Ingestion of the larval nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause the human eosinophilic meningitis known as angiostrongyliasis. Analysis of the extracts and excretory-secretory (ES) products of A. cantonensis larvae and adult stages on gelatin substrate zymography demonstrated the presence of distinct gelatinolytic enzymes. In worm extracts, inhibitor studies showed that the metalloproteinases revealed in L1 (23 kDa), L3 (66, 42 and 30 kDa),
S. C. Lai; S. T. Jiang; K. M. Chen; H. H. Lee
The majority of filarial nematodes harbour Wolbachia endobacteria, including the major pathogenic species in humans, Onchocerca volvulus, Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. These obligate endosymbionts have never been demonstrated unequivocally in any non-filariid nematode. However, a recent report described the detection by PCR of Wolbachia in the metastrongylid nematode, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm), a leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. To address the intriguing possibility of Wolbachia infection in nematode species distinct from the Family Onchocercidae, we used both PCR and immunohistochemistry to screen samples of A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis for the presence of this endosymbiont. We were unable to detect Wolbachia in either species using these methodologies. In addition, bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses of the Wolbachia gene sequences reported previously from A. cantonensis indicate that they most likely result from contamination with DNA from arthropods and filarial nematodes. This study demonstrates the need for caution in relying solely on PCR for identification of new endosymbiont strains from invertebrate DNA samples.
Foster, Jeremy M; Kumar, Sanjay; Ford, Louise; Johnston, Kelly L; Ben, Renata; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Taylor, Mark J
A 9-year-old, male, captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) in an urban zoo in the United Kingdom presented with respiratory distress and weight loss. The animal was euthanatized, and a postmortem examination was performed. The lungs were diffusely consolidated with extensive mineralization. Microscopically, there was extensive obliteration of normal pulmonary architecture by sheets and coalescing nodules of partially mineralized fibrous tissue and granulomatous inflammation centered on large numbers of nematode larvae and eggs. First stage nematode larvae were isolated from lung tissue and were characterized as Angiostrongylus vasorum on the basis of their morphology and sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene and the entire second internal transcribed spacer. Although A. vasorum has previously been reported in red pandas in a zoological collection in Denmark, this study is the first reported case in the United Kingdom and occurs against a background of geographical spread and increased incidence of disease in domestic and wild canids. Angiostrongylus vasorum should be considered a differential diagnosis for respiratory disease in the red panda and taken into account when planning parasite and pest control programs for zoological collections. PMID:19286513
Patterson-Kane, Janet C; Gibbons, Lynda M; Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Wenzlow, Nanny; Redrobe, Sharon P
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is a nematode parasite found in Southeast Asia, Australia and the Pacific that is the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis. We report a case of intraparenchymal cerebral haemorrhage associated with A. cantonensis meningitis. This complication has not previously been reported in the literature. PMID:24316997
Lilic, Nikola; Addison, Ben
The principal etiologic agent of human eosinophilic meningitis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was first detected in rats in Canton, China in 1933. The first human case was detected on Taiwan in 1944. Epidemic outbreaks were noted on Ponape (E. Caroline Is.) from 1944 to 1948. The disease may present as transient meningitis or a more severe disease involving the brain, spinal cord
Michael M. Kliks; Nicholas E. Palumbo
Angiostrongylus vasorum is a strongylid nematode of major clinical relevance in canids, causing angiostrongylosis. In spite of its increasing importance, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite are not entirely understood. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA provides useful markers for studies of these areas, but genetic data are scant for A. vasorum and its congeners. Here, the mitochondrial genome was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction (long-PCR) from a portion of a single male adult of A. vasorum, sequenced using 454 technology and annotated employing a semi-automated bioinformatic pipeline. This circular mitochondrial genome is 13,422 bp and contains 12 protein-encoding, 22 transfer RNA, and two ribosomal RNA genes, consistent with its congeners and other secernentean nematodes. This mt genome represents a rich source of markers for future investigations of the population genetics and epidemiology of A. vasorum. Molecular tools, employing such mt markers, should be useful for explorations into host specificity and for prospecting for cryptic species, and might also underpin the diagnosis of canine angiostrongylosis. PMID:22922297
Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul; Mohandas, Namitha; Schnyder, Manuela; Deplazes, Peter; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Jex, Aaron R
Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is involved in the pathogenesis of parasitic meningitis caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The present study evaluated the efficacy of albendazole therapy in BALB\\/c mice infected with the third stage larvae of this nematode. Albendazole showed a pronounced larvicidal activity. Eosinophil numbers significantly increased in infected mice but decreased upon administration of albendazole. Densitometric scanning
K. P. Lan; C. J. Wang; S. C. Lai; K. M. Chen; S. S. Lee; J. D. Hsu; H. H. Lee
Infections of domesticated dogs by a worldwide parasitic nematode Filaroides osleri (Oslerus osleri) lead to verminous tracheobronchitis that are often misdiagnosed clinically as kennel cough, due to infection with the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica. Diagnosis of two canine cases in Wyoming, USA prompted a search of the literature of canid infections in North America. Infections of domestic dogs are reported in
Chaoqun Yao; Donal O’Toole; Mike Driscoll; Warner McFarland; Jonathan Fox; Todd Cornish; William Jolley
In the past decade, the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum has attracted attention for its emergence in previously free areas and for the rise in clinical cases in domestic dogs. Italy is regarded as one of the countries where this potentially life-threatening parasite is spreading, especially due to bridging infections between wildlife and domestic dogs. The present article describes the presence of A. vasorum in wolves from Italy. Nematodes were observed in histological sections of three wolves found dead in Rome province, central Italy. Morphological and molecular identification of the nematodes, by polymerase chain reaction of rDNA ITS-2 and sequencing, confirmed the nematodes to be A. vasorum, with 99% genetic homology with A. vasorum from sympatric dogs. This is the second report of this species in wolves and the first in this host in Italy, and coincides with increasing records of A. vasorum in dogs and foxes in Italy. Implications for the epidemiology of this emerging parasite and for wildlife health are concisely discussed. PMID:24918072
Eleni, Claudia; De Liberato, Claudio; Azam, Dena; Morgan, Eric R; Traversa, Donato
In the past decade, the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum has attracted attention for its emergence in previously free areas and for the rise in clinical cases in domestic dogs. Italy is regarded as one of the countries where this potentially life-threatening parasite is spreading, especially due to bridging infections between wildlife and domestic dogs. The present article describes the presence of A. vasorum in wolves from Italy. Nematodes were observed in histological sections of three wolves found dead in Rome province, central Italy. Morphological and molecular identification of the nematodes, by polymerase chain reaction of rDNA ITS-2 and sequencing, confirmed the nematodes to be A. vasorum, with 99% genetic homology with A. vasorum from sympatric dogs. This is the second report of this species in wolves and the first in this host in Italy, and coincides with increasing records of A. vasorum in dogs and foxes in Italy. Implications for the epidemiology of this emerging parasite and for wildlife health are concisely discussed.
Eleni, Claudia; De Liberato, Claudio; Azam, Dena; Morgan, Eric R.; Traversa, Donato
The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil.
de Oliveira Simoes, Raquel; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado
Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode that parasitizes domestic dogs and wild canids. We compared the predatory capacity of isolates from the predatory fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001), Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34), Monacrosporium sinense (SF53) and Arthrobotrys robusta (I31) on first-stage larvae (L1) of A. vasorum under laboratory conditions. L1 A. vasorum were plated on 2% water-agar (WA) Petri dishes marked into 4 mm diameter fields with the four grown isolates and a control without fungus. Plates of treated groups contained each 1000 L1 A. vasorum and 1000 conidia of the fungal isolates AC001, NF34, SF53 and I31 on 2% WA. Plates of the control group (without fungus) contained only 1000 L1 A. vasorum on 2% WA. Ten random fields (4 mm diameter) were examined per plate of treated and control groups, every 24 h for 7 days. Nematophagous fungi were not observed in the control group during the experiment. There was no variation in the predatory capacity among the tested fungal isolates (P>0.05) during the 7 days of the experiment. There was a significant reduction (P < 0.05) of 80.3%, 74.5%, 74.2% and 71.8% in the means of A. vasorum L1 recovered from treatments with isolates AC001, NF34, SF53 and I31, respectively, compared to the control without fungi. In this study, the four isolates of predatory fungi were efficient in the in vitro capture and destruction of A. vasorum L1, confirming previous work on the efficiency of nematophagous fungi in the control of nematode parasites of dogs and as a possible alternative method of biological control. PMID:19216825
Braga, F R; Carvalho, R O; Araujo, J M; Silva, A R; Araújo, J V; Lima, W S; Tavela, A O; Ferreira, S R
Angiostrongylus vasorum which is commonly known as ‘French heartworm’ is a snail-born parasitic disease affecting the members of the Canidae family.\\u000a This parasite has a cosmopolitan distribution covering tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. However, its distribution\\u000a is characterised by isolated endemic foci, with only sporadic occurrences outside this areas. During the last two decades,\\u000a several sporadic occurrences in old and
Tania Ferdushy; Mohammed Tabaruk Hasan
The parasitic nematode Ancylostoma ceylanicum is common in dogs, cats and humans throughout Asia, inhabiting the small intestine and possibly leading to iron-deficient anaemia in those infected. It has previously been discovered in domestic dogs in Australia and this is the first report of A. ceylanicum in wild canids. Wild dogs (dingoes and dingo hybrids) killed in council control operations (n = 26) and wild dog scats (n = 89) were collected from the Wet Tropics region around Cairns, Far North Queensland. All of the carcasses (100%) were infected with Ancylostoma caninum and three (11.5%) had dual infections with A. ceylanicum. Scats, positively sequenced for hookworm, contained A. ceylanicum, A. caninum and Ancylostoma braziliense, with A. ceylanicum the dominant species in Mount Windsor National Park, with a prevalence of 100%, but decreasing to 68% and 30.8% in scats collected from northern and southern rural suburbs of Cairns, respectively. Due to the ability of A. ceylanicum to cause a patent infection in humans, the zoonotic risk arising from this wild dog reservoir to communities in the Wet Tropics should be determined.
Smout, Felicity A.; Thompson, R.C. Andrew; Skerratt, Lee F.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode in the family Angiostrongylidae. It is the cause of angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease), which manifests as eosinophilic meningitis. First described in 1935 from rats in China, A. cantonensis was placed in the genus Parastrongylus in 1986, but most workers have not adopted this treatment. The taxonomy of A. cantonensis and related worms is largely based on adult morphology, notably of the male bursa. However, identification of infective third stage larvae is more difficult. The natural life cycle involves rats as the definitive host and snails or slugs as the intermediate host. Human infection, as accidental hosts, results in worms maturing in the brain, but dying there instead of moving back into the bloodstream, as in rats, thereby leading to eosinophilic meningitis. The disease is an emerging infectious disease; Angiostrongylus cantonensis continues to be reported in new regions beyond its native range.
Cerebral angiostrongyliasis is an acute inflammation caused by the infection of the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis that results in eosinophilic meningitis. The current immunological assay of choice is an immunoblot that detects antibodies to a 31 kDa protein present in crude extracts of the female worm. Recently we have identified diagnostic targets from excretion and secretion products and determined the composition of the 31 kDa antigen after 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Here we cloned and expressed five proteins in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Recombinant proteins were purified and analysed by Western blot assays and among them 14-3-3, Lec5 and ES7 were recognized by Angiostrongylus-specific serum, although the signal was weak.
Perelygin, Andrey; Levert, Keith; Lin, Seh-Ching; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; da Silva, Alexandre J; Wilkins, Patricia P; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos
Endocranial casts of 12 genera of extinctcanids, covering a time span of 30 million years, and of all living canid genera provide information on brain evolution in that carnivoran family. The oldest canid brains had only suprasylvian and coronolateral sulci, a widely exposed cerebellum with a straight posterior vermis, a high rhinal fissure and a strikingly undeveloped frontal lobe. By
Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode which harbors mesentery arteries of rodents. In these animals, a circadian rhythm of elimination of first-stage\\u000a larvae (L1) and a relation between the amount of L1 in feces and survival are unknown. We assessed fecal elimination of A. costaricensis L1 from experimentally infected Swiss mice and tried to correlate L1 elimination with survival. Thirteen Swiss
Graciele Vivian de Azevedo; Rubens Rodriguez; Sérgio Machado Porto; Carlos Graeff-Teixeira; Fernando Fornari
Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the nematode lungworm of rats, has a XX/X0 sex-determination mechanism. The chromosome constitution consists of 10 autosomes, with 2n=12, XX in the female and 2n=11, X0 in the male. Meiosis-I shows five bivalents and one univalent for the male worm, and six bivalents for the female worm. The chromosome constitution of the Thailand and Hawaii isolates of A. cantonensis is similar to those reported for the taxa from Japan, Egypt and mainland China. PMID:20237450
Eamsobhana, P; Yoolek, A; Yong, H S
Numerous studies have suggested that the extent of character divergence observed between two sympatric species reflects the intensity of competition for resources or space. However, the influence of time on divergence is often overlooked. We examined the relationship between time and character divergence in two groups of congeneric, sympatric canids on two continents: South American foxes and African jackals. Character divergence was assessed from measurements of body mass and dental and cranial shape. Divergence time was estimated from data on mitochondrial DNA restriction site polymorphisms. Our findings indicate that African jackals are morphologically similar despite having diverged more than 2 million years ago. By contrast, South American foxes differ substantially in both size and morphology after only 250,000 years of evolution. Thus, the lack of character divergence among the African jackals cannot be explained as a result of very recent common ancestry. PMID:2559120
Wayne, R K; Van Valkenburgh, B; Kat, P W; Fuller, T K; Johnson, W E; O'Brien, S J
There are several anti-oxidant enzyme families that play pivotal roles in facilitating the survival of parasites. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are members of the anti-oxidant family that can detoxify a broad range of exogenous or endogenous compounds including reactive oxidative species. GSTs have been studied as vaccine candidates, immunodiagnostic markers and as treatment targets. Helminths of the genus Angiostrongylus live inside arteries of vertebrates and two main species are associated with accidental human infections: Angiostrongylus costaricensis adult worms live inside the mesenteric arteries and larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis become trapped in the central nervous system vasculature. Since the interactions between angiostrongylid nematodes and their vertebrate hosts are poorly understood, this study characterized the anti-oxidant enzymatic activities of A. cantonensis from female worms by collecting excreted and secreted (ES) and total extract (TE) molecules. Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were found both in the ES and TE while glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and GST were found only in the TE. GSTs were purified by glutathione agarose affinity column (AcGST) and the pool of eluted GSTs was analyzed by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and de novo sequencing (Masslynx software). Sequences from two peptides (AcGSTpep1 and AcGSTpep2) present high identity to the N-terminal and C-terminal from sigma class GSTs of nematodes. It is known that these GST enzymes are associated with host immune regulation. Furthermore, understanding the role of parasite-derived anti-oxidant molecules is important in understanding host-parasite interactions. PMID:20807531
Morassutti, Alessandra L; Pinto, Paulo M; Dutra, Bibiana K; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato; Ferreira, Henrique B; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos
Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system—Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.—is reviewed. Objectives On completion of this article, the reader should be able to summarize the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the common nematodal infections of the nervous system. Accreditation The Indiana University School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Credit The Indiana University School of Medicine designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1 Category 1 credit toward the AMA Physicians Recognition Award. Each physician should claim only those credits that he/she actually spent in the educational activity. Disclosure Statements of disclosure have been obtained regarding the authors’ relevant financial relationships. The authors have nothing to disclose.
Walker, M.D.; Zunt, J.R.
The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode with a wide distribution. We report the first provincial survey of the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection among wild rodents and snails in Guangdong Province, China. A total of 2929 Pomacea canaliculata and 1354 Achatina fulica were collected from fields in 22 survey sites with a larval infection rates ranging from 0-26.6% to 0-45.4%. In addition, 114 Cipangopaludina sp and 252 Bellamya sp were bought from markets; larvae were found only in Bellamya snails from two survey sites with an infection rate of 1.4% (1/70) and 3.3% (3/91), respectively. Four hundred and ninety-one rodents were captured in nine sites (Rattus norvegicus, R. flavipectus, Suncus murinus, Mus musculus, Bandicota indica, R. losea and R. rattus). Adult worms were found in R. norvegicus, R. flavipectus and Bandicota indica. Our survey revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate hosts P. canaliculata and A. fulica in Guangdong. The prevalence of A. cantonensis in wild snails and rats poses a substantial risk for angiostrongyliasis in humans. PMID:21906215
Deng, Zhuo-Hui; Zhang, Qi-Ming; Huang, Shao-Yu; Jones, Jeffrey L
The prehistoric settlement site of Ban Chiang has yielded the remains of canid bones covering the period from c. 3500 BC to the present. These, and bones from related sites in northeast Thailand, were compared by multivariate means, with modern comparative samples of the wolf, dingo, cuon and jackal. Both in terms of size and shape, the prehistoric dog, though
C. F. W. Higham; A KIJNGAM; B MANLY
Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally.
Kim, Jaynee R.; Hayes, Kenneth A.; Yeung, Norine W.; Cowie, Robert H.
The cardiovascular nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum is spreading in the fox and dog populations of northern Europe. A. vasorum can result in severe clinical manifestations in dogs; therefore, specific diagnosis is crucial for assessing its prevalence. In the present study, faecal samples from foxes and domestic dogs were tested by a new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the second internal transcribed region of the ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of A. vasorum. Initial isolation of faecal larvae by sieving facilitated the processing of larger sample volumes and allowed for the recovery of dead larvae from frozen samples. The sieve-PCR method enabled the identification of a single larva per 2 g of faecal sample and did not amplify DNA of a range of canine helminths, thus presenting a non-invasive tool for wildlife surveillance and for confirmative diagnosis in dogs. PMID:20372926
Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Deplazes, Peter; Webster, Pia; Willesen, Jakob L; Davidson, Rebecca K; Kapel, Christian M O
Abstract Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode with rodents serving as natural definitive hosts. We report A. cantonensis in the Ryukyu Islands tree rat (Diplothrix legata, Thomas, 1906), a native endangered species in Japan. Adult and larvae of A. cantonensis were macroscopically, histologically, and genetically detected in three tree rats collected between August 2011 and January 2012 in the Yambaru area of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Pathologic observations of the lungs of rats showed that infection may be lethal. We also conducted a retrospective genetic survey of helminths parasitic in lung in cryopreserved lung samples of Ryukyu Islands tree rats collected between 2007 and 2011 in the Yambaru area and found A. cantonensis DNA in one of 29 samples, which was collected in December 2010. PMID:24499332
Okano, Tsukasa; Haga, Atsushi; Mizuno, Eriko; Onuma, Manabu; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi
The cortical thickness of long bones can be an effective indicator of locomotor modes and other stresses encountered by bone.\\u000a Felids and canids are two carnivoran families that have similar levels of phylogenetic diversity and overlap in body size,\\u000a but differ in their locomotor habits. Many canids and felids are cursorial, but felids also climb more frequently than canids.\\u000a Felids
Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids. PMID:22946419
André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias
Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1–8% and 20–22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk.
Geffen, Eli; Kam, Michael; Hefner, Reuven; Hersteinsson, Pall; Angerbjorn, Anders; Dalen, Love; Fuglei, Eva; Noren, Karin; Adams, Jennifer R.; Vicetich, John; Meier, Thomas J.; Mech, L. D.; VonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Wayne, Robert K.
The role of domestic dogs in the epidemiology of Neospora caninum as well as the relationship between N. caninum infection of farm dogs and cattle were demonstrated, however, evidence is scarce regarding the role of wild canids in domestic animal neosporosis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of wild canids in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis in Israel by analyzing the prevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in wild canids. Sera samples were collected from 114 free ranging wild golden jackals (Canis aureus), 24 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and nine wolves (Canis lupus), which were collected in Israel during the years 1999-2004. Of a total of 147 wild canids tested antibodies to N. caninum were only found in two golden jackals with IFAT titers of 1:50, and in one red fox and one wolf with IFAT titer of 1:400. The low seroprevalence found in this study (2.7%) indicated that wild canids probably do not have an important role in the epidemiology of N. caninum in Israel. However, since the diet of different species of wild canids and even diverse populations of the same canid species vary, it is possible that other results might be obtained from specific wild canids populations, which scavenge in the vicinity of infected bovines. PMID:16436314
Steinman, A; Shpigel, N Y; Mazar, S; King, R; Baneth, G; Savitsky, I; Shkap, V
Benson Ginsburg's early studies of canid socialization and wolf social and reproductive behavior were focused, in part, on the degree to which there was flexibility in social development and specifically whether there was a critical period during development after which wolf pups could not be socialized to humans. My focus was the degree to which differences in canid ecology and social structure were correlated with differences in the plasticity of social and reproductive behavior, including development. Canid species are unusual among the Mammalia in being primarily monogamous. Males may play an indirect or direct role in parental care, depending on a species degree of sociality. Canid species also differ in developmental parameters, and reproductive suppression is common in the group-living pack hunters. I review comparative studies of the social and reproductive behavior of three South American canids which vary in their degree of sociality and explore the degree to which the species are ecologically and socially flexible. PMID:21487689
Kleiman, Devra G
Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode that causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis, a widespread human parasitism in Latin America. This study aimed to characterize the protease profiles of different developmental stages of this helminth. First-stage larvae (L1) were obtained from the faeces of infected Sigmodon hispidus rodents and third-stage larvae (L3) were collected from mollusks Biomphalaria glabrata previously infected with L1. Adult worms were recovered from rodent mesenteric arteries. Protein extraction was performed after repeated freeze-thaw cycles followed by maceration of the nematodes in 40 mM Tris base. Proteolysis of gelatin was observed by zymography and found only in the larval stages. In L3, the gelatinolytic activity was effectively inhibited by orthophenanthroline, indicating the involvement of metalloproteases. The mechanistic class of the gelatinases from L1 could not be precisely determined using traditional class-specific inhibitors. Adult worm extracts were able to hydrolyze haemoglobin in solution, although no activity was observed by zymography. This haemoglobinolytic activity was ascribed to aspartic proteases following its effective inhibition by pepstatin, which also inhibited the haemoglobinolytic activity of L1 and L3 extracts. The characterization of protease expression throughout the A. costaricensis life cycle may reveal key factors influencing the process of parasitic infection and thus foster our understanding of the disease pathogenesis. PMID:22990964
Rebello, Karina Mastropasqua; Siqueira, Caroline Reis de; Ribeiro, Erika Louise; Valente, Richard Hemmi; Mota, Ester Maria; Perales, Jonas; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele da Costa; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a common cause of human eosinophilic meningitis. Recent outbreaks of this infection have shown that there is a need to determine the distribution of this nematode in the environment in order to control transmission. A. cantonensis is generally identified morphologically in the molluscan intermediate host by microscopic examination, which can be labor-intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a PCR-based method to detect A. cantonensis directly from molluscan tissue. A total of 34 Parmarion cf. martensi (Simroth) semislugs, 25 of which were naturally infected with A. cantonensis, were used to develop this assay. Tissue pieces (approximately 25 mg) were digested with pepsin-HCl to recover third-stage larvae for morphological identification or were used for DNA extraction. PCR primers were designed to amplify 1,134 bp from the Angiostrongylus 18S rRNA gene, and the amplicons produced were sequenced for identification at the species level. Both microscopy and the PCR-DNA sequencing analysis indicated that the same 25 semislugs were positive for A. cantonensis, showing that the two methods were equally sensitive and specific for this application. However, morphological detection requires access to living mollusks, whereas molecular analysis can also be performed with frozen tissue. The PCR-DNA sequencing method was further evaluated using tissue from Veronicella cubensis (Pfeiffer) slugs and mucus secretions from infected P. martensi. To our knowledge, this is the first use of a PCR-based method to confirm the presence of A. cantonensis in mollusks collected in the environment. PMID:17194836
Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Sullivan, James J; Bishop, Henry S; Hollingsworth, Robert; da Silva, Alexandre J
Nematode Songs is a wonderful, straightforward resource maintained by Nematologist Kathy Merrifield of Oregon State University, who makes light of these microscopic worms and parasites. A collection of 15 titles, including such notables as "Good King Nematode," "The Golden Sun" and "The Parasitic Nematode Rag," offer clever (and nematode-ish) lyrics to familiar songs. An option to sing along is included (requires MIDI sound), and each feature includes sheet music as well as complete lyrics. For the more serious, links to scientific nematode resources are provided at the bottom of the page.
Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillanc...
A. C. McMillan-Cole B. B. Chomel M. J. Stuckey R. W. Kasten S. Sato
Lung infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis was established in experimentally infected Indian soft-furred rats (Millardia meltada) and Indian spiny mice (Mus platythrix). Pulmonary arterial migration occurred earlier (at day 20 after infection) in M. meltada than in Wistar rats. M. meltada and M. platythrix could serve as useful animal models for comparative studies of mechanisms determining host specificity of A. cantonensis. PMID:6501859
Uchida, K; Yoshimura, K; Sato, K; Yosida, T H
Each summer Yellowstone Wolf Project staff visit den sites to monitor the success of wolf reproduction and pup rearing behavior. For the purposes of wolf monitoring, Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is divided into two study areas, the northern range and the interior, each distinguished by their ecological and physiographical differences. The 1,000 square kilometer northern range, characterized by lower elevations (1,500–2,200 m), serves as prime winter habitat for ungulates and supports a higher density of wolves than the interior (20–99 wolves/1,000 km2 versus 2–11 wolves/1,000 km2). The interior of the park encompasses 7,991 square kilometers, is higher in elevation, receives higher annual snowfall, and generally supports lower densities of wolves and ungulates. During the Yellowstone Wolf Project’s 2005 observations on the northern range, researchers noticed that some wolf pups were disappearing and those that remained were unusually listless. The Slough Creek pups, at first numbering 18, dwindled to three survivors. Similar findings were mirrored at other den sites across the northern range. When annual den surveys were conducted in late July, all that remained were scattered piles of bones and fur. Coyotes suffered similar setbacks in 2005, with many of the survivors exhibiting neurological shakes and tremors. The park’s canids had been affected by something, but what? Prompted by what seemed to be a disease outbreak, the Yellowstone Wolf Project, the Yellowstone Ecological Research Center (YERC), and the University of Minnesota decided to take several collaborative approaches toward improving our understanding of the presence and role of infectious disease in Yellowstone’s canid community. Several serological studies have been conducted in the past among the park’s coyotes (Gese et al. 1997) and cougars (Biek 2006), providing a helpful foundation on which to build and compare. A serological survey was conducted, using serum samples collected during routine wolf and coyote captures over a period of 18 years (Almberg et al. 2009). Simulation models were used to explore the dynamics of canine distemper virus (Almberg et al. 2010)—one of the more prominent pathogens in terms of its effects on its hosts—and several long-term pathogen surveillance projects were initiated which are intended to someday provide a foundation for more advanced genetic-based analyses of pathogen dynamics. Since these initial efforts, the group has also expanded the research to include a study of sarcoptic mange, which began affecting wolves and coyotes in YNP in 2006 and 2007.
Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Doug W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.
An infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the main causative agent for human eosinophilic encephalitis, can be acquired through the consumption of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata. This snail also provides a suitable model to study the developmental morphology and behavior of A. cantonensis larvae, facilitated by the snail's distinct lung structure. We used microanatomy for studying the natural appearance and behavior of A. cantonensis larvae while developing within P. canaliculata. The distribution of refractile granules in the larval body and characteristic head structures changed during the developmental cycle. Two well-developed, rod-like structures with expanded knob-like tips at the anterior part were observed under the buccal cavity as early as the late second developmental stage. A "T"-shaped structure at the anterior end and its tenacity distinguished the outer sheath from that shed during the second molting. Early first-stage larvae obtained from fresh rat feces are free moving and characterized by a coiled tail, whereas a mellifluous "Q"-movement was the behavioral trait of third-stage A. cantonensis larvae outside the host tissue. In combination, the distribution of refractive granules, distinct head features, variations in sheaths, and behavioral characteristics can be utilized for differentiation of larval stages, and for distinguishing A. cantonensis larvae from those of other free-living nematodes. PMID:19172296
Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Zhang, Chao-Wei; Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg
After a case of Angiostrongylus vasorum (canine lungworm) was diagnosed in the province of Chieti (Italy) in early 2008, parasitological research was conducted to investigate the presence of the parasite in dogs in the area. A total of 178 dogs, 56 carcasses and 122 stool samples were examined between January and September 2008. The carcasses were examined for the presence of adult parasites in the right ventricle and pulmonary artery, and larval forms in the internal organ and brain tissues. The faeces were inspected for larval form L1 using three diagnostic methods that are currently used to test for endoparasites and larvae of bronchopulmonary strongyles. A total of 20 cases of canine angiostrongylosis were diagnosed (8.9%), with adult parasites being identified in 5 dogs, and L1 larvae in another 15. The anatomo-pathological examination of the carcasses of the dogs infested with adult nematodes revealed pneumonia, pleurisy, reddish foam in the trachea, effusion of serohaemorrhagic fluid in the thoracic cavity and enlarged mediastinic and mesenteric lymph nodes. Histological examination of the tissues showed serious, similar syndromes with lesions caused by colonisation of the kidneys, lymph nodes and brain by the parasites. Given the large number of cases confirmed in relation to the period of study (9 months), it is essential to include angiostrongylosis among the differential diagnoses made in clinical and post-mortem examinations of dogs in the province of Chieti and in the neighbouring areas. PMID:21240853
Tieri, Elga; Pomilio, Francesco; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Saletti, Maria Antonietta; Totaro, Paolo; Troilo, Mario; Menna, Silvio; Tampieri, Maria Paola; Morelli, Daniela
In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of -gingerol, -shogaol, -gingerol, -shogaol and hexahydrocurcumin, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger (Zingiber officinale), for the parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study found that the above constituents killed A. cantonensis larvae or reduced their spontaneous movements in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous
Rong-Jyh Lin; Chung-Yi Chen; Li-Yu Chung; Chuan-Min Yen
The relationships between mandibular and dental measurements were investigated in a sample of 60 adult domestic dogs, 17 black-backed jackals Canis mesomelas, 18 side-striped jackals C. adustus and 16 Cape foxes Vulpes chama. Standard mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth measurements, together with 8 mandibular measurements (intercondylar distance, intercarnassial breadth, mandibular length, arch length, condylar height, canine-condylar length, mandibular width, mandibular height) were scaled allometrically to total skull length. Despite wide differences in diet and sexual dimorphism between the 3 wild canid species, larger canids were found to be scaled up versions of smaller canids. While males showed a highly concordant patterning when compared with domestic dogs of equivalent size, females showed a remarkably mosaic pattern. Relative to skull size, the only teeth that appear to be larger than those of equivalently sized domestic dogs were the second molars. It is suggested that those theories of sexual dimorphism and functional integration which apply to skeletodental dimensions in primates may not be applicable to canids. PMID:1487435
Kieser, J A; Groeneveld, H T
An ecomorphological analysis of the skeletal remains of large canids, Canis ( Xenocyon ) falconeri and Canis etruscus (Mammalia, Carnivora, Canidae), preserved in an assemblage of large mam- mals from the lower Pleistocene site at Venta Micena (Guadix-Baza Basin, Orce, Granada, southeastern Spain) is reported. Mean body mass of adult individuals was estimated to be around 10 kg for C.
PAUL PALMQVIST; ALFONSO ARRIBAS; BIENVENIDO MARTÍNEZ-NAVARRO
The relationships between mandibular and dental measurements were investigated in a sample of 60 adult domestic dogs, 17 black-backed jackals Canis mesomelas, 18 side-striped jackals C. adustus and 16 Cape foxes Vulpes chama. Standard mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth measurements, together with 8 mandibular measurements (intercondylar distance, intercarnassial breadth, mandibular length, arch length, condylar height, canine-condylar length, mandibular width, mandibular height) were scaled allometrically to total skull length. Despite wide differences in diet and sexual dimorphism between the 3 wild canid species, larger canids were found to be scaled up versions of smaller canids. While males showed a highly concordant patterning when compared with domestic dogs of equivalent size, females showed a remarkably mosaic pattern. Relative to skull size, the only teeth that appear to be larger than those of equivalently sized domestic dogs were the second molars. It is suggested that those theories of sexual dimorphism and functional integration which apply to skeletodental dimensions in primates may not be applicable to canids.
Kieser, J A; Groeneveld, H T
Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is a zoonotic infection produced by a metastrongylid intra-arterial nematode, Angiostrongylus costaricensis. Human accidental infection may result in abdominal lesions and treatment with anti-helminthics is contra-indicated because of potential higher morbidity with excitement or death of worms inside vessels. To evaluate the effect of mebendazole on localization of the worms, male Swiss mice, 5 week-old, were infected with 10 third stage larvae per animal. Twelve infected mice were treated with oral mebendazol, at 5 mg/kg/day, for 5 consecutive days, begining 22 days after inoculation. As control groups, 12 infected but non-treated mice and other 12 non-infected and non-treated mice were studied. The findings at necropsy were, respectively for the treated (T) and control (C) groups: 92% and 80% of the worms were inside the cecal mesenteric arterial branch; 8% and 10% were located inside the aorta. Only in the group C some worms (10%) were found inside the portal vein or splenic artery. These data indicate that treatment with mebendazole does not lead to distal or ectopic migration of A. costaricensis worms. PMID:15141273
Mentz, Márcia Bohrer; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Garrido, Cinara Tentardini
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an important causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that participate in a wide range of biological processes. This study employed a deep-sequencing approach to study miRNAs from young adults of A. cantonensis. Based on 16,880,456 high-quality reads, 252 conserved mature miRNAs including 10 antisense miRNAs that belonging to 90 families, together with 10 antisense miRNAs were identified and characterised. Among these sequences, 53 miRNAs from 25 families displayed 50 or more reads. The conserved miRNA families were divided into four groups according to their phylogenetic distribution and a total of nine families without any members showing homology to other nematodes or adult worms were identified. Stem-loop real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of aca-miR-1-1 and aca-miR-71-1 demonstrated that their level of expression increased dramatically from infective larvae to young adults and then decreased in adult worms, with the male worms exhibiting significantly higher levels of expression than female worms. These findings provide information related to the regulation of gene expression during the growth, development and pathogenesis of young adults of A. cantonensis.
Chang, Shih-Hsin; Tang, Petrus; Lai, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Wang, Lian-Chen
The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication.
Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Wayne, Robert K.
The structure of mammalian carnivore communities is strongly influenced by both intraguild competition and predation. However,\\u000a intraguild interactions involving the world’s most common carnivore, the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), have rarely been investigated. We experimentally examined the behavioural responses of a small canid, the Indian fox (Vulpes bengalensis), to the presence of dogs and dog odours. Resource competition between dogs
Abi Tamim Vanak; Maria Thaker; Matthew E. Gompper
Slugs and snails (class Gastropoda) are the obligate intermediate hosts of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This nematode is the causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis and the most common cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Humans can become infected by accidental consumption of slugs or snails and possibly flatworms (or a portion of one of these animals) in fresh produce, but the slime from these animals can contain nematodes and may also constitute a disease risk. Gastropod carriers in Hawa'i include, among other species, giant African snails, veronicellid slugs, and the semi-slug Parmarion martensi. This latter species was first discovered on the island of Hawa'i in 2004 and is now common in the area where the majority of the state's documented cases of human angiostrongyliasis occurred between 2005 and 2011. This species is considered a high risk carrier of A. cantonensis because of its climbing behavior, abundance around human dwellings, and high worm burdens. One individual collected from east Hawa'i Island contained >6,800 infective third stage A. cantonensis larvae. Common and efficient control methods for slugs and snails include sanitation (eg, removal of objects that serve as hiding places) and the use of poison food baits, such as those containing metaldehyde and iron. An iron-containing bait that is relatively safe to non-target organisms was effective in controlling semi-slugs in cage experiments, although it killed more slowly than a metaldehyde-containing bait and the majority of slugs affected did not die until 1-2 weeks following ingestion. PMID:23901389
Hollingsworth, Robert G; Howe, Kathleen; Jarvi, Susan I
BACKGROUND: The present study was aimed to elucidate the status of intestinal helminth infections in canids of Moghan Plain, northwestern Iran. METHODS: Eighty-five intestine samples from dead or shot wild canids, 59 fecal samples from sheepdogs and 5 from red foxes were collected from 2006 to 2008 and examined in Parasitology department of Pasteur Institute of Iran. RESULTS: Generally, adult worms, larvae, and eggs of 13 species of various parasitic helminths were recovered. Necropsy examinations showed that 96.47% animals harbored at least one helminth species. The prevalence of different species in necropsy were Mesocestoides sp. 84.7%, Rictolaria spp. 55.3%, Macranthorhynchus hirudinaceus 45.9%, Toxocara canis 43.5%, Toxascaris spp. 35.3%, Joyeuxiella sp. 34.1%; hookworms; 22.4%, Taenia spp. 11.8%, Alaria spp. 2.4% and Dipylidium caninum 1.2%. Besides, eggs belonging to 10 species of parasitic helminths were identified in 46 fecal samples and generally, 30.9% of samples harbored eggs of at least one helminth species. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of various helminth infections among canids in Moghan plain and contamination of environment by helminths eggs may increase the risk of infection for native people. PMID:22347243
Zare-Bidaki, M; Mobedi, I; Ahari, S Sadeghieh; Habibizadeh, S; Naddaf, Sr; Siavashi, Mr
In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of -gingerol, -shogaol, -gingerol, -shogaol and hexahydrocurcumin, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger (Zingiber officinale), for the parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study found that the above constituents killed A. cantonensis larvae or reduced their spontaneous movements in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement of -shogaol, -gingerol, -gingerol, -shogaol and hexahydrocurcumin at various concentrations was reached from 24 to 72 h, respectively. Further investigation to determine minimal effective doses of -gingerol and hexahydrocurcumin revealed -gingerol to have a greater maximum larvicidal effect and loss of spontaneous movements than hexahydrocurcumin, mebendazole and albendazole. These constituents of ginger showed effects against DPPH and peroxyl radical under larvicidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as larvicidal agents against A. cantonensis. PMID:20045669
Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chung, Li-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min
Modifications in climatic conditions, movements of hosts and goods, changes in animal phenology and human behaviour and increase of wildlife, are presently concurring in the geographic spread of vectors and cardio-respiratory nematodes, e.g. Dirofilaria immitis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Capillaria aerophila. All these factors may also influence dispersion and clinical significance of fleas, thus posing relevant challenges in those regions where other parasites are emerging at the same time. Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis and Pulex irritans cause discomfort, nuisance, allergic reactions, anaemia, and may transmit several pathogens, some of them are of importance for public health. The present article reviews the importance of fleas in small animal practice and their sanitary relevance for dogs, cats and humans, and discusses current control methods in the present era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes, towards a possible changing perspective for controlling key parasites affecting companion animals.
