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1

Elucidating the spread of the emerging canid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum between Palaearctic and Nearctic ecozones.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus vasorum is an emerging parasite that is currently distributed through Western Europe and parts of South America. An isolated population is also present in Newfoundland, Canada. This presents a risk of onward spread into North America, but its origin is unknown. To ascertain the phylogeographic relationships and genetic diversity of A. vasorum within the western Palaearctic and eastern Nearctic ecozones, a total of 143 adult and larval nematode specimens were collected from foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Portugal and the United Kingdom, and a coyote (Canis latrans) in Canada. DNA was extracted and the second internal transcribed spacer and two mitochondrial loci were amplified and sequenced. Multiple haplotypes (n=35) based on combined mitochondrial sequences (1078bp) of the partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), large subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnL) and the complete nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 3 (NADH3) sequences, were observed throughout the Palaearctic countries sampled; however, only a single haplotype was observed for the Canadian A. vasorum population. The likely origin of A. vasorum in Newfoundland is therefore inferred to be within the western Palaearctic. There was no evidence of genetic segregation of parasites in dogs, foxes and coyotes, supporting the hypothesis that transmission occurs between wild and domestic canids. The transmission dynamics and population structure of this nematode are further discussed. PMID:20139034

Jefferies, R; Shaw, S E; Willesen, J; Viney, M E; Morgan, E R

2010-05-01

2

Absence of Wolbachia endobacteria in the non-filariid nematodes Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. costaricensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of filarial nematodes harbour Wolbachia endobacteria, including the major pathogenic species in humans, Onchocerca volvulus, Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. These obligate endosymbionts have never been demonstrated unequivocally in any non-filariid nematode. However, a recent report described the detection by PCR of Wolbachia in the metastrongylid nematode, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm), a leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis in

Jeremy M Foster; Sanjay Kumar; Louise Ford; Kelly L Johnston; Renata Ben; Carlos Graeff-Teixeira; Mark J Taylor

2008-01-01

3

Molecular evidence for the endosymbiont Wolbachia in a non-filaroid nematode, Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Wolbachia harbored by most filarial parasites, is critical to both embryogenesis and microfilarial development, and may lead to inflammation\\u000a and pathogenesis in infected hosts. Based on alignment of the sequences from the wsp, ftsZ, and 16S rRNA genes, Wolbachia was demonstrated to exist in Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a non-filaroid nematode. Although the wsp gene may not be the best candidate

Kun-Hsien Tsai; Chin-Gi Huang; Lian-Chen Wang; Yi-Wen Yu; Wen-Jer Wu; Wei-June Chen

2007-01-01

4

Comprehensive proteomic profiling of adult Angiostrongylus costaricensis, a human parasitic nematode.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode helminth that causes an intestinal acute inflammatory process known as abdominal angiostrongyliasis, which is a poorly understood human disease occurring in Latin America. Our aim was to study the proteomic profiles of adult parasites focusing on immunogenic proteins. Total cellular extracts from both genders showed similar 2-DE profiles, with 60% of all protein spots focused between pH 5-7 and presenting molecular masses from 20.1 to 66 kDa. A total of 53 different dominant proteins were identified in our dataset and were mainly associated with the following over-represented Gene Ontology Biological Process terms: "macromolecule metabolic process", "developmental process", "response to stress", and "biological regulation". Female and male immunoblots showed similar patterns of reactive proteins. Immunoreactive spots identified by MALDI-PSD were found to represent heat shock proteins, a putative abnormal DAuer Formation family member, and galectins. To date, very few biochemical analyses have focused on the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis. As such, our results contribute to a better understanding of its biology and the mechanisms underlying the host-parasite relationship associated with this species. Moreover, our findings represent a first step in the search for candidate proteins for diagnostic assays and the treatment of this parasitic infection. PMID:21596163

Rebello, Karina M; Barros, Juliana S L; Mota, Ester M; Carvalho, Paulo C; Perales, Jonas; Lenzi, Henrique L; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C

2011-08-24

5

Absence of Wolbachia endobacteria in the non-filariid nematodes Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. costaricensis  

PubMed Central

The majority of filarial nematodes harbour Wolbachia endobacteria, including the major pathogenic species in humans, Onchocerca volvulus, Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. These obligate endosymbionts have never been demonstrated unequivocally in any non-filariid nematode. However, a recent report described the detection by PCR of Wolbachia in the metastrongylid nematode, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm), a leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. To address the intriguing possibility of Wolbachia infection in nematode species distinct from the Family Onchocercidae, we used both PCR and immunohistochemistry to screen samples of A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis for the presence of this endosymbiont. We were unable to detect Wolbachia in either species using these methodologies. In addition, bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses of the Wolbachia gene sequences reported previously from A. cantonensis indicate that they most likely result from contamination with DNA from arthropods and filarial nematodes. This study demonstrates the need for caution in relying solely on PCR for identification of new endosymbiont strains from invertebrate DNA samples. PMID:18801163

Foster, Jeremy M; Kumar, Sanjay; Ford, Louise; Johnston, Kelly L; Ben, Renata; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Taylor, Mark J

2008-01-01

6

Absence of Wolbachia endobacteria in the non-filariid nematodes Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. costaricensis.  

PubMed

The majority of filarial nematodes harbour Wolbachia endobacteria, including the major pathogenic species in humans, Onchocerca volvulus, Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. These obligate endosymbionts have never been demonstrated unequivocally in any non-filariid nematode. However, a recent report described the detection by PCR of Wolbachia in the metastrongylid nematode, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm), a leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. To address the intriguing possibility of Wolbachia infection in nematode species distinct from the Family Onchocercidae, we used both PCR and immunohistochemistry to screen samples of A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis for the presence of this endosymbiont. We were unable to detect Wolbachia in either species using these methodologies. In addition, bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses of the Wolbachia gene sequences reported previously from A. cantonensis indicate that they most likely result from contamination with DNA from arthropods and filarial nematodes. This study demonstrates the need for caution in relying solely on PCR for identification of new endosymbiont strains from invertebrate DNA samples. PMID:18801163

Foster, Jeremy M; Kumar, Sanjay; Ford, Louise; Johnston, Kelly L; Ben, Renata; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Taylor, Mark J

2008-01-01

7

Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode: Metastrongiloidea): in vitro cultivation of infective third-stage larvae to fourth-stage larvae.  

PubMed

The present study to attempt to cultivate Angiostrongylus cantonensis from third-stage larvae (AcL3) to fourth-stage larvae (AcL4) in vitro in defined complete culture medium that contained with Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEM), supplemented amino acid (AA), amine (AM), fatty acid (FA), carbohydrate (CA) and 20% fetal calf serum (FCS) was successful. When AcL3 were cultured in the defined complete culture medium at 37°C in a 5% CO2 atmosphere, the larvae began to develop to AcL4 after 30 days of cultivation, and were enclosed within the sheaths of the third molts of the life cycle. Under these conditions, the larvae developed uniformly and reached to the fourth-stage 36 days. The morphology of AcL3 develop to AcL4 were recording and analyzing. Then comparison of A. cantonensis larval morphology and development between in vitro cultivation in defined complete culture medium and in vivo cultivation in infective BALB/c mice. The larvae that had been cultivated in vitro were smaller than AcL4 of infective BALB/c mice. However the AcL3 that were cultured using defined incomplete culture medium (MEM plus 20% FCS with AA+AM, FA, CA, AA+AM+FA, FA+CA, CA+AA+AM or not) did not adequately survive and develop. Accordingly, the inference is made that only the defined complete medium enable AcL3 develop to AcL4 in vitro. Some nematodes have been successfully cultured into mature worms but only a few researches have been made to cultivate A. cantonensis in vitro. The present study is the first to have succeeded in developing AcL3 to AcL4 by in vitro cultivation. Finally, the results of in vitro cultivation studies herein contribute to improving media for the effective development and growth of A. cantonensis. The gap in the A. cantonensis life cycle when the larvae are cultivated in vitro from third-stage larvae to fourth-stage larvae can thus be solved. PMID:23977214

Lin, Rong-Jyh; He, Jie-Wen; Chung, Li-Yu; Lee, June-Der; Wang, Jiun-Jye; Yen, Chuan-Min

2013-01-01

8

Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode: Metastrongiloidea): In Vitro Cultivation of Infective Third-Stage Larvae to Fourth-Stage Larvae  

PubMed Central

The present study to attempt to cultivate Angiostrongylus cantonensis from third-stage larvae (AcL3) to fourth-stage larvae (AcL4) in vitro in defined complete culture medium that contained with Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEM), supplemented amino acid (AA), amine (AM), fatty acid (FA), carbohydrate (CA) and 20% fetal calf serum (FCS) was successful. When AcL3 were cultured in the defined complete culture medium at 37°C in a 5% CO2 atmosphere, the larvae began to develop to AcL4 after 30 days of cultivation, and were enclosed within the sheaths of the third molts of the life cycle. Under these conditions, the larvae developed uniformly and reached to the fourth-stage 36 days. The morphology of AcL3 develop to AcL4 were recording and analyzing. Then comparison of A. cantonensis larval morphology and development between in vitro cultivation in defined complete culture medium and in vivo cultivation in infective BALB/c mice. The larvae that had been cultivated in vitro were smaller than AcL4 of infective BALB/c mice. However the AcL3 that were cultured using defined incomplete culture medium (MEM plus 20% FCS with AA+AM, FA, CA, AA+AM+FA, FA+CA, CA+AA+AM or not) did not adequately survive and develop. Accordingly, the inference is made that only the defined complete medium enable AcL3 develop to AcL4 in vitro. Some nematodes have been successfully cultured into mature worms but only a few researches have been made to cultivate A. cantonensis in vitro. The present study is the first to have succeeded in developing AcL3 to AcL4 by in vitro cultivation. Finally, the results of in vitro cultivation studies herein contribute to improving media for the effective development and growth of A. cantonensis. The gap in the A. cantonensis life cycle when the larvae are cultivated in vitro from third-stage larvae to fourth-stage larvae can thus be solved. PMID:23977214

Chung, Li-Yu; Lee, June-Der; Wang, Jiun-Jye; Yen, Chuan-Min

2013-01-01

9

Pneumonia from Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).  

PubMed

A 9-year-old, male, captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) in an urban zoo in the United Kingdom presented with respiratory distress and weight loss. The animal was euthanatized, and a postmortem examination was performed. The lungs were diffusely consolidated with extensive mineralization. Microscopically, there was extensive obliteration of normal pulmonary architecture by sheets and coalescing nodules of partially mineralized fibrous tissue and granulomatous inflammation centered on large numbers of nematode larvae and eggs. First stage nematode larvae were isolated from lung tissue and were characterized as Angiostrongylus vasorum on the basis of their morphology and sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene and the entire second internal transcribed spacer. Although A. vasorum has previously been reported in red pandas in a zoological collection in Denmark, this study is the first reported case in the United Kingdom and occurs against a background of geographical spread and increased incidence of disease in domestic and wild canids. Angiostrongylus vasorum should be considered a differential diagnosis for respiratory disease in the red panda and taken into account when planning parasite and pest control programs for zoological collections. PMID:19286513

Patterson-Kane, Janet C; Gibbons, Lynda M; Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Wenzlow, Nanny; Redrobe, Sharon P

2009-03-01

10

Molecular identification of novel intermediate host species of Angiostrongylus vasorum in Greater London.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode that can cause serious and potentially fatal disease in dogs and other canids. The aim of this study was to determine the intermediate slug species infected in nature by sampling sites in Greater London and Hertfordshire located within a known hyperendemic region. Overall, A. vasorum larvae were recovered from 6/381 slugs (1.6%) by tissue digestion, and their identity was confirmed by PCR. Infected slugs originated from three different sites in the Greater London area: one in Waltham Forest and two in Bromley. Slugs parasitised by A. vasorum were identified by a combination of external morphological characteristics and molecular techniques and belonged to three different families: the Arionidae, the Milacidae and the Limacidae. This includes two new host records for the parasite: Arion distinctus and Tandonia sowerbyi. This is the first record of A. vasorum in the family Milacidae, indicating that the parasite has a broader intermediate host range than previously recognised. PMID:25195057

Patel, Zainab; Gill, A Christina; Fox, Mark T; Hermosilla, Carlos; Backeljau, Thierry; Breugelmans, Karin; Keevash, Esther; McEwan, Claudia; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Elson-Riggins, Jocelyn G

2014-12-01

11

Improved protein identification efficiency by mass spectrometry using N-terminal chemical derivatization of peptides from Angiostrongylus costaricensis, a nematode with unknown genome.  

PubMed

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), Peptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMF) and MALDI-MS/MS ion search (using MASCOT) have become the preferred methods for high-throughput identification of proteins. Unfortunately, PMF can be ambiguous, mainly when the genome of the organism under investigation is unknown and the quality of spectra generated is poor and does not allow confident identification. The post-source decay (PSD) fragmentation of singly charged tryptic peptide ions generated by MALDI-TOF/TOF typically results in low fragmentation efficiency and/or complex spectra, including backbone fragmentation ions (series b and y), internal fragmentation etc. Interpreting these data either manually and/or using de novo sequencing software can frequently be a challenge. To overcome this limitation when studying the proteome of adult Angiostrongylus costaricensis, a nematode with unknown genome, we have used chemical N-terminal derivatization of the tryptic peptides with 4-sulfophenyl isothiocyanate (SPITC) prior to MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. This methodology has recently been reported to enhance the quality of MALDI-TOF/TOF-PSD data, allowing the obtainment of complete sequence of most of the peptides and thus facilitating de novo peptide sequencing. Our approach, consisting of SPITC derivatization along with manual spectra interpretation and Blast analysis, was able to positively identify 76% of analyzed samples, whereas MASCOT analysis of derivatized samples, MASCOT analysis of nonderivatized samples and PMF of nonderivatized samples yielded only 35, 41 and 12% positive identifications, respectively. Moreover, de novo sequencing of SPITC modified peptides resulted in protein sequences not available in NCBInr database paving the way to the discovery of new protein molecules. PMID:17511016

León, Ileana R; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Valente, Richard H; Mota, Ester M; Lenzi, Henrique L; Perales, Jonas

2007-06-01

12

Improved protein identification efficiency by mass spectrometry using N-terminal chemical derivatization of peptides from Angiostrongylus costaricensis, a nematode with unknown genome.  

PubMed

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), Peptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMF) and MALDI-MS/MS ion search (using MASCOT) have become the preferred methods for high-throughput identification of proteins. Unfortunately, PMF can be ambiguous, mainly when the genome of the organism under investigation is unknown and the quality of spectra generated is poor and does not allow confident identification. The post-source decay (PSD) fragmentation of singly charged tryptic peptide ions generated by MALDI-TOF/TOF typically results in low fragmentation efficiency and/or complex spectra, including backbone fragmentation ions (series b and y), internal fragmentation etc. Interpreting these data either manually and/or using de novo sequencing software can frequently be a challenge. To overcome this limitation when studying the proteome of adult Angiostrongylus costaricensis, a nematode with unknown genome, we have used chemical N-terminal derivatization of the tryptic peptides with 4-sulfophenyl isothiocyanate (SPITC) prior to MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. This methodology has recently been reported to enhance the quality of MALDI-TOF/TOF-PSD data, allowing the obtainment of complete sequence of most of the peptides and thus facilitating de novo peptide sequencing. Our approach, consisting of SPITC derivatization along with manual spectra interpretation and Blast analysis, was able to positively identify 76% of analyzed samples, whereas MASCOT analysis of derivatized samples, MASCOT analysis of nonderivatized samples and PMF of nonderivatized samples yielded only 35, 41 and 12% positive identifications, respectively. Moreover, de novo sequencing of SPITC modified peptides resulted in protein sequences not available in NCBInr database paving the way to the discovery of new protein molecules. PMID:17902111

León, Ileana R; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Valente, Richard H; Mota, Ester M; Lenzi, Henrique L; Perales, Jonas

2007-10-01

13

Eosinophilic meningitis beyond the Pacific Basin: The global dispersal of a peridomestic zoonosis caused by angiostrongylus cantonensis, the nematode lungworm of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal etiologic agent of human eosinophilic meningitis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was first detected in rats in Canton, China in 1933. The first human case was detected on Taiwan in 1944. Epidemic outbreaks were noted on Ponape (E. Caroline Is.) from 1944 to 1948. The disease may present as transient meningitis or a more severe disease involving the brain, spinal cord

Michael M. Kliks; Nicholas E. Palumbo

1992-01-01

14

Eosinophilic meningitis beyond the Pacific Basin: the global dispersal of a peridomestic zoonosis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the nematode lungworm of rats.  

PubMed

The principal etiologic agent of human eosinophilic meningitis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was first detected in rats in Canton, China in 1933. The first human case was detected on Taiwan in 1944. Epidemic outbreaks were noted on Ponape (E. Caroline Is.) from 1944 to 1948. The disease may present as transient meningitis or a more severe disease involving the brain, spinal cord and nerve roots, with a characteristic eosinophilia of the peripheral blood and CSF. Since 1961 it has been known that human infections are usually acquired by purposeful or accidental ingestion of infective larvae in terrestrial mollusks, planaria and fresh-water crustacea. There is no effective specific treatment. The African land snail, Achatina fulica played an important role in the panpacific dispersal of the organism: it will be important in Africa in the future as well. Rats were, and will continue to be the principal agents of expansion of the parasite beyond the Indopacific area. During and just after WWII the parasite was introduced, and/or spread passively from South and Southeast Asia into the Western Pacific islands and eastward and southward through Micronesia, Melanesia, Australia and into Polynesia, sequestered in shipments of war material and facilitated by post-war commerce. In the 1950s numerous cases were identified for the first time on Sumatra, the Philippines, Taiwan, Saipan, New Caledonia, and as far east as Rarotonga and Tahiti. Then cases were detected in Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Java, Sarawak, the New Hebrides, Guam and Hawaii during the 1960s. Subsequently in the Pacific Basin the disease has appeared on Okinawa, other Ryukyu islands, Honshu, Kyushu, New Britain, American Samoa and Western Samoa, Australia, Hong Kong, Bombay, India, Fiji and most recently in mainland China. The parasite in rats now occurs throughout the Indopacific Basin and littoral. Beyond the Indopacific region, the worm has been found in rodents in Madagascar (ca 1963), Cuba (1973), Egypt (1977), Puerto Rico (1984), New Orleans, Louisiana (1985) and Port Harcourt, Nigeria (1989). Human infections have now been detected in Cuba (1973), Réunion Island (1974) and Côte d'Ivoire (1979) and should be anticipated wherever infected rats of mollusks have been introduced. Caged primates became infected in zoos in Hong Kong (1978) and New Orleans and Nassau, Bahamas (1987). The use of mollusks and crustacea as famine foods, favored delicacies and medicines has resulted in numerous outbreaks and isolated infections. Economic and political instability, illicit trade, unsanitary peridomestic conditions and lack of health education promote the local occurrence and insidious global expansion of parasitic eosinophilic meningitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1738873

Kliks, M M; Palumbo, N E

1992-01-01

15

Eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis in a Belgian traveller.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic meningitis is a rare clinical entity. The most frequent cause in travellers to the tropics is infection with the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. In this report, we describe a case of eosinophilic meningitis due to infection with this nematode in a traveller who presented with slight headache, diarrhoea, general malaise and thoracic radicular pain after a trip through Latin America and the Fiji Islands. She responded less than optimally to repeated steroid and albendazole treatments, but finally recovered completely. PMID:18342273

Ali, A B; Van den Enden, Erwin; Van Gompel, Alfons; Van Esbroeck, Marjan

2008-01-01

16

Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in wildlife: A review  

PubMed Central

Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20) given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100–500 larvae) often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna parks where captive rearing of endangered species programmes may exist and where Rattus spp. are invariably a problem. PMID:25853051

Spratt, David M.

2015-01-01

17

Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in wildlife: A review.  

PubMed

Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20) given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100-500 larvae) often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna parks where captive rearing of endangered species programmes may exist and where Rattus spp. are invariably a problem. PMID:25853051

Spratt, David M

2015-08-01

18

Angiostrongylus vasorum in wolves in Italy?  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum has attracted attention for its emergence in previously free areas and for the rise in clinical cases in domestic dogs. Italy is regarded as one of the countries where this potentially life-threatening parasite is spreading, especially due to bridging infections between wildlife and domestic dogs. The present article describes the presence of A. vasorum in wolves from Italy. Nematodes were observed in histological sections of three wolves found dead in Rome province, central Italy. Morphological and molecular identification of the nematodes, by polymerase chain reaction of rDNA ITS-2 and sequencing, confirmed the nematodes to be A. vasorum, with 99% genetic homology with A. vasorum from sympatric dogs. This is the second report of this species in wolves and the first in this host in Italy, and coincides with increasing records of A. vasorum in dogs and foxes in Italy. Implications for the epidemiology of this emerging parasite and for wildlife health are concisely discussed. PMID:24918072

Eleni, Claudia; De Liberato, Claudio; Azam, Dena; Morgan, Eric R.; Traversa, Donato

2013-01-01

19

Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Rat Lungworm Disease in Brazil  

PubMed Central

The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil. PMID:23901376

de Oliveira Simões, Raquel; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Júnior, Arnaldo Maldonado

2013-01-01

20

Angiostrongylus cantonensis and rat lungworm disease in Brazil.  

PubMed

The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil. PMID:23901376

Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Maldonado, Arnaldo

2013-06-01

21

PCR-based detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in tissue and mucus secretions from molluscan hosts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a common cause of human eosinophilic meningitis. Recent outbreaks of this infection in endemic regions have prompted a need to determine the distribution of this nematode in the environment to control transmission. A. cantonensis is generally identified morphologically...

22

Spontaneous occurrence of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in marmosets (Saguinus mystax).  

PubMed

Two marmosets imported from Iquitos, Peru, were found to be infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis. Both animals had large solitary granulomas involving the wall and adjacent mesentery of the small intestine. Histopathologic examination showed the adult nematodes in the lumina of the mesenteric arteries that coursed through these granulomas. The inflammatory reaction was associated with numerous degenerating eggs and larvae. This is the first report of this parasite in nonhuman primates and extends its geographic range to Peru. In addition, in one animal, Dipetalonema sp were seen free in the abdominal cavity, and pleroceroid larvae (spargana) were in the loose connective tissue of the left axilla. This animal also had microgranulomas associated with eggs and larvae of Angiostrongylus in the kidney, liver, lung, and heart. PMID:6808242

Sly, D L; Toft, J D; Gardiner, C H; London, W T

1982-06-01

23

First record of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in the Dominican Republic.  

PubMed

Rats, Rattus norvegicus, trapped in some sections (barrios) of the city of Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic showed that 5 of them from two barrios harbored the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the pulmonary artery. Macerated and digested terrestrial snails, Subulina octona, collected from the backyards of houses where the rats were trapped contained L2 and L3 larvae of the nematode. The morphology of the adult worms and the larvae was consistent with that described for A. cantonensis in the literature. This is the first report of this Oriental and Western Pacific nematode in the Dominican Republic and the fourth in the Americas. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage, a rare symptom due to another species, the American A. costaricensis, which occurs in mesenteric arterioles of rodents and humans, is in the recent literature; the patient was a 41-year old Dominican. Thus the Dominican Republic is the first country in the Western Hemisphere to have the two species of Angiostrongylus. PMID:1293731

Vargas, M; Gomez Perez, J D; Malek, E A

1992-12-01

24

Molecular differentiation and phylogenetic relationships of three Angiostrongylus species and Angiostrongylus cantonensis geographical isolates based on a 66-kDa protein gene of A. cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae).  

PubMed

The phylogenetic relationships and molecular differentiation of three species of angiostrongylid nematodes (Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus malaysiensis) were studied using the AC primers for a 66-kDa protein gene of A. cantonensis. The AC primers successfully amplified the genomic DNA of these angiostrongylid nematodes. No amplification was detected for the DNA of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ascaris suum, Anisakis simplex, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Toxocara canis, and Trichinella spiralis. The maximum-parsimony (MP) consensus tree and the maximum-likelihood (ML) tree both showed that the Angiostrongylus taxa could be divided into two major clades - Clade 1 (A. costaricensis) and Clade 2 (A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis) with a full support bootstrap value. A. costaricensis is the most distant taxon. A. cantonensis is a sister group to A. malaysiensis; these two taxa (species) are clearly separated. There is no clear distinction between the A. cantonensis samples from four different geographical localities (Thailand, China, Japan and Hawaii); only some of the samples are grouped ranging from no support or low support to moderate support of bootstrap values. The published nucleotide sequences of A. cantonensis adult-specific native 66kDa protein mRNA, clone L5-400 from Taiwan (U17585) appear to be very distant from the A. cantonensis samples from Thailand, China, Japan and Hawaii, with the uncorrected p-distance values ranging from 26.87% to 29.92%. PMID:20566366

Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik Eem; Zhang, Hongman; Gan, Xiaoxian; Yong, Hoi Sen

2010-12-01

25

On the diversity of mollusc intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Cespedes, 1971 in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Veronicellid slugs are considered the most important intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis, an intra-arterial nematode of rodents. Studies undertaken in three localities in southern Brazil led to identification of molluscs other than veronicellid slugs as hosts of A. costaricensis: Limax maximus, Limax flavus and Bradybaena similaris. These data indicate a low host specificity of larval stages of A. costaricensis, as it has been reported to other congeneric species. PMID:8107609

Teixeira, C G; Thiengo, S C; Thome, J W; Medeiros, A B; Camillo-Coura, L; Agostini, A A

1993-01-01

26

Gallus gallus domesticus: paratenic host of Angiostrongylus vasorum.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus vasorum, a parasite of the cardiorespiratory system in canids, has a heteroxenous biological cycle in which the intermediate hosts are terrestrial and aquatic mollusks. Generally, canids become infected by ingesting the intermediate host or paratenic hosts, such as amphibians, that contain infective larvae (L3). However, there are no reports of birds as paratenic hosts of A. vasorum. To evaluate the susceptibility and viability of Gallus gallus domesticus as a paratenic host of A. vasorum, 17 Cobb chickens were randomly divided into two groups. The animals in group A were inoculated with third stage larvae of A. vasorum, and those in group B ate snails inoculated with A. vasorum L3. At 30 days post-infection, the chickens were killed, and the muscles and organs were placed in a pepsin-HCl solution (1% HCl (37%), 1% pepsin) for 3h in an oven at 40°C to recover the L3. In group A, 1863 L3 were recovered per chicken. In group B, 2585 L3 were recovered. A dog that ingested organs and tissues from a chicken from group A released first-stage larvae of A. vasorum in its feces 51 days after infection; the dynamics of this process were monitored for 107 days, when treatment with 25 mg fenbendazole/kg body weight was performed for 21 days. Chickens nourished with infected snails or with infective L3 may be a source of infection for dogs indicate that G. gallus is a potential paratenic host for this parasite. PMID:25468671

Mozzer, L R; Lima, W S

2015-01-15

27

Human infection by Angiostrongylus costaricensis in Venezuela: first report of a confirmed case.  

PubMed

A proven case of human infection caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis is reported for the first time in Venezuela. The patient was a 57-year-old female surgically operated because of signs of peritonitis with a palpable mass at the lower right quadrant of the abdomen. WBC count reported 16,600 cells/mm3, with 46% eosinophils. The tumoral aspect of ileocolic area and peritoneal lymph nodes prompted the resection of a large area of the terminal ileum, cecum, part of the ascending colon and a small part of the jejunum, where a small lesion was found. The pathology showed thickened areas of the intestinal wall with areas of hemorrhage and a perforation of the cecum. Histology showed intense eosinophil infiltration of the whole intestinal wall, granulomas with giant cells and eosinophils. Some of the granuloma surrounded round or oval eggs with content characterized by a large empty area, cells or embryo in the center, and sometimes nematode larvae. A cross section of an adult nematode worm was observed inside a branch of mesenteric artery. The intestinal affected area, the characteristics of the lesions, the presence of eggs in the submucosa with nematode larvae inside, and the observation of a nematode inside a mesenteric artery, makes sufficient criteria for the diagnosis of an infection by Angiostrongylus costaricensis. PMID:17625700

Incani, Renzo Nino; Caleiras, Eduardo; Martín, Milena; González, Carlos

2007-01-01

28

Expression of Recombinant Antigenic Proteins from Angiostrongylus cantonensis: A Brief Report  

PubMed Central

Cerebral angiostrongyliasis is an acute inflammation caused by the infection of the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis that results in eosinophilic meningitis. The current immunological assay of choice is an immunoblot that detects antibodies to a 31 kDa protein present in crude extracts of the female worm. Recently we have identified diagnostic targets from excretion and secretion products and determined the composition of the 31 kDa antigen after 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Here we cloned and expressed five proteins in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Recombinant proteins were purified and analysed by Western blot assays and among them 14-3-3, Lec5 and ES7 were recognized by Angiostrongylus-specific serum, although the signal was weak. PMID:23900614

Perelygin, Andrey; Levert, Keith; Lin, Seh-Ching; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; da Silva, Alexandre J; Wilkins, Patricia P; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

2013-01-01

29

Biology, systematics, life cycle, and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the cause of rat lungworm disease.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode in the family Angiostrongylidae. It is the cause of angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease), which manifests as eosinophilic meningitis. First described in 1935 from rats in China, A. cantonensis was placed in the genus Parastrongylus in 1986, but most workers have not adopted this treatment. The taxonomy of A. cantonensis and related worms is largely based on adult morphology, notably of the male bursa. However, identification of infective third stage larvae is more difficult. The natural life cycle involves rats as the definitive host and snails or slugs as the intermediate host. Human infection, as accidental hosts, results in worms maturing in the brain, but dying there instead of moving back into the bloodstream, as in rats, thereby leading to eosinophilic meningitis. The disease is an emerging infectious disease; Angiostrongylus cantonensis continues to be reported in new regions beyond its native range. PMID:23901372

Cowie, Robert H

2013-06-01

30

Biology, Systematics, Life Cycle, and Distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Cause of Rat Lungworm Disease  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode in the family Angiostrongylidae. It is the cause of angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease), which manifests as eosinophilic meningitis. First described in 1935 from rats in China, A. cantonensis was placed in the genus Parastrongylus in 1986, but most workers have not adopted this treatment. The taxonomy of A. cantonensis and related worms is largely based on adult morphology, notably of the male bursa. However, identification of infective third stage larvae is more difficult. The natural life cycle involves rats as the definitive host and snails or slugs as the intermediate host. Human infection, as accidental hosts, results in worms maturing in the brain, but dying there instead of moving back into the bloodstream, as in rats, thereby leading to eosinophilic meningitis. The disease is an emerging infectious disease; Angiostrongylus cantonensis continues to be reported in new regions beyond its native range. PMID:23901372

2013-01-01

31

Environmental determinants of the spatial distribution of Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus in Hungary.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) are the most important lungworm species infecting wild and domesticated canids in Europe. To investigate the spatial distribution of these parasites and the factors influencing their circulation in the fox populations, 937 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were tested for lungworm infection in Hungary. The prevalence of A. vasorum, C. vulpis and E. aerophilus infection was high (17.9, 24.6 and 61.7%). The distribution pattern of infection in foxes and the relationship of this pattern with landscape and climate was analyzed by geographic information system. Based on the analysis, the annual precipitation was the major determinant of the spatial distribution of A. vasorum and C. vulpis and E. aerophilus. Nevertheless, the mean annual temperature also influenced the distribution of A. vasorum and E. aerophilus. The positive relationship with annual precipitation and the negative relationship with mean annual temperature can be attributed to the sensitivity of larvae, eggs and intermediate hosts (snails and slugs) of lungworms for desiccation. Based on the highly clumped distribution of A. vasorum and C. vulpis, the indirect life cycle (larvae, slugs and snails) of these parasites seems to be particularly sensitive for environmental effects. The distribution of E. aerophilus was considerably less clumped indicating a lower sensitivity of the direct life cycle (eggs) of this parasite for environmental factors. Based on these results, lungworm infections in canids including dogs can be expected mainly in relatively wet and cool areas. PMID:25547643

Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sréter, T

2015-01-30

32

First report of Ancylostoma ceylanicum in wild canids?  

PubMed Central

The parasitic nematode Ancylostoma ceylanicum is common in dogs, cats and humans throughout Asia, inhabiting the small intestine and possibly leading to iron-deficient anaemia in those infected. It has previously been discovered in domestic dogs in Australia and this is the first report of A. ceylanicum in wild canids. Wild dogs (dingoes and dingo hybrids) killed in council control operations (n = 26) and wild dog scats (n = 89) were collected from the Wet Tropics region around Cairns, Far North Queensland. All of the carcasses (100%) were infected with Ancylostoma caninum and three (11.5%) had dual infections with A. ceylanicum. Scats, positively sequenced for hookworm, contained A. ceylanicum, A. caninum and Ancylostoma braziliense, with A. ceylanicum the dominant species in Mount Windsor National Park, with a prevalence of 100%, but decreasing to 68% and 30.8% in scats collected from northern and southern rural suburbs of Cairns, respectively. Due to the ability of A. ceylanicum to cause a patent infection in humans, the zoonotic risk arising from this wild dog reservoir to communities in the Wet Tropics should be determined. PMID:24533332

Smout, Felicity A.; Thompson, R.C. Andrew; Skerratt, Lee F.

2013-01-01

33

Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a coyote (Canis latrans) from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

Tissue samples and feces were collected from a dead, adult female coyote (Canis latrans) found at the side of the road in late March 2003 in the Avalon Peninsula region of Newfoundland, Canada. The coyote apparently died of vehicular-related trauma. Samples of lung, brain, heart, liver, and kidney were fixed in formalin and submitted for histologic examination. The entire remaining lung and heart also were submitted for examination. The coyote was diagnosed with moderate, multifocal, granulomatous interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic vasculitis and many intralesional nematode eggs, larvae, and occasional intravascular adult worms. Adult nematodes recovered from the pulmonary arteries were identified as Angiostrongylus vasorum. Small foci of granulomatous inflammation, often containing nematode eggs and larvae, were scattered in the brain and kidney. To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. vasorum infection in a coyote from the only endemic area of infection in North America. PMID:16456176

Bourque, Andrea; Whitney, Hugh; Conboy, Gary

2005-10-01

34

Meiotic chromosomes and sex determination mechanism in Thailand and Hawaii isolates of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae).  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the nematode lungworm of rats, has a XX/X0 sex-determination mechanism. The chromosome constitution consists of 10 autosomes, with 2n=12, XX in the female and 2n=11, X0 in the male. Meiosis-I shows five bivalents and one univalent for the male worm, and six bivalents for the female worm. The chromosome constitution of the Thailand and Hawaii isolates of A. cantonensis is similar to those reported for the taxa from Japan, Egypt and mainland China. PMID:20237450

Eamsobhana, P; Yoolek, A; Yong, H S

2009-12-01

35

Interface Molecules of Angiostrongylus cantonensis: Their Role in Parasite Survival and Modulation of Host Defenses  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Disease presents following the ingestion of third-stage larvae residing in the intermediate mollusk host and disease manifests as an acute inflammation of the meninges characterized by eosinophil infiltrates which release a battery of proinflammatory and cytotoxic agents in response to the pathogen. As a mechanism of neutralizing these host defenses, A. cantonensis expresses different molecules with immunomodulatory properties that are excreted or secreted (ES). In this paper we discuss the role of ES proteins on disease exacerbation and their potential use as therapeutic targets. PMID:22536544

Morassutti, Alessandra L.; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

2012-01-01

36

Experimental infection of Sigmodon hispidus with third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus costaricensis.  

PubMed

Adult Sigmodon hispidus, were given 50 third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus costaricensis orally, intraperitoneally, subcutaneously, and on abraded and unabraded skin. Larvae could not penetrate unbroken skin but established normal infections in the cecal vasculature by all other routes. Significantly more adults were recovered after oral and intraperitoneal inoculation than subcutaneously or through abraded skin. In a single animal given larvae subcutaneously, adult worms were recovered from the pulmonary arteries, an abnormal location for this species of metastrongylid nematode, which usually occurs in the ileocolic mesenteric arteries. PMID:7241281

Ubelaker, J E; Caruso, J; Peña, A

1981-04-01

37

Neuroparasitic Infections: Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system—Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.—is reviewed. Objectives On completion of this article, the reader should be able to summarize the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the common nematodal infections of the nervous system. Accreditation The Indiana University School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Credit The Indiana University School of Medicine designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1 Category 1 credit toward the AMA Physicians Recognition Award. Each physician should claim only those credits that he/she actually spent in the educational activity. Disclosure Statements of disclosure have been obtained regarding the authors’ relevant financial relationships. The authors have nothing to disclose. PMID:16170738

Walker, M.D.; Zunt, J.R.

2009-01-01

38

Characterization of Angiostrongylus cantonensis excretory-secretory proteins as potential diagnostic targets.  

PubMed

Angiostrongyliasis results from infections with intra-arterial nematodes that accidentally infect humans. Specifically, infections with Angiostrongylus cantonensis cause eosinophilic meningitis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis infections result in eosinophilic enteritis. Immunological tests are the primary means of diagnosing infections with either pathogen since these parasites are usually not recoverable in fecal or cerebrospinal fluid. However, well-defined, purified antigens are not currently available in sufficient quantities from either pathogen for use in routine immunodiagnostic assays. Since A. costaricensis and A. cantonensis share common antigens, sera from infected persons will recognize antigens from either species. In addition to their potential use in angiostrongyliasis diagnosis, characterization of these proteins that establish the host-parasite interphase would improve our understanding of the biology of these parasites. The main objective of the present work was to characterize A. cantonensis excretory-secretory (ES) products by analyzing ES preparations by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with immunoblotting using pools of positive sera (PS) and sera from healthy individuals (SC). Protein spots recognized by PS were excised and analyzed by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry. MASCOT analysis of mass spectrometry data identified 17 proteins: aldolase; CBR-PYP-1 protein; beta-amylase; heat shock protein 70; proteosome subunit beta type-1; actin A3; peroxiredoxin; serine carboxypeptidase; protein disulfide isomerase 1; fructose-bisphosphate aldolase 2; aspartyl protease inhibitor; lectin-5; hypothetical protein F01F1.12; cathepsin B-like cysteine proteinase 1; hemoglobinase-type cysteine proteinase; putative ferritin protein 2; and a hypothetical protein. Molecular cloning of these respective targets will next be carried out to develop a panel of Angiostrongylus antigens that can be used for diagnostic purposes and to further study host-Angiostrongylus interactions. PMID:22019415

Morassutti, Alessandra L; Levert, Keith; Pinto, Paulo M; da Silva, Alexandre J; Wilkins, Patricia; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

2012-01-01

39

Detection of anti-oxidant enzymatic activities and purification of glutathione transferases from Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

There are several anti-oxidant enzyme families that play pivotal roles in facilitating the survival of parasites. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are members of the anti-oxidant family that can detoxify a broad range of exogenous or endogenous compounds including reactive oxidative species. GSTs have been studied as vaccine candidates, immunodiagnostic markers and as treatment targets. Helminths of the genus Angiostrongylus live inside arteries of vertebrates and two main species are associated with accidental human infections: Angiostrongylus costaricensis adult worms live inside the mesenteric arteries and larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis become trapped in the central nervous system vasculature. Since the interactions between angiostrongylid nematodes and their vertebrate hosts are poorly understood, this study characterized the anti-oxidant enzymatic activities of A. cantonensis from female worms by collecting excreted and secreted (ES) and total extract (TE) molecules. Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were found both in the ES and TE while glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and GST were found only in the TE. GSTs were purified by glutathione agarose affinity column (AcGST) and the pool of eluted GSTs was analyzed by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and de novo sequencing (Masslynx software). Sequences from two peptides (AcGSTpep1 and AcGSTpep2) present high identity to the N-terminal and C-terminal from sigma class GSTs of nematodes. It is known that these GST enzymes are associated with host immune regulation. Furthermore, understanding the role of parasite-derived anti-oxidant molecules is important in understanding host-parasite interactions. PMID:20807531

Morassutti, Alessandra L; Pinto, Paulo M; Dutra, Bibiana K; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato; Ferreira, Henrique B; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

2011-02-01

40

First record of molluscs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Seeking the identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as a potential etiological agent of three clinical cases of eosinophilic meningitis, mollusc specimens were collected in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The snails were identified as Sarasinula marginata (45 specimens), Subulina octona (157), Achatina fulica (45) and Bradybaena similaris (23). Larvae obtained were submitted to polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnosis. Their genetic profile were corresponded to A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with third-stage larvae, developed menigoencephalitis, and parasites became sexually mature in the lungs. Additionally, larvae obtained from A. fulica snails, from São Vicente, state of São Paulo, also showed genetic profiles of this nematode. This is the first record of Brazilian molluscs infected with this nematode species. PMID:18094889

Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Mendonça, Cristiane L G F; Goveia, Christiane Oliveira; Lenzi, Henrique L; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Lima, Walter S; Mota, Ester M; Pecora, Iracy Lea; Medeiros, Aline Maria Zigiotto de; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

2007-11-01

41

Eosinophilic ileitis with perforation caused by Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus) costaricensis. A case study and review.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus costaricensis (classified under the more specific genus Parastrongylus by different authors) is a filiform intestinal nematode endemic to Central and South America, which afflicts primarily the pediatric population 1 to 13 years of age. Only three cases of adult infections have been previously documented outside the endemic region. To our knowledge, we report the first such case in the western United States, as well as the oldest patient yet recorded. Our patient is a 73-year-old woman living in Los Angeles who presented with an acute abdomen 4 weeks following a 5-month visit to El Salvador. Examination of the gross ileum removed at exploratory laparotomy revealed a perforation associated with a segmentally thickened intestinal wall. Microscopic examination showed eosinophilic ileitis, arterial lumens containing nematodes morphologically consistent with A costaricensis, eggs in the submucosa, and arteriolitis with thrombosis. PMID:9302934

Wu, S S; French, S W; Turner, J A

1997-09-01

42

Filaroides osleri (Oslerus osleri): two case reports and a review of canid infections in North America.  

PubMed

Infections of domesticated dogs by a worldwide parasitic nematode Filaroides osleri (Oslerus osleri) lead to verminous tracheobronchitis that are often misdiagnosed clinically as kennel cough, due to infection with the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica. Diagnosis of two canine cases in Wyoming, USA prompted a search of the literature of canid infections in North America. Infections of domestic dogs are reported in nine US states and four Canadian provinces. Dogs of multiple breeds and both sexes were infected. Most were two years old or younger at diagnosis. Anthelmintic treatments were effective in relieving clinical symptoms, as well as causing resolution of tracheobronchial nodules. Other canid species, including coyotes (Canis latrans) and wolves (Canis lupus), have been infected across North America with a prevalence of 23% and 4%, respectively. Infection with F. osleri should be included in the differential diagnosis of infectious tracheobronchitis of dogs. It can be confirmed most readily by endoscopic detection of distinctive submucosal parasite-filled nodules, combined with histological examination of endoscopic biopsies. PMID:21411228

Yao, Chaoqun; O'Toole, Donal; Driscoll, Mike; McFarland, Warner; Fox, Jonathan; Cornish, Todd; Jolley, William

2011-06-30

43

First provincial survey of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Guangdong Province, China.  

PubMed

The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode with a wide distribution. We report the first provincial survey of the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection among wild rodents and snails in Guangdong Province, China. A total of 2929 Pomacea canaliculata and 1354 Achatina fulica were collected from fields in 22 survey sites with a larval infection rates ranging from 0-26.6% to 0-45.4%. In addition, 114 Cipangopaludina sp and 252 Bellamya sp were bought from markets; larvae were found only in Bellamya snails from two survey sites with an infection rate of 1.4% (1/70) and 3.3% (3/91), respectively. Four hundred and ninety-one rodents were captured in nine sites (Rattus norvegicus, R. flavipectus, Suncus murinus, Mus musculus, Bandicota indica, R. losea and R. rattus). Adult worms were found in R. norvegicus, R. flavipectus and Bandicota indica. Our survey revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate hosts P. canaliculata and A. fulica in Guangdong. The prevalence of A. cantonensis in wild snails and rats poses a substantial risk for angiostrongyliasis in humans. PMID:21906215

Deng, Zhuo-Hui; Zhang, Qi-Ming; Huang, Shao-Yu; Jones, Jeffrey L

2012-01-01

44

ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Entomopathogenic nematodes (genera Heterorhabditis, Steinernema, and Neosteinernema) are used as bioinsecticides. The nematodes are ubiquitous and have been isolated in soil of every continent except Antarctica. The nematodes kill insects through a mutualism with a bacterium (Photorhabdus spp. or ...

45

Toxocara canis: genes expressed by the arrested infective larval stage of a parasitic nematode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxocara canis is a widely distributed nematode parasite which reaches maturity in dogs. However, eggs voided by canid animals are infective to a very wide range of paratenic hosts including humans. In noncanid hosts, infective larvae emerge from the eggs and invade the soft tissues, often entering the brain and musculature. Such larvae may remain for many months or years

Rick M. Maizels; Kevin K. A. Tetteh; Alex Loukas

2000-01-01

46

Diverse gastropod hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, globally and with a focus on the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

Kim, Jaynee R; Hayes, Kenneth A; Yeung, Norine W; Cowie, Robert H

2014-01-01

47

Diverse Gastropod Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm, Globally and with a Focus on the Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

Kim, Jaynee R.; Hayes, Kenneth A.; Yeung, Norine W.; Cowie, Robert H.

