Sample records for canine leishmaniasis transmission

  1. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi-Parvar, Faeze; Hatam, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now. PMID:25628897

  2. Ecology of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in the Rural Community of Mont Rolland (Thiès Region, Senegal): Area of Transmission of Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Senghor, Massila W.; Faye, Malick N.; Faye, Babacar; Diarra, Karamoko; Elguero, Eric; Gaye, Oumar

    2011-01-01

    Background Different epidemiological studies previously indicated that canine leishmaniasis is present in the region of Thiès (Senegal). However, the risks to human health, the transmission cycle and particularly the implicated vectors are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To improve our knowledge on the population of phlebotomine sand flies and the potential vectors of canine leishmaniasis, sand flies were collected using sticky traps, light traps and indoor spraying method using pyrethroid insecticides in 16 villages of the rural community of Mont Rolland (Thiès region) between March and July 2005. The 3788 phlebotomine sand flies we collected (2044 males, 1744 females) were distributed among 9 species of which 2 belonged to the genus Phlebotomus: P. duboscqi (vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Senegal) and P. rodhaini. The other species belonged to the genus Sergentomyia: S. adleri, S. clydei, S. antennata, S. buxtoni, S. dubia, S. schwetzi and S. magna. The number of individuals and the species composition differed according to the type of trap, suggesting variable, species-related degrees of endophily or exophily. The two species of the genus Phlebotomus were markedly under-represented in comparison to the species of the genus Sergentomyia. This study also shows a heterogeneous spatial distribution within the rural community that could be explained by the different ecosystems and particularly the soil characteristics of this community. Finally, the presence of the S. dubia species appeared to be significantly associated with canine leishmaniasis seroprevalence in dogs. Conclusions/Significance Our data allow us to hypothesize that the species of the genus Sergentomyia and particularly the species S. dubia and S. schwetzi might be capable of transmitting canine leishmaniasis. These results challenge the dogma that leishmaniasis is exclusively transmitted by species of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World. This hypothesis should be more thoroughly evaluated. PMID:21445295

  3. Sexual and vertical transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Andreia P; Souza, Tayse D; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum, which has in the domestic dog its principal vertebrate host. VL is usually transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, however atypical routes of transmission have been described. In this review we discuss the the role of sexual and vertical transmissions, and their role in the maintenance of VL in canine populations. PMID:24727504

  4. Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis by ELISA Using K39sub Recombinant Antigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Taran; M Mohebali; MH Modaresi; S Mamishi; M Mahmoudi; M Mojarad

    Background: Surveillance of the canine reservoir is highly important to help control of visceral leishmaniasis in human. It is therefore imperative to improve and develop new tools reliable, easy to use, and cheap for the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis. K39 sub recombinant antigen of Leishmania infantum was expressed in prokaryotic system and evaluated for sero-diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL).

  5. Seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mahshid, Mostafavi; Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Iraj, Sharifi; Sina, Kakooei; Javad, Khedri; Mehdi, Bamorovat

    2014-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in many parts of Iran and infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoirs that play a key role in transmission to humans. The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in southeast of Iran. This survey was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in Kerman, Bam and Baft districts in Kerman province and Zabol in Sistan-Baluchestan province. Blood samples were taken from 201 dogs after complete clinical examination. Following hematological evaluation; collected sera were tested by indirect ELISA method for the presence of anti Leishmania infantum antibodies. Overall seroprevalence was 15.4 %, including 6.4, 3.5, 3 and 2.4 % in Bam, Zabol, Baft and Kerman, respectively. However, seroprevalence of disease was not significantly related to age, gender, presence of clinical signs and hematological disorders. Based to the results of the present study, CVL is endemic in southeastern Iran. Delayed diagnosis and euthanasia of potentially infectious animals may occur with an increased transmission risk to sand flies and subsequently to humans. Implementation of potent screening tests with high validity is essential for rapid detection and successful dog elimination programs in endemic parts of Iran. PMID:24808656

  6. Feline Leishmania infection in a canine leishmaniasis endemic region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, C; Gomes, J; Cristóvão, J; Nunes, M; Martins, A; Rebêlo, E; Campino, L

    2010-12-15

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a serious zoonotic public health and veterinary problem in the Mediterranean basin. Leishmania infection in domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) has been reported in several countries where this zoonosis is endemic, such as Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Greece, Israel, Palestine and Brazil. The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the role played by cats in Leishmania epidemiology, in an endemic focus of zoonotic leishmaniasis, the Lisbon metropolitan area, Portugal. L. infantum DNA was detected in peripheral blood of 28 out of 138 cats (20.3%). The result of PCR in blood of cats was not closely associated with the level of specific circulating antibodies in their sera. Positive serology was observed only in one cat out of 76. In the same geographic region and time period the indirect immunofluorescent test revealed 20.4% (31/152) of dogs with antibodies and PCR detected Leismania DNA on 34.9% (53/152) animals. Despite the fact that specific antibodies have been validated for diagnosis of CanL, their detection does not seem to be sensitive enough to predict Leishmania infection in cats. On the other hand, the presence of parasite DNA in cat's peripheral blood during the transmission season and out of the season suggests that these animals living in endemic areas are frequently exposed or infected with the parasite. Although dogs have been universally regarded as the major domestic/peridomestic reservoir hosts, the present data allow us to hypothesize that cats can act as an alternative reservoir host of L. infantum, rather than an accidental host. However, in order to evaluate the existence of a transmission cycle with cats sustaining and spreading zoonotic leishmaniasis is necessary to prove that these animals can transmit the parasite to the vector in nature. PMID:20869810

  7. Systemic and compartmentalized immune response in canine visceral leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre Barbosa Reis; Olindo Assis Martins-Filho; Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho; Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti; Cláudia Martins Carneiro; Wilson Mayrink; Washington Luiz Tafuri; Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) are the most important emerging diseases with high prevalence in Latin American countries and are mainly caused by Leishmania (L.) chagasi (Syn=L. infantum). CVL has a great impact on Brazilian public health because domestic dogs are the most important VL peri-domicile reservoirs in both urban and peri-urban areas. Our findings highlight

  8. Rapid Immunochromatographic Test for Serodiagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Otranto, D.; Paradies, P.; Sasanelli, M.; Spinelli, R.; Brandonisio, O.

    2004-01-01

    An rK39 immunochromatographic test and immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) for serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis were evaluated. The two tests showed correlation for all but one of the sera obtained from 68 dogs confirmed as leishmaniasis cases and 40 dogs (22 healthy dogs and 18 dogs with other diseases) from areas where the disease is not endemic. Specificity was 100% for both tests, while sensitivity was 97% for the rapid test and 99% for IFAT. PMID:15184465

  9. Rapid immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Otranto, D; Paradies, P; Sasanelli, M; Spinelli, R; Brandonisio, O

    2004-06-01

    An rK39 immunochromatographic test and immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) for serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis were evaluated. The two tests showed correlation for all but one of the sera obtained from 68 dogs confirmed as leishmaniasis cases and 40 dogs (22 healthy dogs and 18 dogs with other diseases) from areas where the disease is not endemic. Specificity was 100% for both tests, while sensitivity was 97% for the rapid test and 99% for IFAT. PMID:15184465

  10. Recombinant Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase NTPDase-2 as a new antigen in canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Ronny Francisco; Dos Santos, Yaro Luciolo; de Souza Vasconcellos, Raphael; Borges-Pereira, Lucas; Caldas, Ivo Santana; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel

    2013-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important public health concern. In the epidemiological context of human visceral leishmaniasis, dogs are considered the main reservoir of Leishmania parasites; therefore, dogs must be epidemiologically monitored constantly in endemic areas. Furthermore, dog to human transmission has been correlated with emerging urbanization and increasing rates of leishmaniasis infection worldwide. Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (L. chagasi) is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. In this work, a new L. (L.) infantum (L. chagasi) recombinant antigen, named ATP diphosphohydrolase (rLic-NTPDase-2), intended for use in the immunodiagnosis of CVL was produced and validated. The extracellular domain of ATP diphosphohydrolase was cloned and expressed in the pET21b-Escherichia coli expression system. Indirect ELISA assays were used to detect the purified rLic-NTPDase-2 antigen using a standard canine sera library. This library contained CVL-positive samples, leishmaniasis-negative samples and samples from Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs. The results show a high sensitivity of 100% (95% CI=92.60-100.0%) and a high specificity of 100% (95% CI=86.77-100.0%), with a high degree of confidence (k=1). These findings demonstrate the potential use of this recombinant protein in immune diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis and open the possibility of its application to other diagnostic approaches, such as immunochromatography fast lateral flow assays and human leishmaniasis diagnosis. PMID:23022017

  11. Prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in Beichuan County, Sichuan, China and phylogenetic evidence for an undescribed Leishmania sp. in China based on 7SL RNA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease, which is still endemic in the west and northwest area of China. Canines are the major reservoirs of Leishmania, the etiological agent of human visceral leishmaniasis. Phlebotomus chinensis is the main transmission vector of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). Methods In this study, rK39 dip-stick, ELISA and PCR methods were used to investigate the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Beichuan County, Sichuan Province, China. Results Among the 86 dogs which were included in the study, 13 dogs were positive using the dip-stick test (15.12%), while 8 dogs were positive using ELISA (9.30%) and 19 dogs were positive for PCR (22.03%). In total, 32 dogs were positive for one or more tests (37.21%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis based on the partial 7SL RNA fragment provided evidence that an undescribed Leishmania species, which is clearly a causative agent of CanL and human visceral leishmaniasis, does exist in China. This result is consistent with our previous study. Conclusions Our work confirmed that canine leishmaniasis is still prevalent in Beichuan County. Further control is urgently needed, as canine leishmaniasis is of great public health importance. The phylogenetic analysis based on 7SL RNA segment provides evidence for the existence of an undescribed Leishmania sp. in China. PMID:22515334

  12. Successful treatment of canine cutaneous leishmaniasis using radio-frequency induced heat (RFH) therapy.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Anil A; Bumb, Ram A; Mehta, Rajesh D; Prasad, Neha; Tanwar, Ram K; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2012-08-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Current treatments for CCL are cumbersome and toxic because they are prolonged and involve multiple injections of antimonials. Radio-frequency induced heat (RFH) therapy has been found to be highly effective against CL in humans. Here, we examined the efficacy of topical RFH therapy in the treatment of CL in two pet dogs. We found that RFH therapy induced complete clinical cure and lesion healing within 45 days and both dogs have remained disease free for the last 16 months. This report is the first to demonstrate that a single topical application of RFH therapy is safe and effective in inducing long-term cure of CCL. PMID:22855755

  13. A canine leishmaniasis pilot survey in an emerging focus of visceral leishmaniasis: Posadas (Misiones, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An increasing number of reports are calling our attention to the worldwide spread of leishmaniasis. The urbanization of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been observed in different South American countries, due to changes in demographic and ecological factors. In May 2006, VL was detected for the first time in the city of Posadas (Misiones, Argentina). This event encouraged us to conduct a clinical and parasitological pilot survey on domestic dogs from Posadas to identify their potential role as reservoirs for the disease. Methods One hundred and ten dogs from the city of Posadas were included in the study. They were selected based on convenience and availability. All dogs underwent clinical examination. Symptomatology related to canine leishmaniasis was recorded, and peripheral blood and lymph node aspirates were collected. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using rK39-immunocromatographic tests and IFAT. Parasite detection was based on peripheral blood and lymph node aspirate PCR targeting the SSUrRNA gene. Molecular typing was addressed by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products obtained by SSUrRNA and ITS-1 PCR. Results According to clinical examination, 69.1% (76/110) of the dogs presented symptoms compatible with canine leishmaniasis. Serological analyses were positive for 43.6% (48/110) of the dogs and parasite DNA was detected in 47.3% (52/110). A total of 63 dogs (57.3%) were positive by serology and/or PCR. Molecular typing identified Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) as the causative agent. Conclusions This work confirms recent findings which revealed the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of L. infantum in this area of South America. This new VL focus could be well established, and further work is needed to ascertain its magnitude and to prevent further human VL cases. PMID:21122107