Modifications in climatic conditions, movements of hosts and goods, changes in animal phenology and human behaviour and increase of wildlife, are presently concurring in the geographic spread of vectors and cardio-respiratory nematodes, e.g. Dirofilaria immitis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Capillaria aerophila. All these factors may also influence dispersion and clinical significance of fleas, thus posing relevant challenges in those regions where other parasites are emerging at the same time. Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis and Pulex irritans cause discomfort, nuisance, allergic reactions, anaemia, and may transmit several pathogens, some of them are of importance for public health. The present article reviews the importance of fleas in small animal practice and their sanitary relevance for dogs, cats and humans, and discusses current control methods in the present era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes, towards a possible changing perspective for controlling key parasites affecting companion animals. PMID:23497511
Progesterone regulates multiple behavioral, physiological, and pathological aspects of female reproductive biology through its two progesterone receptors (PRs), PR-B and the truncated PR-A. PR-B is necessary for mammary gland development in mice and, compared with PR-A, is overall a stronger transactivator of target genes due to an additional activation function 3 (AF3) domain. In dogs, known for their high sensitivity to progesterone-induced mammary cancer, the PR-B function was studied. Canine PR (cPR)-B appeared to contain multiple mutations within AF3 core sequence motifs and lacks N-terminal ligand-independent posttranslational modifications. Consequently, cPR-B has a weak transactivation potential on progesterone-responsive mouse mammary tumor virus-luc and progesterone response element 2-luc reporters transiently transfected in hamster, human, or canine cells and also on known target genes FKBP5 and SGK in doxycycline-inducible, stable transfected cPR-B in canine mammary cells. The cPR-B function was restored to the level of human PR-B by the replacement of canine AF3 domain with the human one. The lack of AF3 domain-dependent transcriptional activity was unique for canids (gray wolf, red fox, and raccoon dog) and not present in closely related caniform species (brown bear, gray seal, and domestic ferret). Despite the limited transactivation potential, canids develop normal mammary glands and frequently mammary tumors. Therefore, these results question the role of PR-B in breast cancer development and may explain unique features of canid reproduction. PMID:23041671
Gracanin, Ana; van Wolferen, Monique E; Sartorius, Carol A; Brenkman, Arjan B; Schoonen, Willem G; Mol, Jan A
Genetic divergence and gene flow among closely related populations are difficult to measure because mutation rates of most nuclear loci are so low that new mutations have not had sufficient time to appear and become fixed. Microsatellite loci are repeat arrays of simple sequences that have high mutation rates and are abundant in the eukaryotic genome. Large population samples can be screened for variation by using the polymerase chain reaction and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to separate alleles. We analyzed 10 microsatellite loci to quantify genetic differentiation and hybridization in three species of North American wolflike canids. We expected to find a pattern of genetic differentiation by distance to exist among wolflike canid populations, because of the finite dispersal distances of individuals. Moreover, we predicted that, because wolflike canids are highly mobile, hybrid zones may be more extensive and show substantial changes in allele frequency, relative to nonhybridizing populations. We demonstrate that wolves and coyotes do not show a pattern of genetic differentiation by distance. Genetic subdivision in coyotes, as measured by theta and Gst, is not significantly different from zero, reflecting persistent gene flow among newly established populations. However, gray wolves show significant subdivision that may be either due to drift in past Ice Age refugia populations or a result of other causes. Finally, in areas where gray wolves and coyotes hybridize, allele frequencies of gray wolves are affected, but those of coyotes are not. Past hybridization between the two species in the south-central United States may account for the origin of the red wolf. PMID:8078397
Roy, M S; Geffen, E; Smith, D; Ostrander, E A; Wayne, R K
The extinction of species across the globe is accelerating, directly or indirectly due to human activities. Biological impoverishment, habitat fragmentation, climate change, increasing toxification, and the rapid global movement of people and other living organisms have worked synergistically to diminish ecosystem function. This has resulted in unprecedented levels of disease emergence, driven by human-induced environmental degradation, which poses a threat to the survival and health of biodiversity. The emerging discipline of conservation medicine addresses these concerns through the following entities: humans; global climate; habitat destruction and alteration; biodiversity, including wildlife populations; domestic animals; and pathogens, parasites and pollutants. Furthermore, conservation medicine focuses on explicit linkages between these entities. As a crisis discipline, the usefulness of conservation medicine ultimately will depend on its applicability to solving problems. The perspectives and scientific findings of conservation medicine provide input into biomedical education; and policy and management of ecosystems, habitats and imperiled species. A sentinel species is one that has presented itself, or has been selected, to provide insight into the state (health) of an ecosystem, based on user-defined (e.g., researchers, conservationists or policymakers) objectives (e.g., disease, parasites, toxics, climate change, habitat destruction), coupled with the utility and vulnerability of this species to the perceived stress. The scientific information generated by the sentinel species should empower stakeholders and decision-makers to take mitigative action or support predictive capabilities; the "utility" of the species selected should consider its value and relevance to conservationists and to society at large (e.g., education and outreach; social sciences). Wild canids may serve as excellent sentinel species of emerging canine vector-borne diseases. Several canine vector-borne diseases or antibodies to these pathogens have been identified in wild canids including visceral leishmaniosis, Lyme disease, heartworm, hepatozoonosis and anaplasmosis to name a few. These reports are relatively recent as they relate to wildlife-domestic animal interactions, globalisation, translocations, habitat fragmentation and climate change. These pathogens and their relationship to wild canids are described herein. Further research needs to be performed to elucidate the role of the 36 extant species of wild canids in the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases. PMID:19426446
Aguirre, A Alonso
Serum samples from 35 golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus), eight wolves (Canis lupus), and four red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from various regions of Israel were collected during the years 2001-04 and tested for antibodies to Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types C and D. Antibodies against BoNT types C and D were detected in 10 (29%) and in 3 (9%) of 35 golden jackals, respectively, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This report describes detection of anti BoNT antibodies in wild canids other than coyotes (Canis latrans) for the first time and demonstrates that C. botulinum type C is prevalent in Israel. PMID:17699099
Steinman, Amir; Millet, Neta; Frenkel, Chana; King, Roni; Shpigel, Nahum Y
During November 2004-January 2005, 5 cases of eosinophilic meningitis (EM) attributable to Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection were reported in Hawaii. To determine if this temporal clustering reflected an increased incidence, we ascertained EM and A. cantonensis cases by systematic review of statewide laboratory and medical records for January 2001-February 2005 and generalized the data to population estimates. We identified 83 EM cases; 24 (29%) were attributed to A. cantonensis infection, which was included in the discharge diagnoses for only 2 cases. Comparison of A. cantonensis infection incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) for the baseline (January 2001-October 2004) and cluster (November 2004-February 2005) periods showed statistically significant increases for the state as a whole (0.3 vs. 2.1), the Big Island of Hawaii (1.1 vs. 7.4), and Maui County (0.4 vs. 4.3). These findings underscore the need to consider the diagnosis of A. cantonensis infection, especially in the state of Hawaii. PMID:18217550
Hochberg, Natasha S; Park, Sarah Y; Blackburn, Brian G; Sejvar, James J; Gaynor, Kate; Chung, Heath; Leniek, Karyn; Herwaldt, Barbara L; Effler, Paul V
Asparaginyl endopeptidase, also known as legumain, is a family of cysteine proteases in many organisms. In this study, an asparaginyl endopeptidase (Ac-AEP) was identified from the cDNA library of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The full-length of Ac-AEP was determined to be 1,472 bp with an open reading frame of 1,341 bp encoding a putative protein with 446 amino acids. This putative protein was determined to have 37-65 % identity in the amino acid sequences of the asparaginyl endopeptidases of other parasitic helminths. By real-time quantitative PCR analysis, Ac-AEP was revealed to be more abundantly expressed in the female adult worms than in other development stages. A recombinant asparaginyl endopeptidase (rAc-AEP) was then produced by a Pichia pastoris expression system. Posttranslational modification was shown to occur via N-linked glycosylation in this recombinant enzyme. The proteolytic activity of rAc-AEP was inhibited by iodoacetamide but not affected by E64, pepatain A, AEBSF, and EDTA. Moreover, the purified rAc-AEP was recognized by IgG in serum samples from BALB/c or ICR mice with A. cantonensis infection and patients with eosinophilic meningitis. These findings indicate that the rAc-AEP may have the potential for detecting A. cantonensis infection. PMID:24696276
Chang, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Kuang-Yao; Wang, Lian-Chen
Wild felids and canids are usually the main predators in the food chains where they dwell and are almost invisible to behavior and ecology researchers. Due to their grooming behavior, they tend to swallow shed hair, which shows up in the feces. DNA found in hair shafts can be used in molecular studies that can unravel, for instance, genetic variability, reproductive mode and family structure, and in some species, it is even possible to estimate migration and dispersion rates in given populations. First, however, DNA must be extracted from hair. We extracted successfully and dependably hair shaft DNA from eight wild Brazilian felids, ocelot, margay, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, pampas cat, jaguarundi, puma, and jaguar, as well as the domestic cat and from three wild Brazilian canids, maned wolf, crab-eating fox, and hoary fox, as well as the domestic dog. Hair samples came mostly from feces collected at the São Paulo Zoo and were also gathered from non-sedated pet or from recently dead wild animals and were also collected from museum specimens. Fractions of hair samples were stained before DNA extraction, while most samples were not. Our extraction protocol is based on a feather DNA extraction technique, based in the phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol general method, with proteinase K as digestive enzyme. PMID:21174262
Alberts, C C; Ribeiro-Paes, J T; Aranda-Selverio, G; Cursino-Santos, J R; Moreno-Cotulio, V R; Oliveira, A L D; Porchia, B F M M; Santos, W F; Souza, E B
Canine rangeliosis, caused by the piroplasmid protozoon Rangelia vitalii, is currently recognized as a reemerging disease that affects domestic dogs in Brazil. In the present study, piroplasmid infection was searched in wild canids (20 Cerdocyon thous and 4 Lycalopex gymnocercus) in Brazil. Molecular analysis, based on PCR and DNA sequencing of a portion of the 18S rRNA gene, revealed that 30% (6/20) C. thous were infected by R. vitalii. Blood and bone marrow samples from one of the R. vitalii-infected C. thous were inoculated into a domestic dog, which developed clinical rangeliosis that was confirmed by molecular tests. However, the C. thous donor showed no clinical, hematological or biochemical alterations, even though its R. vitalii infection status was confirmed for at least 80 days. These observations suggest that R. vitalii is not as highly pathogenic for C. thous as it is for domestic dogs. Phylogenetic analysis inferred by the 18S rRNA gene placed R. vitalii embedded in the clade 'Babesia sensu stricto', consisting of a number of species that represent truly the genus Babesia. It is proposed that the species R. vitalii should be transferred to the genus Babesia. The present study expands our knowledge on the natural history of R. vitalii, suggesting that it might have a natural cycle involving the wild canid C. thous. Further studies are needed to confirm that C. thous is a natural reservoir of R. vitalii in Brazil. PMID:24685025
Soares, João F; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Costa, Francisco B; Krawczak, Felipe S; Comerlato, Alexandra T; Rossato, Bruna C D; Linck, Camila M; Sigahi, Eduardo K O; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Sonne, Luciana; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Gregori, Fabio; Vieira, Maria Isabel B; Martins, João R; Reck, José; Labruna, Marcelo B
Evidence of diseases on vertebrate fossil bones can provide detailed information on many aspects of extinct animals. This study focused on pathological craniodental remains (left maxilla and dentary) referred to the canid Cuon alpinus unearthed from a Late Pleistocene karst filling deposit at San Sidero (Apulia, southern Italy). These fossils show clear evidence of a chronic periodontitis that caused the animal's death. Clinical diagnosis of the disease and the timing of its development have been defined on the basis of a veterinary odontostomatology approach, in addition to radiographic and tomographic techniques. From the initiation of the infection until death, a time span of at least 6 months occurred, and three main steps have been defined: (1) the bacterial infections of the buccal cavity turning into severe periodontitis, (2) the fracture of the lower carnassial and (3) the loss of teeth due to the worsening infection that deformed and/or eroded maxillary and mandibular bones and enlarged alveoli. The analysis of the palaeopathology also provides information about the biomechanics of the bite, on the feeding behaviour and on the relationships of injured members in a pack of Late Pleistocene canids. PMID:23371350
Iurino, Dawid Adam; Fico, Rosario; Petrucci, Mauro; Sardella, Raffaele
Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica was introduced in Brazil in the 1980s for commercial purposes ("escargot" farming) and nowadays, mainly by human activity, it is widespread in at least 23 out of 26 Brazilian states and Brasília, including the Amazonian region and natural reserves, where besides a general nuisance for people it is a pest and also a public health concern, since it is one of the natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ethiological agent of the meningoencephalitis in Asia. As Brazil is experiencing the explosive phase of the invasion, the Laboratório de Malacologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz has been receiving samples of these molluscs for identification and search for Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae. While examining samples of A. fulica different nematode larvae were obtained, including Aelurostrongylus, whose different species are parasites of felids, dogs, primates, and badger. Morphological and morphometric analyses presented herein indicated the species Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, as well as the occurrence of other nematode larvae (Strongyluris-like) found in the interior of the pallial cavity of A. fulica. This is the first report in Brazil of the development of A. abstrusus infective larvae in A. fulica evidencing the veterinary importance of this mollusc in the transmission of A. abstrusus to domestic cats. Since the spread of A. fulica is pointed out in the literature as one of the main causative spread of the meningoencephalitis caused by A. cantonensis the authors emphasize the need of sanitary vigilance of snails and rats from vulnerable areas for A. cantonensis introduction as the port side areas. PMID:18078952
Thiengo, Silvana C; Fernandez, Monica A; Torres, Eduardo J L; Coelho, Pablo M; Lanfredi, Reinalda M
Hammondia heydorni is a cyst forming coccidia closely related to other apicomplexans, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Hammondia hammondi with a two-host life cycle. Dogs and other canids as red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) may serve as definitive hosts for H. heydorni. Sporulated oocysts are infective for cattle, sheep and goats, which may serve as
Rodrigo M. Soares; Luiz R. P. B. Cortez; Solange M. Gennari; Michelle K. Sercundes; Lara B. Keid; Hilda F. J. Pena
An improved method to obtain a large number of axenic larvae of Angiostrongylus vasorum from fecal samples was developed in the present study. The procedure here in reported consisted of obtaining larvae using a modified Baermann technique, followed by an additional filtration step. This isolation technique recovered almost 90% of the living larvae in a clean preparation. Isolated larvae were
J. M. P. Barcante; T. A. Barcante; S. R. C. Dias; L. Q. Vieira; W. Lima; D. Negrão-Corrêa
The intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis are terrestrian molluscs, mostly of the fam- ily Veronicellidae. The present work aimed at clarifying more accurately the sites of penetration and the migratory routes of A. costaricensis in the tissue slugs and at verifying the pattern of the perilarval reaction at different times of infection. Slugs were individually infected with 5,000 L 1,
Cristiane LGF Mendonça; Omar S Carvalho; Ester M Mota; Marcelo Pelajo-Machado; Luzia FG Caputo; Henrique L Lenzi
Angiostrongyliasis is an emerging communicable disease. Several different hosts are required to complete the life cycle of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. However, we lack a complete understanding of variability of proteins across different developmental stages and their contribution to parasite survival and progression. In this study, we extracted soluble proteins from various stages of the A. cantonensis life cycle [female adults, male adults, the fifth-stage female larvae (FL5), the fifth-stage male larvae (ML5) and third-stage larvae (L3)], separated those proteins using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) at pH 4–7, and analyzed the gel images using DeCyder 7.0 software. This proteomic analysis produced a total of 183 different dominant protein spots. Thirty-seven protein spots were found to have high confidence scores (>95%) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Comparative proteomic analyses revealed that 29 spots represented cytoskeleton-associated proteins and functional proteins. Eight spots were unnamed proteins. Twelve protein spots that were matched to the EST of different-stage larvae of A. cantonensis were identified. Two genes and the internal control 18s were chosen for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the qPCR results were consistent with those of the DIGE studies. These findings will provide a new basis for understanding the characteristics of growth and development of A. cantonensis and the host–parasite relationship. They may also assist searches for candidate proteins suitable for use in diagnostic assays and as drug targets for the control of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis.
Yao, Li-Li; Song, Zeng-Mei; Li, Xing-Pan; Hua, Qian-Qian; Li, Qiang; Xia, Chao-Ming
The epithelial barrier regulates the movement of ions, macromolecules, immune cells and pathogens. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in the degradation of tight junction protein during infection with rat nematode lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The results showed that phosphorylation of I?B and NF-?B was increased in mice with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Treatment with MG132 reduced the phosphorylation of NF-?B and the activity of MMP-9, indicating upregulation of MMP-9 through the NF-?B signaling pathway. Claudin-5 was reduced in the brain but elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), implying that A. cantonensis infection caused tight junction breakdown and led to claudin-5 release into the CSF. Degradation of claudin-5 coincided with alteration of the blood-CSF barrier permeability and treatment with the MMP inhibitor GM6001 attenuated the degradation of claudin-5. These results suggested that degradation of claudin-5 was caused by MMP-9 in angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis. Claudin-5 could be used for the pathophysiologic evaluation of the blood-CSF barrier breakdown and tight junction disruption after infection with A. cantonensis.
Chiu, Ping-Sung; Lai, Shih-Chan
Discusses advantages of nematode use for studying patterns of cell division, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Describes nematode development. Cites experimental approaches available for genetic studies. Reviews the topics of control of cell division and differentiation, the nervous system, and muscle assembly and function of the organism. (RT)
The effects of temperature on the larval development ofAngiostrongylus cantonensis inBiomphalaria glabrata were studied under controlled conditions. WhenB. glabrata were maintained at different, constant temperatures, the first-stage larvae developed to third-stage larvae between 20° and 31° C. The velocity of development to the third-stage in the snail depended on the relationship,Y=-0.1281+0.0081X (Y velocity of development;X rearing temperature). The “threshold of
Akira I. Ishii
An infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the main causative agent for human eosinophilic encephalitis, can be acquired through the consumption of the freshwater\\u000a snail Pomacea canaliculata. This snail also provides a suitable model to study the developmental morphology and behavior of A. cantonensis larvae, facilitated by the snail’s distinct lung structure. We used microanatomy for studying the natural appearance and\\u000a behavior
Shan Lv; Yi Zhang; He-Xiang Liu; Chao-Wei Zhang; Peter Steinmann; Xiao-Nong Zhou; Jürg Utzinger
Angiostrongylus cantonensis causes eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis, yet little is known about demyelination caused by this parasite. To define the course of demyelination caused by A. cantonensis, we analyzed the expression of myelin proteins including myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin-associated oligodendrocytic basic protein (MOBP), and proteolipid protein (PLP) in brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-like fluid of infected
K. Y. Lin; K. M. Chen; K. P. Lan; H. H. Lee; S. C. Lai
After an outbreak in 2000 of eosinophilic meningitis in tourists to Jamaica, we looked for Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and snails on the island. Overall, 22% (24/109) of rats harbored adult worms, and 8% (4/48) of snails harbored A. cantonensis larvae. This report is the first of enzootic A. cantonensis infection in Jamaica, providing evidence that this parasite is likely to cause human cases of eosinophilic meningitis.
Lindo, John F.; Waugh, Cecilia; Hall, John; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette; Ashley, Deanna; Sullivan, James J.; Bishop, Henry S.; Robinson, David G.; Holtz, Timothy; Robinson, Ralph D.
Angiostrongylus vasorum is an increasingly reported parasite in Europe that develops in dogs after ingestion of infective third stage larvae (L3) that reside in gastropod molluscs which are needed to complete the parasite's life-cycle. Infection can produce a diversity of clinical signs, determined by involvement of the respiratory, neurological, and/or coagulation system, with a likely fatal outcome in the absence of treatment. Few drugs have been shown to reliably prevent infection, and data on treatment of infections is limited. A controlled, randomized, partially blinded laboratory study was therefore executed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination tablet of spinosad/milbemycin oxime in dogs inoculated with approximately 250 A. vasorum L3. Sixteen healthy nematode free adult dogs were randomly allocated to two study groups of 8 dogs each. Thirty days post inoculation (dpi) all dogs in the fed state were treated: dogs in group B were treated with spinosad and milbemycin oxime at the dose rates of 45-60 mg/kg and 0.75-1.0mg/kg bodyweight, respectively, approximately the lower half portion of the expected full unit dose range; dogs in group A were treated with placebo tablets. All dogs were euthanized and necropsied 56-58 dpi. The heart and lungs were examined to determine the presence of A. vasorum. All placebo group dogs were infected at necropsy with counts ranging from 22 to 98 adult worms and a geometric mean worm count of 55.2. In contrast, the geometric mean worm count in the spinosad/milbemycin oxime group was 0.7 with worm numbers ranging from 0 to 8. The results of this study demonstrate that a single treatment with the tablet combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime administered 30 dpi provided 98.8% preventive efficacy against development of adult A. vasorum infections. Monthly treatments with spinosad and milbemycin oxime have the potential to prevent the establishment of infections with A. vasorum in dogs. PMID:24269160
Böhm, Claudia; Schnyder, Manuela; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Thompson, Caryn M; Trout, Candace; Wolken, Sonja; Schnitzler, Beate
The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) has been indicated to be a useful experimental model host for studying nematode. To understand the possibility of the Mongolian gerbil as an animal model of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection, we investigated the development, migration, and tissue distribution of A. cantonensis and pathological changes in the brain and lungs of the infected Mongolian gerbils. The first stage larvae of A. cantonensis in the stool of the infected gerbils were examined by direct smear method at 45th day postinfection (PI). In addition, a group of the infected gerbils were orally fed with albendazole (100 mg/kg/day/gerbil) at the 8th day PI and continued for 3 consecutive days. The results showed that mortality rate of Mongolian gerbils infected with 10 third stage larvae of A. cantonensis was about 62% at the 30th day PI; the peak period of death was from the 23rd to 30th day PI. About 93% (27/29) of the worms in survivors of infected gerbils could develop to complete sexual maturity at the 46th day PI, and the examinations of 12 gerbils in G3 group revealed that first stage larvae of A. cantonensis could be found in the feces of 4 gerbils at the 45th day PI. About 80% of the worms were in the brain of infected gerbils and 20% in the lungs from the 23rd to 25th day PI; during migration of the worms from the brain to lungs, more than 90% of the worms arrived to the lungs and less than 10% of them still stayed in the brain during from the 45th to 46th day PI. Pathological examination revealed that injuries induced by A. cantonensis in infected gerbils were characterized by eosinophilic meningitis and granulomatous pneumonia. Otherwise, albendazole exhibited a good larvicidal activity in the infected Mongolian gerbils. In contrast with infected control group, no gerbils died in administering albendazole, no worms were recovered, and no nervous system symptoms caused by the infection occurred at the 26th day PI. These findings clearly indicated that Mongolian gerbils should be a potential incomplete permissive host for A. cantonensis and are very susceptive to A. cantonensis infection. Moreover, it has been certified that gerbils as an experimental animal can be used in screening of drug against A. cantonensis. The study provides us a new, selectable experimental animal model for research of A. cantonensis. PMID:24556845
Wei, Yongfang; Hong, Qing; Chen, Daixiong; Liang, Chenjie; Liu, Haiying; Luo, Xiaodong; Zhu, Xunmin
The immune responses of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection are closely relevant to the host's self-protection and the nematode's pathogenesis. In the present study, BALB/c mice were randomly divided into uninfected control group, infection group 1, and infection group 2. The infection group 1 and infection group 2 were infected with 20 and 40 third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis per mouse, respectively. The splenocytes from the mice were collected and cultured on the 19th and 25th days post-infection; the subtypes of T cells in splenocytes were detected by flow cytometry with fluorescence staining method, and the cytokines in cultured supernatants of splenocytes were assayed by the method of ELISA. The specific IgG and IgE antibodies in sera of the mice were periodically detected by ELISA. The results showed that the percentages of CD4(+) and CD4(+) IL-4(+) T cells in splenocytes of infected mice were much higher (P?0.05) than those in control mice; however, the percentages of CD4(+) IL-17(+) and CD4(+) IFN-?(+) T cell were much lower(P?0.01) after the infection. The levels of CD8(+) T cells in infected mice also rose, but differences between control mice and infected mice were not significant. In comparison with control mice, the concentration of IL-4 in the cultured supernatants of splenocytes in infected mice increased significantly (P?0.05), but that of IL-17 decreased significantly (P?0.01). In addition, the number of larvae infected and days after infection may influence levels of the T cell subtypes and the cytokines in spleen, too (P?>?0.05). On humoral immunity, the levels of specific IgG antibodies in sera rose a bit at the fifth day post-infection, and reached a peak at the 20th day post-infection; the specific IgE antibodies gradually heightened during first 10 days post-infection; then, it showed a downward trend during the 15th to 25th days post-infection. It is evident that the percentages of CD4(+) T lymphocytes of spleen in the mice infected with A. cantonensis markedly increase and polarize to Th2 phenotypes, and the function of Th17 cells is inhibited. In addition, the elevation of specific IgG antibodies in sera of the infected mice is more significant than that of specific IgE antibodies. PMID:23322326
Liu, Haijuan; Luo, Xiaodong; Shen, Erxia; Li, Hua; Ding, Xue; Chen, Daixiong
We have used a paleogenetics approach to investigate the genetic landscape of coat color variation in ancient Eurasian dog and wolf populations. We amplified DNA fragments of two genes controlling coat color, Mc1r (Melanocortin 1 Receptor) and CBD103 (canine-?-defensin), in respectively 15 and 19 ancient canids (dogs and wolf morphotypes) from 14 different archeological sites, throughout Asia and Europe spanning from ca. 12 000 B.P. (end of Upper Palaeolithic) to ca. 4000 B.P. (Bronze Age). We provide evidence of a new variant (R301C) of the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) and highlight the presence of the beta-defensin melanistic mutation (CDB103-K locus) on ancient DNA from dog-and wolf-morphotype specimens. We show that the dominant KB allele (CBD103), which causes melanism, and R301C (Mc1r), the variant that may cause light hair color, are present as early as the beginning of the Holocene, over 10 000 years ago. These results underline the genetic diversity of prehistoric dogs. This diversity may have partly stemmed not only from the wolf gene pool captured by domestication but also from mutations very likely linked to the relaxation of natural selection pressure occurring in-line with this process.
Ollivier, Morgane; Tresset, Anne; Hitte, Christophe; Petit, Coraline; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Pionnier-Capitan, Maud; Lagoutte, Laetitia; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Balasescu, Adrian; Boroneant, Adina; Mashkour, Marjan; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Hanni, Catherine
Serum lipid levels were measured in healthy captive wild canids and ursids, and the values were compared with previously published data. Serum lipid levels were evaluated in blood samples collected from eight African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), three arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus), nine gray wolves (Canis lupus), four maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), two Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baleiyi), nine red wolves (Canis rufus), two brown bears (Ursus arctos), six polar bears (Ursus maritimus), six spectacled bears (Tremarctos ornatus), and five sun bears (Ursus malayanus). Samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Although the results showed a great variation among species, circulating lipids appeared especially high, sometimes extremely so, in the spectacled bears, polar bears, sun bears, and maned wolves compared with all other species sampled. The study provides a substantial basis for comparing lipid levels in presumed healthy animals and indicates a need for controlled study of the effects of diet on circulating lipid levels. PMID:15193071
Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Slifka, Kerri A; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann M
We have examined in Mexican wolves and related canids the amount of genetic variation for a class II gene in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), thought to be part of the most important genetic basis for pathogen resistance in vertebrates. In Mexican wolves, descended from only seven founders over three lineages, there were five different alleles. These were in three phylogenetic groups, only one of which was shared between lineages. Using single stand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), we found that in samples of animals from the two polymorphic lineages, the observed heterozygosity was 0.74 and the genotypes were not different statistically from Hardy-Weinberg proportions. The Ghost Ranch lineage of Mexican wolves was monomorphic for the locus, consistent with the lower level of variation found previously for microsatellite loci and predicted from pedigree analysis. Samples of grey wolves, red wolves, and coyotes had 16 additional alleles. One Mexican wolf allele was also found in grey wolves and another allele was shared between grey and red wolves. Most of the nucleotide variation resulted in amino acid variation and there were five different amino acids found at two different positions. Only two of the 21 variable amino acid positions had solely synonymous nucleotide variation. The average heterozygosity for eight individual amino acid positions in the Mexican wolves was greater than 0.4. The estimated rate of nonsynonymous substitution was 2.5 times higher than that for synonymous substitution for the putative antigen binding site positions, indicative of positive selection acting on these positions. Examination of the known dog sequences for this locus showed that one of the Mexican wolf alleles was found in dogs and that the allele found in both grey and red wolves is also found in dogs. PMID:11240629
Hedrick, P W; Lee, R N; Parker, K M
As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.
Ueda, Sayoko; Kumagai, Gaku; Otaki, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kohshima, Shiro
As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication. PMID:24918751
Ueda, Sayoko; Kumagai, Gaku; Otaki, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kohshima, Shiro
Six groups (15 snails\\/group) of Pomacea canaliculata and Pila polita were infected orally with 0 (control), 200, 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 first-stage Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae (L1). The respective mean±SD third stage larvae (L3) worm recovery 1-month post-infection (p.i.) for P. canaliculata was 0, 1.4±5.42 (0.7%), 0.13±0.35 (0.03%), 0.07±0.26 (0.009%), 0.07±0.26 (0.004%), 0, and for P. polita 0, 64.33±21.38 (32.25%),
Smarn Tesana; Tuanchai Srisawangwong; Paiboon Sithithaworn; Thewarach Laha
Angiostrongylus cantonensis produces eosinophilic meningitis in humans and is endemic in Thailand, Taiwan, China, and the Caribbean region. During infection with this parasite, it is important to know if the complement system may be activated by the classical or lectin pathway. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 20 patients with meningitic angiostrongyliasis were used to quantify C4 levels and albumin. Results were plotted on a C4 CSF/serum quotient diagram or Reibergram. Twelve patients showed intrathecal synthesis of C4. Antibody-dependent complement cytotoxicity should be considered as a possible mechanism that destroys third-stage larvae of this helminth in cerebrospinal fluid of affected patients.
Padilla-Docal, Barbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto Juan; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa; Rodriguez-Rey, Alexis; Gutierrez-Hernandez, Juan Carlos; de Paula-Almeida, Susana Olga
Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis, clinically presented as eosinophilic meningitis, is a snail-borne parasitic disease. We studied the effects of different temperatures on the larval development of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata. Six groups of snails were infected and each group was cultured under different temperature conditions. At predefined intervals, four snails from each group were dissected to examine the
Shan Lv; Xiao-Nong Zhou; Yi Zhang; He-Xiang Liu; Dan Zhu; Wei-Gang Yin; Peter Steinmann; Xian-Hong Wang; Tie-Wu Jia
The sequencing of the complete genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was a landmark achievement and ushered in a new era of whole-organism, systems analyses of the biology of this powerful model organism. The success of the C. elegans genome sequencing project also inspired communities working on other organisms to approach genome sequencing of their species. The phylum Nematoda is rich and diverse and of interest to a wide range of research fields from basic biology through ecology and parasitic disease. For all these communities, it is now clear that access to genome scale data will be key to advancing understanding, and in the case of parasites, developing new ways to control or cure diseases. The advent of second-generation sequencing technologies, improvements in computing algorithms and infrastructure and growth in bioinformatics and genomics literacy is making the addition of genome sequencing to the research goals of any nematode research program a less daunting prospect. To inspire, promote and coordinate genomic sequencing across the diversity of the phylum, we have launched a community wiki and the 959 Nematode Genomes initiative (www.nematodegenomes.org/). Just as the deciphering of the developmental lineage of the 959 cells of the adult hermaphrodite C. elegans was the gateway to broad advances in biomedical science, we hope that a nematode phylogeny with (at least) 959 sequenced species will underpin further advances in understanding the origins of parasitism, the dynamics of genomic change and the adaptations that have made Nematoda one of the most successful animal phyla.
Kumar, Sujai; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Kaur, Gaganjot; Blaxter, Mark
Background: Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991-2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5-0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [???1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5-1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [???1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6-4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [???5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals' odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Conclusions/Significance: Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics might be expected might be useful for future management of the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf population.
Almberg, E. S.; Mech, L. D.; Smith, D. W.; Sheldon, J. W.; Crabtree, R. L.
Background The complete genomes of three animals have been sequenced by global research efforts: a nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), an insect (Drosophila melanogaster), and a vertebrate (Homo sapiens). Remarkably, their relationships have yet to be clarified. The confusion concerns the enigmatic position of nematodes. Traditionally, nematodes have occupied a basal position, in part because they lack a true body cavity. However, the leading hypothesis now joins nematodes with arthropods in a molting clade, Ecdysozoa, based on data from several genes. Results We tested the Ecdysozoa hypothesis with analyses of more than 100 nuclear protein alignments, under conditions that would expose biases, and found that it was not supported. Instead, we found significant support for the traditional hypothesis, Coelomata. Our result is robust to different rates of sequence change among genes and lineages, different numbers of taxa, and different species of nematodes. Conclusion We conclude that insects (arthropods) are genetically and evolutionarily closer to humans than to nematode worms.
Blair, Jaime E; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi; Hedges, S Blair
Model systems, including C. elegans, have been successfully studied to understand the genetic control of development. A genotype’s phenotype determines its evolutionary fitness in natural environments, which are typically harsh, heterogeneous and dynamic. Phenotypic plasticity, the process by which one genome can produce different phenotypes in response to the environment, allows genotypes to better match their phenotype to their environment. Phenotypic plasticity is rife among nematodes, seen both as differences among life-cycles stages, perhaps best exemplified by parasitic nematodes, as well as developmental choices, such as shown by the C. elegans dauer/non-dauer developmental choice. Understanding the genetic basis of phenotypically plastic traits will probably explain the function of many genes whose function still remains unclear. Understanding the adaptive benefits of phenotypically plastic traits requires that we understand how plasticity differs among genotypes, and the effects of this in diverse, different environments.
Viney, Mark; Diaz, Anaid
Nematodes express pseudocoelomic, body wall and cuticle globin isoforms. All globin isoforms display the major determinants\\u000a of the globin fold and a B10Tyr\\/E7Gln residue pair, which is a signature of high oxygen affinity. The hitherto studied pseudocoelomic\\u000a globins are octamers of covalently linked didomain globin chains. Body wall globins so far are monomeric, whereas cuticle\\u000a globins are tetrameric. The extremely
David Hoogewijs; Eva Geuens; Lesley Tilleman; Jacques R. Vanfleteren; Luc Moens; Sylvia Dewilde
Capillaria aerophila, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis are cardiopulmonary nematodes affecting dogs and cats and presently emerging in several countries. The results obtained in 2009 - 2010 during a study aiming to investigate the occurrence of these nematodes in regions from Central (Marche and Abruzzo regions--Sites A and B, respectively) and southern (Apulia--Site C) Italy are here reported. A total of 534 and 436 individual faecal samples collected from dogs and cats were examined, together with 471 and 34 faecal environmental samples taken from dog shelters and catteries. One hundred and ninety-two individual blood samples were also collected from dogs. Faeces were examined using copromicroscopical flotations and Baermann technique, whereas blood samples were tested by Knott's method. Eggs of C. aerophila were detected in 1.48 % and 20 % (Site A), 8.67 % and 2.71 % (Site B), and 16.67 % and 0 % (Site C) of individual and environmental canine samples. C. aerophila was found in 2.90 % (Site A), 3.03 % (Site B) and 14.29 % (Site C) of individual cats. Larvae of A. vasorum were found in 0.96 % and 2.48 % of individual and environmental samples from Site B, respectively, while those of A. abstrusus in 1.82 % (Site A) and 9.96 % (Site B) of individual faeces. Microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis, identified on the basis of key morphological and morphometric features, were detected in 2.56 % of samples collected from Site B. Despite the small sample size, these results indicate that cardiopulmonary nematodes occur in Central and southern Italy, thus they should be included in the differential diagnosis of pet cardiorespiratory diseases. Larger surveys are necessary to gain more information on the diffusion of these parasites, especially for C. aerophila and A. vasorum, for which the actual distribution is poorly known. PMID:21739378
Di Cesare, Angela; Castagna, Giuseppe; Meloni, Silvana; Milillo, Piermarino; Latrofa, Stefania; Otranto, Domenico; Traversa, Donato
The anthelminthic efficacy of some differently obtained extracts of several plants was tested in vivo in laboratory animals and in vitro. The extracts were obtained by ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, or chloroform, respectively, acetonitrile polyethylenglycol (PEG) and/or propylencarbonate (PC) elution at room temperature or at 37°C. The plants used were bulbs of onions, garlic, chives, coconut, birch tree, ananas, cistrose, banana, chicory, date palm fruit, fig, pumpkin, and neem tree seeds. The worm systems tested both in vivo and in vitro were Trichuris muris and Angiostrongylus cantonensis but only in vivo Toxocara cati. The tests clearly showed that the different extraction methods eluted different components and different mass amounts, which had different efficacies against the above-cited worms. In vitro effects against A. cantonensis and T.muris were best with aqueous extracts, followed by chloroform extracts. The other plant extracts showed only low or no effects on A. cantonensis in vitro. In the case of T. muris, best results were obtained in vivo and in vitro with PEG/PC extracts of the onion followed by the aqueous extract of coconut. The complete elimination of worms in the in vivo experiments with T. muris was obtained when infected mice were treated with a 1:1 mixture of extracts of coconut and onion being produced by elutions with a mixture of 1:1 PEG and PC and fed daily for 8 days. T. cati in a naturally infected cat was eliminated by daily oral application of 6 ml coco's fluid for 5 days. This study shows that a broad spectrum of plants has anti-nematodal activities, the intensity of which, however, depends on the mode of extraction. This implicates that, if results should be really comparable, the same extraction methods at the same temperatures have to be used. Furthermore, efficacy in in vitro systems does not guarantee as good--if at all--efficacy in vivo. PMID:21110041
Klimpel, Sven; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Aksu, Gülendem; Fischer, Katja; Strassen, Bianca; Mehlhorn, Heinz
Researchers have proposed that Arthrobotrys oligospora and related fungi trap soil nematodes to obtain nitrogen and thereby compete saprophytically for carbon and energy in nitrogen-poor environments, including litter and wood. The current study tested two hypotheses concerning this model. The first was that wood decomposition would be enhanced if both large numbers of nematodes (a potential nitrogen supply) and A.
B. A Jaffee
Pooling field specimens could reduce the number of assay and thus increase the efficiency in detecting and screening pathogen\\u000a infections by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. We investigated a pooling strategy in diagnosis of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Pomacea canaliculata. Two settings of specimens were prepared, divided into portions and detected by multiplex PCR. Specimens A was 0.4490 g positive\\u000a lung
Fu-Rong Wei; Shan Lv; He-Xiang Liu; Ling Hu; Yi Zhang
Induction of gelatinase in eosinophilic meningitis of BALB\\/c-strain mice was caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Time-course studies showed that the molecular weight of 94-kDa gelatinase was detected at day 10 post-inoculation (PI), and reached a high intensity from days 15 to 25 PI. The 94-kDa gelatinase activity was clearly inhibited by EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, but not by leupeptin and phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride. When immunoblots
H. H. Lee; H. L. Chou; K. M. Chen; S. C. Lai
Introduction Eosinophilic meningitis, a potentially fatal disease caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is considered an emerging infectious disease. Case presentation Three Caucasian boys (aged five-years-old, 10-years-old and six-years-old) with a diagnosis of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis were studied. Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, IgG, and complements C3c and C4 levels were quantified by using an immunodiffusion technique. Immunoglobulin E in serum was quantified by nephelometry and mannose-binding lectin by time-resolved fluorometry. Mannose-binding lectin deficiency was observed in the three patients. The first patient showed a reduction in the levels of IgA and IgM and an increase in the values of IgE and C4. The second patient showed a reduction in mannose-binding lectin level with increased IgG, C4 and IgE levels, and the third patient showed a decrease in mannose-binding lectin level and increased levels of IgM and complement C3c as well as a low level of C4. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mannose-binding lectin deficiency associated with Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningoencephalitis in children, and it may contribute to the understanding of the participation of this component of the lectin pathway in the development of the disease.
Background The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite and the most important cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide in humans. In Brazil, this disease has been reported in the states of Espírito Santo and Pernambuco. The parasite has been detected in the naturally infected intermediate host, in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco and Santa Catarina. The murid Rattus norvegicus R. rattus were recently reported to be naturally infected in Brazil. In this study, we conducted a two-year investigation of the dissemination pattern of A. cantonensis in R. norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and examined the influence of seasonality, year, host weight and host gender on parasitological parameters of A. cantonensis in rats. Methods The study was conducted in an area of Trindade, São Gonçalo municipality, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Prevalence of infected rats, intensity and abundance of A. cantonensis were calculated, and generalized linear models were created and compared to verify the contribution of host gender, host weight, year and seasonality to the variations in A. cantonensis abundance and prevalence in rats. Results The prevalence of A. cantonensis infection was stable during the rainy (71%, CI 58.9- 81.6) and dry seasons (71%, CI 57.9-80.8) and was higher in older rats and in females. Seasonality, host weight (used as a proxy of animal age) and gender were all contributing factors to variation in parasite abundance, with females and heavier (older) animals showing larger abundance of parasites, and extreme values of parasite abundance being more frequent in the dry season. Conclusions The high prevalence of this parasite throughout the study suggests that its transmission is stable and that conditions are adequate for the spread of the parasite to previously unaffected areas. Dispersion of the parasite to new areas may be mediated by males that tend to have larger dispersal ability, while females may be more important for maintaining the parasite on a local scale due to their higher prevalence and abundance of infection. A multidisciplinary approach considering the ecological distribution of the rats and intermediate hosts, as well as environmental features is required to further understand the dynamics of angiostrongyliasis.
Summary The recognition of molecular patterns associated with specific pathogens or food sources is fundamental to ecology and plays a major role in the evolution of predator-prey relationships . Recent studies showed that nematodes produce an evolutionarily highly conserved family of small molecules, the ascarosides, which serve essential functions in regulating nematode development and behavior [2-4]. Here we show that nematophagous fungi, natural predators of soil-dwelling nematodes , can detect and respond to ascarosides. Nematophagous fungi use specialized trapping devices to catch and consume nematodes, and previous studies demonstrated that most fungal species do not produce traps constitutively but rather initiate trap-formation in response to their prey . We found that ascarosides, which are constitutively secreted by many species of soil-dwelling nematodes, represent a conserved molecular pattern used by nematophagous fungi to detect prey and trigger trap formation. Ascaroside-induced morphogenesis is conserved in several closely related species of nematophagous fungi and occurs only under nutrient-deprived condition. Our results demonstrate that microbial predators eavesdrop on chemical communication among their metazoan prey to regulate morphogenesis, providing a striking example of predator-prey co-evolution. We anticipate that these findings will have broader implications for understanding other inter-kingdom interactions involving nematodes, which are found in almost any ecological niche on Earth.
Hsueh, Yen-Ping; Mahanti, Parag; Schroeder, Frank C.; Sternberg, Paul W.
