approaches, and their role as indicator organisms is given. The reviewed studies, approaches that range from species-based to community-based methods, reveal exciting possibilities for the future use of nematodes in ecotoxicological studies. Suitable ecotoxicological tools and ecological indices for nematodes should be integrated in weight-of-evidence approaches for assessing the ecological risk of contamination. PMID:25861113

  4. Nematode Chemotaxis: Gradual Turns, Sharp Turns, and Modulated Turn Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Amar; Padmanabhan, Venkat; Rumbaugh, Kendra; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-03-01

    We examine strategies used by the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans for chemotaxis in complex environments. The proposed description is based on our recently developed piecewise-harmonic-curvature model of nematode locomotion [PLoS ONE, 7(7) e40121 (2012)], where random harmonic-curvature modes represent elementary locomotory movements. We show that the previously described gradual-turn and sharp-turn chemotaxis strategies can be unified in our model. The gradual-turn mechanism relies on crawling amplitude changes commensurate with the undulation frequency. The sharp-turn mechanism consists in modulation of the frequency of jumps to large-amplitude modes. We hypothesize that there exists a third strategy, where the nematode adjusts the variance of the amplitude distribution. Such adjustments result in a modulation of the magnitude of random turns, with smaller turns performed when the nematode moves toward the increasing chemoatractant concentration. Experiments are proposed to determine if the third strategy is present in the nematode behavior. This work was supported by NSF grant No. CBET 1059745.

  5. Enzymology of the nematode cuticle: A potential drug target?

    PubMed Central

    Page, Antony P.; Stepek, Gillian; Winter, Alan D.; Pertab, David

    2014-01-01

    All nematodes possess an external structure known as the cuticle, which is crucial for their development and survival. This structure is composed primarily of collagen, which is secreted from the underlying hypodermal cells. Extensive studies using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrate that formation of the cuticle requires the activity of an extensive range of enzymes. Enzymes are required both pre-secretion, for synthesis of component proteins such as collagen, and post-secretion, for removal of the previous developmental stage cuticle, in a process known as moulting or exsheathment. The excretion/secretion products of numerous parasitic nematodes contain metallo-, serine and cysteine proteases, and these proteases are conserved across the nematode phylum and many are involved in the moulting/exsheathment process. This review highlights the enzymes required for cuticle formation, with a focus on the post-secretion moulting events. Where orthologues of the C. elegans enzymes have been identified in parasitic nematodes these may represent novel candidate targets for future drug/vaccine development. PMID:25057463

  6. Variation in the Susceptibility of Drosophila to Different Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Jennifer M.; Carrillo, Mayra A.

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are lethal parasites of insects that are of interest as models for understanding parasite-host interactions and as biocontrol agents for insect pests. EPNs harbor a bacterial endosymbiont in their gut that assists in insect killing. EPNs are capable of infecting and killing a wide range of insects, yet how the nematodes and their bacterial endosymbionts interact with the insect immune system is poorly understood. Here, we develop a versatile model system for understanding the insect immune response to parasitic nematode infection that consists of seven species of EPNs as model parasites and five species of Drosophila fruit flies as model hosts. We show that the EPN Steinernema carpocapsae, which is widely used for insect control, is capable of infecting and killing D. melanogaster larvae. S. carpocapsae is associated with the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, and we show that X. nematophila induces expression of a subset of antimicrobial peptide genes and suppresses the melanization response to the nematode. We further show that EPNs vary in their virulence toward D. melanogaster and that Drosophila species vary in their susceptibilities to EPN infection. Differences in virulence among different EPN-host combinations result from differences in both rates of infection and rates of postinfection survival. Our results establish a powerful model system for understanding mechanisms of host-parasite interactions and the insect immune response to parasitic nematode infection. PMID:25561714

  7. A SNARE-like protein and biotin are implicated in soybean cyst nematode virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some phytoparasitic nematodes have the ability to infect and reproduce on plants that are normally considered resistant to nematode infection. Such nematodes are referred to as virulent and the mechanisms they use to evade or suppress host plant defenses are not well understood. Here, we report the ...

  8. Brassicaceous and rye cover crops altered free-living soil nematode community composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematode community analysis was utilized to evaluate the biofumigant or allelopathic effects of brassicaceous and rye winter cover crops on non-target nematodes in three experiments in Maryland. Nematode response parameters were genus, family, trophic group population density, and percentage distri...

  9. 78 FR 1713 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the golden nematode regulations by removing areas in Livingston and... that certain areas in these two counties are free of golden nematode, and we have determined...

  10. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  11. Chemical ecology and isolation of biologically active compounds from parasitic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp) are possibly the economically most important and best-studied species of plant parasitic nematodes. However, for Meloidogyne spp and the intensely studied nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, very little is known about signaling within and in-between species. It h...

  12. Host plant resistance for reniform and root-knot nematode management in cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the US, losses to plant-parasitic nematodes are especially severe in cotton where root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita) and reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) nematodes each typically cause greater losses nationwide than any other single pathogen. Damage from nematodes is likely to become even more...

  13. EXAMINATION OF RHIZOSPHERE-ASSOCIATED MICROBES FOR PRODUCTION OF COMPOUNDS ACTIVE AGAINST PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro studies identified fungi and bacteria that produce compounds active against plant-parasitic nematodes. Assays of fungus culture filtrates were conducted with Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode: SCN) and Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode: RKN). The tested filtrates exhibite...

  14. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  15. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  16. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  17. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  18. New germplasm lines with high yield and fiber quality combined with nematode resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lines BAR-8, -11, -13, -25, -33, -41, and -48 were developed to have both resistance to nematodes and superior yield and quality. All have resistance to reniform nematodes derived from G. barbadense GB 713 and several carry the DNA marker for Mi1, the gene for resistance to root-knot nematodes....

  19. Molecular and morphological characterization of the corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae, from Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn cyst nematode Heterodera zeae was first detected in India, where it has wide distribution. This nematode has also been reported from Pakistan, Egypt, Thailand, Nepal, the United States, and Portugal. There is limited information regarding nematodes attacking cereals in Greece, and thus far ...

  20. Outcrossing and crossbreeding recovers deteriorated traits in laboratory cultured Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nematode Steinernema carpocapsae is used as a natural biocontrol agent for suppression of many economically important insect pests. Culturing of the nematodes prior to distribution for biocontrol commonly results in deterioration of traits that are essential for nematode efficacy. To better un...

  1. Regulatory interplay between soybean root and soybean cyst nematode during a resistant and susceptible reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) are obligate parasites that feed on the roots of living host plants. Often, these nematodes can lay hundreds of eggs, each capable of surviving in the soil for as long as 12 years. When it comes to wreaking havoc on agricultural yield, few nematodes can c...

  2. Prevalence of Pasteuria SP. on Renfirom Nematode in a Georgia Cotton Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasteuria species are bacterial parasites of nematodes and have been associated with suppression of root-knot, sting, and cyst nematode populations. Little is known about the Pasteuria sp. infecting the reniform nematode. While sampling a cotton field study near Cochran, GA, we found Pasteuria spo...

  3. Discovery and virulence-screening of native nematodes in Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three newly discovered entomopathogenic nematodes have been recovered from wild Wisconsin cranberry marshes. All three nematode strains have been shown to attack Sparganothis Fruitworm (SFW), and all seem similar in their virulence (ability to kill the host). Only one nematode line, however, has bee...

  4. Mechanisms of molecular mimicry of plant CLE peptide ligands by the parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes that parasitize plant roots cause huge economic losses and have few mechanisms for control. Many parasitic nematodes infect plants by reprogramming root development to drive the formation of feeding structures. How nematodes take control of plant development is largely unknown. The CLE ...

  5. A Treadmill to Localize, Exercise, and Measure the Propulsive Power of Nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Chuan, Han-Sheng; Gnatt, Michael; Raizen, David; Bau, Haim

    2011-11-01

    The nematodes C. elegans is often used as model biological system to study the genetic basis of behavior, disease-progression, and aging, as well as to develop new therapies and screen drugs. On occasion, it is desirable to quantify the nematode's muscle power. Here, we present a kind of nematode treadmill. The device consists of a tapered conduit filled with aqueous solution. The conduit is subjected to a DC electric field and to pressure-driven flow directed from the narrow end. The nematode is inserted at the conduit's wide end. Directed by the electric field (through electrotaxis), the nematode swims deliberately upstream toward the negative pole. As the conduit narrows, the average fluid velocity and the drag force on the nematode increase. Eventually, the nematode arrives at an equilibrium position, at which its propulsive power balances the viscous drag force. The nematode's propulsive power is estimated with direct numerical simulations of the flow field around the nematode. The calculations utilize the experimentally imaged gait as a boundary condition. The device is useful to retain the nematode at a nearly fixed position for prolonged observations under a microscope, to keep the nematode exercising, and to estimate the nematode's power based on the conduit's width at the equilibrium position.

  6. Transcript analysis of sedentary female reniform nematodes identifies potential targets ofr RNAi-mediated resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA-interference (RNAi) has become an attractive avenue of research in the development of crop resistance to sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes. A prerequisite for this type of research is the availability of high quality gene sequence data for the nematode in question. The reniform nematode (Rot...

  7. Two candidate genes (FTO and INSIG2) for fat accumulation in four canids: chromosome mapping, gene polymorphisms and association studies of body and skin weight of red foxes.

    PubMed

    Grzes, M; Szczerbal, I; Fijak-Nowak, H; Szydlowski, M; Switonski, M

    2011-01-01

    Fat accumulation is a polygenic trait which has a significant impact on human health and animal production. Obesity is also an increasingly serious problem in dog breeding. The FTO and INSIG2 are considered as candidate genes associated with predisposition for human obesity. In this report we present a comparative genomic analysis of these 2 genes in 4 species belonging to the family Canidae - the dog and 3 species which are kept in captivity for fur production, i.e. red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog. We cytogenetically mapped these 2 loci by FISH and compared the entire coding sequence of INSIG2 and a fragment of the coding sequence of FTO. The FTO gene was assigned to the following chromosomes: CFA2q25 (dog), VVU2q21 (red fox), ALA8q25 (arctic fox) and NPP10q24-25 (Chinese raccoon dog), while the INSIG2 was mapped to CFA19q17, VVU5p14, ALA24q15 and NPP9q22, respectively. Altogether, 29 SNPs were identified (16 in INSIG2 and 13 in FTO) and among them 2 were missense substitutions in the dog (23C/T, Thr>Met in the FTO gene and 40C/A, Arg>Ser in INSIG2). The distribution of these 2 SNPs was studied in 14 dog breeds. Two synonymous SNPs, one in the FTO gene (-28T>C in the 5'-flanking region) and one in the INSIG2 (10175C>T in intron 2), were used for the association studies in red foxes (n = 390) and suggestive evidence was observed for their association with body weight (FTO, p < 0.08) and weight of raw skin (INSIG2, p < 0.05). These associations indicate that both genes are potential candidates for growth or adipose tissue accumulation in canids. We also suggest that the 2 missense substitutions found in dogs should be studied in terms of genetic predisposition to obesity. PMID:21846970

  8. Motility of small nematodes in wet granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, G.; Lu, K.; Sznitman, J.; Arratia, P. E.