2014-01-01

48

Quantitative PCR estimates Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) infection levels in semi-slugs (Parmarion martensi)  

PubMed Central

The life cycle of the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis involves rats as the definitive host and slugs and snails as intermediate hosts. Humans can become infected upon ingestion of intermediate or paratenic (passive carrier) hosts containing stage L3 A. cantonensis larvae. Here, we report a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay that provides a reliable, relative measure of parasite load in intermediate hosts. Quantification of the levels of infection of intermediate hosts is critical for determining A. cantonensis intensity on the Island of Hawaii. The identification of high intensity infection ‘hotspots’ will allow for more effective targeted rat and slug control measures. qPCR appears more efficient and sensitive than microscopy and provides a new tool for quantification of larvae from intermediate hosts, and potentially from other sources as well. PMID:22902292

Jarvi, Susan I.; Farias, Margaret E.M.; Howe, Kay; Jacquier, Steven; Hollingsworth, Robert; Pitt, William

2013-01-01

49

Quantitative PCR estimates Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) infection levels in semi-slugs (Parmarion martensi).  

PubMed

The life cycle of the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis involves rats as the definitive host and slugs and snails as intermediate hosts. Humans can become infected upon ingestion of intermediate or paratenic (passive carrier) hosts containing stage L3 A. cantonensis larvae. Here, we report a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay that provides a reliable, relative measure of parasite load in intermediate hosts. Quantification of the levels of infection of intermediate hosts is critical for determining A. cantonensis intensity on the Island of Hawaii. The identification of high intensity infection 'hotspots' will allow for more effective targeted rat and slug control measures. qPCR appears more efficient and sensitive than microscopy and provides a new tool for quantification of larvae from intermediate hosts, and potentially from other sources as well. PMID:22902292

Jarvi, Susan I; Farias, Margaret E M; Howe, Kay; Jacquier, Steven; Hollingsworth, Robert; Pitt, William

2012-10-01

50

Genetic differences in the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae), in Thailand.  

PubMed

This study surveyed the genetic differences among Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) using the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene. Partial cytb sequences were determined for 91 worms from eight locations in Thailand. Using morphological techniques, the nematodes were found to be A. cantonensis. Phylogenetic analysis found two main clades, which were subdivided into four subclades (clusters). Haplotype network analysis showed that 11 distinct cytb haplotypes were also present in four groups of A. cantonensis. There was no observable relationship between the genetic differentiation of gene flow and geographical distance. This low genetic variation and geographical distribution of A. cantonensis in each location indicates a founder effect, which may have resulted from multiple independent origins, and suggests that haplotypes migrated from endemic areas via human-related activities. PMID:24933508

Dusitsittipon, S; Thaenkham, U; Watthanakulpanich, D; Adisakwattana, P; Komalamisra, C

2014-06-16

51

Morphological aspects of Angiostrongylus costaricensis by light and scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a parasitic nematode that can cause severe gastrointestinal disease, known as abdominal angiostrongiliasis, in humans. This paper presents the characterization of first- and third-stage larvae and male and female adult worms of A. costaricensis by scanning electron and light microscopy. Several novel anatomical structures were identified by scanning electron microscopy, including details of the cuticular striations of the spicules in male worms and a protective flap of the cuticle covering the vulvar aperture in female worms. Other taxonomic features revealed by light microscopy include the gubernaculum and the esophageal-intestinal valve. The use of two microscopy techniques allowed a detailed characterization of the morphology of this nematode. A number of previously identified taxonomic features, such as the striated nature of the spicules and the lateral alae were confirmed; however, the use of scanning electron microscopy resulted in a reassessment of the correct number of papillae distributed around the oral opening and behind the cloacal opening. These observations, in combination with light microscopy-based characterization of the gubernaculum and esophageal valves, have allowed a more detailed description of this nematode taxonomy. PMID:23685002

Rebello, Karina M; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Chagas-Moutinho, Vanessa A; Mota, Ester M; Perales, Jonas; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele C; Oliveira-Menezes, Aleksandra; Lenzi, Henrique

2013-09-01

52

Intermediate Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Tenerife, Spain  

PubMed Central

The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis, the main clinical manifestation of which is eosinophilic meningitis. Although this parasite has been found recently in its definitive rat host in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), showing a widespread distribution over the north-east part of the island, there are no available data regarding which snail and/or slug species are acting as intermediate hosts on this island. Consequently, the objective of this work was to determine the possible role of three mollusc species, Plutonia lamarckii, Cornu aspersum and Theba pisana, as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in Tenerife. Between 2011 and 2014, 233 molluscs were collected from five biotopes where rats had been found previously to harbor either adult worms or antibodies against A. cantonensis, and the identification was carried out on the basis of morphological features and a LAMP technique. The prevalence of A. cantonensis larvae in the mollusc samples, based on morphological identification, was 19.3%, whereas 59 out of the 98 individuals (60.2%) analyzed by LAMP were positive. Positive results were obtained for the three mollusc species analyzed and two of the positive samples, both obtained from P. lamarckii, were confirmed as positive by 18S rRNA and ITS1 PCR. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA PCR products showed 100% similarity with previously published A. cantonensis sequences. These results may be relevant from a public health point of view, since all the biotopes from which the samples were obtained were in inhabited areas or areas with human activity, but it is also important from the perspective of a possible transmission to other accidental hosts, such as dogs and horses, animals that are present in some of the areas analyzed. PMID:25803658

Martin-Alonso, Aarón; Abreu-Yanes, Estefanía; Feliu, Carlos; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, María Dolores; Valladares, Basilio; Foronda, Pilar

2015-01-01

53

SHORT COMMUNICATION Lack of evidence of paratuberculosis in wild canids  

E-print Network

animals. We hypothe- sized that wild canids could be used as sentinels for the detection of regions with higher Mycobacterium avium para- tuberculosis (MAP) prevalence in wild and domestic animals. To test, and avian influenza (Scotch et al. 2009). Wild animals can also act as indicators of diseases circulating

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

[Human angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis].  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus costaricensis was discovered by Morera and Céspedes in 1971, in a man suffering from an abdominal syndrome. Upon surgery, worms were observed in the cranial mesenteric artery. These worms were assigned to the metastrongylid strongyles and to the genus Angiostrongylus, which was already known, in man medicine, by the species A. cantonensis, the causative agent of an eosinophilic meningitis. Morera's parasite was named Angiostrongylus costaricensis from the place where it was described. A costaricensis is a dixenic parasite, the definitive hosts (D.H.) of which are the cotton-rat (Sigmodon hispidus) and some other rodents. Experimentally, carnivora (Nasua spp: procyonidae) and monkeys (Saguinus mystax: hapalidae) are receptive, same as dogs. The intermediary hosts (I.H.) are slugs belonging to the Veronicellidae family (order gymnophila), mainly Vaginulus plebeius. In the D.H., the parasite produces eggs that hatch into first stage larvae (L1), which are expelled with faeces, eaten by slugs and become infective third stage larvae (L3). L3 are then expelled through mucoïd secretions of the slug and pollute soil and vegetables. D.H. and man get infected with consuming polluted vegetables or even the infected slugs themselves. L3 migrate through lymphatic system and arrive inside the mesenteric artery, where they become adults. In man, the worm can reach this adult egg-laying stage, but larvae are trapped inside granulomas in the intestinal wall and cannot evolve. So, man is a dead-lock for A. costaricensis. Angiostrongylosis costaricensis is an illustration of an hemi-zoonosis (the parasite cannot go back from man to animals) of the biological pattern. PMID:8076197

Mojon, M

1994-04-01

55

First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the giant African land snail Achatina fulica in French Polynesia detected using the SSU rRNA gene.  

PubMed

The 5' end of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was used to determine whether 3rd larval stage Angiostrongylus cantonensis are present in populations of the giant African land snail Achatina fulica from French Polynesia. Two populations, one from Moaroa Valley, Tahiti (n=5) and the other from Haapiti Valley, Moorea (n=10), were examined. All snails from Tahiti were infected with nematodes, with parasite load ranging from 12 to 28. A total of 92 nematodes were found, of which 91 were positively identified as A. cantonensis. No nematodes were found in the snails from Moorea. We report for the first time the presence of A. cantonensis in A. fulica snails from French Polynesia, indicating a viable route of human infection of A. cantonensis in the region through the handling of A. fulica or consumption of the snail or contaminated food crops associated with the snail. PMID:23202611

Fontanilla I, K C; Wade, C M

2012-12-01

56

Nematode Songs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nematode Songs is a wonderful, straightforward resource maintained by Nematologist Kathy Merrifield of Oregon State University, who makes light of these microscopic worms and parasites. A collection of 15 titles, including such notables as "Good King Nematode," "The Golden Sun" and "The Parasitic Nematode Rag," offer clever (and nematode-ish) lyrics to familiar songs. An option to sing along is included (requires MIDI sound), and each feature includes sheet music as well as complete lyrics. For the more serious, links to scientific nematode resources are provided at the bottom of the page.

Merrifield, Kathy.

57

Abolition of peroxiredoxin-5 mitochondrial targeting during canid evolution.  

PubMed

In human, the subcellular targeting of peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5), a thioredoxin peroxidase, is dependent on the use of multiple alternative transcription start sites and two alternative in-frame translation initiation sites, which determine whether or not the region encoding a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is translated. In the present study, the abolition of PRDX5 mitochondrial targeting in dog is highlighted and the molecular mechanism underlying the loss of mitochondrial PRDX5 during evolution is examined. Here, we show that the absence of mitochondrial PRDX5 is generalized among the extant canids and that the first events leading to PRDX5 MTS abolition in canids involve a mutation in the more 5' translation initiation codon as well as the appearance of a STOP codon. Furthermore, we found that PRDX5 MTS functionality is maintained in giant panda and northern elephant seal, which are phylogenetically closely related to canids. Also, the functional consequences of the restoration of mitochondrial PRDX5 in dog Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were investigated. The restoration of PRDX5 mitochondrial targeting in MDCK cells, instead of protecting, provokes deleterious effects following peroxide exposure independently of its peroxidase activity, indicating that mitochondrial PRDX5 gains cytotoxic properties under acute oxidative stress in MDCK cells. Altogether our results show that, although mitochondrial PRDX5 cytoprotective function against oxidative stress has been clearly demonstrated in human and rodents, PRDX5 targeting to mitochondria has been evolutionary lost in canids. Moreover, restoration of mitochondrial PRDX5 in dog MDCK cells, instead of conferring protection against peroxide exposure, makes them more vulnerable. PMID:24023783

Van der Eecken, Valérie; Clippe, André; Dekoninck, Sophie; Goemaere, Julie; Walbrecq, Geoffroy; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Knoops, Bernard

2013-01-01

58

Abolition of Peroxiredoxin-5 Mitochondrial Targeting during Canid Evolution  

PubMed Central

In human, the subcellular targeting of peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5), a thioredoxin peroxidase, is dependent on the use of multiple alternative transcription start sites and two alternative in-frame translation initiation sites, which determine whether or not the region encoding a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is translated. In the present study, the abolition of PRDX5 mitochondrial targeting in dog is highlighted and the molecular mechanism underlying the loss of mitochondrial PRDX5 during evolution is examined. Here, we show that the absence of mitochondrial PRDX5 is generalized among the extant canids and that the first events leading to PRDX5 MTS abolition in canids involve a mutation in the more 5? translation initiation codon as well as the appearance of a STOP codon. Furthermore, we found that PRDX5 MTS functionality is maintained in giant panda and northern elephant seal, which are phylogenetically closely related to canids. Also, the functional consequences of the restoration of mitochondrial PRDX5 in dog Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were investigated. The restoration of PRDX5 mitochondrial targeting in MDCK cells, instead of protecting, provokes deleterious effects following peroxide exposure independently of its peroxidase activity, indicating that mitochondrial PRDX5 gains cytotoxic properties under acute oxidative stress in MDCK cells. Altogether our results show that, although mitochondrial PRDX5 cytoprotective function against oxidative stress has been clearly demonstrated in human and rodents, PRDX5 targeting to mitochondria has been evolutionary lost in canids. Moreover, restoration of mitochondrial PRDX5 in dog MDCK cells, instead of conferring protection against peroxide exposure, makes them more vulnerable. PMID:24023783

Van der Eecken, Valérie; Clippe, André; Dekoninck, Sophie; Goemaere, Julie; Walbrecq, Geoffroy; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Knoops, Bernard

2013-01-01

59

Comparative Scaling of Humeral Cross-Sections of Felids and Canids Using Radiographic Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cortical thickness of long bones can be an effective indicator of locomotor modes and other stresses encountered by bone.\\u000a Felids and canids are two carnivoran families that have similar levels of phylogenetic diversity and overlap in body size,\\u000a but differ in their locomotor habits. Many canids and felids are cursorial, but felids also climb more frequently than canids.\\u000a Felids

Julie Meachen-Samuels

2010-01-01

60

Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1-8% and 20-22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Geffen, E.; Kam, M.; Hefner, R.; Hersteinsson, P.; Angerbjorn, A.; Dalen, L.; Fuglei, E.; Noren, K.; Adams, J.R.; Vucetich, J.; Meier, T.J.; Mech, L.D.; Vonholdt, B.M.; Stahler, D.R.; Wayne, R.K.

2011-01-01

61

Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1–8% and 20–22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk.

Geffen, Eli; Kam, Michael; Hefner, Reuven; Hersteinsson, Pall; Angerbjorn, Anders; Dalen, Love; Fuglei, Eva; Noren, Karin; Adams, Jennifer R.; Vicetich, John; Meier, Thomas J.; Mech, L.D.; VonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Wayne, Robert K.

2011-01-01

62

Hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in Brazil.  

PubMed

Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids. PMID:22946419

André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

2011-06-01

63

Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids.  

PubMed

Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1-8% and 20-22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk. PMID:22077191

Geffen, Eli; Kam, Michael; Hefner, Reuven; Hersteinsson, Pall; Angerbjörn, Anders; Dalèn, Love; Fuglei, Eva; Norèn, Karin; Adams, Jennifer R; Vucetich, John; Meier, Thomas J; Mech, L D; Vonholdt, Bridgett M; Stahler, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K

2011-12-01

64

Proteolytic activity in the adult and larval stages of the human roundworm parasite Angiostrongylus costaricensis.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode that causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis, a widespread human parasitism in Latin America. This study aimed to characterize the protease profiles of different developmental stages of this helminth. First-stage larvae (L1) were obtained from the faeces of infected Sigmodon hispidus rodents and third-stage larvae (L3) were collected from mollusks Biomphalaria glabrata previously infected with L1. Adult worms were recovered from rodent mesenteric arteries. Protein extraction was performed after repeated freeze-thaw cycles followed by maceration of the nematodes in 40 mM Tris base. Proteolysis of gelatin was observed by zymography and found only in the larval stages. In L3, the gelatinolytic activity was effectively inhibited by orthophenanthroline, indicating the involvement of metalloproteases. The mechanistic class of the gelatinases from L1 could not be precisely determined using traditional class-specific inhibitors. Adult worm extracts were able to hydrolyze haemoglobin in solution, although no activity was observed by zymography. This haemoglobinolytic activity was ascribed to aspartic proteases following its effective inhibition by pepstatin, which also inhibited the haemoglobinolytic activity of L1 and L3 extracts. The characterization of protease expression throughout the A. costaricensis life cycle may reveal key factors influencing the process of parasitic infection and thus foster our understanding of the disease pathogenesis. PMID:22990964

Rebello, Karina Mastropasqua; Siqueira, Caroline Reis de; Ribeiro, Erika Louise; Valente, Richard Hemmi; Mota, Ester Maria; Perales, Jonas; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele da Costa; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel

2012-09-01

65

First record of angiostrongylus cantonensis in Cuba.  

PubMed

The occurrence of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in several localities of Havana, Cuba, prompted a search for the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in the same localities. Twenty rats (Rattus norvegicus) and about 370 terrestrial mollusks (70 slugs, Veronicella cubensis, and about 300 snails, mostly Bradybaena similaris) were collected in six communities of the Province of Havana, and in the gardens of the Pedro Kouri Institute for Tropical Medicine in Havana City. Adult lungworms were found in 12 of the rats and larvae were recovered from a large number of pooled lots of the mollusks. Observations on the morphology and life history of the parasites confirmed the presence of A. cantonensis in the American region. PMID:7283015

Aguiar, P H; Morera, P; Pascual, J

1981-09-01

66

PCR-Based Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Tissue and Mucus Secretions from Molluscan Hosts?  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a common cause of human eosinophilic meningitis. Recent outbreaks of this infection have shown that there is a need to determine the distribution of this nematode in the environment in order to control transmission. A. cantonensis is generally identified morphologically in the molluscan intermediate host by microscopic examination, which can be labor-intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a PCR-based method to detect A. cantonensis directly from molluscan tissue. A total of 34 Parmarion cf. martensi (Simroth) semislugs, 25 of which were naturally infected with A. cantonensis, were used to develop this assay. Tissue pieces (approximately 25 mg) were digested with pepsin-HCl to recover third-stage larvae for morphological identification or were used for DNA extraction. PCR primers were designed to amplify 1,134 bp from the Angiostrongylus 18S rRNA gene, and the amplicons produced were sequenced for identification at the species level. Both microscopy and the PCR-DNA sequencing analysis indicated that the same 25 semislugs were positive for A. cantonensis, showing that the two methods were equally sensitive and specific for this application. However, morphological detection requires access to living mollusks, whereas molecular analysis can also be performed with frozen tissue. The PCR-DNA sequencing method was further evaluated using tissue from Veronicella cubensis (Pfeiffer) slugs and mucus secretions from infected P. martensi. To our knowledge, this is the first use of a PCR-based method to confirm the presence of A. cantonensis in mollusks collected in the environment. PMID:17194836

Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Sullivan, James J.; Bishop, Henry S.; Hollingsworth, Robert; da Silva, Alexandre J.

2007-01-01

67

The 31-kDa antigen of Angiostrongylus cantonensis comprises distinct antigenic glycoproteins.  

PubMed

Human angiostrongyliasis results from accidental infection with Angiostrongylus, an intra-arterial nematode. Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections result in eosinophilic meningitis, and A. costaricensis infections cause eosinophilic enteritis. Immunological methodologies are critical to the diagnosis of both infections, since these parasites cannot be isolated from fecal matter and are rarely found in cerebrospinal fluid samples. A. costaricensis and A. cantonensis share common antigenic epitopes which elicit antibodies that recognize proteins present in either species. Detection of antibodies to a 31-kDa A. cantonensis protein present in crude adult worm extracts is a sensitive and specific method for immunodiagnosis of cerebral angiostrongyliasis. The objective of the present work was to isolate and characterize the 31-kDa proteins using soluble protein extracts derived from adult female worms using both one- (1DE) and two-dimensional (2DE) gel electrophoresis. Separated proteins were blotted onto nitrocellulose and probed using sera from infected and non-infected controls. The 31-kDa band present in 1DE gels and the 4 spots identified in 2DE gels were excised and analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Using the highest scores obtained following Mascot analysis, amino acid sequences were obtained that matched four unique proteins: tropomyosin, the 14-3-3 phosphoserine-binding protein, a protein containing a nascent polypeptide-associated complex domain, and the putative epsilon subunit of coatomer protein complex isoform 2. Oxidative cleavage of diols using sodium m-periodate demonstrated that carbohydrate moieties are essential for the antigenicity of all four spots of the 31-kDa antigen. In this article we describe the identification of the 31-kDa antigen, and provide DNA sequencing of the targets. In conclusion, these data suggest that reactivity to the 31-kDa proteins may represent antibody recognition of more than one protein, and recombinant protein-based assays for cerebral angiostrongyliasis diagnosis may require eukaryotic expression systems to maintain antigenicity. PMID:22925026

Morassutti, Alessandra L; Levert, Keith; Perelygin, Andrey; da Silva, Alexandre J; Wilkins, Patricia; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

2012-11-01

68

The 31-kDa Antigen of Angiostrongylus cantonensis Comprises Distinct Antigenic Glycoproteins  

PubMed Central

Abstract Human angiostrongyliasis results from accidental infection with Angiostrongylus, an intra-arterial nematode. Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections result in eosinophilic meningitis, and A. costaricensis infections cause eosinophilic enteritis. Immunological methodologies are critical to the diagnosis of both infections, since these parasites cannot be isolated from fecal matter and are rarely found in cerebrospinal fluid samples. A. costaricensis and A. cantonensis share common antigenic epitopes which elicit antibodies that recognize proteins present in either species. Detection of antibodies to a 31-kDa A. cantonensis protein present in crude adult worm extracts is a sensitive and specific method for immunodiagnosis of cerebral angiostrongyliasis. The objective of the present work was to isolate and characterize the 31-kDa proteins using soluble protein extracts derived from adult female worms using both one- (1DE) and two-dimensional (2DE) gel electrophoresis. Separated proteins were blotted onto nitrocellulose and probed using sera from infected and non-infected controls. The 31-kDa band present in 1DE gels and the 4 spots identified in 2DE gels were excised and analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Using the highest scores obtained following Mascot analysis, amino acid sequences were obtained that matched four unique proteins: tropomyosin, the 14-3-3 phosphoserine-binding protein, a protein containing a nascent polypeptide-associated complex domain, and the putative epsilon subunit of coatomer protein complex isoform 2. Oxidative cleavage of diols using sodium m-periodate demonstrated that carbohydrate moieties are essential for the antigenicity of all four spots of the 31-kDa antigen. In this article we describe the identification of the 31-kDa antigen, and provide DNA sequencing of the targets. In conclusion, these data suggest that reactivity to the 31-kDa proteins may represent antibody recognition of more than one protein, and recombinant protein-based assays for cerebral angiostrongyliasis diagnosis may require eukaryotic expression systems to maintain antigenicity. PMID:22925026

Levert, Keith; Perelygin, Andrey; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Wilkins, Patricia; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

2012-01-01

69

The interrelationships of chromosome banding patterns in canids, mustelids, hyena, and felids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The G-banding patterns of six canids, four mustelids, one hyena, and 12 felids have been studied, and data from the study of 30 felids are summarized. The canids are karyotypically very similar to one another, but minor differences have tentatively been identified. The mustelids show the greatest karyotypic diversity of all the carnivore families so far studied. They do display,

D. H. Wurster-Hill; W. R. Centerwall

1982-01-01

70

Low seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild canids in Israel.  

PubMed

The role of domestic dogs in the epidemiology of Neospora caninum as well as the relationship between N. caninum infection of farm dogs and cattle were demonstrated, however, evidence is scarce regarding the role of wild canids in domestic animal neosporosis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of wild canids in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis in Israel by analyzing the prevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in wild canids. Sera samples were collected from 114 free ranging wild golden jackals (Canis aureus), 24 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and nine wolves (Canis lupus), which were collected in Israel during the years 1999-2004. Of a total of 147 wild canids tested antibodies to N. caninum were only found in two golden jackals with IFAT titers of 1:50, and in one red fox and one wolf with IFAT titer of 1:400. The low seroprevalence found in this study (2.7%) indicated that wild canids probably do not have an important role in the epidemiology of N. caninum in Israel. However, since the diet of different species of wild canids and even diverse populations of the same canid species vary, it is possible that other results might be obtained from specific wild canids populations, which scavenge in the vicinity of infected bovines. PMID:16436314

Steinman, A; Shpigel, N Y; Mazar, S; King, R; Baneth, G; Savitsky, I; Shkap, V

2006-04-15

71

Respiratory and olfactory turbinal size in canid and arctoid carnivorans  

PubMed Central

Within the nasal cavity of mammals is a complex scaffold of paper-thin bones that function in respiration and olfaction. Known as turbinals, the bones greatly enlarge the surface area available for conditioning inspired air, reducing water loss, and improving olfaction. Given their functional significance, the relative development of turbinal bones might be expected to differ among species with distinct olfactory, thermoregulatory and/or water conservation requirements. Here we explore the surface area of olfactory and respiratory turbinals relative to latitude and diet in terrestrial Caniformia, a group that includes the canid and arctoid carnivorans (mustelids, ursids, procyonids, mephitids, ailurids). Using high-resolution computed tomography x-ray scans, we estimated respiratory and olfactory turbinal surface area and nasal chamber volume from three-dimensional virtual models of skulls. Across the Caniformia, respiratory surface area scaled isometrically with estimates of body size and there was no significant association with climate, as estimated by latitude. Nevertheless, one-on-one comparisons of sister taxa suggest that arctic species may have expanded respiratory turbinals. Olfactory surface area scaled isometrically among arctoids, but showed positive allometry in canids, reflecting the fact that larger canids, all of which are carnivorous, had relatively greater olfactory surface areas. In addition, among the arctoids, large carnivorous species such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and wolverine (Gulo gulo) also displayed enlarged olfactory turbinals. More omnivorous caniform species that feed on substantial quantities of non-vertebrate foods had less expansive olfactory turbinals. Because large carnivorous species hunt widely dispersed prey, an expanded olfactory turbinal surface area may improve a carnivore's ability to detect prey over great distances using olfactory cues. PMID:23035637

Green, Patrick A; Valkenburgh, Blaire; Pang, Benison; Bird, Deborah; Rowe, Timothy; Curtis, Abigail

2012-01-01

72

Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii exposure in captive wild canids in Brazil.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Wild canids are potential hosts for numerous species of Bartonella, yet little research has been done to quantify their infection rates in South America. We sought to investigate Bartonella seroprevalence in captive wild canids from 19 zoos in São Paulo and Mato Grosso states, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 97 wild canids belonging to four different native species and three European wolves (Canis lupus). Indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing was performed to detect the presence of B. henselae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. rochalimae. Overall, Bartonella antibodies were detected in 11 of the canids, including five (12·8%) of 39 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three (11·1%) of 27 bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), two (8·7%) of 23 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and one (12·5%) of eight hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), with titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:512. Knowing that many species of canids make excellent reservoir hosts for Bartonella, and that there is zoonotic potential for all Bartonella spp. tested for, it will be important to conduct further research in non-captive wild canids to gain an accurate understanding of Bartonella infection in free-ranging wild canids in South America. PMID:24892580

Fleischman, D A; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; André, M R; Gonçalves, L R; Machado, R Z

2015-02-01

73

Angiostrongylus costaricensis in a black-eared marmoset.  

PubMed

A case of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in a captive C. penicillata in a German zoological garden is described. Clinical symptoms were lacking, the morphological lesions consisted of intestinal granulomas harbouring rhabdidiform larvae. The adult worms were present in the ileo-caecal branches of the mesenteric artery. PMID:7483006

Brack, M; Schröpel, M

1995-01-01

74

Angiostrongylus cantonensis: Proof of Direct Transmission with Its Epidemiological Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infective larvae of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, presumed cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, are shed in mucus exuded by naturally infected Malayan slugs (Microparmarion malayanus). Larvae passed by slug hosts were recovered from lettuce and produced normal infection in white rats. Lettuce sold in the local public market also yielded small numbers of infective larvae. Experimental evidence from rats

Donald Heyneman; Boo-Liat Lim

1967-01-01

75

Genetic diversity of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the major cause of eosinophilic meningitis.  

PubMed

Various aspects of the genetics of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, are reviewed. This nematode has an XX/XO sex-determination mechanism, with the female having a 2n = 12 (XX) and the male 2n = 11 (XO) chromosome constitution. Allozymes (12 loci) exhibit a low proportion of polymorphic loci (P = .08) and low mean heterozygosity (H = 0.43) in specimens from Hawa'i, and no polymorphism or heterozygosity in specimens from Thailand. The phosphoglucomutase-2 (PGM-2) locus exhibits sex-limited expression, with no detectable enzyme activity in the male worms from either location. Based on the 12 allozyme loci, Nei's genetic distance between the Hawa'i and Thailand isolates is D = 0.03. The p-distance (proportion of nucleotide sites) based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is 3.61% between the Thailand and China isolates as well as between Thailand and Hawa'i isolates, and 0.83% between China and Hawa'i isolates. The partial DNA sequences of the 66 kDa protein gene show a great diversity of haplotypes, indicating both inter- and intra-population variation. Intra-specific sequence variation is also found in the internal transcribed spacer regions. For the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, two distinct genotypes have been recorded. PMID:23901375

Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik Eem; Yong, Hoi Sen

2013-06-01

76

Genetic Diversity of the Rat Lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Major Cause of Eosinophilic Meningitis  

PubMed Central

Various aspects of the genetics of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, are reviewed. This nematode has an XX/XO sex-determination mechanism, with the female having a 2n = 12 (XX) and the male 2n = 11 (XO) chromosome constitution. Allozymes (12 loci) exhibit a low proportion of polymorphic loci (P = .08) and low mean heterozygosity (H = 0.43) in specimens from Hawa‘i, and no polymorphism or heterozygosity in specimens from Thailand. The phosphoglucomutase-2 (PGM-2) locus exhibits sex-limited expression, with no detectable enzyme activity in the male worms from either location. Based on the 12 allozyme loci, Nei's genetic distance between the Hawa‘i and Thailand isolates is D = 0.03. The p-distance (proportion of nucleotide sites) based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is 3.61% between the Thailand and China isolates as well as between Thailand and Hawa‘i isolates, and 0.83% between China and Hawa‘i isolates. The partial DNA sequences of the 66 kDa protein gene show a great diversity of haplotypes, indicating both inter- and intra-population variation. Intra-specifc sequence variation is also found in the internal transcribed spacer regions. For the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, two distinct genotypes have been recorded. PMID:23901375

Lim, Phaik Eem; Yong, Hoi Sen

2013-01-01

77

Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae): migration route in experimental infection of Omalonyx sp. (Gastropoda: Succineidae).  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus costaricensis can infect several mollusks, and its migration route in intermediate hosts has been studied only in Sarasinula marginata. To verify the susceptibility of Omalonyx sp. as an intermediate host of A. costaricensis and to analyze the nematode migration route, individuals were infected with stage 1 larvae. Obtained stage 3 larvae were orally inoculated in mice, and after 30 days, adult worms and stage 1 larvae were recovered, demonstrating Omalonyx susceptibility and suitability to infection. To define the parasite migration routes, specimens of Omalonyx with 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 2 days, 5 days, 10 days, 12 days, 15 days, 20 days, 21 days, 25 days, 28 days, and 30 days of infection were fixed and serially sectioned. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The results were compared to those described in S. marginata. Oral and cutaneous infections were noted. After the penetration, larvae were retained, mainly in the fibromuscular tissue, by hemocytes, or they spread to the whole organism through the circulation, following the anatomical structure of the vasculature. The perilarval hemocyte reaction in Omalonyx was more intense until stage 2 larva instar, decreasing in the presence of stage 3 larvae. Differences in some aspects of hemocyte reaction between S. marginata and Omalonyx exemplify interspecific peculiarities in snail response to the same parasite. PMID:18712530

Montresor, Lângia C; Vidigal, Teofânia H D A; Mendonça, Cristiane L G F; Fernandes, André A; de Souza, Karyne N; Carvalho, Omar S; Caputo, Luzia F G; Mota, Ester M; Lenzi, Henrique L

2008-11-01

78

The Discovery of Humans in Hawa‘i Infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and Early Epidemiological Findings  

PubMed Central

An epidemic of eosinophilic meningitis occurred in Hawa‘i in 1958, and was presumed to have been caused by a parasitic infection. There were no fatal cases and the source of the infection was not known. In the course of investigating the epidemic, it was learned that two patients who had died at the State Mental Hospital on O‘ahu in December 1959 and January 1960 had eosinophilic meningitis. The preserved brain of one patient yielded a number of young adult nematodes identified as Angiostrongylus cantonensis; the other contained possible nematode remnants.1 Surveys of rats around the State Mental Hospital showed that 23% were positive for A. cantonensis, and, knowing that the life cycle of this parasite involved snails as intermediate hosts, it seemed likely that the two patients had eaten snails.1 Was this parasite also the cause of the thousands of cases of eosinophilic meningitis then recently reported in French Polynesia? Surveys of rats in the Society Islands showed them to be heavily infected with A. cantonensis,2 and while snails were not eaten raw in the Society Islands, freshwater prawns, which can act as paratenic hosts, were eaten raw and were thought to be the source of infection.3 Fish were also suggested as possible paratenic hosts that might provide a pathway for human infection.4 Infected rats were found on many other Pacific islands and cases of eosinophilic meningitis had been reported from some of them. No cases were found on islands where the parasite was absent, consistent with A. cantonensis as the etiological agent.1,3 This early epidemiological research established the association between the presence of rat lungworm (A. cantonensis) and cases of human eosinophilic meningitis.

2013-01-01

79

A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids.  

PubMed

One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (Canis latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical "less/more" discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber's Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family - one domesticated, and one wild - make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition. Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given nine trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs' performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes' performance on this same task reported by Baker et al. (2011). The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar non-verbal quantitative abilities across multiple species. PMID:23060847

Baker, Joseph M; Morath, Justice; Rodzon, Katrina S; Jordan, Kerry E

2012-01-01

80

Canid Mating Systems, Social Behavior, Parental Care and Ontogeny: Are they Flexible?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benson Ginsburg’s early studies of canid socialization and wolf social and reproductive behavior were focused, in part, on\\u000a the degree to which there was flexibility in social development and specifically whether there was a critical period during\\u000a development after which wolf pups could not be socialized to humans. My focus was the degree to which differences in canid\\u000a ecology and

Devra G. Kleiman

81

[Intestinal perforation by Angiostrongylus costaricensis. A report of 2 cases].  

PubMed

Two cases of abdominal angiostronylosis with terminal ileum perforation are reported. The first two cases diagnosed in Panama of a well established eosinophilic granulomatous process which affects mostly children in Costa Rica. The parasite Angiostrongylus costaricensis has been demonstrated in cases with a geographic range, from Mexico down to Brazil. The parasite has been found in rodents in Panama (Sigmodon hispidus and Rattus rattus) with an still pending further epidemiological and serological studies in order to determine the true disease morbidity. PMID:1620898

Sánchez, G A

1992-05-01

82

Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in Cuba, caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Five cases of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis presumed to be caused by the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, are reported from localities in or near Havana, Cuba. The first typical case occurred in 1973. Lungworms identified as A. cantonensis were found in rats from the same localities. The clinical picture in the Cuban cases, as in cases from other countries, is that of a self-limiting disease without apparent sequelae. PMID:7283014

Pascual, J E; Bouli, R P; Aguiar, H

1981-09-01

83

Infectious diseases in Yellowstone’s canid community  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Each summer Yellowstone Wolf Project staff visit den sites to monitor the success of wolf reproduction and pup rearing behavior. For the purposes of wolf monitoring, Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is divided into two study areas, the northern range and the interior, each distinguished by their ecological and physiographical differences. The 1,000 square kilometer northern range, characterized by lower elevations (1,500–2,200 m), serves as prime winter habitat for ungulates and supports a higher density of wolves than the interior (20–99 wolves/1,000 km2 versus 2–11 wolves/1,000 km2). The interior of the park encompasses 7,991 square kilometers, is higher in elevation, receives higher annual snowfall, and generally supports lower densities of wolves and ungulates. During the Yellowstone Wolf Project’s 2005 observations on the northern range, researchers noticed that some wolf pups were disappearing and those that remained were unusually listless. The Slough Creek pups, at first numbering 18, dwindled to three survivors. Similar findings were mirrored at other den sites across the northern range. When annual den surveys were conducted in late July, all that remained were scattered piles of bones and fur. Coyotes suffered similar setbacks in 2005, with many of the survivors exhibiting neurological shakes and tremors. The park’s canids had been affected by something, but what? Prompted by what seemed to be a disease outbreak, the Yellowstone Wolf Project, the Yellowstone Ecological Research Center (YERC), and the University of Minnesota decided to take several collaborative approaches toward improving our understanding of the presence and role of infectious disease in Yellowstone’s canid community. Several serological studies have been conducted in the past among the park’s coyotes (Gese et al. 1997) and cougars (Biek 2006), providing a helpful foundation on which to build and compare. A serological survey was conducted, using serum samples collected during routine wolf and coyote captures over a period of 18 years (Almberg et al. 2009). Simulation models were used to explore the dynamics of canine distemper virus (Almberg et al. 2010)—one of the more prominent pathogens in terms of its effects on its hosts—and several long-term pathogen surveillance projects were initiated which are intended to someday provide a foundation for more advanced genetic-based analyses of pathogen dynamics. Since these initial efforts, the group has also expanded the research to include a study of sarcoptic mange, which began affecting wolves and coyotes in YNP in 2006 and 2007.

Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Doug W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.

2011-01-01

84

Heterochromatin composition and nucleolus organizer activity in four canid species.  

PubMed

Sequential staining with a counterstain-contrasted fluorescent banding technique (chromomycin A3-distamycin A-DAPI) revealed the occurrence of distamycin A-4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DA-DAPI) staining heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of chromosomes 33, 36, 37, and 38 in the wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) and of chromosomes 13, 16, and 23 in the blue fox (Alopex lagopus). The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) lacked such regions. Staining with DAPI--actinomycin D produced a QFH-type banding pattern with clearcut differences in the staining behaviour of DA-DAPI positive regions between these three canid species. Staining with the fluorochrome D 287/170 did not preferentially highlight any of the DA-DAPI positive regions in any of them. Counterstain-enhanced chromomycin A3 R-banding and studies of nucleolus organizer region location and activity confirmed a close relationship between the karyotype of the wolf and the domestic dog. Few heterochromatic marker bands were encountered in these two species, but heterochromatin polymorphism was evident in the blue fox. PMID:3801970

Mayr, B; Geber, G; Auer, H; Kalat, M; Schleger, W

1986-10-01

85

The evolution of South American endemic canids: a history of rapid diversification and morphological parallelism.  

PubMed

The origin of endemic South American canid fauna has been traditionally linked with the rise of the Isthmus of Panama, suggesting that diversification of the dog fauna on this continent occurred very rapidly. Nevertheless, despite its obvious biogeographic appeal, the tempo of Canid evolution in South America has never been studied thoroughly. This issue can be suitably tackled with the inference of a molecular timescale. In this study, using a relaxed molecular clock method, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of South American canids lived around 4 Ma, whereas all other splits within the clade occurred after the rise of the Panamanian land bridge. We suggest that the early diversification of the ancestors of the two main lineages of South American canids may have occurred in North America, before the Great American Interchange. Moreover, a concatenated morphological and molecular analysis put some extinct canid species well within the South American radiation, and shows that the dental adaptations to hypercarnivory evolved only once in the South American clade. PMID:20002250

Perini, F A; Russo, C A M; Schrago, C G

2010-02-01

86

Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi in wild canids from South Carolina.  

PubMed

Wild canids are reservoir hosts for Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi. The present study examined the prevalence of antibodies to these zoonotic parasites in a population of wild canids from a nonagricultural setting in South Carolina. Sera from 26 gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and 2 coyotes (Canis latrans) were examined for antibodies to L. infantum and T. cruzi using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test and commercially available parasite-specific immunochromatigraphic strip assays. Antibodies to L. infantum were not detected by either assay in gray foxes or coyotes. Two (8%) of 26 gray foxes were positive in both the T. cruzi immunofluorescent antibody and strip assays. Antibodies to T. cruzi were not detected in coyotes. Results from this study indicate that wild canids are exposed to T. cruzi, but not L. infantum. in this geographic region. PMID:17918387

Rosypal, Alexa C; Tidwell, Richard R; Lindsay, David S

2007-08-01

87

Seroprevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Wild Rodents from the Canary Islands  

PubMed Central

Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a lungworm of rats (Muridae) that is the causative agent of human cerebral angiostrongyliasis. The life cycle of A. cantonensis involves rats and mollusks as the definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. This study was designed to increase the knowledge about the occurrence and distribution of A. cantonensis in its definitive host in the Canary Islands, using parasitological and serological analysis in different areas and age groups. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2009 and 2010, 54 black rats (Rattus rattus) from Tenerife were captured from six human-inhabited areas and sera samples were obtained. The lung nematodes were identified by morphological and molecular tools as A. cantonensis. The 31-kDa glycoprotein antigen was purified from A. cantonensis adult worms by electrophoresis and electroelution. Of the 54 tested rodents, 30 showed IgG antibodies against A. cantonensis 31-kDa antigen by ELISA. Therefore, the overall seroprevalence was 55.6% (95% CI: 42.4–68). Seroprevalent rodents were found in all the 6 areas. This 31-kDa antigen was not recognized by some sera of rats infected by other helminth species (but not A. cantonensis). Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against A. cantonensis and prevalence based on the presence of adult worms showed significant correlation (R2?=?0.954, p<0.05). Conclusions/Significance The present results could indicate a high prevalence of A. cantonensis in Tenerife and suggest the inclusion of two new zones in the distribution area of the parasite. The commonness and wide distribution of A. cantonensis in rats implies the presence of intermediate hosts, indicating that humans may be at risk of getting infected. PMID:22110752

Martin-Alonso, Aarón; Foronda, Pilar; Quispe-Ricalde, María Antonieta; Feliu, Carlos; Valladares, Basilio

2011-01-01

88

An investigation of palaeodietary variability in European Pleistocene canids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal and interspecific dietary variability were investigated in three canid taxa, Canis lupus, Canis mosbachensis and Canis etruscus, across a range of British and mainland European wolf assemblages from the Early Pleistocene to Recent periods. Using established cranio-dental indicators to reveal dietary specialisations towards bone eating, flesh slicing, and non-flesh food crushing, inferences were made concerning the proportions of flesh to non-flesh foods in the diet, and hence the level of carnivory adopted by each taxon. Significant temporal differences were found in the diet and frequency of tooth wear of C. lupus from MIS 3, 5a and 7 in Britain. Relative body size comparisons based on lower carnassial length also revealed variation in body size for the Pleistocene age groups, correlating with differences in diet. Stepwise Discriminant Function Analyses revealed large-bodied MIS 5a C. lupus to be hypercarnivorous and specialised in fast flesh slicing and to some extent bone consumption, whereas relatively smaller-bodied MIS 3 and 7 C. lupus were both less carnivorous and more specialised in crushing non-meat foods. Modern wolves from central Sweden are smaller than those of MIS 5a and hypercarnivorous, although with greater specialisation towards crushing of non-meat foods. Temporal variations in diet were related to changes in prey diversity, competition from other carnivores, openness of the environment, and ultimately climate, and reflect the cranio-dental plasticity of C. lupus. In contrast, no temporal differences in diet were found in age groups of C. mosbachensis and C. etruscus, which may relate to more stable overall conditions in comparison to the later Pleistocene. The cranio-dental characteristics of the smaller-bodied mesocarnivore C. etruscus indicate adaptations to non-meat food crushing, whereas in the similarly small C. mosbachensis, enhanced flesh slicing capabilities and reduced crushing abilities indicate that it was more carnivorous than C. etruscus. C. etruscus and C. mosbachensis were both more specialised than C. lupus.

Flower, Lucy O. H.; Schreve, Danielle C.

2014-07-01

89

[Helminthofauna of wild canids in Azerbaijan and ways of its formation].  

PubMed

The complete list of helminthes parasitizing canids in Azerbaijan is given; ways of formation of the canids' helminthofauna in Azerbaijan are reconstructed. As a result of our study, 42 helminth species were recorded; 25 of them parasitize jackals, 16 parasitize wolfs, and 39 species were found in foxes. The helminthofauna includes 5 species of Trematoda, 14 species of Cestoda, 1 species of Acanthocephala, and 22 species of Nematoda. By the life cycle, 32 species belong to biohelminthes and 10 species are geohelminthes. PMID:21874846

Fataliev, G G

2011-01-01

90

Angiostrongylus cantonensis: proof of direct transmission with its epidemiological implications.  

PubMed

Infective larvae of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, presumed cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, are shed in mucus exuded by naturally infected Malayan slugs (Microparmarion malayanus). Larvae passed by slug hosts were recovered from lettuce and produced normal infection in white rats. Lettuce sold in the local public market also yielded small numbers of infective larvae. Experimental evidence from rats suggests that the local human population, exposed to repeated low-level infections, may become immunized against the rare massive exposure and against clinical disease that might otherwise result after ingestion of heavily infected raw mollusks. PMID:6054485

Heyneman, D; Lim, B L

1967-11-01

91

Cryopreservation of Angiostrongylus cantonensis third-stage larvae.  

PubMed

An optimum protocol for the cryopreservation of third-stage larvae (L3) of Angiostrongylus cantonensis was determined by: (i) use of different dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) concentrations; (ii) use of different FBS concentrations in RPMI-1640 medium; and (iii) variation in the thawing temperature. Studies showed that with concentrations of DMSO at 4.8% and FBS at 40% and a thawing temperature of 43 degrees C, L3 survival assessed by motility was highest at 56%. The infectivity of the cryopreserved L3 of A. cantonensis was 20% compared to controls obtained from slugs. PMID:8288855

Mahajan, R K; Renapurkar, D M

1993-09-01

92

Recovery of Angiostrongylus cantonensis from cerebrospinal fluid of a child with eosinophilic meningitis.  

PubMed Central

Viable Angiostrongylus cantonensis was recovered from the cerebrospinal fluid of a 17-month-old boy with eosinophilic meningitis. Neurological findings were minimal, and the child had an uneventful recovery. PMID:479360

Kuberski, T; Bart, R D; Briley, J M; Rosen, L

1979-01-01

93

Survey of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and giant African land snails in Phitsanulok province, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo survey the Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) or the rat lungworm in a rat, definitive host, and in a giant African land snail (Achatina fulica), the intermediate host, in Phitsanulok, Thailand.