The recognition of molecular patterns associated with specific pathogens or food sources is fundamental to ecology and plays a major role in the evolution of predator-prey relationships. Recent studies showed that nematodes produce an evolutionarily highly conserved family of small molecules, the ascarosides, which serve essential functions in regulating nematode development and behavior. Here, we show that nematophagous fungi, natural predators of soil-dwelling nematodes, can detect and respond to ascarosides. Nematophagous fungi use specialized trapping devices to catch and consume nematodes, and previous studies demonstrated that most fungal species do not produce traps constitutively but rather initiate trap formation in response to their prey. We found that ascarosides, which are constitutively secreted by many species of soil-dwelling nematodes, represent a conserved molecular pattern used by nematophagous fungi to detect prey and trigger trap formation. Ascaroside-induced morphogenesis is conserved in several closely related species of nematophagous fungi and occurs only under nutrient-deprived conditions. Our results demonstrate that microbial predators eavesdrop on chemical communication among their metazoan prey to regulate morphogenesis, providing a striking example of predator-prey coevolution. We anticipate that these findings will have broader implications for understanding other interkingdom interactions involving nematodes, which are found in almost any ecological niche on Earth. PMID:23246407
Hsueh, Yen-Ping; Mahanti, Parag; Schroeder, Frank C; Sternberg, Paul W
Levels of calcium in the haemolymph and reserves in the shell of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined for the first time. At the same time, histochemical analyses of the digestive gland of infected and uninfected snails were performed to better understand the possible changes in metabolism of calcium in these organisms. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks of infection, the snails were dissected for collection of haemolymph and separation of tissues. The highest calcium concentrations in the haemolymph were found 2 weeks after infection, with a 39.61% increase in relation to the respective control group. However, there was a significant reduction in the concentration of this ion in the haemolymph of infected snails after 1 week of infection in relation to the uninfected specimens. In parallel, intense hypocalcification was shown in the shell of infected snails 1 and 2 weeks after infection, differing significantly in relation to the respective control groups. Morphological changes in the digestive gland of infected snails were also observed, confirming the role of this ion as an important element in the parasite encapsulation process. PMID:23290340
Tunholi-Alves, V M; Tunholi, V M; Garcia, J Silva; Costa-Neto, S F; Maldonado, A; Santos, M A J; Thiengo, S C; Pinheiro, J
Six groups (15 snails/group) of Pomacea canaliculata and Pila polita were infected orally with 0 (control), 200, 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 first-stage Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae (L1). The respective mean+/-SD third stage larvae (L3) worm recovery 1-month post-infection (p.i.) for P. canaliculata was 0, 1.4+/-5.42 (0.7%), 0.13+/-0.35 (0.03%), 0.07+/-0.26 (0.009%), 0.07+/-0.26 (0.004%), 0, and for P. polita 0, 64.33+/-21.38 (32.25%), 115.36+/-36.82 (28.93%), 265.33+/-90.01 (33.27%), 471.33+/-92.98 (29.60%) and 849.00+/-243.23 (26.61%). The susceptibility of A. cantonensis in P. polita was dose-dependent (p<0.001). In the three groups (nine snails/group) of P. polita given 500 L1, we studied the distribution of L3 in the internal organs (i.e., foot, head+esophagus, kidney, albumin gland, mantle, intestine, digestive gland) and found the highest density after 1, 2 and 3 months p.i. in the mantle at 29.37%, 31.09% and 37.45%. The infection rate in P. canaliculata was too low to study distribution rates. PMID:18154954
Tesana, Smarn; Srisawangwong, Tuanchai; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Laha, Thewarach
Infective larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis may take up and incorporate exogenous arachidonic acid into their lipid pool. By scintillation counting, uptake and incorporation were determined to be time dependent. Arachidonic acid was mainly incorporated into phospholipid (56.8%) and neutral lipid (22.4%) pools. In the neutral lipids, 64.0% was diglyceride and 36.0% triglyceride. Phosphatidylcholine was the predominant fatty acid in the phospholipid pool. In addition to the release of leukotriene B4, the parasite was found to generate radiolabelled CO2 after incubation with [U-14C]arachidonate. Moreover, enzymatic analysis of crude extracts revealed the presence of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (short and long chain), thiolase, enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. These findings suggest that infective larvae of A. cantonensis not only take up and incorporate exogenous arachidonic acid into their lipid pool, but may also utilize the fatty acid through a functional ?-oxidation pathway. PMID:21106133
Tang, P; Wang, L-C
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a neurotropic parasite which can cause injury to central nervous system and eosinophilic meningitis to human. Natural killer (NK) cells are specialized innate lymphocytes important in early defense against pathogens as in a variety of intracellular bacterial, viral, and protozoan infections. However, the number and function of NK cells in extracellular parasitic infection of A. cantonensis are unclear. In this study, on A. cantonensis infected mice which may mimic the human's infection, we found that the percentage of splenic NK cells and the absolute number of peripheral blood NK cells were decreased at 21-day post infection compared with that of controls. When administrating with albendazole treatment at early stage of the infection, the changes of NK cells could be avoided. Further analysis confirmed that the reduction of NK cells was due to their apoptosis manifested as increased expressions of annexin V and activated caspase-3 after 16-day post infection. Moreover, both activated and inhibitory receptors such as CD16, CD69, NKG2D, and Ly49a on NK cells were down-regulated after 16-day post infection. Interestingly, NK cells isolated from mice of 21-day post infection showed enhanced IFN-? production when stimulated with IL-12 for 24 h and cytotoxicity to YAC-1 cells, as well as elevated CD107a expression. It is evident that NK cell population and its function were changed in A. cantonensis infected mice, suggesting their involvement in pathogenesis of the infection. PMID:24667973
Chen, Ai-Ling; Qiu, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Chun-Lei; Zeng, Xin; Liu, Xin-Jian; Qiu, Jing-Fan; Wang, Yong
The most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningitis is Angiostrongylus cantonensis, which is transmitted largely by consumption of snails/slugs. We previously identified cases of angiostrongyliasis that occurred in Hawaii from 2001 to 2005; the highest incidence was on the island of Hawaii. We now report symptoms, laboratory parameters, and exposures. Eighteen patients were evaluated; 94% had headache, and 65% had sensory symptoms (paresthesia, hyperesthesia, and/or numbness). These symptoms lasted a median of 17 and 55 days, respectively. Three persons recalled finding a slug in their food/drink. Case-patients on the island of Hawaii were more likely than case-patients on other islands to consume raw homegrown produce in a typical week (89% versus 0%, P < 0.001) and to see snails/slugs on produce (56% versus 0%, P = 0.03). Residents and travelers should be aware of the potential risks of eating uncooked produce in Hawaii, especially if it is from the island of Hawaii and locally grown.
Hochberg, Natasha S.; Blackburn, Brian G.; Park, Sarah Y.; Sejvar, James J.; Effler, Paul V.; Herwaldt, Barbara L.
Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonosis endemic to Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands. It is considered an emerging disease because it has been expanding both geographically and in terms of the range of hosts. In South America, the first cases were reported in Brazil and were attributed to eating infected snails. In this study, 70 adult females of Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) were used to evaluate hematology, blood gases, cardiac markers and lung histopathology changes caused by this parasite. Of them, 60 were individually infected by orogastric gavage with 100L3 larvae and 10 uninfected animals formed the control group. The results obtained demonstrate that infection caused by A. cantonensis in R. norvegicus promotes significant hematological changes induced in the vertebrate host, manifested mainly in the form of regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia and eosinophilia. Additionally, histopathological changes in the lung parenchyma demonstrated in rodents reveal the occurrence of areas of necrosis and extensive fibrosis, being directly related to the development of cellular hypoxia and enzyme cardiac changes. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between A. cantonensis and R. norvegicus. PMID:24786730
Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Dos Santos Bonfim, Tatiane Cristina; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Mota, Esther Maria; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Santana, André Campos; Hooper, Cleber; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bóia, Marcio Neves
Effects of piperazine derivatives, especially of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) on adult Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Dirofilaria immitis were examined. Piperazine (3 X 10(-5)-10(-4) M) paralyzed A. cantonensis and the action was antagonized by picrotoxin. 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP) (10(-5)-10(-4) M) caused contraction but little effect was produced by strychnine. An inhibitory effect on untreated preparations was caused by lower concentrations (3 X 10(-6)-10(-5) M) of diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) and also on the preparations contracted by eserine. A stimulatory effect was also seen when higher concentrations (10(-4)-3 X 10(-4) M) of this drug were applied to both preparations. The inhibitory action of DEC was antagonized by gabergic antagonists such as picrotoxin and bicuculline, but not by alpha-adrenergic antagonists like dibenamine and phentolamine. When the worm preparation was paralyzed by strychnine or hexylresorcinol (inhibitors of the release of acetylcholine in this worm), the stimulatory effect of DEC was blocked, but pyrantel (a nicotinic cholinergic agonist) contracted the paralyzed preparation. However, the effect of DEC on D. immitis (10(-7)-3 X 10(-4) M) was inhibitory, and this action was also antagonized by picrotoxin. These results suggest that the DEC inhibitory and stimulatory action is through the gabergic and cholinergic mechanisms in adult A. cantonensis and D. immitis. PMID:3716544
Terada, M; Sano, M
Comparisons of nematode communities among ecosystems have indicated that, unlike many organisms, nematode communities have less diversity in the tropics than in temperate ecosystems. There are, however, few studies of tropical nematode diversity on which to base conclusions of global patterns of diversity. This study reports an attempt to estimate nematode diversity in the lowland tropical rainforest of La Selva
T. O. POWERS; D. A. NEHER; P. MULLIN; A. ESQUIVEL; R. M. GIBLIN-DAVIS; N. KANZAKI; S. P. STOCK; M. M. MORA; L. URIBE-LORIO
While nematodes are most commonly known for their negative impact on plants, animals, and humans, there are a number of species which are commercially explored. This review highlights some of the most important success stories for the application of nematodes. They are used as bioindicators in ecological and toxicity studies, as model organisms for elucidating fundamental biological questions and for high throughput screening of drugs. Besides these indirect uses, direct applications include the use of Beddingia siricidicola against a major forest pest and the commercialization of Steinernema, Heterorhabditis, and Phasmarhabditis as biological pest control products. New directions for the commercialization of nematodes are the use as living food, specifically loaded with essential nutrients for various fish and shrimp larvae. Even human parasites or closely related species have been successfully used for curing autoimmune disorders and are currently in the process of being developed as drugs. With the striving development of life sciences, we are likely to see more applications for nematodes in the future. A prerequisite is that we continue to explore the vast number of yet undiscovered nematode species. PMID:23780582
Metastrongyloid induced pneumonia has been described sporadically in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens). Early descriptions in pandas recently imported to the USA from China involved parasites morphologically similar to Angiostrongylus spp. and Crenosomatidae. More recently, four cases of severe verminous pneumonia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum have been reported from European zoos. A coprological survey of the red panda population within
Mads F. Bertelsen; Frederik Meyland-Smith; Jakob L. Willesen; Ryan Jefferies; Eric R. Morgan; Jesper Monrad
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common cause of human eosinophilic meningitis. Humans become infected by ingesting food items contaminated with third-stage larvae that develop in mollusks. We report the development of a real-time PCR assay for the species-specific identification of A. cantonensis in mollusk tissue. PMID:20543049
Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Teem, John L; Hollingsworth, Robert; Bishop, Henry; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; da Silva, Alexandre J
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common cause of human eosinophilic meningitis. Humans become infected by ingesting food items contaminated with third-stage larvae that develop in mollusks. We report the development of a real-time PCR assay for the species-specific identification of A. cantonensis in mollusk tissue.
Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Teem, John L.; Hollingsworth, Robert; Bishop, Henry; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; da Silva, Alexandre J.
Alan Coulson has two main roles at the Sanger Centre, revolving around the worm and the human genome projects. Although the worm sequence is essentially finished, the tidying-up of that and the physical map is ongoing. There is also a continuous need for communication with the worm field with regard to information and materials relating to the sequence project. For example, the cosmids and YACs of the physical map continue to be, as they have been for many years now, an extremely powerful resource, and the Sanger Centre distributes in the order of 500 clones per month to the community. Alan is team leader of the worm functional genomics group, which is currently small but will be expanding shortly. Patricia Kuwabara is a member of the team and a description of their activities can be found below. The Human Genome Project is sequencing mapped PAC and BAC clones. Alan's primary involvement is with the team that is responsible for subcloning the 10 000 or so clones that will be required to complete the one-third of the genome sequence to be contributed by the Sanger Centre. Patricia Kuwabara has been using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for understanding how protein–protein interactions regulate cell-to-cell signalling. Her research has focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the genetics of C. elegans sex determination. This work has led into a study of regulated proteolysis involving calpains and also into the roles of the multiple C. elegans Patched proteins, which in other organisms have been shown to be receptors for the Hedgehog morphogen. In addition, the group is taking advantage of the completion of the C. elegans genome sequence to develop whole genome DNA microarrays for expression profiling. At the Sanger Centre, DNA microarrays are providing opportunities to examine how development and physiology are regulated globally, because most nematode genes have now been identified at the sequence level. The group are being assisted in this endeavour by Dr Stuart Kim (Stanford, CA).
Photorhabdus asymbiotica is an emerging bacterial pathogen that causes locally invasive soft tissue and disseminated bacteremic infections in the United States and Australia. Although the source of infection was previously unknown, we report that the bacterium is found in a symbiotic association with an insect-pathogenic soil nematode of the genus Heterorhabditis.
Joyce, Susan A.; Clarke, David J.; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Nimmo, Graeme R.; Looke, David F.M.; Feil, Edward J.; Pearce, Lucy; Waterfield, Nick R.
After devastating vast areas of pine forests in Asian countries, the pine wilt disease spread into European forests in 1999 and is causing worldwide concern. This disease involves very complicated interactions between a pathogenic nematode, its vector beetle, host pine species, and fungi in dead hosts. Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode is determined not only by its physical and chemical traits but also by its behavioral traits. Most life history traits of the pine wood nematode, such as its phoretic relationship with vector beetles, seem to be more effective in virulent than in avirulent isolates or species. As the pathogenicity determinants, secreted enzymes, and surface coat proteins are very important, they have therefore been studied intensively. The mechanism of quick death of a large pine tree as a result of infection by a tiny nematode could be ascribed to the dysfunction of the water-conducting system caused by the death of parenchyma cells, which must have originally evolved as an inherent resistant system. PMID:23663004
The study was to understand the Angiostrongylus cantonensis infectious situation of rodent definitive host, snail intermediate host, and local residents in the west-central region of Guangdong Province in China. The snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata collected from the survey place were digested with artificial gastric juice, and the third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis in the snails were examined under microscope. The heart and lung of rats captured from the survey place were taken to check the adult of A. cantonensis. The questionnaire surveys related to the infection of A. cantonensis were taken in local residents randomly selected, and the IgG antibody against A. cantonensis was tested in those residents with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 1,391 rats including eight kinds of rats, such as Rattus norvegicus, Rattus flavipectus, Bandicota indica, Rattus sladeni, Mus musculus, Rattus rattoides, Suncus Murinus, and Rattus confucianus, were examined and 132 of them were infected by A. cantonensis, with an average infection rate of 9.49% and a mean intensity of A. cantonensis in infected rats was 9.39. A total of 3,184 snails A. fulica and 3,723 snails P. canaliculata were detected. The average infection rates of them were 25.03% (797/3,184) and 6.50% (242/3,723), respectively. There were 180 positive samples of IgG antibody against A. cantonensis in 1,800 serum samples of the residents, with a positive rate of 10.00%. The west-central region of Guangdong Province is the natural focus of A. cantonensis. In comparison with the investigation results in other regions of China, the infection rate of rat definitive host is at the middle level; in the intermediate host, the infection rate of snail A. fulica is above the middle level, and the infection rate of snail Pomacea canaliculata is below the middle level. Some local residents had already been infected by A. cantonensis or at the risk of being infected. PMID:21301874
Chen, Daixiong; Zhang, Yun; Shen, Haoxian; Wei, Yongfang; Huang, Di; Tan, Qiming; Lan, Xianqi; Li, Qingli; Chen, Zecheng; Li, Zhengtu; Ou, Le; Suen, Huibing; Ding, Xue; Luo, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaomin; Zhan, Ximei
The pathogenesis of angiostrongyliasis, resulting from the third-stage and the fourth-stage Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae invasion of the human central nervous system, remains elusive. MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression and involved in many biological processes. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize miRNAs of third (L3) and fourth (L4) larvae of A. cantonensis by Solex deep sequencing. A total of 629 conserved miRNAs (526 and 376 miRNAs in L3 and L4 larvae of A. cantonensis, respectively) and three novel candidate miRNA from L3 and L4 larva of A. cantonensis were identified with bioinformatic analysis. There were 163 miRNAs upregulated and 54 miRNAs downregulated (fold changes ?5.0) in the L4 of A. cantonensis compared with that of L3 of A. cantonensis. Interestingly, Gene Ontology "biological process" classifications revealed that 26 miRNAs of significantly differential expression are associated with the immune system, which implies that these miRNAs might participate in the pathogenesis of angiostrongyliasis by regulating genes involved in immune response pathways. Furthermore, the differential expression patterns of 26 conserved miRNAs between L3 and L4 of A. cantonensis were verified. The results of real-time PCR and Northern blot showed that the aca-miR-124 and aca-miR-146a-5p have a low level expression in L3 larvae but high level expression in L4 larvae. Transfection of aca-miR-124 mimics alone significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-1? and TNF-a in the N9 cells, compared to the combination transfection of aca-miR-124 mimics and inhibitor (P?0.05), suggesting that miR-124 of A. cantonensis have an important role in the suppression of microglia activation. In conclusion, the study presents a general picture of the expression of small RNAs in L3 and L4 of A. cantonensis and highlights conserved miRNAs differentially expressed between L3 and L4 larvae. Our data revealed that miRNAs of parasite may mediate important roles in A. cantonensis immune evasion and aca-miR-146a-5p can serve as a potential biomarker to diagnose angiostrongyliasis. PMID:24696273
Li, Zhengyu; Chen, Xiaoguang; Zen, Xin; Liang, Jinyi; Wei, Jie; Lv, Zhiyue; Sun, Xi; Wu, Zhong-Dao
Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasite endemic in the Southeast Asian and Pacific regions. Humans are incidentally infected either by eating uncooked intermediate hosts or by consuming vegetables containing the living third-stage larvae. The 14-3-3? protein is a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) marker of neuronal damage during the development of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In addition, increased 14-3-3? protein is also found in CSF from patients with a variety of neurological disorders. The goal of this study is to determine the roles of serum/CSF14-3-3? protein in patients with eosinophilic meningitis. Methods In a cohort study among nine Thai laborers with eosinophilic meningitis due to eating raw snails (Pomacea canaliculata), we examined the CSF weekly while patients were still hospitalized and followed up the serum for 6 months. The levels of 14-3-3? protein in CSF were analyzed by western blot and an in-house 14-3-3? enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurement was established and tested in an animal model of eosinophilic meningitis. Results The elevated 14-3-3? level was detected in the CSF from eight out of nine (81%) patients After 2 weeks of treatment, all patients showed a declined level or cleared of 14-3-3? protein in the CSF. By developing an in-house ELISA for measurement of 14-3-3? protein, it was found that the serum 14-3-3? level was significantly increased in patients during initial visit. . This finding was consistent to the animal experiment result in which there was severe blood brain barrier damage three weeks after infection and increased 14-3-3? protein expression in the CSF and serum by western blot and in house ELISA. After treatment, the serum 14-3-3? level in meningitis patients was rapidly returned to normal threshold. There was a correlation between initial CSF 14-3-3? level with severity of headache (r?=?0.692, p?=?0.039), CSF pleocytosis (r?=?0.807, p?=?0.009) and eosinophilia (r?=?0.798, p?=?0.01) in the CSF of patients with eosinophilic meningitis (Spearman’s correlation test). Conclusions The serum 14-3-3? concentrations may constitute a useful marker for blood brain barrier damage severity and follow up in patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis.
\\u000a Soil contains a diverse range of fungi that are parasites on nematodes. These fungi include the nematode-trapping fungi that\\u000a are dependent on specific hyphal structures on or in which nematodes can be trapped mechanically or by adhesion. The interests\\u000a of studying these fungi come from their potential use as biological control agents against plant- and animal-parasitic nematodes.\\u000a Studies on the
Anders Tunlid; Dag Ahrén
To understand the process that leads to breakdown of a plant resistance gene, we need to understand the processes that govern pathogen evolution. By studying two of the main evolutionary forces (migration and mutation) operating on nematode populations, we show that cyst nematodes appear to present a higher risk than previously thought. In particular we showed that cyst nematodes exhibit
Four dogs with acute neurological signs caused by haemorrhages in the central nervous system were diagnosed with Angiostrongylus vasorum infection as the underlying aetiology. Two dogs presented with brain lesions, one dog with spinal cord lesions and one with lesions in both the brain and spinal cord. Only one dog presented with concurrent signs of classical pulmonary angiostrongylosis (respiratory distress, cough), and only two dogs displayed overt clinical signs of haemorrhages. Results of coagulation assays were inconsistent. Neurological signs reflected the site of pathology and included seizures, various cranial nerve deficits, vestibular signs, proprioceptive deficits, ataxia and paraplegia. One dog died and three were euthanised due to lack of improvement despite medical treatment. This emphasises canine angiostrongylosis as a potential cause of fatal lesions of the central nervous system and the importance of including A. vasorum as a differential diagnosis in young dogs with acute neurological signs in Denmark.
Pulmonary granuloma formation and fibrosis were experimentally induced in Sprague-Dawley strain rats by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Increased protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, -13 and the imbalance between these enzymes and metalloproteinase inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1 and -2), occur during granulomatous fibrosis. Activation of proteolytic enzymes (MMP-2, -9 and -13) and fibronectin degradation occur simultaneously. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that fibronectin avidly binds MMP-2, -9 or -13. Immunohistochemical observations also showed the localization of MMP-13, TIMP-1 and -2 within the infiltrating leucocytes. These results suggest that MMP-2, -9 and -13 may participate in the fibronectin degradation of A. cantonensis-induced granulomatous fibrosis. PMID:18039280
Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Lai, Shih-Chan
Veronicellid slugs are the main intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus costaricencis. In a rural locality in Nova Itaberaba (SC, southern Brazil) Sarasinula linguaeformis was identified as a crop pest. The parasitological examination revealed A. costaricencis infection in 43 out ot 50 slugs. The prevalence of 86% and the individual parasitic burdens are the highest sofar reported in Brazil and S. linguaeformis is the first species from the genus Sarasinula to be identified as intermediate host for A. costaricencis in southern Brazil. PMID:11340504
Laitano, A C; Genro, J P; Fontoura, R; Branco, S S; Maurer, R L; Graeff-Teixeira, C; Milanez, J M; Chiaradia, L A; Thomé, J W
A randomized, blinded, controlled multicentre field trial study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of imidacloprid 10%\\/moxidectin 2.5% spot-on solution and fenbendazole in treating dogs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum. Dogs were randomly treated either with a single dose of 0.1ml\\/kg bodyweight of imidacloprid 10%\\/moxidectin 2.5% spot-on solution or with 25mg\\/kg bodyweight fenbendazole per os for 20 days.
J. L. Willesen; A. T. Kristensen; A. L. Jensen; J. Heine; J. Koch
Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas.
Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S; da Silva, Alexandre J; Carter, Jacoby; White-Mclean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor
Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas. PMID:23901374
Teem, John L; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S; da Silva, Alexandre J; Carter, Jacoby; White-McLean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor
This lesson introduces learners to the world of nematodes (roundworms). Learners construct Baermann funnels to extract nematodes from soil and learn to differentiate stylet-bearing nematodes (most likely plant parasites) from free-living nematodes. This lesson includes background information, study questions with answers for learners, and diagrams. Dissecting and compound microscopes are required (not included in cost of materials).
Tylka, Gregory L.; Jasalavich, Claudia A.
The secluded lifestyle of endoparasitic plant nematodes hampers progress toward a comprehensive understanding of plant-nematode interactions. A novel technique that enables nondestructive, long-term observations of a wide range of live nematodes in planta is presented here. As proof of principle, Pratylenchus penetrans, Heterodera schachtii, and Meloidogyne chitwoodi were labeled fluorescently with PKH26 and used to infect Arabidopsis thaliana grown in microscopy rhizosphere chambers. Nematode behavior, development, and morphology were observed for the full duration of each parasite's life cycle by confocal microscopy for up to 27 days after inoculation. PKH26 accumulated in intestinal lipid droplets and had no negative effect on nematode infectivity. This technique enabled visualization of Meloidogyne gall formation, nematode oogenesis, and nematode morphological features, such as the metacorpus, vulva, spicules, and cuticle. Additionally, microscopy rhizosphere chambers were used to characterize plant organelle dynamics during M. chitwoodi infection. Peroxisome abundance strongly increased in early giant cells but showed a marked decrease at later stages of feeding site development, which suggests a modulation of plant peroxisomes by root-knot nematodes during the infection process. Taken together, this technique facilitates studies aimed at deciphering plant-nematode interactions at the cellular and subcellular level and enables unprecedented insights into nematode behavior in planta. PMID:24313744
Dinh, Phuong T Y; Knoblauch, Michael; Elling, Axel A
We examined the nematode fauna associated with a species of bark beetle, Dryocoetes uniseriatus Eggers, as part of a biodiversity survey of forest beetle-associated nematodes. Collections were made in a pine stand at an experimental forest station in Ibaraki, Japan, from April to July of 2011; we examined the nematode association in 273 insects collected during this time. In total, 68% of the insects were associated with at least one species of nematode. Six species of nematodes, including two phoretic microbe feeders (Bursaphelenchus rainulfi Braasch & Burgermeister and Micoletzkya sp.), one insect parasite and nematode predator (Devibursaphelenchus cf. eproctatus), one insect parasite (Contortylenchus sp.), one insect parasite and potential microbe feeder (unidentified rhabditid parasite), and one potential insect parasite and fungal feeder (B. sinensis) were recovered from the beetles. D. cf. eproctatus was enclosed in nematangia on the backsides of the elytra, B. rainulfi was isolated from the backsides of the elytra or enclosed in nematangia, Micoletzkya sp. was isolated from under the elytra, Contortylenchus sp. and a rhabditid parasite parasitized the body cavity, and B. sinensis was found in the digestive tract of the insect. The association patterns of the nematode species varied seasonally, although definitive interactions among species (e.g., segregation, competition) were not observed. PMID:23339788
Shimizu, Ai; Tanaka, Ryusei; Akiba, Mitsuteru; Masuya, Hayato; Iwata, Ryûtarô; Fukuda, Kenji; Kanzaki, Natsumi
Nematodes occupy the top in the general pattern of human parasitic diseases in the Primorye Territory. In the south of the Far East, there are a total of 28 nematode species that can parasitize man. However, the authors have identified only 8 nematode-induced diseases, such as ascariasis, enterobiasis, toxocariasis, trichocephaliasis, anisakiasis, trichinosis, dirofilariasis, dioctophymosis. The latter has been found only once in the 1920s. According to official statistical data, the proportion of ascariasis and enterobiasis accounted for 43.8 and 53.5% of the total number of helminthiases, respectively. PMID:23805486
Ermolenko, A V; Rumiantseva, E E; Bartkova, A D; Voronok, V M; Poliakova, L F
Symbioses, the living together of two or more organisms, are widespread throughout all kingdoms of life. As two of the most ubiquitous organisms on earth, nematodes and bacteria form a wide array of symbiotic associations that range from beneficial to pathogenic 1-3. One such association is the mutually beneficial relationship between Xenorhabdus bacteria and Steinernema nematodes, which has emerged as a model system of symbiosis 4. Steinernema nematodes are entomopathogenic, using their bacterial symbiont to kill insects 5. For transmission between insect hosts, the bacteria colonize the intestine of the nematode's infective juvenile stage 6-8. Recently, several other nematode species have been shown to utilize bacteria to kill insects 9-13, and investigations have begun examining the interactions between the nematodes and bacteria in these systems 9. We describe a method for visualization of a bacterial symbiont within or on a nematode host, taking advantage of the optical transparency of nematodes when viewed by microscopy. The bacteria are engineered to express a fluorescent protein, allowing their visualization by fluorescence microscopy. Many plasmids are available that carry genes encoding proteins that fluoresce at different wavelengths (i.e. green or red), and conjugation of plasmids from a donor Escherichia coli strain into a recipient bacterial symbiont is successful for a broad range of bacteria. The methods described were developed to investigate the association between Steinernema carpocapsae and Xenorhabdus nematophila14. Similar methods have been used to investigate other nematode-bacterium associations 9,15-18and the approach therefore is generally applicable. The method allows characterization of bacterial presence and localization within nematodes at different stages of development, providing insights into the nature of the association and the process of colonization 14,16,19. Microscopic analysis reveals both colonization frequency within a population and localization of bacteria to host tissues 14,16,19-21. This is an advantage over other methods of monitoring bacteria within nematode populations, such as sonication 22or grinding 23, which can provide average levels of colonization, but may not, for example, discriminate populations with a high frequency of low symbiont loads from populations with a low frequency of high symbiont loads. Discriminating the frequency and load of colonizing bacteria can be especially important when screening or characterizing bacterial mutants for colonization phenotypes 21,24. Indeed, fluorescence microscopy has been used in high throughput screening of bacterial mutants for defects in colonization 17,18, and is less laborious than other methods, including sonication 22,25-27and individual nematode dissection 28,29.
Murfin, Kristen E.; Chaston, John; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi
We reported recently a unique fungal structure, called the spiny ball, on the vegetative hyphae of Coprinus comatus (O. F. Müll.:Fr.) Pers. Although some observations regarding the role of this structure were presented, its function remained largely unknown. In this study, we showed that purified (isolated and washed) spiny balls could immobilize and kill the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus Goodey highly efficiently. Scanning electron microscopy studies illustrated that the spiny structure damaged the nematode cuticle, suggesting the presence of a mechanical force during the process of nematode immobilization. Severe injuries on nematode cuticles caused the leakage of inner materials of the nematodes. When these structures were ground in liquid nitrogen, their killing efficacy against nematodes was lost, indicating that the shape and the complete structure of the spiny balls are indispensable for their function. However, extraction with organic solvents never lowered their activity against P. redivivus, and the extracts showed no obvious effect on the nematode. We also investigated whether C. comatus was able to produce toxins which would aid in the immobilization of nematodes. In total, we identified seven toxins from C. comatus that showed activity to immobilize the nematodes P. redivivus and Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid et White) Chitwood. The chemical structures of these toxins were identified with nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, infrared, and UV spectrum analysis. Two compounds were found to be novel. The toxins found in C. comatus are O-containing heterocyclic compounds.
Luo, Hong; Liu, Yajun; Fang, Lin; Li, Xuan; Tang, Ninghua; Zhang, Keqin
Genetically modified foods have caused a lot of controversy among environmentalists. Some worry that these so-called "Frankenfoods" might disrupt the ecosystems they grow in, or even threaten human health. But others praise their potential to offset other environmental problems. For example, in this Science Update, you'll hear how genetically engineered tomatoes may be able to resist parasitic worms without the use of toxic pesticides.
The modification of ?1,6-linked fucose residues attached to the proximal (reducing-terminal) core N-acetylglucosamine residue of N-glycans by ?1,4-linked galactose (“GalFuc” epitope) is a feature of a number of invertebrate species including the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A pre-requisite for both core ?1,6-fucosylation and ?1,4-galactosylation is the presence of a nonreducing terminal N-acetylglucosamine; however, this residue is normally absent from the final glycan structure in invertebrates due to the action of specific hexosaminidases. Previously, we have identified two hexosaminidases (HEX-2 and HEX-3) in C. elegans, which process N-glycans. In the present study, we have prepared a hex-2;hex-3 double mutant, which possesses a radically altered N-glycomic profile. Whereas in the double mutant core ?1,3-fucosylation of the proximal N-acetylglucosamine was abolished, the degree of galactosylation of core ?1,6-fucose increased, and a novel Gal?1,2Fuc?1,3 moiety attached to the distal core N-acetylglucosamine residue was detected. Both galactosylated fucose moieties were also found in two parasitic nematodes, Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum. As core modifications of N-glycans are known targets for fungal nematotoxic lectins, the sensitivity of the C. elegans double hexosaminidase mutant was assessed. Although this mutant displayed hypersensitivity to the GalFuc-binding lectin CGL2 and the N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin XCL, the mutant was resistant to CCL2, which binds core ?1,3-fucose. Thus, the use of C. elegans mutants aids the identification of novel N-glycan modifications and the definition of in vivo specificities of nematotoxic lectins with potential as anthelmintic agents.
Yan, Shi; Bleuler-Martinez, Silvia; Plaza, David Fernando; Kunzler, Markus; Aebi, Markus; Joachim, Anja; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Jantsch, Verena; Geyer, Rudolf; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Paschinger, Katharina
The book presents information on the morphology, ecology, and taxonomy of nematodes of the superfamily Neotylenchoidea, which live in the rhizophere and root system of cultivated and wild plants. An analysis of the different morphological and ecological c...
N. I. Sumenkova
Prevalence of antibodies reactive to canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Toxoplasma gondii were examined in free-ranging Scandinavian canids. Sampling included 275 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from mainland Norway, 60 arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from the high-arctic islands of Svalbard, and 98 wolves (Canis lupus) from the joint Swedish-Norwegian population. Methods used included virus neutralization tests for CDV and CAV-1, a microscopic agglutination test for L. interrogans, and a direct agglutination test for T. gondii. High prevalence of antibody to CAV-1 was identified in red foxes (59.6%), wolves (67.7%), and arctic foxes (37.8%). The prevalence of antibody to CDV varied between 9.6% and 12.3% in the three species. Antibodies to L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae were found in 9.9% of the red foxes and 8.4% of the wolves sampled, whereas no antibody-positive arctic foxes were found. All animals were antibody-negative for L. interrogans serovar Canicola. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 66.9, 51.7, and 18.6% of red foxes, arctic foxes and wolves, respectively. Significantly more adults than juveniles were antibody-positive for CDV in red foxes and arctic foxes, for CAV-1 in wolves, and for T. gondii in red foxes and wolves. There was a general tendency for adult female red foxes to have a higher prevalence of antibodies for CDV than adult males; this difference was statistically significant. The results indicate that CDV and CAV-1 are endemic in red foxes and wolves on the Scandinavian mainland and in arctic foxes on Svalbard. Although infection with L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae was relatively common in wild canids on mainland Norway, it was not found on Svalbard, where the maintenance host (Rattus norvegicus) is absent. All three species are commonly exposed to T. gondii through predation on infected intermediate hosts. PMID:20688639
Akerstedt, Johan; Lillehaug, Atle; Larsen, Inger-Lise; Eide, Nina E; Arnemo, Jon M; Handeland, Kjell
Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and duration of biological control. In future research, greater use should be made of bioassays that measure nematode suppression because changes in abundance of particular antagonists may not affect biological control of plant parasites.
Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis, clinically presented as eosinophilic meningitis, is a snail-borne parasitic disease. We studied the effects of different temperatures on the larval development of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata. Six groups of snails were infected and each group was cultured under different temperature conditions. At predefined intervals, four snails from each group were dissected to examine the larval development. The development-time curve of each group was drawn according to the fraction of third-stage larvae present. The developmental time was defined as the time needed until 50% of the first-stage larvae developed into third-stage larvae. A linear regression model was established based on the time (D; in days) and the corresponding temperature (T; in degrees Celsius): DT = 15.04 x D + 262.53. The threshold temperature for larval development was 15.04 degrees C and the thermal constant was 262.53 degree-days. These parameters could be helpful in estimating the number of parasite generations in a year and the impact of climate change on the distribution of A. cantonensis. PMID:16670882
Lv, Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Zhu, Dan; Yin, Wei-Gang; Steinmann, Peter; Wang, Xian-Hong; Jia, Tie-Wu
To facilitate improved detection of the first stage larvae (L1) of Angiostrongylus cantonensis from rat faeces, a TaqMan(®) probe real-time PCR method for the detection in situ was developed targeting the second internal transcribed region of the ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of A. cantonensis. The assay was capable of detecting a single L1 in a grain of fresh faeces (weight 320 ± 125 mg) from the experimental infected Sprague-Dawley rats, and the method can also detect cell-free copro-DNA from positive faeces placed for up to 12 months at ambient environment. The present study exhibited a high level of specificity for A. cantonensis, with no fluorescence signals were observed in reference control consisting of four parasite species commonly found in the intestine of rat. This approach can overcome the limitations of DNA-based identification that faecal materials should be stored in 70% ethanol or kept as frozen samples for further tests, and thus it might be suitable and feasible for the detection of target DNA in faecal materials preserved at ambient temperature, but the detecting efficiency will depend on the amount of DNA in the samples and the time placed for the samples due to DNA degradation. PMID:21820808
Fang, Wenzhen; Wang, Jiaxu; Liu, Jiang; Xu, Changmao; Cai, Weifeng; Luo, Damin
Comparisons of nematode communities among ecosystems have indicated that, unlike many organisms, nematode communities have less diversity in the tropics than in temperate ecosystems. There are, however, few studies of tropical nematode diversity on which to base conclusions of global patterns of diversity. This study reports an attempt to estimate nematode diversity in the lowland tropical rainforest of La Selva Biological Research Station in Costa Rica. We suggest one reason that previous estimates of tropical nematode diversity were low is because habitats above the mineral soil are seldom sampled. As much as 62% of the overall genetic diversity, measured by an 18S ribosomal barcode, existed in litter and understorey habitats and not in soil. A maximum-likelihood tree of barcodes from 360 individual nematodes indicated most major terrestrial nematode lineages were represented in the samples. Estimated 'species' richness ranged from 464 to 502 within the four 40 x 40 m plots. Directed sampling of insects and their associated nematodes produced a second set of barcodes that were not recovered by habitat sampling, yet may constitute a major class of tropical nematode diversity. While the generation of novel nematode barcodes proved relatively easy, their identity remains obscure due to deficiencies in existing taxonomic databases. Specimens of Criconematina, a monophyletic group of soil-dwelling plant-parasitic nematodes were examined in detail to assess the steps necessary for associating barcodes with nominal species. Our results highlight the difficulties associated with studying poorly understood organisms in an understudied ecosystem using a destructive (i.e. barcode) sampling method. PMID:19207247
Powers, T O; Neher, D A; Mullin, P; Esquivel, A; Giblin-Davis, R M; Kanzaki, N; Stock, S P; Mora, M M; Uribe-Lorio, L
There are five genes encoding melanocortin receptors. Among canids, the genes have mainly been studied in the dog (MC1R, MC2R and MC4R). The MC4R gene has also been analysed in the red fox. In this report, we present a study of chromosome localization, comparative sequence analysis and polymorphism of the MC3R gene in the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog. The gene was localized by FISH to the following chromosome: 24q24-25 in the dog, 14p16 in the red fox, 18q13 in the arctic fox and NPP4p15 in the Chinese raccoon dog. A high identity level of the MC3R gene sequences was observed among the species, ranging from 96.0% (red fox--Chinese raccoon dog) to 99.5% (red fox--arctic fox). Altogether, eight polymorphic sites were found in the red fox, six in the Chinese raccoon dog and two in the dog, while the arctic fox appeared to be monomorphic. In addition, association of several polymorphisms with body weight was analysed in red foxes (the number of genotyped animals ranged from 319 to 379). Two polymorphisms in the red fox, i.e. a silent substitution c.957A>C and c.*185C>T in the 3'-flanking sequence, showed a significant association (P < 0.01) with body weight. PMID:20477806
Skorczyk, A; Flisikowski, K; Szydlowski, M; Cieslak, J; Fries, R; Switonski, M
Background Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2) of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective juveniles (IJ)s of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), e.g., Steinernema feltiae. Regulation of dispersal behavior has not been thoroughly investigated for C. elegans or any other nematode species. Based on the fact that ascarosides regulate entry in dauer stage as well as multiple behaviors in C. elegans adults including mating, avoidance and aggregation, we hypothesized that ascarosides might also be involved in regulation of dispersal behavior in C. elegans and for other nematodes such as IJ of phylogenetically related EPNs. Methodology/Principal Findings Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of C. elegans dauer conditioned media, which shows strong dispersing activity, revealed four known ascarosides (ascr#2, ascr#3, ascr#8, icas#9). A synthetic blend of these ascarosides at physiologically relevant concentrations dispersed C. elegans dauer in the presence of food and also caused dispersion of IJs of S. feltiae and J2s of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. Assay guided fractionation revealed structural analogs as major active components of the S. feltiae (ascr#9) and C. elegans (ascr#2) dispersal blends. Further analysis revealed ascr#9 in all Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp. infected insect host cadavers. Conclusions/Significance Ascaroside blends represent evolutionarily conserved, fundamentally important communication systems for nematodes from diverse habitats, and thus may provide sustainable means for control of parasitic nematodes.
Kaplan, Fatma; Alborn, Hans T.; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Ajredini, Ramadan; Ali, Jared G.; Akyazi, Faruk; Stelinski, Lukasz L.; Edison, Arthur S.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Teal, Peter E.
Contents: Natural economic importance of the medicinal poppy; Problems related with the nematodes of medicinal poppy; Material and methods of investigations; Brief characteristics of nematodes; Ecological-taxonomical characteristics of phytone-matodes, di...
B. N. Zyubin
The investigations on attraction of nematodes to nematophagous fungi have mostly dealt with the nematode-trapping species. Esteya vermicola is the endoparasitic fungus of pinewood nematode (PWN) with high infection activity. In the present study, the attraction of PWNs to E. vermicola was investigated. It was confirmed that the living mycelia and exudative substances of E. vermicola were attractive to PWN. Compared with the nematode-trapping fungus A. brochopaga as well as nematode-feeding fungus B. cinerea, E. vermicola showed the significantly strongest attraction ability to nematode. It therefore appeared that the attraction ability reflects the dependence of the fungi on nematodes for nutrients. Furthermore, a new method was developed and used in the study to confirm the effect of volatile substances for the attraction of nematode to fungi. The results suggested that the attractive substances were consisted of avolatile exudative and volatile diffusing compounds. PMID:20012046
Wang, Chun Yan; Wang, Zhen; Fang, Zhe Ming; Zhang, Dong Liang; Gu, Li Juan; Liu, Lei; Sung, Chang Keun
This chapter describes measures used to improve the performance of biological control agents for nematode management. Suppressive\\u000a soils have been associated with the continuous cultivation of nematode-susceptible crops, which support increases in the natural\\u000a enemy community. Soils that become suppressive to nematode pests and the agronomic practices that may destroy such natural\\u000a control and lead to increased nematode infestations are
L. Hildalgo-Diaz; B. R. Kerry
Summary Nematode communities were used as bioindicators of changes in agroecosystems caused by anthropogenic factors. The aim of this\\u000a study was to examine the impact of plowing and harrowing on nematode communities structure in comparison to “no tillage” treatments.\\u000a The effects of mechanical disturbing of nematodes were determined on four soil treatments. Differences in nematode community\\u000a structure were compared between two
M. Brmež; M. Ivezi?; E. Raspudi?
\\u000a Plant-parasitic nematodes have traditionally been studied in agricultural systems, where they can be pests of importance on\\u000a a wide range of crops. Nevertheless, nematode ecology in natural ecosystems is receiving increasing interest because of the\\u000a role of nematodes in soil food webs, nutrient cycling, influences on vegetation composition, and because of their indicator\\u000a value. In natural ecosystems, plant-parasitic nematode populations
Sofia R. Costa; Wim H. van der Putten; Brian R. Kerry
Nematodes of the Neoaplectana genus were found in a population of click beetles in the Leningrad district. When the complex of anatomical and morphological characters was analyzed, it was established that these nematodes belong to a new species. The nemat...