    2010-11-01

    The motility of the worm nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is investigated in shallow, wet granular media as a function of particle size dispersity and area density (phi). Surprisingly, we find that the nematode's propulsion speed is enhanced by the presence of particles in a fluid and is nearly independent of area density. The undulation speed, often used to differentiate locomotion gaits, is significantly affected by the bulk material properties of wet mono- and polydisperse granular media for phi>=0.55. This difference is characterized by a change in the nematode's waveform from swimming to crawling in dense polydisperse media only. This change highlights the organism's adaptability to subtle differences in local structure and response between monodisperse and polydisperse media.

  9. Evolution of development in nematodes related to C. elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Ralf J

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge about C. elegans provides a paradigm for comparative studies. Nematodes are very attractive in evolutionary developmental biology given the species richness of the phylum and the easiness with which several of these species can be cultured under laboratory conditions. Embryonic, gonad, vulva and male tail development were studied and compared in nematodes of five different families, providing a detailed picture of evolutionary changes in development. In particular, vulva development has been studied in great detail and substantial differences in the cellular, genetic and molecular mechanisms have been observed between C. elegans and other nematodes. For example, vulva induction relies on the single anchor cell in C. elegans, whereas a variety of different cellular mechanisms are used in related species. In recent years, a few species have been developed as satellite systems for detailed genetic and molecular studies, such as Oscheius tipulae and Pristionchus pacificus. PMID:18050392

  10. Natural occurrence of entomogenous nematodes in tennessee nursery soils.

    PubMed

    Rueda, L M; Osawaru, S O; Georgi, L L; Harrison, R E

    1993-06-01

    To isolate potential insect biocontrol agents, entomogenous nematodes were surveyed in Tennessee plant nurseries in 1991. Soil samples from 113 nursery sites were baited with greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae, house cricket (Acheta domesticus) adults, lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperings) adults, and house fly (Musca domestica) larvae. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae were each recovered from 17 soil samples. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora was more common in habitats with crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) and Chinese juniper (Juniperus chinensis) than other nursery plants, and S. carpocapsae was more frequently recovered from habitats with juniper and Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora). Bulk density, electrical conductivity, organic matter, pH, temperature, and moisture content of the entomogenous-nematode positive soil samples were compared. Other nematode genera recovered with insect baits included Rhabditis sp., Pelodera sp., Cryptaphelenchoides sp., and Mesodiplogaster sp., which was recovered from a greater percentage of soil samples than the other five genera. PMID:19279756

  11. Plant-parasitic nematodes in maine agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Huettel, W N; Francl, L J; Henn, A; Bourgoin, T

    1990-10-01

    In a survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with agricultural crops in nine Maine counties, 744 soil samples from 26 potential host plants were analyzed between November 1987 and January 1989. The most commonly encountered nematode genus was Pratylenchus, occurring in 85% of the samples from most crops, except blueberries and onions. Pratylenchus penetrans and P. crenatus were found commonly as species mixtures, with P. penetrans composing 40-80% of the mixture. Meloidogyne hapla was encountered in 16% of the samples in four counties, generally in potato rotations. Other nematodes encountered were Aphelenchoides spp., Criconemella curvature, Ditylenchus spp., Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, H. digonicus, Heterodera trifolii, Paratylenchus projectus, Trichodorus spp., Tylenchorhynchus maximus, and Xiphinema americanum. Potato fields were the most heavily sampled and thus weighted the statewide results. PMID:19287791

  12. Report on anisakid nematodes in polar regions - Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzido, Joanna; Kijewska, Agnieszka; Rokicka, Magdalena; Świątalska-Koseda, Agnieszka; Rokicki, Jerzy

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to extend our knowledge of the distribution of anisakid nematode parasites in Arctic and Antarctic polar regions. We examined vertebrate (fish) taxa characteristic of the faunas in both polar regions for the presence of parasitic nematodes. The material was collected from Svalbard (Arctic) between July and August 2008 and from King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula) between November 2007 and January 2008. In addition, faecal, bird, and invertebrate samples were collected and examined for the presence of anisakid nematodes or eggs. Anisakis simplex s.s. was found in the body cavity of Arctic cod, and Contracaecum sp. and Pseudoterranova sp. were found in Antarctic notothenioids. Eggs of Anisakis sp. and Contracaecum sp. were recovered from the faeces of Mirounga leonina. We present the first record of the occurrence of A. simplex C in the Antarctic fishes Notothenia coriiceps and Notothenia rossii.

  13. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone is not a sufficient measure for potential impact on biocontrol efficacy as other characters such as virulence may be severely affected even when viability remains high. PMID:26527839

  14. Temperature-based bioclimatic parameters can predict nematode metabolic footprints.

    PubMed

    Bhusal, Daya Ram; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Sgardelis, Stefanos P

    2015-09-01

    Nematode metabolic footprints (MFs) refer to the lifetime amount of metabolized carbon per individual, indicating a connection to soil food web functions and eventually to processes supporting ecosystem services. Estimating and managing these at a convenient scale requires information upscaling from the soil sample to the landscape level. We explore the feasibility of predicting nematode MFs from temperature-based bioclimatic parameters across a landscape. We assume that temperature effects are reflected in MFs, since temperature variations determine life processes ranging from enzyme activities to community structure. We use microclimate data recorded for 1 year from sites differing by orientation, altitude and vegetation cover. At the same sites we estimate MFs for each nematode trophic group. Our models show that bioclimatic parameters, specifically those accounting for temporal variations in temperature and extremities, predict most of the variation in nematode MFs. Higher fungivorous and lower bacterivorous nematode MFs are predicted for sites with high seasonality and low isothermality (sites of low vegetation, mostly at low altitudes), indicating differences in the relative contribution of the corresponding food web channels to the metabolism of carbon across the landscape. Higher plant-parasitic MFs were predicted for sites with high seasonality. The fitted models provide realistic predictions of unknown cases within the range of the predictor's values, allowing for the interpolation of MFs within the sampled region. We conclude that upscaling of the bioindication potential of nematode communities is feasible and can provide new perspectives not only in the field of soil ecology but other research areas as well. PMID:25899615

  15. Nematode Spatial and Ecological Patterns from Tropical and Temperate Rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Porazinska, Dorota L.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Powers, Thomas O.; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Large scale diversity patterns are well established for terrestrial macrobiota (e.g. plants and vertebrates), but not for microscopic organisms (e.g. nematodes). Due to small size, high abundance, and extensive dispersal, microbiota are assumed to exhibit cosmopolitan distributions with no biogeographical patterns. This assumption has been extrapolated from local spatial scale studies of a few taxonomic groups utilizing morphological approaches. Recent molecularly-based studies, however, suggest something quite opposite. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans on earth, but their diversity patterns are largely unknown. We conducted a survey of nematode diversity within three vertical strata (soil, litter, and canopy) of rainforests at two contrasting latitudes in the North American meridian (temperate: the Olympic National Forest, WA, U.S.A and tropical: La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) using standardized sampling designs and sample processing protocols. To describe nematode diversity, we applied an ecometagenetic approach using 454 pyrosequencing. We observed that: 1) nematode communities were unique without even a single common species between the two rainforests, 2) nematode communities were unique among habitats in both rainforests, 3) total species richness was 300% more in the tropical than in the temperate rainforest, 4) 80% of the species in the temperate rainforest resided in the soil, whereas only 20% in the tropics, 5) more than 90% of identified species were novel. Overall, our data provided no support for cosmopolitanism at both local (habitats) and large (rainforests) spatial scales. In addition, our data indicated that biogeographical patterns typical of macrobiota also exist for microbiota. PMID:22984536

  16. Nematicidal bacteria associated to pinewood nematode produce extracellular proteases.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Gabriel; Proença, Diogo Neves; Francisco, Romeu; Verissimo, Paula; Santos, Susana S; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel M O; Morais, Paula V

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria associated with the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a pathogen of trees and the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD) may play a role in the disease. In order to evaluate their role (positive or negative to the tree), strains isolated from the track of nematodes from infected Pinus pinaster trees were screened, in vitro, for their nematicidal potential. The bacterial products, from strains more active in killing nematodes, were screened in order to identify and characterize the nematicidal agent. Forty-seven strains were tested and, of these, 21 strains showed capacity to produce extracellular products with nematicidal activity. All Burkholderia strains were non-toxic. In contrast, all Serratia strains except one exhibited high toxicity. Nematodes incubated with Serratia strains showed, by SEM observation, deposits of bacteria on the nematode cuticle. The most nematicidal strain, Serratia sp. A88copa13, produced proteases in the supernatant. The use of selective inhibitors revealed that a serine protease with 70 kDa was majorly responsible for the toxicity of the supernatant. This extracellular serine protease is different phylogenetically, in size and biochemically from previously described proteases. Nematicidal assays revealed differences in nematicidal activity of the proteases to different species of Bursaphelenchus, suggesting its usefulness in a primary screen of the nematodes. This study offers the basis for further investigation of PWD and brings new insights on the role bacteria play in the defense of pine trees against B. xylophilus. Understanding all the factors involved is important in order to develop strategies to control B. xylophilus dispersion. PMID:24244546

  17. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone is not a sufficient measure for potential impact on biocontrol efficacy as other characters such as virulence may be severely affected even when viability remains high. PMID:26527839

  18. Management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in carrot.

    PubMed

    Pedroche, Nordalyn B; Villanueva, Luciana M; De Waele, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognito, remains to be one of the most important constraints in agricultural production worldwide. However, reports showed that root-knot nematode (RKN) population can be suppressed by addition of organic amendments. A greenhouse microplot experiment was conducted to determine if locally available organic amendments would reduce RKN population and improve the growth and yield of more susceptible and less susceptible carrot cultivars in comparison with the farmers' practice. Residues of broccoli, chicken manure and Trichoderma inoculant were incorporated into the soil artificially infested with root-knot nematodes. Untreated microplots were provided as controls. Three months after transplanting, nematodes were recovered from the soil using the modified Baermann-tray technique and from the roots using staining technique. The number of root-knot nematodes was counted under the stereoscopic microscope. In the more susceptible cultivar New Kuroda, significantly lowest number of second stage juveniles (J2's) was recovered from the soil incorporated with broccoli left-over materials and Trichoderma inoculant while chicken manure-amended soil had the most number of J2's. Galls and egg masses in secondary roots were highest in unamended-inoculated soil which was significantly different from broccoli-amended soil with solarisation and Trichoderma inoculant. No significant differences were obtained among the treatments in the less susceptible cultivar Chunhong. The yield was significantly highest in broccoli-amended soil with solarisation and Trichoderma inoculant but no significant difference existed between the two cultivars tested. In general, the treatments with broccoli residues and Trichoderma inoculant were able to decrease root-knot nematode population and significantly increase the yield relative to untreated soil, however, differences between the two cultivars were not significant. PMID:20222624

  19. Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Results Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100% control in some lines. Conclusions CG and nematode resistance gene stacking controlled CG and RLNs simultaneously in walnuts. Silencing genes encoding iaaM, ipt, and Pv010 decrease CG formation and RLNs populations in walnut. Beneficial plant genotype and phenotype changes are caused by co-transformation using A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes strains. Viable resistance against root lesion nematodes in walnut plants may be accomplished in the future using this gene stacking technology. PMID:24083348