Apichat Vitta; Raxsina polseela; Seangchai Nateeworanart; Muncharee Tattiyapong

2011-01-01

94

The evolutionary dynamics of canid and mongoose rabies virus in Southern Africa.  

PubMed

Two variants of rabies virus (RABV) currently circulate in southern Africa: canid RABV, mainly associated with dogs, jackals, and bat-eared foxes, and mongoose RABV. To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of these variants, we performed coalescent-based analyses of the G-L inter-genic region, allowing for rate variation among viral lineages through the use of a relaxed molecular clock. This revealed that mongoose RABV is evolving more slowly than canid RABV, with mean evolutionary rates of 0.826 and 1.676 x 10(-3) nucleotide substitutions per site, per year, respectively. Additionally, mongoose RABV exhibits older genetic diversity than canid RABV, with common ancestors dating to 73 and 30 years, respectively, and while mongoose RABV has experienced exponential population growth over its evolutionary history in Africa, populations of canid RABV have maintained a constant size. Hence, despite circulating in the same geographic region, these two variants of RABV exhibit striking differences in evolutionary dynamics which are likely to reflect differences in their underlying ecology. PMID:17401615

Davis, P L; Rambaut, A; Bourhy, H; Holmes, E C

2007-01-01

95

Hunting behaviour of a sympatric felid and canid in relation to vegetative cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnivore foraging behaviour is suited for hunting in specific vegetative cover types and therefore is largely stereotypical within taxonomic families. Felids typically employ dense cover to stalk or ambush prey, whereas canids do not make use of vegetation when hunting. Sympatric lynx, Lynx canadensis, and coyotes, Canis latrans, were tracked in snow for three winters and hunting behaviour in relation

Dennis L. Murray; Stan Boutin; Mark O'Donoghue; Vilis O. Nams

1995-01-01

96

Identification and characterisation of microRNAs in young adults of Angiostrongylus cantonensis via a deep-sequencing approach  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an important causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that participate in a wide range of biological processes. This study employed a deep-sequencing approach to study miRNAs from young adults of A. cantonensis. Based on 16,880,456 high-quality reads, 252 conserved mature miRNAs including 10 antisense miRNAs that belonging to 90 families, together with 10 antisense miRNAs were identified and characterised. Among these sequences, 53 miRNAs from 25 families displayed 50 or more reads. The conserved miRNA families were divided into four groups according to their phylogenetic distribution and a total of nine families without any members showing homology to other nematodes or adult worms were identified. Stem-loop real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of aca-miR-1-1 and aca-miR-71-1 demonstrated that their level of expression increased dramatically from infective larvae to young adults and then decreased in adult worms, with the male worms exhibiting significantly higher levels of expression than female worms. These findings provide information related to the regulation of gene expression during the growth, development and pathogenesis of young adults of A. cantonensis. PMID:24037191

Chang, Shih-Hsin; Tang, Petrus; Lai, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Wang, Lian-Chen

2013-01-01

97

Effects of Washing Produce Contaminated with the Snail and Slug Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis with Three Common Household Solutions  

PubMed Central

The emerging infectious disease angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease) is caused by ingesting snails and slugs infected by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The definitive hosts of A. cantonensis are rats and the obligatory intermediate hosts are slugs and snails. Many cases result from accidentally ingesting infected snails or slugs on produce (eg, lettuce). This study assessed three readily available household products as washing solutions for removing snails and slugs from produce (romaine lettuce) to lower the probability of accidentally ingesting them. The solutions were acetic acid (vinegar), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), and sodium chloride (domestic salt). Snail and slug species known to be intermediate hosts and that are common in the Hawaiian Islands were used in the experiments: the alien snail Succinea tenella, the alien semi-slug Parmarion martensi, and the alien slugs Veronicella cubensis and Deroceras laeve. None of the products was any more effective than washing and rinsing with tap water alone. Most snails and slugs were removed after treatment but some remained on the lettuce even after washing and rinsing the produce. Only washing, rinsing, and then rinsing each leaf individually resulted in complete removal of all snails and slugs. The study did not address removal of any remaining slime left by the snails and slugs, nor did it address killing of worms. PMID:23901391

Yeung, Norine W; Hayes, Kenneth A

2013-01-01

98

Effects of washing produce contaminated with the snail and slug hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis with three common household solutions.  

PubMed

The emerging infectious disease angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease) is caused by ingesting snails and slugs infected by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The definitive hosts of A. cantonensis are rats and the obligatory intermediate hosts are slugs and snails. Many cases result from accidentally ingesting infected snails or slugs on produce (eg, lettuce). This study assessed three readily available household products as washing solutions for removing snails and slugs from produce (romaine lettuce) to lower the probability of accidentally ingesting them. The solutions were acetic acid (vinegar), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), and sodium chloride (domestic salt). Snail and slug species known to be intermediate hosts and that are common in the Hawaiian Islands were used in the experiments: the alien snail Succinea tenella, the alien semi-slug Parmarion martensi, and the alien slugs Veronicella cubensis and Deroceras laeve. None of the products was any more effective than washing and rinsing with tap water alone. Most snails and slugs were removed after treatment but some remained on the lettuce even after washing and rinsing the produce. Only washing, rinsing, and then rinsing each leaf individually resulted in complete removal of all snails and slugs. The study did not address removal of any remaining slime left by the snails and slugs, nor did it address killing of worms. PMID:23901391

Yeung, Norine W; Hayes, Kenneth A; Cowie, Robert H

2013-06-01

99

Kinetics of eosinophil and IgE-mast cell changes following infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Human abdominal angiostrongyliasis is a severe eosinophilic disease caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis. Previous studies have demonstrated that wild rodents are critically involved as definitive hosts to this nematode in nature. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) to A. costaricensis infection. Kinetics of parasitological and pathological changes, including the number of adult worms recovered from mesenteric arteries, and of IgE, mast cell and eosinophil levels in several compartments have been assessed. The oral inoculation of third-stage larvae (L3) into adult Wistar rats led to a marked accumulation of worms in the branches of the mesenteric arteries 25 and 50 days post-inoculation. Intense bone marrow eosinophilia ranging from 7 to 50 days was accompanied by marked accumulation of eosinophils in the blood, peritoneal and bronchoalveolar spaces. Eosinophilic periarteritis, oedema and granuloma in the intestinal and lung tissues were also histologically evident. Total serum IgE and specific anti-parasite IgE peaked at 25 days post-infection, as measured by ELISA and by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test, respectively. At that time point, there was a drastic reduction in the number of intact mast cells in the peritoneal effluent. These findings indicate that Wistar rats are permissive to A. costaricensis infection. IgE-mast cell activation and massive tissue eosinophil infiltration are marked features in the process and are likely to play a crucial role in the immune-response evoked by this parasite. PMID:12911525

Serra, M F; Barreto, E O; Silva, J P; Azevedo, V; Mota, E M; Pelajo-Machado, M; Lucena, S; Pires, A L A; Carvalho, V; Cordeiro, R S B; Lenzi, H L; Silva, P M R; Martins, M A

2003-03-01

100

Treatment with mebendazole is not associated with distal migration of adult Angiostrongylus costaricensis in the murine experimental infection.  

PubMed

Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is a zoonotic infection produced by a metastrongylid intra-arterial nematode, Angiostrongylus costaricensis. Human accidental infection may result in abdominal lesions and treatment with anti-helminthics is contra-indicated because of potential higher morbidity with excitement or death of worms inside vessels. To evaluate the effect of mebendazole on localization of the worms, male Swiss mice, 5 week-old, were infected with 10 third stage larvae per animal. Twelve infected mice were treated with oral mebendazol, at 5 mg/kg/day, for 5 consecutive days, begining 22 days after inoculation. As control groups, 12 infected but non-treated mice and other 12 non-infected and non-treated mice were studied. The findings at necropsy were, respectively for the treated (T) and control (C) groups: 92% and 80% of the worms were inside the cecal mesenteric arterial branch; 8% and 10% were located inside the aorta. Only in the group C some worms (10%) were found inside the portal vein or splenic artery. These data indicate that treatment with mebendazole does not lead to distal or ectopic migration of A. costaricensis worms. PMID:15141273

Mentz, Márcia Bohrer; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Garrido, Cinara Tentardini

2004-01-01

101

First report of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Hepatozoon from a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from West Virginia, USA.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus vasorum was identified in the lungs of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from West Virginia, United States (US), indicating a new geographical location for this metastrongylid nematode. The fox was euthanized and submitted for necropsy after displaying erratic behavior. We did not detect rabies virus or canine distemper virus from the fox. We observed bronchopneumonia associated with A. vasorum infection disseminated in both lungs. In addition, protozoal meronts were observed in the liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph node, and were identified as Hepatozoon canis. Lymphoid depletion was also observed in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node. In addition to A. vasorum and H. canis infections, Eucoleus aerophilus eggs and adult worms were observed in the lungs of the fox. Severe lesions associated with A. vasorum infection were observed in the lungs and these were determined to be the likely cause of morbidity; however, synergistic effects among the multiple infections detected in this fox cannot be ruled out. This is the first report of an autochthonous A. vasorum infection in the US and from outside of Newfoundland Canada, the only place in North America where the parasite is known to be endemic. Additionally, this is the first report of a H. canis infection in a red fox from the US. PMID:24412356

Kistler, Whitney M; Brown, Justin D; Allison, Andrew B; Nemeth, Nicole M; Yabsley, Michael J

2014-02-24

102

First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Southeast and South Brazil.  

PubMed

The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay) and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville). The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized. PMID:21120369

Maldonado Jr, Arnaldo; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Motta, Esther M; Fernandez, Mônica A; Pereira, Zilene M; Monteiro, Simone S; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

2010-11-01

103

Biochemical profile of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae).  

PubMed

The effect of experimental infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode, Metastrongylidae) on the activities of the aminotransferases and concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of total proteins in the exposed snails to 5000 or more larvae. This change was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of urea and uric acid in the hemolymph, suggesting a higher rate of deamination of the amino acids. Besides this, variations in the activities of the aminotransferases were also observed, with the highest values recorded in the groups exposed to greater parasite load. These results suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities. Infection was verified by the fact that L3 larvae recovered from the snails was proportion to the exposure dose of L1 larvae. Histopathological results also indicated presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, favoring an increase of both transaminases. PMID:25308279

Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Amaral, Ludimila Santos; Mota, Esther Maria; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Garcia, Juberlan

2015-01-01

104

First Report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) Infections in Invasive Rodents from Five Islands of the Ogasawara Archipelago, Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) is a parasite of murid rodents and causative agent of human neuro-angiostrongyliasis. In 2011, the Ogasawara Islands in the western North Pacific were assigned a World Natural Heritage site status. The occurrence of A. cantonensis is well documented in the Chichijima, Hahajima, and Anijima Islands. However, the occurrence of A. cantonensis in the other islands of the Ogasawara Islands has not been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Between March 2010 and July 2011, 57 Rattus norvegicus and 79 R. rattus were collected from 9 islands (the Hahajima group: Anejima, Imoutojima, Meijima, Mukohjima, and Hirajima; Chichijima group: Minamijima; Mukojima group: Nakoudojima and Yomejima; and Iwojima group: Iwojima). Adult nematodes were found in the pulmonary artery of 46 R. norvegicus collected in the 5 islands of the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hrajima, and Mukohjima Islands). These nematodes were identified by molecular analysis as A. cantonensis. Comparison of the mitochondrial DNA sequences confirmed that all the samples from the Ogasawara Islands shared only a single lineage of A. cantonensis, which has been previously detected in the Okinawa, Hawaii, and Brazil. Conclusions/Significance We describe new endemic foci of rat angiostrongyliasis in the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hirajima, and Mukohjima Islands) of the Ogasawara Islands. These findings indicate that the endemic foci of A. cantonensis are widely distributed in the Ogasawara Islands. Although human cases have not yet been reported in the Ogasawara Islands, the widespread detection of A. cantonensis could be of importance from the perspective of public health. PMID:23950989

Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Takuma; Yabe, Tatsuo; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Akao, Nobuaki; Ohta, Nobuo

2013-01-01

105

Control measures for slug and snail hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, with special reference to the semi-slug Parmarion martensi.  

PubMed

Slugs and snails (class Gastropoda) are the obligate intermediate hosts of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This nematode is the causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis and the most common cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Humans can become infected by accidental consumption of slugs or snails and possibly flatworms (or a portion of one of these animals) in fresh produce, but the slime from these animals can contain nematodes and may also constitute a disease risk. Gastropod carriers in Hawa'i include, among other species, giant African snails, veronicellid slugs, and the semi-slug Parmarion martensi. This latter species was first discovered on the island of Hawa'i in 2004 and is now common in the area where the majority of the state's documented cases of human angiostrongyliasis occurred between 2005 and 2011. This species is considered a high risk carrier of A. cantonensis because of its climbing behavior, abundance around human dwellings, and high worm burdens. One individual collected from east Hawa'i Island contained >6,800 infective third stage A. cantonensis larvae. Common and efficient control methods for slugs and snails include sanitation (eg, removal of objects that serve as hiding places) and the use of poison food baits, such as those containing metaldehyde and iron. An iron-containing bait that is relatively safe to non-target organisms was effective in controlling semi-slugs in cage experiments, although it killed more slowly than a metaldehyde-containing bait and the majority of slugs affected did not die until 1-2 weeks following ingestion. PMID:23901389

Hollingsworth, Robert G; Howe, Kathleen; Jarvi, Susan I

2013-06-01

106

Control Measures for Slug and Snail Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, with Special Reference to the Semi-slug Parmarion martensi  

PubMed Central

Slugs and snails (class Gastropoda) are the obligate intermediate hosts of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This nematode is the causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis and the most common cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Humans can become infected by accidental consumption of slugs or snails and possibly flatworms (or a portion of one of these animals) in fresh produce, but the slime from these animals can contain nematodes and may also constitute a disease risk. Gastropod carriers in Hawa‘i include, among other species, giant African snails, veronicellid slugs, and the semi-slug Parmarion martensi. This latter species was first discovered on the island of Hawa‘i in 2004 and is now common in the area where the majority of the state's documented cases of human angiostrongyliasis occurred between 2005 and 2011. This species is considered a high risk carrier of A. cantonensis because of its climbing behavior, abundance around human dwellings, and high worm burdens. One individual collected from east Hawa‘i Island contained >6,800 infective third stage A. cantonensis larvae. Common and efficient control methods for slugs and snails include sanitation (eg, removal of objects that serve as hiding places) and the use of poison food baits, such as those containing metaldehyde and iron. An iron-containing bait that is relatively safe to non-target organisms was effective in controlling semi-slugs in cage experiments, although it killed more slowly than a metaldehyde-containing bait and the majority of slugs affected did not die until 1–2 weeks following ingestion. PMID:23901389

Howe, Kathleen; Jarvi, Susan I

2013-01-01

107

Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data  

PubMed Central

Background The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode’s main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Methods The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. Results The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8) from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. Conclusion The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions. PMID:23130987

2012-01-01

108

Fleas infesting pets in the era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes.  

PubMed

Modifications in climatic conditions, movements of hosts and goods, changes in animal phenology and human behaviour and increase of wildlife, are presently concurring in the geographic spread of vectors and cardio-respiratory nematodes, e.g. Dirofilaria immitis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Capillaria aerophila. All these factors may also influence dispersion and clinical significance of fleas, thus posing relevant challenges in those regions where other parasites are emerging at the same time. Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis and Pulex irritans cause discomfort, nuisance, allergic reactions, anaemia, and may transmit several pathogens, some of them are of importance for public health. The present article reviews the importance of fleas in small animal practice and their sanitary relevance for dogs, cats and humans, and discusses current control methods in the present era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes, towards a possible changing perspective for controlling key parasites affecting companion animals. PMID:23497511

Traversa, Donato

2013-01-01

109

A novel bacterial symbiont in the nematode Spirocerca lupi  

PubMed Central

Background The parasitic nematode Spirocerca lupi (Spirurida: Thelaziidae), the canine esophageal worm, is the causative agent of spirocercosis, a disease causing morbidity and mortality in dogs. Spirocerca lupi has a complex life cycle, involving an obligatory coleopteran intermediate host (vector), an optional paratenic host, and a definitive canid host. The diagnosis of spirocercosis is challenging, especially in the early disease stages, when adult worms and clinical signs are absent. Thus, alternative approaches are needed to promote early diagnosis. The interaction between nematodes and their bacterial symbionts has recently become a focus of novel treatment regimens for other helminthic diseases. Results Using 16S rDNA-based molecular methods, here we found a novel bacterial symbiont in S. lupi that is closely related to Comamonas species (Brukholderiales: Comamonadaceae) of the beta-proteobacteria. Its DNA was detected in eggs, larvae and adult stages of S. lupi. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization technique, we localized Comamonas sp. to the gut epithelial cells of the nematode larvae. Specific PCR enabled the detection of this symbiont's DNA in blood obtained from dogs diagnosed with spirocercosis. Conclusions The discovery of a new Comamonas sp. in S. lupi increase the complexity of the interactions among the organisms involved in this system, and may open innovative approaches for diagnosis and control of spirocercosis in dogs. PMID:22762265

2012-01-01

110

Visceral larva migrans-like syndrome caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis.  

PubMed

In two cases of ectopic localization of Angiostrongylus costaricensis adult worms and eggs were seen in the liver, causing a granulomatous inflammatory reaction with dense eosinophilic infiltration and necrosis. In the first case, although antibodies for A. costaricensis had been demonstrated, a clinical diagnosis of visceral larva migrans was recorded; however, further examination of a liver biopsy revealed eggs of A. costaricensis. In the second case, severity of the intestinal pathology masked the presence of lesions and an adult A. costaricensis that were discovered in a retrospective study of the liver 13 years later. A close similarity between the visceral larva migrans syndrome and ectopic localization (liver) of A. costaricensis is established. PMID:7058980

Morera, P; Perez, F; Mora, F; Castro, L

1982-01-01

111

Angiostrongylus vasorum: Experimental Infection and Larval Development in Omalonyx matheroni  

PubMed Central

The susceptibility and suitability of Omalonyx matheroni as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus vasorum and the characteristics of larval recovery and development were investigated. Mollusks were infected, and from the 3rd to the 25th day after infection, larvae were recovered from groups of 50 individuals. The first observation of L2 was on the 5th day, and the first observation of L3 was on the 10th day. From the 22nd day on, all larvae were at the L3 stadium. Larval recovery varied from 78.2% to 95.2%. We found larval development to be faster in O. matheroni than in Biomphalaria glabrata. Our findings indicate that this mollusk is highly susceptible to A. vasorum. Infective L3 were orally inoculated into a dog, and the prepatent period was 39 days. This is the first study to focus on O. matheroni as an intermediate host of A. vasorum. PMID:21687642

Mozzer, L. R.; Montresor, L. C.; Vidigal, T. H. D. A.; Lima, W. S.

2011-01-01

112

Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in captive neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids.  

PubMed

This study was designed to detect antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild captive carnivores maintained in Brazilian zoos. Blood samples were collected from 142 Brazilian wild felids and 19 exotic felids in zoos, and 3 European wolves (Canis lupus) and 94 Brazilian wild canids maintained in captivity in Brazilian zoos of São Paulo, Mato Grosso states and Federal District. One hundred and two (63.4%) and 70 (50.3%) of the 161 wild felids tested were seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum by indirect immunofluorescent assay test (IFAT), respectively. Among sampled wild canids, 49 (50.5%) and 40 (41.2%) animals were seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum antigens by IFAT, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of antibodies to N. caninum in Brazilian wild captive felids and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus (Lund)). PMID:20950109

André, M R; Adania, C H; Teixeira, R H F; Silva, K F; Jusi, M M G; Machado, S T Z; de Bortolli, C P; Falcade, M; Sousa, L; Alegretti, S M; Felippe, P A N; Machado, R Z

2010-10-01

113

Experimental examination of behavioural interactions between free-ranging wild and domestic canids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of mammalian carnivore communities is strongly influenced by both intraguild competition and predation. However,\\u000a intraguild interactions involving the world’s most common carnivore, the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), have rarely been investigated. We experimentally examined the behavioural responses of a small canid, the Indian fox (Vulpes bengalensis), to the presence of dogs and dog odours. Resource competition between dogs

Abi Tamim Vanak; Maria Thaker; Matthew E. Gompper

2009-01-01

114

Linking Conservation Behavior, Management and Human Societal Context: An Examination of Canids in the Brazilian  

E-print Network

and references to wildlife behavior within the sphere of wildlife literature (Linklater 2004). From 1996 to 2005, however, the proportion of behavior-focused conservation papers remained steady (Angelino et al. 2008). Citation of behavior-based conservation... being explored. 12 C. Arkenberg 3.2. Maned Wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus are tall, slender omnivores weighing between 20 and 30 kg (Dietz 1984, Jacomo et al. 2004, Sillero-Zubiri et al. 2004, Nowak 2005). They are the largest canids in South...

Arkenberg, Crystal

2014-01-27

115

The evolutionary dynamics of canid and mongoose rabies virus in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Two variants of rabies virus (RABV) currently circulate in southern Africa: canid RABV, mainly associated with dogs, jackals,\\u000a and bat-eared foxes, and mongoose RABV. To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of these variants, we performed coalescent-based\\u000a analyses of the G-L inter-genic region, allowing for rate variation among viral lineages through the use of a relaxed molecular\\u000a clock. This revealed that mongoose

P. L. Davis; A. Rambaut; H. Bourhy; E. C. Holmes

2007-01-01

116

[Seroprevalence of antibodies anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii in captive wild canids].  

PubMed

Neosporosis is considered one of the main cause of abortion in dairy cattle in the world. The prevalence of Neospora caninum in wild species has been studied since the coyote (Canis latrans), a North American wild canid specie was discovered as definitive host of this parasite. The aim of the present study was to determine the serum prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in wild native canids species from Brazil. Serum samples of 25 crab-eating dogs (Cerdocyon thous), five pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), six bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) e 14 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) were tested. The animals were from zoos and sanctuaries from the states of Parana, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro and the Federal District. The total prevalence obtained for N. caninum was 36% (18/50) and for T. gondii was 40% (20/50). The present study demonstrated for the first time the presence of antibodies to N. caninum in bush dogs and the prevalence found was 33,3% (2/6). This study showed the presence of these protozoans in captive wild canids species and to alert about possible contamination sources. PMID:20059860

Mattos, Bianca C; Patrício, Lia L F; Plugge, Nicolle F; Lange, Rogério R; Richartz, Rosária R T B; Dittrich, Rosângela Locatelli

2008-09-01

117

Application technology for entomopathogenic nematodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diverse technology is available for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes. Application usually consists of nematode distribution via aqueous suspension in various irrigation systems and spray equipment. The choice of application equipment, and method in which the nematodes are applied, can...

118

Entomopathogenic nematodes and insect management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Entomopathogenic nematodes (genera Heterorhabditis, Steinernema, and Neosteinernema) are used as bioinsecticides. The nematodes are ubiquitous and have been isolated in soil of every continent except Antarctica. The nematodes kill insects through a mutualism with a bacterium (Photorhabdus spp. or ...

119

Nematodes in Texas Golf Courses  

E-print Network

construction require 90 percent sand content in the root zone mixture, an ideal habitat for the sting nematode. Awl nematodes (Dolichodorus ssp.):Awl nematodes are rare in Texas, but are as damaging as sting nematodes. Awl nematodes are usually found only... in moist soil near ponds or ditches, and are ectoparasitic. Lance nematodes (Hoplolaimus ssp.): Lance nematodes also can be very damaging to turf grasses. They are more common in Texas than sting nematodes, and are more common in soils with a higher silt...

Crow, William T.

2000-04-10

120

First record of a nematode Metastrongyloidea (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae) in Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Mollusca, Achatinidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica was introduced in Brazil in the 1980s for commercial purposes ("escargot" farming) and nowadays, mainly by human activity, it is widespread in at least 23 out of 26 Brazilian states and Brasília, including the Amazonian region and natural reserves, where besides a general nuisance for people it is a pest and also a public health concern, since it is one of the natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ethiological agent of the meningoencephalitis in Asia. As Brazil is experiencing the explosive phase of the invasion, the Laboratório de Malacologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz has been receiving samples of these molluscs for identification and search for Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae. While examining samples of A. fulica different nematode larvae were obtained, including Aelurostrongylus, whose different species are parasites of felids, dogs, primates, and badger. Morphological and morphometric analyses presented herein indicated the species Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, as well as the occurrence of other nematode larvae (Strongyluris-like) found in the interior of the pallial cavity of A. fulica. This is the first report in Brazil of the development of A. abstrusus infective larvae in A. fulica evidencing the veterinary importance of this mollusc in the transmission of A. abstrusus to domestic cats. Since the spread of A. fulica is pointed out in the literature as one of the main causative spread of the meningoencephalitis caused by A. cantonensis the authors emphasize the need of sanitary vigilance of snails and rats from vulnerable areas for A. cantonensis introduction as the port side areas. PMID:18078952

Thiengo, Silvana C; Fernandez, Monica A; Torres, Eduardo J L; Coelho, Pablo M; Lanfredi, Reinalda M

2008-05-01

121

Definitive, Intermediate, Paratenic, and Accidental Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and its Molluscan Intermediate Hosts in Hawa‘i  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic meningitis caused by infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a parasitic nematode, is an emerging infectious disease of humans and other animals, known as angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Symptoms range from headache and muscle spasms in mild cases to coma and even death. Many human cases have been recorded around the world, with the majority in tropical and subtropical locations. The increase in numbers of human cases and the expansion of the geographic distribution of cases make this parasite and its hosts important research foci. Definitive hosts include various rat species such as Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus, and R. exulans, and a number of land and freshwater snails and slugs have previously been identified as intermediate hosts.1 Both definitive and intermediate hosts are obligate to the life cycle of A. cantonensis. Paratenic hosts span a wide range of fauna and are not needed in the nematode's life cycle, but act as reservoirs in which different larval stages of the parasite can persist but not develop further; they include freshwater shrimp, flatworms, and frogs.2–4 Accidental hosts, including humans and other mammals, as well as birds, permit development from the third larval stage to the subadult (fifth) stage but are then dead ends for the parasite.5,6 These hosts are infected primarily through consumption of raw or undercooked intermediate or paratenic hosts, either intentionally or accidentally via contaminated produce.7 In Hawa‘i, there have been recent outbreaks with cases of infection on four of the main islands. Since there is currently a limited consensus on appropriate therapy, steps to prevent infection should be taken. The first step to facilitate this and to lay the groundwork for future management of the hosts is to identify the intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis and to determine its geographic distribution within the Hawaiian Islands. To do this over 1000 specimens of 37 terrestrial and freshwater snail and slug species (30 introduced, 7 native) from the six largest Hawaiian Islands were screened using a molecular approach.8 Total DNA was extracted from foot tissue of each specimen and was amplified using Angiostrongylus-specific primers.8 Amplicons were visualized on agarose gels to determine if specimens were positive or negative for A. cantonensis. All of the positive specimens and a random sample of all other specimens tested were also reamplified using species-specific primers.9 All positive samples were still positive with the newer primers. The parasite was present in 16 (14 alien, 2 native) of these species, from five of the six largest Hawaiian Islands. These species represent 10 phylogenetically diverse terrestrial pulmonate families and 2 more distantly related caenogastropod families (one terrestrial and one freshwater). This broad phylogenetic representation demonstrates that this parasite is not host specific, to the extent that perhaps even any snail or slug species could act as an intermediate host.

Kim, Jaynee R; Hayes, Kenneth A; Yeung, Norine W

2013-01-01

122

The giant African snail Achatina fulica as natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Pernambuco, northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

The human cases of eosinophilic meningitis recently reported from Brazil have focused the attention of the public health agencies on the role the introduced snail Achatina fulica plays as hosts of the metastrongylid nematodes. Determining the potential of this snail to host and develop infective larval stages of metastrongylids in the wild and identify the species harbored by them is crucial for designing effective control measures. Here we assess if A. fulica may act as intermediate host of A. cantonensis at the peridomiciliary areas of a patient's house from state of Pernambuco (PE), who was diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis and a history of ingesting raw molluscs. Larvae obtained from naturally infected A. fulica were orally administered to Rattus norvegicus. The worms were collected from the pulmonary artery and brain, and were morphologically characterized and compared to the Japan isolate of A. cantonensis. Adult worms and infective L(3) larvae (PE isolate) recovered from A. fulica specimens were also analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism of ITS2 region from rDNA and compared to A. cantonensis (ES isolate), A. vasorum (MG isolate) and A. costaricensis (RS isolate). The large size of the spicules (greater than those observed in other species of Angiostrongylus) and the pattern of the bursal rays agree with the original species description by Chen (1935). Furthermore, the morphology of the PE isolate was similar to that of Japan isolate. The PCR-RFLP profiles obtained were distinctive among species and no variation in patterns was detected among adult individuals from A. cantonensis isolates from PE and ES. The importance of A. fulica as an intermediate host of eosinophilic menigoencepahlitis in Brazil is emphasized. PMID:20083081

Thiengo, S C; Maldonado, A; Mota, E M; Torres, E J L; Caldeira, R; Carvalho, O S; Oliveira, A P M; Simões, R O; Fernandez, M A; Lanfredi, R M

2010-09-01

123

Cross-reactions of sera from dogs infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum in commercially available Dirofilaria immitis test kits  

PubMed Central

Background Dirofilaria immitis and Angiostrongylus vasorum are both important potentially fatal canine nematodes with overlapping endemic areas, especially in Europe. The preadult and adult stages of both species are living in the Arteria pulmonalis and the right heart, and diagnostically detectable circulating parasite antigens have been demonstrated for both species. For the detection of D. immitis infections, a variety of commercial tests have been developed, however, they have not been evaluated for cross-reactions against circulating antigens of A. vasorum. Methods In this study, potential cross-reactions of sera from 16 dogs, which were experimentally infected with A. vasorum and which had circulating antigens as confirmed by a species-specific ELISA, were evaluated for the detection of A. vasorum antigen in six commercially available D. immitis test kits. Results In three fast tests (Witness® Dirofilaria, SensPERT® Canine Heartworm, SNAP® 4Dx® Plus), all sera were negative. One fast membrane ELISA (SNAP® HTWM RT Test) was positive with four sera (25%), and one serum delivered a non-valid result twice. In the PetChek® HTWM PF Test, depending on the interpretation protocol, 5 or 8 dogs (31.2 – 50%) were positive. With the DiroCHEK®-ELISA, a single A. vasorum-infected dog (6.2%) tested positive. Conclusions Due to potential cross-reactions with A. vasorum in commercially available test kits for the detection of D. immitis antigen, the simultaneous use of highly specific diagnostic methods for the differentiation of these two canine heart worms is recommended. PMID:23148786

2012-01-01

124

Unique inhibitory cascade pattern of molars in canids contributing to their potential to evolutionary plasticity of diet  

PubMed Central

Developmental origins that guide the evolution of dental morphology and dental formulae are fundamental subjects in mammalian evolution. In a previous study, a developmental model termed the inhibitory cascade model was established. This model could explain variations in relative molar sizes and loss of the lower third molars, which sometimes reflect diet, in murine rodents and other mammals. Here, I investigated the pattern of relative molar sizes (inhibitory cascade pattern) in canids, a taxon exhibiting a wide range of dietary habits. I found that interspecific variation in canid molars suggests a unique inhibitory cascade pattern that differs from that in murine rodents and other previously reported mammals, and that this variation reflects dietary habits. This unique variability in molars was also observed in individual variation in canid species. According to these observations, canid species have greater variability in the relative sizes of first molars (carnassials), which are functionally important for dietary adaptation in the Carnivora. In conclusion, an inhibitory cascade that differs from that in murine rodents and other mammals may have contributed to diverse dietary patterns and to their parallel evolution in canids. PMID:23467478

Asahara, Masakazu

2013-01-01

125

The finding of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats in New Orleans.  

PubMed

Twenty of 94 (21.4%) Rattus norvegicus trapped in New Orleans, Louisiana, between April 1986 and February 1987 were infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis (3-62 worms per rat). This is the first report of the parasite from North America. A carnivorous snail, Euglandina rosea, was found experimentally to be able to serve as both an intermediate and a paratenic host. Other locally occurring gastropods that were successfully infected experimentally included Mesodon thyroidus, Anguispira alternata, Bradybaena similaris, Subulina octona, Polygyra triodontoides, Vaginulus ameghini, Philomycus carolinianus, Deroceras laeve, Limax flavus, and Lehmannia poirieri. Laboratory reared, 4- to 5-week-old M. thyroidus and D. laeve were able to support the development of small numbers of larvae to the third stage. First stage larvae of A. cantonensis in the feces of experimentally infected rats were found not to migrate out of the fecal pellet; this behavior favors the infection of feces-consuming gastropods. Twenty heavily infected L. flavus were observed over a period of 2 months, and shedding of third stage larvae of A. cantonensis was never seen. While factors support the spread of A. cantonensis in rats in the southern United States, the probability of human infection is uncertain since the parasite is transmitted primarily by ingestion of raw intermediate and paratenic hosts. PMID:3275136

Campbell, B G; Little, M D

1988-05-01

126

Human Parasitic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophlic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection. PMID:23901378

Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

2013-01-01

127

Angiostrongylus cantonensis: phospholipase in nonsensitized and sensitized rats after challenge.  

PubMed Central

Rats given an initial infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis had moderately elevated phospholipase B activity in the lungs at 8 and 15 days after challenge, and greatly elevated levels were evident at 35, 43, and 49 days. In the brain, the values were elevated at 15 through 35 days. These periods of increased activity in the lungs and brain coincided with the migration patterns of the third stage larvae and the adult worms in this host. The elevated enzyme levels also were were correlated with increased numbers of eosinophils in the bone marrow at 8 and 15 days and again at 36, 43, and 49 days after infection. Similarly infected rats exhibited leukocytosis at 1 through 10 weeks of observation after challenge, and striking eosinophilia at 1, 7, 8, and 9 weeks. Rats reinfected after removal of the worms of the initial infection by thiabendazole treatment showed an anamnestic response characterized by (i) elevated enzyme values in both the lungs and brain at 1 day after reinfection and (ii) eosinophilia in the bone marrow by day 4. These accelerated responses were accompanied by a significant reduction in the worm burden of the rats. The results, which support our hypothesis that inflammation, elevated phospholipase B activity, and reduction in worm burden are causally related, are discussed in light of similar findings reported earlier from our studies with Trichinella spiralis and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. PMID:832897

Ottolenghi, A; Weatherly, N F; Kocan, A A; Larsh, J E

1977-01-01

128

Human parasitic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection. PMID:23901378

Tsai, Hung-Chin; Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

2013-06-01

129

The Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses advantages of nematode use for studying patterns of cell division, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Describes nematode development. Cites experimental approaches available for genetic studies. Reviews the topics of control of cell division and differentiation, the nervous system, and muscle assembly and function of the organism. (RT)

Kenyon, Cynthia

1988-01-01

130

Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a Potential New Zoonotic Bartonella Species in Canids from Iraq  

PubMed Central

Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n?=?97), 40.4% in jackals (n?=?57) and 12.8% in red foxes (n?=?39). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from whole blood and representative strains were sequenced. DNA of a new Bartonella species similar to but distinct from B. bovis, was amplified from 37.1% of the dogs and 12.3% of the jackals. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was also amplified from one jackal and no Bartonella DNA was amplified from foxes. Adjusting for age, the odds of dogs being Bartonella PCR positive were 11.94 times higher than for wild canids (95% CI: 4.55–31.35), suggesting their role as reservoir for this new Bartonella species. This study reports on the prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic and wild canids of Iraq and provides the first detection of Bartonella in jackals. We propose Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii for this new Bartonella species. Most of the Bartonella species identified in sick dogs are also pathogenic for humans. Therefore, seroprevalence in Iraqi dog owners and bacteremia in Iraqi people with unexplained fever or culture negative endocarditis requires further investigation as well as in United States military personnel who were stationed in Iraq. Finally, it will also be essential to test any dog brought back from Iraq to the USA for presence of Bartonella bacteremia to prevent any accidental introduction of a new Bartonella species to the New World. PMID:23029597

Chomel, Bruno B.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi; Diniz, Pedro P. V. P.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2012-01-01

131

Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a potential new zoonotic Bartonella species in canids from Iraq.  

PubMed

Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n = 97), 40.4% in jackals (n = 57) and 12.8% in red foxes (n = 39). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from whole blood and representative strains were sequenced. DNA of a new Bartonella species similar to but distinct from B. bovis, was amplified from 37.1% of the dogs and 12.3% of the jackals. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was also amplified from one jackal and no Bartonella DNA was amplified from foxes. Adjusting for age, the odds of dogs being Bartonella PCR positive were 11.94 times higher than for wild canids (95% CI: 4.55-31.35), suggesting their role as reservoir for this new Bartonella species. This study reports on the prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic and wild canids of Iraq and provides the first detection of Bartonella in jackals. We propose Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii for this new Bartonella species. Most of the Bartonella species identified in sick dogs are also pathogenic for humans. Therefore, seroprevalence in Iraqi dog owners and bacteremia in Iraqi people with unexplained fever or culture negative endocarditis requires further investigation as well as in United States military personnel who were stationed in Iraq. Finally, it will also be essential to test any dog brought back from Iraq to the USA for presence of Bartonella bacteremia to prevent any accidental introduction of a new Bartonella species to the New World. PMID:23029597

Chomel, Bruno B; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi; Diniz, Pedro P V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2012-01-01

132

Presence of antibotulinum neurotoxin antibodies in selected wild canids in Israel.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 35 golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus), eight wolves (Canis lupus), and four red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from various regions of Israel were collected during the years 2001-04 and tested for antibodies to Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types C and D. Antibodies against BoNT types C and D were detected in 10 (29%) and in 3 (9%) of 35 golden jackals, respectively, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This report describes detection of anti BoNT antibodies in wild canids other than coyotes (Canis latrans) for the first time and demonstrates that C. botulinum type C is prevalent in Israel. PMID:17699099

Steinman, Amir; Millet, Neta; Frenkel, Chana; King, Roni; Shpigel, Nahum Y

2007-07-01

133

Wild canids as sentinels of ecological health: a conservation medicine perspective  

PubMed Central

The extinction of species across the globe is accelerating, directly or indirectly due to human activities. Biological impoverishment, habitat fragmentation, climate change, increasing toxification, and the rapid global movement of people and other living organisms have worked synergistically to diminish ecosystem function. This has resulted in unprecedented levels of disease emergence, driven by human-induced environmental degradation, which poses a threat to the survival and health of biodiversity. The emerging discipline of conservation medicine addresses these concerns through the following entities: humans; global climate; habitat destruction and alteration; biodiversity, including wildlife populations; domestic animals; and pathogens, parasites and pollutants. Furthermore, conservation medicine focuses on explicit linkages between these entities. As a crisis discipline, the usefulness of conservation medicine ultimately will depend on its applicability to solving problems. The perspectives and scientific findings of conservation medicine provide input into biomedical education; and policy and management of ecosystems, habitats and imperiled species. A sentinel species is one that has presented itself, or has been selected, to provide insight into the state (health) of an ecosystem, based on user-defined (e.g., researchers, conservationists or policymakers) objectives (e.g., disease, parasites, toxics, climate change, habitat destruction), coupled with the utility and vulnerability of this species to the perceived stress. The scientific information generated by the sentinel species should empower stakeholders and decision-makers to take mitigative action or support predictive capabilities; the "utility" of the species selected should consider its value and relevance to conservationists and to society at large (e.g., education and outreach; social sciences). Wild canids may serve as excellent sentinel species of emerging canine vector-borne diseases. Several canine vector-borne diseases or antibodies to these pathogens have been identified in wild canids including visceral leishmaniosis, Lyme disease, heartworm, hepatozoonosis and anaplasmosis to name a few. These reports are relatively recent as they relate to wildlife-domestic animal interactions, globalisation, translocations, habitat fragmentation and climate change. These pathogens and their relationship to wild canids are described herein. Further research needs to be performed to elucidate the role of the 36 extant species of wild canids in the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases. PMID:19426446

Aguirre, A Alonso

2009-01-01

134

Preliminary molecular characterization of the human pathogen Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

PubMed Central

Background Human angiostrongyliasis is an emerging food-borne public health problem, with the number of cases increasing worldwide, especially in mainland China. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of this severe disease. However, little is known about the genetics and basic biology of A. cantonensis. Results A cDNA library of A. cantonensis fourth-stage larvae was constructed, and ~1,200 clones were sequenced. Bioinformatic analyses revealed 378 cDNA clusters, 54.2% of which matched known genes at a cutoff expectation value of 10-20. Of these 378 unique cDNAs, 168 contained open reading frames encoding proteins containing an average of 238 amino acids. Characterization of the functions of these encoded proteins by Gene Ontology analysis showed enrichment in proteins with binding and catalytic activity. The observed pattern of enzymes involved in protein metabolism, lipid metabolism and glycolysis may reflect the central nervous system habitat of this pathogen. Four proteins were tested for their immunogenicity using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and histopathological examinations. The specificity of each of the four proteins was superior to that of crude somatic and excretory/secretory antigens of larvae, although their sensitivity was relatively low. We further showed that mice immunized with recombinant cystatin, a product of one of the four cDNA candidate genes, were partially protected from A. cantonensis infection. Conclusion The data presented here substantially expand the available genetic information about the human pathogen A. cantonensis, and should be a significant resource for angiostrongyliasis researchers. As such, this work serves as a starting point for molecular approaches for diagnosing and controlling human angiostrongyliasis. PMID:19852860

He, Hualiang; Cheng, Mei; Yang, Xiao; Meng, Jinxiu; He, Ai; Zheng, Xiaoying; Li, Zhuoya; Guo, Pengjuan; Pan, Zhihua; Zhan, Ximei

2009-01-01

135

Development-specific differences in the proteomics of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Angiostrongyliasis is an emerging communicable disease. Several different hosts are required to complete the life cycle of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. However, we lack a complete understanding of variability of proteins across different developmental stages and their contribution to parasite survival and progression. In this study, we extracted soluble proteins from various stages of the A. cantonensis life cycle [female adults, male adults, the fifth-stage female larvae (FL5), the fifth-stage male larvae (ML5) and third-stage larvae (L3)], separated those proteins using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) at pH 4-7, and analyzed the gel images using DeCyder 7.0 software. This proteomic analysis produced a total of 183 different dominant protein spots. Thirty-seven protein spots were found to have high confidence scores (>95%) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Comparative proteomic analyses revealed that 29 spots represented cytoskeleton-associated proteins and functional proteins. Eight spots were unnamed proteins. Twelve protein spots that were matched to the EST of different-stage larvae of A. cantonensis were identified. Two genes and the internal control 18s were chosen for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the qPCR results were consistent with those of the DIGE studies. These findings will provide a new basis for understanding the characteristics of growth and development of A. cantonensis and the host-parasite relationship. They may also assist searches for candidate proteins suitable for use in diagnostic assays and as drug targets for the control of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis. PMID:24204717

Huang, Hui-Cong; Yao, Li-Li; Song, Zeng-Mei; Li, Xing-Pan; Hua, Qian-Qian; Li, Qiang; Pan, Chang-Wang; Xia, Chao-Ming

2013-01-01

136

Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated  

PubMed Central

Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila). The reasons of this emergence are little known but many drivers such as global warming, changes in vector epidemiology and movements in animal populations, may be taken into account. The purpose of this article is to review the knowledge of the most important heartworm and lungworm infections of dogs and cats in Europe. In particular recent advances in epidemiology, clinical and control are described and discussed. PMID:20653938

2010-01-01

137

Inactivation of infective larvae of Angiostrongylus costaricensis with short time incubations in 1.5% bleach solution, vinegar or saturated cooking salt solution.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode parasite of wild rodents in the Americas. Man may become infected accidentally and, sometimes, suffers a very severe abdominal disease. Ingestion of raw vegetables has been proven to be a risk factor for the acquisition of A. costaricensis and, therefore, prophylaxis should include food disinfection. The larvicidal effect of wine vinegar, saturated cooking salt (SS) and a 1.5% bleach solution (BW) were compared with a 1-h-incubation period, at room temperature. Larval viability was tested through inoculation in Swiss mice. Only one out of 560 larvae treated with BW (97.3% of the animals were uninfected) was recovered as an adult worm, while 90/336 and 29/512 larvae treated, respectively, with SS and WV were recovered as adult worms. This larvicidal effect of BW was seen also in incubation times as short as 15 min. In conclusion, the 1.5% bleach solution may be helpful for prophylaxis of human abdominal angiostrongyliasis through disinfection of raw vegetables and unpeeled fruits. PMID:11164746

Zanini, G M; Graeff-Teixeira, C

2001-01-15

138

Effects of infection by larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae) on the lipid metabolism of the experimental intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda).  