  14. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-01-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  15. Histopathology, parasite density and cell phenotypes of the popliteal lymph node in canine visceral leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti; Olindo Assis Martins-Filho; Cláudia Martins Carneiro; Wilson Mayrink; Marcos José Marques; Washington Luiz Tafuri; Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira; Alexandre Barbosa Reis

    2008-01-01

    While enlargement of popliteal lymph nodes (LN) is frequently described in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), there are few histopathologic studies of lymph nodes during this chronic immunopathological condition. Besides a detailed histopathologic analysis, we have characterized the parasite load and major immunophenotypic features of the LN in Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi-infected dogs. Our major histopathological findings highlight that hypertrophy\\/hyperplasia of LN

  16. Heterogeneity of Environments Associated with Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis in South-Eastern France and Implication for Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Faucher, Benoit; Gaudart, Jean; Faraut, Francoise; Pomares, Christelle; Mary, Charles; Marty, Pierre; Piarroux, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is currently spreading into new foci across Europe. Leishmania infantum transmission in the Old World was reported to be strongly associated with a few specific environments. Environmental changes due to global warming or human activity were therefore incriminated in the spread of the disease. However, comprehensive studies were lacking to reliably identify all the environments at risk and thereby optimize monitoring and control strategy. Methodology/Findings We exhaustively collected 328 cases of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis from 1993 to 2009 in South-Eastern France. Leishmaniasis incidence decreased from 31 yearly cases between 1993 and 1997 to 12 yearly cases between 2005 and 2009 mostly because Leishmania/HIV coinfection were less frequent. No spread of human visceral leishmaniasis was observed in the studied region. Two major foci were identified, associated with opposite environments: whereas one involved semi-rural hillside environments partly made of mixed forests, the other involved urban and peri-urban areas in and around the region main town, Marseille. The two neighboring foci were related to differing environments despite similar vectors (P. perniciosus), canine reservoir, parasite (L. infantum zymodeme MON-1), and human host. Conclusions/Significance This unprecedented collection of cases highlighted the occurrence of protracted urban transmission of L. infantum in France, a worrisome finding as the disease is currently spreading in other areas around the Mediterranean. These results complete previous studies about more widespread canine leishmaniasis or human asymptomatic carriage. This first application of systematic geostatistical methods to European human visceral leishmaniasis demonstrated an unsuspected heterogeneity of environments associated with the transmission of the disease. These findings modify the current view of leishmaniasis epidemiology. They notably stress the need for locally defined control strategies and extensive monitoring including in urban environments. PMID:22880142

  17. Lutzomyia longipalpis in Uruguay: the first report and the potential of visceral leishmaniasis transmission.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Basmajdian, Yester; Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad

    2011-05-01

    Phlebotomine captures were performed in February 2010 in Salto (Salto department) and Bella Unión-Cuarein (Artigas department), Uruguay. Bella Unión is located across the Paraná River from Monte Caseros, Argentina, where a focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was reported in 2009. No VL cases have ever been recorded in Uruguay and the last reported capture of Phlebotominae was in 1932 (Lutzomyia cortelezzii and Lutzomyia gaminarai). Light traps were placed in peridomestic environments, and Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis, was found in Salto and Bella Unión. This is a first report of an area of potential VL transmission in Uruguay. Active and coordinated surveillance is required immediately the Uruguay-Argentina-Brazil border area. PMID:21655832

  18. First surveys to investigate the presence of canine leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Róbert; Tánczos, Balázs; Bongiorno, Gioia; Maroli, Michele; Dereure, Jacques; Ready, Paul D

    2011-07-01

    Hungary is regarded as free of leishmaniasis because only a few imported cases have been reported. However, southern Hungary has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and so it was included in the EU FP6 EDEN project, which aimed to map the northern limits of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Europe. The numbers of traveling and imported dogs have increased in the last decade, raising concerns about the introduction of CanL caused by Leishmania infantum. Serum samples were collected from 725 dogs (22 localities, 6 counties) that had never traveled to endemic countries, as well as from other potential reservoir hosts (185 red foxes and 13 golden jackals). All sera were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, but they were sero-negative using the OIE cut-off of 1:80 serum dilution except for those of two dogs resident since birth in southern Hungary. These had not received a blood transfusion, but the mode of transmission is unclear because no sandfly vectors were caught locally. From 2006 to 2009, phlebotomine sandflies were sampled in the summer months at 47 localities of 8 counties. They were trapped with castor-oil-impregnated sticky-paper, light, and CO(2)-baited traps. Small numbers of two vectors of Leishmania infantum were found. Phlebotomus neglectus occurred in three villages near to Croatia and one in north Hungary at latitude 47 °N, and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi was trapped at two sites in a southeastern county close to the sites where it was first found in 1931-1932. Our report provides baseline data for future investigations into the northward spread of CanL into Hungary, which we conclude has yet to occur. PMID:21254904

  19. Disseminated transmissible venereal tumour associated with Leishmaniasis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Trevizan, J T; Carreira, J T; Souza, N C; Carvalho, I R; Gomes, P B C; Lima, V M F; Orlandi, C M B; Rozza, D B; Koivisto, M B

    2012-12-01

    This report addresses an atypical transmissible venereal tumour in an 8-year-old bitch that was pluriparous and seropositive for leishmaniasis. There were ascites and a serosanguineous discharge from the vulva, but no lesions on the external genital mucosa. An aspirate of the peritoneal fluid showed mononuclear round cells characteristic of transmissible venereal tumour (TVT). Exploratory laparotomy revealed light red, granulomatous structures in the peritoneum, omentum, spleen, liver and uterine horns. Cytological and histopathological tests confirmed the diagnosis of intra-abdominal TVT. Dissemination of the TVT to several organs inside the abdominal cavity probably resulted from immunosuppression caused by leishmaniasis, which favoured the presence and aggressiveness of TVT. PMID:23279537

  20. An Epidemic Outbreak of Canine Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia Caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Iván D.; Carrillo, Lina M.; López, Liliana; Rodríguez, Erwin; Robledo, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    The largest recorded outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia's history occurred during 2005–2009 in soldiers of the Colombian Army, with ?40,000 cases. This outbreak was caused by the influx of military personnel into the jungle with the mission of combat illicit crops and the guerrilla. The soldiers remain for long periods within the rainforest and are exposed to the bite of infected sand flies. During the military activities, soldiers work with dogs specially trained to detect landmines, and therefore, dogs are also exposed to the infected sand flies and show high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). This work describes an epidemic outbreak of canine CL caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis in Colombia, South America. The clinical features of the disease and the response to treatment with pentavalent antimonials observed in 72 guard dogs from the Colombian Army are described. A program for prevention and control of canine CL is also discussed. PMID:22556078

  1. Seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Tripp, Shanesha; Kinlaw, Christopher; Sharma, R N; Stone, D; Dubey, J P

    2010-02-01

    Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections by both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi in dogs from Grenada, West Indies. We examined 70 dog sera using the qualitative immunochromatographic dipstick tests (ICTs) based on recombinant antigens specific for visceral leishmaniasis and AT. Antibodies to visceral Leishmania were not detected in Grenadian dogs by ICT. Using the canine dipsticks for AT, antibodies to T. cruzi were determined in 3 (4.3%) of the 70 dogs. Results from this study indicate that dogs in Grenada are exposed in low levels to T. cruzi , but not to visceral Leishmania spp. at all. PMID:19712013

  2. High-Throughput Analysis of Synthetic Peptides for the Immunodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Angélica R.; Costa, Míriam M.; Giusta, Mário S.; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Penido, Marcus L. O.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.; Andrade, Hélida M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis. Approximately 20% of zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis worldwide is caused by Leishmania infantum, which is also known as Leishmania chagasi in Latin America, and disease incidence is increasing in urban and peri-urban areas of the tropics. In this form of disease, dogs are the main reservoirs. Diagnostic methods used to identify Leishmania infected animals are not able to detect all of the infected ones, which can compromise the effectiveness of disease control. Therefore, to contribute to the improvement of diagnostic methods for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), we aimed to identify and test novel antigens using high-throughput analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunodominant proteins from L. infantum were mapped in silico to predict B cell epitopes, and the 360 predicted peptides were synthesized on cellulose membranes. Immunoassays were used to select the most reactive peptides, which were then investigated with canine sera. Next, the 10 most reactive peptides were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis protocol and tested using ELISA. The sensitivity and specificity of these peptides were also compared to the EIE-LVC Bio-Manguinhos kit, which is recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for use in leishmaniasis control programs. The sensitivity and specificity of the selected synthesized peptides was as high as 88.70% and 95.00%, respectively, whereas the EIE-LVC kit had a sensitivity of 13.08% and 100.00% of specificity. Although the tests based on synthetic peptides were able to diagnose up to 94.80% of asymptomatic dogs with leishmaniasis, the EIE-LVC kit failed to detect the disease in any of the infected asymptomatic dogs. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that ELISA using synthetic peptides is a technique with great potential for diagnosing CVL; furthermore, the use of these peptides in other diagnostic methodologies, such as immunochromatographic tests, could be beneficial to CVL control programs. PMID:21931874

  3. Antibody responses induced by Leish-Tec®, an A2-based vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis, in a heterogeneous canine population.

    PubMed

    Testasicca, Miriam C de Souza; dos Santos, Mariana Silva; Machado, Leopoldo Marques; Serufo, Angela Vieira; Doro, Daniel; Avelar, Daniel; Tibúrcio, Ana Maria Leonardi; Abrantes, Christiane de Freitas; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Fernandes, Ana Paula

    2014-08-29

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widespread disease, and dogs are the main reservoirs for human parasite transmission. Hence, development of an effective vaccine that prevents disease and reduces the transmission of VL is required. As euthanasia of seropositive dogs is recommended in Brazil for VL epidemiological control, to include anti-VL canine vaccines as a mass control measure it is necessary to characterize the humoral responses induced by vaccination and if they interfere with the reactivity of vaccinated dogs in serological diagnostic tests. Leish-Tec(®) is an amastigote-specific A2 recombinant protein vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) that is commercially available in Brazil. Here, we tested the immunogenicity of Leish-Tec(®) in a heterogeneous dog population by measuring A2-specific antibody responses. Healthy dogs (n=140) of various breeds were allocated to two groups: one group received Leish-Tec(®) (n=70), and the other group received a placebo (n=70). Anti-A2 or anti-Leishmania promastigote antigen (LPA) antibody levels were measured by ELISA in serum samples collected before and after vaccination. An immunochromatographic test (DPP) based on the recombinant K28 antigen was also used for serodiagnosis of CVL. Vaccinated animals, except one, remained seronegative for anti-LPA total IgG and anti-K28 antibodies. Conversely, seropositivity for anti-A2 total IgG antibodies was found in 98% of animals after vaccination. This value decreased to 81.13% at 6 months before rising again (98%), after the vaccination boost. Anti-A2 IgG2 and IgG1 titers were also increased in vaccinated animals relative to control animals. These data indicate that Leish-Tec(®) is immunogenic for dogs of different genetic backgrounds and that humoral responses induced by vaccination can be detected by A2-ELISA, but do not interfere with the LPA-ELISA and DPP diagnostic tests for CVL. PMID:24863572

  4. Leishmania donovani populations in Eastern Sudan: temporal structuring and a link between human and canine transmission.