G. V. Veremchuk
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) infection is the major cause of eosinophilic meningitis (EM). Severe cases or infant and child cases have poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in inflammation; however, little is known about the roles in brain inflammation caused by A. cantonensis. In this study, Illumina deep sequencing and bioinformatics were used to determine the abundance and differential expression of miRNAs in the brain tissues of a mouse model. A total of 648 conserved miRNAs were identified, 157 of which were significantly differentially expressed between infected mice and normal mice. The five most fold-changed miRNAs were miR-511-5p, miR-511-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-155-5p and miR-206-3p. These expressions of miR-511, miR-223, miR-155, miR-206, miR-142 and miR-21a were validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The analysis of these miRNAs showed that miR-511-3p was more abundant than the miR-511-5p strand, and increased to a peak in 21 days after A. cantonensis infection, miR-223 might be a potential indicator of disease severity and the upregulation of miR-155-5p after stimulation with the somatic antigen of phase IV A. cantonensis implied its involvement in the central nervous system (CNS) inflammation induced by A. cantonensis infection. These observations suggest that miRNAs may play important roles in the regulation of EM caused by A. cantonensis infection. PMID:24682888
Yu, L; Liao, Q; Zeng, X; Lv, Z; Zheng, H; Zhao, Y; Sun, X; Wu, Z
Background Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis) caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40×40 km). One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis–infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. Conclusions/Significance The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.
Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Hu, Ling; Yang, Kun; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Zhao; Wang, Li-Ying; Utzinger, Jurg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
Early differential diagnosis and timely follow-up are advantageous in the management of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. This study aimed to characterize angiostrongyliasis in the rat brain for an 8-week period using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) and R2 mapping sequences. The data were analysed with Mathematica and Matlab software programs for weekly changes in each brain following the infection of 20, 50, 100 and 300 third-stage larvae (L3), respectively. The results showed that the average subarachnoid space detected by T2WI technique was peaked up to 10% increase of original size on day 35 after 100 or 300 larvae infection, while those infected with 20 or 50 larvae showed less than 4% increase during the entire course of observation. This increase was relevant to the mortality of the infected rats, because those with 100 or 300 larvae infections showed a sharp decrease in survival rate before day 40. After day 40, the average subarachnoid space was decreased, but the average ventricle size was persistently increased, with the highest increase observed in the group infected with 300 larvae on day 56. Furthermore, the R2 mapping mean and R2 mapping size were significantly different between the brains with severe infection (100 and 300 larvae groups together) and those with mild infection (20 and 50 larvae groups together) on day 49, but not on day 35. Our results showed that diagnosis for different quantity of larvae infection using MRI is possible and follow-up characterization is informative in revealing the effects of angiostrongyliasis on different brain areas. In conclusion, our results support the use of MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic technique for eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection. PMID:24207053
Shyu, L Y; Tsai, H H; Lin, D P; Chang, H H; Tyan, Y S; Weng, J C
A serine protease from the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) was purified, partially characterized and tested in vitro in control of the first larval stage of Angiostrongylus vasorum. NF34a grew in liquid culture medium, producing its crude extract that was purified by ion exchange chromatography. The fractions with high protease activity were collected in a pool, and elution of proteases was monitored by enzymatic assay and protein content. Purification steps were monitored by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protease activity was determined under different pH and temperature conditions, and the inhibitor effects of metal ions and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) were assessed. In an experimental test, the infection process of NF34a on first-stage larvae of A. vasorum was investigated. A purified serine protease (Mt1) was identified, with an approximate molecular mass of 40 kDa and apparent homogeneity in SDS-PAGE, having optimal activity at pH 7.0 to 8.0 and temperature of 60°C. Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) partially inhibited the activity of Mt1 while PMSF inhibited it completely. Mt1 production was observed when NF34a was grown using first-stage larvae of A. vasorum as the only source of carbon and nitrogen. These results show that the enzyme may have a possible role in the infection process of the larvae. In the in vitro test of applicability against A. vasorum L(1), we observed a reduction in the number of larvae of 23.9% (p?0.05) in the group treated with Mt1 compared with the control group. However, even this low reduction demonstrates that the Mt1 is important in the infection process. PMID:22231264
Soares, Filippe E F; Braga, Fabio R; Araújo, Jackson V; dos Santos Lima, Walter; Mozer, Lanuze R; Queiróz, José H
Entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis have emerged as excellent candidates for biological control of insect pests. Attributes making the nematodes ideal biological insecticides include their broad host range, high virulence, safety for nontarget organisms and high efficacy in favourable habitats. Progress achieved in liquid fermentation, formulation stability and application strategy has allowed nematode?based products to become competitive
Entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are commercially used to control pest insects. They are symbiotically associated with bacteria of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, respectively, which are the major food source for the nematodes. The biology of the nematode-bacterium complex is described, a historical review of the development of in vitro cultivation techniques is given and the
In view of erratic staining of glycogen in thin sections of nematode tissues, a study of cytochemical staining using the periodic acid-thiosemicarbazidesilver protein technique along with diastase control reactions was carried out on the nematode Capillaria hepatica. Glycogen is readily demonstrated by this technique and its morphology and distribution has been examined in six nematode species. This cytochemical technique is
Kenneth A. Wright; Terry A. Dick
Use of the electrophysiological technique to examine the sensory perception of live, intact nematodes has provided detailed analysis of responses to known concentrations of test chemicals. The use of larger nematodes, such as the animal-parasite Syngamus trachea, enabled direct extracellular recordings from individual sensilla; with smaller nematodes, the recording electrode was inserted close to the cephalic region. Extracellular recordings from
Roland N Perry
The real-time PCR technique is an appropriate technique for obtaining simultaneously information on both the species identity and the number of nematodes present in the sample. ! It measures the nematode number indirectly by assuming that the number of target DNA copies in the sample is proportional to the number of targeted nematodes. ! The quantitative information in a PCR
Mehrdad Madani; Sergei A. Subbotin; Lieven Waeyenberge; Maurice Moens
Isolating Caenorhabditis and other nematodes from the wild first requires field sampling (reviewed in Section 1). The easiest and most efficient way to recover the animals from any substrate is to place the sample onto a standard C. elegans culture plate (Section 2.1). Alternative methods used by nematologists to recover soil nematodes (Sections 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4) are in our hands more difficult to implement and only yield a fraction of the individuals in the sample. A tricky step is to recognize your species of interest out of the zoo of nematode species that comes with a typical sample (Section 3). Culture (Section 4) and freezing (Section 5) conditions are then reviewed. Finally, we briefly summarize the organization and timing of an isolation experiment (Section 6), as well as the available collections (Section 7). Bear in mind that this chapter is strongly focused towards the isolation of Caenorhabditis elegans and close relatives. PMID:24803426
Barrière, Antoine; Félix, Marie-Anne
Nematodes represent a diverse phylum of both free living and parasitic species. While the species Caenorhabditis elegans is a valuable model organism, parasitic nematodes or helminths pose a serious threat to human health. Indeed, helminths cause many neglected tropical diseases that afflict humans. Nematode glycoconjugates have been implicated in evasive immunomodulation, a hallmark of nematode infections. One monosaccharide residue present in the glycoconjugates of several human pathogens is galactofuranose (Galf). This five-membered ring isomer of galactose has not been detected in mammals, making Galf metabolic enzymes attractive therapeutic targets. The only known pathway for biosynthetic incorporation of Galf into glycoconjugates depends upon generation of the glycosyl donor UDP-Galf by the flavoenzyme uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP) galactopyranose mutase (UGM or Glf). A putative UGM encoding gene (glf-1) was recently identified in C. elegans. We sought to assess the catalytic activity of the corresponding gene product (CeUGM). CeUGM catalyzes the isomerization of UDP-Galf and UDP-galactopyranose (UDP-Galp). In the presence of enzyme, substrate, and a hydride source, a galactose-N5-FAD adduct was isolated, suggesting the CeUGM flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor serves as a nucleophile in covalent catalysis. Homology modeling and protein variants indicate that CeUGM possesses an active site similar to that of prokaryotic enzymes, despite the low sequence identity (?15%) between eukaryotic and prokaryotic UGM proteins. Even with the primary sequence differences, heterocyclic UGM inhibitors developed against prokaryotic proteins also inhibit CeUGM activity. We postulate that inhibitors of CeUGM can serve as chemical probes of Galf in nematodes and as anthelmintic leads. The available data suggest that CeUGM facilitates the biosynthetic incorporation of Galf into nematode glycoconjugates through generation of the glycosyl donor UDP-Galf. PMID:23697711
Wesener, Darryl A; May, John F; Huffman, Elizabeth M; Kiessling, Laura L
Similar patterns of hydrolases were observed in three species representing two genera of entomopathogenic nematodes: Steinernema affinis, S. feltiae, and Heterorhabditis zealandica. The same enzymes were present in the studied nematodes but they differed in the level of activity of individual sub-classes of enzymes. A higher activity of esterases and proteolytic enzymes could be observed for H. zealandica than for S. affinis and S. feltiae. On the other hand, the activity of glycosidases in steinernematids was generally much higher than in H. zealandica. PMID:16888935
Zó?towska, Krystyna; Lopie?ska, Elzbieta
This resource serves as an introduction to the world of nematodes. The objectives of this exercise include introducing students to the world of nematodes, illustrating a method of extraction of nematodes from soil, and learning to differentiate stylet-bearing nematodes from free-living nematodes. This exercise will be most useful for grades 7-12 in classrooms where dissecting and compound microscopes are available. It requires minimal materials (funnels, screen, tubing, clamps, 2-ply tissues, ring stand, soil sample, and water) and preparation.
Gregory L. Tylka (Iowa State University;); Claudia A. Jasalavich (Nashua, NH;)
The soils of the Bodega Marine Reserve (BMR, Sonoma County, California) contain many nematode-trapping fungi and many ghost moth larvae parasitized by entomopathogenic nematodes. The current study determined whether these nematode-parasitized moth larvae, which can produce very large numbers of nematodes, enhanced the population densities of nematode-trapping fungi and whether the fungi trapped substantial numbers of nematodes emerging and dispersing
B. A. Jaffee; D. R. Strong
Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of diplogastrid nematodes and their beetle hosts. Instead, frequent host switching is observed. The molecular phylogeny of the Diplogastridae provides a framework for further examinations of the evolution of these associations, for the study of interactions within the ecosystems, and for investigations of diplogastrid genome evolution.
Conventional methods to preserve adult nematodes for taxonomic purposes involve the use of fixative or clearing solutions (alcohol, formaldehyde, AFA and lactophenol), which cause morphological alterations and are toxic. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative method based on glycerol-cryopreservation of nematodes for their subsequent identification. Adults of trichostrongylid nematodes from the abomasum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus) were glycerol-cryopreserved and compared with those fixed in formaldehyde, fresh and frozen without cryoprotectans. Morphology, transparency and elasticity of the anterior and posterior portion of male nematodes were compared, especially the caudal cuticular bursa and genital accessories. The method presented is quick and easy to use, and the quality of nematode specimens is better than that of nematodes fixed by previously used fixatives. Moreover, glycerol cryopreserved nematodes can be stored for a long time at -20 degrees C in perfect condition and they could be suitable for further analyses, such as histological or ultrastructural examinations. PMID:24684056
Beraldo, Paola; Pascotto, Ernesto
AMONG IMPORTANT NEMATODE SPECIES OCCURRING IN JAPAN, CURRENT RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS WITH THE FOLLOWING FOUR NEMATODES ARE REVIEWED: 1) Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines - breeding for resistance, race determination, association with Cephalosporium gregatum in azuki bean disease, and isolation of hatching stimulant. 2) Potato-cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis - pathotype determination (Ro 1), breeding for resistance, and control recommendations. 3) Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus - primary pathogen in pine wilt disease, life cycle exhibiting a typical symbiosis with Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus, and project for control. 4) Rice root nematodes (RRN), Hirschmanniella imamuri and H. oryzae - distribution of species, population levels in roots, and role of these nematodes in rice culture. PMID:19290201
This plant disease lesson on Soybean cyst nematode disease (caused by Heterodera glycines) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.
Eric L. Davis (North Carolina State University;); Gregory L. Tylka (Iowa State University;)
The first observation of the positive effect of reduced food intake on mammalian life span was made 70 years ago (1). In the decades that followed, researchers successfully applied this method to increase the life span of a very wide range of animals. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model organism for studying the aging process. However, relatively little
Koen Houthoofd; Thomas E. Johnson; Jacques R. Vanfleteren
Some bioenergetic parameters of Caenorhabditis briggsae, a saprophagous nematode, were analysed under different conditions of food availability. Respiration (R) and production rates (P) of experimental animals grown on media of defined bacterial concentrations were measured throughout the life cycle of the species at 20°C. Energetics are expressed in the form of instantaneous rates and as cumulative budgets.1.Food dependence: The food
The importance of plant-parasitic nematodes as yield-limiting pathogens of cotton has received increased recognition and attention in the United States in the recent past. This paper summarizes the remarks made during a symposium of the same title that was held in July 2007 at the joint meeting of the Society of Nematologists and the American Phytopathological Society in San Diego, California. Although several cultural practices, including crop rotation, can be effective in suppressing the populations of the important nematode pathogens of cotton, the economic realities of cotton production limit their use. The use of nematicides is also limited by issues of efficacy and economics. There is a need for development of chemistries that will address these limitations. Also needed are systems that would enable precise nematicide application in terms of rate and placement only in areas where nematode population densities warrant application. Substantial progress is being made in the identification, characterization and mapping of loci for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. These data will lead to efficient marker-assisted selection systems that will likely result in development and release of nematode-resistant cotton cultivars with superior yield potential and high fiber quality.
Starr, J. L.; Koenning, S. R.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Robinson, A. F.; Roberts, P. A.; Nichols, R. L.
The last two decades witnessed significant advances in the efforts of immunoparasitologists to elucidate the nature and role of the host mucosal defence mechanisms against intestinal nematode parasites. Aided by recent advances in basic immunology and biotechnology with the concomitant development of well defined laboratory models of infection, immunoparasitologists have more precisely analyzed and defined the different immune effector mechanisms during the infection; resulting in great improvement in our current knowledge and understanding of protective immunity against gastrointestinal (GI) nematode parasites. Much of this current understanding comes from experimental studies in laboratory rodents, which have been used as models of livestock and human GI nematode infections. These rodent studies, which have concentrated on Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Strongyloides ratti/S. venezuelensis, Trichinella spiralis and Trichuris muris infections in mice and rats, have helped in defining the types of T cell responses that regulate effector mechanisms and the effector mechanisms responsible for worm expulsion. In addition, these studies bear indications that traditionally accepted mechanisms of resistance such as eosinophilia and IgE responses may not play as important roles in protection as were previously conceived. In this review, we shall, from these rodent studies, attempt an overview of the mucosal and other effector responses against intestinal nematode parasites beginning with the indices of immune protection as a model of the protective immune responses that may occur in animals and man.
Onah, Denis Nnabuike
This plant disease lesson on Root-knot nematode (caused by Meloidogyne ) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.
Nathaniel A. Mitkowski (University of Rhode Island;); George S. Abawi (NYSAES-Cornell University;)
The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a 'top 10' list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10) Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly. PMID:23809086
Jones, John T; Haegeman, Annelies; Danchin, Etienne G J; Gaur, Hari S; Helder, Johannes; Jones, Michael G K; Kikuchi, Taisei; Manzanilla-López, Rosa; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Wesemael, Wim M L; Perry, Roland N
The freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata was introduced to Taiwan then to mainland China in the early 1980s from Argentina, its native region, for the purpose of aquaculture. Because of the lack of natural enemies and its tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions, both its abundance and distribution have dramatically increased and it has become a harmful species to local agriculture and other native species in many areas of China. Unfortunately, the snail also acts as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been implicated in transfer of the parasite to people, resulting in angiostrongyliasis manifested as eosinophilic meningitis. Efforts to prevent its further spread and population expansion were initiated many years ago, including the use of chemicals and biological control agents to control the snail.
Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lun, Zhao-Rong
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from clinically diagnosed patients with detectable Angiostrongylus canto-nensis-specific antibodies (n = 10), patients with clinically suspected cases that tested negative for A. cantonensis-an-tibodies (n = 5) and patients with cerebral gnathostomiasis (n = 2) and neurocysticercosis (n = 2) were examined by a single-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using the AC primers for the 66-kDa native protein gene. The PCR method detected A. cantonensis DNA in CSF samples from four of 10 serologically confirmed angiostrongyliasis cases. The PCR results were negative for the remaining CSF samples. The nucleotide sequences of three positive CSF-PCR samples shared 98.8-99.2% similarity with the reference sequence of A. cantonensis. These results indicate the potential application of this PCR assay with clinical CSF samples for additional support in the confirmation of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis.
Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Dechkum, Naowarat; Parsartvit, Anchana; Yong, Hoi Sen
The potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida and the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii are major nematode pests in world agriculture. Precise identification and knowledge about the number of nematodes in field soil are necessary to develop effective integrated pest control. Here we report the results of the Real-Time PCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of G. pallida and
Mehrdad Madani; Sergei A. Subbotin; Maurice Moens
A number of species of nematode-trapping fungi, which capture and digest nematodes having keratin and collagen in their cuticles, were tested for the ability to produce extracellular collagenase and keratinase. Collagenase, which is active on ichthyocol, earthworm collagen, and procollagen from chicken embryo fibroblasts, was found in the growth medium of all tested species; keratinase was not found. The enzyme from Arthrobotrys amerospora was concentrated by precipitation with (NH4)2SO4 and further purified by adsorption on collagen at 0°C. The collagenase was active over a pH range of 2.5 to 10.0. It was not inactivated by dialysis against ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid for 48 h or by the sulfhydryl group inhibitors N-ethylmaleimide and p-chloromercuribenzoate. The production of collagenase may aid the fungus to penetrate the cuticle of its prey.
Schenck, Susan; Chase, Theodore; Rosenzweig, W. D.; Pramer, David
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used as a model system in biological research. Recently, examination of the production of heat-shock proteins in this organism in response to mobile phone-type electromagnetic field exposure produced the most robust demonstration to date of a non-thermal, deleterious biological effect. Though these results appear to be a sound demonstration of non-thermal bioeffects, to our knowledge, no mechanism has been proposed to explain them. We show, apparently for the first time, that biogenic magnetite, a ferrimagnetic iron oxide, is present in C. elegans. Its presence may have confounding effects on experiments involving electromagnetic fields as well as implications for the use of this nematode as a model system for iron biomineralization in multi-cellular organisms.
Cranfield, Charles G; Dawe, Adam; Karloukovski, Vassil; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; de Pomerai, David; Dobson, Jon
\\u000a Cell cycle activation is a key component of host plant manipulation by sedentary nematodes. It is generally believed that\\u000a root-knot nematodes induce giant cells by repeated cycles of acytokinetic mitosis accompanied by endocycles while cyst nematodes\\u000a induce extra rounds of DNA synthesis. Microscopic expression analysis of genes that encode key regulators of the cell cycle\\u000a and the use of cell
Janice de Almeida Engler; Gilbert Engler; Godelieve Gheysen
Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes have evolved sophisticated strategies to form permanent feeding sites within host plant\\u000a roots to ensure their survival. The process of feeding site formation entails an elaborate transformation of normal root cells\\u000a into enlarged, multinucleate, and metabolically active cell types to supply the nutritional needs of the nematode. The signal-exchange\\u000a that occurs between nematodes and their hosts to
Godelieve Gheysen; Melissa G. Mitchum
The investigations on attraction of nematodes to nematophagous fungi have mostly dealt with the nematode-trapping species.\\u000a Esteya vermicola is the endoparasitic fungus of pinewood nematode (PWN) with high infection activity. In the present study, the attraction\\u000a of PWNs to E. vermicola was investigated. It was confirmed that the living mycelia and exudative substances of E. vermicola were attractive to PWN.
Chun Yan Wang; Zhen Wang; Zhe Ming Fang; Dong Liang Zhang; Li Juan Gu; Lei Liu; Chang Keun Sung
A first survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was conducted in three agro-ecological zones of Southern Cameroon in 2007 and 2008. Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 26 of 251 soil samples (10.4%). Three species, Heterorhabditis baujardi, Steinernema sp. A and Steinernema sp. B were found. The two steinernematids were considered unidentified species. Among the positive samples, 23 samples contained only H. baujardi (88.5%), two contained Steinernema sp. A co-occurring with H. baujardi (7.7%), and one sample contained Steinernema sp. B (3.9%). H. baujardi was frequent in forest and fruit crop (cocoa and oil palm plantations). Steinernema sp. A was found in a tree plantation of teak, Steinernema sp. B in a forest habitat. Nematodes were mostly present in acidic soils with pH ranging from 3.7 to 7.0. The highest EPN presence was recorded in sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay and clay soils. EPNs were not recovered in sand, loamy sand and clay loam soils. Using principal component analysis for elucidating the major variation patterns among sampling sites, four factors explaining for 73.64% of the overall variance were extracted. Factors were a combination of geographical (latitude, longitude, altitude), soil (pH, contents of sand, silt and clay, organic carbon, texture), and moisture (wilting point, field capacity) parameters as well as climatic parameters (mean annual rainfall, mean air temperature). Logistic regression and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed that soil pH, longitude, available water and altitude were associated with presence and absence of EPN. Both logistic regression and RDA indicated that, increasing soil pH and longitude, associated with decreasing altitude, led to higher percentages of samples containing entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:21983478
Kanga, Françoise Ngo; Waeyenberge, Lieven; Hauser, Stefan; Moens, Maurice
\\u000a Sedentary plant parasitic nematodes can induce development of specific feeding structures inside plant roots via reprogramming\\u000a of plant morphogenetic pathways. The most remarkable examples of this ability are structural, physiological and chemical changes\\u000a occurring in cell walls of syncytia and giant-cells. The cell walls of feeding structures have to fulfil different requirements.\\u000a They become thickened to counteract growing internal pressure,
Miroslaw Sobczak; Sylwia Fudali; Krzysztof Wieczorek
The results from routine monitoring of parasite burdens in ewe flocks from 1980 to 1991 by the Massey University Veterinary Clinic were analysed. Faecal strongylate nematode egg counts from 401 flock samples were analysed according to ewe age (two-tooth, 16-23 month-old vs mixed-age, greater than 2-year-old ewes) and month of the year. Each flock sample contained faeces from ten ewes
K. J. Stafford; D. M. West; W. E. Pornroy
\\u000a Plant nematology has entered an era of genomics with the completion of the genome sequences of two root knot nematode (RKN)\\u000a species: Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla. Comparative analysis of these two RKN genomes reveals striking differences in their organizations and sheds light on the\\u000a mechanisms and evolution of parasitism. The M. hapla genome with 54 Mbp and 14,454 genes represents
Pierre Abad; James P. McCarter
Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.
Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler D.; Huffnagle, Ian M.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.
The general patterns of increasing biodiversity from the poles to the equator have been well documented for large terrestrial organisms such as plants and vertebrates but are largely unknown for microbiota. In contrast to macrobiota, microbiota have long been assumed to exhibit cosmopolitan, random distributions and a lack of spatial patterns. To evaluate the assumption, we conducted a survey of nematode diversity within the soil, litter and canopy habitats of the humid lowland tropical rainforest of Costa Rica using an ultrasequencing ecometagenetic approach at a species-equivalent taxonomic level. Our data indicate that both richness and diversity of nematode communities in the tropical rainforests of Costa Rica are high and exceed observed values from temperate ecosystems. The majority of nematode species were unknown to science, providing evidence for the presence of highly endemic (not cosmopolitan) species of still completely undiscovered biodiversity. Most importantly, the greater taxonomic resolution used here allowed us to reveal predictable habitat associations for specific taxa and thus gain insights into their nonrandom distribution patterns. PMID:21054606
Porazinska, Dorota L; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Esquivel, Alejandro; Powers, Thomas O; Sung, Way; Thomas, W Kelley
The use of natural plant anthelmintics was suggested as a possible alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in ruminants. Direct anthelmintic effects of tannin-containing plants have already been shown in sheep and goat GIN. These anthelmintic properties are mainly associated with condensed tannins. In the present study, we evaluated possible in vitro effects of three tannin-containing plants against bovine GIN. Effects of Onobrychis viciifolia, Lotus pedunculatus and Lotus corniculatus condensed tannin (CT) extracts on Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi were determined by a larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA) and a larval exsheathment assay (LEA). In the LFIA, all three plant extracts significantly inhibited larval feeding behaviour of both C. oncophora and O. ostertagi first stage larvae in a dose-dependent manner. The L. pedunculatus extract, based on EC(50) (effective concentration for 50% inhibition), was the most effective against both nematodes, followed by O. viciifolia and L. corniculatus. The effect of CT extracts upon larval feeding behaviour correlates with CT content and procyanidin/prodelphidin ratio. Larval exsheathment of C. oncophora and O. ostertagi L3 larvae (third stage larvae) was also affected by CT extracts from all three plants. In both in vitro assays, extracts with added polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, an inhibitor of tannins, generated almost the same values as the negative control; this confirms the role of CT in the anthelmintic effect of these plant extracts. Our results, therefore, indicated that tannin-containing plants could act against cattle nematodes. PMID:21726942
Novobilský, Adam; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan
Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species. PMID:24116204
Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler D; Huffnagle, Ian M; Besser, John M; Ingersoll, Christopher G
Cyclotides are a large family of cyclic cystine knot-containing plant peptides that have anthelminthic activities against Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis, two important gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. In this study, we investigated the interaction of the prototypic cyclotide kalata B1 with the external surface of H. contortus larvae and adult worms. We show that cyclotides do not need to be ingested by the worms to exert their toxic effects but that an interaction with the external surface alone is toxic. Evidence for this was the toxicity toward adult worms in the presence of a chemically induced pharyngeal ligature and toxicity of cyclotides toward nonfeeding larval life stages. Uptake of tritiated inulin in ligated adult worms was increased in the presence of cyclotide, suggesting that cyclotides increase the permeability of the external membranes of adult nematodes. Polyethylene glycols of various sizes showed protective effects on the nonfeeding larval life stage, as well as in hemolytic activity assays, suggesting that discrete pores are formed in the membrane surfaces by cyclotides and that these can be blocked by polyethylene glycols of appropriate size. This increased permeability is consistent with recently reported effects of cyclotides on membranes in which kalata B1 was demonstrated to form pores and cause leakage of vesicle/cellular contents. Our data, together with known size constraints on the movement of permeants across nematode cuticle layers, suggest that one action of the cyclotides involves an interaction with the lipid-rich epicuticle layer at the surface of the worm.
Colgrave, Michelle L.; Huang, Yen-Hua; Craik, David J.; Kotze, Andrew C.
Production and application technology is critical for the success of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in biological control. Production approaches include in vivo, and in vitro methods (solid or liquid fermentation). For laboratory use and small scale field experiments, in vivo production of EPNs appears to be the appropriate method. In vivo production is also appropriate for niche markets and small growers where a lack of capital, scientific expertise or infrastructure cannot justify large investments into in vitro culture technology. In vitro technology is used when large scale production is needed at reasonable quality and cost. Infective juveniles of entomopathogenic nematodes are usually applied using various spray equipment and standard irrigation systems. Enhanced efficacy in EPN applications can be facilitated through improved delivery mechanisms (e.g., cadaver application) or optimization of spray equipment. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in developing EPN formulations, particularly for above ground applications, e.g., mixing EPNs with surfactants or polymers or with sprayable gels. Bait formulations and insect host cadavers can enhance EPN persistence and reduce the quantity of nematodes required per unit area. This review provides a summary and analysis of factors that affect production and application of EPNs and offers insights for their future in biological insect suppression.
Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Han, Richou; Dolinksi, Claudia
The presence of helminths associated with freshwater turtles is rarely reported. There are no records of nematodes parasitizing Acanthochelys spixii, and for Hydromedusa tectifera, there is only the report of unidentified nematodes found in this species in Argentina. This is the first report of nematodes (Spiroxys contortus and Camallanus sp.) in A. spixii and the first record of Spiroxys contortus and Camallanus sp. in H. tectifera. This is the southernmost record of S . contortus because this nematode was previously recorded only in Mexico. PMID:23812643
Mascarenhas, Carolina S; Souza, Jéssica D; Coimbra, Marco Antônio A; Müller, Gertrud
We determined whether nematode-trapping fungi may influence the dynamics of a coastal shrub community. The food chain interactions in the shrub community involve the dominant plant species, its major insect herbivore, and an entomopathogenic nematode,Heterorhabditis hepialus.Of the 12 nematode-trapping fungi previously isolated from soils at the study site, 5 were selected for this study.Arthrobotrys oligospora, Geniculifera paucispora, Monacrosporium eudermatum,andMonacrosporium cionopagumefficiently
Albrecht M. Koppenhöfer; Bruce A. Jaffee; Ann E. Muldoon; Donald R. Strong; Harry K. Kaya
We reported recently a unique fungal structure, called the spiny ball, on the vegetative hyphae of Coprinus comatus (O. F. Mull.:Fr.) Pers. Although some observations regarding the role of this structure were presented, its function remained largely unknown. In this study, we showed that purified (isolated and washed) spiny balls could immobilize and kill the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus Goodey
Hong Luo; Yajun Liu; Lin Fang; Xuan Li; Ninghua Tang; Keqin Zhang
The diversity of nematode destroying fungi in Taita Taveta, Wundanyi division, Coast Province, Kenya, was investigated between May 2006 and December 2007 aiming at harnessing their potential in the biological control of plant parasitic nematodes in the area. Given that the intensity of land cultivation is continually increasing in the study area, it is prudent to document the status of
P. Wachira; R. Mibey; S. Okoth; J. Kimenju; J. Kiarie
BACKGROUND: Cyst nematodes are devastating plant parasites that become sedentary within plant roots and induce the transformation of normal plant cells into elaborate feeding cells with the help of secreted effectors, the parasitism proteins. These proteins are the translation products of parasitism genes and are secreted molecular tools that allow cyst nematodes to infect plants. RESULTS: We present here the
Axel A Elling; Makedonka Mitreva; Xiaowu Gai; John Martin; Justin Recknor; Eric L Davis; Richard S Hussey; Dan Nettleton; James P McCarter; Thomas J Baum
For decades the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been an important model system for biology, but little is known about its natural ecology. Recently, C. elegans has become the focus of studies of innate immunity and several pathogens have been shown to cause lethal intestinal infections in C. elegans. However none of these pathogens has been shown to invade nematode
Emily R Troemel; Marie-Anne Félix; Noah K Whiteman; Antoine Barrière; Frederick M Ausubel
Our objectives were to determine whether entomopathogenic nematode emergence from host cadavers is influenced by soil moisture, whether the nematodes can survive adverse desiccating conditions in the soil by remaining within the host cadaver, and whether differences in such an adaptation occur among species. In the first experiment, wax moth larvae killed by Steinernema glaseri, Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema riobravis, or
Albrecht M. Koppenhöfer; Matthew E. Baur; S. Patricia Stock; Ho Yul Choo; Buncha Chinnasri; Harry K. Kaya
The insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis spp. are mutualistically associated with entomopathogenic bacteria, Photorhabdus spp. A novel association has been detected between H. megidis isolate EU17 and the endospore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus nematophilus. P. nematophilus sporangia adhere to infective juveniles (IJs) of H. megidis and develop in insect hosts along with the nematodes and their symbiont. We tested the effects of P.
Michael R. Enright; Christine T. Griffin
Research has shown that eosinophils will localize in infected intestinal tissue and secrete important mediators that control parasite rejection. A series of infections have been run with Nippostrongylus brasilensis, a nematode, in August rats. The N. brasiliensis infection targets the gastro-intestinal tract of the host, causing a characteristic immune response against the nematodes in this area. The author collected Peyer's
Kara Elizabeth Stark
Of 447 alien insect, phytophagous mite, spider and nematode species in Japan, 415 are insect species. Most were introduced after the end of the Edo period (1859). Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera represent the major taxonomic groups in decreasing order of number of species. They include 58 insect and nematode species from the United States. Among them, the following
Keizi KIRITANI; Nobuo MORIMOTO
Changes taking place in the communities of soil nematodes of an artificially sown meadow under the impact of annually applied mineral fertilizers have been studied in a field experiment for nine years. It is shown that changes in the species composition, trophic structure, and numbers of nematodes from different genera depend on the fertilizer applied and on the competitiveness of
L. I. Gruzdeva; E. M. Matveeva; T. E. Kovalenko
As a pest, in order to complete its life history and reproduces effectively, soybean cyst nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines Ichinche 1952) must adapt to various environments and conditions for long periods of evolution. The nematode is widely dispersed year after year. Controlling this pest requires understanding characters and adaptability of SCN. Effects of abiotic factors, such as temperature, soil humidity,
Yu-xi DUAN; Ya-nan ZHENG; Li-jie CHEN; Xiao-min ZHOU; Yuan-yuan WANG; Jing-shuang SUN
In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare. PMID:19287759
Walter, D E; Kaplan, D T
In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare.
Walter, David Evans; Kaplan, David T.
Cryopreservation of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in the adult stage is of importance as the nematode is a powerful research model organism. In this study, we applied the protocol previously established for cryopreservation of the L4 nematode to the adult one, and achieved a survival rate of 84%. When ice seeding was induced with bacteria P. syringae directly added to the nematode suspension instead of using a pre-cooled steel sticking needle, comparable survival rate was obtained after thawing. Moreover, a simple freezing device composed of a polystyrene foam box surrounded by a Dewar vessel put in a deep freezer was developed for a practical use. This simple method obtained a survival rate of 69 ± 4% for the adult nematode after thawing. PMID:23995406
Hayashi, M; Amino, H; Kita, K; Murase, N
FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) are a diverse group of neuropeptides that are expressed abundantly in nematodes. They exert potent physiological effects on locomotory, feeding and reproductive musculature and also act as neuromodulators. However, little is known about the specific expression patterns and functions of individual peptides. The current study employed rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) to characterize flp genes from infective juveniles of the root knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne minor. The peptides identified from these transcripts are sequelogs of FLPs from the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans; the genes have therefore been designated as Mi-flp-1, Mi-flp-7, Mi-flp-12, Mm-flp-12 and Mi-flp-14. Mi-flp-1 encodes five FLPs with the common C-terminal moiety, NFLRFamide. Mi-flp-7 encodes two copies of APLDRSALVRFamide and APLDRAAMVRFamide and one copy of APFDRSSMVRFamide. Mi-flp-12 and Mm-flp-12 encode the novel peptide KNNKFEFIRFamide (a longer version of RNKFEFIRFamide found in C. elegans). Mi-flp-14 encodes a single copy of KHEYLRFamide (commonly known as AF2 and regarded as the most abundant nematode FLP), and a single copy of the novel peptide KHEFVRFamide. These FLPs share a high degree of conservation between Meloidogyne species and nematodes from other clades, including those of humans and animals, perhaps suggesting a common neurophysiological role which may be exploited by novel drugs. FLP immunoreactivity was observed for the first time in Meloidogyne, in the circumpharyngeal nerve ring, pharyngeal nerves and ventral nerve cord. Additionally, in situ hybridization revealed Mi-flp-12 expression in an RIR-like neuron and Mi-flp-14 expression in SMB-like neurons, respectively. These localizations imply physiological roles for FLP-12 and FLP-14 peptides, including locomotion and sensory perception. PMID:19843350
Johnston, M J G; McVeigh, P; McMaster, S; Fleming, C C; Maule, A G
The paper presents a survey of nematodes found in 49 rodents of 4 species from 17 localities of the Jelenia Góra district (SW Poland). The following parasites were found: Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Dujardin, 1845) Boulanger, 1922; Heligmosomoides glareoli Baylis, 1928; Heligmosomum mixtum Schulz, 1929; Heligmosomoides sp.; Heligmosomidae gen. sp.; Trichostrongyloidea gen. sp.; Syphacia frederici Roman, 1945; Syphacia montana Yamaguti, 1943; Syphacia stroma (Linstow, 1884) Morgan, 1932; Syphacia nigeriana Baylis, 1928; Aonchoteca murissylvatici (Diesing, 1851) Lopez-Neyra, 1947; Trichuris muris (Schrank, 1788) Hall, 1916. PMID:16865978
Popio?ek, Marcin; Hildebrand, Joanna; Karpi?ska, Marta; Indyk, Franciszek; Paw?owska-Indyk, Aurelia
In a world in which sheep producers are facing increasing problems due to the rapid spread of anthelmintic resistance, the battle against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes is a difficult one. One of the potential new tools for integrated control strategies is biological control by means of the nematode-destroying microfungus Duddingtonia flagrans. This fungus forms sticky traps that catch developing larval stages of parasitic nematodes in the fecal environment. When resting spores (chlamydospores) of this fungus are fed daily to grazing animals for a period of time, the pasture infectivity and thus, the worm burden of grazing animals are lowered, especially in young lambs. Research has been conducted throughout the world covering many different climates and management systems. An Australian parasite model showed that if the fungus performs efficiently (> or =90% reduction in worm burden) for 2 or 3 mo, it should contribute significantly to a reduction in the number of dead lambs otherwise occurring when managed only by anthelmintic treatment and grazing management. Feeding or field trials have clearly demonstrated that dosing with a few hundred thousand spores per kilogram of live BW not only reduced the number of infective larvae but also increased the BW of the lambs compared with controls not given fungus. Initial Australian work with feeding spores by means of a block formulation or a slow-release device has shown some promise, but further work is needed to fully develop these delivery systems. In tropical Malaysia, small paddock trials and field studies resulted in significant improvements, in terms of lower worm burdens and increased live BW, when feeding half a million spores daily to grazing lambs. Additional benefits have been observed when the fungus is employed in combination with a fast rotational grazing system. Research has also demonstrated that spores can be delivered in slightly moist feed block material, but only if such blocks are consumed rapidly, because of their very short shelf life. In the northern, temperate Danish climate it has been demonstrated that daily feeding of half a million spores per kilogram of live BW can lead to significant production benefits, with increased live BW gain in fungus-exposed animals. Biological control of parasitic nematodes in sheep seems to hold promise for the future, but to be able to assist producers, the optimal delivery system needs to be refined and further developed. In addition, more work will be needed to define the best use of this technology in different geographic regions. PMID:16582084
Pathogens vectored by nematodes pose serious agricultural, economic, and health threats; however, little is known of the ecological and evolutionary aspects of pathogen transmission by nematodes. Here we describe a novel model system with two trophic levels, bacteriophages and nematodes, each of which competes for bacteria. We demonstrate for the first time that nematodes are capable of transmitting phages between
John J. Dennehy; Nicholas A. Friedenberg; Yul W. Yang; Paul E. Turner
Screening forest soil nematodes for associated fungi by PCR, and sequencing the internal transcribed spacer detected the human, and other mammals, pathogenic fungus Malassezia in association with soil nematodes for the first time in Europe. Malassezia restricta and M. globosa were associated with the nematode genus Malenchus sp., whereas another nematode, Tylolaimophorus typicus hosted only M. restricta.
Carsten Renker; Jörn Alphei; François Buscot
Free-living nematodes from littoral benthic sediments of four lakes, two rivers and a hot spring in Ethiopia are studied. Populations of nematodes encountered are identified to the species level. The general nematode (generic and species) composition of the lakes, rivers and hot spring are appraised by giving special emphasis to the nematodes from L. Tana, i.e. three sites where different
Eyualem Abebe; Jan Mees; August Coomans
The investigations on attraction of nematodes to nematophagous fungi have mostly dealt with the nematode-trapping species and just were limited to the assays on plate. In present study, attraction of pinewood nematodes to the living mycelia of endoparasitic fungus, Esteya vermicola, was investigated. It was confirmed that the living mycelia of E. vermicola were attractive not only to pinewood nematodes
Chun Yan Wang; Zhen Wang; Mi La Lee; Zheng Li; Dong Liang Zhang; Lei Liu; Zhe Ming Fang
We determined whether nematode-trapping fungi may influence the dynamics of a coastal shrub community. The food chain interactions in the shrub community involve the dominant plant species, its major insect herbivore, and an entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis hepialus. Of the 12 nematode-trapping fungi previously isolated from soils at the study site, 5 were selected for this study. Arthrobotrys oligospora, Geniculifera paucispora, Monacrosporium eudermatum, and Monacrosporium cionopagum efficiently trapped and colonized H. hepialus on agar; in contrast Nematoctonus concurrens trapped but did not infect or colonize the nematode on agar. To determine whether these fungi can suppress H. hepialus in soil, we added the fungi in the form of fungal-colonized nematodes to pasteurized (2 hr at 62 degrees C) and raw (nontreated) soil from the study site. Suppression was measured by comparing nematode invasion into a wax moth larva in fungus-treated and untreated soil in vials at 20 degrees C. Fungal population density in soil was estimated using dilution plating and most probable number procedures. All fungi suppressed H. hepialus if the wax moth larvae were added 4 days after the nematodes. Suppression ranged between 37 and 54% and did not differ among fungi. Suppression was usually greater in raw than in pasteurized soil. Raw soil contained a constant background of nematode-trapping fungi, and A. oligospora was the most common among these; no background was detected in pasteurized soil. The presence of background fungi in raw soil may explain the higher suppression in raw than in pasteurized soil. Fungal propagule densities in our laboratory experiments were similar to those observed in the field, suggesting that nematode-trapping fungi may influence the dynamics of the plant, insect herbivore, and entomopathogenic nematode in the coastal ecosystem. PMID:8931364
Koppenhöfer, A M; Jaffee, B A; Muldoon, A E; Strong, D R; Kaya, H K
The present paper comprises a systematic survey of nematodes found in 88 specimens of 24 species of freshwater fishes in Venezuela in 1992 and 1994. The following 13 species of nematodes were recorded: Adults; Guyanema longispiculum Moravec, Prouza et Royero, 1996, Guyanema sp., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus Travassos, Artigas et Pereira, 1928, P. (S.) krameri (Petter, 1974) comb. n., P.(S.) pintoi (Kohn et Fernandes, 1988) comb, n., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp., Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris) mahnerti (Petter et Cassone, 1984). Larvae: Anisakidae gen. sp., Brevimulticaecum sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Contracaecum sp. Type 2, Contracaecum sp. Type 3, Eustrongylides sp. All these parasites are reported from Venezuela for the first time and all findings represent new host records. Brevimulticaecum larvae are reported from fishes for the first time. Almost all parasites are briefly described and illustrated and problems concerning their morphology, taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. A new name, Terranova diazungriai nom.nov. is proposed for T. caballeroi Díaz-Ungría, 1968 (a junior homonym of T. caballeroi Barus et Coy Otero, 1966). PMID:9188173
Moravec, F; Prouza, A; Royero, R
Strongyloides and related genera are advantageous subjects for transgenesis in parasitic nematodes, primarily by gonadal microinjection as has been used with Caenorhabditis elegans. Transgenesis has been achieved in S. stercoralis and in Parastrongyloides trichosuri, but both of these lack well-adapted, conventional laboratory hosts in which to derive transgenic lines. By contrast, Strongyloides ratti develops in laboratory rats with high efficiency and offers the added advantages of robust genomic and transcriptomic databases and substantial volumes of genetic, developmental and immunological data. Therefore, we evaluated methodology for transgenesis in S. stercoralis as a means of transforming S. ratti. S. stercoralis-based GFP reporter constructs were expressed in a proportion of F1 transgenic S. ratti following gonadal microinjection into parental free-living females. Frequencies of transgene expression in S. ratti, ranged from 3.7% for pAJ09 to 6.8% for pAJ20; respective frequencies for these constructs in S. stercoralis were 5.6% and 33.5%. Anatomical patterns of transgene expression were virtually identical in S. ratti and S. stercoralis. This is the first report of transgenesis in S. ratti, an important model organism for biological investigations of parasitic nematodes. Availability of the rat as a well-adapted laboratory host will facilitate derivation of transgenic lines of this parasite.