PubMed

Experimental infection of Biomphalaria glabrata by Angiostrongylus cantonensis induces significant changes in the concentrations of triacylglycerol and cholesterol in the hemolymph and of neutral lipids in the digestive gonad-gland (DGG) complex of the host snail. In this study, snails were dissected after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of infection to collect the hemolymph and DGG and to measure the levels of cholesterol and triacylglycerol in the hemolymph and neutral lipid fractions in the tissues. The results show that infection by this nematode resulted in a significant decrease in the concentrations of both cholesterol and triacylglycerol in the hemolymph of B. glabrata during the parasite's initial ontogenic development period. This reduction indicates the possible use of these molecules by both parasite and host not only as energy substrates but also as structural factors required during development of the parasite's larval stages. In parallel, changes in the neutral lipid profile in the DGG and lipase activity of the infected snails were observed, indicating the importance of these molecules for successful infection. PMID:23377121

Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Gôlo, Patrícia; Lima, Mariana; Garcia, Juberlan; Júnior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Pontes, Emerson Guedes; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Pinheiro, Jairo

2013-05-01

139

Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Leads to Claudin-5 Degradation via the NF-?B Pathway in BALB/c Mice with Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

PubMed Central

The epithelial barrier regulates the movement of ions, macromolecules, immune cells and pathogens. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in the degradation of tight junction protein during infection with rat nematode lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The results showed that phosphorylation of I?B and NF-?B was increased in mice with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Treatment with MG132 reduced the phosphorylation of NF-?B and the activity of MMP-9, indicating upregulation of MMP-9 through the NF-?B signaling pathway. Claudin-5 was reduced in the brain but elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), implying that A. cantonensis infection caused tight junction breakdown and led to claudin-5 release into the CSF. Degradation of claudin-5 coincided with alteration of the blood-CSF barrier permeability and treatment with the MMP inhibitor GM6001 attenuated the degradation of claudin-5. These results suggested that degradation of claudin-5 was caused by MMP-9 in angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis. Claudin-5 could be used for the pathophysiologic evaluation of the blood-CSF barrier breakdown and tight junction disruption after infection with A. cantonensis. PMID:23505411

Chiu, Ping-Sung; Lai, Shih-Chan

2013-01-01

140

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 leads to claudin-5 degradation via the NF-?B pathway in BALB/c mice with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

The epithelial barrier regulates the movement of ions, macromolecules, immune cells and pathogens. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in the degradation of tight junction protein during infection with rat nematode lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The results showed that phosphorylation of I?B and NF-?B was increased in mice with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Treatment with MG132 reduced the phosphorylation of NF-?B and the activity of MMP-9, indicating upregulation of MMP-9 through the NF-?B signaling pathway. Claudin-5 was reduced in the brain but elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), implying that A. cantonensis infection caused tight junction breakdown and led to claudin-5 release into the CSF. Degradation of claudin-5 coincided with alteration of the blood-CSF barrier permeability and treatment with the MMP inhibitor GM6001 attenuated the degradation of claudin-5. These results suggested that degradation of claudin-5 was caused by MMP-9 in angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis. Claudin-5 could be used for the pathophysiologic evaluation of the blood-CSF barrier breakdown and tight junction disruption after infection with A. cantonensis. PMID:23505411

Chiu, Ping-Sung; Lai, Shih-Chan

2013-01-01

141

A genome-wide perspective on the evolutionary history of enigmatic wolf-like canids  

PubMed Central

High-throughput genotyping technologies developed for model species can potentially increase the resolution of demographic history and ancestry in wild relatives. We use a SNP genotyping microarray developed for the domestic dog to assay variation in over 48K loci in wolf-like species worldwide. Despite the high mobility of these large carnivores, we find distinct hierarchical population units within gray wolves and coyotes that correspond with geographic and ecologic differences among populations. Further, we test controversial theories about the ancestry of the Great Lakes wolf and red wolf using an analysis of haplotype blocks across all 38 canid autosomes. We find that these enigmatic canids are highly admixed varieties derived from gray wolves and coyotes, respectively. This divergent genomic history suggests that they do not have a shared recent ancestry as proposed by previous researchers. Interspecific hybridization, as well as the process of evolutionary divergence, may be responsible for the observed phenotypic distinction of both forms. Such admixture complicates decisions regarding endangered species restoration and protection. PMID:21566151

vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Pollinger, John P.; Earl, Dent A.; Knowles, James C.; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi; Geffen, Eli; Pilot, Malgorzata; Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz; Jedrzejewska, Bogumila; Sidorovich, Vadim; Greco, Claudia; Randi, Ettore; Musiani, Marco; Kays, Roland; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K.

2011-01-01

142

A Pathological Late Pleistocene canid from San Sidero (Italy): implications for social- and feeding-behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence of diseases on vertebrate fossil bones can provide detailed information on many aspects of extinct animals. This study focused on pathological craniodental remains (left maxilla and dentary) referred to the canid Cuon alpinus unearthed from a Late Pleistocene karst filling deposit at San Sidero (Apulia, southern Italy). These fossils show clear evidence of a chronic periodontitis that caused the animal's death. Clinical diagnosis of the disease and the timing of its development have been defined on the basis of a veterinary odontostomatology approach, in addition to radiographic and tomographic techniques. From the initiation of the infection until death, a time span of at least 6 months occurred, and three main steps have been defined: (1) the bacterial infections of the buccal cavity turning into severe periodontitis, (2) the fracture of the lower carnassial and (3) the loss of teeth due to the worsening infection that deformed and/or eroded maxillary and mandibular bones and enlarged alveoli. The analysis of the palaeopathology also provides information about the biomechanics of the bite, on the feeding behaviour and on the relationships of injured members in a pack of Late Pleistocene canids.

Iurino, Dawid Adam; Fico, Rosario; Petrucci, Mauro; Sardella, Raffaele

2013-03-01

143

A pathological Late Pleistocene canid from San Sidero (Italy): implications for social- and feeding-behaviour.  

PubMed

Evidence of diseases on vertebrate fossil bones can provide detailed information on many aspects of extinct animals. This study focused on pathological craniodental remains (left maxilla and dentary) referred to the canid Cuon alpinus unearthed from a Late Pleistocene karst filling deposit at San Sidero (Apulia, southern Italy). These fossils show clear evidence of a chronic periodontitis that caused the animal's death. Clinical diagnosis of the disease and the timing of its development have been defined on the basis of a veterinary odontostomatology approach, in addition to radiographic and tomographic techniques. From the initiation of the infection until death, a time span of at least 6 months occurred, and three main steps have been defined: (1) the bacterial infections of the buccal cavity turning into severe periodontitis, (2) the fracture of the lower carnassial and (3) the loss of teeth due to the worsening infection that deformed and/or eroded maxillary and mandibular bones and enlarged alveoli. The analysis of the palaeopathology also provides information about the biomechanics of the bite, on the feeding behaviour and on the relationships of injured members in a pack of Late Pleistocene canids. PMID:23371350

Iurino, Dawid Adam; Fico, Rosario; Petrucci, Mauro; Sardella, Raffaele

2013-03-01

144

Detection of Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens in Australian canids with natural or experimental infection.  

PubMed

Coproparasitological and purging methods for diagnosing canids infected with the intestinal helminth Echinococcus granulosus, an important zoonotic parasite, are unreliable. Detection of coproantigens in feces of infected dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is suitable for detecting patent and prepatent infections with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, natural and experimental infections in domestic and wild Australian canids were investigated using a coproantigen capture ELISA. Experimental infection of dogs with E. granulosus was detected at between 14 and 22 days postinfection (PI), and optical density (OD) values remained high until termination of experiments 35 days PI. After chemotherapy, coproantigen levels in infected dogs dropped rapidly, becoming negative 2-4 days after treatment. In experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the coproantigen excretion profile was different, with ELISA OD levels peaking 15-17 days PI, then falling to low or undetectable levels by 30 days PI. Coproantigens were detected in the feces of naturally infected Australian wild dogs (dingoes, dingo/domestic dog hybrids) with infection levels ranging between 2 worms and 42,600. Preliminary data on the stability of coproantigen in dog feces exposed to environmental conditions indicated that there was no change in antigenicity over 6 days. The results suggest the coproantigen ELISA could be successfully used to monitor E. granulosus prevalence rates in Australian domestic dogs, foxes, and wild dogs. PMID:10701577

Jenkins, D J; Fraser, A; Bradshaw, H; Craig, P S

2000-02-01

145

First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.  

PubMed

Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans. PMID:25410390

Cirovi?, Duško; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Pavlovi?, Ivan; Kuliši?, Zoran; Cosi?, Nada; Burazerovi?, Jelena; Maleti?, Vladimir

2014-12-01

146

VELVETBEAN GENOTYPES REDUCE NEMATODES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental problems associated with commercial nematicides has stimulated research on biological control of plant parasitic nematodes using velvetbean. The regeneration of velvetbeans at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit (Griffin, GA) led us to investigate their activity as soil...

147

Soil nematode biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans in soil, and are exceeded in species diversity only by the arthropods. Estimates of nematode diversity in natural and agroecosystems have been based on both species-level taxonomy and trophic-level guilds. Because trophic groups do not act in a unitary manner with respect to environmental alterations, species-level analysis is more meaningful and should be preferred

Ernest C. Bernard

1992-01-01

148

A strategic approach to mitigating the impacts of wild canids: proposed activities of the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild canids (wild dogs and European red foxes) cause substantial losses to Australian livestock industries and environmental values. Both species are actively managed as pests to livestock production. Contemporaneously, the dingo proportion of the wild dog population, being considered native, is protected in areas designated for wildlife conservation. Wild dogs particularly affect sheep and goat production because of the behavioural

P. J. S. Fleming; L. R. Allen; S. J. Lapidge; A. Robley; G. R. Saunders; P. C. Thomson

2006-01-01

149

The relationship between foot size of wild canids and regional snow conditions: evidence for selection against a high  

E-print Network

The relationship between foot size of wild canids and regional snow conditions: evidence disproportionally large feet and lower footload (body mass/foot surface area). We collected carcasses of coyote Urocyon cinereoargenteus (n = 17), and wolf Canis lupus (n = 14) and compared body mass, total foot area

150

Interspecic scaling of the hindlimb skeleton in lizards, crocodilians, felids and canids: does limb bone shape correlate  

E-print Network

Interspeci®c scaling of the hindlimb skeleton in lizards, crocodilians, felids and canids: does) Abstract During locomotion, lizards and crocodilians generally use a more sprawling limb posture than most mammals are loaded predominantly in bending, but the limb bones of lizards and crocodilians are loaded

Blob, Richard W.

151

Radiographic analysis of vocal tract length and its relation to overall body size in two canid species  

E-print Network

, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Keywords body size; vocal tract length; animal communicationRadiographic analysis of vocal tract length and its relation to overall body size in two canid, Department of Psychology, The University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada 2 Department of Biology

Rendall, Drew

152

Angiostrongyliasis: analysis of antigens of Angiostrongylus costaricensis adult worms versus IgG from infected patients with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

The possibility of cross-reactivity was previously investigated by indirect ELISA with sera from Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections, normal controls and A. costaricensis antigen. 5 microg/ml of crude antigen from both sexes of each species reacted with diluted serum samples (1:800) of each of 20 cases of angiostrongyliasis and normal controls, and further with anti-human IgG conjugate at 1:1,000. The mean absorbance values were evaluated as follows; normal controls showed a value of 0.033 using A. costaricensis antigen lower than (0.085) A. costaricensis antigen. Both mean values of angiostrongyliasis cases were rather close (0.491) using A. costaricensis antigen and the other antigen (0.518). The present study continued with a crude antigen of 13 A. costaricensis females and males. Serum samples were analyzed; 27 sera of angiostrongyliasis, 30 negative controls and 193 cases of other parasitic infections (91 cases of nematodiasis; 45 cases of cestodiasis; 47 cases of trematodiasis and 10 cases of HIV) and 7 cases of other brain infections. This antigen was evaluated for ELISA with a concentration of 5 microg/ml, serum dilution 1:400 and anti-human IgG conjugate at 1:2,000. The test gave sensitivity and specificity at cut-off value 0.261; 92.59% and 73% respectively. The antigen was cross-reactive with 30 cases from 9 out of 10 different kinds of nematodiasis (gnathostomiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, hookworm infections, trichinosis, toxocariasis, trichuriasis, onchocercosis and Wuchereria bancrofti infections. Five cases from 3 of 6 kinds of cestodiasis (neurocysticercosis, echinococcosis and Hymenolepis nana infections) and 18 cases of 4 out of 5 kinds of trematodiasis (Paragonimus heterotremus infections, opisthorchiasis, schistosomiasis and fascioliasis). One case of other brain infections was observed. The crude antigen of A. costaricensis showed a high percentage sensitivity with serum antibodies of angiostrongyliasis cases. Low specificity of the test was observed by reactions of those serum antibodies with various kinds of antigenic molecules. This study provides baseline data for further immunodiagnosis of human angiostrongyliasis. PMID:11414459

Dekumyoy, P; Komalamisra, C; Nuamtanong, S; Nacapunchai, D; Sinnawong, M; Shanaha, P; Piyasatittam, P

2000-01-01

153

Clinical Aspects of Eosinophilic Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis is caused by human infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The clinical presentation includes a spectrum of disease, from meningitis through radiculitis, cranial nerve abnormalities, ataxia, encephalitis, coma, and rarely death. The condition is diagnosed by recognizing the triad of: the clinical syndrome, eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood, and exposure history. A history of eating raw or poorly cooked snails is classic, but ingestion of other intermediate hosts or unwashed produce (such as lettuce) harboring hosts is not uncommon. Several serologic tests exist but none has yet been fully validated. There is good evidence that a 2 week course of high dose corticosteroids shortens the duration and severity of symptoms. There is somewhat weaker evidence that albendazole reduces symptoms. The combination of prednisolone and albendazole is being used more commonly for treatment. Some suggestions for future research are given. PMID:23901382

Johnson, Stuart

2013-01-01

154

Clinical aspects of eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis is caused by human infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The clinical presentation includes a spectrum of disease, from meningitis through radiculitis, cranial nerve abnormalities, ataxia, encephalitis, coma, and rarely death. The condition is diagnosed by recognizing the triad of: the clinical syndrome, eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood, and exposure history. A history of eating raw or poorly cooked snails is classic, but ingestion of other intermediate hosts or unwashed produce (such as lettuce) harboring hosts is not uncommon. Several serologic tests exist but none has yet been fully validated. There is good evidence that a 2 week course of high dose corticosteroids shortens the duration and severity of symptoms. There is somewhat weaker evidence that albendazole reduces symptoms. The combination of prednisolone and albendazole is being used more commonly for treatment. Some suggestions for future research are given. PMID:23901382

Murphy, Gerald S; Johnson, Stuart

2013-06-01

155

A Severe Case of Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis with Encephalitis and Neurologic Sequelae in Hawa‘i  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus eosinophilic meningitis is caused by infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. We report the case of an adult who ingested a raw, giant African snail (Achatina fulica) on the island of O‘ahu in Hawa‘i and developed an eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with severe headache, confusion, sixth cranial nerve palsy, ataxia, limb weakness, and paresthesia. He was treated with lumbar punctures to relieve pressure, high dose corticosteroids, and 14 days of albendazole. He had a prolonged convalescence, requiring 3 months of prednisone, and still had evidence of motor nerve weakness 4 months after exposure. A field investigation at the site of exposure yielded 5 of 9 Achatina fulica snails with evidence of A. cantonensis DNA by PCR. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from the patient were negative acutely but positive on day 15 of symptoms, using an investigational, real-time PCR assay. We discuss clinical management of this case in light of the current medical literature. PMID:23901383

Kwon, Edward; Ferguson, Tomas M; Park, Sarah Y; Manuzak, Augustina; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Morgan, Stephen; Ciminera, Paul

2013-01-01

156

A severe case of Angiostrongylus eosinophilic meningitis with encephalitis and neurologic sequelae in Hawa'i.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus eosinophilic meningitis is caused by infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. We report the case of an adult who ingested a raw, giant African snail (Achatina fulica) on the island of O'ahu in Hawa'i and developed an eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with severe headache, confusion, sixth cranial nerve palsy, ataxia, limb weakness, and paresthesia. He was treated with lumbar punctures to relieve pressure, high dose corticosteroids, and 14 days of albendazole. He had a prolonged convalescence, requiring 3 months of prednisone, and still had evidence of motor nerve weakness 4 months after exposure. A field investigation at the site of exposure yielded 5 of 9 Achatina fulica snails with evidence of A. cantonensis DNA by PCR. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from the patient were negative acutely but positive on day 15 of symptoms, using an investigational, real-time PCR assay. We discuss clinical management of this case in light of the current medical literature. PMID:23901383

Kwon, Edward; Ferguson, Tomas M; Park, Sarah Y; Manuzak, Augustina; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Morgan, Stephen; Ciminera, Paul; Murphy, Gerald S

2013-06-01

157

Encephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis after eating raw frogs mixed with wine as a health supplement.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis also known as the rat lungworm, is prevalent in the Pacific Islands and southeast Asia and is the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Although frogs and toads are known as paratenic hosts of A. cantonensis, they are rarely reported as the infectious source of human angiostrongyliasis. We report a case of encephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis after eating raw frogs mixed with wine as a health supplement. Prednisolone at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day was prescribed for 14 days successfully. We advise that travelers and residents of endemic areas should avoid eating raw frogs and a public caution on the danger of eating raw wild animal products or the whole animal is recommended to alleviate such accidental infection. PMID:21467715

Tsai, Hung-Chin; Lai, Ping-Hong; Sy, Cheng-Len; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Yen, Chuan-Min; Wann, Shue-Ren; Chen, Yao-Shen

2011-01-01

158

Progress in Nematode Steroid Research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An obvious approach to developing biorational approaches to nematode control involves the exploitation of metabolic differences between host and parasite. In the case of nematodes, one obvious metabolic difference from their plant or mammalian hosts is the absence in nematodes of the ability to bios...

159

The discovery of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as a cause of human eosinophilic meningitis.  

PubMed

The theoretical and subsequent confirmation in 1961 of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, as the causative agent o f eosinophilic meningitis is one o f the remarkable parasitological findings of the twentieth century. Here, Joseph Alicato briefly summarizes the early history and his epidemiological studies on the relationship between the parasite and the epidemics o f encephalitis that swept through Oceania after the Second World War. PMID:15463478

Alicata, J E

1991-06-01

160

Scanning electron microscopic observations of first- and third-stage larvae and adults of Angiostrongylus costaricensis.  

PubMed

The surfaces of larval and adult Angiostrongylus costaricensis, causative agent of human abdominal granuloma, were studied by the use of scanning electron microscopy. Cuticular annulations were clearly demonstrated on the surface of larvae and adults. Differences in the appearance of alae in larval stages and in the shape of the tail at different stages of development are described and illustrated. Several aspects of morphology previously unreported for this parasite are also described. PMID:2098918

Ishih, A; Rodriguez, B O; Sano, M

1990-12-01

161

Molecular cloning and characterization of cystatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor, from Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystatins are thiol proteinase inhibitors ubiquitously present in mammalian body and serve various important physiological\\u000a functions. In the present study, a novel cystatin molecule (AcCystatin) was cloned from a cDNA library of Angiostrongylus cantonensis fourth-stage larvae. The putative 14-kDa protein contained 120 residues with cystatin-conserved motifs known to interact\\u000a with the active site of cysteine peptidases and showed high identities

Yu-hong Liu; Yan-ping Han; Zheng-yu Li; Jie Wei; Han-jiang He; Chang-zhi Xu; Huan-qin Zheng; Xi-mei Zhan; Zhong-dao Wu; Zhi-yue Lv

2010-01-01

162

Angiostrongylus cantonensis : morphological and behavioral investigation within the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the main causative agent for human eosinophilic encephalitis, can be acquired through the consumption of the freshwater\\u000a snail Pomacea canaliculata. This snail also provides a suitable model to study the developmental morphology and behavior of A. cantonensis larvae, facilitated by the snail’s distinct lung structure. We used microanatomy for studying the natural appearance and\\u000a behavior

Shan Lv; Yi Zhang; He-Xiang Liu; Chao-Wei Zhang; Peter Steinmann; Xiao-Nong Zhou; Jürg Utzinger

2009-01-01

163

Seasonal intensity of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the intermediate host, Laevicaulis alte.  

PubMed

The slug, Laevicaulis alte, is a vector of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Greater Bombay area. The seasonal prevalence of A. cantonensis was investigated to determine the maximum intensity of the parasite in a field population occupying an area of approximately 400 m2. The maximum intensity of larvae was observed in the rainy months, June-November. Investigations showed that individual L. alte could tolerate an infecting dose of 150 first-stage A. cantonensis larvae before mortalities occurred. PMID:1399252

Mahajan, R K; Almeida, A J; Sengupta, S R; Renapurkar, D M

1992-08-01

164

Larvicidal effect of perbendazole on experimental infection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mice.  

PubMed

Perbendazole was given orally and subcutaneously to mice infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis at different stages of infection. The subcutaneous route of administration was more effective than the oral one. On the 5th day after infection, the perbendazole had a higher efficacy than on the 10th day postinfection. This finding shows that perbendazole had complete larvicidal effect at early stages of infection. PMID:3428011

Kamath, V R; Menon, S; Renapurkar, D M

1987-01-01

165

Nematode Community Structure in Desert Soils: Nematode Recovery I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugar-flotation-sieving (SFS) and Baermann-funnel (BF) methods were compared for nematode extraction efficiency. The SFS method recovered nematodes from more trophic groups whereas greater total numbers of individuals were recovered by BF. In a test to validate the efficiency of SFS, virtually 100% of the nematodes added to desert soil prior to extraction were recovered by four consecutive SFS washings

D. W. FRECKMAN; R. MANKAU; H. FERRIS

166

High within-host genetic variation of the nematode Spirocerca lupi in a high-density urban dog population.  

PubMed

The nematode worm Spirocerca lupi has a cosmopolitan distribution and can cause the death of its final canid host, typically dogs. While its life cycle, which involves a coprophagous beetle intermediate host, a number of non-obligatory vertebrate paratenic hosts and a canid final host, is well understood, surprisingly little is known about its transmission dynamics and population genetic structure. Here we sequenced cox1 to quantify genetic variation and the factors that limit gene flow in a 300 km(2) area in South Africa. Three quarters of the genetic variation, was explained by differences between worms from the same host, whereas a quarter of the variation was explained by differences between worms from different hosts. With the help of a newly derived model we conclude that while the offspring from different infrapopulations mixes fairly frequently in new hosts, the level of admixture is not enough to homogenize the parasite populations among dogs. Small infrapopulation sizes along with clumped transmission may also result in members of infrapopulations being closely related. PMID:22226763

de Waal, Pamela J; Gous, Annemarie; Clift, Sarah J; Greeff, Jaco M

2012-06-01

167

Toward 959 nematode genomes  

PubMed Central

The sequencing of the complete genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was a landmark achievement and ushered in a new era of whole-organism, systems analyses of the biology of this powerful model organism. The success of the C. elegans genome sequencing project also inspired communities working on other organisms to approach genome sequencing of their species. The phylum Nematoda is rich and diverse and of interest to a wide range of research fields from basic biology through ecology and parasitic disease. For all these communities, it is now clear that access to genome scale data will be key to advancing understanding, and in the case of parasites, developing new ways to control or cure diseases. The advent of second-generation sequencing technologies, improvements in computing algorithms and infrastructure and growth in bioinformatics and genomics literacy is making the addition of genome sequencing to the research goals of any nematode research program a less daunting prospect. To inspire, promote and coordinate genomic sequencing across the diversity of the phylum, we have launched a community wiki and the 959 Nematode Genomes initiative (www.nematodegenomes.org/). Just as the deciphering of the developmental lineage of the 959 cells of the adult hermaphrodite C. elegans was the gateway to broad advances in biomedical science, we hope that a nematode phylogeny with (at least) 959 sequenced species will underpin further advances in understanding the origins of parasitism, the dynamics of genomic change and the adaptations that have made Nematoda one of the most successful animal phyla. PMID:24058822

Kumar, Sujai; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Kaur, Gaganjot; Blaxter, Mark

2012-01-01

168

Toward 959 nematode genomes.  

PubMed

The sequencing of the complete genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was a landmark achievement and ushered in a new era of whole-organism, systems analyses of the biology of this powerful model organism. The success of the C. elegans genome sequencing project also inspired communities working on other organisms to approach genome sequencing of their species. The phylum Nematoda is rich and diverse and of interest to a wide range of research fields from basic biology through ecology and parasitic disease. For all these communities, it is now clear that access to genome scale data will be key to advancing understanding, and in the case of parasites, developing new ways to control or cure diseases. The advent of second-generation sequencing technologies, improvements in computing algorithms and infrastructure and growth in bioinformatics and genomics literacy is making the addition of genome sequencing to the research goals of any nematode research program a less daunting prospect. To inspire, promote and coordinate genomic sequencing across the diversity of the phylum, we have launched a community wiki and the 959 Nematode Genomes initiative (www.nematodegenomes.org/). Just as the deciphering of the developmental lineage of the 959 cells of the adult hermaphrodite C. elegans was the gateway to broad advances in biomedical science, we hope that a nematode phylogeny with (at least) 959 sequenced species will underpin further advances in understanding the origins of parasitism, the dynamics of genomic change and the adaptations that have made Nematoda one of the most successful animal phyla. PMID:24058822

Kumar, Sujai; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Kaur, Gaganjot; Blaxter, Mark

2012-01-01

169

Evidence of coat color variation sheds new light on ancient canids.  

PubMed

We have used a paleogenetics approach to investigate the genetic landscape of coat color variation in ancient Eurasian dog and wolf populations. We amplified DNA fragments of two genes controlling coat color, Mc1r (Melanocortin 1 Receptor) and CBD103 (canine-?-defensin), in respectively 15 and 19 ancient canids (dogs and wolf morphotypes) from 14 different archeological sites, throughout Asia and Europe spanning from ca. 12 000 B.P. (end of Upper Palaeolithic) to ca. 4000 B.P. (Bronze Age). We provide evidence of a new variant (R301C) of the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) and highlight the presence of the beta-defensin melanistic mutation (CDB103-K locus) on ancient DNA from dog-and wolf-morphotype specimens. We show that the dominant K(B) allele (CBD103), which causes melanism, and R301C (Mc1r), the variant that may cause light hair color, are present as early as the beginning of the Holocene, over 10,000 years ago. These results underline the genetic diversity of prehistoric dogs. This diversity may have partly stemmed not only from the wolf gene pool captured by domestication but also from mutations very likely linked to the relaxation of natural selection pressure occurring in-line with this process. PMID:24098367

Ollivier, Morgane; Tresset, Anne; Hitte, Christophe; Petit, Coraline; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Pionnier-Capitan, Maud; Lagoutte, Laetitia; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Balasescu, Adrian; Boroneant, Adina; Mashkour, Marjan; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Hänni, Catherine

2013-01-01

170

Pregnancy diagnosis in wild canids using a commercially available relaxin assay.  

PubMed

Accurate detection of pregnancy is a useful tool in zoo management and husbandry, conservation breeding programs and research settings. Our study evaluated the ability of a commercial relaxin hormone assay used in domestic dogs (ReproCHEK(TM)) to accurately detect pregnancy through plasma analysis in two wolf and two fox species. The relaxin assay detected all of the pregnancies greater than 25 days gestation for island foxes, fennec foxes, gray wolves, and Mexican gray wolves. For island foxes, three negative relaxin results were attributed to using the test earlier postconception than manufacturer recommendation (before day 20). Five other negative results were found for females estimated at 15-25 days gestation, spanning the early and intermediate period (21-30 days gestation) when relaxin may be detected but less reliably. There were no false-positive results in nonmated negative control animals. Relaxin assay results were highly correlated with ultrasound results and the intra-assay replicate agreement was 100%. Our results show that the ReproCHEK(TM) commercial relaxin assay is a minimally invasive and reliable method for pregnancy detection in these wild species when used after 25 days gestation and might be applied to other canids as well. Furthermore, this assay is easy to run and requires no specialized equipment, making it extremely useful for zoo and field research applications. Zoo Biol 27:406-413, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360634

Bauman, Joan E; Clifford, Deana L; Asa, Cheryl S

2008-09-01

171

Use of volatile organic components in scat to identify canid species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of wildlife species from indirect evidence can be an important part of wildlife management, and conventional +methods can be expensive or have high error rates. We used chemical characterization of the volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in scat as a method to identify 5 species of North American canids from multiple individuals. We sampled vapors of scats in the headspace over a sample using solid-phase microextraction and determined VOC content using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. We used linear discriminant analysis to develop models for differentiating species with bootstrapping to estimate accuracy. Our method correcdy classified 82.4% (bootstrapped 95% CI = 68.8-93.8%) of scat samples. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scat was most frequendy misclassified (25.0% of scats misclassified); red fox was also the most common destination for misclassified samples. Our findings are the first reported identification of animal species using VOCs in vapor emissions from scat and suggest that identification of wildlife species may be plausible through chemical characterization of vapor emissions of scat.

Burnham, E.; Bender, L.C.; Eiceman, G.A.; Pierce, K.M.; Prasad, S.

2008-01-01

172

Reibergram of Intrathecal Synthesis of C4 in Patients with Eosinophilic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus cantonensis produces eosinophilic meningitis in humans and is endemic in Thailand, Taiwan, China, and the Caribbean region. During infection with this parasite, it is important to know if the complement system may be activated by the classical or lectin pathway. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 20 patients with meningitic angiostrongyliasis were used to quantify C4 levels and albumin. Results were plotted on a C4 CSF/serum quotient diagram or Reibergram. Twelve patients showed intrathecal synthesis of C4. Antibody-dependent complement cytotoxicity should be considered as a possible mechanism that destroys third-stage larvae of this helminth in cerebrospinal fluid of affected patients. PMID:20519605

Padilla-Docal, Bárbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto Juan; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa; Rodríguez-Rey, Alexis; Gutiérrez-Hernández, Juan Carlos; de Paula-Almeida, Susana Olga

2010-01-01

173

Susceptibility and morbidity between male and female Swiss mice infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis.  

PubMed

The gender of vertebrate hosts may affect the outcome of parasitic infections. An experimental murine infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis was followed with determinations of body weight, fecal larval elimination, number and length of adult worms, number of macroscopic intestinal lesions, and mortality. Groups of male and female Swiss mice were infected with 10 3(rd)-stage A. costaricensis larvae per animal. The results indicate there are no significant differences related to gender of the host, except for higher length of worms developed in male mice. PMID:21049231

Mentz, Márcia B; Dallegrave, Eliane; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

2010-01-01

174

Effects of nucleic acid inhibitors on the development of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in vitro.  

PubMed

Nucleic acid biosynthesis of Angiostrongylus costaricensis was examined with various inhibitors; aminopterin (inhibitor of purine and pyrimidine de novo biosynthetic pathways), 8-azaguanine (specific inhibitor of purine salvage pathway) and PALA (specific inhibitor of pyrimidine de novo biosynthetic pathway) were applied in in vitro culture developing from the third stage larvae to young adult in chemically defined medium. It was suggested that A. costaricensis possessed functional purine and pyrimidine de novo biosynthetic pathways and also that they could utilize exogenous sources of purines and pyrimidines by salvage pathways for their development. PMID:9819773

Hata, H; Niimura, M; Yano, A

1998-10-01

175

[Natural murine infestation by Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera and Cespedes, 1971 in Guadeloupe].  

PubMed

In 1992, two cases of abdominal angiostrongylosis were reported in young Guadeloupean children. With a view to determine the natural infestation rate of Guadeloupe rodents (Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus) by Angiostrongylus costaricensis, 656 rats caught in the country have been examined. Both murine species are naturally infested (6.2% in R. rattus and 14.9% in R. norvegicus), which gives a total prevalence of 7.5%. This total prevalence is higher in the tourist area. A complementary investigation proves to be necessary to identify in Guadeloupe the alleged intermediate hosts (slugs, land snails) in which the human illness has its direct origins. PMID:7819811

Juminer, B; Borel, G; Mauleon, H; Durette-Desset, M C; Raccurt, C P; Roudier, M; Nicolas, M; Perez, J M

1993-01-01

176

Sacral myeloradiculitis (Elsberg syndrome) secondary to eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

PubMed Central

Elsberg syndrome secondary to eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is uncommon. Clinicians should consider a wide differential diagnosis including tumour, spinal cord infarction, necrosis, vasculitis, drug induced or other sources of infection. In addition, acute urinary retention is a urological emergency and clinicians should keep in mind the prevention of bladder overdistension. The intervention of rehabilitation programmes and clean intermittent catheterisation education for bladder management, in accordance with the patient’s condition, is also important. Earlier rehabilitation is important to ensure a speedy recovery and to prevent further complications. PMID:21811516

Hsu, Jui-Jen; Chuang, Shin-Hung; Chen, Chia-Hsin; Huang, Mao-Hsiung

2009-01-01

177

Studies on susceptibility of Pila ampullacea, to the infection with the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Experimental infections of Pila ampullacea with first stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis were carried out to determine susceptibility of this molluscan host in relation to dose level and snail host size. Snails were divided into 3 size groups and exposed to A. cantonensis first stage larval suspensions of varying concentrations. The results showed that overall, about 20% of larvae ingested by the snails developed into infective third stage larvae, but the percentage was inversely related to both the number of larvae to which snails were exposed and snail weight. The infective worms were concentrated in the foot muscle and mantle of the molluscan host. PMID:538501

Vachanavinich, K; Brockelman, C R

1979-12-01

178

Bacteria can mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes.  

PubMed

In their natural habitat, bacteria are consumed by bacterivorous nematodes; however, they are not simply passive preys. Here we report a defensive mechanism used by certain bacteria to mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes. These bacteria release urea, which triggers a lifestyle switch in the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from saprophytic to nematode-predatory form; this predacious form is characterized by formation of specialized cellular structures or 'traps'. The bacteria significantly promote the elimination of nematodes by A. oligospora. Disruption of genes involved in urea transport and metabolism in A. oligospora abolishes the urea-induced trap formation. Furthermore, the urea metabolite ammonia functions as a signal molecule in the fungus to initiate the lifestyle switch to form trap structures. Our findings highlight the importance of multiple predator-prey interactions in prey defense mechanisms. PMID:25514608

Wang, Xin; Li, Guo-Hong; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ji, Xing-Lai; Liu, Tong; Zhao, Pei-Ji; Liang, Lian-Ming; Xu, Jian-Ping; An, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Xi; Qin, Yue-Ke; Tian, Meng-Qing; Xu, You-Yao; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yu, Ze-Fen; Huang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Qun; Niu, Xue-Mei; Yang, Jin-Kui; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Ke-Qin

2014-01-01

179

Bacteria can mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes  

PubMed Central

In their natural habitat, bacteria are consumed by bacterivorous nematodes; however, they are not simply passive preys. Here we report a defensive mechanism used by certain bacteria to mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes. These bacteria release urea, which triggers a lifestyle switch in the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from saprophytic to nematode–predatory form; this predacious form is characterized by formation of specialized cellular structures or ‘traps’. The bacteria significantly promote the elimination of nematodes by A. oligospora. Disruption of genes involved in urea transport and metabolism in A. oligospora abolishes the urea-induced trap formation. Furthermore, the urea metabolite ammonia functions as a signal molecule in the fungus to initiate the lifestyle switch to form trap structures. Our findings highlight the importance of multiple predator–prey interactions in prey defense mechanisms. PMID:25514608

Wang, Xin; Li, Guo-Hong; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ji, Xing-Lai; Liu, Tong; Zhao, Pei-Ji; Liang, Lian-Ming; Xu, Jian-Ping; An, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Xi; Qin, Yue-Ke; Tian, Meng-Qing; Xu, You-Yao; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yu, Ze-Fen; Huang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Qun; Niu, Xue-Mei; Yang, Jin-Kui; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Ke-Qin

2014-01-01

180

Eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis in a returned traveler: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is the principal cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide, and the increase in world travel and shipborne dispersal of infected rat vectors has extended this parasite to regions outside of its traditional geographic boundaries. We report a case of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis in a patient who recently returned from a trip in the Pacific. PMID:11568860

Lo Re, V; Gluckman, S J

2001-11-01

181

Managing Nematodes without Methyl Bromide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methyl bromide is an effective pre-plant soil fumigant used to control nematodes in many high-input, high-value production systems including vegetables, nurseries, ornamentals, tree fruits, strawberries, and grapes. Because methyl bromide has provided a reliable return on investment for nematode c...

182

Using good nematodes to kill bad nematodes: Applications of entomopathogenic nematodes for control of the pecan root-knot nematode  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Meloidogyne partityla is a nematode parasite of pecan and walnut. Our objective was to determine interactions between the entomopathogenic nematode-bacterium complex and M. partityla. Specifically, we investigated suppressive effects of Steinernema feltiae and S. riobrave applied as infective juve...

183

A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication. PMID:24918751

Ueda, Sayoko; Kumagai, Gaku; Otaki, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kohshima, Shiro

2014-01-01

184

Water Developments and Canids in Two North American Deserts: A Test of the Indirect Effect of Water Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic modifications to landscapes intended to benefit wildlife may negatively influence wildlife communities. Anthropogenic provisioning of free water (water developments) to enhance abundance and distribution of wildlife is a common management practice in arid regions where water is limiting. Despite the long-term and widespread use of water developments, little is known about how they influence native species. Water developments may negatively influence arid-adapted species (e.g., kit fox, Vulpes macrotis) by enabling water-dependent competitors (e.g., coyote, Canis latrans) to expand distribution in arid landscapes (i.e., indirect effect of water hypothesis). We tested the two predictions of the indirect effect of water hypothesis (i.e., coyotes will visit areas with free water more frequently and kit foxes will spatially and temporally avoid coyotes) and evaluated relative use of free water by canids in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts from 2010 to 2012. We established scent stations in areas with (wet) and without (dry) free water and monitored visitation by canids to these sites and visitation to water sources using infrared-triggered cameras. There was no difference in the proportions of visits to scent stations in wet or dry areas by coyotes or kit foxes at either study area. We did not detect spatial (no negative correlation between visits to scent stations) or temporal (no difference between times when stations were visited) segregation between coyotes and kit foxes. Visitation to water sources was not different for coyotes between study areas, but kit foxes visited water sources more in Mojave than Great Basin. Our results did not support the indirect effect of water hypothesis in the Great Basin or Mojave Deserts for these two canids. PMID:23844097

Hall, Lucas K.; Larsen, Randy T.; Knight, Robert N.; Bunnell, Kevin D.; McMillan, Brock R.

2013-01-01

185

Water developments and canids in two North American deserts: a test of the indirect effect of water hypothesis.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic modifications to landscapes intended to benefit wildlife may negatively influence wildlife communities. Anthropogenic provisioning of free water (water developments) to enhance abundance and distribution of wildlife is a common management practice in arid regions where water is limiting. Despite the long-term and widespread use of water developments, little is known about how they influence native species. Water developments may negatively influence arid-adapted species (e.g., kit fox, Vulpes macrotis) by enabling water-dependent competitors (e.g., coyote, Canis latrans) to expand distribution in arid landscapes (i.e., indirect effect of water hypothesis). We tested the two predictions of the indirect effect of water hypothesis (i.e., coyotes will visit areas with free water more frequently and kit foxes will spatially and temporally avoid coyotes) and evaluated relative use of free water by canids in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts from 2010 to 2012. We established scent stations in areas with (wet) and without (dry) free water and monitored visitation by canids to these sites and visitation to water sources using infrared-triggered cameras. There was no difference in the proportions of visits to scent stations in wet or dry areas by coyotes or kit foxes at either study area. We did not detect spatial (no negative correlation between visits to scent stations) or temporal (no difference between times when stations were visited) segregation between coyotes and kit foxes. Visitation to water sources was not different for coyotes between study areas, but kit foxes visited water sources more in Mojave than Great Basin. Our results did not support the indirect effect of water hypothesis in the Great Basin or Mojave Deserts for these two canids. PMID:23844097

Hall, Lucas K; Larsen, Randy T; Knight, Robert N; Bunnell, Kevin D; McMillan, Brock R

2013-01-01

186

An evaluation of the PCR-RFLP technique to aid molecular-based monitoring of felids and canids in India  

PubMed Central

Background The order Carnivora is well represented in India, with 58 of the 250 species found globally, occurring here. However, small carnivores figure very poorly in research and conservation policies in India. This is mainly due to the dearth of tested and standardized techniques that are both cost effective and conducive to small carnivore studies in the field. In this paper we present a non-invasive genetic technique standardized for the study of Indian felids and canids with the use of PCR amplification and restriction enzyme digestion of scat collected in the field. Findings Using existing sequences of felids and canids from GenBank, we designed primers from the 16S rRNA region of the mitochondrial genome and tested these on ten species of felids and five canids. We selected restriction enzymes that would cut the selected region differentially for various species within each family. We produced a restriction digestion profile for the potential differentiation of species based on fragment patterns. To test our technique, we used felid PCR primers on scats collected from various habitats in India, representing varied environmental conditions. Amplification success with field collected scats was 52%, while 86% of the products used for restriction digestion could be accurately assigned to species. We verified this through sequencing. A comparison of costs across the various techniques currently used for scat assignment showed that this technique was the most practical and cost effective. Conclusions The species-specific key developed in this paper provides a means for detailed investigations in the future that focus on elusive carnivores in India and this approach provides a model for other studies in areas of Asia where many small carnivores co-occur. PMID:20525407

2010-01-01

187

A Comparison of Facial Color Pattern and Gazing Behavior in Canid Species Suggests Gaze Communication in Gray Wolves (Canis lupus)  

PubMed Central

As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication. PMID:24918751

Ueda, Sayoko; Kumagai, Gaku; Otaki, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kohshima, Shiro

2014-01-01

188

Phylogenetics and systematics of Angiostrongylus lungworms and related taxa (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) inferred from the nuclear small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequences.  

PubMed

The Angiostrongylus lungworms are of public health and veterinary concern in many countries. At the family level, the Angiostrongylus lungworms have been included in the family Angiostrongylidae or the family Metastrongylidae. The present study was undertaken to determine the usefulness and suitability of the nuclear 18S (small subunit, SSU) rDNA sequences for differentiating various taxa of the genus Angiostrongylus, as well as to determine the systematics and phylogenetic relationship of Angiostrongylus species and other metastrongyloid taxa. This study revealed six 18S (SSU) haplotypes in A. cantonensis, indicating considerable genetic diversity. The uncorrected pairwise 'p' distances among A. cantonensis ranged from 0 to 0.86%. The 18S (SSU) rDNA sequences unequivocally distinguished the five Angiostrongylus species, confirmed the close relationship of A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis and that of A. costaricensis and A. dujardini, and were consistent with the family status of Angiostrongylidae and Metastrongylidae. In all cases, the congeneric metastrongyloid species clustered together. There was no supporting evidence to include the genus Skrjabingylus as a member of Metastrongylidae. The genera Aelurostrongylus and Didelphostrongylus were not recovered with Angiostrongylus, indicating polyphyly of the Angiostrongylidae. Of the currently recognized families of Metastrongyloidea, only Crenosomatidae appeared to be monophyletic. In view of the unsettled questions regarding the phylogenetic relationships of various taxa of the metastrongyloid worms, further analyses using more markers and more taxa are warranted. PMID:24622302

Eamsobhana, P; Lim, P E; Yong, H S

2015-05-01

189

A serological survey of infectious disease in yellowstone national park's canid community  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background: Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991-2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5-0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [???1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5-1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [???1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6-4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [???5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals' odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Conclusions/Significance: Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics might be expected might be useful for future management of the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf population.

Almberg, E.S.; Mech, L.D.; Smith, D.W.; Sheldon, J.W.; Crabtree, R.L.

2009-01-01

190

A Serological Survey of Infectious Disease in Yellowstone National Park’s Canid Community  

PubMed Central

Background Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991–2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5–0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [?1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5–1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [?1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6–4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [?5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals’ odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Conclusions/Significance Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics might be expected might be useful for future management of the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf population. PMID:19756151

Almberg, Emily S.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.

2009-01-01

191

Angiostrongylus cantonensis: Epidemiology in the Continental United States and Hawa‘i  

PubMed Central

Autochthonous Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection has been little recognized in the continental United States with the exception of Louisiana. In contrast, it was recognized in Hawa‘i in the early 1960s, and the parasite has been considered endemic since. However, infections were rare until late 2004, when a case cluster was noted on the Island of Hawa‘i. While still uncommon, A. cantonensis infection has continued to emerge throughout the state, especially on the Island of Hawa‘i. Despite increased community awareness, the diagnosis is commonly missed, and the lack of diagnostic tests as well as the challenge of educating clinicians and the public are constant limitations to the prevention and control of this emerging infection.

Fox, LeAnne M

2013-01-01

192

Effects of sensitization on efficacy of mebendazole in mice infected with adult Angiostrongylus costaricensis.  

PubMed

The relation between immunopotentiation and efficacy of mebendazole in sensitized mice infected with adult Angiostrongylus costaricensis was investigated. When compared with the non-treated control, the sensitized control showed better results in almost all parameters with a few mice being positive for the first-stage larvae in feces and eggs in the intestinal section. The results suggest development of protective immunity in the sensitized mice though it was not completely effective for inhibiting infection, worm growth and their functions. The immunity seemed to be developed by producing specific antibodies against the larvae by sensitization. Among 4 infected groups, the sensitized-treated group had the best results in all parameters especially in worm recovery and worm body length which referred that drug action was enhanced by the sensitization. PMID:8134774

Tungtrongchitr, A; Ishih, A; Terada, M; Radomyos, P

1993-12-01

193

Cerebral Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in a captive African pygmy falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) in southern California.  