  20. Gastric nematodes of the Paraguayan caiman, Caiman yacare (Alligatoridae).

    PubMed

    Goldberg, S R; Bursey, C R; Aquino-Shuster, A L

    1991-12-01

    Examination of the stomach contents of 115 Caiman yacare Daudin, 1802, from Paraguay revealed the presence of the nematodes Brevimulticaecum baylisi (Travassos, 1933), Brevimulticaecum stekhoveni (Baylis, 1947), Contracaecum sp. of Railliet and Henry, 1912, Dujardinascaris paulista (Travassos, 1933), Eustrongylides sp. of Jagerskiold, 1909, Micropleura vazi Travassos, 1933, and Ortleppascaris alata (Baylis, 1947). Nematode prevalence was 28%; greatest species prevalence (14%) was found for B. baylisi. Greatest mean intensity, 25.4, was for Contracaecum sp. All occurrences are new host and distribution records. PMID:1779280

  1. ORGANIC VS CONVENTIONAL: SOIL NEMATODE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

    PubMed

    Kapp, C; Storey, S G; Malan, A P

    2014-01-01

    Global increases in human population are creating an ever-greater need for food production. Poor soil management practices have degraded soil to such an extent that rapidly improved management practices is the only way to ensure future food demands. In South Africa, deciduous fruit producers are realising the need for soil health, and for an increased understanding of the benefits of soil ecology, to ensure sustainable fruit production. This depends heavily on improved orchard management. Conventional farming relies on the addition of artificial fertilizers, and the application of chemicals, to prevent or minimise, the effects of the soil stages of pest insects, and of plant-parasitic nematodes. Currently, there is resistance toward conventional farming practices, which, it is believed, diminishes biodiversity within the soil. The study aimed to establish the soil nematode community structure and function in organically, and conventionally, managed deciduous fruit orchards. This was done by determining the abundance, the diversity, and the functionality of the naturally occurring free-living, and plant-parasitic, nematodes in deciduous fruit orchards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The objective of the study was to form the basis for the use of nematodes as future indicators of soil health in deciduous fruit orchards. Orchards from neighbouring organic, and conventional, apricot farms, and from an organic apple orchard, were studied. All the nematodes were quantified, and identified, to family level. The five nematode-classified trophic groups were found at each site, while 14 families were identified in each orchard, respectively. Herbivores were dominant in all the orchards surveyed. Organic apples had the fewest herbivores and fungivores, with the highest number of carnivores. When comparing organic with conventional apricot orchards, higher numbers of plant-parasitic nematodes were found in the organic apricot orchards. The Maturity Index (MI) indicated that all orchard soils had values below 1.5, indicating disturbed conditions. The conventionally managed apricot orchard had the highest MI value, of 1.48. The Plant Parasitic Index (PPI) value was highest in the organically managed apricot orchard. In order to determine the existing enrichment, structural, and basal conditions, the nematode faunal analysis was applied to each site. All the sites indicated enriched and structured conditions. Regarding the diversity, the richness, and the evenness of the distribution, soil from the conventional apricot orchard had the highest species richness, whereas the organic apple orchard soil had the most even distribution of families. Different management practices in fruit orchards did not show marked differences in terms of community composition and structure. PMID:26084108

  2. Diversity and prevalence of metastrongyloid nematodes infecting the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) in European zoos.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, Mads F; Meyland-Smith, Frederik; Willesen, Jakob L; Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Monrad, Jesper

    2010-09-20

    Metastrongyloid induced pneumonia has been described sporadically in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens). Early descriptions in pandas recently imported to the USA from China involved parasites morphologically similar to Angiostrongylus spp. and Crenosomatidae. More recently, four cases of severe verminous pneumonia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum have been reported from European zoos. A coprological survey of the red panda population within European zoos was conducted in 2008. Faecal samples from 115 pandas originating from 54 zoos were collected on 3 consecutive days. Using Baermann technique, 40 animals (35%) from 20 zoos (37%) were found to shed metastrongyloid first stage larvae (L(1)). Based on their morphology and size, the L(1) observed could be divided into three morphologically distinct types: (1) a Crenosoma sp. type (n=5, overall prevalence: 4.3%), (2) an A. vasorum type (n=3, 2.6%), and (3) an unidentified metastrongyloid species, similar to, but morphologically distinct from A. vasorum (n=32, 27.8%). Further confirmation of species identification was provided by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene, which confirmed three different species. The novel Crenosoma species was most genetically analogous to Crenosoma mephitidis and the unidentified metastrongyloid species was most similar to Stenurus minor and Torynurus convulutus. Routine and quarantine health care of red pandas in captivity should take account of the risk of Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma infection in endemic areas, but should also be cognisant of the widespread presence of an apparently less pathogenic species of lungworm. The identity of the two potentially novel species is subject to further work. PMID:20570049

  3. A Simple Method to Measure Nematodes' Propulsive Thrust and the Nematode Ratchet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bau, Haim; Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David

    2015-11-01

    Since the propulsive thrust of micro organisms provides a more sensitive indicator of the animal's health and response to drugs than motility, a simple, high throughput, direct measurement of the thrust is desired. Taking advantage of the nematode C. elegans being heavier than water, we devised a simple method to determine the propulsive thrust of the animals by monitoring their velocity when swimming along an inclined plane. We find that the swimming velocity is a linear function of the sin of the inclination angle. This method allows us to determine, among other things, the animas' propulsive thrust as a function of genotype, drugs, and age. Furthermore, taking advantage of the animals' inability to swim over a stiff incline, we constructed a sawteeth ratchet-like track that restricts the animals to swim in a predetermined direction. This research was supported, in part, by NIH NIA Grant 5R03AG042690-02.

  4. [Characteristics of soil nematode community of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, China].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jia-guo; Liu, Bei-bei; Mao, Miao; Ye, Cheng-long; Yu, Li; Hu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigated the genus diversity of soil nematodes of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, analyzed the relationship between soil nematodes and soil environmental factors, and discussed the roles of soil nematodes as biological indicators of soil health. The results showed that, a total of 41 nematode genera were found in all six agricultural areas, belonging to 19 families, 7 orders, 2 classes. The numbers and community compositions of nematodes were obviously influenced by soil texture, fertilization and tillage practices. In all six agricultural areas, the numbers of nematodes in coastal agricultural area (400 individuals per 100 g dry soil) were significantly larger than that in Xuhuai, Ningzhenyang, and riverside agricultural areas. While the smallest number of nematodes was found in Yanjiang agricultural area (232 individuals per 100 g dry soil), which might be due to the differences in soil texture, annual rainfall and annual air temperature and other factors. The dominant genera of nematodes were similar in the adjacent agricultural areas. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the number of soil nematodes and levels of soil nutrients (soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated the total nitrogen, available potassium and pH obviously affected some soil nematode genera. The analysis of spatial distribution characteristics of soil nematode community in farmland of Jiangsu Province could provide data for health assessment of agricultural ecosystems. PMID:26915207

  5. Stem nematode counteracts plant resistance of aphids in alfalfa, Medicago sativa.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ricardo A; Spears, Lori R

    2014-10-01

    Plants are exploited by a diverse community of insect herbivores and phytopathogens that interact indirectly through plant-mediated interactions. Generally, plants are thought to respond to insects and pathogens through different defensive signaling pathways. As plants are selected for resistance to one phytophagous organism type (insect vs. pathogen) in managed systems, it is not clear how this selection may affect community interactions. This study examined the effect of nematode-resistant varieties on aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) suppression, and then determined how infection by the stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci, mediated ecological effects on aphids and on plant defense proteins. Four alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties were selected with resistance to nematodes only (+,-), aphids only (-,+), nematodes and aphids (+,+), and susceptibility to nematodes and aphids (-,-). Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to isolate the effect of nematode infection and aphid abundance on each variety. We found that varieties resistant to nematode, regardless of aphid resistance, had the lowest aphid counts, suggesting possible cross-resistance. Aphid abundance, however, increased when plants were exposed to nematodes. Resistant varieties were associated with elevated saponins but these compounds were not affected by insect or pathogen feeding. Concentrations of peroxidases and trypsin inhibitors, however, were increased in nematode resistant varieties when exposed to nematodes and aphids, respectively. The patterns of plant defense were variable, and a combination of resistance traits and changes in nutrient availability may drive positive interactions between nematodes and aphids aboveground. PMID:25261892

  6. Nematode community structure and diversity pattern in sandy beaches of Qingdao, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Er; Mu, Fanghong; Zhang, Zhinan; Yang, Shichao; Zhang, Ting; Li, Jia

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the diversity and structure of free-living marine nematode communities at three sandy beaches representing typical intertidal environments of a temperate zone in Qingdao, Shandong Province, China. Average nematode abundance ranged from 1006 to 2170 ind. 10 cm-2, and a total of 34 nematode genera were recorded, of which only 8 were common in all the studied beaches. Pielou's evenness and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were the lowest at the second beach where nematode abundance was the highest. The highest species diversity index coincided with the lowest nematode abundance at Shilaoren beach. Sediment median grain size, sorting coefficient, and chlorophyll-a content were essential for differentiation in nematode abundance and species diversity, whereas taxonomic diversity of nematode was homogeneous across the three beaches. In 0-20 cm sediment profile, nematode abundance declined abruptly with depth, whereas nematode diversity changed gently with obvious difference in 16-20 cm layer. Sediment granulometry and chlorophyll- a content were the two foremost factors which influenced the vertical distribution pattern of nematode generic diversity. Non-selective deposit feeders constituted the most dominant trophic group, followed by epistratum feeders. Bathylaimus (family: Tripyloididae) dominated at the second and Yangkou beach, while Theristus (family: Xyalidae) prevailed at Shilaoren beach. Omnivores and predators became important at Shilaoren beach because of the high proportion of Enoplolaimus. Even though, nematode community of the studied beaches did not differ significantly from each other.