Li, Xinshe; Shao, Hongguang; Junio, Ariel; Nolan, Thomas J.; Massey, Holman C.; Pearce, Edward J.; Viney, Mark E.; Lok, James B.
Twenty-one open pollinated populations of peach rootstock seedlings were evaluated for their response to infection by the root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, over a period of 98 days. Nematode-infected peach seedling populations were shorter in plant height and had less shoot weight but more dry root weight than nematode-free controls. Rootstock differences were demonstrated for nematode increase over the 98-day period, and average total numbers of nematodes in soil and roots. Rootstocks were classified into three groups differing in total nematode population levels, ratio of nematode increase, and the number of nematodes per root. The heritable nature of rootstock response to nematodes was evident. Rootstocks showing the lowest response to nematode infection included Tzim Pee Tao, Rutgers Red Leaf, and two progenies of a cross of these two rootstocks. PMID:19294029
Potter, J W; Dirks, V A; Johnson, P W; Olthof, T H; Layne, R E; McDonnell, M M
Candidate grape rootstocks were selected through a rigorous screening program initiated with important sources of resistance to Meloidogyne pathotypes and to Xiphinema index in Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis species native to North America. Based on their rooting capability and horticultural characteristics, 200 candidates were selected from 5,000 progeny of multiple crosses between commercial grape rootstocks and wild grape species that exhibited resistance to nematodes. After a 15-year screening process, 13 selections emerged with either almost complete or complete combined resistance to M. incognita Race 3, M. incognita pathotype Harmony C, M. arenaria pathotype Harmony A, and X. index, important nematode pests of grapevines. Durability of this broad resistance was tested by challenging the selections with the target nematodes in combination and with the target nematodes in combinations with species not included in the screening process. Durability of resistance of the candidate rootstocks was also tested by exposure to the nematode communities of infested field soils from different locations. Breadth of resistance was determined on the basis of their host status to non-target nematodes, including Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus vulnus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Paratylenchus hamatus. After a total of 204 separate trials, the rootstocks were released to the grape industry as UCD GRN1, UCD GRN2, UCD GRN3, UCD GRN4, and UCD GRN5. We provide a compilation of current knowledge of the host status of these five newly released rootstocks and of 27 other rootstock cultivars to plant-parasitic nematodes.
Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.; Walker, M. A.
Eosinophil accumulation is a defining feature of the immune response to parasitic worm infection. Tissue-resident cells, such as epithelial cells, are thought to initiate eosinophil recruitment. However, direct recognition of worms by eosinophils has not been explored as a mechanism for amplifying eosinophil accumulation. Here, we report that eosinophils rapidly migrate toward diverse nematode species in three-dimensional culture. These include the mammalian parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Surprisingly, collective migration toward worms requires paracrine leukotriene B4 signaling between eosinophils. In contrast, neutrophils show a minimal response to nematodes, yet are able to undergo robust leukotriene-dependent migration toward IgG-coated beads. We further demonstrate that eosinophils accumulate around C. elegans in the lungs of mice. This response is not dependent on bacterial products, CCR3, or complement activation. However, mice deficient in leukotriene signaling show markedly attenuated eosinophil accumulation after injection of C. elegans or N. brasiliensis. Our findings establish that nematode-derived signals can directly induce leukotriene production by eosinophils and that leukotriene signaling is a major contributor to nematode-induced eosinophil accumulation in the lung. The similarity of the eosinophil responses to diverse nematode species suggests that conserved features of nematodes are recognized during parasite infection. PMID:24889202
Patnode, Michael L; Bando, Jennifer K; Krummel, Matthew F; Locksley, Richard M; Rosen, Steven D
Microsporidia are unicellular fungi that are obligate endoparasites. Although nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse animal groups, the only confirmed report of microsporidian infection was that of the “nematode killer” (Nematocida parisii). N. parisii was isolated from a wild Caenorhabditis sp. and causes an acute and lethal intestinal infection in a lab strain of Caenorhabditis elegans. We set out to characterize a microsporidian infection in a wild nematode to determine whether the infection pattern of N. parisii in the lab is typical of microsporidian infections in nematodes. We describe a novel microsporidian species named Sporanauta perivermis (marine spore of roundworms) and characterize its infection in its natural host, the free-living marine nematode Odontophora rectangula. S. perivermis is not closely related to N. parisii and differs strikingly in all aspects of infection. Examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the infection was localized in the hypodermal and muscle tissues only and did not involve the intestines. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed infection in the muscle and hypodermis, and surprisingly, it also revealed that the parasite infects O. rectangula eggs, suggesting a vertical mode of transmission. Our observations highlight the importance of studying parasites in their natural hosts and indicate that not all nematode-infecting microsporidia are “nematode killers”; instead, microsporidiosis can be more versatile and chronic in the wild.
Ardila-Garcia, A. M.
Nematode-insect associations have evolved many times in the phylum Nematoda, but these lineages involve plant parasitism only in the Secernentean orders Aphelenchida and Tylenchida. In the Aphelenchida (Aphelenchoidoidea), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Pine wood nematode), B. cocophilus (Red ring or Coconut palm nematode) (Parasitaphelenchidae), and the many potential host-specific species of Schistonchus (fig nematodes) (Aphelenchoididae) nematode-insect interactions probably evolved independently from dauer-forming, mycophagous ancestors that were phoretically transmitted to breeding sites of their insect hosts in plants. Mycophagy probably gave rise to facultative or obligate plant-parasitism because of opportunities due to insect host switches or peculiarities in host behavior. In the Tylenchida, there is one significant radiation of insect-associated plant parasites involving Fergusobia nematodes (Fergusobiinae: Neotylenchidae) and Fergusonina (Fergusoninidae) flies as mutualists that gall myrtaceous plant buds or leaves. These dicyclic nematodes have different phases that are parasitic in either the insect or the plant hosts. The evolutionary origin of this association is unclear. PMID:19265987
Giblin-Davis, R M; Davies, K A; Morris, K; Thomas, W K
The origin of plant parasitism within the phylum Nematoda is intriguing. The ability to parasitize plants has originated independently at least three times during nematode evolution and, as more molecular data has emerged, it has become clear that multiple instances of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria and fungi have played a crucial role in the nematode's adaptation to this new lifestyle. The first reported HGT cases in plant-parasitic nematodes were genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Other putative examples of HGT were subsequently described, including genes that may be involved in the modulation of the plant's defense system, the establishment of a nematode feeding site, and the synthesis or processing of nutrients. Although, in many cases, it is difficult to pinpoint the donor organism, candidate donors are usually soil dwelling and are either plant-pathogenic or plant-associated microorganisms, hence occupying the same ecological niche as the nematodes. The exact mechanisms of transfer are unknown, although close contacts with donor microorganisms, such as symbiotic or trophic interactions, are a possibility. The widespread occurrence of horizontally transferred genes in evolutionarily independent plant-parasitic nematode lineages suggests that HGT may be a prerequisite for successful plant parasitism in nematodes. PMID:21539433
Haegeman, Annelies; Jones, John T; Danchin, Etienne G J
Soil from the chinampa agricultural system in the Valley of Mexico suppressed damage by plant-parasitic nematodes to tomatoes and beans in greenhouse and growth chamber trials. Sterilization of the chinampa soil resulted in a loss of the suppressive effect, thereby indicating that one or more biotic factors were responsible for the low incidence of nematode damage. Nine organisms were isolated from chinampa soil, which showed antinematodal properties in culture. Naturally occurring populations of plant-parasitic nematodes were of lower incidence in chinampa soil than in Chapingo soil. PMID:24272194
Zuckerman, B M; Dicklow, M B; Coles, G C; Garcia-E, R; Marban-Mendoza, N
The viability of a formulation of the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium associated with ivermectin was evaluated for the biological control of bovine gastrointestinal nematode parasites. Four groups of five calves each were placed in pastures with a stocking rate of 1.6 animal\\/hectare. In group 1 (control), the calves did not receive any treatment. In group 2, each animal received 20g of
Jackson Victor de Araújo; Marcos Pezzi Guimarães; Artur Kanadani Campos; Nilo Chaves de Sá; Priscilla Sarti; Rafaela Carolina Lopes Assis
Capture cells differ ultrastructurally from vegetative cells in the nematode-trapping fungi, Dactylella drechslerii, Monacrosporium rutgeriensis and Arthrobotrys dactyloides, which capture prey by means of adhesive knobs, adhesive hyphal networks, and constricting rings, respectively. Adhesive knobs and adhesive networks contain dense inclusions not found in hyphal tips or subapical regions of the vegetative hyphae, and rough- and smooth-surfaced membranes are abundant in these trap cells. The fine structure of constricting rings differs from that of adhesive traps, and it is altered by closure. In the open configuration, there are membrane-bound inclusions, labyrinthine networks, and electron-lucent regions between the protoplasts and cell wall, all localized on the luminal side of the ring cells. After closure, these features no longer are evident and the cytoplasm of trap cells stains less densely. Images
Heintz, C. E.; Pramer, David
The central theme of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is that names are meaningless, artificial constructs, detached from any underlying reality. By contrast, we argue that a well chosen gene name can concisely convey a wealth of relevant biological information. A consistent nomenclature adds transparency that can have a real impact on our understanding of gene function. Currently, genes in parasitic nematodes are often named ad hoc, leading to confusion that can be resolved by adherence to a nomenclature standard adapted from Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate this with ligand-gated ion-channels and propose that the flood of genome data and differences between parasites and the free living C. elegans will require modification of the standard. PMID:20478743
Beech, Robin N; Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Neveu, Cédric; Dent, Joseph A
Observations of atypical developmental and anatomical characteristics have been recorded for many taxa of soil nematodes. They include the unusual occurrence of extra feeding structures, aberrant configuration of features of both male and female reproductive systems, and the occurrence of intersexes assumed to be functionally female, functionally male, or non-functional. In many cases, hypotheses have been advanced regarding the genetic or developmental mechanisms and environmental stimuli that control, regulate, or facilitate abnormalities, but many are quite speculative and lack experimental verification. Further, the fitness costs or advantages, and the heritability of aberrant characters are largely unknown, except where they clearly preclude reproduction, either apomictic or amphimictic. Underlying mechanisms and ecological consequences may be difficult to study in organisms that are not readily cultured under axenic or sterile laboratory conditions, however information on developmental processes in Caenorhabditis elegans represents an important resource in which to seek homologies.
Ferris, Howard; Robbins, Robert; Yeates, Gregor
SUMMARY Nematodes are amongst the most successful and abundant organisms on the planet with approximately 30 000 species described, although the actual number of species is estimated to be one million or more. Despite sharing a relatively simple and invariant body plan, there is considerable diversity within the phylum. Nematodes have evolved to colonize most ecological niches, and can be free-living or can parasitize plants or animals to the detriment of the host organism. In this review we consider the role of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in the nematode life cycle. We describe studies on Hsp90 in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and comparative work on the parasitic species Brugia pahangi, and consider whether a dependence upon Hsp90 can be exploited for the control of parasitic species. PMID:24721950
Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen
Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections affect 50% of the human population worldwide, and cause great morbidity as well as hundreds of thousands of deaths. Despite modern medical practices, the proportion of the population infected with GI nematodes is not falling. This is due to a number of factors, the most important being the lack of good healthcare, sanitation and health education in many developing countries. A relatively new problem is the development of resistance to the small number of drugs available to treat GI nematode infections. Here we review the most important parasitic GI nematodes and the methods available to control them. In addition, we discuss the current status of new anthelmintic treatments, particularly the plant cysteine proteinases from various sources of latex-bearing plants and fruits.
Stepek, Gillian; Buttle, David J; Duce, Ian R; Behnke, Jerzy M
Genome-based studies of metazoan evolution are most informative when phylogenetically diverse species are incorporated in the analysis. As such, evolutionary trends within and outside the phylum Nematoda have been less revealing by focusing only on comparisons involving Caenorhabditis elegans. Herein, we present a draft of the 64 megabase nuclear genome of Trichinella spiralis, containing 15,808 protein coding genes. This parasitic nematode is an extant member of a clade that diverged early in the evolution of the phylum enabling identification of archetypical genes and molecular signatures exclusive to nematodes. Comparative analyses support intrachromosomal rearrangements across the phylum, disproportionate numbers of protein family deaths over births in parasitic vs. a non-parasitic nematode, and a preponderance of gene loss and gain events in nematodes relative to Drosophila melanogaster. This sequence and the panphylum characteristics identified herein will advance evolutionary studies and strategies to combat global parasites of humans, food animals and crops.
Mitreva, Makedonka; Jasmer, Douglas P.; Zarlenga, Dante S.; Wang, Zhengyuan; Abubucker, Sahar; Martin, John; Taylor, Christina M.; Yin, Yong; Fulton, Lucinda; Minx, Pat; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Warren, Wesley C.; Fulton, Robert S.; Bhonagiri, Veena; Zhang, Xu; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Clifton, Sandra W.; McCarter, James P.; Appleton, Judith; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.
The review summarizes reports on molecular aspects of interactions of phytoparasitic nematodes with plant hosts. Data on the secrets of nematodes affecting plants (elicitors, toxins, products of parasitism genes, etc.) are analyzed and information flow pathways comprising all elements of the plant-parasite interaction (from elicitors to defense responses of plant cells), described. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms whereby plants are protected from nematode invasion (hypesensitivity reactions, apoptosis, phytoalexins, proteinase inhibitors, PR-proteins, etc.). Consideration is given to genetic aspects of plant-parasite relationships. Promising practical approaches to defending plants from phytoparasitic nematodes, developed based on the results of studies of molecular mechanisms of plant-parasite interactions are provided in conclusion. PMID:15125189
Zinov'eva, S V; Vasiukova, N I; Ozeretskovskaia, O L
Unproductive > 7-year-old greenhouse cultures of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) had a well-developed soil invertebrate fauna that included nematophagous mite species characteristic of Florida citrus groves. Nematophagous mite densities in box cultures were 285 +/- 42 mites/liter, 2.5 to 25 times higher than densities in citrus nematode-infested groves. Vigorous root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) cultures grown in steam-pasteurized soil had few nematophagous mites until more than 3 months after inoculation. Mite species diversity had a significant (P < 0.0001) positive linear relationship with culture age that explained about one-half the variance in species number. Nematophagous mite densities rose and then fell with culture age. In root-knot cultures > 3-months-old, mite densities often exceeded 1,000 mites/liter. Twelve species of nematophagous fungi also were isolated from greenhouse nematode cultures. PMID:19279841
Walter, D E; Kaplan, D T; Davis, E L
A uniform system of genetic nomenclature for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is described. Convenient ways are specified to designate genes, mutations and strains, and to attempt to avoid name duplications.
H. Robert Horvitz; Sydney Brenner; Jonathan Hodgkin; Robert K. Herman
Abstract The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems.
Adams, Byron J.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Broos, Emma; Knox, Matthew A.
The history, ecology, and biology of the Bursaphelenchus Monochamus complex in North America are reviewed. The pine wood nematode (B. xylophilus) is a secondary associate of native conifers and the most common mode of transmission is during oviposition of...
L. D. Dwinell W. R. Nickle
The ability of the pine wood nematode,Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a pathogen that causes pine wilt disease, to kill cortical cells of Japanese black pine,Pinus thunbergii, during early development of the disease was conjectured to be a function of nematode developmental stage. A tangential segment\\u000a of bark was removed from a 2-cm-long current-year stem. The cortex-exposed segments with cut cortical resin canals
Kyoko Ishida; Taizo Hogetsu
Changes taking place in the communities of soil nematodes of an artificially sown meadow under the impact of annually applied\\u000a mineral fertilizers have been studied in a field experiment for nine years. It is shown that changes in the species composition,\\u000a trophic structure, and numbers of nematodes from different genera depend on the fertilizer applied and on the competitiveness\\u000a of
L. I. Gruzdeva; E. M. Matveeva; T. E. Kovalenko
A healthy soil ecosystem is essential for nutrient cycling and energy conversion, and the impact of exogenous genes from genetically modified crops had aroused wide concerns. Phytase transgenic corn (i. e., the inbred line BVLA430101) was issued a bio-safety certificate on 27 September 2009 in China, which could improve the efficiency of feed utilization, reduce environmental pollution caused by animal manure. In this study, the abundance of trophic groups, community structure and ecological indices of soil nematodes were studied over the growing cycle of phytase transgenic corn (ab. transgenic corn) and control conventional parental corn (ab. control corn) in the field. Totally 29 and 26 nematode genera were isolated from transgenic corn and control corn fields, respectively. The abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators, the total number of soil nematodes, and the Shannon index (H) were significantly greater under transgenic corn than under control corn, while the opposite trend was found for the relative abundance of herbivores and the maturity index (Sigma MI) of soil nematodes. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not detect any significant effects of transgenic corn on the composition and abundance of nematode trophic groups and ecological indices of soil nematodes. Furthermore, the Student-T test showed that the abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators and the total number of soil nematodes during the milk-ripe stage were significant higher in the transgenic corn field than in the control corn field. The effects of transgenic corn planting on soil nematodes might be related to the increase in the nitrogen content of field soil under transgenic corn compared to control corn. PMID:25011306
Zhao, Zong-Chao; Su, Ying; Mou, Wen-Ya; Liu, Man-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Fa-Jun
Nematodes of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis genera are used as agents in insect biocontrol programs. They are associated with specific bacteria which are also involved in the mechanism of pathogenicity and which are consumed by nematodes as living food. S. feltiae has various developmental stages in its life cycle, including four juvenile stages, adults and the free living form. During mating, males coil themselves around the female, which is around 1 cm long. Successful commercialization of nematode-bacteria biocontrol products depends on the ability to produce sufficient quantities of these products at competitive prices for a full pest control program. This could be feasible if high cell density submerged cultures are designed and implemented; however, major problems related to nematodes mass production in a bioreactor remain unsolved due to the lack of knowledge about the physiological aspects of the nematode, bacteria and nematode-bacteria association, interaction between the three phases present in the bioreactor (liquid, gas, nematodes-bacteria), possibility of mating under hydrodynamic stress conditions, etc. We have found that the two most important engineering aspects to take into account the mass propagation of nematodes are oxygen transfer rate and hydrodynamics to allow mating and to avoid mechanical damage of juveniles in stage 2. This article focuses on several aspects related to the fermentation system such as kinetics of growth, shear stress, hydrodynamics fields in the bioreactor and oxygen demand. Also, results published by other groups, together with those of our own, will be discussed in relation to the main challenges found during the fermentation process. PMID:14499123
de la Torre, Mayra
Transgenic nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans strain PC72), carrying a stress-inducible reporter gene (Escherichia coli?-galactosidase) under the control of a C. eleganshsp16 heat-shock promoter, have been used to monitor toxicant responses both in water and soil. Because these transgenic nematodes respond both to heat and toxic chemicals by synthesising an easily detectable reporter product, they afford a useful preliminary screen for stress
Clare Daniells; Ian Duce; David Thomas; Philip Sewell; John Tattersall; David de Pomerai
The smokybrown cockroach Periplaneta fuliginosa has spread all over the world, and is now one of the most undesired invasive alien pests in Japan. Because cockroaches are generally infected by thelastomatid nematodes, they are being distributed around the world with their parasitic nematodes. Nothing is known about parasitic nematode species in P. fuliginosa differences, or similarity of the parasite's population structures between the different countries of the host cockroaches. Here we investigated the P. fuliginosa invasive to Japan and found that 100% of individuals were infected with one nematode species. According to the morphology and the sequence of the D2/D3 expansion segment of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene, we identified the parasite as Leidynema appendiculata. This nematode reproduced by haplodiploidy and its developmental timing under various conditions is quite divergent. Their population in the hindgut of P. fuliginosa was controlled with a few adult females and a male. This is the first report of the thelastomatid nematode isolated from the smokybrown cockroach, and is the basis for our future research examining the origin, distribution route and immigration history of the cockroach and the impact of L. appendiculata on native Japanese cockroach species. PMID:24827090
Ozawa, Sota; Vicente, Cláudia S L; Sato, Kazuki; Yoshiga, Toyoshi; Kanzaki, Natsumi; Hasegawa, Koichi
Cryopreservation protocols based on slow freezing or vitrification often result in cell injury due to ice formation, cell dehydration and/or toxic concentrations of cryoprotectant (CPA). In this study, we present a cryopreservation technique based on low, non-toxic concentrations of cryoprotectants (? 2-4M) combined with a rapid cooling rate in the liquid nitrogen phase (-196°C). Protocols for successfully cryopreserving the plant parasitic nematodes Globodera tabacum tabacum, Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne incognita were developed, as demonstrated by the high survival rates and reproducibility of cyst and root-knot nematode species post-cryostorage. This approach for effective cryopreservation of viable plant-parasitic nematodes was developed by inducing an "apparent vitrification" by rapid cooling of the microscopic samples in less than 2M of cryoprotectant. The extremely thin structure (15-20 ?m width, 350-400 ?m length) of these nematodes, in combination with a direct and rapid exposure to LN(2), likely prevents the formation of damaging ice crystals. Moreover, this procedure results in viability of both short- and long-cryostorage samples. These techniques could potentially be used for the near-indefinite preservation of thousands of different nematode species. A cryo-nematode collection produced in our lab is available and presented here. PMID:21524646
Irdani, Tiziana; Scotto, Cristina; Roversi, Pio Federico
Dispersal and gene flow determine connectivity among populations, and can be studied through population genetics and phylogeography. We here review the results of such a framework for free-living marine nematodes. Although field experiments have illustrated substantial dispersal in nematodes at ecological time scales, analysis of the genetic diversity illustrated the importance of priority effects, founder effects and genetic bottlenecks for population structuring between patches <1 km apart. In contrast, only little genetic structuring was observed within an estuary (<50 km), indicating that these small scale fluctuations in genetic differentiation are stabilized over deeper time scales through extensive gene flow. Interestingly, nematode species with contrasting life histories (extreme colonizers vs persisters) or with different habitat preferences (algae vs sediment) show similar, low genetic structuring. Finally, historical events have shaped the genetic pattern of marine nematodes and show that gene flow is restricted at large geographical scales. We also discuss the presence of substantial cryptic diversity in marine nematodes, and end with highlighting future important steps to further unravel nematode evolution and diversity.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is one etiological agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This zoonosis is frequently found in Asia and, more recently, in North America, Caribbean Island and northeastern of South America. Until now, research of A. cantonensis in southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of Brazil has been found natural infections only terrestrial and freshwater intermediate snail hosts (Achatina fulica, Sarasinula marginata, Subulina octona, Bradybaena similaris and Pomacea lineate). In this study, we examined the occurrence of helminthes in the synantropic rodents Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus in northern Brazil, focusing on the role of these species as vertebrate hosts of A. cantonensis and A. fulica as intermediate host have found natural. Thirty specimens of R. rattus and twelve of R. norvegicus were collected in the Guamá and Jurunas neighborhoods of the city of Belém, in the Brazilian state of Pará, of which almost 10% harbored adult worms in their pulmonary arteries. Sympatric A. fulica were found to be infected by L(3) larvae, which experimental infection confirmed to be A. cantonensis. Natural infection of snails and rodents with A. cantonensis was confirmed through morphological and morphometrical analyses of adults and larvae using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and molecular sequences of partial Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I. Phylogenetic analyses showed that A. cantonensis isolated from Pará, Brazil is similar to Japan isolate; once these specimens produced a single haplotype with high bootstrap support with Rio de Janeiro isolate. This study confirms that A. cantonensis is now endemic in northern Brazil, and that R. rattus and R. norvegicus act as natural definitive hosts, and A. fulica as the intermediate host of the parasite in this region. PMID:23072946
Moreira, V L C; Giese, E G; Melo, F T V; Simões, R O; Thiengo, S C; Maldonado, A; Santos, J N
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common infectious agent causing eosinophilic meningitis and is present in Taiwan, Thailand and the Pacific islands. Clinical symptoms vary within different endemic regions, and their severity is probably dependent on the number of ingested parasites and the diversity among strains. The experimentally definitive host is the rat, and non-permissive hosts are certain mammals such as humans and mice. In this study, the partial gene sequences of two A. cantonensis strains isolated from five different regions in Taiwan were selected and molecularly analyzed. The internal transcribed spacer gene and cytochrome-c oxidase subunit I gene sequences of the Hualien (H) strain of A. cantonensis differed from those of the Pingtung (P) strain and the other three strains by 19% and 11%, respectively. We analyzed the infectivity, fecundity, and development of the H and P strain in rats and host pathogenicity in mice inoculated with both strains. The number of the emerged first-stage larvae, adult recovery, and average length of adults in Sprague-Dawley rats significantly differed between rats inoculated with the H and P strain. Young adult recovery, average length of young adults, eosinophil counts in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), glutathione peroxidase concentration, levels of reactive oxygen species as well as malondialdehyde concentration in the CSF, and the survival of mice significantly differed between BALB/c mice inoculated with the H and P strain. The H strain of A. cantonensis had lower infectivity, delayed fecundity, and poor development in rats, and caused milder pathology and lower mortality in mice than the P strain. These data clearly indicate that the H strain of A. cantonensis is a pathogenically distinct strain with lower infectivity to its definitive host, and causing mild pathogenic symptoms to its non-permissive host. PMID:24503290
Lee, June-Der; Chung, Li-Yu; Wang, Lian-Chen; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wang, Jiun-Jye; Tu, Hung-Pin; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Yen, Chuan-Min
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are symbiotically associated with bacteria in the genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, respectively. The symbiotic bacteria produce a chemical compound(s) that deterred ants from feeding on nematode-killed insects (i.e., cadavers) and has been previously referred to as an Ant Deterrent Factor (ADF). We studied the response of different arthropod scavenger species which included the ant Lepisiota frauenfeldi, cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, wasps Vespa orientalis and Paravespula sp., and calliphorid fly Chrysomya albiceps, to ADF. These scavengers (ants, crickets, and wasps) were exposed to cadavers with and without the nematode/bacterium complex or to Photorhabdus luminescens cultures of different ages on different substrates. The ant, cricket, and wasp species did not feed on nematode-killed insects containing the nematode/bacterium complex that were 2 days old and older but fed on 1-day-old nematode-killed and freeze -killed insects. Crickets consumed 2- to 7-day-old axenic nematode-killed insects, 1-, 4-, and 5-day-old insects killed by the bacterium, Serratia marcescens, and freeze-killed, putrid insects that were up to 10 days old. The crickets only partially consumed 2- and 3-day-old insects killed by S. marcescens which differed significantly from the 1-, 4-, and 5-day-old killed insects by this bacterium. Ants fed only on 5% sucrose solution (control) and 1- to 3- day old cultures of P. luminescens containing 5% sucrose but not on older cultures of P. luminescens. Wasps did not feed on meat treated with P. luminescens supernatant, whereas they fed on meat treated with Escherichia coli supernatant and control meat. Calliphorid flies did not oviposit on meat treated with P. luminescens supernatant but did oviposit on untreated meat. Based on the response of these scavengers, the chemical compound(s) responsible for this deterrent activity should be called "scavenger deterrent factor" (SDF). PMID:22446508
Gulcu, Baris; Hazir, Selcuk; Kaya, Harry K
Accumulation of the phytoalexin glyceollin I in roots of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) following inoculation with race 1 of Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), was determined in a whole-root system by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in a cross-section system by a radioimmunoassay procedure. In the whole-root system, roots were harvested from controls and nematode-inoculated seedlings immediately after inoculation and at 2-day intervals for 8 days. The roots were extracted with ethanol, and the extracts were subjected to HPLC. Glyceollin I was not detected in roots of either resistant cultivar Centennial or susceptible cultivar Ransom immediately after inoculation with SCN but steadily accumulated in large quantity in roots of Centennial. Accumulation of glyceollin I in roots of Ransom following nematode inoculation was minimal. In the cross-section system, 3-day-old soybean seedlings were inoculated with juvenile nematodes, and root segments containing a single nematode were dissected from inoculated plants at 4-hour intervals under a dissecting microscope. The root segments were embedded in ice and cut into 16-micrometer sections with a cryostat microtome. The spatial and temporal distribution of glyceollin I was determined with a radioimmunoassay procedure specific for the phytoalexin. Glyceollin I was found to accumulate in tissues immediately adjacent to the head region of the nematode in Centennial but not in Ransom. Glyceollin I was detected 8 hours after nematode penetration, and the concentration increased steadily up to 0.3 micromole per milliliter in Centennial 24 hours after penetration.
Huang, Jeng-Sheng; Barker, Kenneth R.
Cell size and type may affect availability of bacteria for consumption by bacterivorous nematodes in the soil and in culture. This study explored the bacterial preferences of the bacterivorous soil nematode Cephalobus brevicauda (Cephalobidae) by comparing bactgeria isolated dir...
Intestinal nematodes of the Aythyini ducks in Western Pomerania. Biology, including ecology, of the Aythyini renders them particularly attractive subjects of parasitological studies. The tribe is represented in Poland by 4 nesting species; two of them, Aythya fuligula and A. ferina, are very abundant game birds. However, their helminth fauna, including nematodes, is still very poorly known. This study was aimed at quantifying the structure of parasitic intestinal nematodes of the Western Pomeranian Aythyini. The study, performed in 1999-2004, involved a total of 71 ducks representing 3 species: A. ferina, A. fuligula, and A. marila. The nematodes, isolated from the intestines, were fixed in 75% ethyl alcohol and cleared in lactic acid. Among the 9668 helminth individuals found, 589 (6.1%) represented the phylum Nematoda. They were found in 57 ducks (80.3% of all the ducks examined). The nematodes belonged to the following 4 families: Amidostomatidae, Tetrameridae, Acuariidae, and Trichuridae. They were identified as representing 8 species, 2 genera (Amidostomoides sp. and Tetrameres sp.), and 1 subfamily (Capillariinae gen. sp.); in addition, 1 damaged individual could be identified as a nematode only. The highest prevalence (57.8%), at mean intensity (4.8 inds), was typical of Amidostomoides petrovi (Shakhtahtinskaya, 1956) Lomakin, 1991, while Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1914 occurred with the highest intensity (15.1 inds) and 12.7% prevalence. Nematodes of the subfamily Capillariinae occurred with a fairly high intensity (averaging 10.0 inds) as well, although their prevalence was not high, either (4.2% of all ducks were infected). The nematofauna studied was clearly dominated by A. petrovi, T. fissispina, and Capillaria anatis (Schrank, 1790). The total frequency of occurrence of those species was close to 80%; their dominance indices exceeded the threshold value of 0.1 and amounted to 1.6 (the dominant A. petrovi), 0.2, and 0.5 (the subdominants T. fissispina and C. anatis, respectively). The three species listed occurred with the highest mean density (2.8; 1.9; and 1.8 nematode per duck examined). No age- (adult vs. immature) or sex- (males vs. females) related differences in the quantitative structure of the parasitic Aythyini nematodes were observed. PMID:16838626
Kavetska, Katarzyna M
Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), is a subterranean root pathogen that causes the most damaging disease of soybean in the USA. A novel nematode virus genome, soybean cyst nematode virus 5 (SbCNV-5), was identified in RNA sequencing data from SCN eggs and second-stage juveniles. The SbCNV-5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA helicase domains had homology to pestiviruses in the family Flaviviridae, suggesting that SbCNV-5 is a positive-polarity ssRNA virus. SbCNV-5 RNA was present in all nematode developmental stages, indicating a transovarial mode of transmission, but is also potentially sexually transmitted via the male. SbCNV-5 was common in SCN laboratory cultures and in nematode populations isolated from the field. Transmission electron microscopy of sections from a female SCN showed virus particles budding from the endoplasmic reticulum and in endosomes. The size of the viral genome was 19?191 nt, which makes it much larger than other known pestiviruses. Additionally, the presence of a methyltransferase in the SbCNV-5 genome is atypical for a pestivirus. When cDNA sequences were mapped to the genome of SbCNV-5, a disproportionate number aligned to the 3' NTR, suggesting that SbCNV-5 produces a subgenomic RNA, which was confirmed by RNA blot analysis. As subgenomic RNAs and methyltransferases do not occur in pestiviruses, we conclude that SbCNV-5 is a new flavivirus infecting SCNs. PMID:24643877
Bekal, Sadia; Domier, Leslie L; Gonfa, Biruk; McCoppin, Nancy K; Lambert, Kris N; Bhalerao, Kaustubh
In the three decades since the FMRFamide peptide was isolated from the mollusk Macrocallista nimbosa, structurally similar peptides sharing a C-terminal RFamide motif have been identified across the animal kingdom. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) represent the largest known family of neuropeptides in invertebrates. In the phylum Nematoda, at least 32 flp-genes are classified, making the FLP system of nematodes unusually complex. The diversity of the nematode FLP complement is most extensively mapped in Caenorhabditis elegans, where over 70 FLPs have been predicted. FLPs have shown to be expressed in the majority of the 302 C. elegans neurons including interneurons, sensory neurons, and motor neurons. The vast expression of FLPs is reflected in the broad functional repertoire of nematode FLP signaling, including neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory effects on locomotory activity, reproduction, feeding, and behavior. In contrast to the many identified nematode FLPs, only few peptides have been assigned a receptor and there is the need to clarify the pathway components and working mechanisms of the FLP signaling network. Here, we review the diversity, distribution, and functions of FLPs in nematodes.
Peymen, Katleen; Watteyne, Jan; Frooninckx, Lotte; Schoofs, Liliane; Beets, Isabel
Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria are widespread in arthropods and are also present in filarial nematodes. Almost all filarial species so far examined have been found to harbor these endosymbionts. The sequences of only three genes have been published for nematode Wolbachia (i.e., the genes coding for the proteins FtsZ and catalase and for 16S rRNA). Here we present the sequences of the genes coding for the Wolbachia surface protein (WSP) from the endosymbionts of eight species of filaria. Complete gene sequences were obtained from the endosymbionts of two different species, Dirofilaria immitis and Brugia malayi. These sequences allowed us to design general primers for amplification of the wsp gene from the Wolbachia of all filarial species examined. For these species, partial WSP sequences (about 600 base pairs) were obtained with these primers. Phylogenetic analysis groups these nematode wsp sequences into a coherent cluster. Within the nematode cluster, wsp-based Wolbachia phylogeny matches a previous phylogeny obtained with ftsZ gene sequences, with a good consistency of the phylogeny of hosts (nematodes) and symbionts (Wolbachia). In addition, different individuals of the same host species (Dirofilaria immitis and Wuchereria bancrofti) show identical wsp gene sequences. PMID:10856373
Bazzocchi, C; Jamnongluk, W; O'Neill, S L; Anderson, T J; Genchi, C; Bandi, C
All nematodes possess an external structure known as the cuticle, which is crucial for their development and survival. This structure is composed primarily of collagen, which is secreted from the underlying hypodermal cells. Extensive studies using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrate that formation of the cuticle requires the activity of an extensive range of enzymes. Enzymes are required both pre-secretion, for synthesis of component proteins such as collagen, and post-secretion, for removal of the previous developmental stage cuticle, in a process known as moulting or exsheathment. The excretion/secretion products of numerous parasitic nematodes contain metallo-, serine and cysteine proteases, and these proteases are conserved across the nematode phylum and many are involved in the moulting/exsheathment process. This review highlights the enzymes required for cuticle formation, with a focus on the post-secretion moulting events. Where orthologues of the C. elegans enzymes have been identified in parasitic nematodes these may represent novel candidate targets for future drug/vaccine development.
Page, Antony P.; Stepek, Gillian; Winter, Alan D.; Pertab, David
SUMMARY Transgenesis is an essential tool for assessing gene function in any organism, and it is especially crucial for parasitic nematodes given the dwindling armamentarium of effective anthelmintics and the consequent need to validate essential molecular targets for new drugs and vaccines. Two of the major routes of gene delivery evaluated to date in parasitic nematodes, bombardment with DNA-coated microparticles and intragonadal microinjection of DNA constructs, draw upon experience with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Bombardment has been used to transiently transfect Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi and Litomosoides sigmodontis with both RNA and DNA. Microinjection has been used to achieve heritable transgenesis in Strongyloides stercoralis, S. ratti and Parastrongyloides trichosuri and for additional transient expression studies in B. malayi. A third route of gene delivery revisits a classic method involving DNA transfer facilitated by calcium-mediated permeabilization of recipient cells in developing B. malayi larvae and results in transgene inheritance through host and vector passage. Assembly of microinjected transgenes into multi-copy episomal arrays likely results in their transcriptional silencing in some parasitic nematodes. Methods such as transposon-mediated transgenesis that favour low-copy number chromosomal integration may remedy this impediment to establishing stable transgenic lines. In the future, stable transgenesis in parasitic nematodes could enable loss-of-function approaches by insertional mutagenesis, in situ expression of inhibitory double-stranded RNA or boosting RNAi susceptibility through heterologous expression of dsRNA processing and transport proteins.
LOK, JAMES B.
Root knot nematodes are causing serious losses in protected cultivation fields in the West Mediterranean region of Turkey. Correct and confident identification of the plant parasitic nematodes is important for vegetable growing and breeding. Therefore, ninety-five populations of plant parasitic nematodes were collected from regional greenhouses. Previously described species-specific primers were used to identify Meloidogyne populations. The present study indicated that SEC-1F/SEC-1R and INCK14F-INCK14R primers for identifying of M. incognita, Fjav/Rjav and DJF/DJR primers for M. javanica and Far/Rar for M. arenaria primers can be effective tools to identify the Turkish root-knot nematode species. Dissemination ratios of the population were 64.2%, 28.4% and 7.3% for Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria, respectively. The results showed that M. incognita was the prominent root-knot nematode species in the West Mediterranean coastal areas of Turkey.
Sogut, Mehmet Ali
Root knot nematodes are causing serious losses in protected cultivation fields in the West Mediterranean region of Turkey. Correct and confident identification of the plant parasitic nematodes is important for vegetable growing and breeding. Therefore, ninety-five populations of plant parasitic nematodes were collected from regional greenhouses. Previously described species-specific primers were used to identify Meloidogyne populations. The present study indicated that SEC-1F/SEC-1R and INCK14F-INCK14R primers for identifying of M. incognita, Fjav/Rjav and DJF/DJR primers for M. javanica and Far/Rar for M. arenaria primers can be effective tools to identify the Turkish root-knot nematode species. Dissemination ratios of the population were 64.2%, 28.4% and 7.3% for Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria, respectively. The results showed that M. incognita was the prominent root-knot nematode species in the West Mediterranean coastal areas of Turkey. PMID:22661785
Devran, Zübeyir; Sö?üt, Mehmet Ali
Many nematode-trapping fungi capture nematodes using an adhesive present on specific capture organs (for review see ref. 1). Until recently, the mechanism of adhesion was completely unknown. In the case of Arthrobotrys oligospora, one of the most common nematophagous fungi, nematodes are trapped in three-dimensional structures of the adhesive network type (Fig. 1a). When a suspension of nematodes is added
Birgit Nordbring-Hertz; Bo Mattiasson
Arthrobotrys conoides Drechsler,Arthrobotrys oligospora Fressenius andMonacrosporium rutgeriensis R. C. Cooke, Pramer belong to the peculiar group of predactious fungi which trap and kill nematodes. We have found that these\\u000a cultures produce nematode-attracting and nematicidal substances the production of which is potentiated in the presence of\\u000a nematodes. Our method of nematode attraction assay is also described.
J. Balan; L. Križková; P. Nemec; V. Vollek
Application of organic soil amendments is a traditional control method for plant–parasitic nematodes and it is considered a part of nematode-management programs. A variety of organic amendments, such as animal and green manures, compost, nematicidal plants and proteinous wastes, are used for this purpose, but nematode control efficacy is not always satisfactory. Elucidation of nematode-control mechanisms in amended soil may
This paper reports the distribution of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) in the beetle of Monochamus alternatus by dissection under a microscope and the nematode transmission way exiting the body of the beetle by its mating and feeding.\\u000a The results showed a small number of nematodes in the beetle tracheae; 87.9% nematodes distributed in the coelom of the beetle;\\u000a numerous
Screening forest soil nematodes for associated fungi by PCR, and sequencing the internal transcribed spacer detected the human, and other mammals, patho- genic fungus Malassezia in association with soil nema- todes for the first time in Europe. Malassezia restricta and M. globosa were associated with the nematode genus Malenchus sp., whereas another nematode, Tylolaimopho- rus typicus hosted only M. restricta.