    PubMed

    Baleela, Rania; Llewellyn, Martin S; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Kuhls, Katrin; Schönian, Gabriele; Miles, Michael A; Mauricio, Isabel L

    2014-11-20

    BackgroundVisceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the members of the Leishmania donovani complex, has been responsible for devastating VL epidemics in the Sudan. Multilocus microsatellite and sequence typing studies can provide valuable insights into the molecular epidemiology of leishmaniasis, when applied at local scales. Here we present population genetic data for a large panel of strains and clones collected in endemic Sudan between 1993 and 2001.MethodsGenetic diversity was evaluated at fourteen microsatellite markers and eleven nuclear sequence loci across 124 strains and clones.ResultsMicrosatellite data defined six genetic subpopulations with which the nuclear sequence data were broadly congruent. Pairwise estimates of FST (microsatellite) and KST (sequence) indicated small but significant shifts among the allelic repertoires of circulating strains year on year. Furthermore, we noted the co-occurrence of human and canine L. donovani strains in three of the six clusters defined. Finally, we identified widespread deficit in heterozygosity in all four years tested but strong deviation from inter-locus linkage equilibrium in two years.ConclusionsSignificant genetic diversity is present among L. donovani in Sudan, and minor population structuring between years is characteristic of entrenched, endemic disease transmission. Seasonality in vector abundance and transmission may, to an extent, explain the shallow temporal clines in allelic frequency that we observed. Genetically similar canine and human strains highlight the role of dogs as important local reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25410888

  5. Evaluation of a Novel Herbal Immunomodulator Drug (IMOD) in Treatment of Experimental Canine Visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Malmasi, Abdolali; Ziaie Ardestani, Bijan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Ziaie, Shadi; Masoudifard, Majid; Khorram Khorshid, Hamidreza; Nasiri, Mehdi; Bayanolhagh, Saeed; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Delrobai, Moin; Siavashi, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity and drug resistance against pentavalent antimonials, medications of choice in treatment of leishmaniasis for more than 5 decades, have become important subjects globally. This study was a randomized, open labeled trial that was designed to determine efficacy and safety of IMOD as a novel herbal immunomodulator drug for treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Twenty healthy mongrel dogs were infected with Iranian strain of L. Infantum amastigotes and randomly divided to 5 groups with four animals for each included on: I: negative control (non-infected) II: Glucantime® III: Glucantime® plus IMOD (immune-chemotherapy) IV: IMOD and V: positive control (non-treated). Physical examination, hematological, biochemical, serological, parasitological, pathological and imaging evaluations were performed pre-/post- interventions every month for 3 months. Comparing with control groups (I&V), immune-chemotherapy group (Glucantime® plus IMOD) showed significantly higher efficacy in resolving the clinical signs and hematobiochemistry factors. Based on our results, using IMOD in combination with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) has significantly improved CVL than the latter drug alone. So, it seems this new herbal medicine is useful as adjuvant therapy for canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25587325

  6. Evaluation of a Novel Herbal Immunomodulator Drug (IMOD) in Treatment of Experimental Canine Visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Malmasi, Abdolali; Ziaie Ardestani, Bijan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Ziaie, Shadi; Masoudifard, Majid; Khorram Khorshid, Hamidreza; Nasiri, Mehdi; Bayanolhagh, Saeed; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Delrobai, Moin; Siavashi, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity and drug resistance against pentavalent antimonials, medications of choice in treatment of leishmaniasis for more than 5 decades, have become important subjects globally. This study was a randomized, open labeled trial that was designed to determine efficacy and safety of IMOD as a novel herbal immunomodulator drug for treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Twenty healthy mongrel dogs were infected with Iranian strain of L. Infantum amastigotes and randomly divided to 5 groups with four animals for each included on: I: negative control (non-infected) II: Glucantime® III: Glucantime® plus IMOD (immune-chemotherapy) IV: IMOD and V: positive control (non-treated). Physical examination, hematological, biochemical, serological, parasitological, pathological and imaging evaluations were performed pre-/post- interventions every month for 3 months. Comparing with control groups (I&V), immune-chemotherapy group (Glucantime® plus IMOD) showed significantly higher efficacy in resolving the clinical signs and hematobiochemistry factors. Based on our results, using IMOD in combination with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) has significantly improved CVL than the latter drug alone. So, it seems this new herbal medicine is useful as adjuvant therapy for canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25587325

  7. Assessment of serological tests for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Denise Amaro; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Abrantes, Tuanne Rotti; Filho, Carlos José de Lima Barbosa; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

    2013-02-01

    An immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA), an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) with different antigens (ELISA-Leishmania chagasi, ELISA-L. major-like, IFAT-L. chagasi and IFAT-L. major-like), and an immunochromatographic test were assessed for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Serum samples from 144 dogs from an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro were tested. The sensitivities of the serological tests were 93%, 100%, 73%, 60% and 93%, with specificities of 87%, 92%, 77%, 96% and 92% for the ELISA-L. major-like, ELISA-L. chagasi, IFAT-L. major-like, IFAT-L. chagasi and the immuno chromatographic test, respectively. ELISA-L. chagasi was the best test for the diagnosis of CVL, but the immunochromatographic test could be a useful alternative as it offers simple and rapid diagnosis without the need for a specialized laboratory. PMID:22789627

  8. The singular history of a canine transmissible tumor.

    PubMed

    VonHoldt, Bridgett M; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2006-08-11

    In this issue of Cell, Murgia et al. (2006) confirm that the infectious agent of canine transmissible venereal tumor is the cancer cell itself and that the tumor is clonal in origin. Their findings have implications for understanding the relationship between genome instability and transmissible cancer and for conservation biology, canine genomics, and companion animal medicine. PMID:16901777

  9. Integrated Mapping of Establishment Risk for Emerging Vector-Borne Infections: A Case Study of Canine Leishmaniasis in Southwest France

    PubMed Central

    Hartemink, Nienke; Vanwambeke, Sophie O.; Heesterbeek, Hans; Rogers, David; Morley, David; Pesson, Bernard; Mahamdallie, Shazia; Ready, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the Mediterranean Basin, where the dog is the main reservoir host. The disease's causative agent, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by blood-feeding female sandflies. This paper reports an integrative study of canine leishmaniasis in a region of France spanning the southwest Massif Central and the northeast Pyrenees, where the vectors are the sandflies Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus. Methods Sandflies were sampled in 2005 using sticky traps placed uniformly over an area of approximately 100 by 150 km. High- and low-resolution satellite data for the area were combined to construct a model of the sandfly data, which was then used to predict sandfly abundance throughout the area on a pixel by pixel basis (resolution of c. 1 km). Using literature- and expert-derived estimates of other variables and parameters, a spatially explicit R0 map for leishmaniasis was constructed within a Geographical Information System. R0 is a measure of the risk of establishment of a disease in an area, and it also correlates with the amount of control needed to stop transmission. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first analysis that combines a vector abundance prediction model, based on remotely-sensed variables measured at different levels of spatial resolution, with a fully mechanistic process-based temperature-dependent R0 model. The resulting maps should be considered as proofs-of-principle rather than as ready-to-use risk maps, since validation is currently not possible. The described approach, based on integrating several modeling methods, provides a useful new set of tools for the study of the risk of outbreaks of vector-borne diseases. PMID:21857899

  10. Immunodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Mimotope Peptides Selected from Phage Displayed Combinatorial Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Machado, Christina Monerat; Machado de Avila, Ricardo Andrez; NGuyen, Christophe; Granier, Claude; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Carneiro, Rubens Antonio; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2015-01-01

    ELISA and RIFI are currently used for serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). The accuracy of these tests is controversial in endemic areas where canine infections by Trypanosoma cruzi may occur. We evaluated the usefulness of synthetic peptides that were selected through phage display technique in the serodiagnosis of CVL. Peptides were chosen based on their ability to bind to IgGs purified from infected dogs pooled sera. We selected three phage clones that reacted only with those IgGs. Peptides were synthesized, polymerized with glutaraldehyde, and used as antigens in ELISA assays. Each individual peptide or a mix of them was reactive with infected dogs serum. The assay was highly sensitive and specific when compared to soluble Leishmania antigen that showed cross-reactivity with anti-T. cruzi IgGs. Our results demonstrate that phage display technique is useful for selection of peptides that may represent valuable synthetic antigens for an improved serodiagnosis of CVL. PMID:25710003

  11. Canine transmissible venereal tumour: a review.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, B; Das, U; Das, A K

    2013-08-25

    Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a contagious venereal tumour of dogs, commonly observed in dogs that are in close contact with one another, or in stray and wild dogs that exhibit unrestrained sexual activity. CTVT represents a unique, naturally transmissible, contagious tumour, where the mutated tumour cell itself is the causative agent and perpetuates as a parasitic allograft in the host. Clinical history, signalment and cytological features are often obvious for establishing a diagnosis though biopsy and histological examination may be needed in atypical cases. Most cases are curable with three intravenous injections of vincristine sulphate at weekly intervals. The role of stray and wild dogs makes the disease difficult to control and necessitates sustained animal birth control in stray dogs along with prompt therapy of the affected dogs. This review captures the manifold developments in different areas embracing this fascinating tumour, including its biology, diagnosis and therapeutic alternatives. PMID:23981098

  12. [Canine visceral leishmaniasis in dog from Caldas Novas, Goiás].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Elisa M R; Linhares, Guido F C; Duarte, Sabrina C; Jayme, Valéria D S; Oliveira, Helton F; Oliveira, Vilma F

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to describe a visceral case of leishmaniasis in a dog from Caldas Novas, GO, region until then considered as a disease free area. The animal, attended in the Veterinarian Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás, presented loss of weight, alopecic area of irregular format at the nasal back, onicogrifosis, atrophy of the heads muscles and failure of the right popliteus lymphonode. For the laboratorial diagnosis, samples were collected by biopsy from the complete skin of the auricular region, by punsion from the popliteus lymphonode for preparation of Giemsa stained blades and 5 mL of the blood were also collected for serum diagnosis. The direct microscopy revealed, from the evaluation of the imprint obtained from the skin fragment and from the squash of the inhaled lymphonode, great amount of amastigoste forms of Leishmania in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Based on the clinical presentation, on the parasitologic and on the serology examination of the samples, we concluded the exams with the diagnosis of calazar disease. PMID:20059874

  13. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: seroprevalence and risk factors in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; da Cruz, Felipe Augusto Constantino Seabra; Dahroug, Magyda Arabia Araji; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic and the number of cases in humans and dogs has increased in the Midwest region. A transversal study was carried out in endemic areas from Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, to assess data on seroprevalence and risk factors associated to canine infection. Four hundred and thirty (430) dogs were randomly evaluated through indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) considering variables related to the animals, the environment and the knowledge by owners on CVL aspects and control. From 430 dogs, 95 (22.1%) were seroreagent for leishmaniasis and animals living in rural environments present risk 1.9 times higher for acquiring the disease than those in urban environments (p = 0.01; OR 1.9). Factors related to animals' habits, such as free access to the street and guard function were considered indicators to predict infection by Leishmania sp. (p < 0.05) by statistical univariate analysis. The presence of agricultural activities was also a fact that contributed for the insurgence of the infection (p = 0.02; OR 1.68). The results contributed to the knowledge on the aspects of CVL in Cuiabá and point to an urgent need to include educational and sanitary programs in the city, since the region presents favorable characteristics for spreading the infection of CVL as already observed in other Brazilian cities. PMID:23184322