  7. Genome Similarity Implies that Citrus-Parasitic Burrowing Nematodes do not Represent a Unique Species.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D T; Opperman, C H

    1997-12-01

    Burrowing nematodes from Central America, Dominican Republic, Florida, Guadeloupe, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were characterized for their ability to parasitize citrus, but citrus parasites were found only in Florida. Sequence tag sites originally amplified from a citrus-parasitic burrowing nematode were polymorphic among 37 burrowing nematode isolates and were not correlated with citrus parasitism, nematode isolate collection site, or amplification of a 2.4-kb sequence tag site (DK#1). Results of a RAPD analysis and characterization of the isozymes phosphoglucose isomerase, lactate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase indicated that the burrowing nematode isolates were highly similar. Citrus parasitism in Florida appears to be associated with limited changes in the burrowing nematode genome. Findings did not substantiate a previous report that R. citrophilus was present in Hawaii. Overall, these data do not support assignment of sibling species status to burrowing nematodes that differ with respect to citrus parasitism. PMID:19274179

  8. Genome Similarity Implies that Citrus-Parasitic Burrowing Nematodes do not Represent a Unique Species

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, D. T.; Opperman, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    Burrowing nematodes from Central America, Dominican Republic, Florida, Guadeloupe, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were characterized for their ability to parasitize citrus, but citrus parasites were found only in Florida. Sequence tag sites originally amplified from a citrus-parasitic burrowing nematode were polymorphic among 37 burrowing nematode isolates and were not correlated with citrus parasitism, nematode isolate collection site, or amplification of a 2.4-kb sequence tag site (DK#1). Results of a RAPD analysis and characterization of the isozymes phosphoglucose isomerase, lactate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase indicated that the burrowing nematode isolates were highly similar. Citrus parasitism in Florida appears to be associated with limited changes in the burrowing nematode genome. Findings did not substantiate a previous report that R. citrophilus was present in Hawaii. Overall, these data do not support assignment of sibling species status to burrowing nematodes that differ with respect to citrus parasitism. PMID:19274179

  9. Relative susceptibility of four pine species to infection by pinewood nematode.

    PubMed

    Linit, M J; Tamura, H

    1987-01-01

    Mature trees of eastern white, jack, Scotch, and shortleaf pines were inoculated with 25,000-34,000 pinewood nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, isolated from infected Scotch pines in Missouri. Equal numbers of trees of each species inoculated with distilled water served as controls. Nine of fifteen Scotch pines died within 4 months of nematode infection or during the winter and early spring following infection. A single eastern white and shortleaf pine died. No jack pines died. A single Scotch pine control died, apparently the result of natural nematode infection. No other controls died. Mean oleoresin flow did not differ among nematode-inoculated jack and shortleaf pines and their respective controls. Oleoresin flow in nematode-inoculated eastern white and Scotch pines was significantly lower than in their controls. Oleoresin flow was temporarily reduced in mortality-resistant eastern white and Scotch pines following nematode infection. Thus a sublethal impact of nematode infection on mortality-resistant host trees was documented. PMID:19290105

  10. Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in molluscs in the municipality of São Gonçalo, a metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: role of the invasive species Achatina fulica in parasite transmission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana P M; Gentile, Rosana; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Lopes Torres, Eduardo J; Thiengo, Silvana C

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the infection dynamics of Angiostrongylus cantonensisin its possible intermediate hosts over two years in an urban area in the state of Rio de Janeiro where the presence ofA. cantonensis had been previously recorded in molluscs. Four of the seven mollusc species found in the study were exotic.Bradybaena similaris was the most abundant, followed by Achatina fulica, Streptaxis sp., Subulina octona, Bulimulus tenuissimus, Sarasinula linguaeformis and Leptinaria unilamellata. Only A. fulica and B. similaris were parasitised by A. cantonensis and both presented co-infection with other helminths. The prevalence of A. cantonensis in A. fulica was more than 50% throughout the study. There was an inverse correlation between the population size ofA. fulica and the prevalence of A. cantonensis and abundance of the latter was negatively related to rainfall. The overall prevalence of A. cantonensis in B. similaris was 24.6%. A. fulica was the most important intermediary host of A. cantonensis in the studied area and B. similaris was secondary in importance for A. cantonensis transmission dynamics. PMID:26517652

  11. Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in molluscs in the municipality of São Gonçalo, a metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: role of the invasive species Achatina fulica in parasite transmission dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana PM; Gentile, Rosana; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Thiengo, Silvana C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the infection dynamics ofAngiostrongylus cantonensis in its possible intermediate hosts over two years in an urban area in the state of Rio de Janeiro where the presence ofA. cantonensis had been previously recorded in molluscs. Four of the seven mollusc species found in the study were exotic.Bradybaena similaris was the most abundant, followed byAchatina fulica, Streptaxis sp., Subulina octona, Bulimulus tenuissimus, Sarasinula linguaeformis and Leptinaria unilamellata. Only A. fulica and B. similaris were parasitised by A. cantonensis and both presented co-infection with other helminths. The prevalence of A. cantonensisin A. fulica was more than 50% throughout the study. There was an inverse correlation between the population size ofA. fulica and the prevalence of A. cantonensis and abundance of the latter was negatively related to rainfall. The overall prevalence of A. cantonensis in B. similariswas 24.6%. A. fulica was the most important intermediary host of A. cantonensis in the studied area andB. similaris was secondary in importance for A. cantonensis transmission dynamics. PMID:26517652

  12. The Pumping Mechanism of the Nematode Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, J. Richard; Burr, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    The radial orientation of the myofilaments in the nematode esophagus raises interesting questions as to how such a structure can function as a pump. A physical model of the esophagus of Ascaris lumbricoides was developed and the membrane theory of shells applied in order to relate the observed dimensional changes to myofilament force, pressure stresses, and membrane elastic constants. By stressing the excised esophagus passively with osmotic pressure, the esophagus was shown to be elastically anisotropic with the ratio of circumferential to longitudinal elastic constants, Eψ/El ≃ 2.74. When this value was incorporated, the model predicted the ratio of the respective strains, εψ/εl, to be 0.52 during an equilibrium contraction of the esophagus. This agreed with the experimental value, 0.46 ± 0.10, measured during occasional, prolonged muscle contractions. When measured during normal pumping, on the other hand, the value of εψ/εl was 0 ± 0.10. This indicated that a nonequilibrium condition normally occurs in which a greater myofilament force per unit area of lumen membrane is not balanced by internal pressure and therefore acceleration of the lumen contents and negative intraluminal pressure occurs. The pumping action of esophagi dissected from Ascaris was observed to be normally peristaltic and periodic. Contraction was initiated by a spontaneous depolarization that propagated at 4.0 ± 0.20 cm/s along the esophageal membrane. A wave of localized increases in the internal pressure of the muscle and localized changes in external dimensions was observed. A subsequent spontaneous repolarization, which propagated at 5.8 ± 0.23 cm/s, triggered relaxation of the muscle during which the localized pressure and dimensional changes returned to resting values. A mechanism was deduced in which fluid is drawn into and moved along the lumen by the wave of contraction. During the wave of relaxation, the lumen contents are pressurized and injected into the intestine by elastic restoring forces. ImagesFIGURE 1 PMID:667292

  13. SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE REPRODUCTION RELATED TO TILLAGE AND RHIZOSPHERE MICROORGANISMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in tillage may affect soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, (SCN) reproduction. Plots of no-tillage and tilled soybeans were established in 1979 in a randomized complete block design and individual plots were split in half in 2002 with conversion of tillage treatments to compare th...

  14. POTATO DISEASE, NEMATODE, AND INSECT PROBLEMS WORSENED BY HAIRY NIGHTSHADE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hairy nightshade is a close relative of potato and therefore hosts many disease, nematode, and insect pests of potato. Hairy nightshade presence in rotation crops nullifies many of the positive effects of crop rotation. Idaho studies have shown that green peach aphids reproduce more readily on hai...

  15. Managing Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Established Red Raspberry Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy and phytotoxicity of post-plant treatments to control root lesion [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb), Chitwood & Otiefa] and dagger (Xiphinema bakeri Williams) nematodes in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) were evaluated in four field studies conducted over three years. Spring spray applicat...

  16. Evaluation of coffee genotypes for root-knot nematode resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meloidogyne konaensis causes severe damage to the root systems of Coffea arabica cv. Typica ‘Guatemala’ grown in Kona, Hawaii. Farmers currently employ grafting of the nematode tolerant C. liberica var. dewevrei ‘Fukunaga’ to C. arabica cv. Typica scions. Greenhouse experiments confirmed C. liberi...

  17. IN VITRO CULTURING OF THE PREDATORY SOIL NEMATODE CLARKUS PAPILLATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clarkus papillatus is a widely distributed predatory soil nematode and is of interest in the study of soil ecology, yet very little information exists on its in vitro culturing. In this investigation, an artificial environment was created to maintain C. papillatus for multi-gener...

  18. Amphiregulin-a Th2 cytokine enhancing resistance to nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intestinal nematode infections remain a major health threat to humans despite improved sanitation. Protection is mainly mediated by Type 2-biased immune responses, characterized by Th2 lymphocytes and other cells secreting a set of cytokines including Interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13. I...

  19. ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE RESISTANCE IN AFRICAN PEARL MILLETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in pearl millet reduces nematode populations that can damage crops grown in rotations. Pearl millets from Africa were evaluated as sources of resistance. Seventeen pearl millets were evaluated as bulk (S0) populations. All African varieties expressed some level o...

  20. Hairy nightshade presence undermining some nematode-resistant potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, is a major pest of potato in the Pacific Northwest and is controlled by costly soil fumigation. Potato breeding lines have been developed with resistance to the predominant race 1 (CRN-1) of M. chitwoodi. Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, i...

  1. Bacteria as natural enemies of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable farming seeks to prevent soil erosion and contamination of groundwater and air. In order for sustainable production systems to become viable, control of economically important pests must be accomplished with minimal or no applications of pesticides. Management of nematodes may include ...

  2. Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Very little is known about the impacts of plant-parasitic nematodes on commercial production of blueberries (Vaccinium spp.). We conducted field surveys in the Pacific Northwest and Canada, as well as controlled experiments in microplots and in the greenhouse, to understand which plant-parasitic ne...

  3. Detecting Microbial Nucleic Acids within Nematode Bodies: A Photo Essay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a taxa-specific, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to localize microbial nucleic acids within nematode bodies. This technique involves hybridization of a nucleic acid probe to target microbial sequences. Hybridization is detected microscopically, as the probes have f...

  4. Natural variation in chemosensation: lessons from an island nematode

    PubMed Central

    McGaughran, Angela; Morgan, Katy; Sommer, Ralf J

    2013-01-01

    All organisms must interact with their environment, responding in behavioral, chemical, and other ways to various stimuli throughout their life cycles. Characterizing traits that directly represent an organism's ability to sense and react to their environment provides useful insight into the evolution of life-history strategies. One such trait for the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, chemosensation, is involved in navigation to beetle hosts. Essential for the survival of the nematode, chemosensory behavior may be subject to variation as nematodes discriminate among chemical cues to complete their life cycle. We examine this hypothesis using natural isolates of P. pacificus from La Runion Island. We select strains from a variety of La Runion beetle hosts and geographic locations and examine their chemoattraction response toward organic compounds, beetle washes, and live beetles. We find that nematodes show significant differences in their response to various chemicals and are able to chemotax to live beetles in a novel assay. Further, strains can discriminate among different cues, showing more similar responses toward beetle washes than to organic compounds in cluster analyses. However, we find that variance in chemoattraction response is not significantly associated with temperature, location, or beetle host. Rather, strains show a more concerted response toward compounds they most likely directly encounter in the wild. We suggest that divergence in odor-guided behavior in P. pacificus may therefore have an important ecological component. PMID:24455150

  5. HOST STATUS OF TROPICAL SPIDERWORT (COMMELINA BENGHALENSIS) FOR NEMATODES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are the most damaging pathogens of cotton, and one of the most important pathogens of peanut. Crop rotations utilizing cotton, peanut, and corn are used to manage the southern root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita), peanut root-knot (M. arenaria), and reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) nemato...

  6. RESISTANCE IN SOYBEAN TO SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE, HETERODERA GLYCINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, was found in the U.S.A. in 1954, and breeding programs for resistance soon were initiated. The source of resistance in the first resistant cultivars was Peking, which was obtained in China. Subsequent sources of resistance incorporated into in comm...

  7. Influence of fungicides on a nematode-suppressive soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identified a field in Georgia, USA that was moderately suppressive to Meloidogyne spp. In the greenhouse, reproduction of both M. incognita on cotton and M. arenaria on peanut was greater in microwave-heated soil than in natural soil from this field suggesting that nematode suppression was cause...

  8. Root-knot nematode resistant rootstocks for grafted watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rootstock lines of wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) with resistance to root-knot nematodes (RKN) were developed by our team at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory. Rootstock lines RKVL 301, RKVL 316, and RKVL 318 (RKVL = Root Knot Vegetable Laboratory) were compared to wild tinda (Praec...