Carsten Renker; Jrn Alphei; Franois Buscot
Arthrobotrys oligospora captures and digests nematodes by means of adhesive networks. These traps are formed in the presence of nematodes but can also be induced by low nutrient media containing amino acids. Influence of phosphate on growth and development of A. oligospora was studied in a liquid culture system known to allow heavy trap formation. Substrate-induced but not nematode-induced trap,
BACKGROUND: Nematodes are the dominant soil animals in Antarctic Dry Valleys and are capable of surviving desiccation and freezing in an anhydrobiotic state. Genes induced by desiccation stress have been successfully enumerated in nematodes; however we have little knowledge of gene regulation by Antarctic nematodes which can survive multiple environmental stresses. To address this problem we investigated the genetic responses
Bishwo N Adhikari; Diana H Wall; Byron J Adams
Results: The soil contained 28 different nematode taxa equally distributed amongst the three trophic groups. Total myco\\/bacteriophagous (BPN) and predatory nematodes (PN) counts showed no obvious trends related to differences in plant species or to the application of P. chlamydosporia or M. incognita (Fig. 1). Total plant parasitic nematodes (PPN), however, increased in both the presence of the host plants,
Qudsia Tahseen; Ian M. Clark; Simon D. Atkins; Brian R. Kerry; Penny R. Hirsch
We studied changes in populations of mites, nematodes, bacteria, and fungi in buried creosote bush litter treated with selected inhibitors. Elimination of microarthropods (primarily tydeid mites) resulted in increased numbers of bacteriophagic nematodes and reduction in numbers of bac- teria; elimination of both nematodes and microarthropods resulted in increased numbers of bacteria compared to untreated controls. Fungal grazing mites, Pyemotidae,
PERSEU F. SANTOS; JANICE PHILLIPS; WALTER G. WHITFORD
The commercially available parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is an effective biocontrol agent for slugs and particularly Deroceras reticulatum, a widespread pest species. Use of the nematode is currently limited by cost and it may be that by developing a fuller understanding of the ecology and behaviour of this nematode, more cost effective application strategies can be developed. We investigated the
Keith MacMillan; Solveig Haukeland; Robbie Rae; Iain Young; John Crawford; Simona Hapca; Michael Wilson
Studying the mode of infection of a biocontrol agent is important in order to assess its efficiency. The mode and severity of infection of nematodes by a soil saprophyte Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson and a knob-producing nematode trapping fungus Monacrosporium lysipagum (Drechsler) Subram were studied under laboratory conditions using microscopy. Infection of stationary stages of nematodes by P. lilacinus was
Alamgir Khan; Keith L. Williams; Helena K. M. Nevalainen
Faecal samples from 286 adult dogs and 159 pups and dust and soil samples from 32 dog breeding kennels in the Netherlands were examined for nematode eggs. Dogs that shed nematode eggs were found in 41% of the kennels. The kennel prevalence of nematode infection of adult dogs was 33%. The kennel prevalence for infection of adult dogs and pups
P. A. M. Overgaauw; J. H. Boersema
The cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm, Auburn 634 and others derived from this source, contain resistance genes that effectively inhibit reproduction of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood, race 3). Although infective root knot nematode juveniles penetrate the resistant cotton lines in numbers similar to susceptible lines, nematode development is arrested in the resistant lines soon after
Franklin E. Callahan; Johnie N. Jenkins; Roy G. Creech; Gary W. Lawrence
In this paper, we present methods to identify harmful Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Bx) nematode and harmless Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (Bm) nematode, both of them living in the pine wood. We employ the terahertz (THz) spectroscopic technology to distinguish the Bx and Bm nematodes, i.e., terahertz domain spectroscopy (TDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). We measure the transmission characteristics of the deoxyribose
Yunfei Liu; Ling Jiang; Jiajin Tan; Zhenwei Zhang; Cunlin Zhang
We have characterized a family of GHF45 cellulases from the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The absence of such genes from other nematodes and their similarity to fungal genes suggests that they may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from fungi. The cell wall degrading enzymes of other plant parasitic nematodes may have been acquired by HGT from
Taisei Kikuchi; John T Jones; Takuya Aikawa; Hajime Kosaka; Nobuo Ogura
New records for nematode species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established and new systematical arrangements proposed. Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 from the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena is referred for the first time in South America as a new host record. Procamallanus (S.) pereirai Annereaux, 1946, from the spiral valve of Raja castelnaui is reported parasitizing an elasmobranch host. Nematode larvae of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are listed from the stomach and spiral valves of several hosts. Anisakidae larvae previously referred in Brazil in the genus Phocanema should be reallocated in Pseudoterranova. Nematodes of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranchs in Brazil. PMID:11285478
Knoff, M; de São Clemente, S C; Pinto, R M; Gomes, D C
The principal health problem in small ruminants is helminthiasis and the rapid development of nematode resistance to anthelminthics has limited the success of control in several countries, stimulating the search for alternatives. In this study, extracts of immature fruits of the mango Mangifera indica L. var Ubá were evaluated for inhibition of larval development and fecal egg count reduction in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the metabolites identified. Aqueous extracts of immature fruits at 100 mg ml(-1) showed 100 % inhibition of larval development. The LC(90) of the extract was 35.9 mg ml(-1) and the in vivo anthelminthic efficacy at 0.740 g kg(-1) (BW, orally) was 53 %. The identification of larvae showed that 99.8 % were Haemonchus spp. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that this fruit could assist ovine nematode control. PMID:22773010
Nery, Patrícia S; Nogueira, Flávia A; Oliveira, Neide J F; Martins, Ernane R; Duarte, Eduardo R
Chronic helminth infections are associated with modulation of host cellular immune responses, presumably to prolong parasite survival within the mammalian host. This phenomenon is attributed, at least in part, to the elaboration of parasite molecules, including orthologs of host cytokines and receptors, at the host–parasite interface. This review describes recent progress in the characterization of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) orthologs from parasitic nematodes. The roles of these molecules in parasite developmental biology and pathogenesis are discussed. Further knowledge of the species-specific activities and three-dimensional structures of human and parasitic nematode MIF molecules should make them ideal targets for drug- and/or vaccine-based strategies aimed at nematode disease control.
Vermeire, Jon J.; Cho, Yoonsang; Lolis, Elias; Bucala, Richard; Cappello, Michael
The free-living stages of bursate nematodes are affected in different ways by meteorological factors. The eggs and 1st and 2nd stage larvae live in the feces, and these factors act on them through the feces. The embryo in the egg is protected by the eggshell. The 1st and 2nd stage larvae feed on micro-organisms, and are affected by the species of microorganisms and their metabolic products. The 3rd stage, infective larvae do not feed but leave the feces and migrate onto the vegetation, where they are more directly affected by meteorological factors than the earlier stages. They are partially protected by their sheath. The degree day concept can be used to predict the length of time required for development to the infective stage. Under constant conditions at 100% relative humidity and 20 35° C, Trichostrongylus colubriformis requires 90 115 degree days (temperature times number of days) to reach the infective stage, and Haemonchus contortus requires 95 144 degree days. The great majority of eggs dies within the 1st day after reaching pasture, altho most of them would develop to the infective stage in the laboratory. Only 0.03% of H. contortus and T. colubriformis eggs placed on pasture were recovered from the vegetation as infective larvae. When larvae of H. contortus were placed on pasture, 1.6% (about 50 times as many but still only aout 1/30 of their potential) were later recovered. The cause of this die-off is unknown. Two types of potential worm burden prediction must be made-general and specific. The former can be made on the basis of temperature and moisture, but the latter requires information on many modifying factors.
Levine, N. D.
An investigation was made into the epidemiology of nematode infections of sheep in two districts of Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. We used two approaches--long-term monitoring of identified sheep for nematode infection and abattoir or market survey for analysis. In the first monitoring regime, we used 80 lambs [40 sheep (20 per sex) from each district (Dedo and Yebu)] averaging 4-5 months of age. Faecal egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV) and body weight changes were monitored over a period of 1 year. Additionally, faecal samples were collected (on a weekly basis) from sheep brought to abattoir/market for 1 year to monitor faecal egg counts. The nematode parasite burden, as judged by FEC and PCV, was generally low indicating that the climatic conditions are not conducive to the development and survival of nematode eggs and the free-living stages; hence, little transmission occurred. In the experimental flocks, the highest FEC and lower PCV were recorded during the long rainy season (June to September) with peak in August and September. Faecal samples collected from abattoir/market also followed the same trend. Results from experimental sheep indicated that location had a significant (P < 0.01) effect on FEC, PCV and average daily body weight gain. The FEC and PCV for sheep in Yebu (mid-altitude) district were 126 +/- 3.33 and 30.6 +/- 0.26, whereas the values for Dedo (highland) were 93 +/- 4.35 and 32.0 +/- 0.21, respectively. The results indicate that the highland areas are comparatively less favourable to the survival and development of nematodes. Female lambs had lower FEC and higher PCV compared to male lambs (P < 0.05). The overall nematode parasite challenge in the area, however, is low. We, therefore, recommend rotational grazing management combined with monitoring parasite load and selective treatment to reduce productivity loses and pasture contamination. PMID:19882224
Haile, Aynalem; Gashaw, Abebaw; Tolemariam, Taye; Tibbo, Markos
Nematode parasitism genes encode secreted effector proteins that play a role in host infection. A homologue of the expressed Hg4F01 gene of the root-parasitic soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, encoding an annexin-like effector, was isolated in the related Heterodera schachtii to facilitate use of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model host. Hs4F01 and its protein product were exclusively expressed within the dorsal oesophageal gland secretory cell in the parasitic stages of H. schachtii. Hs4F01 had a 41% predicted amino acid sequence identity to the nex-1 annexin of C. elegans and 33% identity to annexin-1 (annAt1) of Arabidopsis, it contained four conserved domains typical of the annexin family of calcium and phospholipid binding proteins, and it had a predicted signal peptide for secretion that was present in nematode annexins of only Heterodera spp. Constitutive expression of Hs4F01 in wild-type Arabidopsis promoted hyper-susceptibility to H. schachtii infection. Complementation of an AnnAt1 mutant by constitutive expression of Hs4F01 reverted mutant sensitivity to 75mM NaCl, suggesting a similar function of the Hs4F01 annexin-like effector in the stress response by plant cells. Yeast two-hybrid assays confirmed a specific interaction between Hs4F01 and an Arabidopsis oxidoreductase member of the 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase family, a type of plant enzyme demonstrated to promote susceptibility to oomycete pathogens. RNA interference assays that expressed double-stranded RNA complementary to Hs4F01 in transgenic Arabidopsis specifically decreased parasitic nematode Hs4F01 transcript levels and significantly reduced nematode infection levels. The combined data suggest that nematode secretion of an Hs4F01 annexin-like effector into host root cells may mimic plant annexin function during the parasitic interaction.
Patel, Nrupali; Hamamouch, Noureddine; Li, Chunying; Hewezi, Tarek; Hussey, Richard S.; Baum, Thomas J.; Mitchum, Melissa G.; Davis, Eric L.
Bacteria associated with the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a pathogen of trees and the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD) may play a role in the disease. In order to evaluate their role (positive or negative to the tree), strains isolated from the track of nematodes from infected Pinus pinaster trees were screened, in vitro, for their nematicidal potential. The bacterial products, from strains more active in killing nematodes, were screened in order to identify and characterize the nematicidal agent. Forty-seven strains were tested and, of these, 21 strains showed capacity to produce extracellular products with nematicidal activity. All Burkholderia strains were non-toxic. In contrast, all Serratia strains except one exhibited high toxicity. Nematodes incubated with Serratia strains showed, by SEM observation, deposits of bacteria on the nematode cuticle. The most nematicidal strain, Serratia sp. A88copa13, produced proteases in the supernatant. The use of selective inhibitors revealed that a serine protease with 70 kDa was majorly responsible for the toxicity of the supernatant. This extracellular serine protease is different phylogenetically, in size and biochemically from previously described proteases. Nematicidal assays revealed differences in nematicidal activity of the proteases to different species of Bursaphelenchus, suggesting its usefulness in a primary screen of the nematodes. This study offers the basis for further investigation of PWD and brings new insights on the role bacteria play in the defense of pine trees against B. xylophilus. Understanding all the factors involved is important in order to develop strategies to control B. xylophilus dispersion. PMID:24244546
Paiva, Gabriel; Proença, Diogo Neves; Francisco, Romeu; Verissimo, Paula; Santos, Susana S; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel M O; Morais, Paula V
Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes.
Liu, Zheng; Griffin, Terry; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L.
Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes. PMID:24643451
Liu, Zheng; Griffin, Terry; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L
Background Live intraocular nematode is a rare occurrence. Nematode can migrate actively within the eye, creating visual symptoms and\\u000a damaging ocular tissue.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case presentation A 26-year old man presented with painless reduced vision of the left eye for one week duration. It was associated with floaters.\\u000a Visual acuity on the left eye was hand movement. Anterior segment examination was normal with normal
Munira Yusoff; Azma-Azalina Ahmad Alwi; Mariyani Mad Said; Sakinah Zakariah; Zulkifli Abdul Ghani; Embong Zunaina
Background Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Results Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100% control in some lines. Conclusions CG and nematode resistance gene stacking controlled CG and RLNs simultaneously in walnuts. Silencing genes encoding iaaM, ipt, and Pv010 decrease CG formation and RLNs populations in walnut. Beneficial plant genotype and phenotype changes are caused by co-transformation using A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes strains. Viable resistance against root lesion nematodes in walnut plants may be accomplished in the future using this gene stacking technology.
Endospore-forming bacteria, Paenibacillus spp., have recently been isolated in association with insect pathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis spp. Sporangia adhere to nematode infective juveniles (J3) and are carried with them into insects. Paenibacillus proliferates in the killed insect along with Heterorhabditis and its obligate bacterial symbiont, Photorhabdus, despite the antibiotic production of the latter. Nematode infective juveniles leave the insect cadaver with Paenibacillus sporangia attached. The specificity of the relationship between Paenibacillus and Heterorhabditis was investigated. Sporangia of nematode-associated Paenibacillus adhered to infective juveniles (but not other stages) of all Heterorhabditis species tested, and to infective juveniles of vertebrate parasitic Strongylida species, but not to a variety of other soil nematodes tested. Paenibacillus species that were not isolated from nematodes, but were phylogenetically close to the nematode-associated strains, did not adhere to Heterorhabditis, and they were also sensitive to Photorhabdus antibiotics in vitro, whereas the nematode-associated strains were not. Unusual longevity of the sporangium and resistance to Photorhabdus antibiotics may represent specific adaptations of the nematode-associated Paenibacillus strains to allow them to coexist with and be transported by Heterorhabditis. Adaptation to specific Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus strains is evident among the three nematode-associated Paenibacillus strains (each from a different nematode strain). Paenibacillus NEM1a and NEM3 each developed best in cadavers with the nematode from which it was isolated and not at all with the nematode associate of the other strain. Differences between nematode-associated Paenibacillus strains in cross-compatibility with the various Heterorhabditis strains in cadavers could not be explained by differential sensitivity to antibiotics produced by the nematodes' Photorhabdus symbionts in vitro. PMID:15692861
Enright, M R; Griffin, C T
Nematode community structure of the potato fields with different infection levels of potato cyst-forming nematode (PCN) such as 10, 30 and 214 cysts per 100 g of soil has been investigated. The influence of specialized parasite on nematode fauna and dominance character of different ecological-trophic groups were described. Parasitic nematode genera in natural meadow biocenosis and agrocenoses without PCN are Paratylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, and Helicotylenchus. It is established, that Paratylenchus nanus was the prevalent species among plant parasites at low infection level. Larvae of Globodera prevailed in the soil with middle and high infection levels and substituted individuals of other genera of parasitic nematodes. The fact of increase in number of hyphal-feeding nematode Aphelenchus avenae was revealed. PMID:19198175
Gruzdeva, L I; Suzhchuk, A A
Nematode-trapping fungi live mainly as saprobes in soil environments. When encountering nematodes, these fungi become 'carnivorous' and develop specialized trapping devices to attack their hosts for extracting nutrients, especially nitrogen source. Thus, nematode-trapping fungi are model organisms for understanding the molecular mechanism of the switch between saprobic and parasitic phases of pathogen life cycles. Arthrobotrys oligospora, one of the best-studied nematode-trapping fungi, mainly lives as a saprobe. In the presence of nematodes, A.oligospora enters the parasitic stage by forming adhesive reticulate traps to capture nematodes. In filamentous fungi, autophagy has been shown to be involved in morphogenesis and morphology. In this study, we demonstrate that autophagy is induced by nematodes during the early stage of trap formation in A.oligospora. Disruption of atg8 gene not only abolishes the nematode-induced autophagy, but also suppresses trap formation and reduces pathogenicity for nematodes. During the early stage of trap formation, the expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis is upregulated and the transcriptional activity of GCN4 is induced in A.oligospora, suggesting that nematodes induce autophagy probably by triggering intracellular amino acid starvation. Autophagy is thus crucial for trap formation in A.oligospora during infection of nematodes. PMID:23864564
Chen, Yuan-Li; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Zou, Cheng-Gang
Nematode infections are a serious constraint to pig production, especially where free range pig keeping is practiced. This study investigated the epidemiology of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. Three hundred and six pigs from 135 farms were sampled for faeces that were analysed for nematode eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces using the McMaster technique. The nematode eggs were also identified to genus and species based on morphology. A questionnaire on risk factors was also administered to the pig owners. The overall prevalence and mean nematode EPG were 84.2% and 2,355, respectively. The nematode eggs were identified as those belonging to Oesophagostomum spp. (75%), Strongyloides ransomi (37%), Ascaris suum (18%), Metastrongylus spp. (11%), Trichuris suis (7%) and Physocephalus sexalatus (3%). The prevalence of nematodes was positively correlated (p?0.05) with the amount of rainfall in the division of the pigs' origin (all nematodes except S. ransomi). The prevalence of nematodes was also associated with the age of the pigs. A lower burden of nematodes was associated (p?0.05) with a history of deworming (A. suum) and the provision of night housing (S. ransomi and Metastrongylus spp.). In conclusion, this study has provided information on nematode infections and the associated risk factors for free range pigs in Busia District, which can be used when implementing integrated control measures. PMID:21833678
Kagira, John Maina; Kanyari, Paul Njuki; Githigia, Samuel Maina; Maingi, Ndicho; Ng'ang'a, James Chege; Gachohi, John Mwangi
Plant parasitic nematodes can devastate walnut orchards and are able to remain dormant deep in the soil profile for several years, beyond where traditional pesticides can penetrate. The only effective pesticides are often very toxic to beneficial organisms and are detrimental to the environment; several of the most effective are in the process of being phased-out. To develop novel methods
Monica T. Britton; Charles A. Leslie; Gale H. McGranahan; Abhaya M. Dandekar
The nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora captures nematodes using adhesive polymers present on special hyphae (traps) which form a three-dimensional network. To understand further the adhesion mechanisms, A. oligospora surface polymers were visualized by transmisson electron microscopy and characterized by chemical methods. Both traps and hyphae were surrounded by a fibrillar layer of extracellular polymers which stained with ruthenium red. The
ANDERS TUNLID; TOMAS JOHANSSON; BIRGIT NORDBRING-HERTZ
Nematodes from the superfamily Ascaridoidea (families Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae) are worldwide distributed parasites. Their live cycles include many species of water invertebrates and teleostean fish as intermediate hosts, and fish, sea mammals or fish-eating birds being definitive hosts. Humans can be infected with some of these parasites after consumption of raw or wrongly processed fish. The parasitological investigations of fish (herring, cod and flatfish) from southern Baltic (ICES 24-26) provided in the years 80 and 90 showed their infection with larvae of several anisakid species: Anisakis simplex s. str., Contracaecum osculatum C and Hysterothylacium auctum. Sporadically Pseudoterranova decipiens and Raphidascaris acus were also found. Larvae of Anisakis simplex were noted mainly in herrings, C. osculatum primarily in cods and H. auctum in flounders. Additionally, preserved herrings (marinated, smoked) were also investigated and sporadically live larvae of A. simplex were found. The main etiological agent of human anisakidosis worldwide is A. simplex. Although the live cycle of this nematode cannot be completed in the Baltic Sea--this nematode is brought to the Baltic by infected herring migrating from the North Sea for spawning in coastal waters of the Southern Baltic--the prevalence and intensity of infection with larvae of this nematode species were the highest in fish investigated by us. The results obtained suggest the possibility of the human infection with A. simplex larvae in Poland. PMID:16457379
Szostakowska, Beata; Myjak, Przemys?aw; Wyszy?ski, Miros?aw; Pietkiewicz, Halina; Rokicki, Jerzy
We report the results of a two-year study in the Svisloch River (Minsk, Belarus) on the dynamics of infection in Dreissena polymorpha by nematodes and three ciliate species Conchophthirus acuminatus, Ophryoglena sp., and Ancistrumina limnica. Although these endosymbionts were present in most of the samples, their prevalence and infection intensity differed significantly. C. acuminatus and A. limnica infection intensities in
Alexander Y. Karatayev; Sergey E. Mastitsky; Lyubov E. Burlakova; Daniel P. Molloy; Galina G. Vezhnovetsb
The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This work evaluated the efficacy of Cocos nucifera fruit on sheep gastrointestinal parasites. The ethyl acetate extract obtained from the liquid of green coconut husk fiber (LGCHF) was submitted to
L. M. B. Oliveira; C. M. L. Bevilaqua; C. T. C. Costa; I. T. F. Macedo; R. S. Barros; A. C. M. Rodrigues; A. L. F. Camurça-Vasconcelos; S. M. Morais; Y. C. Lima; L. S. Vieira; A. M. C. Navarro
In the developing field of biological gerontology, rapid advances have recently been made in the genetics of ageing in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The aim of this work is to develop an understanding of the general mechanisms determining the ageing process. Within the last decade the prospect of actually achieving this somewhat hubristic aim has begun to look startlingly real.
During August 2010–December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer.
Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S.; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M.; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc
Background The issue of whether coelomates form a single clade, the Coelomata, or whether all animals that moult an exoskeleton (such as the coelomate arthropods and the pseudocoelomate nematodes) form a distinct clade, the Ecdysozoa, is the most puzzling issue in animal systematics and a major open-ended subject in evolutionary biology. Previous single-gene and genome-scale analyses designed to resolve the issue have produced contradictory results. Here we present the first genome-scale phylogenetic evidence that strongly supports the Ecdysozoa hypothesis. Results Through the most extensive phylogenetic analysis carried out to date, the complete genomes of 11 eukaryotic species have been analyzed in order to find homologous sequences derived from 18 human chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of datasets showing an increased adjustment to equal evolutionary rates between nematode and arthropod sequences produced a gradual change from support for Coelomata to support for Ecdysozoa. Transition between topologies occurred when fast-evolving sequences of Caenorhabditis elegans were removed. When chordate, nematode and arthropod sequences were constrained to fit equal evolutionary rates, the Ecdysozoa topology was statistically accepted whereas Coelomata was rejected. Conclusions The reliability of a monophyletic group clustering arthropods and nematodes was unequivocally accepted in datasets where traces of the long-branch attraction effect were removed. This is the first phylogenomic evidence to strongly support the 'moulting clade' hypothesis.
Dopazo, Hernan; Dopazo, Joaquin
The free-living hermaphroditic nematode Caernorhabditis briggsae has a nutritional requirement for heme. The organism can be subcultured repeatedly in a chemically defined axenic medium that contains autoclaved bacterial cells (Escherichia coli) and sterols if a hemeprotein-containing fraction from liver is present. Pure myoglobin, hemoglobin, cytochrome c, and hemin, respectively, can substitute effectively for the liver fraction. PMID:5417058
Hieb, W F; Stokstad, E L; Rothstein, M
The apparent lack of anthelmintic resistant nematodes in cattle is due to the management systems used with most cattle and the lack of surveys for resistance. With extensive beef grazing or with beef suckler herds a large percentage of worms are in refugia (not exposed to anthelmintic) and few anthelmintic treatments are used. With dairy replacement heifers resistance can become
Gerald C. Coles
Nutrient source limitation in desert ecosystems enhances competition among plant communities, leading to creation of microhabitats beneath the shrubs that can determine composition and abundance of soil organisms. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of plant ecophysiological adaptation on soil nematode communities in the rhizosphere of tightly interweaving shrubby communities. Soil samples were collected monthly under
Stanislav Pen-Mouratov; Ginetta Barness; Yosef Steinberger
On the examination of soil around the roots of Mustard in Kashmir Valley, two species of Nematodes were met, namely Aphelenchus radicicolus Steiner,1931 and Psilenchus haki Handoo, 1977. The species were identified under Stereoscopic microscope with the little intraspecific variations from the original in terms of the dimensions. The effect of organic amendments including poultry manure, pigeon manure and saw
Javaid Hassan; M. Z. Chishti; Majidah Rasheed; Fayaz Ahmad
The free-living hermaphroditic nematode Caernorhabditis briggsae has a nutritional requirement for heme. The organism can be subcultured repeatedly in a chemically defined axenic medium that contains autoclaved bacterial cells (Escherichia coli) and sterols if a hemeprotein-containing fraction from liver is present. Pure myoglobin, hemoglobin, cytochrome c, and hemin, respectively, can substitute effectively for the liver fraction.
W. F. Hieb; E. L. R. Stokstad; Morton Rothstein
The free-living, hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae has a nutritional requirement for sterols. It will reproduce indefinitely in a liquid medium containing only bacterial cells (Escherichia coli) and salts if various sterols are present. Several other lipid-soluble materials are ineffective in supporting reproduction.
W. F. Hieb; Morton Rothstein
All organisms must interact with their environment, responding in behavioral, chemical, and other ways to various stimuli throughout their life cycles. Characterizing traits that directly represent an organism's ability to sense and react to their environment provides useful insight into the evolution of life-history strategies. One such trait for the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, chemosensation, is involved in navigation to beetle hosts. Essential for the survival of the nematode, chemosensory behavior may be subject to variation as nematodes discriminate among chemical cues to complete their life cycle. We examine this hypothesis using natural isolates of P. pacificus from La Réunion Island. We select strains from a variety of La Réunion beetle hosts and geographic locations and examine their chemoattraction response toward organic compounds, beetle washes, and live beetles. We find that nematodes show significant differences in their response to various chemicals and are able to chemotax to live beetles in a novel assay. Further, strains can discriminate among different cues, showing more similar responses toward beetle washes than to organic compounds in cluster analyses. However, we find that variance in chemoattraction response is not significantly associated with temperature, location, or beetle host. Rather, strains show a more concerted response toward compounds they most likely directly encounter in the wild. We suggest that divergence in odor-guided behavior in P. pacificus may therefore have an important ecological component.
McGaughran, Angela; Morgan, Katy; Sommer, Ralf J
BACKGROUND: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was the first multicellular organism to have its genome fully sequenced. Over the last 10 years since the original publication in 1998, the C. elegans genome has been scrutinized and the last gaps were filled in November 2002, which present a unique opportunity for examining genome-wide segmental duplications. RESULTS: Here, we performed analysis of the
Ismael A Vergara; Allan K Mah; Jim C Huang; Maja Tarailo-Graovac; Robert C Johnsen; David L Baillie; Nansheng Chen
Microparasite virulence (the potential to cause harm in the host) is thought to be regulated by a direct trade-off with pathogen transmission potential, but it is unclear whether similar trade-offs occur in macroparasites (helminths). In this analysis, the transmission potentials of 5 nematode species (order Strongylida), known to differ in their virulence, were estimated using an index based on egg production and larval survivability. Virulence estimates were based on the minimum number of worms that cause host death. In nematode species where mature adults cause pathology (trichonematidic development), there is a direct relationship between virulence and transmission, suggesting that high virulence is related to parasite fitness in these worms. However, in nematodes where the juvenile stages produce pathology during migration and development (strongylidic development), virulence is not correlated with transmission. These data suggest that trade-offs between transmission and virulence in nematode parasites are not analogous for all species and may depend on the developmental strategy and mechanism of pathogenicity of the parasites. PMID:11318583
Medica, D L; Sukhdeo, M V
A case of human intraocular dirofilariasis is reported from northern Brazil. The nematode was morphologically and phylogenetically related to Dirofilaria immitis but distinct from reference sequences, including those of D. immitis infesting dogs in the same area. A zoonotic Dirofilaria species infesting wild mammals in Brazil and its implications are discussed.
Diniz, Daniel G.; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Casiraghi, Maurizio; de Almeida, Izabela N.F.; de Almeida, Luciana N.F.; Nascimento dos Santos, Jeannie; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Sobrinho, Edmundo F. de Almeida; Bain, Odile
During August 2010-December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer. PMID:24857346
Phillips, Richard O; Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc
Gram-negative bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens and P. temperata, form a mutualistic association with entomopathogenic heterorhabditid nematodes while P. asymbiotica is known as an opportunistic human pathogen that causes disseminated bacteremic spread on two continents, the United States and Australia. In the course of our phylogenetic study of Photorhabdus bacteria associated with Japanese Heterorhabditis nematodes, we found two Photorhabdus isolates (Photorhabdus sp. Cbkj163 and OnIr40) whose partial 16S rRNA gene sequence showed high similarities to clinical isolates of this pathogen from Heterorhabditis indica. The phylogenetic study, based upon the gyrase subunit B gene sequences of the two isolates, revealed clustering with these clinical isolates of P. asymbiotica from both the United States and Australia but not with other Photorhabdus bacteria associated with nematodes. The two bacterial isolates were also found to share microbiological and biochemical characteristics with clinical and entomopathogenic Photorhabdus strains. Moreover, not only the two novel Photorhabdus isolates but also an Australian clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica formed mutualistic association with H. indica isolates. These data suggest that the bacteria isolated from H. indica CbKj163 and OnIr40 are a novel subspecies of P. asymbiotica, and that some clinical isolates of P. asymbiotica could have originated from bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:18538616
Kuwata, Ryusei; Yoshiga, Toyoshi; Yoshida, Mutsuhiro; Kondo, Eizo
Background Hookworm infection is one of the most important neglected diseases in developing countries, with approximately 1 billion people infected worldwide. To better understand hookworm biology and nematode parasitism, the present study generated a near complete transcriptome of the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum to a very high coverage using high throughput technology, and compared it to those of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasite Brugia malayi. Results The generated transcripts from four developmental stages, infective L3, serum stimulated L3, adult male and adult female, covered 93% of the A. caninum transcriptome. The broad diversity among nematode transcriptomes was confirmed, and an impact of parasitic adaptation on transcriptome diversity was inferred. Intra-population analysis showed that A. caninum has higher coding sequence diversity than humans. Examining the developmental expression profiles of A. caninum revealed major transitions in gene expression from larval stages to adult. Adult males expressed the highest number of selectively expressed genes, but adult female expressed the highest number of selective parasitism-related genes. Genes related to parasitism adaptation and A. caninum specific genes exhibited more expression selectivity while those conserved in nematodes tend to be consistently expressed. Parasitism related genes were expressed more selectively in adult male and female worms. The comprehensive analysis of digital expression profiles along with transcriptome comparisons enabled identification of a set of parasitism genes encoding secretory proteins in animal parasitic nematode. Conclusions This study validated the usage of deep sequencing for gene expression profiling. Parasitic adaptation of the canine hookworm is related to its diversity and developmental dynamics. This comprehensive comparative genomic and expression study substantially improves our understanding of the basic biology and parasitism of hookworms and, is expected, in the long run, to accelerate research toward development of vaccines and novel anthelmintics.
Background Over two dozen mermithid nematodes have been described parasitizing mosquitoes worldwide, however, only two species were found in Africa. Mermithid nematodes kill their mosquito host upon emergence, which suggests that they could be developed as biological control agents of mosquitoes. Both Romanomermis culicivorax and Romanomermis iyengari have been reared for mass release to control numerous Anopheles species vector populations, and in one instance this may have led to reduced malaria prevalence in a human population. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected during a malaria study in southeastern Senegal. Two different adult blood fed mosquitoes had a single mermithid nematode emerge from their anus while they were being held post-capture. Primers from the 18?S rDNA were developed to sequence nematode DNA and screen mosquitoes for mermithid DNA. 18?S rDNA from the Senegalese mermithid and other mermithid entries in GenBank were used to create a Maximum Parsimony tree of the Mermithidae family. Results The mermithid was present in 1.8% (10/551) of the sampled adult Anopheles species in our study area. The mermithid was found in An. gambiae s.s., An. funestus, and An. rufipes from the villages of Ndebou, Boundoucondi, and Damboucoye. Maximum parsimony analysis confirmed that the nematode parasites found in Anopheles were indeed mermithid parasites, and of the mermithid sequences available in GenBank, they are most closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of mermithids from adult Anopheles mosquitoes in Senegal. The mermithid appears to infect Anopheles mosquitoes that develop in diverse larval habitats. Although maximum parsimony analysis determined the mermithid was closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus, several characteristics of the mermithid were more similar to the Empidomermis genus. Future mermithid isolations will hopefully allow: formal taxonomic identification, laboratory colonization, determination of life history traits and species specificity, and characterize its usefulness as a biological control agent.
Metastrongyloid induced pneumonia has been described sporadically in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens). Early descriptions in pandas recently imported to the USA from China involved parasites morphologically similar to Angiostrongylus spp. and Crenosomatidae. More recently, four cases of severe verminous pneumonia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum have been reported from European zoos. A coprological survey of the red panda population within European zoos was conducted in 2008. Faecal samples from 115 pandas originating from 54 zoos were collected on 3 consecutive days. Using Baermann technique, 40 animals (35%) from 20 zoos (37%) were found to shed metastrongyloid first stage larvae (L(1)). Based on their morphology and size, the L(1) observed could be divided into three morphologically distinct types: (1) a Crenosoma sp. type (n=5, overall prevalence: 4.3%), (2) an A. vasorum type (n=3, 2.6%), and (3) an unidentified metastrongyloid species, similar to, but morphologically distinct from A. vasorum (n=32, 27.8%). Further confirmation of species identification was provided by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene, which confirmed three different species. The novel Crenosoma species was most genetically analogous to Crenosoma mephitidis and the unidentified metastrongyloid species was most similar to Stenurus minor and Torynurus convulutus. Routine and quarantine health care of red pandas in captivity should take account of the risk of Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma infection in endemic areas, but should also be cognisant of the widespread presence of an apparently less pathogenic species of lungworm. The identity of the two potentially novel species is subject to further work. PMID:20570049
Bertelsen, Mads F; Meyland-Smith, Frederik; Willesen, Jakob L; Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Monrad, Jesper
Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been suggested as the mechanism by which various plant parasitic nematode species have obtained genes important in parasitism. In particular, cellulase genes have been acquired by plant parasitic nematodes that allow them to digest plant cell walls. Unlike the typical glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 cellulase genes which are found in several nematode species from the order Tylenchida, members of the GH45 cellulase have only been identified in a cluster including the families Parasitaphelenchidae (with the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and Aphelenchoididae, and their origins remain unknown. Results In order to investigate the distribution and evolution of GH45 cellulase genes in nematodes and fungi we performed a wide ranging screen for novel putative GH45 sequences. This revealed that the sequences are widespread mainly in Ascomycetous fungi and have so far been found in a single major nematode lineage. Close relationships between the sequences from nematodes and fungi were found through our phylogenetic analyses. An intron position is shared by sequences from Bursaphelenchus nematodes and several Ascomycetous fungal species. Conclusions The close phylogenetic relationships and conserved gene structure between the sequences from nematodes and fungi strongly supports the hypothesis that nematode GH45 cellulase genes were acquired via HGT from fungi. The rapid duplication and turnover of these genes within Bursaphelenchus genomes demonstrate that useful sequences acquired via HGT can become established in the genomes of recipient organisms and may open novel niches for these organisms to exploit.
Of the 13 nematode-trapping fungi previously detected at the Bodega Marine Reserve (BMR, Sonoma County, CA, USA), Arthrobotrys oligospora is by far the most abundant. Why A. oligospora is so abundant is unclear, but the answer may involve bush lupines (Lupinus arboreus), ghost moth larvae (Hepialus californicus), and insect-parasitic nematodes (Heterorhabditis marelatus). Previous research documented a dramatic increase of A.
F. C. Farrell; B. A. Jaffee; D. R. Strong
Background Cyst nematodes are devastating plant parasites that become sedentary within plant roots and induce the transformation of normal plant cells into elaborate feeding cells with the help of secreted effectors, the parasitism proteins. These proteins are the translation products of parasitism genes and are secreted molecular tools that allow cyst nematodes to infect plants. Results We present here the expression patterns of all previously described parasitism genes of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, in all major life stages except the adult male. These insights were gained by analyzing our gene expression dataset from experiments using the Affymetrix Soybean Genome Array GeneChip, which contains probeset sequences for 6,860 genes derived from preparasitic and parasitic H. glycines life stages. Targeting the identification of additional H. glycines parasitism-associated genes, we isolated 633 genes encoding secretory proteins using algorithms to predict secretory signal peptides. Furthermore, because some of the known H. glycines parasitism proteins have strongest similarity to proteins of plants and microbes, we searched for predicted protein sequences that showed their highest similarities to plant or microbial proteins and identified 156 H. glycines genes, some of which also contained a signal peptide. Analyses of the expression profiles of these genes allowed the formulation of hypotheses about potential roles in parasitism. This is the first study combining sequence analyses of a substantial EST dataset with microarray expression data of all major life stages (except adult males) for the identification and characterization of putative parasitism-associated proteins in any parasitic nematode. Conclusion We have established an expression atlas for all known H. glycines parasitism genes. Furthermore, in an effort to identify additional H. glycines genes with putative functions in parasitism, we have reduced the currently known 6,860 H. glycines genes to a pool of 788 most promising candidate genes (including known parasitism genes) and documented their expression profiles. Using our approach to pre-select genes likely involved in parasitism now allows detailed functional analyses in a manner not feasible for larger numbers of genes. The generation of the candidate pool described here is an important enabling advance because it will significantly facilitate the unraveling of fascinating plant-animal interactions and deliver knowledge that can be transferred to other pathogen-host systems. Ultimately, the exploration of true parasitism genes verified from the gene pool delineated here will identify weaknesses in the nematode life cycle that can be exploited by novel anti-nematode efforts.
Elling, Axel A; Mitreva, Makedonka; Gai, Xiaowu; Martin, John; Recknor, Justin; Davis, Eric L; Hussey, Richard S; Nettleton, Dan; McCarter, James P; Baum, Thomas J
In a series of microcosm experiments with an arable, sandy loam soil amended with sugarbeet leaf, the short-term (8 weeks) dynamics of numbers of nematodes were measured in untreated soil and in gamma-irradiated soil inoculated with either a field population of soil microorganisms and nematodes or a mixed population of laboratory-propagated bacterivorous nematode species. Sugarbeet leaf stimulated an increase in bacterivorous Rhabditidae, Cephalobidae, and a lab-cultivated Panagrolaimus sp. Differences were observed between the growth rates of the nematode population in untreated and gamma-irradiated soils, which were caused by two nematophagous fungi, Arthrobotrys oligospora and Dactylaria sp. These fungi lowered the increase in nematode numbers due to the organic enrichment in the untreated soil. We estimated the annually produced bacterivous nematodes to consume 50 kg carbon and 10 kg nitrogen per ha, per year, in the upper, plowed 25 cm of arable soil. PMID:19277342
Bouwman, L A; Hoenderboom, G H; van der Maas, K J; de Ruiter, P C
In a series of microcosm experiments with an arable, sandy loam soil amended with sugarbeet leaf, the short-term (8 weeks) dynamics of numbers of nematodes were measured in untreated soil and in ?-irradiated soil inoculated with either a field population of soil microorganisms and nematodes or a mixed population of laboratory-propagated bacterivorous nematode species. Sugarbeet leaf stimulated an increase in bacterivorous Rhabditidae, Cephalobidae, and a lab-cultivated Panagrolaimus sp. Differences were observed between the growth rates of the nematode population in untreated and ?-irradiated soils, which were caused by two nematophagous fungi, Arthrobotrys oligospora and Dactylaria sp. These fungi lowered the increase in nematode numbers due to the organic enrichment in the untreated soil. We estimated the annually produced bacterivous nematodes to consume 50 kg carbon and 10 kg nitrogen per ha, per year, in the upper, plowed 25 cm of arable soil.
Bouwman, L. A.; Hoenderboom, G. H. J.; van der Maas, K. J.; de Ruiter, P. C.
The nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora is able to produce extracellular protease that degrades the body walls of parasitic nematode larvae found in livestock and immobilizes the nematodes. Our aim was to obtain a strain of A. oligospora with a strong ability to trap nematodes by production of high levels of extracellular protease. A wild type strain of A. oligospora was subjected to mutagenic treatments involving low-energy ion beam implantation to generate mutants. Among these mutants, A. oligospora N showed high efficiency in trapping nematodes and was also able to secrete more extracellular protease, helping it to penetrate and digest the body walls of larvae. This work represents the first application of low-energy ion beams to generate mutations in a nematode-trapping fungus, and provides a new method of obtaining a fungus with high potential application. PMID:23370734
Wang, Jun; Wang, Rui; Yang, Xiaoye
Nematode population densities were determined in soil and root samples collected from 205 peach (Prunus persica L.) orchard blocks between 25 March and 5 May 1986. Representative specimens from 75 blocks were identified to species; 28 species of plant-parasitic nematodes were identified. Predaceous nematodes (Mononchidae) were observed in 71% of the samples. The most common plant-parasitic genera were Paratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Pratylenchus, and Xiphinema, occurring in 85, 84, 77, and 74% of the samples, respectively. Population densities of Xiphinema, Pratylenchus, Meloidogyne, Hoplolaimus, and Criconemella were at potentially damaging levels in 74, 19, 13, 10, and 2% of the samples, respectively. Potentially damaging nematode densities were observed in 78% of orchard blocks surveyed, with 35% having two or more nematodes with densities high enough to warrant concern. Nematode densities differed among soil types and tree rootstocks and were correlated with tree mortality rates. PMID:19287785
Kotcon, J B
Drosophila has been established as an excellent genetic and genomic model to investigate host-pathogen interactions and innate immune defense mechanisms. To date, most information on the Drosophila immune response derives from studies that involve bacterial, fungal or viral pathogens. However, immune reactions to insect parasitic nematodes are still not well characterized. The nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora live in symbiosis with the entomopathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens, and they are able to invade and kill insects. Interestingly, Heterorhabditis nematodes are viable in the absence of Photorhabdus. Techniques for infecting Drosophila larvae with these nematodes have been previously reported. Here, we have developed a method for infecting Drosophila adult flies with Heterorhabditis nematodes carrying (symbiotic worms) or lacking (axenic worms) their associated bacteria. The protocol we present can be readily adapted for studying parasitic strategies of other insect nematodes using Drosophila as the host infection model.