  14. Specific Serodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Leishmania Species Ribosomal Protein Extracts?

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Eduardo A. F.; Ramírez, Laura; Costa, Mariana A. F.; Coelho, Vinicio T. S.; Martins, Vivian T.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Oliveira, Dulcilene M.; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Bonay, Pedro; Nieto, Carlos Gómez; Abánades, Daniel R.; Alonso, Carlos; Soto, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we have analyzed the antigenicity of Leishmania species ribosomal proteins (LRPs). To accomplish this, Leishmania infantum ribosomes were biochemically purified from promastigote cytosolic extracts, and their reactivities were analyzed by using the sera from dogs naturally infected with L. infantum. Since antibodies reacting against different ribosomal proteins were observed in all the serum samples obtained from dogs with symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis tested, we have analyzed the potential usefulness of the LRP extracts in the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in an area of Brazil where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic due to infection by Leishmania chagasi. A comparative ELISA with crude soluble Leishmania chagasi antigen (SLA) and L. infantum LRPs was performed. LRP- and SLA-based ELISAs gave similar sensitivities for the diagnosis of symptomatic CVL, but the LRP extract provided a very high sensitivity for the detection of oligosymptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. In addition, an LRP-based ELISA showed a higher specificity when the sera from dogs harboring other infections were included in the analysis. The LRP antigen displayed no cross-reactivity with sera from dogs that had any of the other diseases tested, notably, Chagas' disease. Our findings suggest that LRPs are a potential tool for the diagnosis of CVL and will be particularly useful for the diagnosis of asymptomatic CVL. PMID:19812259

  15. Recombinant K39 dipstick immunochromatographic test: a new tool for the serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Paradies, Paola; Sasanelli, Mariateresa; Leone, Nicola; de Caprariis, Donato; Chirico, Jan; Spinelli, Rosa; Capelli, Gioia; Brandonisio, Olga

    2005-01-01

    The spread of human leishmaniasis has prompted the scientific community to study dogs as reservoirs for Leishmania infantum. Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is widespread in the Mediterranean area with a prevalence of up to 50%. The first step toward controlling the disease is to monitor its distribution, mainly in stray dogs. The validity of a recombinant K39 (rK39) dipstick test, commercially available for the serodiagnosis of human leishmaniasis, was evaluated using sera from 165 dogs selected on the basis of positive or negative lymph node smears at parasitological examination. The results were compared with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (cutoff 1:80). Sera from a group of dogs with other diagnosed diseases but negative for leishmaniasis were also tested to evaluate any cross-reactivity. Various procedures were used for testing whole blood samples. The relative specificity of the rK39 dipstick and IFAT was 100% (97 of 97) and 98.97% (96 of 97), whereas the relative sensitivity was 97.06% (66 of 68) and 98.53% (67 of 68), respectively. The results of the dipstick and IFAT corresponded except for 2 sera (k = 0.987). This data confirm the usefulness of rK39 antigen for diagnosing CanL both in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. The rK39 dipstick proved to be a rapid, sensitive, and specific test that may be very useful in the field for large-scale screening and also in veterinary practice, requiring minimal equipment and operator expertise. PMID:15690948

  16. Comparative efficacy of meglumine antimoniate and aminosidine sulphate, alone or in combination, in canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Oliva, G; Gradoni, L; Cortese, L; Orsini, S; Ciaramella, P; Scalone, A; de Luna, R; Persechino, A

    1998-03-01

    Thirty-two domestic dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum and showing viscero-cutaneous signs of canine leishmaniasis were treated with aminosidine sulphate (11 dogs) meglumine antimoniate (10 dogs) or with a combination of the two drugs (11 dogs) for 21 consecutive days. Clinical and laboratory assessments, made on day 21 and at 2, 4 and 6 months after initiation of treatment, showed that the drug combination gave the best score in terms of clinical efficacy, incidences of early clinical relapse, any clinical relapse or apparent parasitological cure, and reduction in parasite densities in bone-marrow and lymphnode aspirates (even though a lower dose of antimonial was used in the combination than for antimonial monotherapy). For each of the above parameters, however, the higher efficacy of the drug combination was not statistically significant, probably because of the large variations caused by using naturally infected animals of various ages and breeds. PMID:9625912

  17. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Dionísio, Lídia; Afonso, Maria Odete; Neto, Luís; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Campino, Lenea

    2013-06-01

    The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection. PMID:23827997

  18. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Carla; Dionísio, Lídia; Afonso, Maria Odete; Neto, Luís; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Campino, Lenea

    2013-01-01

    The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection. PMID:23827997

  19. Pathologic mechanisms underlying the clinical findings in canine leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum/chagasi.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, A F; Koutinas, C K

    2014-03-01

    In dogs with symptomatic or asymptomatic leishmaniasis, Leishmania infantum appears to induce a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response that in the sick dog may eventually result in tissue damage via different pathomechanisms, notably granulomatous inflammation (eg, nodular dermatitis, osteomyelitis), immune complex deposition (eg, glomerulonephritis), and/or autoantibody production (eg, polymyositis). This is a compensatory but detrimental mechanism generated mainly because of the insufficient killing capacity of macrophages against the parasite in the susceptible dog. Clinical disease is typically exemplified as exfoliative and/or ulcerative dermatitis, with or without nasodigital hyperkeratosis and onychogryphosis, glomerulonephritis, atrophic myositis of masticatory muscles, anterior uveitis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, epistaxis, and/or polyarthritis, appearing alone or in various combinations. The pathogenesis of these clinical conditions has recently been highlighted, to a greater or lesser extent. The usually subclinical conditions expressed as chronic colitis, chronic hepatitis, vasculitis, myocarditis, osteomyelitis, orchiepididymitis, and meningoencephalomyelitis, though uncommon, are of pathologic importance from a differential point of view. The leading cause of death among canine leishmaniasis patients is chronic proteinuric nephritis that may progress to end-stage kidney disease, nephrotic syndrome, and/or systemic hypertension. However, even the asymptomatic proteinuria, when profuse, may be a serious problem because it predisposes to arterial thromboembolism and eventually contributes to the deterioration of the body condition. PMID:24510947

  20. Improved Canine and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis Immunodiagnosis Using Combinations of Synthetic Peptides in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Míriam Maria; Penido, Marcos; dos Santos, Mariana Silva; Doro, Daniel; de Freitas, Eloísa; Michalick, Marilene Susan Marques; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Fernandes, Ana Paula

    2012-01-01

    Background Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and the domestic dogs are the main urban parasite reservoir hosts. In Brazil, indirect fluorescence antibody tests (IFAT) and indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using promastigote extracts are widely used in epidemiological surveys. However, their sensitivity and specificity have often been compromised by the use of complex mixtures of antigens, which reduces their accuracy allowing the maintenance of infected animals that favors transmission to humans. In this context, the use of combinations of defined peptides appears favorable. Therefore, they were tested by combinations of five peptides derived from the previously described Leishmania diagnostic antigens A2, NH, LACK and K39. Methodology/Principal Findings Combinations of peptides derived A2, NH, LACK and K39 antigens were used in ELISA with sera from 44 human patients and 106 dogs. Improved sensitivities and specificities, close to 100%, were obtained for both sera of patients and dogs. Moreover, high sensitivity and specificity were observed even for canine sera presenting low IFAT anti-Leishmania antibody titers or from asymptomatic animals. Conclusions/Significance The use of combinations of B cell predicted synthetic peptides derived from antigens A2, NH, LACK and K39 may provide an alternative for improved sensitivities and specificities for immunodiagnostic assays of VL. PMID:22629475

  1. Leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tonio V Piscopo; Charles Mallia Azzopardi

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiology, disease patterns, immunology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of leishmaniasis are described. Various issues relating to leishmaniasis are highlighted: the relative lack of importance given to this disease compared with other infections, climate change and its possible impact on extension of endemicity of this infection, and new diagnostic tests which are improving diagnosis, especially in resource poor areas. Other

  2. Validity and Reliability of Enzyme Immunoassays Using Leishmania major or L. infantum Antigens for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Cardoso, Fernanda Alvarenga; Hiamamoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Brazuna, Júlia Cristina Macksoud; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2013-01-01

    Background American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle. The limited accuracy of diagnostic tests for canine leishmaniasis may contribute to the lack of impact of control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays employing L. major or L. infantum antigens and their reliability between three laboratories of different levels of complexity. Methods A validation study of ELISA techniques using L. major or L. infantum antigens was conducted. Direct visualization of the parasite in hematoxylin/eosin-stained histopathological sections, immunohistochemistry, and isolation of the parasite in culture.were used as gold standard. An animal that was positive in at least one of the tests was defined as infected with L. infantum. Serum samples collected from 1,425 dogs were analyzed. Samples were separated in three aliquots and tested in three different laboratories. Sensitivity, specificity and the area under de ROC curve were calculated and the reliability was evaluated between the participant laboratories. Results The sensitivity was 91.8% and 89.8% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The specificity was 83.75% and 82.7% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The area under de ROC curve was 0.920 and 0.898 for L. major and L. infantum, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficients between laboratories ranged from 0.890 to 0.948 when L. major was used as antigen, and from 0.818 to 0.879 when L. infantum was used. Interpretation ELISA tests using L. major or L. infantum antigens have similar accuracy and reliability. Our results do not support the substitution of the L. major antigen of the ELISA test currently used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. PMID:23922884

  3. Histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations of the hepatic compartment associated with parasitism and serum biochemical changes in canine visceral leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti; Wilson Mayrink; Cláudia Martins Carneiro; Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira; Olindo Assis Martins-Filho; Marcos José Marques; Washington Luiz Tafuri; Alexandre Barbosa Reis

    2008-01-01

    The immunopathological evaluation of the hepatic compartment associated with parasitism and biochemical findings are essential for understanding the genesis of hepatomegaly in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Three clinical groups of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi [i.e., asymptomatic (AD, n=12), oligosymptomatic (OD, n=12) and symptomatic (SD, n=17)] were assessed and compared with a group of non-infected dogs (NID, n=11). Intense

  4. Proliferation characteristics of canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    PubMed

    Chu, R M; Lin, C Y; Liu, C C; Yang, S Y; Hsiao, Y W; Hung, S W; Pao, H N; Liao, K W

    2001-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) grows progressively (P-phase) in the host and then spontaneously regresses (R-phase). The mechanisms behind the transition from the P-to R-phases are not well understood. In this study, in order to determine the proliferation characteristics of CTVT, we evaluated telomerase activity and enumerated nuclear organizing regions (AgNOR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). It was found that CTVT cells from the P-and R-phases were both positive for telomerase activity, although it was lower in the R-phase. Evaluations of telomerase activity should take into account the stage of mitosis. Although, in the majority of cases, telomerase activity can be used to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors in dogs, other factors or markers should also be used to obtain accurate diagnoses. The PCNA-positive rate and the number and area of AgNOR per cell increased much more in the P-phase than the R-phase. However, the AgNOR values were always higher. Thus, the AgNOR count can be used to distinguish the P-and R-phases of CTVT. In addition, mitotic figures were much higher in number in the P-phase as compared to the R-phase. We believe that, during spontaneous regression of CTVT cells, slow tumor cell proliferation must contribute to the decrease in tumor size. However, shortening of tumor cell telomeres is not directly involved in this process. Other factors, such as expression of MHC antigens on CTVT cells, humoral immunity, cytokines released by the inflammatory cells and, especially, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes may contribute to CTVT regression. PMID:11911286

  5. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and South America. Leishmaniasis has been reported in military personnel returning from the Persian Gulf. ... sandfly bites is the most immediate form of protection. You can prevent a bite by: Putting fine ...