  9. 75 FR 54592 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... INFORMATION: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a major pest of potato crops in... some weeds. The PCN is thought to have originated in Peru and is now widely distributed in many potato-growing regions of the world. PCN infestations may be expressed as patches of poor growth. Affected...

  10. Garlic exhibits lack of control over gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to hinder small ruminant production because of anthelmintic resistance and lack of effective products for GIN control in organic production. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a commercially available certified organic garlic pr...

  11. Rooting out Defense Mechanisms in Wheat against Plant Parasitic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) are soil borne pathogens of many important agricultural crops including wheat. Pratylenchus invade root cells and feed using a stylet, resulting in cell death. Common signs of Pratylenchus damage are root lesions, girdling, and lack of lateral branching. ...

  12. Resistance of Watermelon Germplasm to Root-Knot Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) seriously impact yields of watermelon throughout the southern U.S. Pre-plant fumigation of soil with methyl bromide is the primary method for controlling these pests in watermelon. Although host resistance would be one of the most economical and environmental...

  13. Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with three types of blueberries in arkansas.

    PubMed

    Clark, J R; Robbins, R T

    1994-12-01

    Research and commercial blueberry plantings were sampled in October 1991 to determine the population densities and species of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei), southern highbush (Vaccinium sp.), and highbusb (V. corymbosum) blueberry cultivars and the sod middles between the blueberry rows. In the research planting at Clarksville, Arkansas, samples from the highbush cv. Bluecrop, the southern highbush cv. Cooper and Gulf Coast, and the sod middles had similar numbers of total vermiform phytoparasitic nematodes (125-451/250 cm(3) soil), whereas the samples from rabbiteye cv. Climax and Tifblue had significantly lower numbers (4/250 cm(3)). The major nematode species associated with blueberries and sod was Xiphinema americanum. In a research planting at Bald Knob, Arkansas, which contained Bluecrop and rabbiteye cultivars only, samples from Bluecrop and the sod had similar numbers (288 and 334/250 cm(3)), and the rabbiteye samples had significantly lower numbers (6-14/250 cm(3)). Xiphinema americanum was the major species found in the blueberry samples, whereas Mesocriconema ornata was the major species in the sod. Nematode population densities and species distribution in commercial rabbiteye plantings in nine counties in central and southwestern Arkansas varied greatly. The average population density for rabbiteye samples was 129/250 cm(3) and for sod was 577/250 cm(3). Weed infestations in the blueberry rows in the commercial plantings probably increased the population size and species distribution. PMID:19279961

  14. Phytoparasitic Nematodes Associated with Three Types of Blueberries in Arkansas

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J. R.; Robbins, R. T.

    1994-01-01

    Research and commercial blueberry plantings were sampled in October 1991 to determine the population densities and species of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei), southern highbush (Vaccinium sp.), and highbusb (V. corymbosum) blueberry cultivars and the sod middles between the blueberry rows. In the research planting at Clarksville, Arkansas, samples from the highbush cv. Bluecrop, the southern highbush cv. Cooper and Gulf Coast, and the sod middles had similar numbers of total vermiform phytoparasitic nematodes (125-451/250 cm³ soil), whereas the samples from rabbiteye cv. Climax and Tifblue had significantly lower numbers (4/250 cm³). The major nematode species associated with blueberries and sod was Xiphinema americanum. In a research planting at Bald Knob, Arkansas, which contained Bluecrop and rabbiteye cultivars only, samples from Bluecrop and the sod had similar numbers (288 and 334/250 cm³), and the rabbiteye samples had significantly lower numbers (6-14/250 cm³). Xiphinema americanum was the major species found in the blueberry samples, whereas Mesocriconema ornata was the major species in the sod. Nematode population densities and species distribution in commercial rabbiteye plantings in nine counties in central and southwestern Arkansas varied greatly. The average population density for rabbiteye samples was 129/250 cm³ and for sod was 577/250 cm³. Weed infestations in the blueberry rows in the commercial plantings probably increased the population size and species distribution. PMID:19279961

  15. Radiation Effects on Nematodes: Results from IML-1 Esperiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, G. A.; Schubert, W. W.; Kazarians, G. A.; Righards, G. F.; Benton, E. V; Benton, E. R.; Henke, R.

    1993-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed to natural space radiation using the ESA Biorack facility aboard Spacelab on International Microgravity Laboratory 1, STS-42. For the major experimental objective dormant animals were suspended in buffer or on agar or immobilized next to CR-39 plactic nuclear track detectors to correlate fluence of HZE particles with genetic events.

  16. Nematode suppression by endophyte-associated tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is planted as a forage and turf grass and a postplant ground cover for reducing soil erosion. It withstands drought and is resistant to various pests, including some plant-parasitic nematodes. The presence of the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum can increase tall fescue grow...

  17. Evaluation of Nematode Resistant Grape Rootstock for Managing Mesocriconema xenoplax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafted grapevines were planted on May 3, 2006 in microplots (25 gallon pot-n-pot) that were inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Half of the plots received 100,000 ring nematodes (M. xenoplax) at planting. Vines were thinned to 1 shoot on June 8, which was trained upright on a bamboo...

  18. Developing Nematode Management Zones Using Soil EC Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much research work is ongoing that is investigating methods and tools for delineating cotton root knot nematode [M. incognita] management zones via soil texture. Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) can be a surrogate measurement for determining soil texture as clay content is a dominant phy...

  19. Evaluation of some Vulval Appendages in Nematode Taxonomy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of the nature and phylogenetic distribution of nematode vulval appendages revealed three major classes based on composition, position and orientation: membranes, flaps, and epiptygma. Minor classes included cuticular inflations, vulval tubes of extruded gonadal tissues, vulval ridges, and p...

  20. Herbal dewormer fails to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism is the most important disease of small ruminants. Control is usually based on the use of chemical anthelmintics (dewormers); but these are prohibited from use in organic livestock, and the effectiveness of chemical anthelmintics in conventional operations ...

  1. The transcriptomes of the cattle parasitic nematode Ostertagia ostartagi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ostertagia ostertagi is a gastrointestinal parasitic nematode that affects cattle and leads to a loss of production. In this study, we present the first large-scale genomic survey of O. ostertagi by the analysis of expressed transcripts from three stages of the parasite: third-stage larvae, fourth-s...

  2. Limiting opportunities for cheating stabilizes virulence in insect parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David; Raymond, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative secretion of virulence factors by pathogens can lead to social conflict when cheating mutants exploit collective secretion, but do not contribute to it. If cheats outcompete cooperators within hosts, this can cause loss of virulence. Insect parasitic nematodes are important biocontrol tools that secrete a range of significant virulence factors. Critically, effective nematodes are hard to maintain without live passage, which can lead to virulence attenuation. Using experimental evolution, we tested whether social cheating might explain unstable virulence in the nematode Heterorhabditis floridensis by manipulating relatedness via multiplicity of infection (MOI), and the scale of competition. Passage at high MOI, which should reduce relatedness, led to loss of fitness: virulence and reproductive rate declined together and all eight independent lines suffered premature extinction. As theory predicts, relatedness treatments had more impact under stronger global competition. In contrast, low MOI passage led to more stable virulence and increased reproduction. Moreover, low MOI lineages showed a trade-off between virulence and reproduction, particularly for lines under stronger between-host competition. Overall, this study indicates that evolution of virulence theory is valuable for the culture of biocontrol agents: effective nematodes can be improved and maintained if passage methods mitigate possible social conflicts. PMID:26989437

  3. Utilization of biological control for managing root-knot nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research goal is to enhance and conserve introduced and naturally occurring antagonists of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) to improve biological control. Towards that end, we have evaluated the effect of crop production practices such as rotation, nematicide application, and cover crops,...

  4. Response of Pinus ponderosa Seedlings to Stylet-Bearing Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Viglierchio, D R

    1979-10-01

    Of 12 stylet-bearing nematodes used for inoculations, Pratylenchus penetrans, P. brachyurus, P. vulnus, Ditylenchus destructor, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla reproduced on Pinus ponderosa, while Xiphinema index, Aphelenchus avenae, Paratylenehus neoamblycephalus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Macroposthonia xenoplax did not. P. vulnus, P. brachyurus, P. penetrans, A. avenae, D. destructor, T. semipenetrans, and P. neoamblycephalus significantly suppressed both the shoot and root wet weights of ponderosa pine seedlings obtained from stands in five different locations. X. index significantly suppressed root wet weights, M. xenoplax siguificantly suppressed shoot wet weight, and M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla suppressed neither at the inoculation levels used. Injurious nematodes tended to suppress root growth more than shoot growth. Seedlings from two locations produced greater shoot growth wet weight than did seedlings from the other three locations. The more injurious nematodes tended to cause an increase in the water content of shoots. Frequency analyses of seedling population shoot-root ratios indicated that ponderosa pine seedlings could be selected for better shoot-root ratios as well as for resistance to several pathogenic nematodes. PMID:19300659

  5. WEEDS AS HOSTS FOR THE SOUTHERN ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, can reproduce on many different plants, including many weeds, but the amount of reproduction that occurs on weeds is not well documented. This study was conducted to document the relative host status of weeds common in Georgia. Seeds of cotton,...

  6. Evolutionary history of nematodes associated with sweat bees.

    PubMed

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Taylor, Douglas R

    2013-03-01

    Organisms that live in close association with other organisms make up a large part of the world's diversity. One driver of this diversity is the evolution of host-species specificity, which can occur via reproductive isolation following a host-switch or, given the correct circumstances, via cospeciation. In this study, we explored the diversity and evolutionary history of Acrostichus nematodes that are associated with halictid bees in North America. First, we conducted surveys of bees in Virginia, and found six halictid species that host Acrostichus. To test the hypothesis of cospeciation, we constructed phylogenetic hypotheses of Acrostichus based on three genes. We found Acrostichus puri and Acrostichus halicti to be species complexes comprising cryptic, host-specific species. Although several nodes in the host and symbiont phylogenies were congruent and tests for cospeciation were significant, the host's biogeography, the apparent patchiness of the association across the host's phylogeny, and the amount of evolution in the nematode sequence suggested a mixture of cospeciation, host switching, and extinction events instead of strict cospeciation. Cospeciation can explain the relationships between Ac. puri and its augochlorine hosts, but colonization of Halictus hosts is more likely than cospeciation. The nematodes are vertically transmitted, but sexual transmission is also likely. Both of these transmission modes may explain host-species specificity and congruent bee and nematode phylogenies. Additionally, all halictid hosts come from eusocial or socially polymorphic lineages, suggesting that sociality may be a factor in the suitability of hosts for Acrostichus. PMID:23159895

  7. The Wolbachia endosymbiont as an anti-filarial nematode target

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Mark J.; Foster, Jeremy M.