PubMed

A 10-month-old, female African pygmy falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) hatched and housed at the San Diego Zoo developed neurologic signs and died from a cerebral infection with the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. There was an associated mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. This infection was diagnosed on histology and confirmed by detection of species-specific A. cantonensis DNA in formalin-fixed and frozen brain tissue by a polymerase chain reaction assay. To the authors' knowledge, this infection has not previously been reported in a bird in the United States and has not been known to be naturally acquired in any species in this region of the world. The source of the infection was not definitively determined but was possibly feeder geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus) imported from Southeast Asia where the parasite is endemic. PMID:25085869

Burns, Rachel E; Bicknese, Elizabeth J; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; DeLeon-Carnes, Marlene; Drew, Clifton P; Gardiner, Chris H; Rideout, Bruce A

2014-09-01

194

Specific detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the snail Achatina fulica using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a rat lungworm, can cause eosinophilic meningitis and angiostrongyliasis in humans following ingestion of contaminated foods or intermediate\\/paratenic hosts with infective larvae. The snail Achatina fulica is one of the important intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis and is commonly eaten by humans in some countries. In the present study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the

Chun-Yan Liu; Hui-Qun Song; Ren-Li Zhang; Mu-Xin Chen; Min-Jun Xu; Lin Ai; Xiao-Guang Chen; Xi-Mei Zhan; Shao-Hui Liang; Zi-Guo Yuan; Rui-Qing Lin; Xing-Quan Zhu

2011-01-01

195

A review on the role of predatory soil nematodes in the biological control of plant parasitic nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predatory nematodes feed on soil microorganisms including plant parasitic nematodes. They reduce populations of plant parasitic nematodes in virtually all soils because of their constant association with plant parasitic nematodes in the rhizosphere, and also release nutrients in plant-available forms, which may enable plants to better withstand nematode burden on their roots. Predation by nematodes of the orders Mononchida, Diplogasterida,

Zakaullah Khan; Young Ho Kim

2007-01-01

196

AcCystatin, an immunoregulatory molecule from Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ameliorates the asthmatic response in an aluminium hydroxide/ovalbumin-induced rat model of asthma.  

PubMed

Epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that helminth infections are negatively related to atopic diseases, including asthma. Defining and characterising specific helminth molecules that have excellent immunomodulatory capacities as potential therapeutics for the treatment or prophylaxis of allergic manifestations are of great interest. AcCystatin, a cystatin protease inhibitor of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is a homologue of other nematode cystatins with immunoregulatory properties. Here, we aim to determine the effects of AcCystatin on an ovalbumin/aluminium hydroxide (OVA/Al[OH]3)-induced rat model of asthma. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, including a control group, an OVA/Al[OH]3-induced asthma group, a group receiving AcCystatin immunisation prior to OVA/Al[OH]3-induced asthma and a group receiving AcCystatin treatment after OVA/Al[OH]3-induced asthma. The numbers of eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood and of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted for each animal. The expression levels of the cytokines interferon-?, interleukin (IL) 4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL17A and tumour necrosis factor receptor-? in BALF, of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E in BALF and serum and of the chemokines eotaxin-1, eotaxin-2, eotaxin-3, MCP-1 and MCP-3 in lung tissue were measured. In addition, the degree of peribronchial and perivascular inflammation and the intensity of goblet cell metaplasia were qualitatively evaluated. The sensitised/challenged rats developed an extensive cell inflammatory response of the airways. AcCystatin administration significantly reduced the cellular infiltrate in the perivascular and peribronchial lung tissues and reduced both goblet mucous production and eosinophil infiltration. The rats that were treated with AcCystatin before or after sensitisation with OVA showed significant decreases in eotaxin-1, eotaxin-3 and MCP-1 expression in the lung tissue. The production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-17A and of OVA-specific IgE antibodies was also significantly reduced in AcCystatin-treated rats compared with untreated asthmatic rats. The AcCystatin treatment was associated with a significant increase in IL-10 levels. Our present findings provide the first demonstration that AcCystatin is an effective agent in the prevention and treatment of the airway inflammation associated with asthma. PMID:25399816

Ji, Pengyu; Hu, Huiling; Yang, Xiangyun; Wei, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Chengcheng; Liu, Jingchao; Feng, Yun; Yang, Fan; Okanurak, Kamolnetr; Li, Na; Zeng, Xin; Zheng, Huanqin; Wu, Zhongdao; Lv, Zhiyue

2015-02-01

197

Nematodes as Biological Control Agents of Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Entomogenous nematodes are covered here on a short general page that includes several links, one of which is to a PDF with more extensive bio-control with nematodes information. Nine families of nematodes are mentioned which include species that sterilize, alter behavior, or simply kill the insect host.

0000-00-00

198

Biogenic magnetite in the nematode Caenorhabditis  

E-print Network

is a soil nematode of ca. 1 mm in length, which is readily grown in culture on a diet of bac- teria, usuallyBiogenic magnetite in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Charles G. Cranfield1 , Adam Dawe2.04.04; Published online 28.06.04 The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used as a model system in biological

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

199

Using entomopathogenic nematodes for crop insect control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this paper is to provide an overview on using entomopathogenic nematodes for insect pest control. Entomopathogenic nematodes (genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis), are be used as natural biopesticides. Unlike plant parasitic nematodes, which can be serious crop pests, entomopat...

200

Nonhost Root Penetration by Soybean Cyst Nematode  

PubMed Central

A total of 66 plants in 50 species were inoculated with eggs and juveniles of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. Roots were stained and observed for penetration and development of the nematode. Twenty-six plants were not penetrated; twenty-three were penetrated, but there was no development of the nematode; eight were penetrated with some nematode development; two were penetrated and had considerable nematode development, but few nematodes, if any, matured; and seven were penetrated with many nematodes maturing. The penetration of nonhosts may imply some susceptibility and that populations eventually would build up on the penetrated plants. Plants not penetrated may be useful as rotation plants because no reproduction would occur. PMID:19290137

Riggs, R. D.

1987-01-01

201

ORAL NEMATODE INFECTION OF TARANTULAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oral nematode infection of Theraphosidae spiders, known as tarantulas, has been recently identified from several collections in the UK and mainland Europe. The disease has also been seen in captive and wild spiders from the Americas, Asia and Africa. Spider symptoms are described from anorexia until...

202

Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.  

PubMed

After devastating vast areas of pine forests in Asian countries, the pine wilt disease spread into European forests in 1999 and is causing worldwide concern. This disease involves very complicated interactions between a pathogenic nematode, its vector beetle, host pine species, and fungi in dead hosts. Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode is determined not only by its physical and chemical traits but also by its behavioral traits. Most life history traits of the pine wood nematode, such as its phoretic relationship with vector beetles, seem to be more effective in virulent than in avirulent isolates or species. As the pathogenicity determinants, secreted enzymes, and surface coat proteins are very important, they have therefore been studied intensively. The mechanism of quick death of a large pine tree as a result of infection by a tiny nematode could be ascribed to the dysfunction of the water-conducting system caused by the death of parenchyma cells, which must have originally evolved as an inherent resistant system. PMID:23663004

Futai, Kazuyoshi

2013-01-01

203

Diversity and prevalence of metastrongyloid nematodes infecting the red panda ( Ailurus fulgens) in European zoos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastrongyloid induced pneumonia has been described sporadically in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens). Early descriptions in pandas recently imported to the USA from China involved parasites morphologically similar to Angiostrongylus spp. and Crenosomatidae. More recently, four cases of severe verminous pneumonia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum have been reported from European zoos. A coprological survey of the red panda population within

Mads F. Bertelsen; Frederik Meyland-Smith; Jakob L. Willesen; Ryan Jefferies; Eric R. Morgan; Jesper Monrad

2010-01-01

204

Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes  

PubMed Central

Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole), tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel) and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin). Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC)-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop diagnostics that will help define levels of pre-patent infection. This review describes recent advances in each of these areas of research. PMID:25516842

Matthews, Jacqueline B.

2014-01-01

205

Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes.  

PubMed

Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole), tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel) and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin). Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC)-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop diagnostics that will help define levels of pre-patent infection. This review describes recent advances in each of these areas of research. PMID:25516842

Matthews, Jacqueline B

2014-12-01

206

Brazilian Angiostrongylus cantonensis haplotypes, ac8 and ac9, have two different biological and morphological profiles.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the etiologic agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Cases have been recorded in many parts of the world, including Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in the biology and morphology of two different Brazilian haplotypes of A. cantonensis: ac8 and ac9. A significantly larger number of L1 larvae eliminated in the faeces of rodents at the beginning of the patent period was observed for ac9 haplotype and compared to the total of L1 larvae eliminated, there was a significant difference between the two haplotypes. The ac9 haplotype showed a significant difference in the proportion of female and male specimens (0.6:1), but the same was not observed for ac8 (1.2:1). The morphometric analysis showed that male and female specimens isolated from ac8 haplotype were significantly larger with respect to body length, oesophagus length, spicule length (male) and distance from the anus to the rear end (female) compared to specimens from ac9. The morphological analysis by light microscopy showed little variation in the level of bifurcations at the lateral rays in the right lobe of the copulatory bursa between the two haplotypes. The biological, morphological and morphometric variations observed between the two haplotypes agree with the observed variation at the molecular level using the cytochrome oxidase subunit I marker and reinforce the possible influence of geographical isolation on the development of these haplotypes. PMID:25591110

Monte, Tainá C C; Gentile, Rosana; Garcia, Juberlan; Mota, Ester; Santos, Jeannie N; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo

2014-12-01

207

Eosinophilic Meningitis Attributable to Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection in Hawaii: Clinical Characteristics and Potential Exposures  

PubMed Central

The most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningitis is Angiostrongylus cantonensis, which is transmitted largely by consumption of snails/slugs. We previously identified cases of angiostrongyliasis that occurred in Hawaii from 2001 to 2005; the highest incidence was on the island of Hawaii. We now report symptoms, laboratory parameters, and exposures. Eighteen patients were evaluated; 94% had headache, and 65% had sensory symptoms (paresthesia, hyperesthesia, and/or numbness). These symptoms lasted a median of 17 and 55 days, respectively. Three persons recalled finding a slug in their food/drink. Case-patients on the island of Hawaii were more likely than case-patients on other islands to consume raw homegrown produce in a typical week (89% versus 0%, P < 0.001) and to see snails/slugs on produce (56% versus 0%, P = 0.03). Residents and travelers should be aware of the potential risks of eating uncooked produce in Hawaii, especially if it is from the island of Hawaii and locally grown. PMID:21976573

Hochberg, Natasha S.; Blackburn, Brian G.; Park, Sarah Y.; Sejvar, James J.; Effler, Paul V.; Herwaldt, Barbara L.

2011-01-01

208

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: rapid detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Pomacea canaliculata  

PubMed Central

Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. The most common source of infection with A. cantonensis is the consumption of raw or undercooked mollusks (e.g., snails and slugs) harbouring infectious third-stage larvae (L3). However, the parasite is difficult to identify in snails. The purpose of this study was to develop a quick, simple molecular method to survey for A. cantonensis in intermediate host snails. Findings We used a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, which was performed using Bst DNA polymerase. Reactions amplified the A. cantonensis 18S rRNA gene and demonstrated high sensitivity; as little as 1 fg of DNA was detected in the samples. Furthermore, no cross-reactivity was found with other parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma japonicum, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Anisakis. Pomacea canaliculata snails were exposed to A. cantonensis first-stage larvae (L1) in the laboratory, and L3 were observed in the snails thirty-five days after infection. All nine samples were positive as determined by the LAMP assay for A. cantonensis, which was identified as positive by using PCR and microscopy, this demonstrates that LAMP is sensitive and effective for diagnosis. Conclusions LAMP is an appropriate diagnostic method for the routine identification of A. cantonensis within its intermediate host snail P. canaliculata because of its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity. It holds great promise as a useful monitoring tool for A. cantonensis in endemic regions. PMID:22023992

2011-01-01

209

First report of a fatal autochthonous canine Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in Belgium.  

PubMed

Canine angiostrongylosis is considered as an emergent disease in Europe and Canada. A fatal case of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection is described in a four and a half month old puppy born in Belgium. The dog was presented with marked neurological disorders, body weight loss, a profound weakness and mild respiratory signs. The dog was given antibiotics and mucolytic compounds with very little improvement and consequently was referred to a specialist for additional examinations. As the general condition of the dog was rapidly declining, the animal was euthanized shortly after on its owners' request and a necropsy was carried out. Extensive gross pulmonary lesions were observed and histopathological examination revealed the presence of numerous larvae with morphology compatible with A. vasorum. Larvae were also found in the product of a bronchoalveolar lavage but fecal material was not examined. The presence of A. vasorum circulating serum antigen was demonstrated through ELISA; additionally an A. vasorum specific PCR was performed on brain material and yielded a positive result. This case confirms that the clinical diagnosis of canine angiostrongylosis can be very challenging especially when respiratory signs are absent or very mild such in the present case. This is the first reported case of canine angiostrongylosis in Belgium. PMID:25449287

Jolly, Sandra; Poncelet, Luc; Lempereur, Laetitia; Caron, Yannick; Bayrou, Calixte; Cassart, Dominique; Grimm, Felix; Losson, Bertrand

2015-02-01

210

Transmission of Angiostrongylus cantonensis through the giant African snail Achatina fulica: an experimental study.  

PubMed

Observations on transmission of the rat lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, from rats to the snail intermediate host. Achatina fulica, in a vacant lot in Bangkok are described. The prevalence of A. cantonensis increased with snail age until 200 days of age when it attained a plateau of 50-60%. The overall prevalence was 53%. The worm burden slowly rose with age until 200 days of age beyond which it remained relatively constant. The highest mean worm burden of 5,478 was observed in the oldest age group. The parasite distribution in the snail population was highly aggregated both within each age class and in the overall population. Experiments on susceptibility of snails to laboratory infection revealed that worm recovery was dependent on dose of first stage larval infection but was independent of snail size in the range of 4-8 cm. The percent worm recovery of third stage larvae was negatively correlated with dose of infection, and no density-dependent effects of worm burden on worm size were observed. PMID:1822886

Sithithaworn, P; Brockelman, W Y; Brockelman, C

1991-12-01

211

Upregulation of MMP-9/TIMP-1 enzymatic system in eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

PubMed Central

Proteolysis depends on the balance between the proteases and their inhibitors. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its specific inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP), contribute to eosinophilic inflammatory reaction in the subarachnoid space of the Angiostrongylus cantonensis-infected mice. The expression of MMP-9 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was significantly increased in mice with eosinophilic meningitis, compared to that in uninfected ones. However, the TIMP-1 levels were unchanged and remained at basal levels at all time points, even in uninfected mice. Elevated MMP-9 mRNA expression coincided with protein levels and proteolytic activity, as demonstrated by means of positive immunoreactivity and gelatin zymography. CSF protein contents correlated significantly with MMP-9 intensity and CSF eosinophilia. In addition, immunohistochemistry demonstrated MMP-9 and TIMP-1 localization in eosinophils and macrophages. When the specific MMP inhibitor, GM6001, was added, MMP-9 enzyme activity was reduced by 45.4%. The percentage of eosinophil increased significantly upon the establishment of infection, but subsided upon inhibition. These results show that MMP-9/TIMP-1 imbalance in angiostrongyliasis may be associated with eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:15810979

Chen, Ke-Min; Lee, Hsiu-Hsiung; Chou, Hui-Lin; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Tsai, Bo-Cyuan; Lai, Shih-Chan

2005-01-01

212

Angiostrongylus costaricensis: culture of third-stage larvae to young adults in a defined medium.  

PubMed

The third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus costaricensis were successfully cultured to young adults in a chemically defined medium. The most suitable medium for the development was Waymouth's medium among eight defined media examined. Twenty-eight days after cultivation in this medium, 77% of the larvae developed to young adults, although these worms gradually died thereafter. When Waymouth's medium was supplemented with mouse red blood cells, these young adult worms continued their development. The mean body lengths of the worms cultivated in Waymouth's medium supplemented with RBCs were significantly larger than those of the worms in the medium without RBCs on Days 14 and 21 after cultivation. Addition of RBCs was essential for their further development. At 28 days after cultivation, the maximum body length of the worms was 2.1 mm for males and 3.3 mm for females. Additions of serum, yeast extract lactalbumin hydrolysate, and growth factors to Waymouth's medium did not provide any additional benefits for worm development. PMID:1915749

Hata, H; Kojima, S

1991-10-01

213

Interleukin-5 transgenic mice show augmented resistance to Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection.  

PubMed

To determine the possible role of eosinophils in Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection, both interleukin-5 (IL-5) transgenic (Tg) and non-transgenic (non-Tg) C3H/HeN mice were infected with A. costaricensis third-stage larvae. IL-5 Tg mice demonstrated greater resistance than non-Tg mice to A. costaricensis, as shown by lower adult worm recovery, smaller adults, fewer eggs in the intestinal wall and fewer larvae passed in the feces. Both mice showed similar antigen-specific IgA and IgGI antibody responses, although IgA was more prominent than IgG1. Egg deposition and inflammatory responses in the intestinal walls were milder in IL-5 Tg mice than in non-Tg mice. The eggs with developed larvae, deposited in the intestinal walls of IL-5 Tg mice, were surrounded by numerous degranulating eosinophils and sometimes with Splendore-Hoeppli deposits. The data suggest that eosinophils are involved in the resistance of the mouse during primary infection with A. costaricensis. PMID:11999023

Sugaya, H; Graeff-Teixeira, C; Ishida, K; Matsuda, S; Katahira, K; Yoshimura, K

2002-04-01

214

Angiostrongylus costaricensis: complete redescription of the migratory pathways based on experimental Sigmodon hispidus infection.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus costaricensis lives in the cecal and mesenteric arteries of its vertebrate hosts, and causes an inflammatory disease in humans. To investigate unknown aspects of the abdominal angiostrogyliasis pathogenesis, infected Sigmodon hispidus were sequentially studied in different times of infection. The study revealed that L3 goes alternatively through two migratory courses during its development into an adult worm: lymphatic/venous-arterial and venous portal pathways. The former is considered the principal one, because it is used by most of the larvae. Like other metastrongylides, A. costaricensis passes over the pulmonary circulation to migrate from the lymphatic system to the arterial circulation, where they circulate during some days before reaching their definitive habitat. The oviposition by mature females began on 15th day. Eggs and L1 were detected mainly in the intestine and stomach, surrounded by inflammatory reaction constituted by macrophages, monocytes, and eosinophils. They were also spread to the lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes, pancreas, spleen, and kidneys. The larvae (L1) exhibited the centripetal capacity to invade the lymphatic and venous vessels of the intestine and mesentery. Adult worms that developed in the venous intrahepatic pathway migrated downstream to reach the mesenteric veins and laid eggs that embolized in the portal hepatic vessels. PMID:16113890

Mota, Ester Maria; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel

2005-07-01

215

Hematological and histopathological changes in Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935).  

PubMed

Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonosis endemic to Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands. It is considered an emerging disease because it has been expanding both geographically and in terms of the range of hosts. In South America, the first cases were reported in Brazil and were attributed to eating infected snails. In this study, 70 adult females of Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) were used to evaluate hematology, blood gases, cardiac markers and lung histopathology changes caused by this parasite. Of them, 60 were individually infected by orogastric gavage with 100 L(3) larvae and 10 uninfected animals formed the control group. The results obtained demonstrate that infection caused by A. cantonensis in R. norvegicus promotes significant hematological changes induced in the vertebrate host, manifested mainly in the form of regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia and eosinophilia. Additionally, histopathological changes in the lung parenchyma demonstrated in rodents reveal the occurrence of areas of necrosis and extensive fibrosis, being directly related to the development of cellular hypoxia and enzyme cardiac changes. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between A. cantonensis and R. norvegicus. PMID:24786730

Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Dos Santos Bonfim, Tatiane Cristina; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Mota, Esther Maria; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Santana, André Campos; Hooper, Cleber; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bóia, Marcio Neves

2014-08-01

216

Experimental infection of five subspecies of Oncomelania snails with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Five subspecies of Oncomelania snails, Oncomelania hupensis nosophora, O.h. hupensis, O.h.chiui, O.h.formosana and O.h.quadrasi, were experimentally exposed to the first stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonesis. The presence of third stage larvae was observed in all of the five subspecies of Oncomelania snails 20 days after infection. Infection rates of the third stage larvae of the parasite in Oncomelania snails were 38.0-40.0%. There were no differences in preferences among Oncomelania snails. The third stage larvae in Oncomelania snails almost distributed in kidney and intestine region, and most of the larvae were active and free in tissues. The distribution pattern of the larvae in Oncomelania snails was quite different from that in Achatina fulica and Ampullarium sp. These third stage larvae were ingested by rats, and developed to adults. These data suggest that Oncomelania snails may play important role when A. cantonensis will spread, and indicate the possibility of human infection with A. cantonensis. PMID:9139392

Iwanaga, Y

1995-12-01

217

Tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums as sentinels for Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of angiostrongylosis in tawny frogmouths (Podargus strigoides) and brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) with signs of neurological disease, and to describe the clinicopathological features of angiostrongylosis in both species. Tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums with signs of neurological disease were sampled from the Sydney metropolitan area between October 1998 and June 2010. Samples from 100 tawny frogmouths and 31 brushtail possums from the Australian Registry of Wildlife Health (ARWH), the Wildlife Assistance and Information Foundation (WAIF) and Wildlife Health and Conservation Centre (WHCC), University of Sydney were examined. Histological examinations of the brain, spinal cord and other available tissues were used to characterize the disease responsible for each animal's clinical signs. Of the 100 tawny frogmouths with neurological disease examined, angiostrongylosis was considered responsible in 80 (80%), traumatic injury in 17 (17%), protozoal infection in 3 (3%) and other diseases in 2 (2%) and the cause of clinical signs was unknown in 10 (10%). Eleven tawny frogmouths presenting with neurological signs associated with head trauma had concurrent angiostrongylosis. Of the 31 brushtail possums, Wobbly Possum Syndrome (WPS) was diagnosed in 21 (68%), angiostrongylosis in 4 (13%) and other diseases in the remaining 6 (19%). Angiostrongylosis was overrepresented in hand reared juvenile possums. Cases of angiostrongylosis in tawny frogmouths followed a strong seasonal pattern peaking through late summer and autumn. The results confirm that Angiostrongylus cantonensis is endemic in Sydney, Australia and that tawny frogmouths could be important sentinels for this zoonotic parasite. PMID:23218219

Ma, Gemma; Dennis, Michelle; Rose, Karrie; Spratt, David; Spielman, Derek

2013-02-18

218

Brazilian Angiostrongylus cantonensis haplotypes, ac8 and ac9, have two different biological and morphological profiles  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the etiologic agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Cases have been recorded in many parts of the world, including Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in the biology and morphology of two different Brazilian haplotypes of A. : ac8 and ac9. A significantly larger number of L1 larvae eliminated in the faeces of rodents at the beginning of the patent period was observed for ac9 haplotype and compared to the total of L1 larvae eliminated, there was a significant difference between the two haplotypes. The ac9 haplotype showed a significant difference in the proportion of female and male specimens (0.6:1), but the same was not observed for ac8 (1.2:1). The morphometric analysis showed that male and female specimens isolated from ac8 haplotype were significantly larger with respect to body length, oesophagus length, spicule length (male) and distance from the anus to the rear end (female) compared to specimens from ac9. The morphological analysis by light microscopy showed little variation in the level of bifurcations at the lateral rays in the right lobe of the copulatory bursa between the two haplotypes. The biological, morphological and morphometric variations observed between the two haplotypes agree with the observed variation at the molecular level using the cytochrome oxidase subunit I marker and reinforce the possible influence of geographical isolation on the development of these haplotypes. PMID:25591110

Monte, Tainá CC; Gentile, Rosana; Garcia, Juberlan; Mota, Ester; Santos, Jeannie N; Maldonado, Arnaldo

2014-01-01

219

Detection of plant-parasitic nematode DNA in the gut of predatory and omnivorous nematodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A protocol for molecular gut analysis of nematodes was developed to determine if predatory and omnivorous nematodes from five different guilds prey on Rotylenchulus reniformis, Meloidogyne incognita, and Radopholus similis. Mononchoides, Mononchus, Neoactinolaimus, Mesodorylaimus, and Aporcelaimell...

220

EOSINOPHILIC MENINGITIS CAUSED BY ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS ASSOCIATED WITH EATING RAW SNAILS: CORRELATION OF BRAIN MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING SCANS WITH CLINICAL FINDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. Human infection occurs after ingestion of the worms in raw snails or fish that serve as intermediate hosts. Two outbreaks of central nervous system infection with A. cantonensis occurred in Kaoshiung, Taiwan, during 1998 and 1999 among Thai laborers who ate raw snails. A detailed clinical studies of 17

HUNG-CHIN TSAI; YUNG-CHING LIU; CALVIN M. KUNIN; PING-HONG LAI; SUSAN SHIN-JUNG LEE; YAO-SHEN CHEN; SHUE-REN WANN; WEI-RU LIN; CHUN-KAI HUANG; LUO-PING GER; HSI-HSUN LIN

2003-01-01

221

Improved Molecular Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Mollusks and Other Environmental Samples with a Species-Specific Internal Transcribed Spacer 1-Based TaqMan Assay ?  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common cause of human eosinophilic meningitis. Humans become infected by ingesting food items contaminated with third-stage larvae that develop in mollusks. We report the development of a real-time PCR assay for the species-specific identification of A. cantonensis in mollusk tissue. PMID:20543049

Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Teem, John L.; Hollingsworth, Robert; Bishop, Henry; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; da Silva, Alexandre J.

2010-01-01

222

Improved molecular detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mollusks and other environmental samples with a species-specific ITS1-based TaqMan assay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common cause of human eosinophilic meningitis. Humans can become infected by ingesting food items contaminated with the third-stage infectious larvae released from infected mollusks as well as by ingesting mollusks or paratenic hosts carrying the infectious st...

223

Metabolism of plant sterols by nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic nematodes do not biosynthesize sterolsde novo and therefore possess a nutritional requirement for sterol, which must be obtained from their hosts. Consequently, the metabolism\\u000a of phytosterols by plant-parasitic nematodes is an important process with potential for selective exploitation. The sterol\\u000a compositions of several species of plant-parasitic nematodes were determined by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry\\u000a and compared with the sterol

David J. Chitwood; William R. Lusby

1991-01-01

224

Management of the Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans  

PubMed Central

Of the many nematode species that parasitize citrus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans is the most important on a worldwide basis. Management of the citrus nematode remains problematic as no one tactic gives adequate control of the nematode. An overall management strategy must include such components as site selection, use of non-infected nursery stock, use of at lease one post-plant nematode control tactic, and careful management of other elements of the environment that may stress the trees. Nematicides continue to play a key role in management of this pest. Optimum results require careful attention to application techniques. PMID:19262822

Verdejo-Lucas, S.; McKenry, M. V.

2004-01-01

225

Complete sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mitochondrial genome and its phylogenetic relationship with other Canids ( Canis, Canidae).  

PubMed

In this study, the complete sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) was determined, and the phylogenetic relationships between the Tibetan Mastiff and other species of Canidae were analyzed using the coyote (Canis latrans) as an outgroup. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mtDNA was 16 710 bp, and included 22 tRNA genes, 2S rRNA gene, 13 protein-coding genes and one non-coding region (D-loop region), which is similar to other mammalian mitochondrial genomes. The characteristics of the protein-coding genes, non-coding region, tRNA and rRNA genes among Canidae were analyzed in detail. Neighbor-joining and maximum-parsimony trees of Canids constructed using 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes showed that as the coyotes and Tibetan wolves clustered together, so too did the gray wolves and domestic dogs, suggesting that the Tibetan Mastiff originated from the gray wolf as did other domestic dogs. Domestic dogs clustered into four clades, implying at least four maternal origins (A to D). The Tibetan Mastiff, which belongs to clade A, appears to be closely related to the Saint Bernard and the Old English Sheepdog. PMID:22440697

Li, Yinxia; Li, Qifa; Zhao, Xingbo; Xie, Zhuang; Xu, Yinxue

2011-01-01

226

Detection of antibodies to Neospora caninum in two species of wild canids, Lycalopex gymnocercus and Cerdocyon thous from Brazil.  

PubMed

Domestic dog (Canis domesticus) and the coyote (Canis latrans) are the only known definitive hosts for the protozoan Neospora caninum that causes abortion in dairy cattle. In the present study, antibodies to N. caninum were sought in three species of wild canids, Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex gymnocercus and Dusicyon vetulus from Brazil. Antibodies to N. caninum were assayed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and the Neospora agglutination test (NAT). N. caninum antibodies were found in five of 12 L. gymnocercus with IFAT titers of 1:50 in three, 1:100 in one, and 1:1600 in one, and NAT titers of 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, 1:320, and 1:640 in five animals. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in four of 15 C. thous with IFAT titers of 1:50 in one, and 1:100 in three, and NAT titer of 1:40 in one animal. All 30 D. ventulus were seronegative by IFAT and NAT. PMID:15325054

Cañón-Franco, W A; Yai, L E O; Souza, S L P; Santos, L C; Farias, N A R; Ruas, J; Rossi, F W; Gomes, A A B; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

2004-09-01

227

Disease and Nematode Management in Field Crops Table of Contents  

E-print Network

Disease and Nematode Management in Field Crops Table of Contents Corn and Sorghum Diseases.....................................................................................................................3-6 Nematode Diseases of Corn..............................................................................................................................................................3-7 Seed and Seedling Diseases

Liskiewicz, Maciej

228

Molecular differentiation of Angiostrongylus costaricensis, A. cantonensis, and A. vasorum by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis, A. costaricensis, and A. vasorum are etiologic agents of human parasitic diseases. Their identification, at present, is only possible by examining the adult worm after a 40-day period following infection of vertebrate hosts with the third-stage larvae. In order to obtain a diagnostic tool to differentiate larvae and adult worm from the three referred species, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was carried out. The rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I regions were amplified, followed by digestion of fragments with the restriction enzymes RsaI, HapII, AluI, HaeIII, DdeI and ClaI. The enzymes RsaI and ClaI exhibited the most discriminating profiles for the differentiation of the regions COI of mtDNA and ITS2 of rDNA respectively. The methodology using such regions proved to be efficient for the specific differentiation of the three species of Angiostrongylus under study. PMID:15049087

Caldeira, Roberta L; Carvalho, Omar S; Mendonça, Cristiane L; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Silva, Márcia C; Ben, Renata; Maurer, Rafael; Lima, Walter S; Lenzi, Henrique L

2003-12-01

229

Global Decline in Suitable Habitat for Angiostrongylus (?=?Parastrongylus) cantonensis: The Role of Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Climate change is implicated in the alteration of the ranges of species worldwide. Such shifts in species distributions may introduce parasites/pathogens, hosts, and vectors associated with disease to new areas. The parasite Angiostrongylus (?=?Parastrongylus) cantonensis is an invasive species that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans and neurological abnormalities in domestic/wild animals. Although native to southeastern Asia, A. cantonensis has now been reported from more than 30 countries worldwide. Given the health risks, it is important to describe areas with potentially favorable climate for the establishment of A. cantonensis, as well as areas where this pathogen might become established in the future. We used the program Maxent to develop an ecological niche model for A. cantonensis based on 86 localities obtained from published literature. We then modeled areas of potential A. cantonensis distribution as well as areas projected to have suitable climatic conditions under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios by the 2050s and the 2070s. The best model contained three bioclimatic variables: mean diurnal temperature range, minimum temperature of coldest month and precipitation of warmest quarter. Potentially suitable habitat for A. cantonensis was located worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions. Under all climate change RCP scenarios, the center of the projected distribution shifted away from the equator at a rate of 68–152 km per decade. However, the extent of areas with highly suitable habitat (>50%) declined by 10.66–15.66% by the 2050s and 13.11–16.11% by the 2070s. These results conflict with previous studies, which have generally found that the prevalence of tropical pathogens will increase during the 21st century. Moreover, it is likely that A. cantonensis will continue to expand its current range in the near future due to introductions and host expansion, whereas climate change will reduce the total geographic area of most suitable climatic conditions during the coming decades. PMID:25122457

York, Emily M.; Butler, Christopher J.; Lord, Wayne D.

2014-01-01

230

Global decline in suitable habitat for Angiostrongylus (?= Parastrongylus) cantonensis: the role of climate change.  

PubMed

Climate change is implicated in the alteration of the ranges of species worldwide. Such shifts in species distributions may introduce parasites/pathogens, hosts, and vectors associated with disease to new areas. The parasite Angiostrongylus (?= Parastrongylus) cantonensis is an invasive species that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans and neurological abnormalities in domestic/wild animals. Although native to southeastern Asia, A. cantonensis has now been reported from more than 30 countries worldwide. Given the health risks, it is important to describe areas with potentially favorable climate for the establishment of A. cantonensis, as well as areas where this pathogen might become established in the future. We used the program Maxent to develop an ecological niche model for A. cantonensis based on 86 localities obtained from published literature. We then modeled areas of potential A. cantonensis distribution as well as areas projected to have suitable climatic conditions under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios by the 2050s and the 2070s. The best model contained three bioclimatic variables: mean diurnal temperature range, minimum temperature of coldest month and precipitation of warmest quarter. Potentially suitable habitat for A. cantonensis was located worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions. Under all climate change RCP scenarios, the center of the projected distribution shifted away from the equator at a rate of 68-152 km per decade. However, the extent of areas with highly suitable habitat (>50%) declined by 10.66-15.66% by the 2050s and 13.11-16.11% by the 2070s. These results conflict with previous studies, which have generally found that the prevalence of tropical pathogens will increase during the 21st century. Moreover, it is likely that A. cantonensis will continue to expand its current range in the near future due to introductions and host expansion, whereas climate change will reduce the total geographic area of most suitable climatic conditions during the coming decades. PMID:25122457

York, Emily M; Butler, Christopher J; Lord, Wayne D

2014-01-01

231

Metabolic and histopathological profile of Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935).  

PubMed

Eosinophilic meningitis is a disease characterized by increased eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the most commonly caused by invasion of the central nervous system by helminths, as occurs in Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections. The rodent Rattus norvegicus is the definitive natural host and humans act as accidental hosts and can become infected by eating raw or undercooked snails or food contaminated with infective L3 larvae. Recently in Brazil there have been four cases of eosinophilic meningitis due to ingestion of infected Achatina fulica. To evaluate biochemical and histopathological changes caused by this parasite, R. norvegicus were experimentally infected with 100 L3 larvae of A. cantonensis. After the anesthetic procedure, serum from the rodents was collected from the inferior vena cava for evaluation of the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein and its fractions. During the necropsy, the liver was collected and weighed. Then a 1-g fragment was extracted from the major lobe to quantify the hepatic glycogen and fragment remainder was taken from the same lobe and fixed in Milloning's formalin for histopathological examination. Additionally, helminths were collected from the brain and lungs of the rodents. The activities of AST, ALT, ALKP and GGT in the serum and hepatic glycogen increased in response to infection, while the levels of globulin and total protein increased only in the eighth week of infection and there was a reduction in the levels of serum glucose. Albumin and bilirubin concentrations remained stable during the experiment. Infection with A. cantonensis caused metabolic and histopathological changes in the rodents. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between A. cantonensis and R. norvegicus. PMID:24333291

Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Lúcio, Camila dos Santos; Bonfim, Tatiane Cristina dos Santos; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Mota, Esther Maria; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Santana, André Campos; Hooper, Cleber; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bóia, Marcio Neves

2014-02-01

232

Parasitic Nematodes - From Genomes to Control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diseases caused by parasitic nematodes in domestic and companion animals are major factors that decrease production and quality of the agricultural products. Methods available for the control of the parasitic nematode infections are mainly based on chemical treatment, non-chemical management pra...

233

Nematodes of Tropical Fruit Crops in Venezueka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on nematodes of main fruit crops in Venezuela are reviewed, including acerola, avocado, banana and plantain, breadfruit,\\u000a cashew, citrus, coconut, date palm, fig, grapevine, guava, mango, papaya, passionfruit, peach, pineapple, sapodilla and tamarind.\\u000a For each crop, main nematode species are reviewed, with dataon their distribution, damage and management

Renato Crozzoli

234

Blends of ascarosides regulate dispersal in nematodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blends of ascarosides regulate dispersal in nematodes Presenter: Dr. Fatma Kaplan Dispersal is an important behavior for many organisms. It can easily be observed when infectious juveniles of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis) leave a consumed insect host. Dauer larvae of ...

235

Interspecific nematode signals regulate dispersal behavior  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2) of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective ...

236

Soil nematode biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature on nematode diversity (=number of species identified) of soil inhabiting nematodes was undertaken and analysed with regard to distance from the equator, vegetation type and sampling effort. After applying a correction factor for sampling effort the results indicated that species richness was greatest in temperate broadleaf forest (61.7 species per sample) followed by cultivated soil,

Brian Boag; Gregor W. Yeates

1998-01-01

237

Calibration of estimated biting forces in domestic canids: comparison of post-mortem and in vivo measurements  

PubMed Central

Estimates of biting forces are widely used in paleontological and comparative studies of feeding mechanics and performance, and are usually derived from lever models based on measurements made on the skull that are relevant to the mechanics of the masticatory system. Owing to assumptions and unmeasurable errors in their estimation, such values are used comparatively rather than as absolute estimates. The purpose of this paper was to provide calibration of post-mortem calculated bite force estimates by comparing them to in vivo forces derived from a sample of 20 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) during muscle stimulation under general anaesthesia. Two lever models previously described in the literature were used to estimate post-mortem values, and regression analysis was also performed to derive best-fit equations against a number of morphometric measurements on the skull. The ranges of observed forces in vivo were 147–946 N at the canine, and 524–3417 N at the second molar. The lever models substantially underestimated these forces, giving mean values between 39% and 61% of the observed means. Predictability was considerably improved by removing the linear bias and deviation of the regression slope from unity with an adjustment equation. Best-fit statistical models developed on these animals performed considerably better (calculated means within 0.54% of observed means) and included easily measureable variables such as bodyweight, dimensions of the temporalis fossa and out-lever from the jaw joint to the biting tooth. These data should lead to more accurate absolute, rather than relative, estimates of biting forces for other extant and fossil canids, and other carnivorans by extrapolation. PMID:18510505

Ellis, Jennifer Lynn; Thomason, Jeffrey J; Kebreab, Ermias; France, James

2008-01-01

238

Comparative immunological characterization of type-specific and conserved B-cell epitopes of pinniped, felid and canid herpesviruses.  

PubMed

Murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were generated against phocid herpesviruses (PhHV 2557/Han88 and 7848/Han90) isolated from European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), and against strains of both felid (FHV strain FVR 605) and canid herpesviruses (CHV isolate 5105/Han89). MAbs were characterized with respect to certain biological properties and used to outline antigenicity profiles of isolates of PhHV (n = 8), FHV (n = 7) and CHV (n = 3) in enzyme immunoassays employing fixed infected cells. A close antigenic relationship between herpesviruses derived from pinnipeds and terrestrial carnivores became evident: The majority of the MAbs was directed against epitopes which were expressed by at least two of the viral species tested. A number of MAbs detected epitopes which were conserved between all isolates of PhHV, FHV and CHV. A few MAbs recognized type-specific B-cell epitopes and facilitated the identification of single viral species. Moreover, the PhHV isolate 7848/Han90 was antigenically distinguishable both from seven other phocid herpesvirus isolates and from FHV or CHV. PhHV 7848/Han90 proved to be antigenically distinct from all other viruses tested when examined by cross neutralization utilizing various reconvalescent and hyperimmune sera. Although more data are needed to ensure that PhHV 7848/Han90 indeed is a new genuine seal herpesvirus, the preliminary clustering of two groups of phocid herpesvirus isolates, tentatively designated PhHV-1 (type isolate 2557/Han88) and PhHV-2 (represented by 7848/Han90), seems to be justified. By using selected MAbs an unambiguous identification and typing of herpesvirus isolates derived from marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores is significantly facilitated. PMID:7518225

Lebich, M; Harder, T C; Frey, H R; Visser, I K; Osterhaus, A D; Liess, B

1994-01-01

239

Influence of symbiotic bacteria on entomopathogenic nematode--host interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are three players in the infection process of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae): the nematodes themselves, the host insect, and the nematode’s mutualistic bacteria (Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp.). As a host infection progresses, all three of these players...

240

Free-living and Plant-Parasitic Nematodes (Roundworms)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces learners to the world of nematodes (roundworms). Learners construct Baermann funnels to extract nematodes from soil and learn to differentiate stylet-bearing nematodes (most likely plant parasites) from free-living nematodes. This lesson includes background information, study questions with answers for learners, and diagrams. Dissecting and compound microscopes are required (not included in cost of materials).

2012-12-18

241

Chemoattraction in Pristionchus Nematodes and Implications for Insect Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nematodes and insects are the two dominant animal taxa in species numbers, and nematode-insect inter- actions constitute a significant portion of interspecies associations in a diversity of ecosystems. It has been speculated that most insects represent mobile micro- habitats in which nematodes can obtain food, mobil- ity, and shelter. Nematode-insect associations can be classified as phoretic (insects used for

Ray L. Hong; Ralf J. Sommer

2006-01-01

242

14-3-3? protein expression in eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection  

PubMed Central

Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasite endemic in the Southeast Asian and Pacific regions. Humans are incidentally infected either by eating uncooked intermediate hosts or by consuming vegetables containing the living third-stage larvae. The 14-3-3? protein is a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) marker of neuronal damage during the development of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In addition, increased 14-3-3? protein is also found in CSF from patients with a variety of neurological disorders. The goal of this study is to determine the roles of serum/CSF14-3-3? protein in patients with eosinophilic meningitis. Methods In a cohort study among nine Thai laborers with eosinophilic meningitis due to eating raw snails (Pomacea canaliculata), we examined the CSF weekly while patients were still hospitalized and followed up the serum for 6 months. The levels of 14-3-3? protein in CSF were analyzed by western blot and an in-house 14-3-3? enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurement was established and tested in an animal model of eosinophilic meningitis. Results The elevated 14-3-3? level was detected in the CSF from eight out of nine (81%) patients After 2 weeks of treatment, all patients showed a declined level or cleared of 14-3-3? protein in the CSF. By developing an in-house ELISA for measurement of 14-3-3? protein, it was found that the serum 14-3-3? level was significantly increased in patients during initial visit. . This finding was consistent to the animal experiment result in which there was severe blood brain barrier damage three weeks after infection and increased 14-3-3? protein expression in the CSF and serum by western blot and in house ELISA. After treatment, the serum 14-3-3? level in meningitis patients was rapidly returned to normal threshold. There was a correlation between initial CSF 14-3-3? level with severity of headache (r?=?0.692, p?=?0.039), CSF pleocytosis (r?=?0.807, p?=?0.009) and eosinophilia (r?=?0.798, p?=?0.01) in the CSF of patients with eosinophilic meningitis (Spearman’s correlation test). Conclusions The serum 14-3-3? concentrations may constitute a useful marker for blood brain barrier damage severity and follow up in patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis. PMID:24555778

2014-01-01

243

Nematodes associated with Dryocoetes uniseriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  

PubMed

We examined the nematode fauna associated with a species of bark beetle, Dryocoetes uniseriatus Eggers, as part of a biodiversity survey of forest beetle-associated nematodes. Collections were made in a pine stand at an experimental forest station in Ibaraki, Japan, from April to July of 2011; we examined the nematode association in 273 insects collected during this time. In total, 68% of the insects were associated with at least one species of nematode. Six species of nematodes, including two phoretic microbe feeders (Bursaphelenchus rainulfi Braasch & Burgermeister and Micoletzkya sp.), one insect parasite and nematode predator (Devibursaphelenchus cf. eproctatus), one insect parasite (Contortylenchus sp.), one insect parasite and potential microbe feeder (unidentified rhabditid parasite), and one potential insect parasite and fungal feeder (B. sinensis) were recovered from the beetles. D. cf. eproctatus was enclosed in nematangia on the backsides of the elytra, B. rainulfi was isolated from the backsides of the elytra or enclosed in nematangia, Micoletzkya sp. was isolated from under the elytra, Contortylenchus sp. and a rhabditid parasite parasitized the body cavity, and B. sinensis was found in the digestive tract of the insect. The association patterns of the nematode species varied seasonally, although definitive interactions among species (e.g., segregation, competition) were not observed. PMID:23339788

Shimizu, Ai; Tanaka, Ryusei; Akiba, Mitsuteru; Masuya, Hayato; Iwata, Ryûtarô; Fukuda, Kenji; Kanzaki, Natsumi

2013-02-01

244

The Current Status of Laboratory Diagnosis of Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infections in Humans Using Serologic and Molecular Methods  

PubMed Central

Laboratory diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis relies on serological techniques, since definitive diagnosis is insensitive. Modern antibody detection methods focus on antibodies to the 29 and 31 kDa proteins of the parasite. Antigen detection may ultimately prove to be more reliable than antibody detection but no method has been adopted for clinical diagnostic use. Diagnosis using PCR amplification of DNA sequences specific to Angiostrongylus cantonensis have been developed but have not yet been validated for clinical use. Diagnostic tests have not been developed commercially and in the United States tests developed experimentally by non-commercial laboratories have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration before they can be sold to other laboratories for diagnostic purposes. PMID:23901386

Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Whelen, A Christian; Saucier, Caitlin; da Silva, Alexandre J; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

2013-01-01

245

Matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9 and -13 are involved in fibronectin degradation of rat lung granulomatous fibrosis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary granuloma formation and fibrosis were experimentally induced in Sprague–Dawley strain rats by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Increased protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, -13 and the imbalance between these enzymes and metalloproteinase inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1 and -2), occur during granulomatous fibrosis. Activation of proteolytic enzymes (MMP-2, -9 and -13) and fibronectin degradation occur simultaneously. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that fibronectin avidly binds MMP-2, -9 or -13. Immunohistochemical observations also showed the localization of MMP-13, TIMP-1 and -2 within the infiltrating leucocytes. These results suggest that MMP-2, -9 and -13 may participate in the fibronectin degradation of A. cantonensis-induced granulomatous fibrosis. PMID:18039280

Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Lai, Shih-Chan

2007-01-01

246

Studies on anthelmintic effects of flubendazole and mebendazole on the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mice and rats.  