  6. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... parasitic disease spread by the bite of infected sand flies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis. ... prevent the disease is to protect yourself from sand fly bites: Stay indoors from dusk to dawn, ...

  7. Evaluation of a Prototype Flow Cytometry Test for Serodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ker, Henrique Gama; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; das Dores Moreira, Nádia; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a critical challenge since conventional immunoserological tests still present some deficiencies. The current study evaluated a prototype flow cytometry serology test, using antigens and fluorescent antibodies that had been stored for 1 year at 4°C, on a broad range of serum samples. Noninfected control dogs and Leishmania infantum-infected dogs were tested, and the prototype test showed excellent performance in differentiating these groups with high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy (100% in all analyses). When the CVL group was evaluated according to the dogs' clinical status, the prototype test showed outstanding accuracy in all groups with positive serology (asymptomatic II, oligosymptomatic, and symptomatic). However, in dogs which had positive results by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) but negative results by conventional serology (asymptomatic I), serological reactivity was not observed. Additionally, sera from 40 dogs immunized with different vaccines (Leishmune, Leish-Tec, or LBSap) did not present serological reactivity in the prototype test. Eighty-eight dogs infected with other pathogens (Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Babesia canis) were used to determine cross-reactivity and specificity, and the prototype test performed well, particularly in dogs infected with B. canis and E. canis (100% and 93.3% specificities, respectively). In conclusion, our data reinforce the potential of the prototype test for use as a commercial kit and highlight its outstanding performance even after storage for 1 year at 4°C. Moreover, the prototype test efficiently provided accurate CVL serodiagnosis with an absence of false-positive results in vaccinated dogs and minor cross-reactivity against other canine pathogens. PMID:24108778

  8. Evaluation of a prototype flow cytometry test for serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ker, Henrique Gama; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; das Dores Moreira, Nádia; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    Diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a critical challenge since conventional immunoserological tests still present some deficiencies. The current study evaluated a prototype flow cytometry serology test, using antigens and fluorescent antibodies that had been stored for 1 year at 4°C, on a broad range of serum samples. Noninfected control dogs and Leishmania infantum-infected dogs were tested, and the prototype test showed excellent performance in differentiating these groups with high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy (100% in all analyses). When the CVL group was evaluated according to the dogs' clinical status, the prototype test showed outstanding accuracy in all groups with positive serology (asymptomatic II, oligosymptomatic, and symptomatic). However, in dogs which had positive results by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) but negative results by conventional serology (asymptomatic I), serological reactivity was not observed. Additionally, sera from 40 dogs immunized with different vaccines (Leishmune, Leish-Tec, or LBSap) did not present serological reactivity in the prototype test. Eighty-eight dogs infected with other pathogens (Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Babesia canis) were used to determine cross-reactivity and specificity, and the prototype test performed well, particularly in dogs infected with B. canis and E. canis (100% and 93.3% specificities, respectively). In conclusion, our data reinforce the potential of the prototype test for use as a commercial kit and highlight its outstanding performance even after storage for 1 year at 4°C. Moreover, the prototype test efficiently provided accurate CVL serodiagnosis with an absence of false-positive results in vaccinated dogs and minor cross-reactivity against other canine pathogens. PMID:24108778

  9. A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Ferreira Rocha, Olguita G; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL. PMID:24766461

  10. Evaluation of serological cross-reactivity between canine visceral leishmaniasis and natural infection by Trypanosoma caninum.

    PubMed

    Alves, A S; Mouta-Confort, E; Figueiredo, F B; Oliveira, R V C; Schubach, A O; Madeira, M F

    2012-12-01

    In order to evaluate if the presence of Trypanosoma caninum can lead to a confuse diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), we investigated the serological status of dogs infected by T. caninum and assessed the serological cross-reactivity with CVL. A set of 117 serum samples from dogs infected by T. caninum, Leishmania chagasi and not infected dogs (n=39 in each group) was tested using commercial kits--indirect immunofluorescence (IFI-LVC), ELISA (EIE-LVC) and immunochromatographic test (DPP)--and in house tests with T. caninum (IIF-Tc and ELISA-Tc) and L. chagasi antigens (IIF-Lc and ELISA-Lc). IIF-Tc and ELISA-Tc presented sensitivity of 64.1% and 94.9% and specificity of 23.1% and 35.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the IFI-LVC, EIE-LVC and DPP tests was 100% and the specificity was 70.5%, 68% and 97.5% respectively. The concordance between the tests was considered as satisfactory. The specificities of IFI-LVC, EIE-LVC and DPP were higher when the group Tc was excluded, with significant values for IFI-LVC (?2=4.36, P-value=0.036), thus suggesting that the infection by T. caninum can confuse the diagnosis of CVL. PMID:22840335

  11. Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Piscopo, T V; Mallia, A C

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiology, disease patterns, immunology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of leishmaniasis are described. Various issues relating to leishmaniasis are highlighted: the relative lack of importance given to this disease is compared with other infections, climate change and its possible effect on extension of endemicity of this infection, and new diagnostic tests that are helping better diagnosis, especially in resource?poor areas. Other important aspects discussed include the potential for newer oral treatment to change the way this disease is managed; leishmania–HIV coinfection and groups at risk; and the development of an effective vaccine. PMID:17068275

  12. Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Piscopo, Tonio V

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiology, disease patterns, immunology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of leishmaniasis are described. Various issues relating to leishmaniasis are highlighted: the relative lack of importance given to this disease compared with other infections, climate change and its possible impact on extension of endemicity of this infection, and new diagnostic tests which are improving diagnosis, especially in resource poor areas. Other important aspects discussed include the potential for newer oral therapy to change the way this disease is managed; Leishmania–HIV coinfection and groups at risk; and development of an effective vaccine. PMID:17396274

  13. Transmission Dynamics and Prospects for the Elimination of Canine Rabies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katie Hampson; Jonathan Dushoff; Sarah Cleaveland; Daniel T Haydon; Magai Kaare; Craig Packer; Andy Dobson

    2009-01-01

    Rabies has been eliminated from domestic dog populations in Western Europe and North America, but continues to kill many thousands of people throughout Africa and Asia every year. A quantitative understanding of transmission dynamics in domestic dog populations provides critical information to assess whether global elimination of canine rabies is possible. We report extensive observations of individual rabid animals in

  14. Evaluation of PCR in the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis in two different epidemiological regions: Campinas (SP) and Teresina (PI), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, L N G; Borba, A S; Castagna, C L; Carvalho Filho, E B; Marson, F A L; Sá Junior, F F; Angerami, R N; Levy, C E

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis has greater sensitivity and specificity than culture and visualization of the parasite. This study compares PCR for the diagnosis of the genus and species of Leishmania with serological techniques used for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Brazil, considering two regions. We analysed peripheral blood samples collected from 195 dogs in the Campinas (SP) and Teresina (PI) regions. ELISA was performed as a serological method and PCR was performed using specific primers for the genus Leishmania spp. and the species Leishmania chagasi. In Campinas, a greater sensitivity of PCR (88·24%) (P = 0·0455) compared to Teresina (14·71%) (P < 0·0001) was observed, and an agreement was observed for Cohen's kappa index (0·9096). Both PCR and ELISA showed discordance for sensitivity (Campinas 100%, Teresina 21·74%), specificity (Campinas 30·77%, Teresina 100%), positive predictive value (Campinas 68·97%, Teresina 100%), negative predictive value (Campinas 100%, Teresina 37·94%) and Cohen's kappa index (0·1238). This study confirms the importance of PCR in analysis of the canine reservoir, and as an effective method for the detection of active and recent infection. PMID:25019604

  15. Insecticide impregnated curtains to control domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela: cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Axel; Avila, Elci Villegas; Morison, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Objective To measure the impact on transmission of leishmaniasis of curtains impregnated with insecticide. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial: household interview survey, observational study of people's behaviour, entomological study with light trap captures of sandflies inside houses. Setting 14 urban sectors in Trujillo, Venezuela. Participants 2913 inhabitants of 569 houses. Intervention Sectors were paired according to their 12 month cumulative incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis, one sector in each pair was randomly allocated to receive polyester curtains impregnated with lambdacyhalothrin (intervention group) while the other sector received curtains without insecticide or no curtains (control groups). After 12 months a follow up household survey was conducted. Main outcome measures Reduction in abundance of sandflies indoors and 12 month incidence of clinical cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Results Transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred mainly in the domestic setting, with the incidence over 12 months of 4%. The mean number of sandflies per trap per night was 16. After follow up the 12 month incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was 0% in the intervention group and 8% in the six pairs in the control group that received unimpregnated curtains (mean difference 8, 95% confidence interval 4.22 to 11.78; P=0.001). There were significantly fewer sandflies in the intervention group (2 v 15, mean difference 13 sandflies per trap; 9 to 17; P<0.001). Conclusion Curtains impregnated with insecticide provide a high degree of protection against indoor transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. What is already known on this topicThe transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis is increasingly in urban and domestic settingsHouse spraying, space spraying, and insecticide treated material reduce the number of vectorsWhat this paper addsPyrethroid impregnated curtains can considerably reduce the incidence rate of cutaneous leishmaniasis in areas where indoor transmission is predominant PMID:12376442

  16. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: performance of a rapid diagnostic test (Kalazar Detect) in dogs with and without signs of the disease.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Moreira, Márcio Antônio Batistela; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Raychaudhuri, Syamal; Dietze, Reynaldo

    2008-08-01

    Current visceral leishmaniasis (VL) control programs in Brazil include the infected dog elimination but, despite this strategy, the incidence of human VL is still increasing. One of the reasons is the long delay between sample collection, analysis, control implementation and the low sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Due to the high prevalence of asymptomatic dogs, the diagnosis of these animals is important considering their vector infection capacity. Hence, a rapid and accurate diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis is essential for an efficient surveillance program. In this study we evaluated the performance of rK39 antigen in an immunochromatographic format to detect symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs and compared the results with those using a crude antigen ELISA. The sensitivity of rK39 dipstick and ELISA were 83% vs. 95%, respectively, while the specificity was both 100%. Our results also demonstrated that the dipstick test was able to detect infected dogs presenting different clinical forms. PMID:18565485

  17. Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Neuber, Hubertus

    2008-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is a clinically heterogeneous group of diseases, caused by infection with protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The aggressiveness of the individual species, their organ preference and the host immune status determine disease course. This can range from a solitary, spontaneous healing ulcer (cutaneous leishmaniasis), to often destructive mucocutaneous disease to generalized involvement with visceral leishmaniasis which may be lethal if not treated. The protozoa are transmitted by small (2-4 mm) phlebotomine sand flies. Protection with non-impregnated mosquito nets is almost impossible. An estimated 12 million people are affected; 60,000 die annually. Every non-healing ulcer associated with travel to between the 40th parallels should be suspected as possible leishmaniasis. The diagnostic approach should be standardized; one should attempt to directly demonstrate the organism in the edge of the ulcer and then subspeciate it. Both are basis requirements for initiating appropriate therapy. Pentavalent antimony preparations, amphotericin B and miltefosine are licensed in Germany. A number of other off-label approaches are also commonly employed. Insect repellents, eradication of vectors and control of the animal reservoir are useful to prevent infection. PMID:19000063