    2010-01-01

    Human disease caused by parasitic filarial nematodes is a major cause of global morbidity. The parasites are transmitted by arthropod intermediate hosts and are responsible for lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) or onchocerciasis (river blindness). Within these filarial parasites are intracellular alpha-proteobacteria, Wolbachia, that were first observed almost 30 years ago. The obligate endosymbiont has been recognized as a target for anti-filarial nematode chemotherapy as evidenced by the loss of worm fertility and viability upon antibiotic treatment in an extensive series of human trials. While current treatments with doxycycline and rifampicin are not practical for widespread use due to the length of required treatments and contraindications, anti-Wolbachia targeting nevertheless appears a promising alternative for filariasis control in situations where current programmatic strategies fail or are unable to be delivered and it provides a superior efficacy for individual therapy. The mechanisms that underlie the symbiotic relationship between Wolbachia and its nematode hosts remain elusive. Comparative genomics, bioinfomatic and experimental analyses have identified a number of potential interactions, which may be drug targets. One candidate is de novo heme biosynthesis, due to its absence in the genome sequence of the host nematode, Brugia malayi, but presence in Wolbachia and its potential roles in worm biology. We describe this and several additional candidate targets, as well as our approaches for understanding the nature of the host-symbiont relationship. PMID:20730111

  8. Soybean Cyst Nematode SDS-PAGE Protein Characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) represent one of the most serious threats to the stability of soybean crops in the United States. Initially discovered in North Carolina in the 1950s, it has spread rapidly through the Midwest generating an estimated $1 billion in failed crop...

  9. Efficient nematode swimming in a shear thinning colloidal suspension.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Sung; Kim, Daeyeon; Shin, Jennifer H; Weitz, David A

    2016-02-14

    The swimming behavior of a nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is investigated in a non-Newtonian shear thinning colloidal suspension. At the onset value (ϕ∼ 8%), the suspension begins to exhibit shear thinning behavior, and the average swimming speed of worms jumps by approximately 12% more than that measured in a Newtonian solution exhibiting no shear dependent viscosity. In the shear thinning regime, we observe a gradual yet significant improvement in swimming efficiency with an increase in ϕ while the swimming speed remains nearly constant. We postulate that this enhanced swimming can be explained by the temporal change in the stroke form of the nematode that is uniquely observed in a shear thinning colloidal suspension: the nematode features a fast and large stroke in its head to overcome the temporally high drag imposed by the viscous medium, whose effective viscosity (ηs) is shown to drop drastically, inversely proportional to the strength of its stroke. Our results suggest new insights into how nematodes efficiently maneuver through the complex fluid environment in their natural habitat. PMID:26688321

  10. TROPICAL SPIDERWORT AS A HOST FOR NEMATODES AND DISEASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are the most damaging pathogens of cotton, and one of the most important pathogens of peanut. Crop rotations utilizing cotton, peanut, and corn can be used to manage the southern root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita), peanut root-knot (M. arenaria), and reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) nem...

  11. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES AND INSECTS: DIRECT AND ACTIVE INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In nature, entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) must infect an insect host in order to complete their life cycle. The decision to infect or not is critical because once inside the host there is no turning back. Here, we review and analyze infection behavior of entomo...

  12. Dietary copper sulfate for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...

  13. Fatal Human Meningoencephalitis due to Halicephalobus Nematodes, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Monoranu, Camelia-Maria; Mllges, Wolfgang; Keppler, Marc; Brehm, Klaus; Ondrejka, Sarah L.; Muntau, Birgit; Tannich, Egbert; Mller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad; Tappe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Infections with Halicephalobus nematodes, causative agents of severe meningoencephalitis in horses, have rarely been reported in humans. In this study, the clinical, serological, cytokine, and histopathological findings of a rapidly progressive and eventually fatal meningoencephalitis in a previously healthy human are described. The helminth was finally diagnosed by specific polymerase chain reactions from post mortem tissue. PMID:26125032

  14. Overwintering of Bovine Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Southwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J. O. D.

    1974-01-01

    Several steers, reared in isolation until approximately six months of age, were placed on a small isolated enclosed pasture from late spring to late fall of 1970, 1971 and 1972. The pasture was left vacant and unused during the winters and early springs. The pasture had been used in previous years by cattle, and in the late spring of 1970 was grazed by cattle know to be passing gastrointestinal nematode eggs in their feces. The steers were slaughtered periodically, and the prevalence of nematode species in the abomasum, small intestine, and large intestine, was determined from random samples of up to 100 adult male worms from each segment. The following nematodes were found in the steers in 1971 and 1972 and survived winters on pasture: Ostertagia ostertagi, O. lyrata, Cooperia oncophora, C. mcmasteri, Nematodirus helvetianus and Trichuris discolor. Two nematodes Cooperia punctata and Bunostomum phlebotomum known to be present on pasture in 1970, since they were recovered from the steers in that year, were not found in the steers in 1971 and 1972. PMID:4272963

  15. Soybean Cyst Nematode Infects Roots of Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) is the most important pest of soybean in the world. With the increase of soybean production in the Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota over the past decades, SCN has become a growing threat to local soybean production. The sugar beet cyst...

  16. The Feeding Tube of Cyst Nematodes: Characterisation of Protein Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J.; Ault, James R.; Ashcroft, Alison E.; Jones, John T.; Urwin, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes comprise several groups; the most economically damaging of these are the sedentary endoparasites. Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs and modify host root tissue, using a suite of effector proteins, to create a feeding site that is their sole source of nutrition. They feed by withdrawing host cell assimilate from the feeding site though a structure known as the feeding tube. The function, composition and molecular characteristics of feeding tubes are poorly characterised. It is hypothesised that the feeding tube facilitates uptake of host cell assimilate by acting as a molecular sieve. Several studies, using molecular mass as the sole indicator of protein size, have given contradictory results about the exclusion limits of the cyst nematode feeding tube. In this study we propose a method to predict protein size, based on protein database coordinates in silico. We tested the validity of these predictions using travelling wave ion mobility spectrometry – mass spectrometry, where predictions and measured values were within approximately 6%. We used the predictions, coupled with mass spectrometry, analytical ultracentrifugation and protein electrophoresis, to resolve previous conflicts and define the exclusion characteristics of the cyst nematode feeding tube. Heterogeneity was tested in the liquid, solid and gas phase to provide a comprehensive evaluation of three proteins of particular interest to feeding tube size exclusion, GFP, mRFP and Dual PI. The data and procedures described here could be applied to the design of plant expressed defence compounds intended for uptake into cyst nematodes. We also highlight the need to assess protein heterogeneity when creating novel fusion proteins. PMID:24489891

  17. Mermithid nematodes found in adult Anopheles from southeastern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over two dozen mermithid nematodes have been described parasitizing mosquitoes worldwide, however, only two species were found in Africa. Mermithid nematodes kill their mosquito host upon emergence, which suggests that they could be developed as biological control agents of mosquitoes. Both Romanomermis culicivorax and Romanomermis iyengari have been reared for mass release to control numerous Anopheles species vector populations, and in one instance this may have led to reduced malaria prevalence in a human population. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected during a malaria study in southeastern Senegal. Two different adult blood fed mosquitoes had a single mermithid nematode emerge from their anus while they were being held post-capture. Primers from the 18 S rDNA were developed to sequence nematode DNA and screen mosquitoes for mermithid DNA. 18 S rDNA from the Senegalese mermithid and other mermithid entries in GenBank were used to create a Maximum Parsimony tree of the Mermithidae family. Results The mermithid was present in 1.8% (10/551) of the sampled adult Anopheles species in our study area. The mermithid was found in An. gambiae s.s., An. funestus, and An. rufipes from the villages of Ndebou, Boundoucondi, and Damboucoye. Maximum parsimony analysis confirmed that the nematode parasites found in Anopheles were indeed mermithid parasites, and of the mermithid sequences available in GenBank, they are most closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of mermithids from adult Anopheles mosquitoes in Senegal. The mermithid appears to infect Anopheles mosquitoes that develop in diverse larval habitats. Although maximum parsimony analysis determined the mermithid was closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus, several characteristics of the mermithid were more similar to the Empidomermis genus. Future mermithid isolations will hopefully allow: formal taxonomic identification, laboratory colonization, determination of life history traits and species specificity, and characterize its usefulness as a biological control agent. PMID:22741946

  18. Detrended-Fluctuation Analysis of Nematode Movement in Heterogeneous Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapca, S. M.; Gonzalez-Nieto, P.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    We consider multifractal analysis in time scale to analyse the effect of structural heterogeneity on the movement of the slug-parasitic nematode, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. The study involves image recording and analysis of nematode movement on a homogeneous layer of technical agar compared to movement of nematodes in a structurally heterogeneous environment that was created by adding sand particles to the plates of agar. The temporal scaling properties of the recorded trails were studied using a detrended fluctuation based method to capture the complex dynamic of movement data by comparing the multiscaling characteristics of nematode step lengths as affected by the different environments. A systematic analysis of the exponent of the structure function and the generalized Hurst exponent revealed that, while in homogeneous environment the movement was characterized by a long-range correlation with a Hurst exponent H(q) close to 1, varying little with respect to the order q of the fluctuation function, the impact of sand particle was to reduce the degree of persistence in the movement, the step lenghts being characterized by a smaller Hurst exponent, yet more variable. The results suggest that the presence of structural heterogeneity introduces a new bias into the movement, which plays an important role in complex environments where the nematode movement may be obstructed by soil particles. References Tarquis, A.M., Morato, M. C., Castellanos M.T., Perdigones A. 2009. Comparison of Structure Function and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Wind Time Series, Riv. Nuevo Cimento, in press. Gao, J., Cao, Y., Tung, W.-W., Hu J., 2007. Multiscale Analysis of Complex Times Series. Eds. John Wiley & Sons.

  19. A sensory code for host seeking in parasitic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Hallem, Elissa A.; Dillman, Adler R.; Hong, Annie V.; Zhang, Yuanjun; Yano, Jessica M.; DeMarco, Stephanie F.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Nematodes comprise a large phylum of both free-living and parasitic species that show remarkably diverse lifestyles, ecological niches, and behavioral repertoires. Parasitic species in particular often display highly specialized host-seeking behaviors that reflect their specific host preferences. Many host-seeking behaviors can be triggered by the presence of host odors, yet little is known about either the specific olfactory cues that trigger these behaviors or the neural circuits that underlie them. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae are phylogenetically distant insect-parasitic nematodes whose host-seeking and host-invasion behavior resembles that of some of the most devastating human- and plant-parasitic nematodes. Here we compare the olfactory responses of H. bacteriophora and S. carpocapsae infective juveniles (IJs) to those of Caenorhabditis elegans dauers, which are analogous life stages [1]. We show that the broad host range of these parasites results from their ability to respond to the universally-produced signal carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as a wide array of odors, including host-specific odors that we identified using TD-GC-MS. We show that CO2 is attractive for the parasitic IJs and C. elegans dauers despite being repulsive for C. elegans adults [2–4], and we identify an ancient and conserved sensory neuron that mediates CO2 response in both parasitic and free-living species regardless of whether CO2 is an attractive or a repulsive cue. Finally, we show that the parasites’ odor response profiles are more similar to each other than to that of C. elegans despite their greater phylogenetic distance, likely reflecting evolutionary convergence to insect parasitism. Our results suggest that the olfactory responses of parasitic versus free-living nematodes are highly diverse and that this diversity is critical to the evolution of nematode behavior. PMID:21353558

  20. Actions of nematode FMRFamide-related peptides on the pharyngeal muscle of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Brownlee, D J; Walker, R J