Castillo, Julio Cesar; Shokal, Upasana; Eleftherianos, Ioannis
In Denmark two series of experiments have been performed to study the interactions between larvae of bovine gastrointestinal nematode parasites and nematode-trapping fungi. For practical reasons we were interested in the possibility of depositing nematode-trapping fungi in cattle faeces after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. In the first series, laboratory tests with the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora showed that motile free-living larvae of a wide range of animal-parasitic nematodes and some soil-living nematodes effectively induce the formation of traps. Larvae of all parasitic nematodes are rapidly captured in these traps. The induction of nets was influenced by temperature, number of larvae, atmosphere, light, and media composition. Captured first- and second-stage larvae were quickly penetrated and killed while third stage larvae were killed slowly, perhaps because they are partially protected by an outer dead sheath. Laboratory and field studies showed that when A. oligospora material was directly mixed into dung a significant reduction in the number of infective parasite larvae in the dung and surrounding herbage occurs. This reduction was also reflected in the acquired worm burden of calves grazing on fungal treated pasture. However, the A. oligospora strain studied in the above mentioned experiments did not survive passage through the alimentary tract of cattle. This prompted us to start a second series of experiments to isolate fungi that could survive gut passage of cattle. Different soil and compost samples were screened by an in vitro stress selection technique. This simulated certain important stress factors which occur during passage through the alimentary tract of ruminants. Rumen exposure was found to be a major limiting factor, but some Arthrobotrys and Duddingtonia strains survived submersion in rumen fluid. In a subsequent in vivo experiment, some of these survivors were fed to calves, and it was hereby demonstrated that isolates of both genera, i.e. Arthrobotrys and Duddingtonia, were able to survive passage through calves and significantly reduce the number of developing preparasitic larvae in dung of fungal treated calves. In a controlled field experiment, isolates of Duddingtonia reduced the level of infective third-stage larvae in herbage by 74-85%. PMID:8346645
Grønvold, J; Wolstrup, J; Nansen, P; Henriksen, S A; Larsen, M; Bresciani, J
Eleven fungal isolates were tested in agar dishes for pathogenicity to Pratylenchus penetrans. Of the fungi that produce adhesive conidia, Hirsutella rhossiliensis was a virulent pathogen; Verticillium balanoides, Drechmeria coniospora, and Nematoctonus sp. were weak or nonpathogens. The trapping fungi, Arthrobotrys dactyloides, A. oligospora, Monacrosporium dlipsosporum, and M. cionopagum, killed most of the P. penetrans adults and juveniles added to the fungus cultures. An isolate of Nematoctonus that forms adhesive knobs trapped only a small proportion of the nematodes. In 17-cm³ vials, soil moisture influenced survival of P. penetrans in the presence of H. rhossiliensis; nematode survival decreased with diminishing soil moisture. Hirsutella rhossiliensis and M. ellipsosporum were equally effective in reducing numbers of P. penetrans by 24-25% after 4 days in sand. After 25 days in soil artificially infested with H. rhossiliensis, numbers of P. penetrans were reduced by 28-53%.
Timper, P.; Brodie, B. B.
Eleven fungal isolates were tested in agar dishes for pathogenicity to Pratylenchus penetrans. Of the fungi that produce adhesive conidia, Hirsutella rhossiliensis was a virulent pathogen; Verticillium balanoides, Drechmeria coniospora, and Nematoctonus sp. were weak or nonpathogens. The trapping fungi, Arthrobotrys dactyloides, A. oligospora, Monacrosporium dlipsosporum, and M. cionopagum, killed most of the P. penetrans adults and juveniles added to the fungus cultures. An isolate of Nematoctonus that forms adhesive knobs trapped only a small proportion of the nematodes. In 17-cm(3) vials, soil moisture influenced survival of P. penetrans in the presence of H. rhossiliensis; nematode survival decreased with diminishing soil moisture. Hirsutella rhossiliensis and M. ellipsosporum were equally effective in reducing numbers of P. penetrans by 24-25% after 4 days in sand. After 25 days in soil artificially infested with H. rhossiliensis, numbers of P. penetrans were reduced by 28-53%. PMID:19279772
Timper, P; Brodie, B B
The recently described genus Philcoxia comprises three species restricted to well lit and low-nutrient soils in the Brazilian Cerrado. The morphological and habitat similarities of Philcoxia to those of some carnivorous plants, along with recent observations of nematodes over its subterranean leaves, prompted the suggestion that the genus is carnivorous. Here we report compelling evidence of carnivory in Philcoxia of the Plantaginaceae, a family in which no carnivorous members are otherwise known. We also document both a unique capturing strategy for carnivorous plants and a case of a plant that traps and digests nematodes with underground adhesive leaves. Our findings illustrate how much can still be discovered about the origin, distribution, and frequency of the carnivorous syndrome in angiosperms and, more generally, about the diversity of nutrient-acquisition mechanisms that have evolved in plants growing in severely nutrient-impoverished environments such as the Brazilian Cerrado, one of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots.
Pereira, Caio G.; Almenara, Daniela P.; Winter, Carlos E.; Fritsch, Peter W.; Lambers, Hans; Oliveira, Rafael S.
All organisms respond to environmental stresses (e.g., heavy metal, heat, UV irradiation, hyperoxia, food limitation, etc.) with coordinated adjustments in order to deal with the consequences and/or injuries caused by the severe stress. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans often exerts adaptive responses if preconditioned with low concentrations of agents or stressor. In C. elegans, three types of adaptive responses can be formed: hormesis, cross-adaptation, and dietary restriction. Several factors influence the formation of adaptive responses in nematodes, and some mechanisms can explain their response formation. In particular, antioxidation system, heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, glutathione, signaling transduction, and metabolic signals may play important roles in regulating the formation of adaptive responses. In this paper, we summarize the published evidence demonstrating that several types of adaptive responses have converged in C. elegans and discussed some possible alternative theories explaining the adaptive response control.
Zhao, Y.-L.; Wang, D.-Y.
A variety of lectins and antifungal proteins were tested for toxicity against the plant parasitic nematodes Ditylenchus dipsaci and Heterodera glycines. It was found that lectins from the mushrooms Xylaria hypoxylon, Agrocybe cylindracea and Tricholoma mongolicum (TML-1) were the most potent against D. dipsaci, with EC(50) being 4.7, 9, and 20mg/ml, respectively. Lectins from Pseudostellaria heterophylla, samta tomato, and the mushrooms T. mongolicum (TML-2), Ganoderma lucidum, and Boletus edulis, and antifungal proteins from Ginkgo biloba toward D. dipsaci and pumpkin Cucurbita moschata had much lower anti-nematode potencies and could be considered as inactive for practical purposes. All lectins except that from P.heterophylle were potent against H.glycines. PMID:21784014
Zhao, S; Guo, Y X; Liu, Q H; Wang, H X; Ng, T B
The present study addresses the ecology of a particular isolate of Arthrobotrys oligospora (CBS 289.82) in relation to its efficacy in controlling the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla.This isolate was selected because it differs from most nematode-trapping fungi in that it captures nematodes with adhesive hyphae without having to form complex trapping devices. This characteristic may make it a very useful
E. den Belder
The nematodes specificities and their interactions with plants are reviewed, considering host plants quality and compatibility.\\u000a The potentials of nematode resistance and diversity of antagonists and parasitism are discussed, in relation to host specificity\\u000a and obligate multitrophic relationships. The ecology and management of nematode communities are also reviewed, focusing on\\u000a soil health approaches and new paradigms for plant protection.
T. Mateille; P. Cadet; M. Fargette
Eleven RAPD markers linked to a gene region conferring resistance to citrus nematodes in an intergen-eric backcross family\\u000a were identified. Two sequence- characterized amplified region markers linked to a citrus tristeza virus resistance gene and\\u000a one selected resistance gene candidate marker were evaluated for their association with citrus nematode resistance. A nematode-susceptible\\u000a citrus hybrid, LB6-2 [Clementine mandarin (Citrus reticulata)?Hamlin orange
P. Ling; L. W. Duncan; Z. Deng; D. Dunn; X. Hu; S. Huang; F. G. Gmitter Jr
Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) hairy roots were evaluated as a model system for studying molecular cotton–nematode interactions. Hairy root cultures\\u000a were developed from the root-knot nematode (RKN) (Meloidogyne incognita [Kofoid and White] Chitwood, race 3)-resistant breeding line M315 and from the reniform nematode (RN) (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira)-resistant accession GB713 (G. barbadense L.) and compared to a
Martin J. Wubben; Franklin E. Callahan; Barbara A. Triplett; Johnie N. Jenkins
The one-on-one bioassay was developed using Steinernema carpocapsae (All) nematodes against the wax moth larva, Galleria mellonella. The assay was used to develop and compare virulence profiles of both in vitro- and in vivo-produced nematodes and to provide a quality assessment ‘standard’ for in vitro-produced nematodes. The bioassay was subsequently used to develop virulence profiles for Steinernema carpocapsae (UK), S.
V Converse; R. W Miller
\\u000a The facultative egg-pathogenic fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus is the most widely tested biocontrol agent for control of plant parasitic nematodes. The commercial strain 251 (PL251) is\\u000a available in several countries and has demonstrated efficacy in reducing root-knot, cyst and free-living nematodes on a range\\u000a of crops. To better understand the multitrophic interactions between PL251 and host-plants, target nematodes and other soil
Entomopathogenic nematodes are soil-inhabiting parasites of insects. Behavioral responses to host and host environmental cues are critical steps in the infection process for some nematode species, such asSteinernema glaseriandHeterorhabditis bacteriophora,of finding, recognizing, and penetrating insects. We investigated the impact of host and host environmental cues on the infectivity of these two nematodes by testing their response to whole and wounded
Yi Wang; Randy Gaugler
Data extracted from surveys of plant-parasitic nematodes in Great Britain allowed relatively detailed maps of the geographical distribution of various longidorid and trichodorid virus-vector nematode species to be produced. These distributions are related to long-term monthly mean temperature. Recently published figures for climate change were applied to the distribution data. A potential increase in nematode associated problems due to climate
R. Neilson; B. Boag
Esteya vermicola, as the first recorded endoparasitic fungus of pinewood nematodes, exhibits great potential as a biological agent against\\u000a nematodes. However, only two strains of this species have been described so far. In this study, we identified a novel endoparasitic\\u000a fungal strain, CNU 120806, isolated from infected nematodes in forest soil samples during a survey of nematophagous fungi\\u000a in Korea.
Chun Yan Wang; Zhe Ming Fang; Bai Shen Sun; Li Juan Gu; Ke Qin Zhang; Chang-Keun Sung
Gnathostomiasis is an emerging zoonosis in Mexico. However, for most endemic zones, the source of human infection has not been established. During 2000-2003, we investigated 2168 vertebrates (2047 fish, 31 amphibians, 4 reptiles, 19 birds and 67 mammals) from 39 localities distributed in nine states. We registered 7 vertebrate species as new hosts for Gnathostoma, and 22 new locality records for this nematode. PMID:15710550
León-Règagnon, Virginia; Osorio-Sarabia, David; García-Prieto, Luis; Lamothe-Argumedo, Rafael; Bertoni-Ruiz, Florencia; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro
The nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora was transformed to hygromycin resistance using the hygromycin-B phosphotransferase gene from Escherichia coli under the control of various heterologous fungal promoters. Plasmid DNA was introduced into fungal protoplasts by polyethylene glycol\\/CaCl2 treatment. Transformation frequencies varied between 1–6 transformants per ?g DNA. Seven out of 13 integration events analyzed from transformants were single copy integrations, whereas
A Tunlid; J Åhman; R. P Oliver
Two applications of isolates ofPaecilomyces marquandii from suppressive chinampa soils or P. lilacinus from Peru, fungi that parasitize nematode eggs, generally gave better control of tomato root-knot due toMeloidogyne incognita than did a single application. The effects on root galling by each of thePaecilomyces isolates varied between experiments; however, the ovicidal potential of the three isolates did not differ significantly.
Nahum Marban-Mendoza; M. Bess Dicklow; Bert M. Zuckerman
Plants under attack by arthropod herbivores often emit volatile compounds from their leaves that attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Here we report the first identification of an insect-induced belowground plant signal, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, which strongly attracts an entomopathogenic nematode. Maize roots release this sesquiterpene in response to feeding by larvae of the beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a maize pest that
Sergio Rasmann; Tobias G. Köllner; Jörg Degenhardt; Ivan Hiltpold; Stefan Toepfer; Ulrich Kuhlmann; Jonathan Gershenzon; Ted C. J. Turlings
Belowground herbivores can exert important controls on the composition of natural plant communities. Until now, relatively\\u000a few studies have investigated which factors may control the abundance of belowground herbivores. In Dutch coastal foredunes,\\u000a the root-feeding nematode Tylenchorhynchus ventralis is capable of reducing the performance of the dominant grass Ammophila arenaria (Marram grass). However, field surveys show that populations of this
Anna M. Pi?kiewicz; Henk Duyts; M. Van den Berg; Sofia R. Costa; Wim H. van der Putten
The pine-killing woodwasp Sirex noctilio, a native to Eurasia\\/Morocco, was accidentally introduced into various Southern Hemisphere countries during the last century\\u000a and has recently (2005) been detected in north-eastern North America. The parasitic nematode Beddingia siricidicola is by far the most important control agent of sirex and has been introduced into each Southern Hemisphere country soon after\\u000a sirex became established.
Robin A. Bedding
\\u000a Plant parasitic nematodes have developed complex strategies to obtain nutrients from their hosts. In many cases specialised\\u000a feeding cells are induced which establish a strong sink for water and nutrients. This chapter describes the different structural,\\u000a physiological and molecular mechanisms by which host plants were found to supply water and solutes over long and short distances.\\u000a A number of specific
Florian M. W. Grundler; Julia Hofmann
This study examined the effects of oxygen tensions ranging from 0 to 90 kPa on the metabolic rate (rate of carbon dioxide production), movement and survivorship of the free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans requires oxygen to develop and survive. However, it can maintain a normal metabolic rate at oxygen levels of 3.6 kPa and has near-normal metabolic rates
WAYNE A. VAN VOORHIES; SAMUEL WARD
Summary A study involved 1800 hospitalised children (age: 9 months to 16 years) examined by ovoscopic analyses and confirmed the occurrence\\u000a of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in 46 patients (2.55 %). Of these, 30 patients had Ascaris infection, 13 were positive for both nematodes and 3 patients had Trichuris infection. The mean count of A. lumbricoides eggs in positive cases
A. Königová; J. Kin?eková; G. Hr?ková; S. Velebný; M. Várady; J. Pavlinová; M. Kuchta
We report the first successful transformation of an entomopathogenic nematode. Foreign genes were introduced in Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 by microinjection using vectors carrying the Caenorhabditis elegans genes coding for the roller phenotype and 16-kDa heat shock protein (hsp16) gene. A translational fusion made by inserting lacZ in frame into hsp16 was expressed in the body musculature, hypodermis, and pharyngeal muscles.
Sarwar Hashmi; Ghazala Hashmi; Randy Gaugler
\\u000a The genus Pasteuria comprises a truly extraordinary group of unculturable bacteria that are obligate parasites of either water fleas or plant\\u000a parasitic nematodes. They have an astonishing vegetative morphology that, through an intricate process of differentiation,\\u000a leads to a structurally unique endospore form. Remarkably, phylogenetic studies indicate that this genus is ancestral to the\\u000a genus Bacillus. P.\\u000a penetrans is the
Alistair H. Bishop
Studying animal mechanics is critical for understanding how signals in the neuromuscular system give rise to behavior and how force-sensing organs and sensory neurons work. Few techniques exist to provide forces and displacements appropriate for such studies. To address this technological gap, we developed a metrology using piezoresistive cantilevers as force–displacement sensors coupled to a feedback system to apply and maintain defined load profiles to micrometer-scale animals. We show that this system can deliver forces between 10?8 and 10?3 N across distances of up to 100 ?m with a resolution of 12 nN between 0.1 Hz and 100 kHz. We use this new metrology to show that force–displacement curves of wild-type nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) are linear. Because nematodes have approximately cylindrical bodies, this finding demonstrates that nematode body mechanics can be modeled as a cylindrical shell under pressure. Little is known about the relative importance of hydrostatic pressure and shell mechanics, however. We show that dissipating pressure by cuticle puncture or decreasing it by hyperosmotic shock has only a modest effect on stiffness, whereas defects in the dpy-5 and lon-2 genes, which alter body shape and cuticle proteins, decrease and increase stiffness by 25% and 50%, respectively. This initial analysis of C. elegans body mechanics suggests that shell mechanics dominates stiffness and is a first step in understanding how body mechanics affect locomotion and force sensing.
Park, Sung-Jin; Goodman, Miriam B.; Pruitt, Beth L.
Costs and benefits of foraging have been studied in predatory animals. In nematodes, ambushing or cruising behaviours represent adaptations that optimize foraging strategies for survival and host finding. A behaviour associated with host finding of ambushing nematode dauer juveniles is a sit-and-wait behaviour, otherwise known as nictation. Here, we test the function of nictation by relating occurrence of nictation in Pristionchus pacificus dauer juveniles to the ability to attach to laboratory host Galleria mellonella. We used populations of recently isolated and mutagenized laboratory strains. We found that nictation can be disrupted using a classical forward genetic approach and characterized two novel nictation-defective mutant strains. We identified two recently isolated strains from la Réunion island, one with a higher proportion of nictating individuals than the laboratory strain P. pacificus PS312. We found a positive correlation between nictation frequencies and host attachment in these strains. Taken together, our combination of genetic analyses with natural variation studies presents a new approach to the investigation of behavioural and ecological functionality. We show that nictation behaviour in P. pacificus nematodes serves as a host-finding behaviour. Our results suggest that nictation plays a role in the evolution of new life-history strategies, such as the evolution of parasitism.
Brown, Federico D.; D'Anna, Isabella; Sommer, Ralf J.
The life cycle of a bacterial endoparasite of the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The infective stage begins with the attachment of an endospore to the surface of the nematode. A germ tube then penetrates the cuticle, and mycelil colonies form in the pseudocoelom. Sporulation is initiated when terminal cells of the mycelium enlarge to form sporangia. A septum within each sporangium divides the forespore from the basal or parasporal portion of the cell. The forespore becomes enclosed by several laminar coats. The parasporal cell remains attached to the forespore and forms the parasporal microfibers. After the newly formed spores are released into the soil, these microfibers apparently enable a mature spore to attach to the nematode. These results indicate that the endoparasite is a procaryotic organism having structural features that are more common to members of Actinomycetales and to the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa than to the sporozoans or to the family Bacillaceae, as previous investigatios have concluded. Images
Sayre, R M; Wergin, W P
Nematode sperm undergo a drastic physiological change during spermiogenesis (sperm activation). Unlike mammalian flagellated sperm, nematode sperm are amoeboid cells and their motility is driven by the dynamics of a cytoskeleton composed of major sperm protein (MSP) rather than actin found in other crawling cells. This review focuses on sperm from Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum to address the roles of external and internal factors that trigger sperm activation and power sperm motility. Nematode sperm can be activated in vitro by several factors, including Pronase and ionophores, and in vivo through the TRY-5 and SPE-8 pathways. Moreover, protease and protease inhibitors are crucial regulators of sperm maturation. MSP-based sperm motility involves a coupled process of protrusion and retraction, both of which have been reconstituted in vitro. Sperm motility is mediated by phosphorylation signals, as illustrated by identification of several key components (MPOP, MFPs and MPAK) in Ascaris and the characterization of GSP-3/4 in C. elegans. PMID:22903434
Ma, Xuan; Zhao, Yanmei; Sun, Wei; Shimabukuro, Katsuya; Miao, Long
Investigations were undertaken in 1982-88 to estimate yield losses of carrot, sugarbeet, wheat, and potato caused by cyst-forming nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera species) in several provinces of Italy. Soil samples were collected at planting in 0.5-ha sampling areas distributed in each crop's major production area. Yield loss estimates were based on nematode population estimates and on curves derived earlier relating nematode densities with crop yields in Italy. Estimated yield loss values were based on the average prices reported for Italy in 1989. Heterodera carotae caused carrot yield losses in the Foggia (20%) and Venice (12%) provinces. Heterodera schachtii was common in our samples, but sugarbeet yield losses were highest in the province of L'Aquila (21%), followed by Ferrara (4.2%), Ravenna (3.3%), Modena (2.7%), and Rovigo (2.6%). Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida were widespread in only a few of the major potato growing areas, but yield losses are remarkably high at Forli (17%) followed by Bari (9%), Catanzaro (6%), Foggia (3%), and Trento (3%). Heterodera avenae was common on wheat in the sampled provinces, but caused less than 1% yield reductions. Values of total estimated yield losses were 21.1 billion (Italian liras) for potato, 13.8 billion for sugarbeet, 3.2 billion for carrot, and 2.6 billion for wheat. PMID:19279850
Greco, N; D'Addabbo, T; Brandonisio, A; Elia, F
Costs and benefits of foraging have been studied in predatory animals. In nematodes, ambushing or cruising behaviours represent adaptations that optimize foraging strategies for survival and host finding. A behaviour associated with host finding of ambushing nematode dauer juveniles is a sit-and-wait behaviour, otherwise known as nictation. Here, we test the function of nictation by relating occurrence of nictation in Pristionchus pacificus dauer juveniles to the ability to attach to laboratory host Galleria mellonella. We used populations of recently isolated and mutagenized laboratory strains. We found that nictation can be disrupted using a classical forward genetic approach and characterized two novel nictation-defective mutant strains. We identified two recently isolated strains from la Réunion island, one with a higher proportion of nictating individuals than the laboratory strain P. pacificus PS312. We found a positive correlation between nictation frequencies and host attachment in these strains. Taken together, our combination of genetic analyses with natural variation studies presents a new approach to the investigation of behavioural and ecological functionality. We show that nictation behaviour in P. pacificus nematodes serves as a host-finding behaviour. Our results suggest that nictation plays a role in the evolution of new life-history strategies, such as the evolution of parasitism. PMID:21411455
Brown, Federico D; D'Anna, Isabella; Sommer, Ralf J
Nematode nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are the targets for many effective anthelmintics, including those recently introduced into the market. We have identified a novel nicotinic receptor subunit sequence, acr-26, that is expressed in all the animal parasitic nematodes we examined from clades III, IV and V, but is not present in the genomes of Trichinella spiralis, Caenorhabditis elegans, Pristionchus pacificus and Meloidogyne spp. In Ascaris suum, ACR-26 is expressed on muscle cells isolated from the head, but not from the mid-body region. Sequence comparisons with other vertebrate and nematode subunits suggested that ACR-26 may be capable of forming a functional homomeric receptor; when acr-26 cRNA was injected into Xenopus oocytes along with Xenopus laevis ric-3 cRNA we occasionally observed the formation of acetylcholine- and nicotine-sensitive channels. The unreliable expression of ACR-26 in vitro may suggest that additional subunits or chaperones may be required for efficient formation of the functional receptors. ACR-26 may represent a novel target for the development of cholinergic anthelmintics specific for animal parasites. PMID:22387572
Bennett, Hayley M; Williamson, Sally M; Walsh, Thomas K; Woods, Debra J; Wolstenholme, Adrian J
This study assesses the suitability of sieving as a scaleable technique for the separation of adult nematodes from infective juveniles, the latter is an effective bioinsecticide whereas the former is waste material resulting from the fermentation process. Batch and semibatch experiments using conventional flow-assisted wet sieving and a novel cross-flow sieving technique were used to study the separation of juveniles from adult nematodes. The experiments were carried out using small-scale devices and the data were analyzed in terms of the screen effectiveness factor. The results were used to identify the sieve size and operating conditions for optimum juvenile recovery. It was found that, for a given species of nematode, optimum recovery was achieved when sieving was carried out in the cross-flow mode, the maximum recovery being a function of the size of the screen. Industrial-scale self-cleaning equipment capable of large-scale continuous screening was used to confirm the capacity of the small-scale operation for scale-up. Experimental results with this unit showed that in continuous operation sieving time is an additional parameter that influences separation performance. PMID:11745152
Wilson, J A; Pearce, J D; Ayazi Shamlou, P
Parasitic nematode species often display highly specialized host-seeking behaviors that reflect their specific host preferences. Many such behaviors are triggered by host odors, but little is known about either the specific olfactory cues that trigger these behaviors or the underlying neural circuits. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae are phylogenetically distant insect-parasitic nematodes whose host-seeking and host-invasion behavior resembles that of some devastating human- and plant-parasitic nematodes. We compare the olfactory responses of Heterorhabditis and Steinernema infective juveniles (IJs) to those of Caenorhabditis elegans dauers, which are analogous life stages. The broad host range of these parasites results from their ability to respond to the universally produced signal carbon dioxide (CO(2)), as well as a wide array of odors, including host-specific odors that we identified using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. We find that CO(2) is attractive for the parasitic IJs and C. elegans dauers despite being repulsive for C. elegans adults, and we identify a sensory neuron that mediates CO(2) response in both parasitic and free-living species, regardless of whether CO(2) is attractive or repulsive. The parasites' odor response profiles are more similar to each other than to that of C. elegans despite their greater phylogenetic distance, likely reflecting evolutionary convergence to insect parasitism. PMID:21353558
Hallem, Elissa A; Dillman, Adler R; Hong, Annie V; Zhang, Yuanjun; Yano, Jessica M; DeMarco, Stephanie F; Sternberg, Paul W
In the last decade, many diverse RNAi (RNA interference) pathways have been discovered that mediate gene silencing at epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The diversity of RNAi pathways is inherently linked to the evolution of Ago (Argonaute) proteins, the central protein component of RISCs (RNA-induced silencing complexes). An increasing number of diverse Agos have been identified in different species. The functions of most of these proteins are not yet known, but they are generally assumed to play roles in development, genome stability and/or protection against viruses. Recent research in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has expanded the breadth of RNAi functions to include transgenerational epigenetic memory and, possibly, environmental sensing. These functions are inherently linked to the production of secondary siRNAs (small interfering RNAs) that bind to members of a clade of WAGOs (worm-specific Agos). In the present article, we review briefly what is known about the evolution and function of Ago proteins in eukaryotes, including the expansion of WAGOs in nematodes. We postulate that the rapid evolution of WAGOs enables the exceptional functional plasticity of nematodes, including their capacity for parasitism.
Buck, Amy H.; Blaxter, Mark
This paper supports the hypothesis that low oxygen does not influence deep-sea nematode abundance by investigating an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on the Oman slope in the Arabian Sea. Correlation with a number of environmental variables indicated that food quality (measured as the hydrogen index) rather than oxygen was the major predictor of nematode abundance. Nematode abundance was also positively correlated with abundance of total macrofauna, annelids, spionid polychaetes and macrofaunal tube builders. Comparison with published data showed Arabian Sea nematode abundance to be similar to that of the Porcupine Seabight and Bay of Biscay regions of the northeast Atlantic, which also receive significant quantities of phytodetritus but have no OMZ.
Cook, Adam A.; Lambshead, P. John D.; Hawkins, Lawrence E.; Mitchell, Nicola; Levin, Lisa A.
Root-knot and cyst nematodes are biotrophic parasites that invade the root apex of host plants and migrate toward the vascular cylinder where they cause the differentiation of root cells into galls (or root-knots) containing hypertrophied multinucleated giant-feeding cells, or syncytia, respectively. The precise molecular mechanisms that drive the formation of such unique nematode feeding sites are still far-off from being completely understood. The diverse gene expression changes occurring within the host cells suggest that both types of plant-parasitic nematodes modulate a variety of plant processes. Induction and repression of genes belonging to the host cell cycle control machinery have shown to be essential to drive the formation of such specialized nematode feeding cells. We demonstrate that nematodes usurp key components regulating the endocycle in their favor. This is illustrated by the involvement of anaphase-promoting complex (APC) genes (CCS52A and CCS52B), the endocycle repressor DP-E2F-like (E2F/DEL1) gene and the ROOT HAIRLESS 1 PROTEIN (RHL1), which is part of a multiprotein complex of the toposiomerase VI, in the proper formation of nematode feeding sites. Altering the expression of these genes in Arabidopsis plants by down- or overexpressing strategies strongly influences the extent of endoreduplication in both types of nematode feeding site leading to a disturbance of the nematode’s life cycle and reproduction.
Vieira, Paulo; Kyndt, Tina; Gheysen, Godelieve; Engler, Janice de Almeida
We examined sand crabs (Lepidopa benedicti) for endoparasites, and found the only parasite consistently infecting the studied population were small nematodes. Because many nematodes have complex life cycles involving multiple hosts, often strongly manipulating their hosts, we hypothesized that nematodes alter the behavior of their sand crab hosts. We predicted that more heavily infected crabs would spend more time above sand than less heavily infected crabs. Our data indicate infection by nematodes was not correlated with duration of time crabs spent above sand. We also suggest that organisms living in sandy beaches may benefit from relatively low parasite loads due to the low diversity of species in the habitat.
Joseph, Meera; Faulkes, Zen
Parasitic granulomatous eosinophilic inflammation was observed in the central nervous system (CNS) of a 6-month-old Arabian colt from New York state. Inflammation was associated with eggs, larvae, and adult nematodes in the cerebellum. Nematodes had histological characteristics of the superfamily Metastrongyloidea. The presence of dorsal-spined larvae in the CNS was further indicative of infection with a nematode in the family Protostrongylidae. Infections were most compatible with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis but specific diagnosis was not possible. This is the first definitive report of a protostrongylid nematode infection in a horse. PMID:17197637
Tanabe, M; Kelly, R; de Lahunta, A; Duffy, M S; Wade, S E; Divers, T J
Nematodes are ubiquitous organisms that have a significant global impact on ecosystems, economies, agriculture, and human health. The applied importance of nematodes and the experimental tractability of many species have promoted their use as models in various research areas, including developmental biology, evolutionary biology, ecology, and animal-bacterium interactions. Nematodes are particularly well suited for investigating host associations with bacteria because all nematodes have interacted with bacteria during their evolutionary history and engage in a diversity of association types. Interactions between nematodes and bacteria can be positive (mutualistic) or negative (pathogenic/parasitic) and may be transient or stably maintained (symbiotic). Furthermore, since many mechanistic aspects of nematode-bacterium interactions are conserved their study can provide broader insights into other types of associations, including those relevant to human diseases. Recently, genome-scale studies have been applied to diverse nematode-bacterial interactions, and have helped reveal mechanisms of communication and exchange between the associated partners. In addition to providing specific information about the system under investigation, these studies also have helped inform our understanding of genome evolution, mutualism, and innate immunity. In this review we will discuss the importance and diversity of nematodes, 'omics' studies in nematode-bacterial systems, and the wider implications of the findings.
Murfin, Kristen E.; Dillman, Adler R.; Foster, Jeremy M.; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Slatko, Barton E.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi
We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae and analyzed its structure and composition as well as the secondary structures predicted for its tRNAs and rRNAs. Almost\\u000a the complete genome has been amplified in one fragment with long PCR and sequenced using a shotgun strategy. The 13,925-bp\\u000a genome contains genes for 2 rRNAs,
Rafael Montiel; Miguel A. Lucena; Jorge Medeiros; Nelson Simões
Cultures of the nematode C. elegans were examined for the presence of calcium-dependent, phospholipid-binding proteins of the annexin class. A single protein of apparent mass on SDS-polyacrylamide gels of 32 kD was isolated from soluble extracts of nematode cultures on the basis of its ability to bind to phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner. After verification of the protein as an annexin by peptide sequencing, an antiserum to the protein was prepared and used to isolate a corresponding cDNA from an expression library in phage lambda gt11. The encoded protein, herein referred to as the nex-1 annexin, has a mass of 35 kD and is 36-42% identical in sequence to 10 known mammalian annexins. Several unique modifications were found in the portions of the sequence corresponding to calcium-binding sites. Possible phosphorylation sites in the NH2-terminal domain of the nematode annexin correspond to those of mammalian annexins. The gene for this annexin (nex-1) was physically mapped to chromosome III in the vicinity of the dpy-17 genetic marker. Two other annexin genes (nex-2 and nex-3) were also identified in chromosome III sequences reported by the nematode genomic sequencing project (Sulston, J., Z. Du, K. Thomas, R. Wilson, L. Hillier, R. Staden, N. Halloran, P. Green, J. Thierry-Mieg, L. Qiu, et al. 1992. Nature (Lond.). 356:37-41). The nex-1 annexin was localized in the nematode by immunofluorescence and by electron microscopy using immunogold labeling. The protein is associated with membrane systems of the secretory gland cells of the pharynx, with sites of cuticle formation in the grinder in the pharynx, with yolk granules in oocytes, with the uterine wall and vulva, and with membrane systems in the spermathecal valve. The presence of the annexin in association with the membranes of the spermathecal valve suggests a novel function of the protein in the folding and unfolding of these membranes as eggs pass through the valve. The localizations also indicate roles for the annexin corresponding to those proposed in mammalian systems in membrane trafficking, collagen deposition, and extracellular matrix formation.
Background The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and its symbiotic bacterium, Photorhabdus luminescens, are important biological control agents of insect pests. This nematode-bacterium-insect association represents an emerging tripartite model for research on mutualistic and parasitic symbioses. Elucidation of mechanisms underlying these biological processes may serve as a foundation for improving the biological control potential of the nematode-bacterium complex. This large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis effort enables gene discovery and development of microsatellite markers. These ESTs will also aid in the annotation of the upcoming complete genome sequence of H. bacteriophora. Results A total of 31,485 high quality ESTs were generated from cDNA libraries of the adult H. bacteriophora TTO1 strain. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of 3,051 contigs and 7,835 singletons, representing 10,886 distinct EST sequences. About 72% of the distinct EST sequences had significant matches (E value < 1e-5) to proteins in GenBank's non-redundant (nr) and Wormpep190 databases. We have identified 12 ESTs corresponding to 8 genes potentially involved in RNA interference, 22 ESTs corresponding to 14 genes potentially involved in dauer-related processes, and 51 ESTs corresponding to 27 genes potentially involved in defense and stress responses. Comparison to ESTs and proteins of free-living nematodes led to the identification of 554 parasitic nematode-specific ESTs in H. bacteriophora, among which are those encoding F-box-like/WD-repeat protein theromacin, Bax inhibitor-1-like protein, and PAZ domain containing protein. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 6,685 of the 10,886 ESTs. A total of 168 microsatellite loci were identified with primers designable for 141 loci. Conclusion A total of 10,886 distinct EST sequences were identified from adult H. bacteriophora cDNA libraries. BLAST searches revealed ESTs potentially involved in parasitism, RNA interference, defense responses, stress responses, and dauer-related processes. The putative microsatellite markers identified in H. bacteriophora ESTs will enable genetic mapping and population genetic studies. These genomic resources provide the material base necessary for genome annotation, microarray development, and in-depth gene functional analysis.
Bai, Xiaodong; Adams, Byron J; Ciche, Todd A; Clifton, Sandra; Gaugler, Randy; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Spieth, John; Sternberg, Paul W; Wilson, Richard K; Grewal, Parwinder S
Background Nematode sinusoidal movement has been used as a phenotype in many studies of C. elegans development, behavior and physiology. A thorough understanding of the ways in which genes control these aspects of biology depends, in part, on the accuracy of phenotypic analysis. While worms that move poorly are relatively easy to describe, description of hyperactive movement and movement modulation presents more of a challenge. An enhanced capability to analyze all the complexities of nematode movement will thus help our understanding of how genes control behavior. Results We have developed a user-friendly system to analyze nematode movement in an automated and quantitative manner. In this system nematodes are automatically recognized and a computer-controlled microscope stage ensures that the nematode is kept within the camera field of view while video images from the camera are stored on videotape. In a second step, the images from the videotapes are processed to recognize the worm and to extract its changing position and posture over time. From this information, a variety of movement parameters are calculated. These parameters include the velocity of the worm's centroid, the velocity of the worm along its track, the extent and frequency of body bending, the amplitude and wavelength of the sinusoidal movement, and the propagation of the contraction wave along the body. The length of the worm is also determined and used to normalize the amplitude and wavelength measurements. To demonstrate the utility of this system, we report here a comparison of movement parameters for a small set of mutants affecting the Go/Gq mediated signaling network that controls acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. The system allows comparison of distinct genotypes that affect movement similarly (activation of Gq-alpha versus loss of Go-alpha function), as well as of different mutant alleles at a single locus (null and dominant negative alleles of the goa-1 gene, which encodes Go-alpha). We also demonstrate the use of this system for analyzing the effects of toxic agents. Concentration-response curves for the toxicants arsenite and aldicarb, both of which affect motility, were determined for wild-type and several mutant strains, identifying P-glycoprotein mutants as not significantly more sensitive to either compound, while cat-4 mutants are more sensitive to arsenite but not aldicarb. Conclusions Automated analysis of nematode movement facilitates a broad spectrum of experiments. Detailed genetic analysis of multiple alleles and of distinct genes in a regulatory network is now possible. These studies will facilitate quantitative modeling of C. elegans movement, as well as a comparison of gene function. Concentration-response curves will allow rigorous analysis of toxic agents as well as of pharmacological agents. This type of system thus represents a powerful analytical tool that can be readily coupled with the molecular genetics of nematodes.
Cronin, Christopher J; Mendel, Jane E; Mukhtar, Saleem; Kim, Young-Mee; Stirbl, Robert C; Bruck, Jehoshua; Sternberg, Paul W
In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22?Gyh(-1). These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H'). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200?Gyh(-1). This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites. This might result from a selection at the expense of sensitive species after the accident. PMID:24852614
Lecomte-Pradines, C; Bonzom, J-M; Della-Vedova, C; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Villenave, C; Gaschak, S; Coppin, F; Dubourg, N; Maksimenko, A; Adam-Guillermin, C; Garnier-Laplace, J
The relative importance of the factors driving change in the population dynamics of nematodes in the soil is almost completely unknown. Top-down control by micro-arthropod predators may have a significant impact on nematode population dynamics. We report experiments showing that mites and Collembola were capable of reducing nematode numbers in the laboratory and were feeding on a targeted nematode species in the field. A PCR-based approach was developed for the detection of predation on three species of slug- and insect-pathogenic nematodes: Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, Heterorhabditis megidis and Steinernema feltiae. The collembolan Folsomia candida and the mesostigmatid mite Stratiolaelaps miles were employed as model predators to calibrate post-ingestion prey DNA detection times. Fragments of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mtDNA were sequenced and species-specific primers were designed, amplifying 154-, 154- and 203-bp fragments for each of the nematode species. Detection times for nematode DNA within the guts of Collembola were longer than in mites, with half-lives (50% of samples testing positive) of 08.75 h and 05.03 h, respectively. F. candida significantly reduced numbers of the nematode H. megidis, with rates of predation of approximately 0.4 nematode infective juveniles per collembolan per hour over 10 h. Four taxa of field-caught micro-arthropod that had been exposed to the nematode P. hermaphrodita for a period of 12 h were analysed and significant numbers of three taxa tested positive. This is the first application of PCR techniques for the study of nematophagy and the first time these techniques have been used to measure predation on nematodes in the field. PMID:16689911
Read, D S; Sheppard, S K; Bruford, M W; Glen, D M; Symondson, W O C
The nematodes of Scolytus scolytus F. on elm were studied in 1965 - 1966 in Eastern Georgia. Six species of nematodes were observed and classified as follows: Sychnotylenchus intricati Ruhm, 1956; Bursaphelenchus xerokarterus (Ruhm, 1956) Goodey, 1960; Ec...
I. A. Kakuliya T. G. Devariani
The bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens is a symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The nematode requires the bacterium for infection of insect larvae and as a substrate for growth and reproduction. The nematodes do not grow and reproduce in insect hosts or on artificial media in the absence of viable P. luminescens cells. In an effort to identify bacterial factors
TODD A. CICHE; SCOTT B. BINTRIM; ALEXANDER R. HORSWILL; JERALD C. ENSIGN
Nematode density along a depth gradient (206–2760 m) in the northeastern Atlantic (Goban Spur) is linearly and positively related to organic matter mineralization in the sediment. It is estimated that nematodes contribute at most 13% to total carbon turnover, and this contribution decreases with water depth. The vertical distribution of nematodes in the sediment closely follows concentration vs depth profiles
Karline Soetaert; Jan Vanaverbeke; Carlo Heip; Peter M. J. Herman; Jack J. Middelburg; Adri Sandee; Gerard Duineveld
Parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella cause significant food-borne illness and occupy a unique evolutionary position at the base of the phylum Nematoda, unlike the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Although the forthcoming genome sequence of Trichinella spiralis can provide invaluable comparative information about nematode biology, a basic framework for understanding the history of the genus Trichinella is needed to maximize
D. S. Zarlenga; B. M. Rosenthal; G. La Rosa; E. Pozio; E. P. Hoberg
Parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella cause significant food-borne illness and occupy a unique evolutionary position at the base of the phylum Nematoda, unlike the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Although the forthcoming genome sequence of Trichinella spiralis can provide invaluable comparative information about nematode biology, a basic framework for understanding the history of the genus Trichinella is needed to maximize
D. S. Zarlenga; B. M. Rosenthal; G. La Rosa; E. Pozio; E. P. Hoberg
Summary • The ability of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora and the nematode egg parasite Verticillium chlamydosporium to colonize barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) and tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum ) roots was examined, together with capability of the fungi to induce cell wall modifications in root cells. • Chemotropism was studied using an agar plate technique. Root colonization was investigated
J. J. Bordallo; L. V. Lopez-Llorca; H.-B. Jansson; J. Salinas; L. Persmark; L. Asensio
Obligate sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, such as the root-knot and cyst nematodes, elicit the differentiation of specialized nematode nurse or feeding cells [nematode feeding sites (NFS), giant cells and syncytia, respectively]. During NFS differentiation, marked changes in cell cycle progression occur, partly similar to those induced by some geminiviruses. In this work, we describe the activation of V-sense promoters from the Maize streak virus (MSV) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) in NFS formed by root-knot and cyst nematodes. Both promoters were transiently active in microinjection experiments. In tobacco and Arabidopsis transgenic lines carrying promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusions, the MSV V-sense promoter was activated in the vascular tissues of aerial plant parts, primarily leaf and cotyledon phloem tissue and some floral structures. Interestingly, in roots, promoter activation was restricted to syncytia and giant cells tested with four different nematode populations, but undetectable in the rest of the root system. As the activity of the promoter in transgenic rootstocks should be restricted to NFS only, the MSV promoter may have utility in engineering grafted crops for nematode control. Therefore, this study represents a step in the provision of some of the much needed additional data on promoters with restricted activation in NFS useful in biotechnological nematode control strategies. PMID:20447288
Escobar, Carolina; García, Alejandra; Aristizábal, Fabio; Portillo, Mary; Herreros, Esther; Munoz-Martín, M Angeles; Grundler, Florian; Mullineaux, Phillip M; Fenoll, Carmen
The variation of acute toxicity data among nematode species belonging to different taxonomic and ecological groups was investigated. Twelve different nematode species were extracted from the soil and directly exposed to cadmium and pentachlorophenol. LC50-values were estimated after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure in aqueous solutions. The species exhibited large differences in sensitivity. LC50-values (72 h) for
J. E. Kammenga; C. A. M. Van Gestel; J. Bakker
Nematode assemblages constitute a potential instrument for assessing the quality of submersed, temporarily submersed, and terrestrial soils and for the development of an ecological typology and biomonitoring system. Interpretation of physical or pollution-induced disturbances has hitherto mainly been based on changes in diversity, dominance patterns or percentage of dorylaimids (Adenophorea). The maturity index, based on the nematode fauna, is proposed
A pictorial key to 118 genera of free-living marine nematodes in the order Enoplida is presented. Specific morphological and anatomical features are illustrated to facilitate use of the key. The work provides a single key to the genera of enoplid nematode...