  18. STUDIES ON CONTROL OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS: IMPACT OF DOG CONTROL ON CANINE AND HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN JACOBINA, BAHIA, BRAZIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID A. ASHFORD; JOHN R. DAVID; MIRALBA FREIRE; ROBERTA DAVID; ITALO SHERLOCK

    To assess the effect of removing leishmania-infected dogs on the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis, a controlled intervention study was performed in northeast Brazil. The attempted elimination of seropositive dogs resulted in an initial significant decrease in the annual incidence of seroconversion among dogs from 36% to 6% over the first two years. In the following two years, the incidence increased

  19. Immunotherapy Using Autoclaved L. major Antigens and M. vaccae with Meglumine Antimoniate, for the Treatment of Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, Sh; Avizeh, R; Mohebali, M; Bokaie, S

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate immunotherapy against canine visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania major antigen and heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae (SRL172) were used as stimulators of immune defense mechanisms and the results were compared with standard chemotherapy meglumine antimoniate. Methods Nineteen mongrel dogs aging 1-3 years old were used in this experiment. Infection was carried out in 15 out of 19 dogs using L. infantum, isolated from a naturally infected poly-symptomatic dog. Results All the cases showed positive serologic results by direct agglutination test during 30-60 days following inoculation. In the first group, which was under chemotherapy (GlucantimeR), one of the members showed recurrence of the disease despite rapid effect of the therapeutic protocol. Immunotherapy using SRL172 caused complete cleaning of the parasite in group 2, but the speed was less than Glucantime. Immunotherapy using L. major antigen combined with M. vaccae in group 3 and combine administration of immunotherapy and chemotherapy in group 4 both were with relapsing of one case in each group. Group 5 and 6 were consisted of positive and negative control dogs, respectively. Conclusion Immunotherapy seems to be an adjuvant in treatment of canine leishmaniasis but it needs more investigation for final confirmation. PMID:22347294

  20. Use of a Recombinant Cysteine Proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi for the Immunotherapy of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Josie Haydée Lima; Silva, Lucilene dos Santos; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Background A recombinant cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi (rLdccys1) was previously shown to induce protective immune responses against murine and canine visceral leishmaniasis. These findings encouraged us to use rLdccys1 in the immunotherapy of naturally infected dogs from Teresina, Piauí, a region of high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty naturally infected mongrel dogs displaying clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis were randomly divided in three groups: one group received three doses of rLdccys1 in combination with the adjuvant Propionibacterium acnes at one month interval between each dose; a second group received three doses of P. acnes alone; a third group received saline. The main findings were: 1) dogs that received rLdccys1 with P. acnes did not display increase of the following clinical signs: weight loss, alopecia, onychogryphosis, cachexia, anorexia, apathy, skin lesions, hyperkeratosis, ocular secretion, and enlarged lymph nodes; they also exhibited a significant reduction in the spleen parasite load in comparison to the control dogs; 2) rLdccys1-treated dogs exhibited a significant delayed type cutaneous hypersensitivity elicited by the recombinant antigen, as well as high IgG2 serum titers and low IgG1 serum titers; sera from rLdccys1-treated dogs also contained high IFN-? and low IL-10 concentrations; 3) control dogs exhibited all of the clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis and had low serum IgG2 and IFN-? levels and high concentrations of IgG1 and IL-10; 4) all of the dogs treated with rLdccys1 were alive 12 months after treatment, whereas dogs which received either saline or P. acnes alone died within 3 to 7 months. Conclusions/Significance These findings illustrate the potential use of rLdccys1 as an additional tool for the immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis and support further studies designed to improve the efficacy of this recombinant antigen for the treatment of this neglected disease. PMID:24625516

  1. Canine leishmaniasis in Southern Italy: a role for nitric oxide released from activated macrophages in asymptomatic infection?

    PubMed Central

    Panaro, Maria A; Brandonisio, Olga; de Caprariis, Donato; Cavallo, Pasqua; Cianciulli, Antonia; Mitolo, Vincenzo; Otranto, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    Background Human and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum is endemic in Italy, with a high percentage of infected asymptomatic animals. However, the immune response mechanisms underlying the clinical presentation of CanL have not been fully investigated. Among leishmanicidal molecules produced by activated macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) produced by an inducible NO synthase seems to play an important protective role, but no conclusive data are available. Therefore, NO released by cultured macrophages from dogs with natural Leishmania infection living in an endemic area for CanL was evaluated. Methods On the basis of one year's clinical and laboratory follow-up, 22 dogs infected by Leishmania infantum were identified and grouped as: asymptomatic dogs (n = 13) and dogs with symptoms of leishmaniasis (n = 9). Each animal was bled twice at 4-month intervals and macrophage and lymphocyte cultures were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Supernatants of L. infantum-infected macrophage cultures, with or without addition of autologous lymphocytes, were assayed for NO production by Griess reaction for nitrites. Results In the first months of the infection the levels of NO in supernatants of Leishmania-infected macrophages were higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic dogs, but they were significantly increased in the latter group eight months after the diagnosis of infection. Furthermore, NO release significantly decreased in the presence of autologous lymphocytes in both groups of animals. Conclusion These results suggest that NO may be involved in the long-term protection of dogs against natural Leishmania infection and in the clinical presentation of canine leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean area. PMID:18471289

  2. Heat shock proteins in canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    PubMed

    Chu, R M; Sun, T J; Yang, H Y; Wang, D G; Liao, K W; Chuang, T F; Lin, C H; Lee, W C

    2001-09-28

    SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect heat shock proteins (HSPs) 60, 70 and 90 in canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT). Tissues tested for HSPs included: (1) tissues from different growth phases of CTVT tumors artificially induced in dogs; (2) tissues from other canine tumors; (3) normal dog tissues. Our results indicate that HSP 60 was consistently higher in CTVT cells in regressing phase than those in progressing phase. However, no detectable antibody response specific to the tested HSPs was found in the sera from CTVT-laden dogs in different growth phases. Although levels of the HSPs were all detectable in CTVT cells, only 60 and 70 were higher in CTVT cells than in normal tissues. In addition, none of the HSPs were detected in cells from five other canine tumors. These data suggest that canine HSP 60 and 70 are potential markers for CTVT and HSP 60 is appear to be involved in CTVT regression.PCR was used to confirm the existence of CTVT cells using primers designed to cover the sequence between the 5' end of c-myc near the first exon and the 3' end outside the LINE gene. Only CTVT samples were positive for this sequence; samples from other tumors and normal tissues were negative. The sequenced PCR products indicated that CTVT from Taiwan and other countries exhibited over 98% sequence homology. This reconfirms that, worldwide, all CTVT cells are very similar. PMID:11557291

  3. Evaluation of rK39 Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis: Longitudinal Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quinnell, Rupert J.; Carson, Connor; Reithinger, Richard; Garcez, Lourdes M.; Courtenay, Orin

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a need for sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for canine visceral leishmaniasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic dipstick RDTs using rK39 antigen for canine visceral leishmaniasis by (i) investigating the sensitivity of RDTs to detect infection, disease and infectiousness in a longitudinal cohort study of natural infection in Brazil, and (ii) using meta-analysis to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs from published studies. Methodology We used a rK39 RDT (Kalazar Detect Canine Rapid Test; Inbios) to test sera collected from 54 sentinel dogs exposed to natural infection in an endemic area of Brazil. Dogs were sampled bimonthly for up to 27 months, and rK39 results compared to those of crude antigen ELISA, PCR, clinical status and infectiousness to sandflies. We then searched MEDLINE and Web of Knowledge (1993–2011) for original studies evaluating the performance of rK39 RDTs in dogs. Meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity was performed using bivariate mixed effects models. Principal Findings The sensitivity of the rK39 RDT in Brazil to detect infection, disease and infectiousness was 46%, 77% and 78% respectively. Sensitivity increased with time since infection, antibody titre, parasite load, clinical score and infectiousness. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. The combined sensitivity of rK39 RDTs was 86.7% (95% CI: 76.9–92.8%) to detect clinical disease and 59.3% (37.9–77.6%) to detect infection. Combined specificity was 98.7% (89.5–99.9%). Both sensitivity and specificity varied considerably between studies. Conclusion The diagnostic performance of rK39 RDTs is reasonable for confirmation of infection in suspected clinical cases, but the sensitivity to detect infected dogs is too low for large-scale epidemiological studies and operational control programmes. PMID:23326615

  4. Comparative evaluation of the DPP(®) CVL rapid test for canine serodiagnosis in area of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Laurenti, M D; de Santana Leandro, M V; Tomokane, T Y; De Lucca, H R L; Aschar, M; Souza, C S F; Silva, R M; Marcondes, M; da Matta, V L R

    2014-10-15

    We investigated the performance of the DPP(®) canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) rapid test, a novel immunochromatographic assay launched by BioManguinhos (Brazil), which was recently included in the new Brazilian protocol for screening CVL in serological surveys. The present study compared the DPP(®) with the ELISA and IFA produced by BioManguinhos (Brazil) both with L. major-like antigens and with in-house tests using Leishmania infantum chagasi (in-house ELISA and in-house IFA). We analyzed the sera from clinically symptomatic (n=47) and asymptomatic (n=38) infected dogs from an endemic area of CVL, as well as from healthy (n=18) dogs, in addition to the sera of dogs (n=81) infected with other pathogens. The DPP(®) and the in-house ELISA showed a sensitivity of 90.6% and 94.1%, respectively, and specificity of 95.1% and 97.5%, respectively, and both presented cross-reactivity only with the sera of dogs with babesiosis, 44% for the DPP(®) and 22% for the in-house ELISA. The clinical groups were detected equally by the two assays. The ELISA BioManguinhos, IFA BioManguinhos, and in house-IFA showed a good sensitivity, 90.6%, 96.5% and 89.4%, respectively, but very low specificity, 77.8%, 69.1% and 65.8%, respectively, due to the high cross-reactivity with the sera from the animals harboring other pathogens. The in-house ELISA provided the highest accuracy (95.8%), followed by the DPP(®) (92.7%), ELISA BioManguinhos (84.3%), IFA BioManguinhos (83.1%), and in-house IFA (78.0%). The simultaneous use of the DPP(®) and ELISA BioManguinhos reached a sensitivity of 99.1% and 82.1% when used sequentially. In conclusion, the DPP(®) performed well as serological test for CVL, and detected both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs in equal proportions. Although its sensitivity is not ideal yet, discarding the IFA and including the DPP(®) improved the accuracy of the new Brazilian CVL diagnostic protocol, particularly of detecting truly infected dogs. Moreover, considering the higher specificity of DPP(®) (95.1% vs 77.8%), positive predictive value (95.1% vs 81.1%) and positive likelihood value (18.3% vs 4.1%) in comparison with the ELISA BioManguinhos, the use of DPP(®) as a confirmatory test instead of a screening test is suggested. PMID:25257505

  5. High rates of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma nabiasi infection in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in sympatric and syntrophic conditions in an endemic canine leishmaniasis area: epidemiological consequences.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Sáez, V; Merino-Espinosa, G; Morales-Yuste, M; Corpas-López, V; Pratlong, F; Morillas-Márquez, F; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2014-05-28