    1999-01-01

    The endogenous nematode peptides known as FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) and various "classical" transmitters have a range of effects on nematodes that result in changes in behavior, particularly locomotion, including paralysis and inhibition of feeding. This study describes the application of an in vitro pharmacological approach to further delineate the action of a number of FaRP neurotransmitters on feeding behavior. Contraction of Ascaris suum pharyngeal muscle was monitored using a modified pressure transducer system that detects changes in intrapharyngeal pressure and therefore contraction of the radial muscle of the pharynx. The pharynx did not contract spontaneously. However, serotonin (5-HT, 100 microM) stimulated rhythmic contractions and relaxations (pumping) at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. The native nematode peptide, KNEFIRFamide (AF1), inhibited the pumping elicited by 5-HT. The duration of inhibition was concentration-dependent (1-1000 nM) with a threshold of 1 nM (n = 7). KSAYMRFamide (AF8/PF3) also inhibited pharyngeal pumping. There was no observable effect of any of the following nematode peptides on pharyngeal pumping behavior (1-1000 nM; n = 8): AF2, AF3, AF4, AF6, AF16, PF1/CF1, PF2/CF2, or PF4. Thus, interruption of pharyngeal processes, such as feeding, regulation of hydrostatic pressure, and secretion, may provide a new site of anthelmintic action. PMID:10676451

  1. The action of serotonin and the nematode neuropeptide KSAYMRFamide on the pharyngeal muscle of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Brownlee, D J; Holden-Dye, L; Fairweather, I; Walker, R J

    1995-09-01

    The pharyngeal component of the enteric nervous system of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum exhibits immunoreactivity for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and for FMRFamide-like peptides. This paper describes the application of an in vitro pharmacological approach to investigate the functional role of 5-HT and FMRFamide-like peptides. The pharyngeal pumping behaviour of Ascaris suum was monitored using a modified pressure transducer system which measures pharyngeal pressure changes and therefore pumping. The pharynx did not contract spontaneously; however, 5-HT (10-1000 microM) stimulated pumping at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. FMRFamide had no apparent effect on pharyngeal pumping. The native nematode FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP), KSAYMRFamide inhibited the pumping elicited by 5-HT. The duration of inhibition was dose-dependent (0.1-1000 nM) with a threshold of 0.1 nM. In 4 preparations, the inhibition of the pharyngeal muscle was preceded by an initial excitation and increase in the amplitude of pharyngeal pressure changes. The pharynx is involved in various nematode processes, including feeding, regulation of hydrostatic pressure and excretion. The role of 5-HT and KSAYMRFamide in the pharyngeal function of nematodes is discussed. PMID:7567105

  2. Comparison of FaRP immunoreactivity in free-living nematodes and in the plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Masler, E P; Kovaleva, E S; Sardanelli, S

    1999-01-01

    The family of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) is widely distributed among invertebrates, where the peptides serve as neuromodulators. Published reports indicate that numerous FaRP sequences exist in free-living and animal parasitic nematodes. Using a FMRFamide ELISA, FaRP immunoreactivity was detected in extracts of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, in both sexes and at all developmental stages. HPLC-ELISA results revealed a number of immunoreactive components in H. glycines preparations, and a comparison with extracts of the free-living nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Panagrellus redivivus showed significant qualitative differences in FaRP immunoreactivity between the plant parasite and the two free-living nematodes. Total and specific immunoreactivities varied during H. glycines development, with the highest specific activity in juveniles and males, and the highest total activity in mature females. Total female immunoreactivity was located primarily within the mature eggs. A significant portion, however, was associated with the female body, perhaps with egg laying. PMID:10676453

  3. Potential of an Alkaline-stabilized Biosolid to Manage Nematodes: Case Studies on Soybean Cyst and Root-knot Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2001 a collaborative research effort was initiated to evaluate an alkaline stabilized biosolid amendment for plant-parasitic nematode management. This biosolid amendment, N-Viro Soil (NVS), is produced from a unique process that destroys pathogens through a combination of the following stresses:...

  4. Overview of organic amendments for management of plant-parasitic nematodes, with case studies from Florida.

    PubMed

    McSorley, Robert

    2011-06-01

    Organic amendments have been widely used for management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Relatively rapid declines in nematode population levels may occur when decomposing materials release toxic compounds, while longer-term effects might include increases in nematode antagonists. Improved crop nutrition and plant growth following amendment use may lead to tolerance of plant-parasitic nematodes. Results depend on a great variety of factors such as material used, processing/composting of material, application rate, test arena, crop rotation and agronomic practices, soil type, climate, and other environmental factors. Reasons for variable performance and interpretation of results from amendment studies are discussed. Case studies of amendments for nematode management are reviewed from Florida, where composts and crop residues are the most frequently used amendments. Plant growth was often improved by amendment application, free-living nematodes (especially bacterivores) were often stimulated, but suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes was inconsistent. Amendments were generally not as effective as soil fumigation with methyl bromide for managing root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), and often population levels or galling of root-knot nematodes in amended plots did not differ from those in non-amended control plots. While amendments may improve plant growth and stimulate soil food webs, additional study and testing are needed before they could be used reliably for management of plant-parasitic nematodes under Florida conditions. PMID:22791915

  5. Overview of Organic Amendments for Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes, with Case Studies from Florida

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Organic amendments have been widely used for management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Relatively rapid declines in nematode population levels may occur when decomposing materials release toxic compounds, while longer-term effects might include increases in nematode antagonists. Improved crop nutrition and plant growth following amendment use may lead to tolerance of plant-parasitic nematodes. Results depend on a great variety of factors such as material used, processing/composting of material, application rate, test arena, crop rotation and agronomic practices, soil type, climate, and other environmental factors. Reasons for variable performance and interpretation of results from amendment studies are discussed. Case studies of amendments for nematode management are reviewed from Florida, where composts and crop residues are the most frequently used amendments. Plant growth was often improved by amendment application, free-living nematodes (especially bacterivores) were often stimulated, but suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes was inconsistent. Amendments were generally not as effective as soil fumigation with methyl bromide for managing root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), and often population levels or galling of root-knot nematodes in amended plots did not differ from those in non-amended control plots. While amendments may improve plant growth and stimulate soil food webs, additional study and testing are needed before they could be used reliably for management of plant-parasitic nematodes under Florida conditions. PMID:22791915

  6. The Role of Cytokinin During Infection of Arabidopsis thaliana by the Cyst Nematode Heterodera schachtii.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Carly M; Rice, J Hollis; Zubo, Yan; Schaller, G Eric; Hewezi, Tarek; Kieber, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes induce the formation of hypermetabolic feeding sites, termed syncytia, as their sole source of nutrients. The formation of the syncytium is orchestrated by the nematode, in part, by modulation of phytohormone responses, including cytokinin. In response to infection by the nematode Heterodera schachtii, cytokinin signaling is transiently induced at the site of infection and in the developing syncytium. Arabidopsis lines with reduced cytokinin sensitivity show reduced susceptibility to nematode infection, indicating that cytokinin signaling is required for optimal nematode development. Furthermore, lines with increased cytokinin sensitivity also exhibit reduced nematode susceptibility. To ascertain why cytokinin hypersensitivity reduces nematode parasitism, we examined the transcriptomes in wild type and a cytokinin-hypersensitive type-A arr Arabidopsis mutant in response to H. schachtii infection. Genes involved in the response to biotic stress and defense response were elevated in the type-A arr mutant in the absence of nematodes and were hyperinduced following H. schachtii infection, which suggests that the Arabidopsis type-A arr mutants impede nematode development because they are primed to respond to pathogen infection. These results suggest that cytokinin signaling is required for optimal H. schachtii parasitism of Arabidopsis but that elevated cytokinin signaling triggers a heightened immune response to nematode infection. PMID:26479273

  7. Anhydrobiosis in Nematodes II: Carbohydrate and Lipid Analysis in Undesiccated and Desiccate Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Womersley, C; Thompson, S N; Smith, L

    1982-04-01

    Glycogen, trehalose, glucose, and total lipid contents of six nematode species were studied. Anhydrobiotic Anguina tritici and Ditylencbus dipsaci stored trehalose in preference to glycogen and only small amounts of glucose were detected. Glycogen content was also reduced in anhydrobiotic Aphelenchus avenae. Conversely, Panagrellus redivivus and Turbatrix aceti contained large amounts of glycogen, appreciable amounts of glucose, and minimal amounts of trehalose. Ditylenchus myceliophagous "curds" contained low amounts of glycogen and very little trehalose; total lipid was 60% of that in fresh samples. The lipid contents of fresh samples of P. redivivus, T. aceti, and A. avenae were high (23.1, 21.9, and 36.7% dry weight, respectively), but in anhydrobiotic A. avenae larvae the level was reduced by over 60%. In contrast, lipid levels remained high in anhydrobiotic A. tritici and D. dipsaci larvae (40.6 and 38.3%, respectively). Analysis of lipid composition in anhydrobiotic A. tritici and A. avenae did not indicate any specific metabolic adaptations to desiccation survival. PMID:19295689

  8. Identification and activity of inhibitors of the essential nematode-specific metalloprotease DPY-31

    PubMed Central

    France, David J.; Stepek, Gillian; Houston, Douglas R.; Williams, Lewis; McCormack, Gillian; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.; Page, Antony P.

    2015-01-01

    Infection by parasitic nematodes is widespread in the developing world causing extensive morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, infection of animals is a global problem, with a substantial impact on food production. Here we identify small molecule inhibitors of a nematode-specific metalloprotease, DPY-31, using both known metalloprotease inhibitors and virtual screening. This strategy successfully identified several μM inhibitors of DPY-31 from both the human filarial nematode Brugia malayi, and the parasitic gastrointestinal nematode of sheep Teladorsagia circumcincta. Further studies using both free living and parasitic nematodes show that these inhibitors elicit the severe body morphology defect ‘Dumpy’ (Dpy; shorter and fatter), a predominantly non-viable phenotype consistent with mutants lacking the DPY-31 gene. Taken together, these results represent a start point in developing DPY-31 inhibition as a totally novel mechanism for treating infection by parasitic nematodes in humans and animals. PMID:26546217

  9. A novel method for infecting Drosophila adult flies with insect pathogenic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Julio Cesar; Shokal, Upasana; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila has been established as an excellent genetic and genomic model to investigate host-pathogen interactions and innate immune defense mechanisms. To date, most information on the Drosophila immune response derives from studies that involve bacterial, fungal or viral pathogens. However, immune reactions to insect parasitic nematodes are still not well characterized. The nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora live in symbiosis with the entomopathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens, and they are able to invade and kill insects. Interestingly, Heterorhabditis nematodes are viable in the absence of Photorhabdus. Techniques for infecting Drosophila larvae with these nematodes have been previously reported. Here, we have developed a method for infecting Drosophila adult flies with Heterorhabditis nematodes carrying (symbiotic worms) or lacking (axenic worms) their associated bacteria. The protocol we present can be readily adapted for studying parasitic strategies of other insect nematodes using Drosophila as the host infection model. PMID:22546901

  10. Reflections on Plant and Soil Nematode Ecology: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Howard; Griffiths, Bryan S.; Porazinska, Dorota L.; Powers, Thomas O.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Tenuta, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight key developments in nematode ecology from its beginnings to where it stands today as a discipline within nematology. Emerging areas of research appear to be driven by crop production constraints, environmental health concerns, and advances in technology. In contrast to past ecological studies which mainly focused on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, current studies reflect differential sensitivity of nematode faunae. These differences, identified in both aquatic and terrestrial environments include response to stressors, environmental conditions, and management practices. Methodological advances will continue to influence the role nematodes have in addressing the nature of interactions between organisms, and of organisms with their environments. In particular, the C. elegans genetic model, nematode faunal analysis and nematode metagenetic analysis can be used by ecologists generally and not restricted to nematologists. PMID:23482864