PubMed

Flubendazole and mebendazole given orally at 10 mg/kg/day 5-7 days post-infection (total 30 mg/kg) were found to eliminate 93-100% of Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae in mice and rats. No significant difference was observed between the effects of the 2 drugs. The effectiveness of the drugs decreased with the increase in days post-infection on which medication was administered. It was found possible to treat A. cantonensis adults in rats by administering flubendazole or mebendazole at 10 mg/kg/day for 10 consecutive days. The drugs exhibited better anthelmintic efficacy in a divided dosing regimen than in a single dosing regimen. PMID:3783345

Maki, J; Yanagisawa, T

1986-08-01

247

Biocontrol: fungal parasites of female cyst nematodes.  

PubMed

Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae Woll., to nondamaging levels. The potential of these nematophagous fungi as biocontrol agents is discussed. PMID:19300700

Kerry, B

1980-10-01

248

Culturing the Antarctic nematode Plectus murrayi.  

PubMed

The Antarctic terrestrial nematode Plectus murrayi is an excellent model organism for the study of stress response mechanisms in various types of environmental conditions. In this procedure, we describe a method for culturing P. murrayi extracted from soil and sediment samples from the McMurdo (MCM) Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Nematodes are cultured on sand agar plates and incubated at various temperatures, and feed on bacteria growing on the agar media. They can be subcultured and stored at 15°C for >2 mo. This method is easy to carry out and can produce nematodes in quantities sufficient for ecological and molecular studies. PMID:21041395

Adhikari, Bishwo N; Tomasel, Cecilia M; Li, Grace; Wall, Diana H; Adams, Byron J

2010-11-01

249

Visualizing Bacteria in Nematodes using Fluorescent Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Symbioses, the living together of two or more organisms, are widespread throughout all kingdoms of life. As two of the most ubiquitous organisms on earth, nematodes and bacteria form a wide array of symbiotic associations that range from beneficial to pathogenic 1-3. One such association is the mutually beneficial relationship between Xenorhabdus bacteria and Steinernema nematodes, which has emerged as a model system of symbiosis 4. Steinernema nematodes are entomopathogenic, using their bacterial symbiont to kill insects 5. For transmission between insect hosts, the bacteria colonize the intestine of the nematode's infective juvenile stage 6-8. Recently, several other nematode species have been shown to utilize bacteria to kill insects 9-13, and investigations have begun examining the interactions between the nematodes and bacteria in these systems 9. We describe a method for visualization of a bacterial symbiont within or on a nematode host, taking advantage of the optical transparency of nematodes when viewed by microscopy. The bacteria are engineered to express a fluorescent protein, allowing their visualization by fluorescence microscopy. Many plasmids are available that carry genes encoding proteins that fluoresce at different wavelengths (i.e. green or red), and conjugation of plasmids from a donor Escherichia coli strain into a recipient bacterial symbiont is successful for a broad range of bacteria. The methods described were developed to investigate the association between Steinernema carpocapsae and Xenorhabdus nematophila14. Similar methods have been used to investigate other nematode-bacterium associations 9,15-18and the approach therefore is generally applicable. The method allows characterization of bacterial presence and localization within nematodes at different stages of development, providing insights into the nature of the association and the process of colonization 14,16,19. Microscopic analysis reveals both colonization frequency within a population and localization of bacteria to host tissues 14,16,19-21. This is an advantage over other methods of monitoring bacteria within nematode populations, such as sonication 22or grinding 23, which can provide average levels of colonization, but may not, for example, discriminate populations with a high frequency of low symbiont loads from populations with a low frequency of high symbiont loads. Discriminating the frequency and load of colonizing bacteria can be especially important when screening or characterizing bacterial mutants for colonization phenotypes 21,24. Indeed, fluorescence microscopy has been used in high throughput screening of bacterial mutants for defects in colonization 17,18, and is less laborious than other methods, including sonication 22,25-27and individual nematode dissection 28,29. PMID:23117838

Murfin, Kristen E.; Chaston, John; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

2012-01-01

250

Coprinus comatus Damages Nematode Cuticles Mechanically with Spiny Balls and Produces Potent Toxins To Immobilize Nematodes?  

PubMed Central

We reported recently a unique fungal structure, called the spiny ball, on the vegetative hyphae of Coprinus comatus (O. F. Müll.:Fr.) Pers. Although some observations regarding the role of this structure were presented, its function remained largely unknown. In this study, we showed that purified (isolated and washed) spiny balls could immobilize and kill the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus Goodey highly efficiently. Scanning electron microscopy studies illustrated that the spiny structure damaged the nematode cuticle, suggesting the presence of a mechanical force during the process of nematode immobilization. Severe injuries on nematode cuticles caused the leakage of inner materials of the nematodes. When these structures were ground in liquid nitrogen, their killing efficacy against nematodes was lost, indicating that the shape and the complete structure of the spiny balls are indispensable for their function. However, extraction with organic solvents never lowered their activity against P. redivivus, and the extracts showed no obvious effect on the nematode. We also investigated whether C. comatus was able to produce toxins which would aid in the immobilization of nematodes. In total, we identified seven toxins from C. comatus that showed activity to immobilize the nematodes P. redivivus and Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid et White) Chitwood. The chemical structures of these toxins were identified with nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, infrared, and UV spectrum analysis. Two compounds were found to be novel. The toxins found in C. comatus are O-containing heterocyclic compounds. PMID:17449690

Luo, Hong; Liu, Yajun; Fang, Lin; Li, Xuan; Tang, Ninghua; Zhang, Keqin

2007-01-01

251

Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a South American canid, as a definitive host for Hammondia heydorni.  

PubMed

Hammondia heydorni is a cyst forming coccidia closely related to other apicomplexans, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Hammondia hammondi with a two-host life cycle. Dogs and other canids as red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) may serve as definitive hosts for H. heydorni. Sporulated oocysts are infective for cattle, sheep and goats, which may serve as intermediate hosts. Herein, we describe the ability of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a wild carnivore that is commonly found from northern Argentina to northern South America, to serve as definitive host of H. heydorni. The whole masseter muscle and brain from two 2-year-old bovines were collected, minced and pooled together for the fox infection. The bovine pooled tissues were equally administered to four foxes, in two consecutive days. Two foxes shed subspherical unsporulated oocysts measuring 10-15microm, after 8 and 9 days post-infection, respectively. One of the foxes eliminated oocysts for 5 days, while the other fox shed oocysts for 9 days. A DNA sample of oocysts detected at each day of oocyst elimination was tested by two PCRs, one of them carried out employing primers directed to the common toxoplasmatiid 18S and 5.8S ribosomal RNA coding genes (PCR-ITS1) and the other based on heat-shock protein 70kDa coding gene (PCR-HSP70). These samples were also submitted to a N. caninum specific nested-PCR protocol based on a N. caninum specific gene (Nc5-nPCR). All of them were positive by PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 but negative by Nc5-nPCR. The PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 nucleotide sequences amplified from the oocysts shed by the foxes revealed 100% identity with homologous sequences of H. heydorni. In conclusion, it is clear that H. heydorni also uses the crab-eating fox as a definitive host. The crab-eating fox is usually reported to live in close contact with livestock in several regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that such carnivores may play an important role in the sylvatic and domestic cycles of H. heydorni infection. PMID:19303215

Soares, Rodrigo M; Cortez, Luiz R P B; Gennari, Solange M; Sercundes, Michelle K; Keid, Lara B; Pena, Hilda F J

2009-05-26

252

Nematodes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods have caused a lot of controversy among environmentalists. Some worry that these so-called "Frankenfoods" might disrupt the ecosystems they grow in, or even threaten human health. But others praise their potential to offset other environmental problems. For example, in this Science Update, you'll hear how genetically engineered tomatoes may be able to resist parasitic worms without the use of toxic pesticides.

Science Update

2002-05-28

253

Nematode endogenous small RNA pathways  

PubMed Central

The discovery of small RNA silencing pathways has greatly extended our knowledge of gene regulation. Small RNAs have been presumed to play a role in every field of biology because they affect many biological processes via regulation of gene expression and chromatin remodeling. Most well-known examples of affected processes are development, fertility, and maintenance of genome stability. Here we review the role of the three main endogenous small RNA silencing pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans: microRNAs, endogenous small interfering RNAs, and PIWI-interacting RNAs. After providing an entry-level overview on how these pathways function, we discuss research on other nematode species providing insight into the evolution of these small RNA pathways. In understanding the differences between the endogenous small RNA pathways and their evolution, a more comprehensive picture is formed of the functions and effects of small RNAs. PMID:25340013

Hoogstrate, Suzanne W; Volkers, Rita JM; Sterken, Mark G; Kammenga, Jan E; Snoek, L Basten

2014-01-01

254

Conserving and enhancing biological control of nematodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from plant-parasitic nematodes. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared to inundative applications of ...

255

The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States.  

PubMed

Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas. PMID:23901374

Teem, John L; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S; da Silva, Alexandre J; Carter, Jacoby; White-McLean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

2013-06-01

256

The Occurrence of the Rat Lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in Nonindigenous Snails in the Gulf of Mexico Region of the United States  

PubMed Central

Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas. PMID:23901374

Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S; da Silva, Alexandre J; Carter, Jacoby; White-Mclean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

2013-01-01

257

The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas.

Teem, John L.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Carter, Jacoby; White-McLean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

2013-01-01

258

Pathogenicity of the lesion nematodes on sorghum  

E-print Network

PATHQGEN1CITY OF THE LESION NEMATODES ON SORGHUM A Thesis BAIKABILE MOTALAOTE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Majo subject...: Plant Pathology PATHOGENICITY OF THE LESION NEMATODES ON SORGHUM A Thesis BAIKABILE MOTALAOTE Approved as to style and content by: James L, Starr (chairman chard A. rederiksen (member) e R. Miller (member) J. ie own' 9 (Head of Depart t...

Motalaote, Baikabile

1985-01-01

259

Conserving and Enhancing Biological Control of Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and duration of biological control. In future research, greater use should be made of bioassays that measure nematode suppression because changes in abundance of particular antagonists may not affect biological control of plant parasites. PMID:24987159

Timper, Patricia

2014-01-01

260

Nematodes that Economically Impact Cotton in Texas Root-knot nematode: These nematodes get their name because of the galls that form on roots  

E-print Network

- stage juvenile. This small vermiform shaped nematode can move between soil pores in a thin film. This nematode has a number of stages before becoming an adult where it can move through the soil or roots. It is capable of building up to very high levels in the soil. Reniform nematode has been devastating to cotton

Mukhtar, Saqib

261

Phenanthrene bioaccumulation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The contribution of food to the bioaccumulation of xenobiotics and hence toxicity is still an ambiguous issue. It is becoming more and more evident that universal statements cannot be made, but that the relative contribution of food-associated xenobiotics in bioaccumulation depends on species, substance, and environmental conditions. Yet, small-sized benthic or soil animals such as nematodes have largely been disregarded so far. Bioaccumulation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene in the absence and presence of bacterial food was measured in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Elimination of phenanthrene in the nematodes was biphasic, suggesting that there was a slowly exchanging pool within the nematodes or that biotransformation of phenanthrene took place. Even with food present, dissolved phenanthrene was still the major contributor to bioaccumulated compound in nematode tissues, whereas the diet only contributed about 9%. Toxicokinetic parameters in the treatment without food were different from the ones of the treatment with bacteria, possibly because nematodes depleted their lipid reserves during starvation. PMID:25607770

Spann, Nicole; Goedkoop, Willem; Traunspurger, Walter

2015-02-01

262

[Trichostrongyloidea nematodes, parasites of Microchiroptera].  

PubMed

1. a) List of Nematodes collected by Professor Aellen in european Microchiroptera. Additionnal morphological data to the study of Molinostrongylus alatus, M. panousei, M. skrjabini. Description of M. aelleni n. sp. b) Description of M. richardae n. sp., M. benexae n. sp. et M. bauchoti n. sp., parasites of malagasian Molossidae. c) Description of M. colleyi n. sp. and M. owyangi n. sp., parasites of Malaysian Vespertilioninae, and of Allintoschius dunni n. sp., discovered in Myotis mystacinus from Malaysia and Pipistrellus nanus from Africa. 2. Taking into account the characteristics of the synlophe, the 17 species of the genus Molinostrongylus may be divided into five groups, each one being reasonably well characteristic of the genus of their Chiropteran host. 3. The composition of the Trichostrongyloidea fauna of Chiroptera and its relationship with Trichostrongyloidea from other Mammals (Tupaiidae, Pholidotes, Primates, Sciuridés) are analysed. Six groups are separated and divided into two well defined lines: 1) genus Strongylacantha, and 2) 12 genera stemming more or less directly from the Molineinae, 4. The three conical outgrowths at the tip of the female tail which differenciate presently the Anoplostrogylinae from the Molineinae appear to be an unreliable characteristic. The two subfamilies form a complex group which will be better understood if the evolution of the synlophe and that of the caudal bursa of the males are taken into account. PMID:1211768

Durette-Desset, M C; Chabaud, A G

1975-01-01

263

Cytogenetic studies and karyotype nomenclature of three wild canid species: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) and fennec fox (Fennecus zerda).  

PubMed

We have analysed the chromosomes of three wild and endangered canid species: the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) and the fennec fox (Fennecuszerda) using classical and molecular cytogenetic methods. For the first time detailed and encompassing descriptions of the chromosomes are presented including the chromosomal assignment of nucleolar organizer regions and the 5S rRNA gene cluster. We propose a karyotype nomenclature with ideograms including more than 300 bands per haploid set for each of these three species which will form the basis for further research. In addition, we propose four basic different patterns of karyotype organization in the family Canidae. A comparison of these patterns with the most recent molecular phylogeny of Canidae revealed that the karyotype evolution of a species is not always strongly connected with its phylogenetic position. Our findings underline the need and justification for basic cytogenetic work in rare and exotic species. PMID:18544923

Pie?kowska-Schelling, A; Schelling, C; Zawada, M; Yang, F; Bugno, M; Ferguson-Smith, M

2008-01-01

264

The pathogenesis of optic neuritis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in BALB/c mice  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most common causes of meningitis in South East Asia is angiostrongyliasis or infection by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis. Although this nematode usually resides in the pulmonary arteries of rats, its incidental occurence in other hosts such as humans can cause optic neuritis and lead to serious vision sequelae. Nevertheless, there are currently no systematic studies conducted in this area. Methods In order to study the pathogenesis of optic neuritis, mice were tried as a new animal model to study and challenge with A. cantonensis on 7d, 14d and 21d, respectively. Electroretinogram (ERG), visual evoked potential (VEP), ophthalmoscopy and histology were examined on day 7d, 14d and 21d and tribendimidine (TBD) was later used to treat optic neuritis on day 14d for a week to evaluate its therapeutic effects. Results Infection of A. cantonensis caused obvious inflammatory cell infiltration in the retina and optic nerve adventitia in day 14d and 21d followed by optic nerve fiber demyelination and retinal ganglion swelling at day 21d in the challenged mice. Prolonged VEP latency and decreased ERG amplitude were also observed on day 21. After treatment of TBD in the infected mice, retinal and optic nerve inflammation were alleviated, but VEP latency and ERG amplitude did not improve on day 21d and 28d. Conclusions The current study provides evidence that A. cantonensis can cause optic neuritis along with optic nerve demyelination and retinal ganglion cell damage in a mouse model. TBD alone treatment can improve the symptoms of optic neuritis, but does not aid in vision recovery, suggesting that both neuroprotective agents and Dexamethasone should be administered, along with treatment for the infection, to protect the optic nerve and ganglion cells. Furthermore, as the symptoms of optic neuritis caused by A. cantonensis in mice are similar to the optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis (MS) human patients, we suggest that the BALB/c mouse model provided in this study may be useful to explore therapies of optic neuritis in MS patients. PMID:25052055

2014-01-01

265

NEMATODE STEROIDS: RECENT DISCOVERIES ABOUT METABOLISM AND FUNCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because nematodes nutritionally depend upon their hosts for sterols, steroid metabolism is an attractive area of investigation for development of new methods of nematode management. In experiments involving Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for phytoparasitic nematodes, C. elegans removed the methyl...

266

A novel flavivirus in the soybean cyst nematode  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a subterranean root pathogen that causes the most damaging disease of soybean in the United States. A novel nematode virus genome, soybean cyst nematode virus 5 (SbCNV5), was identified in RNASeq data from SCN eggs and second-stage juveniles. T...

267

Site-Specific Detection and Management of Nematodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nematode distribution varies significantly throughout a field and is highly correlated to soil texture and other edaphic factors. Field-wide application results in nematicides being applied to areas without nematodes and the application of sub-effective levels in areas with high nematode densities. ...

268

EFFECTS OF PRE-PLANT SOIL TREATMENTS ON NEMATODE COMMUNITIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While nematodes play important roles in soil nutrient cycling, many pre-plant soil management practices act as perturbations to nematode communities. A 2-year field trial was conducted to examine nematode communities in soil treated with methyl bromide (MB), 6-week solarization (S), cowpea cover cro...

269

Ecosystem type affects interpretation of soil nematode community measures  

E-print Network

Ecosystem type affects interpretation of soil nematode community measures D.A. Neher a,*, J. Wu b understanding of performance among major ecosystem types is necessary before nematode community indices can and agricultural ecosystems; (2) compare nematode community composition among and within ecosystem types and report

Neher, Deborah A.

270

METABOLISM OF AN INSECT NEUROPEPTIDE BY THE NEMATODE C. ELEGANS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are interested in neuropeptides in nematodes as leads to new control agents for parasitic nematodes. This includes physiological aspects of neuropeptide action and metabolic regulation of these peptides. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, with its mapped genome, offers unique opport...

271

ORIGINAL PAPER Antarctic nematode communities: observed and predicted  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Antarctic nematode communities: observed and predicted responses to climate change of their physiological capabilities. Therefore, Antarctic soil com- munities are expected to be particularly sensitive. Of the few studies focusing on Antarctic nematode communities, long-term monitoring has shown that nematode

Wall, Diana

272

Nematode assemblages from submarine caves in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematode assemblages from sediments of two submarine caves in subtropical Hong Kong waters were investigated, and compared with those from other local sublittoral sediments. A total of 48 putative nematode species from 44 genera and 18 families were identified from the caves. Species richness of the cave nematode assemblages lay between those of adjacent sandy control sites and muddy control

H. Zhou; Z. N. Zhang

2008-01-01

273

Mass production of entomopathogenic nematodes for plant protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are commercially used to control pest insects. They are symbiotically associated with bacteria of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, respectively, which are the major food source for the nematodes. The biology of the nematode-bacterium complex is described, a historical review of the development of in vitro cultivation techniques is given and the

Ralf-Udo Ehlers

2001-01-01

274

Remote Sensing of Parasitic Nematodes in Plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.

Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John

2007-01-01

275

Delayed response to ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax) feeding on grape roots linked to vine carbohydrate reserves and nematode feeding pressure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chronic impact of ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax) feeding on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was studied under controlled conditions. 'Pinot noir' grapevines were exposed to ring nematode or kept nematode-free for three growing seasons, and vines were either grown in full sunlight, 15% of full...

276

Free-living and Plant-Parasitic Nematodes (Roundworms)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource serves as an introduction to the world of nematodes. The objectives of this exercise include introducing students to the world of nematodes, illustrating a method of extraction of nematodes from soil, and learning to differentiate stylet-bearing nematodes from free-living nematodes. This exercise will be most useful for grades 7-12 in classrooms where dissecting and compound microscopes are available. It requires minimal materials (funnels, screen, tubing, clamps, 2-ply tissues, ring stand, soil sample, and water) and preparation.

Gregory L. Tylka (Iowa State University; )

2001-04-09

277

Immunodiagnosis of angiostrongyliasis with monoclonal antibodies recognizing a circulating antigen of mol. wt 91,000 from Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

In the analysis of excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from infective third-stage larvae (L3) of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, one major component of mol.wt 91,000 was not precipitated by pooled sera of patients with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Monoclonal antibodies (Mc Ab) secreted from two hybridoma cell lines, established against somatic antigens of L3, recognized this molecule but with different epitope specificities indicated by an additivity index (A.I.) of 83%. The 2 Mc Ab (TD2 and 3A5) belonged to IgG2a and IgM classes, respectively. Combinations of TD2 and 3A5 were used in a sensitive enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA) for the immunodiagnosis of human angiostrongyliasis. The double-antibody sandwich ELFA method was applied firstly to sera from experimentally infected rats using either TD2 or 3A5 to coat the assay plates. Two fluorescence unit (F.U.) peaks appeared in sera from infected rats collected 18 and 44 days after infection. Specimens from 35 patients were tested, all cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) and most sera (88%) showed positive reactions and the average F.U. of CSF was greater than that of serum. PMID:1869351

Shih, H H; Chen, S N

1991-04-01

278

Immune defense and eosinophilia in congenitally IgE-deficient SJA/9 mice infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis.  

PubMed

The roles of IgE in protective immunity and eosinophilia in Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection were examined by comparing IgE-deficient SJA/9 mice and IgE-producing SJL/J mice. In primary infection, mean total IgE levels increased to a maximum of 390 ng/ml, which was more than 10 times greater than the 29 ng/ml measured preinfection in SJL/J mice but less than the 10 ng/ml found in SJA/9 mice throughout the experiment. Immune defense as determined by recovery of adult worms and eosinophilia were similar in SJL/J and SJA/9 mice. Protective immunity was induced by infection with A. costaricensis followed by treatment with levamisole for 4-6 days postinfection. After the challenge infection, the numbers of adult worms and eosinophils in SJA/9 mice were not significantly different from those in SJL/J mice. Anti-A. costaricensis IgE antibody was not detected in either strain of mice during the experiment. These results indicate that A. costaricensis infection induced the production of IgE not specific for parasite antigens in IgE-producing mice. Potentiated nonspecific IgE played no significant role in immune defense and eosinophilia. PMID:8415551

Watanabe, N; Ishiwata, K; Kaneko, S; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M; Katakura, K

1993-01-01

279

Essential amino acids and other essential components for development of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from third-stage larvae to young adults.  

PubMed

Third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus costaricensis were cultured to the young adult stage in Waymouth's chemically defined medium MB 752/1, which contained 18 amino acids, 11 vitamins, glutathione, hypoxanthine, and glucose in a balanced salt solution. Nutritional requirements were examined by deletion of single components from Waymouth's medium. Ten amino acids, namely L-arginine, L-histidine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, and L-valine, were shown to be essential for the parasite's development. L-Aspartic acid, L-cysteine, L-cystine, L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine, glycine, L-proline, and L-tyrosine were not essential. Among the 11 vitamins, only choline chloride was essential for the development. The deletion of pyridoxine from the medium adversely affected parasite development. Glucose was also required by the worms, but glutathione and hypoxanthine were not required for their development. When the 10 essential L-amino acids were replaced individually by D-isomers of the same amino acids, none supported larval development in the manner of the L-amino acids. PMID:8064517

Hata, H

1994-08-01

280

Specific detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the snail Achatina fulica using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a rat lungworm, can cause eosinophilic meningitis and angiostrongyliasis in humans following ingestion of contaminated foods or intermediate/paratenic hosts with infective larvae. The snail Achatina fulica is one of the important intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis and is commonly eaten by humans in some countries. In the present study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the specific detection of A. cantonensis in Ac. fulica. Primers for LAMP were designed based on the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of A. cantonensis. Specificity tests showed that only the products of A. cantonensis were detected when DNA samples of A. cantonensis and the heterologous control samples Anisakis simplex s.s, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Ascaris lumbricoides were amplified by LAMP. Sensitivity evaluation indicated that the LAMP assay is 10 times more sensitive than the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The established LAMP assay is rapid, inexpensive and easy to be performed. It can be used in clinical applications for rapid and sensitive detection of A. cantonensis in snails, which has implications for the effective control of angiostrongyliasis. PMID:21515360

Liu, Chun-Yan; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhang, Ren-Li; Chen, Mu-Xin; Xu, Min-Jun; Ai, Lin; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Zhan, Xi-Mei; Liang, Shao-Hui; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2011-08-01

281

Higher sensitivity of the developing larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis than the adult worms to flubendazole and mebendazole.  

PubMed

Two kinds of benzimidazoles, flubendazole and mebendazole were each administered at 10 mg/kg to rats harbouring the developing larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis 3 or 10 days post-infection and to those harbouring the adult worms 70 days post-infection. Almost all of the larvae were eliminated from the rats mediated 3 days post-infection. The larvicidal effects of the drugs administered 10 days post-infection were not so high as those 3 days post-infection. However, the growth of larvae in rats medicated 10 days post-infection were significantly inhibited as judged from their length, width and weight except the length of the larvae in rats given mebendazole. An inhibition of their growth was also demonstrated by the observation that no first-stage larvae were released from the rats medicated 10 days post-infection and examined 66 days post-infection at which the first-stage larvae were released from non-medicated rats. On the other hand, when the drugs were administered 70 days post-infection, no effects were seen on the number, body size and weight of recovered worms, and the release of the first-stage larvae. A sound conclusion was drawn that the developing larvae are more sensitive to the drugs than the adult worms. PMID:1308254

Maki, J; Kanda, S

1992-09-01

282

Strong bottom-up and weak top-down effects in soil: nematode-parasitized insects and nematode-trapping fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soils of the Bodega Marine Reserve (BMR, Sonoma County, California) contain many nematode-trapping fungi and many ghost moth larvae parasitized by entomopathogenic nematodes. The current study determined whether these nematode-parasitized moth larvae, which can produce very large numbers of nematodes, enhanced the population densities of nematode-trapping fungi and whether the fungi trapped substantial numbers of nematodes emerging and dispersing

B. A. Jaffee; D. R. Strong

2005-01-01

283

Phytoecdysteroids: a novel defense against plant-parasitic nematodes.  

PubMed

The phytoecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is a major molting hormone of invertebrates, possibly including nematodes. As 20E is inducible in spinach, the defensive role against plant-parasitic nematodes was investigated. The effects of direct application on nematodes was assessed by treating cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae, juveniles with concentrations of 20E from 8.2 x 10(-8) to 5.2 x 10(-5) M before applying to Triticum aestivum growing in sand. H. avenae, Heterodera schachtii (sugarbeet cyst nematode), Meloidogyne javanica (root-knot nematode), and Pratylenchus neglectus (root lesion nematode) were treated with 5.2 x 10(-5) 20E and incubated in moist sand. To test the protective effects of 20E in plants, the latter three nematodes were applied to Spinacia oleracea in which elevated concentrations of 20E had been induced by methyl jasmonate. Abnormal molting, immobility, reduced invasion, impaired development, and death occurred in nematodes exposed to 20E either directly at concentration above 4.2 x 10(-7) M or in plants. Phytoecdysteroid was found to protect spinach from plant-parasitic nematodes and may confer a mechanism for nematode resistance. PMID:15609826

Soriano, Imelda R; Riley, Ian T; Potter, Mark J; Bowers, William S

2004-10-01

284

Current Research on the Major Nematode Problems in Japan  

PubMed Central

Among important nematode species occurring in Japan, current research achievements with the following four nematodes are reviewed: 1) Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines - breeding for resistance, race determination, association with Cephalosporium gregatum in azuki bean disease, and isolation of hatching stimulant. 2) Potato-cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis - pathotype determination (Ro 1), breeding for resistance, and control recommendations. 3) Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus - primary pathogen in pine wilt disease, life cycle exhibiting a typical symbiosis with Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus, and project for control. 4) Rice root nematodes (RRN), Hirschmanniella imamuri and H. oryzae - distribution of species, population levels in roots, and role of these nematodes in rice culture. PMID:19290201

Ichinohe, M.

1988-01-01

285

Cryopreservation of roe deer abomasal nematodes for morphological identification.  

PubMed

Conventional methods to preserve adult nematodes for taxonomic purposes involve the use of fixative or clearing solutions (alcohol, formaldehyde, AFA and lactophenol), which cause morphological alterations and are toxic. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative method based on glycerol-cryopreservation of nematodes for their subsequent identification. Adults of trichostrongylid nematodes from the abomasum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus) were glycerol-cryopreserved and compared with those fixed in formaldehyde, fresh and frozen without cryoprotectans. Morphology, transparency and elasticity of the anterior and posterior portion of male nematodes were compared, especially the caudal cuticular bursa and genital accessories. The method presented is quick and easy to use, and the quality of nematode specimens is better than that of nematodes fixed by previously used fixatives. Moreover, glycerol cryopreserved nematodes can be stored for a long time at -20 degrees C in perfect condition and they could be suitable for further analyses, such as histological or ultrastructural examinations. PMID:24684056

Beraldo, Paola; Pascotto, Ernesto

2014-02-01

286

Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution  

PubMed Central

Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of diplogastrid nematodes and their beetle hosts. Instead, frequent host switching is observed. The molecular phylogeny of the Diplogastridae provides a framework for further examinations of the evolution of these associations, for the study of interactions within the ecosystems, and for investigations of diplogastrid genome evolution. PMID:19703296

2009-01-01

287

Molecular analysis of plant-parasitic nematodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In addition to traditional morphology-based taxonomic approaches, molecular methods are often required to confirm diagnoses or to establish phylogenetic relationships among plant-parasitic nematodes. Current challenges, including limitations of existing methods, and new research directions will be d...

288

Breeding Plants for Resistance to Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Plant breeders and nematologists have developed improved cultivars of important crop species with resistance to plant-parasitic nematodes. The effectiveness of these breeding efforts has depended on the availability of efficient screening procedures, identification of adequate sources of durable resistance, nature of the nematode feeding habit, and knowledge of the inheritance of resistance. These factors determine to a large degree the breeding method and potential success of the research. Systematic searches for nematode resistance have identified resistant germplasm lines within crop species or from related species. When the resistance gene(s) is from related species, incongruity barriers or sterility of the resulting hybrids often must be overcome. In these situations, backcrossing is usually necessary to incorporate the resistance gene(s) and recover the desirable commercial traits of the crop species. If the resistance gene(s) is present within the crop species, the choice of breeding method depends on the inheritance of the resistance, type of screening procedure, and other important breeding objectives for the species. In the future, plant molecular biologists and geneticists will make available novel sources of nematode resistance through incorporation of transgenes from other genera. These efforts will likely require conventional breeding strategies before commercial utilization of an improved resistant cultivar. PMID:19282990

Boerma, H. Roger; Hussey, Richard S.

1992-01-01

289

Molecular barcodes for soil nematode identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a molecular barcode, derived from single-specimen polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the 5' segment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU) gene, we have developed a molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU) scheme for soil nematodes. Individual specimens were considered to belong to the same MOTU when the sequenced segment of 450 bases was > 99.5% identical. A

ROBIN F LOYD; EYUALEM A BEBE; ARTEMIS P APERT

2002-01-01

290

PCR detection of potato cyst nematode.  

PubMed

Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR. PMID:19301763

Reid, Alex

2009-01-01

291

The Future of Nematode Management in Cotton  

PubMed Central

The importance of plant-parasitic nematodes as yield-limiting pathogens of cotton has received increased recognition and attention in the United States in the recent past. This paper summarizes the remarks made during a symposium of the same title that was held in July 2007 at the joint meeting of the Society of Nematologists and the American Phytopathological Society in San Diego, California. Although several cultural practices, including crop rotation, can be effective in suppressing the populations of the important nematode pathogens of cotton, the economic realities of cotton production limit their use. The use of nematicides is also limited by issues of efficacy and economics. There is a need for development of chemistries that will address these limitations. Also needed are systems that would enable precise nematicide application in terms of rate and placement only in areas where nematode population densities warrant application. Substantial progress is being made in the identification, characterization and mapping of loci for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. These data will lead to efficient marker-assisted selection systems that will likely result in development and release of nematode-resistant cotton cultivars with superior yield potential and high fiber quality. PMID:19259500

Starr, J. L.; Koenning, S. R.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Robinson, A. F.; Roberts, P. A.; Nichols, R. L.

2007-01-01

292

Key to nematodes reported in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This key, covering 171 species and subspecies of nematodes in 49 genera, is based on the the listings in the author's "Catalogue of Helminths of Waterfowl" (McDonald, 1969b), but includes 19 additional forms from his continuing survey of new literature.

McDonald, Malcolm E.

1974-01-01

293

Entomopathogenic nematode production and application technology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Production and application technology is critical for the success of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in biological control. Production approaches include in vivo, and in vitro methods (solid or liquid fermentation). For laboratory use and small scale field experiments, in vivo production of EPNs...

294

Plant Disease Lesson: Lesion nematode disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Lesion nematode disease (caused by Pratylenchus) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Eric L. Davis (North Carolina State University; )

2000-10-30

295

Plant Disease Lesson: Soybean cyst nematode disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Soybean cyst nematode disease (caused by Heterodera glycines) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Eric L. Davis (North Carolina State University; )

2000-07-25

296

2010 Rootknot nematode variety trial results  

E-print Network

or susceptibility to Verticillium wilt and bacterial blight also had some role in affecting which cultivars diseases were present and all would have some contribution towards the final yield. It is of our opinion that the nematode pressure was the most important disease factor contributing to yield, but that resistance

Mukhtar, Saqib

297

Identification of a nematode chemosensory gene family  

E-print Network

Identification of a nematode chemosensory gene family Nansheng Chen* , Shraddha Pai*, Zhongying to Caenorhabditis elegans, we have examined the chemosensory gene superfamily by using comparative genomic methods. We have iden- tified a chemosensory gene family, serpentine receptor class ab (srab), which exists

Baillie, David

298

Plant Disease Lesson: Root-knot nematode  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Root-knot nematode (caused by Meloidogyne ) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Nathaniel A. Mitkowski (University of Rhode Island; )

2003-09-17

299

Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

300

Overview of nematodes infesting cotton in the U.S., life beyond Temik.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The three primary nematode pathogens of cotton are the cotton root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), the reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis), and the Columbia lance nematode (Hoplolaimus columbus). Those three nematodes are estimated to reduce US cotton production by 4.2%, with the co...

301

Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology.  

PubMed

The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a 'top 10' list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10) Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly. PMID:23809086

Jones, John T; Haegeman, Annelies; Danchin, Etienne G J; Gaur, Hari S; Helder, Johannes; Jones, Michael G K; Kikuchi, Taisei; Manzanilla-López, Rosa; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Wesemael, Wim M L; Perry, Roland N

2013-12-01

302

Nitrogen Addition Regulates Soil Nematode Community Composition through Ammonium Suppression  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen (N) enrichment resulting from anthropogenic activities has greatly changed the composition and functioning of soil communities. Nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse groups of soil organisms, and they occupy key trophic positions in the soil detritus food web. Nematodes have therefore been proposed as useful indicators for shifts in soil ecosystem functioning under N enrichment. Here, we monitored temporal dynamics of the soil nematode community using a multi-level N addition experiment in an Inner Mongolia grassland. Measurements were made three years after the start of the experiment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the mechanisms regulating nematode responses to N enrichment. Across the N enrichment gradient, significant reductions in total nematode abundance, diversity (H' and taxonomic richness), maturity index (MI), and the abundance of root herbivores, fungivores and omnivores-predators were found in August. Root herbivores recovered in September, contributing to the temporal variation of total nematode abundance across the N gradient. Bacterivores showed a hump-shaped relationship with N addition rate, both in August and September. Ammonium concentration was negatively correlated with the abundance of total and herbivorous nematodes in August, but not in September. Ammonium suppression explained 61% of the variation in nematode richness and 43% of the variation in nematode trophic group composition. Ammonium toxicity may occur when herbivorous nematodes feed on root fluid, providing a possible explanation for the negative relationship between herbivorous nematodes and ammonium concentration in August. We found a significantly positive relationship between fungivores and fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), suggesting bottom-up control of fungivores. No such relationship was found between bacterivorous nematodes and bacterial PLFA. Our findings contribute to the understanding of effects of N enrichment in semiarid grassland on soil nematode trophic groups, and the cascading effects in the detrital soil food web. PMID:22952671

Wei, Cunzheng; Zheng, Huifen; Li, Qi; Lü, Xiaotao; Yu, Qiang; Zhang, Haiyang; Chen, Quansheng; He, Nianpeng; Kardol, Paul; Liang, Wenju; Han, Xingguo

2012-01-01

303

Nitrogen addition regulates soil nematode community composition through ammonium suppression.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) enrichment resulting from anthropogenic activities has greatly changed the composition and functioning of soil communities. Nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse groups of soil organisms, and they occupy key trophic positions in the soil detritus food web. Nematodes have therefore been proposed as useful indicators for shifts in soil ecosystem functioning under N enrichment. Here, we monitored temporal dynamics of the soil nematode community using a multi-level N addition experiment in an Inner Mongolia grassland. Measurements were made three years after the start of the experiment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the mechanisms regulating nematode responses to N enrichment. Across the N enrichment gradient, significant reductions in total nematode abundance, diversity (H' and taxonomic richness), maturity index (MI), and the abundance of root herbivores, fungivores and omnivores-predators were found in August. Root herbivores recovered in September, contributing to the temporal variation of total nematode abundance across the N gradient. Bacterivores showed a hump-shaped relationship with N addition rate, both in August and September. Ammonium concentration was negatively correlated with the abundance of total and herbivorous nematodes in August, but not in September. Ammonium suppression explained 61% of the variation in nematode richness and 43% of the variation in nematode trophic group composition. Ammonium toxicity may occur when herbivorous nematodes feed on root fluid, providing a possible explanation for the negative relationship between herbivorous nematodes and ammonium concentration in August. We found a significantly positive relationship between fungivores and fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), suggesting bottom-up control of fungivores. No such relationship was found between bacterivorous nematodes and bacterial PLFA. Our findings contribute to the understanding of effects of N enrichment in semiarid grassland on soil nematode trophic groups, and the cascading effects in the detrital soil food web. PMID:22952671

Wei, Cunzheng; Zheng, Huifen; Li, Qi; Lü, Xiaotao; Yu, Qiang; Zhang, Haiyang; Chen, Quansheng; He, Nianpeng; Kardol, Paul; Liang, Wenju; Han, Xingguo

2012-01-01

304

Loss of the insulator protein CTCF during nematode evolution  

PubMed Central

Background The zinc finger (ZF) protein CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) is highly conserved in Drosophila and vertebrates where it has been shown to mediate chromatin insulation at a genomewide level. A mode of genetic regulation that involves insulators and insulator binding proteins to establish independent transcriptional units is currently not known in nematodes including Caenorhabditis elegans. We therefore searched in nematodes for orthologs of proteins that are involved in chromatin insulation. Results While orthologs for other insulator proteins were absent in all 35 analysed nematode species, we find orthologs of CTCF in a subset of nematodes. As an example for these we cloned the Trichinella spiralis CTCF-like gene and revealed a genomic structure very similar to the Drosophila counterpart. To investigate the pattern of CTCF occurrence in nematodes, we performed phylogenetic analysis with the ZF protein sets of completely sequenced nematodes. We show that three ZF proteins from three basal nematodes cluster together with known CTCF proteins whereas no zinc finger protein of C. elegans and other derived nematodes does so. Conclusion Our findings show that CTCF and possibly chromatin insulation are present in basal nematodes. We suggest that the insulator protein CTCF has been secondarily lost in derived nematodes like C. elegans. We propose a switch in the regulation of gene expression during nematode evolution, from the common vertebrate and insect type involving distantly acting regulatory elements and chromatin insulation to a so far poorly characterised mode present in more derived nematodes. Here, all or some of these components are missing. Instead operons, polycistronic transcriptional units common in derived nematodes, seemingly adopted their function. PMID:19712444

Heger, Peter; Marin, Birger; Schierenberg, Einhard

2009-01-01

305

Invasive Snails and an Emerging Infectious Disease: Results from the First National Survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis) caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40×40 km). One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis–infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. Conclusions/Significance The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks. PMID:19190771

Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Hu, Ling; Yang, Kun; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Zhao; Wang, Li-Ying; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2009-01-01

306

7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301.85-9 Agriculture...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations...85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes....

2012-01-01

307

7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301.85-9 Agriculture...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations...85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes....

2014-01-01

308

7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301.85-9 Agriculture...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations...85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes....

2013-01-01

309

Rolling Circle Amplification of Complete Nematode Mitochondrial Genomes  

PubMed Central

To enable investigation of nematode mitochondrial DNA evolution, methodology has been developed to amplify intact nematode mitochondrial genomes in preparative yields using a rolling circle replication strategy. Successful reactions were generated from whole cell template DNA prepared by alkaline lysis of the rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and a mermithid nematode, Thaumamermis cosgrovei. These taxa, representing the two major nematode classes Chromodorea and Enoplea, maintain mitochondrial genomes of 13.8 kb and 20.0 kb, respectively. Efficient amplifications were conducted on template DNA isolated from individual or pooled nematodes that were alive or stored at -80°C. Unexpectedly, these experiments revealed that multiple T. cosgrovei mitochondrial DNA haplotypes are maintained in our local population. Rolling circle amplification products can be used as templates for standard PCR reactions with specific primers that target mitochondrial genes or for direct DNA sequencing. PMID:19262866

Tang, Sha; Hyman, Bradley C.

2005-01-01

310

Association of the Red Ring Nematode and Other Nematode Species with the Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum  

PubMed Central

The palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.), was collected in cocoons from red ring-diseased coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L.) in Trinidad and Tobago. Juveniles of five species of nematodes were extracted from the genitalia and macerated bodies of newly emerged adults of the palm weevil: Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus (Cobb) Goodey (the red ring nematode), Teratorhabditis sp., Diplogasteritus sp., Mononchoides sp., and Bursaphelenchus sp. Over 90% of newly emerged weevil females and males were infested internally with red ring nematode juveniles, and over 47% of the weevils contained more than 1,000 red ring nematodes each. There was no significant correlation between weevil body length and the number of red ring nematodes carried internally by each weevil. Teratorhabditis sp. and Diplogasteritus sp. were extracted from over 50% of the palm weevils, and Monochoides sp. and Bursaphelenchus sp. were found in a small proportion of the weevils. Field-collected adult weevils were also internally and externally infested with a Rhabditis sp., which was not observed in or on weevils allowed to emerge from field-collected cocoons. PMID:19287703

Gerber, Karin; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.

1990-01-01

311

Degradation of the Plant Cell Wall by Nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Evidence from as early as the 1950’s that phytoparasitic nematodes could secrete enzymes to facilitate penetration of the\\u000a stylet through the host cell wall or to promote nematode migration within plant tissues was confirmed in 1998 with the report\\u000a of the first genes encoding endogenous endo-1,4-?-glucanases isolated from animals, the phytoparasitic cyst nematodes. Expressed\\u000a gene analyses and recent genome sequencing

Eric L. Davis; Annelies Haegeman; Taisei Kikuchi

312

Efficacy of moxidectin against nematodes in naturally infected sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of an oral drench of moxidectin against nematodes in naturally infected sheep known to harbour Nematodirus species was evaluated at doses of 0.2 and 0.4 mg\\/kg bodyweight. Moxidectin was 100 per cent effective against nematodes in the abomasum and 100 per cent effective against nematodes in the small intestine except for adult Trichostrongylus species, against which its efficacy

GC Coles; DJ Giordano-Fenton; JP Tritschler

1994-01-01

313

Bilateral, perivulval cuticular pores in trichostrongylid nematodes.  

PubMed

A new hypodermal gland was discovered in female nematodes of the family Trichostrongylidae. Because the new structure appears to be associated with the vulva, it was named the perivulval pore. It is similar, based on light and scanning electron microscopy, to phasmids that are located laterally on the tails of nematodes of the class Secernentea. Like phasmids, perivulval pores are paired and bilateral, with cuticular ducts to the surface in the areas of the lateral chords. They are located slightly posterior to the vulva in Haemonchus contortus, Haemonchus placei, Haemonchus similis, Mecistocirrus digitatus, Mazamastrongylus pursglovei, Ostertagia ostertagi, and Cooperia oncophora, but in Trichostrongylus colubriformis they are slightly anterior to the vulva. Because of the location near the vulva and the similarity in structure to phasmids, which are, at least in part, secretory, the perivulval pores should be considered as a possible source of a female attractant for males. PMID:7623208

Lichtenfels, J R; Wergin, W P; Murphy, C; Pilitt, P A

1995-08-01

314

Caenorhabditis Elegans—Applications to Nematode Genomics  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequence of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was published 4 years ago. Since then, we have seen great strides in technologies that seek to exploit this data. Here we describe the application of some of these techniques and other advances that are helping us to understand about not only the biology of this important model organism but also the entire phylum Nematoda. PMID:18629128

Parkinson, John

2003-01-01

315

Genome Analysis of Plant Parasitic Nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plant nematology has entered an era of genomics with the completion of the genome sequences of two root knot nematode (RKN)\\u000a species: Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla. Comparative analysis of these two RKN genomes reveals striking differences in their organizations and sheds light on the\\u000a mechanisms and evolution of parasitism. The M. hapla genome with 54 Mbp and 14,454 genes represents

Pierre Abad; James P. McCarter

316

Lophotoxin-insensitive nematode nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.  