    Leishmania infantum infection has been reported in various host species, both domestic and wild, in some cases with high prevalence rates. However, until the recent discovery of infected hares, no studies had provided clear evidence of any significant reservoir other than domestic dogs. Our focus was on another lagomorph, Oryctolagus cuniculus or wild rabbit. This species is native to the Iberian Peninsula and its presence and abundance gave rise to the name of Spain. In an endemic area for canine leishmaniasis in the southeast of Spain, 150 rabbits were captured over a period of three years. Samples of blood, bone marrow, liver, spleen, heart and skin were taken and analysed through parasitological, serological and molecular techniques in order to detect Leishmania and Trypanosoma. 20.7% of the rabbits were infected with L. infantum and 82.4% with Trypanosoma nabiasi, and 14.8% of mixed infections were detected. Both parasites were found in all the animal organs analysed, a factor which, along with the presence of serological cross-reactions, must be taken into account in epidemiological studies on leishmaniasis. O. cuniculus is an abundant and gregarious species, with a long enough average lifespan to ensure L. infantum transmission. The presence of the parasite in the skin and blood of these rabbits with no acute manifestation of disease ensures its contact with the vector, which finds in their warrens a suitable biotope to inhabit. The rabbit therefore seems to meet the most of conditions for being considered a reservoir host of L. infantum. PMID:24774436

  6. Sequence analysis of canine LINE-1 elements and p53 gene in canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ki; Kim, Chul-Joong

    2002-12-01

    LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements or long interspersed repeated DNA elements) contains two open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2. We analysed the ORF2 located in the 5' region to the first exon of oncogene c-myc in canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) cell. We also showed the transcription activation was induced by this TVT-LINE sequence using CAT assay. To identify the mutation of tumor suppressor gene, sequence analysis of p53 from TVT cell was performed. We identified the point mutation of 964 nucleotide (T-C) resulting in the change of amino acid (Phe-Ser) of p53 tumor suppressor protein. PMID:12825561

  7. Development of a Fluorescent Based Immunosensor for the Serodiagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis Combining Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Susana; Cardoso, Luís; Reed, Steven G.; Reis, Alexandre B.; Martins-Filho, Olindo A.; Silvestre, Ricardo; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    Background An accurate diagnosis is essential for the control of infectious diseases. In the search for effective and efficient tests, biosensors have increasingly been exploited for the development of new and highly sensitive diagnostic methods. Here, we describe a new fluorescent based immunosensor comprising magnetic polymer microspheres coated with recombinant antigens to improve the detection of specific antibodies generated during an infectious disease. As a challenging model, we used canine leishmaniasis due to the unsatisfactory sensitivity associated with the detection of infection in asymptomatic animals where the levels of pathogen-specific antibodies are scarce. Methodology Ni-NTA magnetic microspheres with 1,7 µm and 8,07 µm were coated with the Leishmania recombinant proteins LicTXNPx and rK39, respectively. A mixture of equal proportions of both recombinant protein-coated microspheres was used to recognize and specifically bind anti-rK39 and anti-LicTNXPx antibodies present in serum samples of infected dogs. The microspheres were recovered by magnetic separation and the percentage of fluorescent positive microspheres was quantified by flow cytometry. Principal Findings A clinical evaluation carried out with 129 dog serum samples using the antigen combination demonstrated a sensitivity of 98,8% with a specificity of 94,4%. rK39 antigen alone demonstrated a higher sensitivity for symptomatic dogs (96,9%), while LicTXNPx antigen showed a higher sensitivity for asymptomatic (94,4%). Conclusions Overall, our results demonstrated the potential of a magnetic microsphere associated flow cytometry methodology as a viable tool for highly sensitive laboratorial serodiagnosis of both clinical and subclinical forms of canine leishmaniasis. PMID:23991232

  8. Low CXCL13 Expression, Splenic Lymphoid Tissue Atrophy and Germinal Center Disruption in Severe Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joselli S.; Andrade, Alan C.; Santana, Claudia C.; Santos, Leina Q.; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Veras, Patrícia S. T.; Vassallo, José; dos-Santos, Washington L. C.

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is associated with atrophy and histological disorganization of splenic compartments. In this paper, we compared organized and disorganized splenic lymphoid tissue from dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum assessing the size of the white pulp compartments, the distribution of T, B and S100+ dendritic cells, using immunohistochemistry and morphometry and the expression of CCR7 and the cytokines, CXCL13, lymphotoxin (LT)-?, LT-?, CCL19, CCL21, TNF-?, IL-10, IFN-? and TGF-?, using by real time RT-PCR. The lymphoid follicles and marginal zones were smaller (3.2 and 1.9 times, respectively; Mann-Whitney, P<0.02) in animals with disorganized splenic tissue in comparison to those with organized splenic lymphoid tissue. In spleens with disorganized lymphoid tissue, the numbers of T cells and S100+ dendritic cells were decreased in the follicles, and the numbers of B cells were reduced in both the follicles and marginal zones. CXCL13 mRNA expression was lower in animals with disorganized lymphoid tissue (0.5±0.4) compared to those with organized lymphoid tissue (2.7±2.9, both relative to 18S expression, P?=?0.01). These changes in the spleen were associated with higher frequency of severe disease (7/12) in the animals with disorganized than in animals with organized (2/13, Chi-square, P?=?0.01) splenic lymphoid tissue. The data presented herein suggest that natural infection with Leishmania infantum is associated with the impairment of follicular dendritic cells, CXCL13 expression, B cell migration and germinal center formation and associates these changes with severe clinical forms of visceral leishmaniasis. Furthermore the fact that this work uses dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum emphasizes the relevance of the data presented herein for the knowledge on the canine and human visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22242159

  9. Mitosis and apoptosis in canine cutaneous histiocytoma and transmissible venereal tumour.

    PubMed

    Guvenc, T; Haligur, M; Orman, M N; Haziroglu, R

    2002-01-01

    Cell proliferation and apoptosis in canine cutaneous histiocytomas and transmissible venereal tumours were examined in twenty cases. The Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and Tunel methods were used to detect mitotic activity and apoptosis, respectively. The number of Ki-67 immunoreactive cells was 11.65 (+/- 1.1706) in canine cutaneous histiocytomas and 17 (+/- 2.1751) in transmissible venereal tumours. The mean values of apoptotic cells for canine cutaneous histiocytomas and transmissible venereal tumours were 13.25 (+/- 1.8758) and 8.52 (+/- 1.1007), respectively. It was considered that mitotic activity and apoptotic indices were useful in differentiation of canine cutaneous histiocytomas and transmissible venereal tumours. The correlation values for canine cutaneous histiocytomas and transmissible venereal tumours were 0.359 (+/- 0.330) and -0.232 (+/- 0.344), respectively. No significant (P > 0.05) correlation was found between mitosis and apoptosis in these two tumour types. PMID:12237973

  10. Transmission Dynamics and Prospects for the Elimination of Canine Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Katie; Dushoff, Jonathan; Cleaveland, Sarah; Haydon, Daniel T; Kaare, Magai; Packer, Craig; Dobson, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Rabies has been eliminated from domestic dog populations in Western Europe and North America, but continues to kill many thousands of people throughout Africa and Asia every year. A quantitative understanding of transmission dynamics in domestic dog populations provides critical information to assess whether global elimination of canine rabies is possible. We report extensive observations of individual rabid animals in Tanzania and generate a uniquely detailed analysis of transmission biology, which explains important epidemiological features, including the level of variation in epidemic trajectories. We found that the basic reproductive number for rabies, R0, is very low in our study area in rural Africa (?1.2) and throughout its historic global range (<2). This finding provides strong support for the feasibility of controlling endemic canine rabies by vaccination, even near wildlife areas with large wild carnivore populations. However, we show that rapid turnover of domestic dog populations has been a major obstacle to successful control in developing countries, thus regular pulse vaccinations will be required to maintain population-level immunity between campaigns. Nonetheless our analyses suggest that with sustained, international commitment, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal. PMID:19278295

  11. Nasal, Oral and Ear Swabs for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Diagnosis: New Practical Approaches for Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Sidney de Almeida; Almeida, Gregório Guilherme; Silva, Soraia de Oliveira; Vogas, Gabriela Peixoto; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro; Melo, Maria Norma

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of nasal, oral, and ear swabs for molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in an endemic urban area in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Sixty-two naturally infected and ten healthy dogs were enrolled in this study. Bone marrow aspirates, peripheral blood, skin biopsy, and conjunctival, nasal, oral, and ear swabs were collected. All samples, except blood, were submitted to conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) to detect and quantify Leishmania infantum DNA, respectively. All dogs were submitted to thorough clinical analysis and were included based on a combination of serological (ELISA immunoassay and immunofluorescent antibody test) and parasitological methods. The cPCR positivity obtained from nasal swab samples was 87% (54/62), equivalent to those from other samples (P>0.05). Positive results were obtained for 79% (22/28) in oral swabs and 43% (12/28) in ear swab samples. A significant difference was observed between these data (P?=?0.013), and the frequency of positive results from oral swab was equivalent to those from other samples (P>0.05). The use of ear swab samples for cPCR assays is promising because its result was equivalent to skin biopsy data (P>0.05). The qPCR data revealed that parasite loads in mucosal tissues were similar (P>0.05), but significantly lower than the parasite burden observed in bone marrow and skin samples (P<0.05). Conclusions Nasal and oral swab samples showed a high potential for the qualitative molecular diagnosis of CVL because their results were equivalent to those observed in samples collected invasively. Considering that mucosae swab collections are painless, noninvasive, fast and practical, the combination of these samples would be useful in massive screening of dogs. This work highlights the potential of practical approaches for molecular diagnosis of CVL and human leishmaniasis infections. PMID:23593518

  12. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Manuela; Cassini, Rudi; Drigo, Michele; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Pietrobelli, Mario; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie

    2014-11-01

    With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environmental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribution of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM) and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30) and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt prediction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level) characterised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveillance strategies. PMID:25545936

  13. Urban Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Argentina: Spatial Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Gil, José F.; Nasser, Julio R.; Cajal, Silvana P.; Juarez, Marisa; Acosta, Norma; Cimino, Rubén O.; Diosque, Patricio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2010-01-01

    We used kernel density and scan statistics to examine the spatial distribution of cases of pediatric and adult American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an urban disease-endemic area in Salta Province, Argentina. Spatial analysis was used for the whole population and stratified by women > 14 years of age (n = 159), men > 14 years of age (n = 667), and children < 15 years of age (n = 213). Although kernel density for adults encompassed nearly the entire city, distribution in children was most prevalent in the peripheral areas of the city. Scan statistic analysis for adult males, adult females, and children found 11, 2, and 8 clusters, respectively. Clusters for children had the highest odds ratios (P < 0.05) and were located in proximity of plantations and secondary vegetation. The data from this study provide further evidence of the potential urban transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Argentina. PMID:20207869

  14. Molecular detection of the blood meal source of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baum, Maurício; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Goulart, Thais Marchi; Baura, Walter; Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Vieira da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara

    2015-03-01

    The feeding behavior of sand flies provides valuable information about the vector/host interactions and elucidates the epidemiological patterns of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of sand flies in endemic areas of leishmaniasis in Paraná State through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a prepronociceptin (PNOC) gene fragment and its subsequent DNA sequencing. Moreover, molecular assays were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the PNOC gene amplification. Besides that, a time-course digestion test of the blood using sand flies that fed artificially on BALB/c mice was performed. Of 1263 female sand flies collected in the field, 93 (3.6%) specimens were engorged and 27 allowed efficient amplification of the PNOC gene. These flies had fed on equine (Equus caballus), porcine (Sus scrofa) and canine (Canis lupus familiaris) species. The results also showed that the identification of the blood meal sources of the sand flies using the molecular method was directly linked to the level of digestion of the blood (time-course) and not to the amount of blood that had been ingested or to the presence of inhibitors in the blood. PMID:25530542

  15. Congenital transmission of experimental leishmaniasis in a hamster model.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Yaneth; Rodriguez, Luz D; Bonilla, Diana L; Peniche, Alex G; Henao, Hector; Saldarriaga, Omar; Travi, Bruno L

    2012-05-01

    Little information is available on transplacental transmission of Leishmania spp. We determined the frequency and impact of congenital infection caused by Leishmania panamensis or L. donovani in experimentally infected hamsters. A polymerase chain reaction showed that congenital transmission occurred in 25.8% (24 of 93) of offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters and 14.6% (11 of 75) offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters. Mortality during lactation was higher in offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters and offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters than controls, and lymphoproliferation to Leishmania was more frequent in offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters (17.4%, 11 of 63) than in offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters (8.5%, 3 of 35). After weaning, only offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters had lower weight gain (P < 0.001) and hematocrit levels (P = 0.0045) than controls. Challenge of offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters with L. panamensis showed no differences in lesion evolution, and offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters were more susceptible to L. donovani challenge than controls. Consequently, prenatal exposure of hamsters to L. donovani significantly increased the mortality risk and susceptibility to secondary homologous infection. PMID:22556079

  16. Vaginal canine transmissible venereal tumour associated with intra-tumoural Leishmania spp. amastigotes in an asymptomatic female dog.