  11. Integrated management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infestation in tomato and grapevine.

    PubMed

    Kumari, N Swarna; Sivakumar, C V

    2005-01-01

    An integrated approach with the obligate bacterial parasite, Pasteuria penetrans and nematicides was assessed for the management of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infestation in tomato and grapevine. Seedlings of tomato cv. Co3 were transplanted into pots filled with sterilized soil and inoculated with nematodes (5000 juveniles/pot). The root powder of P. penetrans at 10 mg/pot was applied alone and in combination with carbofuran at 6 mg/pot. Application of P. penetrans along with carbofuran recorded lowest nematode infestation (107 nematodes/200 g soil) compared to control (325 nematodes/200 g soil). The rate of parasitization was 83.1% in the carbofuran and P. penetrans combination treatment as against 61.0% in the P. penetrans treatment only. The plant growth was also higher in the combination treatment compared to all other treatments. A field trial was carried out to assess the efficacy of P. penetrans and nematicides viz., carbofuran and phorate in the management of root-knot nematode, M. incognita infestation of grapevine cv. Muscat Hamburg. A nematode and P. penetrans infested grapevine field was selected and treatments either with carbofuran or phorate at 1 g a.i/vine was given. The observations were recorded at monthly interval. The results showed that the soil nematode population was reduced in nematicide treated plots. Suppression of nematodes was higher under phorate (117 nematodes/200 g soil) than under carbofuran (126.7 nematodes/200 g soil) treatment. The number of juveniles parasitized was also influenced by nematicides and spore load carried/juvenile with phorate being superior and the increase being 17.0 and 29.0% respectively over the control. The results of these experiment confirmed the compatibility of P. penetrans with nematicides and its biological control potential against the root-knot nematode. PMID:16628938

  12. Plant-parasitic Nematode Problems in the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Bridge, J

    1988-04-01

    The Pacific islands have a diverse range of food and cash crops with indigenous and introduced nematode problems. The staple food crops have serious nematode pests, such as Meloidogyne spp. on sweet potato, Hirschmanniella miticausa causing corm rot of taro, and Pratylenchus coffeae and Radopholus sp. producing tuber dry rot of yams. Bananas are infested with P. coffeae or R. similis, citrus with Tylenchulus semipenetrans, rice with Aphelenchoides besseyi, and ginger with Meloidogyne spp. and R. similis. Rotylenchulus reniformis, P. zeae, P. brachyurus, and Helicotylenchus spp. are important on all of these and other crops, such as sugarcane, passion fruit, pawpaw, and cassava. Meloidogyne spp. cause serious damage to local and introduced leaf and fruit vegetables and other crops, such as tobacco, sugarcane, pawpaw, black pepper, and pyrethrum. Many other plant-parasitic genera and species, some undescribed, occur in the Pacific, and there are many islands still to be investigated. PMID:19290200

  13. Neuropeptide gene families in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Nelson, L S; Kim, K; Nathoo, A; Hart, A C

    1999-01-01

    Neuropeptides have diverse roles in the function and development of the nervous system. With the completion of the sequencing of the C. elegans genome, rapid identification of nematode neuropeptide genes is possible. To date, 41 C. elegans neuropeptide genes have been identified. Of these genes, 20 genes, named flp (FMRFamide-like peptide) genes, encode FMRFamide-related proteins (FaRPs). Deletion of one of the flp genes, flp-1, results in several behavioral defects, suggesting that at least one flp gene is not functionally redundant with other flp genes. Twenty-one genes, named neuropeptide-like protein (nlp) genes, encode peptides distinct from the FaRP family. The predicted nlp-1 and nlp-2 neuropeptides have modest similarity to buccalin and myomodulin, respectively. Cellular expression patterns and genetic analysis of flp and nlp genes suggest that neuropeptides in nematodes also have widespread and varied roles in nervous system function. PMID:10676452

  14. The nematode C. elegans as a complex viscoelastic fluid.

    PubMed

    Backholm, Matilda; Ryu, William S; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2015-05-01

    The viscoelastic material properties of the model organism C. elegans were probed with a micropipette deflection technique and modelled with the standard linear solid model. Dynamic relaxation measurements were performed on the millimetric nematode to investigate its viscous characteristics in detail. We show that the internal properties of C. elegans can not be fully described by a simple Newtonian fluid. Instead, a power-law fluid model was implemented and shown to be in excellent agreement with experimental results. The nematode exhibits shear thinning properties and its complex fluid characteristics were quantified. The bending-rate dependence of the internal damping coefficient of C. elegans could affect its gait modulation in different external environments. PMID:25957177

  15. Underground leaves of Philcoxia trap and digest nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Caio G.; Almenara, Daniela P.; Winter, Carlos E.; Fritsch, Peter W.; Lambers, Hans; Oliveira, Rafael S.

    2012-01-01

    The recently described genus Philcoxia comprises three species restricted to well lit and low-nutrient soils in the Brazilian Cerrado. The morphological and habitat similarities of Philcoxia to those of some carnivorous plants, along with recent observations of nematodes over its subterranean leaves, prompted the suggestion that the genus is carnivorous. Here we report compelling evidence of carnivory in Philcoxia of the Plantaginaceae, a family in which no carnivorous members are otherwise known. We also document both a unique capturing strategy for carnivorous plants and a case of a plant that traps and digests nematodes with underground adhesive leaves. Our findings illustrate how much can still be discovered about the origin, distribution, and frequency of the carnivorous syndrome in angiosperms and, more generally, about the diversity of nutrient-acquisition mechanisms that have evolved in plants growing in severely nutrient-impoverished environments such as the Brazilian Cerrado, one of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots. PMID:22232687

  16. Noncanonical cell death in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kinet, Maxime J.; Shaham, Shai

    2014-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis. elegans has served as a fruitful setting for cell death research for over three decades. A conserved pathway of four genes, egl-1/BH3-only, ced-9/Bcl-2, ced-4/Apaf-1, and ced-3/caspase, coordinates most developmental cell deaths in C. elegans. However, other cell death forms, programmed and pathological, have also been described in this animal. Some of these share morphological and/or molecular similarities with the canonical apoptotic pathway, while others do not. Indeed, recent studies suggest the existence of an entirely novel mode of programmed developmental cell destruction that may also be conserved beyond nematodes. Here we review evidence for these noncanonical pathways. We propose that different cell death modalities can function as backup mechanisms for apoptosis, or as tailor-made programs that allow specific dying cells to be efficiently cleared from the animal. PMID:25065890

  17. Lectins but not antifungal proteins exhibit anti-nematode activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; Guo, Y X; Liu, Q H; Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2009-09-01

    A variety of lectins and antifungal proteins were tested for toxicity against the plant parasitic nematodes Ditylenchus dipsaci and Heterodera glycines. It was found that lectins from the mushrooms Xylaria hypoxylon, Agrocybe cylindracea and Tricholoma mongolicum (TML-1) were the most potent against D. dipsaci, with EC(50) being 4.7, 9, and 20mg/ml, respectively. Lectins from Pseudostellaria heterophylla, samta tomato, and the mushrooms T. mongolicum (TML-2), Ganoderma lucidum, and Boletus edulis, and antifungal proteins from Ginkgo biloba toward D. dipsaci and pumpkin Cucurbita moschata had much lower anti-nematode potencies and could be considered as inactive for practical purposes. All lectins except that from P.heterophylle were potent against H.glycines. PMID:21784014

  18. Sex and age-biased nematode prevalence in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Brown, David S; Symondson, William O C

    2014-08-01

    Prevalence and intensity of parasitic infections are often higher in male than in female vertebrates. This bias may represent either differences between host sex in exposure or susceptibility to parasites. The former may be due to sex-specific behaviour of the host, including differential habitat use or diet. Differences in susceptibility are often regarded as a negative effect of male sex steroid hormones on the immune system. Host-parasite dynamics are of great interest in terms of reptile survival, ecology and conservation. We used, for the first time, molecular diagnostics to track nematode parasitism in wild populations of reptiles noninvasively. Using slow worms (Anguis fragilis) as a model species, we investigated the interacting effects of time of year, sex, length, weight and climatic variables on the prevalence of the gastroenterological parasitic nematode Neoxysomatium brevicaudatum. Faeces were collected from three sites over 2years. There was an interaction between sex and time of year, with lower nematode prevalence in males than in females in July or August (different between years) but a high prevalence in males in April. As the latter is during the slow worm breeding season, this may be the result of testosterone-induced immunosuppression. A second-order interaction between slow worm length and weight was found to be significant, with a positive association between prevalence and body condition in young slow worms and a negative association in older slow worms. The convex pattern of nematode prevalence with age that emerged suggests an increase with age-related exposure and a decrease with age-related acquired immunity. PMID:24612272

  19. Operons are a conserved feature of nematode genomes.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, Jonathan; Philippe, Lucas; Sarkar, Debjani; Johnston, Christopher; Gothe, Henrike Johanna; Massie, Diane; Connolly, Bernadette; Mller, Berndt

    2014-08-01

    The organization of genes into operons, clusters of genes that are co-transcribed to produce polycistronic pre-mRNAs, is a trait found in a wide range of eukaryotic groups, including multiple animal phyla. Operons are present in the class Chromadorea, one of the two main nematode classes, but their distribution in the other class, the Enoplea, is not known. We have surveyed the genomes of Trichinella spiralis, Trichuris muris, and Romanomermis culicivorax and identified the first putative operons in members of the Enoplea. Consistent with the mechanism of polycistronic RNA resolution in other nematodes, the mRNAs produced by genes downstream of the first gene in the T. spiralis and T. muris operons are trans-spliced to spliced leader RNAs, and we are able to detect polycistronic RNAs derived from these operons. Importantly, a putative intercistronic region from one of these potential enoplean operons confers polycistronic processing activity when expressed as part of a chimeric operon in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that T. spiralis genes located in operons have an increased likelihood of having operonic C. elegans homologs. However, operon structure in terms of synteny and gene content is not tightly conserved between the two taxa, consistent with models of operon evolution. We have nevertheless identified putative operons conserved between Enoplea and Chromadorea. Our data suggest that operons and "spliced leader" (SL) trans-splicing predate the radiation of the nematode phylum, an inference which is supported by the phylogenetic profile of proteins known to be involved in nematode SL trans-splicing. PMID:24931407

  20. Nematodes Infect, But Do Not Manipulate Digging By, Sand Crabs, Lepidopa benedicti

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Meera; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    We examined sand crabs (Lepidopa benedicti) for endoparasites, and found the only parasite consistently infecting the studied population were small nematodes. Because many nematodes have complex life cycles involving multiple hosts, often strongly manipulating their hosts, we hypothesized that nematodes alter the behavior of their sand crab hosts. We predicted that more heavily infected crabs would spend more time above sand than less heavily infected crabs. Our data indicate infection by nematodes was not correlated with duration of time crabs spent above sand. We also suggest that organisms living in sandy beaches may benefit from relatively low parasite loads due to the low diversity of species in the habitat. PMID:24916475