PubMed

Nematode nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are molecular targets of several anthelmintic drugs. Studies to date on Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum have demonstrated atypical pharmacology with respect to nAChR antagonists, including the finding that kappa-bungarotoxin is a more effective antagonist than alpha-bungarotoxin on Ascaris muscle nAChRs. Lophotoxin and its naturally occurring analogue bipinnatin B block all vertebrate and invertebrate nAChRs so far examined. In the present study, the effects on nematode nAChRs of bipinnatin B have been examined. The Ascaris suum muscle cell nAChR was found to be insensitive to 30 mumol l-1 bipinnatin B, a concentration that is highly effective on other nAChRs. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a nAChR that is insensitive to one of the lophotoxins. Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with C. elegans polyadenylated, poly(A+), mRNA also expressed bipinnatin-B-insensitive levamisole responses, which were, however, blocked by the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine (10 mumol l-1). In contrast to the findings for nematode receptors, bipinnatin B (30 mumol l-1) was effective in blocking mouse muscle nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and native insect nAChRs. A possible explanation for insensitivity of certain nematode nAChRs to lophotoxins is advanced based on the sequence of an alpha-like C. elegans nAChR subunit in which tyrosine-190 (numbering based on the Torpedo californica sequence), a residue known to be critical for lophotoxin binding in vertebrate nAChRs, is replaced by a proline residue. PMID:8896363

Tornøe, C; Holden-Dye, L; Garland, C; Abramson, S N; Fleming, J T; Sattelle, D B

1996-10-01

317

Distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in Southern Cameroon.  

PubMed

A first survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was conducted in three agro-ecological zones of Southern Cameroon in 2007 and 2008. Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 26 of 251 soil samples (10.4%). Three species, Heterorhabditis baujardi, Steinernema sp. A and Steinernema sp. B were found. The two steinernematids were considered unidentified species. Among the positive samples, 23 samples contained only H. baujardi (88.5%), two contained Steinernema sp. A co-occurring with H. baujardi (7.7%), and one sample contained Steinernema sp. B (3.9%). H. baujardi was frequent in forest and fruit crop (cocoa and oil palm plantations). Steinernema sp. A was found in a tree plantation of teak, Steinernema sp. B in a forest habitat. Nematodes were mostly present in acidic soils with pH ranging from 3.7 to 7.0. The highest EPN presence was recorded in sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay and clay soils. EPNs were not recovered in sand, loamy sand and clay loam soils. Using principal component analysis for elucidating the major variation patterns among sampling sites, four factors explaining for 73.64% of the overall variance were extracted. Factors were a combination of geographical (latitude, longitude, altitude), soil (pH, contents of sand, silt and clay, organic carbon, texture), and moisture (wilting point, field capacity) parameters as well as climatic parameters (mean annual rainfall, mean air temperature). Logistic regression and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed that soil pH, longitude, available water and altitude were associated with presence and absence of EPN. Both logistic regression and RDA indicated that, increasing soil pH and longitude, associated with decreasing altitude, led to higher percentages of samples containing entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:21983478

Kanga, Françoise Ngo; Waeyenberge, Lieven; Hauser, Stefan; Moens, Maurice

2012-01-01

318

Engineering Natural and Synthetic Resistance for Nematode Management  

PubMed Central

Bioengineering strategies are being developed that will provide specific and durable resistance against plant-parasitic nematodes in crops. The strategies come under three categories: (i) transfer of natural resistance genes from plants that have them to plants that do not, to mobilize the defense mechanisms in susceptible crops; (ii) interference with the biochemical signals that nematodes exchange with plants during parasitic interactions, especially those resulting in the formation of specialized feeding sites for the sedentary endoparasites—many nematode genes and many plant genes are potential targets for manipulation; and (iii) expression in plant cells of proteins toxic to nematodes. PMID:19270915

Vrain, Thierry C.

1999-01-01

319

Entomopathogenic Nematode Production and Application Technology  

PubMed Central

Production and application technology is critical for the success of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in biological control. Production approaches include in vivo, and in vitro methods (solid or liquid fermentation). For laboratory use and small scale field experiments, in vivo production of EPNs appears to be the appropriate method. In vivo production is also appropriate for niche markets and small growers where a lack of capital, scientific expertise or infrastructure cannot justify large investments into in vitro culture technology. In vitro technology is used when large scale production is needed at reasonable quality and cost. Infective juveniles of entomopathogenic nematodes are usually applied using various spray equipment and standard irrigation systems. Enhanced efficacy in EPN applications can be facilitated through improved delivery mechanisms (e.g., cadaver application) or optimization of spray equipment. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in developing EPN formulations, particularly for above ground applications, e.g., mixing EPNs with surfactants or polymers or with sprayable gels. Bait formulations and insect host cadavers can enhance EPN persistence and reduce the quantity of nematodes required per unit area. This review provides a summary and analysis of factors that affect production and application of EPNs and offers insights for their future in biological insect suppression. PMID:23482883

Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Han, Richou; Dolinksi, Claudia

2012-01-01

320

Assaying Environmental Nickel Toxicity Using Model Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species. PMID:24116204

Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler D.; Huffnagle, Ian M.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

2013-01-01

321

Association of Nematodes and Dogwood Cankers  

PubMed Central

Dogwood canker is a serious production problem of unknown etiology. From May 1985 through April 1989, cankers from 290 flowering dogwood trees in 15 separate nurseries were sampled for nematodes. Seventy-three percent (213) of the cankers contained nematodes. Panagrolaimus rigidus (Schneider) Thorne (115/290) and Aphelenchoides spp. (91/290) were the most frequently collected taxa. Panagrolaimus rigidus was reared on 2% water agar with unidentified bacteria as the food source. Aphelenchoides spp. were reared in antibiotic-amended agar culture with the fungus Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spauld. &Schrenk as a food source. Repeated attempts to culture Aphelenchoides spp. on dogwood callus tissue were unsuccessful. Artificially created stem wounds inoculated with combinations of Aphelenchoides spp. and P. rigidus callused completely in 60 days with no indication of canker development. Very low numbers of nematodes were recovered from inoculated trees, but P. rigidus and one Aphelenchoides sp. were efficient dispersers and occurred in treatments other than those in which they were inoculated. PMID:19279869

Self, Louann H.; Bernard, Ernest C.

1994-01-01

322

Condensed tannins act against cattle nematodes.  

PubMed

The use of natural plant anthelmintics was suggested as a possible alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in ruminants. Direct anthelmintic effects of tannin-containing plants have already been shown in sheep and goat GIN. These anthelmintic properties are mainly associated with condensed tannins. In the present study, we evaluated possible in vitro effects of three tannin-containing plants against bovine GIN. Effects of Onobrychis viciifolia, Lotus pedunculatus and Lotus corniculatus condensed tannin (CT) extracts on Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi were determined by a larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA) and a larval exsheathment assay (LEA). In the LFIA, all three plant extracts significantly inhibited larval feeding behaviour of both C. oncophora and O. ostertagi first stage larvae in a dose-dependent manner. The L. pedunculatus extract, based on EC(50) (effective concentration for 50% inhibition), was the most effective against both nematodes, followed by O. viciifolia and L. corniculatus. The effect of CT extracts upon larval feeding behaviour correlates with CT content and procyanidin/prodelphidin ratio. Larval exsheathment of C. oncophora and O. ostertagi L3 larvae (third stage larvae) was also affected by CT extracts from all three plants. In both in vitro assays, extracts with added polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, an inhibitor of tannins, generated almost the same values as the negative control; this confirms the role of CT in the anthelmintic effect of these plant extracts. Our results, therefore, indicated that tannin-containing plants could act against cattle nematodes. PMID:21726942

Novobilský, Adam; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

2011-12-15

323

Nematode locomotion in unconfined and confined fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [V. Padmanabhan et al., PLoS ONE 7, e40121 (2012), 10.1371/journal.pone.0040121] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness of the body of the nematode on its locomotion. These effects are not accounted for by the classical resistive-force and slender-body theories.

Bilbao, Alejandro; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Vanapalli, Siva A.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

2013-08-01

324

RENIFORM NEMATODE RESISTANCE - CYTOGENETICS OF GOSSYPIUM LONGICALYX INTROGRESSION PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The reniform nematode is recognized as a significant problem for US cotton producers. Severity and acreage of damage have been increasing. Although no commercial upland cotton cultivar has high resistance to the reniform nematode, the wild African 13-chromosome species G. longicalyx related to cot...

325

Original article Parasite nematode infections in Awassi adult sheep  

E-print Network

Original article Parasite nematode infections in Awassi adult sheep: distribution through Syrian were higher in flocks using wet night shelters. nematode / parasite / sheep / Syria / epidemiology Résumé ― Infestations des Ovins Awassi adultes par les nématodes parasites : distribution parmi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

326

Population biology of entomopathogenic nematodes: Concepts, issues, and models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) are lethal obligatory parasites of insects and are found in soils throughout the world. The recognition that these nematodes are major natural enemies of soil insect pests has stimulated research into various aspects of their biology and enabled their use in augmentation and conservation biological control programs. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about the structure

Robin J. Stuart; Mary E. Barbercheck; Parwinder S. Grewal; Robin A. J. Taylor; Casey W. Hoy

2006-01-01

327

Sex-specific mating pheromones in the nematode Panagrellus redivivus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite advances in medicine and crop genetics, nematodes remain significant human pathogens and agricultural pests. This warrants investigation of alternative strategies for pest control, such as interference with pheromone-mediated reproduction. Because only two nematode species have had their phe...

328

Sex-determination gene and pathway evolution in nematodes  

E-print Network

Sex-determination gene and pathway evolution in nematodes Paul Stothard and Dave Pilgrim* Summary at the molecular level. By identifying differences between the sex-determination mechanisms in C. elegans and other nematode species, it should be possible to under- stand how complex sex-determining pathways evolve

McQueen, Heather

329

Book review: Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderinae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cyst nematodes are an important group of plant-parasitic nematodes that cause billions of dollars in economic damage to crops every year. This article reviews a recently published, two-volume monograph that describes the morphological and molecular characteristics of these agriculturally signif...

330

Evaluation of Nematode Resistant Grape Rootstock for Managing Mesocriconema xenoplax  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study is to better understand the impact of the ring nematode, Mesocriconema xenoplax, on the productivity and physiology of grapevines grafted onto different rootstocks that showed varying resistance to ring nematodes under greenhouse conditions. Pinot noir grapevines (grafted...

331

Functional characterization of plant-parasitic cyst nematode CLE peptides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During root infection by plant-parasitic cyst nematodes, proteins originating in gland cells are secreted through the stylet into a cell near the vasculature of the host root for the initiation and maintenance of a specialized feeding structure (syncytium). Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera gl...

332

Nematode community structure as a bioindicator in environmental monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four of every five multicellular animals on the planet are nematodes. They occupy any niche that provides an available source of organic carbon in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. Nematodes vary in sensitivity to pollutants and environmental disturbance. Recent development of indices that integrate the responses of different taxa and trophic groups to perturbation provides a powerful basis for analysis

Tom Bongers; Howard Ferris

1999-01-01

333

High Sensitivity NMR and Mixture Analysis for Nematode Behavioral Metabolomics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nematodes are the most abundant animal on earth, and they parasitize virtually all plants and animals. Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living nematode that lives in soil and composting material. We have shown that C. elegans releases at least 40 small molecules into its environment including many...

334

Development of Reniform Nematode Resistance in Upland Cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this review is to assess development of resistance to the reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Cotton cultivars with reniform nematode resistance are needed. The development of resistant cultivars appears possible but presents a signifi...

335

Intestinal nematode infection ameliorates experimental colitis in mice  

E-print Network

reduce the effects of Th1-mediated diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of polarizing the immune response toward the Th2 type, using intestinal nematode infection, on subsequent experimental colitis. Mice were infected with the intestinal nematode Trichinella spiralis and allowed to

W. I. Khan; P. A. Blennerhasset; A. K. Varghese; S. K. Chowdhury; P. Omsted; Y. Deng; S. M. Collins

336

Trehalose metabolism genes in Caenorhabditis elegans and filarial nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugar trehalose is claimed to be important in the physiology of nematodes where it may function in sugar transport, energy storage and protection against environmental stresses. In this study we investigated the role of trehalose metabolism in nematodes, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, and also identified complementary DNA clones putatively encoding genes involved in trehalose pathways in filarial

F. I Pellerone; S. K Archer; C. A Behm; W. N Grant; M. J Lacey; A. C Somerville

2003-01-01

337

Anthelmintics Are Substrates and Activators of Nematode P Glycoprotein?  

PubMed Central

P glycoproteins (Pgp), members of the ABC transporter superfamily, play a major role in chemoresistance. In nematodes, Pgp are responsible for resistance to anthelmintics, suggesting that they are Pgp substrates, as they are in mammalian cells. However, their binding to nematode Pgp and the functional consequences of this interaction have not been investigated. Our study showed that levamisole and most of the macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are Pgp substrates in nematodes. Ivermectin, although a very good substrate in mammalian cells, is poorly transported. In contrast to their inhibitory effect on mammalian Pgp, these drugs had a stimulatory effect on the transport activity of the reference Pgp substrate rhodamine 123 (R123) in the nematode. This may be due to a specific sequence of nematode Pgp, which shares only 44% identity with mammalian Pgp. Other factors, such as the affinity of anthelmintics for Pgp and their concentration in the Pgp microenvironment, could also differ in nematodes, as suggested by the specific relationship observed between the octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) of MLs and R123 efflux. Nevertheless, some similarities were also observed in the functional activities of the mammalian and nematode Pgp. As in mammalian cells, substrates known to bind the H site (Hoechst 33342 and colchicine) activated the R site, resulting in an increased R123 efflux. Our findings thus show that ML anthelmintics, which inhibit Pgp-mediated efflux in mammals, activate transport activity in nematodes and suggest that several substituents in the ML structure are involved in modulating the stimulatory effect. PMID:21300828

Kerboeuf, Dominique; Guégnard, Fabrice

2011-01-01

338

Plant species effects on soil nematode communities in experimental grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of 12 different plant species on soil nematode abundance and community composition, and rotifer abundance, in an experimental grassland in Northern Sweden. Monocultures were grown for six or seven growing seasons before sampling. Four monocultures were grasses, four were legumes and four were non-leguminous forbs. Plant species identity had an effect on the nematode community, both

Maria Viketoft; Cecilia Palmborg; Björn Sohlenius; Kerstin Huss-Danell; Jan Bengtsson

2005-01-01

339

Collective behavior of nematodes in a thin fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many organisms live in a confined fluidic environment such as in a thin fluid layer on dermal tissues, in saturated soil, and others. In this study, we investigate collective behaviors of nematodes in a thin fluid layer. The actively moving nematodes feel various hydrodynamic forces such as surface tension from the top air-liquid interface, viscous stress from the bottom surface, and more. Two or more nematodes in close proximity can be drawn together by the capillary force between bodies. This capillary force also makes it difficult for nematodes to separate. The Strouhal number and a ratio of amplitude to wavelength are measured before and after nematode aggregation and separation. Grouped and separate nematodes have no significant changes of the Strouhal number and the ratio of amplitude to wavelength, which shows that body stroke and kinematic performance do not change while grouped together. This result implies that nematodes gain no mechanical advantage during locomotion when grouped but that the capillary force draws and keeps nematodes joined together.

Gart, Sean; Jung, Sunghwan

2010-11-01

340

Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Pelecitus sp. Nematode, Brazil  

PubMed Central

A male nematode was extracted from iris fibers of a man from the Brazilian Amazon region. This nematode belonged to the genus Pelecitus but was distinct from the 16 known species in this genus. Similarities with Pelecitus spp. from neotropical birds suggested an avian origin for this species. PMID:21529397

Bain, Odile; Diniz, Daniel G.; Nascimento dos Santos, Jeannie; Pinto de Oliveira, Norimar; Frota de Almeida, Izabela Negrão; Frota de Almeida, Rafael Negrão; Frota de Almeida, Luciana Negrão; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Sobrinho, Edmundo Frota de Almeida

2011-01-01

341

Nematode resistance and agronomic performance of LONREN and NEMSTACK lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

LONREN lines have resistance to reniform nematodes that was obtained from Gossypium longicalyx. The NEMSTACK lines have the same resistance recombined with the rkn-1 gene for resistance to root knot nematode from 'Acala NemX.' Different LONREN lines vary depending on whether the resistance gene was...

342

Occurrence and distribution of nematodes in Idaho crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surveys were conducted in Idaho during the 2000-2006 cropping seasons to study the occurrence, population density, host association and distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with major crops, grasses and weeds. Eighty-four species and 43 genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were record...

343

Nematode Communities in Organically and Conventionally Managed Agricultural Soils1  

E-print Network

, ordination, organic farming, reference sites, trophic diversity. Soil nematode communities are sensitive, organic farms may represent a source of nematode communities undisturbed by agricultural chemicals plant demand (USDA, 1980). With organic farm- ing, soil microbes appear to play a more im- portant role

Neher, Deborah A.

344

Characterization of a New Species of Cyst Nematode Parasitizing Corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Examination of soil around unthrifty corn roots in northwestern Tennessee (Obion County) in 2006 revealed high population densities of juvenile nematodes and lemon-shaped cysts. This nematode resembles Cactodera spp. in possessing a circumfenestrate vulva but lacking bullae and an underbridge. These...

345

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF REDBUDS (CERCIS)TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native eastern American redbud {Cercis canadensis) was susceptible to parasitization by the northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla), which produced galls and viable egg masses on this host. Two Chinese redbud species, C. chinensis and C. yunnanensis, were similar to C. canadensis in being susceptible to M. hapla and also appar- ently resistant to the reproduction of the other nematodes.

Frank S. Santamour; Louise G. H. Riedel

1995-01-01

346

Biocontroh The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management1  

E-print Network

Biocontroh The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management1 John M. Webster 2 Abstract nematodes in controlling insect pests. The paper considers some of the major contributions to our knowledge of entomophilic nematology; factors involved in insect pest management and how they are applicable to the use

347

Impact of K Fertilization on Reniform Nematode Populations in Cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mid-South cotton lint yield has stagnated in recent years, while reniform nematode levels have grown progressively higher. This coupling of phenomena circumstantially implicates the nematode as a causative agent for the yield stagnation. A diverse group of nine cotton genotypes were grown from 199...

348

IMPACT OF K FERTILIZATION ON RENIFORM NEMATODE POPULATIONS IN COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mid-South cotton lint yield has stagnated in recent years, while reniform nematode levels have grown progressively higher. This coupling of phenomena circumstantially implicates the nematode as a causative agent for the yield stagnation. A diverse group of nine cotton genotypes were grown from 199...

349

Microsporidia Are Natural Intracellular Parasites of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been an important model system for biology, but little is known about its natural ecology. Recently, C. elegans has become the focus of studies of innate immunity and several pathogens have been shown to cause lethal intestinal infections in C. elegans. However none of these pathogens has been shown to invade nematode

Emily R Troemel; Marie-Anne Félix; Noah K Whiteman; Antoine Barrière; Frederick M Ausubel

2008-01-01

350

A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

351

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ACTIN GENE FROM CYST NEMATODES IN COMPARISON WITH THOSE FROM OTHER NEMATODES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Actin is an abundant, highly expressed and very conserved protein from the actin/heat shock protein70/sugar kinase superfamily. The full-length mRNA encoding actin was cloned and characterized from the plant-parasitic cyst nematodes Heterodera glycines and Globodera rostochiensis, and from the free-...

352

Abiotic Soil Factors and Plant-parasitic Nematode Communities  

PubMed Central

A natural community of plant-parasitic nematodes is usually polyspecific. The host plant is the most important driving force in nematode populations, but abiotic factors are important in maintaining the steady state. Nematode communities often separate by abiotic soil factors. In any continuous habitat, including crop plants, generally there is a consistency of the most abundant species, which are largely predictable. Data on single species provide little information about community patterns. Although certain nematode species might be indicators of certain environments, only when we discuss such aspects as diversity and ordination do we relate to communities irrespective of any interactions among component species. Only if plant-parasitic nematodes act independently of each other do autecological studies have validity in polyspecific communities. PMID:19287613

Norton, Don C.

1989-01-01

353

Antagonists of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Florida Citrus  

PubMed Central

In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare. PMID:19287759

Walter, David Evans; Kaplan, David T.

1990-01-01

354

Predation of entomopathogenic nematodes by Sancassania sp. (Acari: Acaridae).  

PubMed

Predation of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), by Sancassania sp. (Acari: Acaridae) isolated from field-collected scarab larvae was examined under laboratory conditions. Adult female mites consumed more than 80% of the infective juvenile (IJ) stage of S. feltiae within 24 h. When S. feltiae IJs were exposed to the mites for 24 h and then exposed to Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae, the number of nematodes penetrating into the larvae was significantly lower compared to S. feltiae IJs that were not exposed to mites (control). Soil type significantly affected the predation rate of IJs by the mites. Mites preyed more on nematodes in sandy soil than in loamy soil. We also observed that the mites consumed more S. feltiae IJs than Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae). No phoretic relationship was observed between mites and nematodes and the nematodes did not infect the mites. PMID:17924198

Karagoz, Mehmet; Gulcu, Baris; Cakmak, Ibrahim; Kaya, Harry K; Hazir, Selcuk

2007-01-01

355

Assessment of the efficacy of oral vaccination of livestock guardian dogs in the framework of oral rabies vaccination of wild canids in Israel.  

PubMed

Since 1956, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) have been the primary vectors maintaining wildlife rabies in Israel. Oral rabies vaccination of wild canids, initiated in 1998, resulted in near-elimination of the disease in wildlife by 2005. In 2005 and 2006, an outbreak of rabies was observed in stray dogs in the vaccinated area of the Golan Heights, with no cases in foxes or jackals. Epidemiological investigations showed that the infected dogs were from territories across the border. This was confirmed by molecular analysis, which showed that the virus was different from rabies isolates endemic to this area. The objective of this study was to determine bait acceptance and the feasibility of oral rabies vaccination in packs of livestock guardian dogs. Coated sachets and fishmeal polymer baits of Raboral V-RG (Merial, USA) were tested in five different test zones. Both formats were hand-fed to individual dogs and to dogs belonging to dog packs. Bait uptake and consumption were observed in each dog. The estimated efficacy of oral rabies vaccination was very low (a maximum of 28%). Vaccine delivery problems were observed in dogs belonging to packs, whereby dominant animals consumed multiple baits and in competitive situations baits were swallowed whole. The uncertainty of oral vaccination necessitated turning to other methods to control this outbreak: stray dogs were removed and herd dogs were vaccinated parenterally. This study showed that oral rabies vaccination of dogs in packs using baits designed for wildlife would not be effective. Possibly, different baits or steps to circumvent competition within the pack will make this approach feasible. PMID:18634475

Yakobson, B A; King, R; Sheichat, N; Eventov, B; David, D

2008-01-01

356

The Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata, a Novel Vector of the Rat Lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis: its Introduction, Spread, and Control in China  

PubMed Central

The freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata was introduced to Taiwan then to mainland China in the early 1980s from Argentina, its native region, for the purpose of aquaculture. Because of the lack of natural enemies and its tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions, both its abundance and distribution have dramatically increased and it has become a harmful species to local agriculture and other native species in many areas of China. Unfortunately, the snail also acts as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been implicated in transfer of the parasite to people, resulting in angiostrongyliasis manifested as eosinophilic meningitis. Efforts to prevent its further spread and population expansion were initiated many years ago, including the use of chemicals and biological control agents to control the snail. PMID:23901377

Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lun, Zhao-Rong

2013-01-01

357

The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, a novel vector of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis: its introduction, spread, and control in China.  

PubMed

The freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata was introduced to Taiwan then to mainland China in the early 1980s from Argentina, its native region, for the purpose of aquaculture. Because of the lack of natural enemies and its tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions, both its abundance and distribution have dramatically increased and it has become a harmful species to local agriculture and other native species in many areas of China. Unfortunately, the snail also acts as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been implicated in transfer of the parasite to people, resulting in angiostrongyliasis manifested as eosinophilic meningitis. Efforts to prevent its further spread and population expansion were initiated many years ago, including the use of chemicals and biological control agents to control the snail. PMID:23901377

Yang, Ting-Bao; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lun, Zhao-Rong

2013-06-01

358

Expressed sequence tags of the peanut pod nematode Ditylenchus africanus: the first transcriptome analysis of an Anguinid nematode.  

PubMed

In this study, 4847 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from mixed stages of the migratory plant-parasitic nematode Ditylenchus africanus (peanut pod nematode) were investigated. It is the first molecular survey of a nematode which belongs to the family of the Anguinidae (order Rhabditida, superfamily Sphaerularioidea). The sequences were clustered into 2596 unigenes, of which 43% did not show any homology to known protein, nucleotide, nematode EST or plant-parasitic nematode genome sequences. Gene ontology mapping revealed that most putative proteins are involved in developmental and reproductive processes. In addition unigenes involved in oxidative stress as well as in anhydrobiosis, such as LEA (late embryogenesis abundant protein) and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase were identified. Other tags showed homology to genes previously described as being involved in parasitism (expansin, SEC-2, calreticulin, 14-3-3b and various allergen proteins). In situ hybridization revealed that the expression of a putative expansin and a venom allergen protein was restricted to the gland cell area of the nematode, being in agreement with their presumed role in parasitism. Furthermore, seven putative novel candidate parasitism genes were identified based on the prediction of a signal peptide in the corresponding protein sequence and homologous ESTs exclusively in parasitic nematodes. These genes are interesting for further research and functional characterization. Finally, 34 unigenes were retained as good target candidates for future RNAi experiments, because of their nematode specific nature and observed lethal phenotypes of Caenorhabditis elegans homologs. PMID:19383517

Haegeman, Annelies; Jacob, Joachim; Vanholme, Bartel; Kyndt, Tina; Mitreva, Makedonka; Gheysen, Godelieve

2009-09-01

359

Chemical signals from plants previously infected with root knot nematodes affect behavior of infective juvenile root knot nematodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nematodes are a worldwide problem in agriculture, with losses estimated to $100 billion per year in the US. Damage caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) (RKN) disrupts the flow of water and nutrients to the plant and increases the plant’s vulnerability to other pathogens. While studies ...

360

ACTIVITY OF FUNGAL CULTURE FILTRATES AGAINST SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE EGG HATCH AND JUVENILE MOTILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungi were isolated from soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) eggs collected in China, and 253 isolates were assayed for production of compounds active against H. glycines and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Fungal isolates were grown for 3 and 7 days in potato dextrose broth (PD...

361

Digestion of FMRFamide and nematode FMRFamide-like peptides (nematode FLPs) by the soluble fraction from Panagrellus redivivus homogenate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proteases in the soluble fraction of homogenates prepared from the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus hydrolyzed the amidated invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFa and FLRFa, and nematode FMRFa-like peptides (FLPs) KPNFLRFa (FLP-1), APKPKFIRFa (FLP-5), KNEFIRFa (FLP-8), KPSFVRFa (FLP-9), RNKFEFIR...

362

Assessment of nematode community structure as a bioindicator in river monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematode communities from river water and sediments were assessed for the abundance, feeding types, maturity indices and nematode channel ratio (NCR). The sampling sites studied included different levels of pollution and contamination from agricultural, industrial and sewage sources. The nematode abundance found in the sediment samples was more than that in the water samples. The lowest nematode abundance in sediment

H. C. Wu; P. C. Chen; T. T. Tsay

2010-01-01

363

Discovery and initial analysis of novel viral genomes in the soybean cyst nematode  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nematodes are the most abundant multi-cellular animals on earth, yet little is known about their natural viral pathogens and no nematode virus genomes have been published. Consequently, nematode viruses have been overlooked as important biotic factors in the study of nematode ecology. Here we show t...

364

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 TOBACCO NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

, bacterial wilt and Fusarium wilt. The reduced use of fumigants during wet springs always results in dramatic effectiveness for nematodes, and Bacterial wilt. *** Not registered for this nematode species. 1 Although some with moderate levels of nematodes. Nematodes may increase the incidence of other diseases such as black shank

Duchowski, Andrew T.

365

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 TOBACCO NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

, bacterial wilt and Fusarium wilt. The reduced use of fumigants during wet springs always results in dramatic effectiveness for nematodes, and Bacterial wilt. *** Not registered for this nematode species. 1 Although some with moderate levels of nematodes. Nematodes may increase the incidence of other diseases such as black shank

Stuart, Steven J.

366

Nematode communities of Lake Tana and other inland water bodies of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-living nematodes from littoral benthic sediments of four lakes, two rivers and a hot spring in Ethiopia are studied. Populations of nematodes encountered are identified to the species level. The general nematode (generic and species) composition of the lakes, rivers and hot spring are appraised by giving special emphasis to the nematodes from L. Tana, i.e. three sites where different

Eyualem Abebe; Jan Mees; August Coomans

2001-01-01

367

Microbial ecology and nematode control in natural ecosystems. Building coherence between microbial ecology and molecular mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-parasitic nematodes have traditionally been studied in agricultural systems, where they can be pests of importance on a wide range of crops. Nevertheless, nematode ecology in natural ecosystems is receiving increasing interest because of the role of nematodes in soil food webs, nutrient cycling, influences on vegetation composition, and because of their indicator value. In natural ecosystems, plant-parasitic nematode populations

S. R. Costa; Putten van der W. H; B. R. Kerry

2011-01-01

368

Evaluation of dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) for rapid serodiagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis due to Angio-strongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea).  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most frequent cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans in Thailand and worldwide. Because of difficulty of recovering the Angiostrongylus larvae from infected patients, detection of parasite-specific antibodies is used to support clinical diagnosis. This study tested serum samples from eosinophilic meningitis patients and individuals at risk of infection with A. cantonensis to evaluate a recently developed simple and rapid dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) for detection of specific antibodies against A. cantonensis. Purified 31-kDa glycoprotein of A. cantonensis and protein A colloidal gold conjugate were employed to detect the 31-kDa anti-A. cantonensis antibody in patients sera from the parasite endemic areas of northeast Thailand. The results were compared with those obtained by dot-blot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with 31-kDa A. cantonensis antigen. The overall positivity rate of DIGFA and dot-blot ELISA for A. cantonensis infection in 98 clinically diagnosed cases from three highly endemic districts in Khon Kaen province were 39.79% and 37.75%, respectively. Among 86 sera of subjects at risk of infection with A. cantonensis, 24.41% were positive by DIGFA and 23.25% by dot-blot ELISA. There were good correlation between the visual grading of DIGFA and dot-blot ELISA in both groups of defined sera. DIGFA is as sensitive and specific as dot-blot ELISA for confirming eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis infection, with advantages of simplicity, rapidity and without the use of specific and expensive equipment, and can be used in field settings. PMID:25801261

Eamsobhana, P; Prasartvit, A; Gan, X X; Yong, H S

2015-03-01

369

Attraction of four entomopathogenic nematodes to four white grub species.  

PubMed

To better understand the differences in the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematode species against white grub species, we are studying the various steps of the infection process of entomopathogenic nematodes into different white grub species using nematode species/strains with particular promise as white grub control agents. In this study we compared the attraction of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema scarabaei (AMK001 strain), Steinernema glaseri (NC1 strain), Heterorhabditis zealandica (X1 strain), and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (GPS11 strain) to third-instars of the scarabs Popillia japonica, Anomala orientalis, Cyclocephala borealis, and Rhizotrogus majalis, and late-instar greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae. Individual larvae were confined at the bottom of 5.5 cm vertical sand columns, nematodes added to the sand surface after 24 h, and nematodes extracted after another 24 h. Nematode attraction to hosts was strongly affected by nematode species but the effect of insect species varied with nematode species. S. glaseri had a high innate dispersal rate (i.e., in absence of insects) and was strongly attracted to insects without significant differences among insect species. S. scarabaei had a very low innate dispersal rate so that even a strong relative response to insects resulted in low absolute dispersal rates toward insects. S. scarabaei tended to be most attracted to G. mellonella and least attracted to C. borealis. H. zealandica had a high innate dispersal rate but only responded weakly to insects without significant differences among species. H. bacteriophora had limited innate dispersal and only weakly responded to insects with G. mellonella tending to be the most attractive and C. borealis the least attractive insect. It has to be noted that we cannot exclude that the use of different rearing hosts (A. orientalis and P. japonica larvae for S. scarabaei, G. mellonella larvae for the other nematodes) might have had an impact on the nematodes dispersal and relative attraction behavior. This study indicates that host attractiveness and nematode dispersal rates may contribute but do not play a major role in the variability in white grub susceptibility and/or nematode virulence. PMID:18597774

Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M

2008-10-01

370

Nematode Locomotion in Unconfined and Confined Fluids  

E-print Network

The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode {\\it C. elegans} propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [PLoS ONE \\textbf{7}, e40121 (2012)] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature (PHC) model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness...

Bilbao, Alejandro; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

2013-01-01

371

Prerequisites for parasitism in rhabditid nematodes.  

PubMed

To evaluate their potential for survival in a vertebrate host, dauer larvae from 7 species of rhabditid nematodes were subjected to in vitro conditions designed to emulate those of a vertebrate digestive tract. Dauer larvae from 3 of the 7 species, selected for their ability to survive elevated temperatures and low pH, and representing differing types of phoretic associations with invertebrate hosts, were fed to frogs to examine their ability to survive passage through a vertebrate digestive system. The degree of invasiveness of the phoretic association that dauer larvae had with their invertebrate hosts did not correspond to patterns of in vitro survivorship for any of the experimental conditions. When consumed with a prey item, dauer larvae from all 3 species were recovered from frogs 72 hr postexposure, and no differences for in vivo survivorship were observed among the 3 species. The contention that invasiveness or facultative parasitism within an invertebrate host is a beneficial or necessary step toward vertebrate parasitism by rhabditid nematodes was not supported by the survivorship data. PMID:19803545

Warburton, Elizabeth M; Zelmer, Derek A

2010-02-01

372

Susceptibility of the Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to Entomopathogenic Nematodes  

PubMed Central

The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Our objective was to determine virulence and reproductive potential of six commercially available nematode species in C. nenuphar larvae and adults. Nematodes tested were Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Hb strain), H. marelatus (Point Reyes strains), H. megidis (UK211 strain), Steinernema riobrave (355 strain), S. carpocapsae (All strain), and S. feltiae (SN strain). Survival of C. nenuphar larvae treated with S. feltiae and S. riobrave, and survival of adults treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave, was reduced relative to non-treated insects. Other nematode treatments were not different from the control. Conotrachelus nenuphar larvae were more susceptible to S. feltiae infection than were adults, but for other nematode species there was no significant insect-stage effect. Reproduction in C. nenuphar was greatest for H. marelatus, which produced approximately 10,000 nematodes in larvae and 5,500 in adults. Other nematodes produced approximately 1,000 to 3,700 infective juveniles per C. nenuphar with no significant differences among nematode species or insect stages. We conclude that S. carpocapsae or S. riobrave appears to have the most potential for controlling adults, whereas S. feltiae or S. riobrave appears to have the most potential for larval control. PMID:19265940

Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Mizell, Russell F.; Campbell, James F.

2002-01-01

373

Analysis of the sensory responses of parasitic nematodes using electrophysiology.  

PubMed

Use of the electrophysiological technique to examine the sensory perception of live, intact nematodes has provided detailed analysis of responses to known concentrations of test chemicals. The use of larger nematodes, such as the animal-parasite Syngamus trachea, enabled direct extracellular recordings from individual sensilla; with smaller nematodes, the recording electrode was inserted close to the cephalic region. Extracellular recordings from the cephalic region of second-stage juveniles and males of the potato cyst nematodes, Globodera rostochiensis and Globodera pallida, were obtained after exposure to a variety of semiochemicals, including sex pheromones and certain putative phagostimulatory compounds. The responses of adult females of the animal-parasitic nematode, Brugia pahangi, to some possible host cues, and the inhibition by ivermectin of the response to a known allelochemical were investigated. Exposure to acetylcholine was used to compare the concentration-dependent responses of second-stage juveniles of G. rostochiensis and adult females of B. pahangi and the insect-parasitic nematode Leidynema appendiculata. Use of a perfusion system enabled sequential exposure of individual nematodes to different test chemicals or to different concentrations of the same chemical. Incubating second-stage juveniles of G. rostochiensis for 24 h in a mAb showing specificity to amphidial secretions resulted in blocking of the normal response to host root diffusates. The potential of the electrophysiology technique for analysing perturbation of sensory perception is discussed. PMID:11406140

Perry, R N

2001-07-01

374

Chemoattraction in Pristionchus nematodes and implications for insect recognition.  

PubMed

Nematodes and insects are the two dominant animal taxa in species numbers, and nematode-insect interactions constitute a significant portion of interspecies associations in a diversity of ecosystems. It has been speculated that most insects represent mobile microhabitats in which nematodes can obtain food, mobility, and shelter. Nematode-insect associations can be classified as phoretic (insects used for transportation, not as food), necromenic (insect used for transportation, then carcass as food), and entomopathogenic (insect is killed and used as food). To determine how nematodes target their hosts, we analyzed the chemosensory response and behavioral parameters of closely related Pristionchus nematodes that form species-specific necromenic associations with scarab beetles and the Colorado potato beetle. We found that all four studied Pristionchus species displayed unique chemoattractive profiles toward insect pheromones and plant volatiles with links to Pristionchus habitats. Moreover, chemoattraction in P. pacificus differs from that of C. elegans not only in the types of attractants, but also in its tempo, mode, and concentration response range. We conclude that Pristionchus olfaction is highly diverse among closely related species and is likely to be involved in shaping nematode-host interactions. PMID:17141618

Hong, Ray L; Sommer, Ralf J

2006-12-01

375

Leukotriene B4 amplifies eosinophil accumulation in response to nematodes  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil accumulation is a defining feature of the immune response to parasitic worm infection. Tissue-resident cells, such as epithelial cells, are thought to initiate eosinophil recruitment. However, direct recognition of worms by eosinophils has not been explored as a mechanism for amplifying eosinophil accumulation. Here, we report that eosinophils rapidly migrate toward diverse nematode species in three-dimensional culture. These include the mammalian parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Surprisingly, collective migration toward worms requires paracrine leukotriene B4 signaling between eosinophils. In contrast, neutrophils show a minimal response to nematodes, yet are able to undergo robust leukotriene-dependent migration toward IgG-coated beads. We further demonstrate that eosinophils accumulate around C. elegans in the lungs of mice. This response is not dependent on bacterial products, CCR3, or complement activation. However, mice deficient in leukotriene signaling show markedly attenuated eosinophil accumulation after injection of C. elegans or N. brasiliensis. Our findings establish that nematode-derived signals can directly induce leukotriene production by eosinophils and that leukotriene signaling is a major contributor to nematode-induced eosinophil accumulation in the lung. The similarity of the eosinophil responses to diverse nematode species suggests that conserved features of nematodes are recognized during parasite infection. PMID:24889202

Patnode, Michael L.; Bando, Jennifer K.; Krummel, Matthew F.; Locksley, Richard M.

2014-01-01

376

Changes in soil nematode communities under the impact of fertilizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes taking place in the communities of soil nematodes of an artificially sown meadow under the impact of annually applied mineral fertilizers have been studied in a field experiment for nine years. It is shown that changes in the species composition, trophic structure, and numbers of nematodes from different genera depend on the fertilizer applied and on the competitiveness of the plant species grown. The spectra of nematode genera sensitive to the complete mineral fertilizer (NPK) and to the particular nutrients have been identified with the use of a number of parameters, including the maturity index of nematode communities, the biotope preferences of the particular nematode genera, and the general pattern of nematode habitats. The results obtained in this study can be used to assess the effect of mineral fertilizers on the soil fauna and to suggest optimum application rates of mineral fertilizers ensuring the sustainable development of meadow herbs. The use of the data on the trophic structure of nematode communities for predicting the ways of organic matter decomposition in the soil is discussed.

Gruzdeva, L. I.; Matveeva, E. M.; Kovalenko, T. E.

2007-06-01

377

The Lance Nematode, Hoplolaimus magnistylus, on Cotton in Arkansas  

PubMed Central

The population density of Hoplolaimus magnistylus, a lance nematode, in cotton was determined at planting, mid-season, and harvest during the 1995 and 1996 growing seasons for a Poinsett County, Arkansas field. Nematode populations increased from planting to harvest in 1995 but declined in 1996. Application of aldicarb at planting at rates of 0.59 or 0.84 kg a.i./ha did not influence either nematode population density or cotton yield. This study indicates that H. magnistylus is not a serious pest of irrigated cotton in Arkansas. PMID:19274251

Robbins, R. T.; McNeely, V. M.; Lorenz, G. M.

1998-01-01

378

Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) on Oats. II. Early Root Development and Nematode Tolerance.  

PubMed

The effect of Heterodera avenae infestation on early seminal and lateral root growth was examined in four oat genotypes differing in tolerance to H. avenae. Recently emerged seminal roots were inoculated with a range of H. avenae larval densities, then transferred a hydroponic system to remove the effect of later nematode penetration on root development. Intolerance to H. avenae was assessed in terms of impairment of seminal root extension resulting in fewer primary lateral roots emerging from the seminal root below the zone of juvenile penetration. Tolerant plants infested with H. avenae had longer lateral root systems than infested intolerant plants. The decline in lateral root growth below the penetration zone was partly offset by increased growth above. This did not contribute to tolerance, however, as there were no differences between cultivars for this feature. Nematodes induced earlier nodal root emergence in all cultivars. Nodal root development was most advanced on the most tolerant cultivar. PMID:19287624

Volkmar, K M

1989-07-01

379

Nematode parasites of waterfowl (Anseriformes) from western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirty-four species of nematodes were found in 415 Anseriformes (Anatidae) of 27 species; 93.7% of birds over 4 weeks old were infected. Data on prevalence, host specificity, age of host, and geographic distribution are given. Infections were more intense in sick birds and birds in poor physical condition. Accidental or abnormal infection was more likely in sick than in normal birds. From 1 to 13 species of nematodes are reported from each host species, including 118 new host records, 3 nematodes new for North America, and 1 new species. Multiple infections were present in 76.5% of birds parasitized; eight species of nematodes were found in one whistling swan (Olor columbianus).

McDonald, M.E.

1974-01-01

380

Ecological biogeography of the terrestrial nematodes of victoria land, antarctica.  

PubMed

The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems. PMID:25061360

Adams, Byron J; Wall, Diana H; Virginia, Ross A; Broos, Emma; Knox, Matthew A

2014-01-01

381

A uniform genetic nomenclature for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A uniform system of genetic nomenclature for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is described. Convenient ways are specified to designate genes, mutations and strains, and to attempt to avoid name duplications.

H. Robert Horvitz; Sydney Brenner; Jonathan Hodgkin; Robert K. Herman

1979-01-01

382

Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica  

PubMed Central

Abstract The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems. PMID:25061360

Adams, Byron J.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Broos, Emma; Knox, Matthew A.

2014-01-01

383

EVOLUTION OF HOST SEARCH STRATEGIES IN ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES (NEMATODA: STEINERNMATIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is interspecific variation in infective juvenile behavior within the entomopathogenic nematode genus Steinernema. This variation is consistent with use of different host searching (foraging) strategies along a continuum between ambush and cruise foraging. To address questions about the evoluti...

384

Human gastrointestinal nematode infections: are new control methods required?  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections affect 50% of the human population worldwide, and cause great morbidity as well as hundreds of thousands of deaths. Despite modern medical practices, the proportion of the population infected with GI nematodes is not falling. This is due to a number of factors, the most important being the lack of good healthcare, sanitation and health education in many developing countries. A relatively new problem is the development of resistance to the small number of drugs available to treat GI nematode infections. Here we review the most important parasitic GI nematodes and the methods available to control them. In addition, we discuss the current status of new anthelmintic treatments, particularly the plant cysteine proteinases from various sources of latex-bearing plants and fruits. PMID:16965561

Stepek, Gillian; Buttle, David J; Duce, Ian R; Behnke, Jerzy M

2006-01-01

385

SCREENING OF TRANSGENIC ANTHURIUMS FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT AND NEMATODE RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anthuriums exhibit limited resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae and to the nematodes Radopholus simile and Meloidogyne javanica. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of embryogenic calli with strains LBA4404, EHA105, and AGLO resulted in transgenic p...

386

Soil nematodes and desiccation survival in the extreme arid environment of the antarctic dry valleys.  