E. J. Keppner A. C. Tarjan
Aboveground and belowground herbivore species modify plant defense responses differently. Simultaneous attack can lead to non-additive effects on primary and secondary metabolite composition in roots and shoots. We previously found that aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) population growth on Brassica oleracea was reduced on plants that were infested with nematodes (Heterodera schachtii) prior (4 weeks) to aphid infestation. Here, we examined how infection with root-feeding nematodes affected primary and secondary metabolites in the host plant and whether this could explain the increase in aphid doubling time from 3.8 to 6.7 days. We hypothesized that the effects of herbivores on plant metabolites would depend on the presence of the other herbivore and that nematode-induced changes in primary metabolites would correlate with reduced aphid performance. Total glucosinolate concentration in the leaves was not affected by nematode presence, but the composition of glucosinolates shifted, as gluconapin concentrations were reduced, while gluconapoleiferin concentrations increased in plants exposed to nematodes. Aphid presence increased 4-methoxyglucobrassicin concentrations in leaves, which correlated positively with the number of aphids per plant. Nematodes decreased amino acid and sugar concentrations in the phloem. Aphid population doubling time correlated negatively with amino acids and glucosinolate levels in leaves, whereas these correlations were non-significant when nematodes were present. In conclusion, the effects of an herbivore on plant metabolites were independent of the presence of another herbivore. Nematode presence reduced aphid population growth and disturbed feeding relations between plants and aphids. PMID:24014097
Hol, W H Gera; De Boer, Wietse; Termorshuizen, Aad J; Meyer, Katrin M; Schneider, Johannes H M; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Van Dam, Nicole M
Cultivar Peking has been extensively used as a source of resistance to Race 3 and Race 5 of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines I., and Peking genes for resistance are present in a wide range of resistant soybean cultivars. Peking is also used as a host differential in the soybean cyst nematode race classification system. Thirteen Peking lines maintained in
H. T. Skorupska; I. S. Choi; A. P. Rao-Arelli; W. C. Bridges
Soybean Cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines Ichinohe is the most serious pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the world and genetic resistance in soybean cultivars have been the most effective means of control. Nematode populations, however, are variable and have adapted to reproduce on resistant cultivars over time due mainly to the narrow genetic base of SCN resistance
P. Lu; J. G. Shannon; D. A. Sleper; H. T. Nguyen; S. R. Cianzio; P. R. Arelli
The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) is produced by some isolates of the beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. DAPG is toxic to many organisms, and crop yield increases have been reported after application of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens. This study was conducted to determine whether DAPG is toxic to selected nematodes. The plant-parasitic nematodes Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus scribneri and Xiphinema americanum, and the bacterial-feeding nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans, Pristionchus pacificus, and Rhabditis rainai, were immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 ?g/ml DAPG. Egg hatch and viability of juveniles and adults were determined. DAPG was toxic to X. americanum adults, with an LD50 of 8.3 ?g/ml DAPG. DAPG decreased M. incognita egg hatch, but stimulated C. elegans hatch during the first hours of incubation. Viability of M. incognita J2 and of C. elegans J1 and adults was not affected. There were no observed effects on the other nematodes. The study indicated that DAPG is not toxic to all nematodes, and did not affect the tested species of beneficial bacterial-feeding nematodes. Augmentation of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens populations for nematode biocontrol could be targeted to specific nematode species known to be affected by this compound and by other antibiotics produced by the bacteria, or these bacteria could be used for other possible effects, such as induced plant resistance.
Halbrendt, John M.; Carta, Lynn K.; Skantar, Andrea M.; Liu, Ting; Abdelnabby, Hazem M. E.; Vinyard, Bryan T.
Molecular genetic research on parasitic nematodes (order Strongylida) is of major significance for many fundamental and applied areas of medical and veterinary parasitology. The advent of gene technology has led to some progress for this group of nematodes, particularly in studying parasite systematics, drug resistance and population genetics, and in the development of diagnostic assays and the characterisation of potential
Robin B Gasser; Susan E Newton
A knowledge of the life cycles of free-living, mycetophagous nematodes has been utilized in developing methods for the monoxenic mass rearing of hundreds of millions of Deladenus siricidicola Bedding. This tylenchid nematode causes sterility in female Sirex noctilio F., a serious pest of pine trees in south- eastern Australia; it has been liberated over many of the areas affected by
R. A. Bedding; R. J. Akhurst
Here we report the first human case of an outer ear canal infection with a free-living nematode of the genus Rhabditis. Otomicroscopy revealed viable worms in the outer ear canal of a patient suffering from chronic otorrhea and hearing loss. The nematode was identified by microscopy and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-PCR. PMID:24599974
Teschner, Magnus; Würfel, Waldemar; Sedlacek, Ludwig; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Tappe, Dennis; Hornef, Mathias Walter
The integration of entomopathogenic nematodes and Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki or a pesticidal soap controlled insect pests inhabiting the soil and foliage in the greenhouse. The nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora controlled larvae of the masked chafer Cyclocephala hirta or the black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus in the soil and a commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis (Javelin) controlled larvae of the cabbage
H. K. Kaya; T. M. Burlando; H. Y. Choo; G. S. Thurston
Oil seed cakes of neem\\/margosa (Azadirachta indica), castor (Ricinum communis), mustard (Brassica compestris), rocket salad\\/duan (Eruca sativa) were found to be highly effective in reducing the multiplication of nematodes and consequently plant growth and bulk density of woody stem of pigeonpea increased significantly. The multiplication rate of nematodes was less in presence of Paecilomyces lilacinus as compared to the absence
In previous greenhouse studies, the insecticide imidacloprid and the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar interacted synergistically against third instars of the masked chafers Cyclocephala hirta LeConte and C. pasadenae Casey (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). We tested this interaction for two additional nematode species and three additional scarab species under field conditions. In greenhouse tests, H. bacteriophora and Steinernema glaseri (Steiner) interacted synergistically
Albrecht M Koppenhöfer; Ian M Brown; Randy Gaugler; Parwinder S Grewal; Harry K Kaya; Michael G Klein
The development of giant cells induced by the nematode Meloidogyne in tomato roots has been followed under controlled growth conditions and the ultrastructure and histochemistry of these structures have been examined. Entry of the nematode larvae into the roots took place within 24 hours; giant cell formation started on the 4th day and involved breakdown of the cell walls accompanied
ALAN F. BIRD
Pine wood nematode, B. xylophilus poses a serious threat for the European forest industry. This study applies a quantitative risk assessment to analyze the risk of pine wood nematode in the EU, by estimating the reduction expected within forestry stock available for wood supply and its downstream roundwood market. Spatial analysis is used to join information on climate suitability, host
T. Soliman; G. M. Hengeveld; C. Robinet; Monique Mourits; Wopke van der Werf
Pine wood nematode disease, namely pine wilt disease, is caused by the invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Bx) into pines. Once susceptible pines are infected by the nematode, the disease develops rapidly, the infected pines cease to exude oleoresin and die quickly. Hence it is called pine cancer. Given the fact that there are still no good methods in diagnosing the
Yunfei Liu; Jiajin Tan; Liang Jiang; Shengcai Shi; Biaobing Jin; Jinlong Ma
in integrated control of the potato cyst nematodes, Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida , the use of resistant varieties is an important strategy, especially now the application of agrochemicals in The Netherlands is increasingly restricted. Repeated cropping of varieties with the same or similar resistance genes produces a selection pressure on nematode populations leading to an increase in virulence and
L. J. M. F. den Nijs
Obligate root-parasitic nematodes can affect soil microbes positively by enhancing C and nutrient leakage from roots but negatively by restricting total root growth. However, it is unclear how the resulting changes in C availability affect soil microbial activities and N cycling. In a microplot experiment, effects of root-parasitic reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) on soil microbial biomass and activities were examined
C. Tu; S. R. Koenning; S. Hu
A study on the meiobenthic nematode assemblages from three Italian Marine Protected Areas (Miramare, Adriatic Sea; Porto Cesareo, Ionian Sea; and Capo Caccia, Western Mediterranean Sea) was carried out at three different depth ranges from the low intertidal to the shallow subtidal. Nematode community composition was analysed at the genus level, and diversity and taxonomic distinctness were studied to detect
Roberto Sandulli; Cristiana de Leonardis; Magda Vincx; Jan Vanaverbeke
Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans in marine soft-bottom habitats, yet little is known of their role in deep-sea communities. We describe the nematode fauna from +626 m depth in the North Atlantic (40 deg 24.0 min N, 63 deg 07.4 min W) at the famil...
D. Thistle K. M. Sherman
A plethora of research has been conducted on the use of marigolds (Tagetes spp.) for nematode suppression, yet limited cover cropping with marigold is being practiced in commercial operations. Marigold is well known among nematologists for its ability to produce compounds such as ?-terthienyl that are allelopathic to many species of plant-parasitic nematodes. However, there are contradictory reports on how
Cerruti R. R. Hooks; Koon-Hui Wang; Antoon Ploeg; Robert McSorley
Two economically important species of Citrus fruits viz., orange, Citrus reliculata and lemon, C. aurantifolia were selected for studying the changes in the population of plant parasitic nematodes around their roots. The nematode population of Hoplolaimus indicus, Helicotylenchus indicus, Xiphinema americanum, Pratylenchus coffeae, Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Hemicriconemoides mangiferae was observed at 10?cm (upper layer) followed by 20?cm (middle) and 40?cm
Mansoor A Siddiqui
Effects of Cd, Cr, Se and Zn at a maximum rate of 270 mg kg?1 were studied on a nematode assemblage after 6–10 years of application. Winter wheat, sunflower, sorrel, barley and rape were grown on the experimental field. Cd had a moderate effect on nematodes in spite of the fact that this element significantly decreased plant biomass. Cr was
Gábor Bakonyi; Péter Nagy; Imre Kádár
The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) is produced by some isolates of the beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. DAPG is toxic to many organisms, and crop yield increases have been reported after application of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens. This study was conducted to determine whether DAPG is toxic to selected nematodes. The plant-parasitic nematodes Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus scribneri and Xiphinema americanum, and the bacterial-feeding nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans, Pristionchus pacificus, and Rhabditis rainai, were immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 ?g/ml DAPG. Egg hatch and viability of juveniles and adults were determined. DAPG was toxic to X. americanum adults, with an LD?? of 8.3 ?g/ml DAPG. DAPG decreased M. incognita egg hatch, but stimulated C. elegans hatch during the first hours of incubation. Viability of M. incognita J2 and of C. elegans J1 and adults was not affected. There were no observed effects on the other nematodes. The study indicated that DAPG is not toxic to all nematodes, and did not affect the tested species of beneficial bacterial-feeding nematodes. Augmentation of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens populations for nematode biocontrol could be targeted to specific nematode species known to be affected by this compound and by other antibiotics produced by the bacteria, or these bacteria could be used for other possible effects, such as induced plant resistance. PMID:22736826
Meyer, Susan L F; Halbrendt, John M; Carta, Lynn K; Skantar, Andrea M; Liu, Ting; Abdelnabby, Hazem M E; Vinyard, Bryan T
Summary We studied the effect of the earthworm, Eisenia andrei, on the nematode community and on the microbial activity during the vermicomposting of two organic wastes, cow manure and sewage sludge. Fresh cow manure and sewage sludge was placed in five replicated boxes with and without earthworms for a period of 16 weeks. Samples were collected periodically and nematodes were
Jorge Domínguez; Robert W. Parmelee; Clive A. Edwards
Comparisons of organic and inorganic fertilizer effects on nematode communities depend on the specific organic fertilizer used. Field experiments were conducted during 2001 and 2002 in a squash (Cucurbita pepo) agroecosystem to determine if applying sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) hay as an organic fertilizer improved nematode communities involved in soil nutrient cycling compared to an equivalent N rate (100kgN\\/ha) of
K.-H. Wang; R. McSorley; A. Marshall; R. N. Gallaher
Whole nematode communities, extracted from soil samples taken from agricultural fields, were enumerated by taxonomic family and trophic group (i.e., bacterivores, fungivores, omnivores, plant-parasites, and predators) to evaluate nematode community structure as an indicator for monitoring ecological condition of soil. No differences were found in mixing treatments or methods of packing or shipping samples. However, extraction using Cobb's sifting and
Deborah A. Neher; Steven L. Peck; John O. Rawlings; C. Lee Campbell
In this study, we report on the bacterial community associated with the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from symptomatic pine wilted trees, as well as from long-term preserved B. xylophilus laboratory collection specimens, emphasizing the close bacteria-nematode associations that may contribute to pine wilt disease development. PMID:21656192
Vicente, Cláudia S L; Nascimento, Francisco; Espada, Margarida; Mota, Manuel; Oliveira, Solange
Esteya vermicola, as the first recorded endoparasitic fungus of pinewood nematodes, exhibits great potential as a biological agent against nematodes. However, only two strains of this species have been described so far. In this study, we identified a novel endoparasitic fungal strain, CNU 120806, isolated from infected nematodes in forest soil samples during a survey of nematophagous fungi in Korea. This strain showed similar morphological characteristics and infection mode with the two previously described strains of E. vermicola. All strains are characterized by the ability to produce two types of conidiogenous cells and conidia, and to parasitize nematodes with lunate adhesive conidia. Moreover, the CNU 120806 strain showed 100% identity with E. vermicola CBS 115803 when their partial sequences of 28S rRNA gene were compared. Molecular phylogenetic analysis further identified CNU 120806 as a strain of E. vermicola, by clustering CNU 120806 and E. vermicola CBS 115803 into a single subclade. Culture medium influenced the proportion of dimorphic CNU 120806 conidia, and further changed the adhesive and mortality rates of nematodes. The CNU 120806 strain exhibits high infection activity against nematodes on nutrient-rich PDA medium. Almost all tested nematodes were killed within 8 approximately 10 days after inoculation. This study provides justification for further research of E. vermicola, and the application and formulation of this fungus as a bio-control agent against nematodes. PMID:18758727
Wang, Chun Yan; Fang, Zhe Ming; Sun, Bai Shen; Gu, Li Juan; Zhang, Ke Qin; Sung, Chang-Keun
BACKGROUND: As exemplified by the famously successful model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, nematodes offer outstanding animal systems for investigating diverse biological phenomena due to their small genome sizes, short generation times and ease of laboratory maintenance. Nematodes in the genus Panagrolaimus have served in comparative development and anhydrobiosis studies, and the Antarctic species P. davidi offers a powerful paradigm for understanding
Samantha C Lewis; Leslie A Dyal; Caroline F Hilburn; Stephanie Weitz; Wei-Siang Liau; Craig W LaMunyon; Dee R Denver
Endoparasites can alter their host's heavy metal concentrations by sequestering metals in their own tissues. Contracaecum spp. (a nematode), but not Drepanocephalus spathans (a trematode), were bioaccumulating mercury to concentrations 1.5 times above cormorant hosts. Nematodes did not have significantly greater stable nitrogen isotope values (?(15)N) than their hosts, which is contradictory to prey-predator trophic enrichment studies, but is in agreement with other endoparasite-host relationships. However, Contracaecum spp. ?(13)C values were significantly greater than their hosts, which suggest that nematodes were consuming host tissues. Nematodes were accumulating and thus sequestering some of their cormorant hosts' body burden of methyl mercury; however, they were not dramatically reducing their hosts' accumulation of methyl mercury. PMID:20797771
Robinson, Stacey A; Forbes, Mark R; Hebert, Craig E
ABSTRACT The inner lining of the food canal of nematodes that transmit plantinfecting viruses is regarded as the retention region of viruses. To characterize the location of transmissible and nontransmissible viruses in the vector nematode Xiphinema americanum, three nepoviruses, Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Tomato ringspot virus(TomRSV), and Cherry leaf roll virus(CLRV), and one non-nematode-transmissible virus, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), were evaluated for transmission efficiency and localization sites in the nematode. Transmission trials showed highest transmission efficiency for TomRSV (38% with 1 and 100% with 10 nematodes, respectively), intermediate efficiency for TRSV (27% with 1 and 65% with 10 nematodes, respectively), and no transmission for CLRV and SqMV. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescent labeling revealed that TRSV was primarily localized to the lining of the lumen of the stylet extension and the anterior esophagus, but only rarely in the triradiate lumen. Within a nematode population, particles of TRSV were no longer observed in these three regions 10 weeks after acquisition, and it is assumed that there was gradual and random loss of the virus from these areas. The percentage of nematodes that were labeled by virus-specific immunofluorescent labeling in a population of viruliferous nematodes decreased gradually after TRSV acquisition when the nematodes were placed on a nonhost of the virus, and the loss of immunofluorescent labeling paralleled the decrease in the ability of the nematode population to transmit the virus. TomRSV was localized only in the triradiate lumen based on thin-section electron microscopy. No virus-like particles were observed in any part of the food canal of nematodes that had fed on CLRV-infected plants. Virus-like particles that appeared to be partially degraded were observed only in the triradiate lumen of nematodes that had fed on SqMV-infected plants. These results clarified the status of localization of two nontransmissible viruses in X. americanum and presented evidence that two nematode-transmissible viruses, TRSV and TomRSV, are localized in different regions of the food canal of X. americanum. PMID:18944262
Wang, Shouhua; Gergerich, Rose C; Wickizer, Sandra L; Kim, Kyung S
Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus spp. are damaging nematode species on bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) in sandy soils of the southeastern United States. Eight bermudagrass and three seashore paspalum cultivars were tested for responses to both nematode species in field plots for two years in Florida. Soil samples were taken every three months and nematode population densities in soil were quantified. Turfgrass aboveground health was evaluated throughout the growing season. Results showed that all bermudagrass cultivars, except TifSport, were good hosts for B. longicaudatus, and all seashore paspalum cultivars were good hosts for H. pseudorobustus. Overall, bermudagrass was a better host for B. longicaudatus while seashore paspalum was a better host for H. pseudorobustus. TifSport bermudagrass and SeaDwarf seashore paspalum cultivars supported the lowest population densities of B. longicaudatus. Seashore paspalum had a higher percent green cover than bermudagrass in the nematode-infested field. Nematode intolerant cultivars were identified.
Pang, Wenjing; Luc, John E.; Crow, William T.; Kenworthy, Kevin E.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; McSorley, Robert; Kruse, Jason K.
Control of Delia radicum (cabbage maggot) in field collards (Brassica oleracea) was compared after one or two applications of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae (All strain) and Heterorhabditis bacterophora (HP88 strain), a single application of granular chlorpyrifos, and a water-only treatment. Nematodes were applied with a sprayer during the egg stage of first-generation D. radicum, and chlorpyrifos was hand placed around collard stems during the same period. A second nematode application was made 10 days later. Chlorpyrifos treatment resulted in fewer puparia per plant, less root damage and higher yield than all other treatments, including the control. Collard yield from nematode-treated beds did not differ from controls. These data indicate that, under these field conditions, the species or strains of entomopathogenic nematodes tested did not reduce the number of active cabbage maggots, nor did they prevent collard root damage. PMID:19283012
Control of Delia radicum (cabbage maggot) in field collards (Brassica oleracea) was compared after one or two applications of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae (All strain) and Heterorhabditis bacterophora (HP88 strain), a single application of granular chlorpyrifos, and a water-only treatment. Nematodes were applied with a sprayer during the egg stage of first-generation D. radicum, and chlorpyrifos was hand placed around collard stems during the same period. A second nematode application was made 10 days later. Chlorpyrifos treatment resulted in fewer puparia per plant, less root damage and higher yield than all other treatments, including the control. Collard yield from nematode-treated beds did not differ from controls. These data indicate that, under these field conditions, the species or strains of entomopathogenic nematodes tested did not reduce the number of active cabbage maggots, nor did they prevent collard root damage.
The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This work evaluated the efficacy of Cocos nucifera fruit on sheep gastrointestinal parasites. The ethyl acetate extract obtained from the liquid of green coconut husk fiber (LGCHF) was submitted to in vitro and in vivo tests. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatching (EHT) and larval development tests (LDT) with Haemonchus contortus. The concentrations tested in the EHT were 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg ml(-1), while in the LDT they were 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg ml(-1). The in vivo assay was a controlled test. In this experiment, 18 sheep infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were divided into three groups (n=6), with the following doses administered: G1-400 mg kg(-1) LGCHF ethyl acetate extract, G2-0.2 mg kg(-1) moxidectin (Cydectin) and G3-3% DMSO. The worm burden was analyzed. The results of the in vitro and in vivo tests were submitted to ANOVA and analyzed by the Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively. The extract efficacy in the EHT and LDT, at the highest concentrations tested, was 100% on egg hatching and 99.77% on larval development. The parameters evaluated in the controlled test were not statistically different, showing that despite the significant results of the in vitro tests, the LGCHF ethyl acetate extract showed no activity against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. PMID:19042088
Oliveira, L M B; Bevilaqua, C M L; Costa, C T C; Macedo, I T F; Barros, R S; Rodrigues, A C M; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Morais, S M; Lima, Y C; Vieira, L S; Navarro, A M C
For decades the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been an important model system for biology, but little is known about its natural ecology. Recently, C. elegans has become the focus of studies of innate immunity and several pathogens have been shown to cause lethal intestinal infections in C. elegans. However none of these pathogens has been shown to invade nematode intestinal cells, and no pathogen has been isolated from wild-caught C. elegans. Here we describe an intracellular pathogen isolated from wild-caught C. elegans that we show is a new species of microsporidia. Microsporidia comprise a large class of eukaryotic intracellular parasites that are medically and agriculturally important, but poorly understood. We show that microsporidian infection of the C. elegans intestine proceeds through distinct stages and is transmitted horizontally. Disruption of a conserved cytoskeletal structure in the intestine called the terminal web correlates with the release of microsporidian spores from infected cells, and appears to be part of a novel mechanism by which intracellular pathogens exit from infected cells. Unlike in bacterial intestinal infections, the p38 MAPK and insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathways do not appear to play substantial roles in resistance to microsporidian infection in C. elegans. We found microsporidia in multiple wild-caught isolates of Caenorhabditis nematodes from diverse geographic locations. These results indicate that microsporidia are common parasites of C. elegans in the wild. In addition, the interaction between C. elegans and its natural microsporidian parasites provides a system in which to dissect intracellular intestinal infection in vivo and insight into the diversity of pathogenic mechanisms used by intracellular microbes.
Troemel, Emily R; Felix, Marie-Anne; Whiteman, Noah K; Barriere, Antoine; Ausubel, Frederick M
Understanding the interactions of plant-parasitic nematodes with antagonistic soil microbes could provide opportunities for novel crop protection strategies. Three arable soils were investigated for their suppressiveness against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla. For all three soils, M. hapla developed significantly fewer galls, egg masses, and eggs on tomato plants in unsterilized than in sterilized infested soil. Egg numbers were reduced by up to 93%. This suggested suppression by soil microbial communities. The soils significantly differed in the composition of microbial communities and in the suppressiveness to M. hapla. To identify microorganisms interacting with M. hapla in soil, second-stage juveniles (J2) baited in the test soil were cultivation independently analyzed for attached microbes. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of fungal ITS or 16S rRNA genes of bacteria and bacterial groups from nematode and soil samples was performed, and DNA sequences from J2-associated bands were determined. The fingerprints showed many species that were abundant on J2 but not in the surrounding soil, especially in fungal profiles. Fungi associated with J2 from all three soils were related to the genera Davidiella and Rhizophydium, while the genera Eurotium, Ganoderma, and Cylindrocarpon were specific for the most suppressive soil. Among the 20 highly abundant operational taxonomic units of bacteria specific for J2 in suppressive soil, six were closely related to infectious species such as Shigella spp., whereas the most abundant were Malikia spinosa and Rothia amarae, as determined by 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing. In conclusion, a diverse microflora specifically adhered to J2 of M. hapla in soil and presumably affected female fecundity. PMID:24532076
Adam, Mohamed; Westphal, Andreas; Hallmann, Johannes; Heuer, Holger
Disruption and hypertrophy of cortical cells due to the migration and movement of larvae ofMeloidogyne graminicola partly contributed to the development of knots in rice roots. Hyperplasia of protophloem and abnormal xylem proliferation\\u000a caused swelling of stele at sites of nematode attack and establishment. In tolerant rice varieties, poor giant cell formation\\u000a caused delay in nematode development and in the
Rabindra Narayan Jena; Y Seshagiri Rao
In a series of laboratory and field experiments where the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora was mixed directly with feces it has been demonstrated that it is possible to use nematophagous fungi for biological control of animal parasitic nematodes. A procedure used for selection of nematophagous fungi that can pass the digestive tract of ruminants, horses, and pigs is described. The selected fungus, Duddingtonia flagrans, has been used in further field experiments, and the results have confirmed that by the addition of D. flagrans to feed supplement it is possible to reduce the parasitic burden significantly. PMID:19277128
Wolstrup, J; Nansen, P; Gronvold, J; Henriksen, S A; Larsen, M
In a series of laboratory and field experiments where the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora was mixed directly with feces it has been demonstrated that it is possible to use nematophagous fungi for biological control of animal parasitic nematodes. A procedure used for selection of nematophagous fungi that can pass the digestive tract of ruminants, horses, and pigs is described. The selected fungus, Duddingtonia flagrans, has been used in further field experiments, and the results have confirmed that by the addition of D. flagrans to feed supplement it is possible to reduce the parasitic burden significantly.
Wolstrup, J.; Nansen, P.; Gronvold, J.; Henriksen, S. A.; Larsen, M.
Surveys on intestinal nematode infection were conducted in 65 monitoring sites in Nanjing City during 2004-2008. Eggs in stool samples from 46226 residents were examined by modified Kato-Katz thick smear method in the 5 years. The prevalence was reduced from 3.0% in 2004 to 0.7% in 2008, decreased by 75.3%. The prevalence in rural area (2.9%) was higher than that of city (0.9%) (chi2=1024.63, P<0.01). The highest prevalence was in the group of under 10 years (5.2%) (chi2=331.18, P<0.01). PMID:20411760
Li, Yan-jing; Gao, Yuan; Xie, Chao-yong
Background Alternative splicing (AS) of mRNA is a vital mechanism for enhancing genomic complexity in eukaryotes. Spliced isoforms of the same gene can have diverse molecular and biological functions and are often differentially expressed across various tissues, times, and conditions. Thus, AS has important implications in the study of parasitic nematodes with complex life cycles. Transcriptomic datasets are available from many species, but data must be revisited with splice-aware assembly protocols to facilitate the study of AS in helminthes. Methods We sequenced cDNA from the model worm Caenorhabditis elegans using 454/Roche technology for use as an experimental dataset. Reads were assembled with Newbler software, invoking the cDNA option. Several combinations of parameters were tested and assembled transcripts were verified by comparison with previously reported C. elegans genes and transcript isoforms and with Illumina RNAseq data. Results Thoughtful adjustment of program parameters increased the percentage of assembled transcripts that matched known C. elegans sequences, decreased mis-assembly rates (i.e., cis- and trans-chimeras), and improved the coverage of the geneset. The optimized protocol was used to update de novo transcriptome assemblies from nine parasitic nematode species, including important pathogens of humans and domestic animals. Our assemblies indicated AS rates in the range of 20-30%, typically with 2-3 transcripts per AS locus, depending on the species. Transcript isoforms from the nine species were translated and searched for similarity to known proteins and functional domains. Some 21 InterPro domains, including several involved in nucleotide and chromatin binding, were statistically correlated with AS genetic loci. In most cases, the Roche/454 data explored in this study are the only sequences available from the species in question; however, the recently published genome of the human hookworm Necator americanus provided an additional opportunity to validate our results. Conclusions Our optimized assembly parameters facilitated the first survey of AS among parasitic nematodes. The nine transcriptome assemblies, their protein translations, and basic annotations are available from Nematode.net as a resource for the research community. These should be useful for studies of specific genes and gene families of interest as well as for curating draft genome assemblies as they become available.
The nematode Romanomermis culicivorax, an obligate mosquito parasite, possesses a 26 kilobase (kb) mitochondrial genome. The unusually large size is due to transcriptionally active DNA sequences present as 3.0 kb direct tandem repeats and as inverted portions of the repeating unit located elsewhere in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The genome rearrangements involved in establishing this unusual sequence organization may have dramatically altered conventional mitochondrial gene order. Genes for subunits of the cytochrome c oxidase complex (COI and COII) are normally closely linked in animal mtDNAs, but are separated by approximately 8 kb in this mitochondrial genome.
Hyman, B. C.; Beck, J. L.; Weiss, K. C.
Photorhabdus luminescens (Enterobacteriaceae) is a symbiont of entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis spp. (Nematoda: Rhabditida) used for biological control of insect pests. For industrial mass production, the nematodes are produced in liquid media, pre-incubated with their bacterial symbiont, which provides nutrients essential for the nematode’s development and reproduction. Particularly under in vitro conditions, P. luminescens produces phase variants, which do not allow
Richou Han; Ralf-Udo Ehlers
We sequenced the entire coding region of the mitochondrial genome of Heterodera glycines. The sequence obtained comprised 14.9 kb, with PCR evidence indicating that the entire genome comprised a single, circular molecule of approximately 21-22 kb. The genome is the most T-rich nematode mitochondrial genome reported to date, with T representing over half of all nucleotides on the coding strand. The genome also contains the highest number of poly(T) tracts so far reported (to our knowledge), with 60 poly(T) tracts ? 12 Ts. All genes are transcribed from the same mitochondrial strand. The organization of the mitochondrial genome of H. glycines shows a number of similarities compared with Radopholus similis, but fewer similarities when compared with Meloidogyne javanica. Very few gene boundaries are shared with Globodera pallida or Globodera rostochiensis. Partial mitochondrial genome sequences were also obtained for Heterodera cardiolata (5.3 kb) and Punctodera chalcoensis (6.8 kb), and these had identical organizations compared with H. glycines. We found PCR evidence of a minicircular mitochondrial genome in P. chalcoensis, but at low levels and lacking a noncoding region. Such circularised genome fragments may be present at low levels in a range of nematodes, with multipartite mitochondrial genomes representing a shift to a condition in which these subgenomic circles predominate. PMID:21745140
Gibson, Tracey; Farrugia, Daniel; Barrett, Jeff; Chitwood, David J; Rowe, Janet; Subbotin, Sergei; Dowton, Mark
The biology of the ascarid nematodes has been discussed in the context of their important economic role in farm animals, pet animals and zoo animals with special attention to carnivores and primates. In farm animals, infection with the most common roundworm of horses (Parascaris equorum) and swine (Ascaris suum) depend on many factors such as environmental conditions (larval development in the egg and egg survival), age of the host, breed, husbandry system, hygiene and treatment schedule. The monoxenic ascarids Toxocara canis and T. cati are the most important nematodes in carnivorous animals (dogs, cats, foxes) and carnivores in the zoo. In the period of March 2000 till March 2001, 57.1% of examined representatives of Felidae, Ursidae and Canidae in the Zoological Garden of Wroc?aw were found to be infected with ascarids (T. canis, T. cati, Toxascaris leonina). The prevalence of T. canis in the Canidae was 66.7%, of T. cati in the Felidae was 14.3%, while 57.1% of the Felidae carried T. leonina infection. Ascaris lumbricoides, a typical parasite of primates, was found in some gorillas, chimpanzees and orang-utans during parasitological survey. PMID:12512563
Okulewicz, A; Lonc, E; Borgsteede, F H M
Production of transgenic animals via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide, but this application is somewhat limited by its relatively low efficiency. In this study, we used handmade cloning (HMC) established previously to produce transgenic pigs that express the functional nematode fat-1 gene. Codon-optimized mfat-1 was inserted into eukaryotic expression vectors, which were transferred into primary swine donor cells. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select donor clones capable of converting n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts derived from the clones that lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio to approximately 1:1 were transferred surgically into the uteri of recipients for transgenic piglets. By HMC, 37% (n=558) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage after 7 days of culture in vitro, with an average cell number of 81±36 (n=14). Three recipients became pregnant after 408 day-6 blastocysts were transferred into four naturally cycling females, and a total of 14 live offspring were produced. The nematode mfat-1 effectively lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio in muscle and major organs of the transgenic pig. Our results will help to establish a reliable procedure and an efficient option in the production of transgenic animals. PMID:22686479
Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yidi; Dou, Hongwei; Yin, Jingdong; Chen, Yu; Pang, Xinzhi; Vajta, Gabor; Bolund, Lars; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z
Genome sequencing has been democratized by second-generation technologies, and even small labs can sequence metazoan genomes now. In this article, we describe '959 Nematode Genomes'--a community-curated semantic wiki to coordinate the sequencing efforts of individual labs to collectively sequence 959 genomes spanning the phylum Nematoda. The main goal of the wiki is to track sequencing projects that have been proposed, are in progress, or have been completed. Wiki pages for species and strains are linked to pages for people and organizations, using machine- and human-readable metadata that users can query to see the status of their favourite worm. The site is based on the same platform that runs Wikipedia, with semantic extensions that allow the underlying taxonomy and data storage models to be maintained and updated with ease compared with a conventional database-driven web site. The wiki also provides a way to track and share preliminary data if those data are not polished enough to be submitted to the official sequence repositories. In just over a year, this wiki has already fostered new international collaborations and attracted newcomers to the enthusiastic community of nematode genomicists. www.nematodegenomes.org. PMID:22058131
Kumar, Sujai; Schiffer, Philipp H; Blaxter, Mark
Anthelmintic activities of albendazole were evaluated in a controlled experiment. Forty calves experimentally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to 4 groups. Calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; calves in groups 2, 3, and 4 were given (by oral route) a suspension containing albendazole at dose concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight on the 35th day after administration of infective nematode larvae. In groups 2, 3, and 4 calves, average overall reductions (based on geometric means) were 77.1, 93.6, and 98.1%, respectively. These reductions were highly significant (P less than 0.01) in calves given doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg, and were significant (P less than 0.05) in calves given the 2.5-mg/kg dose. Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia onchophora, Cooperia punctata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum removals at the 5.0- and 7.5-mg/kg dose levels were all highly significant (P less than 0.01); whereas, removals of Haemonchus contortus were not significant, even at the 7.5-mg/kg dose level. PMID:921039
Benz, G W; Ernst, J V
Wolbachiae are bacterial endosymbionts of insects and many filarial nematodes whose products trigger inflammation in filarial infections. The dependence of the parasites on their endosymbionts has also led to the use of antibiotics directed against the Wolbachiae, therapy that has been demonstrated to have a profound salutary effect on filarial infections. The identification of Wolbachiae in Mansonella species has been conclusively shown for Mansonella ozzardi (Mo), but not for Mansonella perstans (Mp). Using primers known to amplify the 16S ribosomal DNA of other filarial Wolbachiae, an identical 1393bp band was found in all samples tested. Sequence analysis of these samples demonstrated a single consensus sequence for Mp Wolbachia 16S rDNA that was most similar to Wolbachia sequences from other filarial nematodes. When aligned with the only other Mansonella Wolbachia sequence (Mo) there were only 8 nucleotide differences in the 1369bp overlapping sequence. Phylogenetic dendrograms, examining the relationship of the Mp Wolbachia to other Wolbachia 16S rDNA, showed that the Wolbachia tracked almost identically to the 5S rRNA of their parasite host. Wolbachia surface protein (WSP) was also demonstrated in protein extracted from Mp-containing whole blood. In advance of a treatment trial of Mp, a method for the quantitation of Mp Wolbachia was developed and used to demonstrate not only a relationship between microfilarial numbers and Wolbachia copy numbers, but also to demonstrate the effect of antibiotic on ridding Mp of Wolbachia. PMID:18538871
Keiser, Paul B; Coulibaly, Yaya; Kubofcik, Joseph; Diallo, Abdallah A; Klion, Amy D; Traoré, Sekou F; Nutman, Thomas B
Phenotypic plasticity refers to the ability of an organism to adopt different phenotypes depending on environmental conditions. In animals and plants, the progression of juvenile development and the formation of dormant stages are often associated with phenotypic plasticity, indicating the importance of phenotypic plasticity for life-history theory. Phenotypic plasticity has long been emphasized as a crucial principle in ecology and as facilitator of phenotypic evolution. In nematodes, several examples of phenotypic plasticity have been studied at the genetic and developmental level. In addition, the influence of different environmental factors has been investigated under laboratory conditions. These studies have provided detailed insight into the molecular basis of phenotypic plasticity and its ecological and evolutionary implications. Here, we review recent studies on the formation of dauer larvae in Caenorhabditis elegans, the evolution of nematode parasitism and the generation of a novel feeding trait in Pristionchus pacificus. These examples reveal a conserved and co-opted role of an endocrine signaling module involving the steroid hormone dafachronic acid. We will discuss how hormone signaling might facilitate life-history and morphological evolution. PMID:21959166
Sommer, Ralf J; Ogawa, Akira
A method is presented that enables studies to be made of single nematode-fungal interactions under conditions where fungal growth at the expense of external nutrients is prevented. The nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora was used as a model organism in these studies. The method is based on removal of the traps from the vegetative mycelium, immediately after a nematode was captured and transfer of the trap with the captured nematode into a droplet of sterile distilled water placed in a moisture chamber. In the absence of external nutrients, such isolated traps of A. oligospora were fully effective in penetrating and subsequently digesting the captured nematode. Solely vegetative mycelium was formed at the expense of the digested nematode; this developed from the trap that originally had captured the nematode. One advantage of the present method is that studies on various stages of the nematode-fungal interaction can now be performed under conditions that exclude major influences of external nutrients which otherwise could be communicated to the trap cells by way of the vegetative mycelium. PMID:2729961
Veenhuis, M; Sjollema, K; Nordbring-Hertz, B; Harder, W
In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreased number of plant parasitic nematodes and also root-fungal feeding nematodes compared to the untreated control. Sawdust applied alone had no effect on plant parasitic and root-fungal feeding nematode suppression. Free-living nematodes which were mainly bacteriovores and fungivores were significantly more abundant in soil amended with fermented pig manure, while the sawdust had no effect on these nematodes. The effect of all tested treatments on omnivores-predators was rather random, and in general, the number of these nematodes decreased after soil amendment applications compared to the untreated control.
Renco, M.; Kovacik, P.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are important pests of crop plants worldwide, and also among the most difficult animals to identify. Their identification based on nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cistron (18S, 28S, and 5.8S RNA genes, and internal transcribed spacers, ITS1 and ITS2) is becoming a popular tool. Sequences from nuclear ribosomal RNA repeats have been used to demonstrate the identity of isolates from various hosts and to unravel the relationships of cryptic and complex species. In addition, the availability of RNA sequences allows study of phylogenetic relationships between nematodes, also for more complete understanding of their biology as agricultural pests. PPNEMA is a plant-parasitic nematode bioinformatic resource. It consists of a database of ribosomal cistron sequences from various species grouped according to nematode genera, and a search system allowing data to be extracted according to both text and pattern searching. PPNEMA offers to the scientific community a preprocessed archive of plant parasitic nematode sequences useful for nematologists. It is a tool to retrieve plant nematode multialigned sequences for phylogenetic studies or to recognize a nematode by comparing its rDNA sequence with the PPNEMA available genus specific multialignments.
Rubino, Francesco; Voukelatou, Amalia; De Luca, Francesca; De Giorgi, Carla; Attimonelli, Marcella
The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of stone and pome fruit (e.g., apples, pears, peaches, cherries, etc.). Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.) may be used to control the larval stage of C. nenuphar following fruit drop. Indeed, certain entomopathogenic nematodes species have previously been shown to be highly effective in killing C. nenuphar larvae in laboratory and field trials. In field trials conducted in the Southeastern, USA, Steinernema riobrave has thus far been shown to be the most effective species. However, due to lower soil temperatures, other entomopathogenic nematode strains or species may be more appropriate for use against C. nenuphar in the insect’s northern range. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct a broad screening of entomopathogenic nematodes. Under laboratory conditions, we determined the virulence of 13 nematode strains (comprising nine species) in two different soils (a loam and clay-loam) and three different temperatures (12°C, 18°C, and 25°C). Superior virulence was observed in S. feltiae (SN strain), S. rarum (17 C&E strain), and S. riobrave (355 strain). Promising levels of virulence were also observed in others including H. indica (HOM1 strain), H. bacteriophora (Oswego strain), S. kraussei, and S. carpocapsae (Sal strain). All nematode treatments were affected by