PubMed

Soil nematodes are capable of employing an anhydrobiotic survival strategy in response to adverse environmental conditions. The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica represent a unique environment for the study of anhydrobiosis because extremes of cold, salinity, and aridity combine to limit biological water availability. We studied nematode anhydrobiosis in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, using natural variation in soil properties. The coiled morphology of nematodes extracted from dry valley soils suggests that they employ anhydrobiosis, and these coiled nematodes showed enhanced revival when re-hydrated in water as compared to vermiform nematodes. Nematode coiling was correlated with soil moisture content, salinity, and water potential. In the driest soils studied (gravimetric water content <2%), 20-80% of nematodes were coiled. Soil water potential measurements also showed a high degree of variability. These measurements reflect microsite variation in soil properties that occurs at the scale of the nematode. We studied nematode anhydrobiosis during the austral summer, and found that the proportion of nematodes coiled can vary diurnally, with more nematodes vermiform and presumably active at the warmest time of day. However, dry valley nematodes uncoiled rapidly in response to soil wetting from snowmelt, and most nematode activity in the Dry Valleys may be confined to periods following rare snowfall and melting events. Anhydrobiosis represents an important temporal component of a dry valley nematode's life span. The ability to utilize anhydrobiosis plays a significant role in the widespread distribution and success of these organisms in the Antarctic Dry Valleys and beyond. PMID:21676825

Treonis, Amy M; Wall, Diana H

2005-11-01

387

Parasitic success without sex – the nematode experience.  

PubMed

Asexual reproduction is usually considered as an evolutionary dead end, and difficulties for asexual lineages to adapt to a fluctuating environment are anticipated due to the lack of sufficient genetic plasticity. Yet, unlike their sexual congeners, mitotic parthenogenetic root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne spp., are remarkably widespread and polyphagous, with the ability to parasitize most flowering plants. Although this may reflect in part the short-term stability of agricultural environments, the extreme parasitic success of these clonal species points them as an outstanding evolutionary paradox regarding current theories on the benefits of sex. The discovery that most of the genome of the clonal species M. incognita is composed of pairs of homologous but divergent segments that have presumably been evolving independently in the absence of sexual recombination has shed new light on this evolutionary paradox. Together with recent studies on other biological systems, including the closely related sexual species M. hapla and the ancient asexual bdelloid rotifers, this observation suggests that functional innovation could emerge from such a peculiar genome architecture, which may in turn account for the extreme adaptive capacities of these asexual parasites. Additionally, the higher proportion of transposable elements in M. incognita compared to M. hapla and other nematodes may also be responsible in part for genome plasticity in the absence of sexual reproduction. We foresee that ongoing sequencing efforts should lead soon to a genomic framework involving genetically diverse Meloidogyne species with various different reproductive modes. This will undoubtedly promote the entire genus as a unique and valuable model system to help deciphering the evolution of asexual reproduction in eukaryotes. PMID:25105196

Castagnone-Sereno, P; Danchin, E G J

2014-07-01

388

Parasitic nematodes of anseriform birds in Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Parasitic nematodes of 176 individuals of 15 bird species belonging to the order Anseriformes from Hokkaido, Japan were investigated.\\u000a A total of 12 nematode species were obtained, namely Amidostomum anseris, A. acutum, Epomidiostomum crami, E. uncinatum, Tetrameres fissispina, Eucoleus contortus, Capillaria\\u000a anatis, Baruscapillaria mergi, Contracaecum rudolphii, Echinuria uncinata, Streptocara crassicauda and Sarconema eurycerca. Among these, E. uncinatum (hosts: Anas platyrhynchos,

T. Yoshino; J. Uemura; D. Endoh; M. Kaneko; Y. Osa; M. Asakawa

2009-01-01

389

Nematodes from terrestrial and freshwater habitats in the Arctic.  

PubMed

WE PRESENT AN UPDATED LIST OF TERRESTRIAL AND FRESHWATER NEMATODES FROM ALL REGIONS OF THE ARCTIC, FOR WHICH RECORDS OF PROPERLY IDENTIFIED NEMATODE SPECIES ARE AVAILABLE: Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Iceland, Greenland, Nunavut, Northwest territories, Alaska, Lena River estuary, Taymyr and Severnaya Zemlya and Novaya Zemlya. The list includes 391 species belonging to 146 genera, 54 families and 10 orders of the phylum Nematoda. PMID:25197239

Holovachov, Oleksandr

2014-01-01

390

Nematodes from terrestrial and freshwater habitats in the Arctic  

PubMed Central

Abstract We present an updated list of terrestrial and freshwater nematodes from all regions of the Arctic, for which records of properly identified nematode species are available: Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Iceland, Greenland, Nunavut, Northwest territories, Alaska, Lena River estuary, Taymyr and Severnaya Zemlya and Novaya Zemlya. The list includes 391 species belonging to 146 genera, 54 families and 10 orders of the phylum Nematoda. PMID:25197239

2014-01-01

391

[Effects of phytase transgenic corn planting on soil nematode community].  

PubMed

A healthy soil ecosystem is essential for nutrient cycling and energy conversion, and the impact of exogenous genes from genetically modified crops had aroused wide concerns. Phytase transgenic corn (i. e., the inbred line BVLA430101) was issued a bio-safety certificate on 27 September 2009 in China, which could improve the efficiency of feed utilization, reduce environmental pollution caused by animal manure. In this study, the abundance of trophic groups, community structure and ecological indices of soil nematodes were studied over the growing cycle of phytase transgenic corn (ab. transgenic corn) and control conventional parental corn (ab. control corn) in the field. Totally 29 and 26 nematode genera were isolated from transgenic corn and control corn fields, respectively. The abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators, the total number of soil nematodes, and the Shannon index (H) were significantly greater under transgenic corn than under control corn, while the opposite trend was found for the relative abundance of herbivores and the maturity index (Sigma MI) of soil nematodes. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not detect any significant effects of transgenic corn on the composition and abundance of nematode trophic groups and ecological indices of soil nematodes. Furthermore, the Student-T test showed that the abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators and the total number of soil nematodes during the milk-ripe stage were significant higher in the transgenic corn field than in the control corn field. The effects of transgenic corn planting on soil nematodes might be related to the increase in the nitrogen content of field soil under transgenic corn compared to control corn. PMID:25011306

Zhao, Zong-Chao; Su, Ying; Mou, Wen-Ya; Liu, Man-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Fa-Jun

2014-04-01

392

Directional movement of entomopathogenic nematodes in response to electrical fields: Effects of species, magnitude of voltage, and infective juvenile age  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Entomopathogenic nematodes respond to a variety of stimuli when foraging. Previously, we reported a directional response to electrical fields for two entomopathogenic nematode species; specifically, when electrical fields were generated on agar plates Steinernema glaseri (a nematode that utilizes a...

393

Nematode Communities in Organically and Conventionally Managed Agricultural Soils  

PubMed Central

Interpretation of nematode community indices requires a reference to a relatively undisturbed community. Maturity and trophic diversity index values were compared for five pairs of certified organically and conventionally managed soils in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Available nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium) was estimated at various lag periods relative to times of sampling for nematode communities to determine the strength of correlative relationship between nematode communities and nitrogen availability. Soils were sampled six times yearly in 1993 and 1994 to determine the best time of year to sample. Maturity values for plant parasites were greater in organically than conventionally managed soils, and differences between management systems were greater in fall than spring months. However, other maturity and diversity indices did not differ between the two management practices. Differences in crop species grown in the two systems accounted for most differences observed in the community of plant-parasitic nematodes. Indices of free-living nematodes were correlated negatively with concentrations of ammonium, whereas indices of plant-parasitic nematodes were correlated positively with concentrations of nitrate. Due to the similarity of index values between the two systems, organically managed soils are not suitable reference sites for monitoring and assessing the biological aspects of soil quality for annually harvested crops. PMID:19270884

Neher, Deborah A.

1999-01-01

394

Dispersal and gene flow in free-living marine nematodes  

PubMed Central

Dispersal and gene flow determine connectivity among populations, and can be studied through population genetics and phylogeography. We here review the results of such a framework for free-living marine nematodes. Although field experiments have illustrated substantial dispersal in nematodes at ecological time scales, analysis of the genetic diversity illustrated the importance of priority effects, founder effects and genetic bottlenecks for population structuring between patches <1 km apart. In contrast, only little genetic structuring was observed within an estuary (<50 km), indicating that these small scale fluctuations in genetic differentiation are stabilized over deeper time scales through extensive gene flow. Interestingly, nematode species with contrasting life histories (extreme colonizers vs persisters) or with different habitat preferences (algae vs sediment) show similar, low genetic structuring. Finally, historical events have shaped the genetic pattern of marine nematodes and show that gene flow is restricted at large geographical scales. We also discuss the presence of substantial cryptic diversity in marine nematodes, and end with highlighting future important steps to further unravel nematode evolution and diversity. PMID:23356547

2013-01-01

395

First report of the nematode Leidynema appendiculata from Periplaneta fuliginosa.  

PubMed

The smokybrown cockroach Periplaneta fuliginosa has spread all over the world, and is now one of the most undesired invasive alien pests in Japan. Because cockroaches are generally infected by thelastomatid nematodes, they are being distributed around the world with their parasitic nematodes. Nothing is known about parasitic nematode species in P. fuliginosa differences, or similarity of the parasite's population structures between the different countries of the host cockroaches. Here we investigated the P. fuliginosa invasive to Japan and found that 100% of individuals were infected with one nematode species. According to the morphology and the sequence of the D2/D3 expansion segment of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene, we identified the parasite as Leidynema appendiculata. This nematode reproduced by haplodiploidy and its developmental timing under various conditions is quite divergent. Their population in the hindgut of P. fuliginosa was controlled with a few adult females and a male. This is the first report of the thelastomatid nematode isolated from the smokybrown cockroach, and is the basis for our future research examining the origin, distribution route and immigration history of the cockroach and the impact of L. appendiculata on native Japanese cockroach species. PMID:24827090

Ozawa, Sota; Vicente, Cláudia S L; Sato, Kazuki; Yoshiga, Toyoshi; Kanzaki, Natsumi; Hasegawa, Koichi

2014-06-01

396

Evidence for biogenic pyromorphite formation by the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The determination of chemical speciation and spatial distribution is a prerequisite for a mechanistic understanding of contaminant bioavailability and toxicity to an organism. We have employed synchrotron X-ray techniques to study Cu and Pb speciation and spatial distribution in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematodes were exposed to each metal ion singly or simultaneously in solution for 24 h and were then rinsed thoroughly and preserved in formalin for transportation to the National Synchrotron Light Source. Experiments were conducted at the microprobe beamline X26A employing a focused beam of approximately 10 microm in diameter. Nematodes were mounted in agar gel on Kapton tape. Two-dimensional elemental maps for Cu- and Pb-exposed nematodes were collected in fluorescence mode. Copper was homogeneously distributed throughout the body of the nematode, but Pb exhibited a high degree of localization in the nematode, exclusively in the anterior pharynx region. Detectable localized concentrations of Pb in C. elegans occurred at aqueous exposure concentrations of 2.4 microM. Micro X-ray diffraction of these Pb hotspots gave a diffraction pattern indicating a crystalline Pb solid that was consistent with the Pb phosphate, pyromorphite. Biogenic inorganic phosphate granule formation is relatively common in soil invertebrates; however, these phosphates are typically amorphous, and we believe that this is the first report of crystalline pyromorphite formed internally in an organism. PMID:16124295

Jackson, B P; Williams, P L; Lanzirotti, A; Bertsch, P M

2005-08-01

397

Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes.  

PubMed

Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, and soybean) that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1), was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 60-80% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants. PMID:25883594

Dutta, Tushar K; Papolu, Pradeep K; Banakar, Prakash; Choudhary, Divya; Sirohi, Anil; Rao, Uma

2015-01-01

398

Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes  

PubMed Central

Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, and soybean) that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1), was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 60–80% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants.

Dutta, Tushar K.; Papolu, Pradeep K.; Banakar, Prakash; Choudhary, Divya; Sirohi, Anil; Rao, Uma

2015-01-01

399

Management of cereal cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp., in Norway.  

PubMed

Cereal cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp., are known worldwide as parasites of cereals and grasses. Surveys of cereal fields in Norway have revealed that nematodes belonging to the H. avenae complex occur throughout the country, and that H. avenae (the oat cyst nematode) is the most common species, followed by H. filipjevi (the rye cyst nematode). Both species are of economic importance in Scandinavia. H. avenae has been found in two common pathotypes, Ha 11 and Ha 12. Work in Sweden, however, has detected three additional pathotypes, H. avenae "Knislinge", H. avenae "Ringsisen" and H. avenae "Våxtorp". These pathotypes were found also in the Norwegian surveys. In Sweden H. filipjevi has two pathotypes, "East" and "West". In Norway, only pathotype "West" has been detected so far. Nematode management practices must be based on the knowledge of the relationship between initial nematode density and yield, the population dynamics, and the measures capable of reducing or keeping the population density below the threshold for economic damage. Crop rotation and the use of cultivars with resistance are important measures for controlling cereal cyst nematodes. Several cereal cultivars with resistance to H. avenae are on the market. As to H. filipjevi, resistance may be found in some commercial cultivars, although no intentional breeding for resistance against this nematode species has been attempted. In 2004 and 2005 the majority of the cereal cultivars on the Norwegian market were tested for susceptibility/resistance towards H. avenae pathotype Ha 11, H. avenae pathotype "Våxtorp" and H. filipjevi pathotype "West". Management systems, based on careful nematode identification and good knowledge of appropriate resistant cultivars, are in operation in Norway. Resistant barley is generally recommended when nematode populations are high due to its high tolerance compared to resistant oats. Farmers implementing this program have reported increased cereal yields on the average of 1000 kg/ha. It has been calculated that by implementing this program in full the county of Vestfold could make an economic gain of 800,000 Euro annually. PMID:17390804

Holgado, R; Andersson, S; Magnusson, C

2006-01-01

400

Soybean FGAM synthase promoters direct ectopic nematode feeding site activity.  

PubMed

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) resistance in soybean is a complex oligogenic trait. One of the most important nematode resistance genes, rhg1, has been mapped to a distal region of molecular linkage group G in soybean. A simplified genetic system to identify soybean genes with modified expression in response to SCN led to the identification of several genes within the nematode feeding sites. The genes were mapped to reveal their linkage relationship to known QTLs associated with soybean cyst nematode (SCN) resistance. One candidate, a phosphoribosyl formyl glycinamidine (FGAM) synthase (EC 6.3.5.3) gene, mapped to the same genomic interval as the major SCN resistance gene rhg1 within linkage group G. Isolation of FGAM synthase from a soybean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library revealed two highly homologous paralogs. The genes appeared to be well conserved between bacteria and humans. Promoter analysis of the two soybean homologs was carried out with the Arabidopsis thaliana - Heterodera schachtii system to investigate gene response to nematode feeding. The two promoters and their derived deletion constructions effected green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression within nematode feeding sites. The 1.0-kb promoter sequence immediately adjacent to the translation start site was sufficient to direct expression of GFP within syncytia. A wound-inducible element and a floral organ expression sequence were also identified within these promoters. Although a nematode-responsive element could not be identified, the observed expression of GFP within feeding sites supports the hypothesis that plant gene expression is redirected within feeding sites to benefit the parasite. PMID:15060594

Vaghchhipawala, Zarir E; Schlueter, Jessica A; Shoemaker, Randy C; Mackenzie, Sally A

2004-04-01

401

SURVEY OF STYLET BEARING NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH DATE PALM IN KHUZDAR DISTRICT, BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surveys were conducted during September and October 2002 to identify the stylet-bearing nematodes associated with date palm in Khuzdar district, Balochistan, Pakistan. The nematodes recorded were Tylenchus sp., Merlinius sp., Helicotylenchus indicus, Psilenchus hilarulus, Aphelenchoides sp., Meloido...

402

Taxonomy, morphology and phylogenetics of coffee-associated root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus spp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical Abstract: Although lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus species) can reduce coffee yield worldwide, methods for their identification are often difficult to implement. This review summarizes the diagnostic morphological features for distinguishing the eight previously described lesion nematode sp...

403

BACTERIAL PREFERENCES OF THE BACTERIVOROUS SOIL NEMATODE CEPHALOBUS BREVICAUDA (CEPHALOBIDATE): EFFECT OF BACTERIAL TYPE AND SIZE  

EPA Science Inventory

Cell size and type may affect availability of bacteria for consumption by bacterivorous nematodes in the soil and in culture. This study explored the bacterial preferences of the bacterivorous soil nematode Cephalobus brevicauda (Cephalobidae) by comparing bactgeria isolated dir...

404

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CYSTOID NEMATODE MELOIDODERITA KIRJANOVAE (NEMATA: SPHAERONEMATIDAE) FROM SOUTHERN ITALY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cystoid nematode population was detected parasitizing water mint (Mentha aquatica) in Southern Italy. Morphological, morphometric, and SEM studies identified the nematode as Meloidoderita kirjanovae. It was readily distinguished from the closely related species Meloidoderita polygoni with molecula...

405

Susceptibility of the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes is an important pest of Prunus spp. We determined the susceptibility of S. pictipes to six entomopathogenic nematode species: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. indica, H. marelatus, Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. riobrave. Nematode viru...

406

Travelling through time and space on wings of beetles: A tripartite insect-fungi-nematode association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report a previously undescribed symbiotic association involving spruce beetles, Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby, several species of fungi, and a nematode, Ektaphelenchus obtusus Massey. The nematodes and fungi occur within special pocket-like structures, hereafter termed \\

Yasmin J. Cardoza; Susan Paskewitz; Kenneth F. Raffa

2006-01-01

407

A Survey of Nematode SmY RNAs Thomas A. Jonesa  

E-print Network

Chromadorea. We are unable to identify homologs in a more distantly related nematode species, Trichinella spiralis (class: Dorylaimia), and in representatives of non-nematode phyla that use trans-splicing. Using

Eddy, Sean

408

Angiostrongylus cantonensis: tegumental and hypodermic alterations of the fourth-stage larvae following administration of tribendimidine in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic pathogen whose forth-stage larvae (L4) parasitize in the central nervous system (CNS) of the human cause severe eosinophilic encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. Previous study indicated an impressive anthelmintic efficacy of tribendimidine (TBD) against CNS parasitized L4 of A. cantonensis. Tegument of the larvae is the first physical barrier to protect them from attack by the host immune system. In the present study, tegumental and hypodermic alterations were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy after administration of TBD. During treatment of TBD in vivo, L4 presented wizened side sensor, disappearance of mastoids and longitudinal grain, prominent surface coat, heterogeneous tegumental layers, incompact hypodermic cell junctions, blurred myotube, and small scale of vacuole in a basal layer. After incubation with TBD in vitro, L4 exhibited a swollen side sensor and mastoids disappearance in head end. Abundant tegumental blebs and obvious deformation of both cross-grain and longitudinal grain were detected on the surface, and shrinkage of all tegumental layers, chaotic cell junction, turbid muscle cell, disappearance of myotubes, and vacuole-like changes were visible under the electron microscope. The results implied the potential mechanism of the anthelmintic effect of tribendimidine against L4 of A. cantonensis by direct damages to tegumental and hypodermic. PMID:23728774

Zeng, Xin; Wang, Juan; Wei, Jie; Wu, Feng; Fung, Feng; Wu, Xiaoying; Sun, Xi; Zheng, Huanqing; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao

2013-08-01

409

Dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) for the rapid detection of specific antibodies against the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) using purified 31-kDa antigen.  

PubMed

A rapid dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) was adopted for specific immunodiagnosis of human cerebral angiostrongyliasis, using purified 31-kDa glycoprotein specific to Angiostrongylus cantonensis as diagnostic antigen and protein A colloidal gold conjugate as antigen-antibody detector. A total of 59 serum samples were assayed - 11 samples from clinically diagnosed patients with detectable A. cantonensis-specific antibody in immunoblotting; 23 samples from patients with other related parasitic diseases, i.e. gnathostomiasis (n= 8), cysticercosis (n= 5), toxocariasis (n= 2), filariasis (n= 4), paragonimiasis (n= 2) and malaria (n= 2); and 25 samples from normal healthy subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of DIGFA to detect anti-A. cantonensis specific antibodies in serologically confirmed angiostrongyliasis cases, were both 100%. No positive DIGFA was observed in cases with other parasitic diseases, and the healthy control subjects. The 3-min DIGFA is as sensitive and specific as the 3-h immunoblot test in angiostrongyliasis confirmed cases that revealed a 31-kDa reactive band. The gold-based DIGFA is more rapid and easier to perform than the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The test utilizing purified A. cantonensis antigen is reliable and reproducible for specific immunodiagnosis of human infection with A. cantonensis - thus can be applied as an additional routine test for clinical diagnostic support. Large-scale sero-epidemiological studies in endemic communities in north-east Thailand are under way to evaluate its usefulness under field conditions. PMID:23710755

Eamsobhana, P; Gan, X X; Ma, A; Wang, Y; Wanachiwanawin, D; Yong, H S

2014-12-01

410

[Biology of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants].  

PubMed

The development and survival of free-living stages of gastro-intestinal nematodes of small ruminants are influenced by several abiotic and biotic factors. Within the abiotic factors, most important are the environmental temperature and humidity. They regulate the development of larvae from eggs dispersed on the pasture by the animals faeces. Each parasite species that infect ruminants requires a different time to development, depending on temperature and humidity. Among trichostrongylids, Ostertagia, Teladorsagia and Nematodirus show a strong adaptation to low temperatures. Nematodirus larvae are able to survive to winter inside the egg shell. Temperature and humidity influence the distribution and survival of larvae on pasture. The larval third stage can migrate from faeces to pasture vegetation and they accumulate at the basis of vegetation where stay during the day or in the soil to avoid the desiccation. The forage species affects the migration of larvae on herbage too. Many biological factors contribute to disperse the larvae on the pasture. Dung burying beetles, coprophagous beetles and earthworms can greatly reduce the larvae of some trichostrongylids on pasture. They contribute to the spread of the faecal material on the pasture and allow the larval death as a consequence of drying. PMID:17176950

Manfredi, M T

2006-09-01

411

Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy.  

PubMed

An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic. PMID:24721783

Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O

2015-05-01

412

[Intestinal nematodes of the Aythyini ducks in Western Pomerania].  

PubMed

Intestinal nematodes of the Aythyini ducks in Western Pomerania. Biology, including ecology, of the Aythyini renders them particularly attractive subjects of parasitological studies. The tribe is represented in Poland by 4 nesting species; two of them, Aythya fuligula and A. ferina, are very abundant game birds. However, their helminth fauna, including nematodes, is still very poorly known. This study was aimed at quantifying the structure of parasitic intestinal nematodes of the Western Pomeranian Aythyini. The study, performed in 1999-2004, involved a total of 71 ducks representing 3 species: A. ferina, A. fuligula, and A. marila. The nematodes, isolated from the intestines, were fixed in 75% ethyl alcohol and cleared in lactic acid. Among the 9668 helminth individuals found, 589 (6.1%) represented the phylum Nematoda. They were found in 57 ducks (80.3% of all the ducks examined). The nematodes belonged to the following 4 families: Amidostomatidae, Tetrameridae, Acuariidae, and Trichuridae. They were identified as representing 8 species, 2 genera (Amidostomoides sp. and Tetrameres sp.), and 1 subfamily (Capillariinae gen. sp.); in addition, 1 damaged individual could be identified as a nematode only. The highest prevalence (57.8%), at mean intensity (4.8 inds), was typical of Amidostomoides petrovi (Shakhtahtinskaya, 1956) Lomakin, 1991, while Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1914 occurred with the highest intensity (15.1 inds) and 12.7% prevalence. Nematodes of the subfamily Capillariinae occurred with a fairly high intensity (averaging 10.0 inds) as well, although their prevalence was not high, either (4.2% of all ducks were infected). The nematofauna studied was clearly dominated by A. petrovi, T. fissispina, and Capillaria anatis (Schrank, 1790). The total frequency of occurrence of those species was close to 80%; their dominance indices exceeded the threshold value of 0.1 and amounted to 1.6 (the dominant A. petrovi), 0.2, and 0.5 (the subdominants T. fissispina and C. anatis, respectively). The three species listed occurred with the highest mean density (2.8; 1.9; and 1.8 nematode per duck examined). No age- (adult vs. immature) or sex- (males vs. females) related differences in the quantitative structure of the parasitic Aythyini nematodes were observed. PMID:16838626

Kavetska, Katarzyna M

2005-01-01

413

The dual effects of root-cap exudates on nematodes: from quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes to frenzy in entomopathogenic nematodes  

PubMed Central

To defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens, plants produce numerous secondary metabolites, either constitutively or de novo in response to attacks. An intriguing constitutive example is the exudate produced by certain root-cap cells that can induce a state of reversible quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes, thereby providing protection against these antagonists. The effect of such root exudates on beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) remains unclear, but could potentially impair their use in pest management programmes. We therefore tested how the exudates secreted by green pea (Pisum sativum) root caps affect four commercial EPN species. The exudates induced reversible quiescence in all EPN species tested. Quiescence levels varied with the green pea cultivars tested. Notably, after storage in root exudate, EPN performance traits were maintained over time, whereas performances of EPNs stored in water rapidly declined. In sharp contrast to high concentrations, lower concentrations of the exudate resulted in a significant increase in EPN activity and infectiousness, but still reduced the activity of two plant-parasitic nematode species. Our study suggests a finely tuned dual bioactivity of the exudate from green pea root caps. Appropriately formulated, it can favour long-term storage of EPNs and boost their infectiousness, while it may also be used to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:25165149

Hiltpold, Ivan; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Turlings, Ted C. J.

2015-01-01

414

Signatures of adaptation to plant parasitism in nematode genomes.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Plant-parasitic nematodes cause considerable damage to global agriculture. The ability to parasitize plants is a derived character that appears to have independently emerged several times in the phylum Nematoda. Morphological convergence to feeding style has been observed, but whether this is emergent from molecular convergence is less obvious. To address this, we assess whether genomic signatures can be associated with plant parasitism by nematodes. In this review, we report genomic features and characteristics that appear to be common in plant-parasitic nematodes while absent or rare in animal parasites, predators or free-living species. Candidate horizontal acquisitions of parasitism genes have systematically been found in all plant-parasitic species investigated at the sequence level. Presence of peptides that mimic plant hormones also appears to be a trait of plant-parasitic species. Annotations of the few genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes available to date have revealed a set of apparently species-specific genes on every occasion. Effector genes, important for parasitism are frequently found among those species-specific genes, indicating poor overlap. Overall, nematodes appear to have developed convergent genomic solutions to adapt to plant parasitism. PMID:25656361

Bird, David McK; Jones, John T; Opperman, Charles H; Kikuchi, Taisei; Danchin, Etienne G J

2015-02-01

415

Susceptibility of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes.  

PubMed

We investigated differential susceptibility of lady beetles to entomopathogenic nematodes, for two reasons: (1) to estimate potential nontarget effects on natural lady beetle populations, (2) to compare the susceptibility of exotic versus native lady beetle species. We hypothesize that successful establishment of some exotically introduced arthropods may be due, in part, to a lower susceptibility relative to competing native species. In laboratory studies, we compared the pathogenicity, virulence, and reproductive capacity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae among two native (Coleomegilla maculata and Olla v-nigrum) and two successfully established exotic (Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata) lady beetles, and a known susceptible lepidopteran host, Agrotis ipsilon. After 1 and 2 days of exposure to either nematode species, mortality of A. ipsilon was higher than in all lady beetles. Thus, we predict that nematode field applications would have significantly less impact on lady beetle populations than on a susceptible target pest. Additionally, the impact of soil-applied nematodes may be lower on lady beetles than on soil-dwelling hosts because the former spends relatively less time on the soil. Exotic lady beetles were less susceptible to nematode infection than native species. Reproductive capacity data also indicated lower host suitability in H. axyridis, but not in C. septempunctata. Overall, the hypothesis that low susceptibility to pathogens in certain exotic lady beetles may have contributed to competitive establishment was supported (especially for H. axyridis). Additional studies incorporating different hosts and pathogens from various geographic locations will be required to further address the hypothesis. PMID:15913642

Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E

2005-06-01

416

The collective motion of nematodes in a thin liquid layer  

E-print Network

Many organisms live in confined fluidic environments such as the thin liquid layers on the skin of host organisms or in partially- saturated soil. We investigate the collective behaviour of nematodes in a thin liquid layer, which was first observed by Gray and Lissmann, [J. Exp. Biol. 41, 135 (1964)]. We show experimentally that nematodes confined by a thin liquid film come into contact and only separate again after some intervention. We attribute this collective motion to an attractive force between them arising from the surface tension of the layer and show that for nearby nematodes this force is typically stronger than the force that may be exerted by the nematodes' muscles. We believe this to be the first demonstration of the "Cheerios effect" acting on a living organism. However, we find that being grouped together does not significantly alter the body stroke and kinematic performance of the nematode: there are no statistically significant changes of the Strouhal number and the ratio of amplitude to wave...

Gart, Sean; Jung, Sunghwan

2010-01-01

417

The FMRFamide-Like Peptide Family in Nematodes  

PubMed Central

In the three decades since the FMRFamide peptide was isolated from the mollusk Macrocallista nimbosa, structurally similar peptides sharing a C-terminal RFamide motif have been identified across the animal kingdom. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) represent the largest known family of neuropeptides in invertebrates. In the phylum Nematoda, at least 32 flp-genes are classified, making the FLP system of nematodes unusually complex. The diversity of the nematode FLP complement is most extensively mapped in Caenorhabditis elegans, where over 70 FLPs have been predicted. FLPs have shown to be expressed in the majority of the 302 C. elegans neurons including interneurons, sensory neurons, and motor neurons. The vast expression of FLPs is reflected in the broad functional repertoire of nematode FLP signaling, including neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory effects on locomotory activity, reproduction, feeding, and behavior. In contrast to the many identified nematode FLPs, only few peptides have been assigned a receptor and there is the need to clarify the pathway components and working mechanisms of the FLP signaling network. Here, we review the diversity, distribution, and functions of FLPs in nematodes. PMID:24982652

Peymen, Katleen; Watteyne, Jan; Frooninckx, Lotte; Schoofs, Liliane; Beets, Isabel

2014-01-01

418

Nucleic acid transfection and transgenesis in parasitic nematodes.  

PubMed

Transgenesis is an essential tool for assessing gene function in any organism, and it is especially crucial for parasitic nematodes given the dwindling armamentarium of effective anthelmintics and the consequent need to validate essential molecular targets for new drugs and vaccines. Two of the major routes of gene delivery evaluated to date in parasitic nematodes, bombardment with DNA-coated microparticles and intragonadal microinjection of DNA constructs, draw upon experience with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Bombardment has been used to transiently transfect Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi and Litomosoides sigmodontis with both RNA and DNA. Microinjection has been used to achieve heritable transgenesis in Strongyloides stercoralis, S. ratti and Parastrongyloides trichosuri and for additional transient expression studies in B. malayi. A third route of gene delivery revisits a classic method involving DNA transfer facilitated by calcium-mediated permeabilization of recipient cells in developing B. malayi larvae and results in transgene inheritance through host and vector passage. Assembly of microinjected transgenes into multi-copy episomal arrays likely results in their transcriptional silencing in some parasitic nematodes. Methods such as transposon-mediated transgenesis that favour low-copy number chromosomal integration may remedy this impediment to establishing stable transgenic lines. In the future, stable transgenesis in parasitic nematodes could enable loss-of-function approaches by insertional mutagenesis, in situ expression of inhibitory double-stranded RNA or boosting RNAi susceptibility through heterologous expression of dsRNA processing and transport proteins. PMID:21880161

Lok, James B

2012-04-01

419

Variation in the susceptibility of Drosophila to different entomopathogenic nematodes.  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are lethal parasites of insects that are of interest as models for understanding parasite-host interactions and as biocontrol agents for insect pests. EPNs harbor a bacterial endosymbiont in their gut that assists in insect killing. EPNs are capable of infecting and killing a wide range of insects, yet how the nematodes and their bacterial endosymbionts interact with the insect immune system is poorly understood. Here, we develop a versatile model system for understanding the insect immune response to parasitic nematode infection that consists of seven species of EPNs as model parasites and five species of Drosophila fruit flies as model hosts. We show that the EPN Steinernema carpocapsae, which is widely used for insect control, is capable of infecting and killing D. melanogaster larvae. S. carpocapsae is associated with the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, and we show that X. nematophila induces expression of a subset of antimicrobial peptide genes and suppresses the melanization response to the nematode. We further show that EPNs vary in their virulence toward D. melanogaster and that Drosophila species vary in their susceptibilities to EPN infection. Differences in virulence among different EPN-host combinations result from differences in both rates of infection and rates of postinfection survival. Our results establish a powerful model system for understanding mechanisms of host-parasite interactions and the insect immune response to parasitic nematode infection. PMID:25561714

Peña, Jennifer M; Carrillo, Mayra A; Hallem, Elissa A

2015-03-01

420

Experimental Studies with Nematodes in Ecotoxicology: An Overview  

PubMed Central

With respect to their high abundances, their role as intermediaries between microorganisms and higher trophic levels, and their ubiquitous occurrence in all habitats, nematodes are of strong potential interest as environmental indicators. Ecotoxicological methods to evaluate the risk of anthropogenic pollutants on ecosystems require both in vitro and in vivo toxicity tests to investigate either mechanisms or pathways of toxicity and to set accurate toxicity thresholds. For this, the interest in nematodes as model organisms in ecotoxicology increased over the past few decades and existing appropriate experimental methods are reviewed in this manuscript. An overview of the various existing ecotoxicological tools for nematodes, ranging from molecular laboratory methods to experimental model ecosystem approaches, and their role as indicator organisms is given. The reviewed studies, approaches that range from species-based to community-based methods, reveal exciting possibilities for the future use of nematodes in ecotoxicological studies. Suitable ecotoxicological tools and ecological indices for nematodes should be integrated in weight-of-evidence approaches for assessing the ecological risk of contamination.

Hägerbäumer, Arne; Höss, Sebastian; Heininger, Peter; Traunspurger, Walter

2015-01-01

421

Nematode Chemotaxis: Gradual Turns, Sharp Turns, and Modulated Turn Angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine strategies used by the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans for chemotaxis in complex environments. The proposed description is based on our recently developed piecewise-harmonic-curvature model of nematode locomotion [PLoS ONE, 7(7) e40121 (2012)], where random harmonic-curvature modes represent elementary locomotory movements. We show that the previously described gradual-turn and sharp-turn chemotaxis strategies can be unified in our model. The gradual-turn mechanism relies on crawling amplitude changes commensurate with the undulation frequency. The sharp-turn mechanism consists in modulation of the frequency of jumps to large-amplitude modes. We hypothesize that there exists a third strategy, where the nematode adjusts the variance of the amplitude distribution. Such adjustments result in a modulation of the magnitude of random turns, with smaller turns performed when the nematode moves toward the increasing chemoatractant concentration. Experiments are proposed to determine if the third strategy is present in the nematode behavior.

Patel, Amar; Padmanabhan, Venkat; Rumbaugh, Kendra; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

2013-03-01

422

Isolation of naturally associated bacteria of necromenic Pristionchus nematodes and fitness consequences.  

PubMed

Nematodes and bacteria are major components of the soil ecosystem. Many nematodes use bacteria for food, whereas others evolved specialized bacterial interactions ranging from mutualism to parasitism. Little is known about the biological mechanisms by which nematode-bacterial interactions are achieved, largely because in the laboratory nematodes are often cultured under artificial conditions. We investigated the bacterial interactions of nematodes from the genus Pristionchus that have a strong association with scarab beetles. Pristionchus has a different feeding strategy than Caenorhabditis and meta-genomic 16S sequence analysis of Pristionchus individuals showed a diversity of living bacteria within the nematode gut and on the nematode cuticle. Twenty-three different bacterial strains were isolated from three Pristionchus-beetle associations and were used to study nematode-bacterial interactions under controlled laboratory conditions. We show a continuum of bacterial interactions from dissemination, to reduction in brood size and nematode mortality caused by bacteria derived from insect hosts. Olfactory discrimination experiments show distinct chemoattraction and fitness profiles of Pristionchus nematodes when exposed to different bacteria. For example, Pristionchus pacificus avoids Serratia marcescens possibly because of pathogenicity. Also, P. pacificus avoids Bacillus thuringiensis and insect pathogenic bacteria but is resistant to the human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, unlike Caenorhabditis elegans. Pristionchus specifically recognize and respond to bacteria that cause ill health. Bringing the nematode-bacterial interaction into the laboratory allows detailed functional studies, including the genetic manipulation of the interaction in both nematodes and bacteria. PMID:18515723

Rae, Robbie; Riebesell, Metta; Dinkelacker, Iris; Wang, Qiong; Herrmann, Matthias; Weller, Andreas M; Dieterich, Christoph; Sommer, Ralf J

2008-06-01

423

Distribution and abundance of alfalfa-field nematodes at various spatial scales  

E-print Network

of stem nematode disease, including swollen or stunted stems, crown rot, and leaf and stem chlorosis, surface litter and soil substrates. At the regional scale of river basins, nematode communities were by Panagrolai- mus sp., a free-living nematode found mostly in the litter microhabitat in all three fields

Wall, Diana

424

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 198 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL W. Scott Monfort, Extension Peanut Specialist Fortunately nematodes have been a relatively minor problem on peanuts in South Carolina. Peanut root-knot (race 1) nematode is capable of causing severe losses

Duchowski, Andrew T.

425

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 188 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL W. Scott Monfort, Extension Peanut Specialist Fortunately nematodes have been a relatively minor problem on peanuts in South Carolina. Peanut root-knot (race 1) nematode is capable of causing severe losses

Stuart, Steven J.

426

Outcrossing and crossbreeding recovers deteriorated traits in laboratory cultured Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The nematode Steinernema carpocapsae is used as a natural biocontrol agent for suppression of many economically important insect pests. Culturing of the nematodes prior to distribution for biocontrol commonly results in deterioration of traits that are essential for nematode efficacy. To better un...

427

THE ROLE OF MITES AND NEMATODES IN EARLY STAGES OF BURIED LITTER DECOMPOSITION IN A DESERT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied changes in populations of mites, nematodes, bacteria, and fungi in buried creosote bush litter treated with selected inhibitors. Elimination of microarthropods (primarily tydeid mites) resulted in increased numbers of bacteriophagic nematodes and reduction in numbers of bac- teria; elimination of both nematodes and microarthropods resulted in increased numbers of bacteria compared to untreated controls. Fungal grazing mites, Pyemotidae,

PERSEU F. SANTOS; JANICE PHILLIPS; WALTER G. WHITFORD

1981-01-01

428

DEVELOPMENT OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES AS A MANAGEMENT TACTIC FOR CITRUS ROOT WEEVILS IN FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several weevils, particularly Diaprepes abbreviatus and Pachnaeus spp. are major pests of citrus in Florida. Entomopathogenic nematodes have been shown to suppress these weevils under field conditions. Several nematode species are endemic in Florida soils and provide natural control. Four nematod...

429

Influence of Nematodes on Resource Utilization by Bacteria—an in vitro Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positive influence of bacterial feeding nematodes on bacterial mediated processes such as organic matter mineralization and nutrient cycling is widely accepted, but the mechanisms of these interactions are not always apparent. Both transport of bacteria by nematodes, and nutritional effects caused by nematode N excretion are thought to be involved, but their relative importance is not known because of

D. Standing; O. G. G. Knox; C. E. Mullins; K. K. Killham; M. J. Wilson

2006-01-01

430

Mechanisms of molecular mimicry of plant CLE peptide ligands by the parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nematodes that parasitize plant roots cause huge economic losses and have few mechanisms for control. Many parasitic nematodes infect plants by reprogramming root development to drive the formation of feeding structures. How nematodes take control of plant development is largely unknown. The CLE ...

431

Dispersal patterns and behaviour of the nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita in mineral soils and organic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercially available parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is an effective biocontrol agent for slugs and particularly Deroceras reticulatum, a widespread pest species. Use of the nematode is currently limited by cost and it may be that by developing a fuller understanding of the ecology and behaviour of this nematode, more cost effective application strategies can be developed. We investigated the

Keith MacMillan; Solveig Haukeland; Robbie Rae; Iain Young; John Crawford; Simona Hapca; Michael Wilson

2009-01-01

432

Effect of irrigation on nematode population dynamics and activity in desert soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematode community in litter and soil was examined for a year in the Chihuahuan desert, before and after supplemental rainfall application. Proportions of nematode-active or anhydrobiotic forms and population densities were determined for 3 treatments: control (natural rainfall), a single, large (25-mm) monthly irrigation pulse, and 4 smaller (6-mm) irrigations spaced at weekly intervals. In litter the greatest nematode

D. W. Freckman; W. G. Whitford; Y. Steinberger

1987-01-01

433

The distribution and abundance of soil nematodes in East African savannas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematodes were sampled from sites under and between tree canopies in Tsavo National Park, Kenya. We tested the hypothesis that more nematodes would be present in the generally moister soil, under the canopy, with a larger biomass of green grass prevailing for many months of the year. We found that microbivorous nematodes comprised the bulk of the populations, approximately 90%

D. C. Coleman; A. L. Edwards; A. J. Belsky; S. Mwonga

1991-01-01

434

Brassicaceous and rye cover crops altered free-living soil nematode community composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nematode community analysis was utilized to evaluate the biofumigant or allelopathic effects of brassicaceous and rye winter cover crops on non-target nematodes in three experiments in Maryland. Nematode response parameters were genus, family, trophic group population density, and percentage distri...

435

Nematode faunal analysis in an aquic brown soil fertilised with slow-release urea, Northeast China  

E-print Network

Nematode faunal analysis in an aquic brown soil fertilised with slow-release urea, Northeast China Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Soil nematodes; Faunal analysis; Soil food web; Slow October 2004; accepted 27 October 2004 Abstract In this study, faunal analysis of nematode communities

Neher, Deborah A.

436

EFFECTS OF COVER CROPPING, SOLARIZATION, AND SOIL FUMIGATION ON NEMATODE COMMUNITIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While free-living nematodes play important roles in soil nutrient cycling, many pre-plant soil practices act as perturbations to nematode communities. A two-year field experiment was conducted to examine nematode communities in soil treated with methyl bromide (MB) fumigation, solarization (S) for 6...

437

Chemical ecology and isolation of biologically active compounds from parasitic nematodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp) are possibly the economically most important and best-studied species of plant parasitic nematodes. However, for Meloidogyne spp and the intensely studied nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, very little is known about signaling within and in-between species. It h...

438

Genome sequence of the metazoan plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-parasitic nematodes are major agricultural pests worldwide and novel approaches to control them are sorely needed. We report the draft genome sequence of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, a biotrophic parasite of many crops, including tomato, cotton and coffee. Most of the assembled sequence of this asexually reproducing nematode, totaling 86 Mb, exists in pairs of homologous but divergent segments.

Jérôme Gouzy; Jean-Marc Aury; Philippe Castagnone-Sereno; Etienne G J Danchin; Emeline Deleury; Laetitia Perfus-Barbeoch; Véronique Anthouard; François Artiguenave; Vivian C Blok; Marie-Cécile Caillaud; Pedro M Coutinho; Corinne Dasilva; Francesca De Luca; Florence Deau; Magali Esquibet; Timothé Flutre; Jared V Goldstone; Noureddine Hamamouch; Tarek Hewezi; Olivier Jaillon; Claire Jubin; Paola Leonetti; Marc Magliano; Tom R Maier; Gabriel V Markov; Paul McVeigh; Graziano Pesole; Julie Poulain; Marc Robinson-Rechavi; Erika Sallet; Béatrice Ségurens; Delphine Steinbach; Tom Tytgat; Edgardo Ugarte; Cyril van Ghelder; Pasqua Veronico; Thomas J Baum; Mark Blaxter; Teresa Bleve-Zacheo; Eric L Davis; Jonathan J Ewbank; Bruno Favery; Eric Grenier; Bernard Henrissat; John T Jones; Vincent Laudet; Aaron G Maule; Hadi Quesneville; Marie-Noëlle Rosso; Thomas Schiex; Geert Smant; Jean Weissenbach; Patrick Wincker; Pierre Abad

2008-01-01

439

7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section...Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring...and otherwise governing the movement of live golden nematodes in interstate or...

2010-01-01

440

Nematicidal effects of cysteine proteinases against sedentary plant parasitic nematodes.  

PubMed

Cysteine proteinases from the fruit and latex of plants, such as papaya, pineapple and fig, have previously been shown to have substantial anthelmintic efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, against a range of animal parasitic nematodes. In this paper, we describe the in vitro effects of these plant extracts against 2 sedentary plant parasitic nematodes of the genera Meloidogyne and Globodera. All the plant extracts examined caused digestion of the cuticle and decreased the activity of the tested nematodes. The specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, E-64, blocked this activity completely, indicating that it was essentially mediated by cysteine proteinases. In vitro, plant cysteine proteinases are active against second-stage juveniles of M. incognita and M. javanica, and some cysteine proteinases also affect the second-stage juveniles of Globodera rostochiensis. It is not known yet whether these plant extracts will interfere with, or prevent invasion of, host plants. PMID:17640402

Stepek, G; Curtis, R H C; Kerry, B R; Shewry, P R; Clark, S J; Lowe, A E; Duce, I R; Buttle, D J; Behnke, J M

2007-11-01