    PubMed

    Kegler, K; Habierski, A; Hahn, K; Amarilla, S P; Seehusen, F; Baumgärtner, W

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year-old female boxer dog was presented with a vaginal serosanguineous discharge not associated with oestrus. There was a friable mass occupying the upper caudal part of the vagina. Cytological and histological examination revealed a monomorphic population of neoplastic round cells consistent with canine transmissible venereal tumour (TVT). In addition, Leishmania spp. amastigotes were found within the neoplastic tissue. In order to characterize whether the amastigotes were present inside macrophages and/or neoplastic cells, a co-localization study using cell- and pathogen-specific markers was performed. To detect Leishmania spp. a 5.8S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) parasite-specific sequence was used for in-situ hybridization and Mac387 was used as a macrophage marker for immunohistochemistry. Leishmania spp. rRNA was detected inside Mac387(+) macrophages and within the cytoplasm of some neoplastic cells. DNA isolation and polymerase chain reaction using specific primers and sequencing analysis identified the organism as Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). This is the first report describing infection of tumour cells by L. infantum in a genital TVT from an asymptomatic bitch. Transplantation of Leishmania-laden neoplastic cells could represent an alternative route of venereal transmission of leishmaniasis among dogs. PMID:23348016

  17. Subtractive Phage Display Selection from Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Identifies Novel Epitopes That Mimic Leishmania infantum Antigens with Potential Serodiagnosis Applications

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lourena E.; Lima, Mayara I. S.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Lage, Paula S.; Lopes, Eliane G. P.; Lage, Daniela P.; Ribeiro, Tatiana G.; Andrade, Pedro H. R.; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F.; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Goulart, Luiz R.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs. PMID:24256622

  18. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis from the island. The presence of L. (N.) flaviscutellata in peridomestic areas is also an important finding, since the species is involved in the transmission of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. Health education practices directed to the local community and tourists are important control actions that can be taken in Ilha Grande to reduce the burden of leishmaniases. PMID:24499568

  19. Canine leishmaniasis: the key points for qPCR result interpretation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and follow up of CanL is difficult since the range of clinical signs is varied and seroprevalence is high in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: i) demonstrate the advantages of Leishmania qPCR to diagnose and control CanL and highlight its prognostic value and ii) propose guidelines for tissue selection and infection monitoring. Findings This study included 710 dogs living in an endemic area of leishmaniasis. Forty percent (285/710) exhibited clinical signs consistent with CanL. Infection was detected in 36.3% (258/710) of the dogs of which 4.5% (32/710) were detected by qPCR, 16.2% (115/710) detected by ELISA and 15.6% (111/710) tested positive for both tests. Only 17.9% (127/710) of the dogs were classified sick (affected) with CanL. All symptomatic dogs with medium or high ELISA titers were qPCR-positive in blood samples. All dogs with inconclusive or low ELISA results with high or medium qPCR parasitemia values developed the disease. Seventy one percent of asymptomatic ELISA-positive dogs confirmed by qPCR (medium to high parasitemia) developed the disease. Bone marrow or lymph node aspirate should be selected to ensure the absence of the parasite in asymptomatic dogs: 100-1,000 parasites/ml in bone marrow are detectable in blood, whereas lower parasite loads are usually negative. Almost 10% of negative samples in blood were positive in conjunctival swabs. Conclusions Because qPCR allows parasite quantification, it is an effective tool to confirm a diagnosis of CanL in (i) cases of inconclusive ELISA results, (ii) when the dog has not yet seroconverted, or (iii) for treatment monitoring. PMID:21489253

  20. Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt

    E-print Network

    Samy, Abdallah Mohammed; Campbell, Lindsay P.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health...

  1. [Production of transmission foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis: the case of Pau da Fome, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Kawa, Hélia; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães de; Barcellos, Christovam

    2010-08-01

    This study analyzes the characteristics of one of the main foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, examining its territorial configuration and the relations with spatial organization processes. An analytical model was applied to the process of occupation and organization of urban space on a local scale, considering the new functions acquired by the spatial elements expressed by different work relations, land use, and land value. The study employed geoprocessing techniques and classification of images obtained by remote sensing, localization of households, and cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, associated with qualitative data on the historical process of land occupation and use. The analysis detected areas with distinct conditions of vulnerability and showed that changes in these conditions allowed production of the epidemic in a given time period and its subsequent reduction. The study contributes to monitoring of the disease at the local level and application of effective measures for cutaneous leishmaniasis surveillance and control. PMID:21229209

  2. A multicentric evaluation of the recombinant Leishmania infantum antigen-based immunochromatographic assay for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health challenge in Brazil and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of the causative agent. The culling of animals to control VL in some countries makes the accurate diagnosis of canine VL (CVL) essential. Recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B were selected from a cDNA library of Leishmania infantum amastigotes due to their strong potential as candidates in diagnostic testing for CVL. The present multicentric study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of a prototype test using these antigens (DPP rLci1A/rLci2B) against 154 sera obtained from symptomatic dogs within three endemic areas of VL in Brazil. The specificity was evaluated using 40 serum samples from negative dogs and dogs infected with other pathogens. Sensitivity and specificity rates of DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype were compared to rates from other diagnostic tests currently in use by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, including DPP®LVC, EIE®LVC. Findings DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype offered similar performance to that offered by DPP®LVC rapid test, as follows: sensitivity of 87% (CI 81–91) and 88% (CI 82–93) and specificity of 100% (CI 91–100) and 97% (CI 87–100), respectively for DPP rLci1A/rLci2B and DPP®LVC. When results of these two tests were considered concomitantly, sensitivity increased to 93.5% (CI 89–96). Conclusions The recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B represent promising candidates for use in a multi-antigen rapid test for CVL. The inclusion of novel antigens to the DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype model could offer additionally enhanced sensitivity to detect animals infected by L. infantum. PMID:24684857

  3. Comparison between ELISA using total antigen and immunochromatography with antigen rK39 in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Fattori, Karina Reinaldo; Michelin, Aparecida de Fátima; da Silveira Neto, Luiz; Vasconcelos, Rosemere de O

    2010-10-29

    In this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using crude total antigen (CTA-ELISA) and immunochromatography with antigen rK39 were compared in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Fifty-two total blood samples from symptomatic dogs obtained from a location endemic for leishmaniasis and 52 blood samples from healthy dogs from a nonendemic region were tested. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect DNA from Leishmania spp. in both groups. Symptomatic dogs with positive PCR were considered infected by Leishmania spp. and the PCR technique was chosen as a gold standard test. The sensitivity determined for CTA-ELISA was 100%, with specificity of 91.2%, while the immunochromatographic assay with the antigen rK39 showed sensitivity of 91.5%, with specificity of 94.7%. A strong correlation was verified between CTA-ELISA and immunochromatography with antigen rK39, with a kappa coefficient of agreement of 0.88. Analysis of the results suggested that both assays presented good sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing CVL; however, immunochromatography with the antigen rK39 may be more advantageous when a fast field test is required. PMID:20810216

  4. Characterization of novel Leishmania infantum recombinant proteins encoded by genes from five families with distinct capacities for serodiagnosis of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Geraldo G S; Magalhães, Franklin B; Teixeira, Márcia C A; Pereira, Andrea M; Pinheiro, Cristiane G M; Santos, Lenita R; Nascimento, Marília B; Bedor, Cheila N G; Albuquerque, Alessandra L; dos-Santos, Washington L C; Gomes, Yara M; Moreira, Edson D; Brito, Maria E F; Pontes de Carvalho, Lain C; de Melo Neto, Osvaldo P

    2011-12-01

    To expand the available panel of recombinant proteins that can be useful for identifying Leishmania-infected dogs and for diagnosing human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), we selected recombinant antigens from L. infantum, cDNA, and genomic libraries by using pools of serum samples from infected dogs and humans. The selected DNA fragments encoded homologs of a cytoplasmic heat-shock protein 70, a kinesin, a polyubiquitin, and two novel hypothetical proteins. Histidine-tagged recombinant proteins were produced after subcloning these DNA fragments and evaluated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with panels of canine and human serum samples. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different recombinant proteins had different sensitivities (67.4-93.0% and 36.4-97.2%) and specificities (76.1-100% and 90.4-97.3%) when tested with serum samples from Leishmania-infected dogs and human patients with VL. Overall, no single recombinant antigen was sufficient to serodiagnosis all canine or human VL cases. PMID:22144438

  5. Kinetics and Diagnostic and Prognostic Potential of Quantitative Western Blot Analysis and Antigen-Specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in Experimental Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Talmi-Frank, D.; Strauss-Ayali, D.; Jaffe, C. L.; Baneth, G.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative computerized Western blot analysis of antibody responses during experimental canine Leishmania infantum infection distinguished between immunodominant and nonimmunodominant protein bands. Six infected beagles, positive by both PCR and parasite culture, were monitored over 75 weeks postinfection and during a 12-week allopurinol treatment course. All dogs were symptomatic at the time of treatment. Of 12 antigenic bands examined, the immunodominant bands (12, 14, 24, 29, 48, and 68 kDa) showed significantly increased intensities (P < 0.01) and higher frequencies of recognition than the nonimmunodominant bands at all time points. Detection of the former bands at 6 weeks postinfection preceded seroconversion by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) both on crude Leishmania antigen or the recombinant proteins rK39 and HSP70. Reactivity with the 14-, 48-, and 68-kDa bands signified early infection, whereas increased reactivity with the 14-, 24-, and 29-kDa bands was associated with posttreatment parasite persistence and potential unfavorable prognosis. Total lane intensity (TLI) emerged as a sensitive marker for early infection and increased as early as 4 weeks postinfection. TLI had a significantly higher (P < 0.01) relative increase rate than crude Leishmania antigen or HSP70 or rK39 ELISA at all time points. These immunodominant antigens and TLI, as determined by quantitative Western blotting, will be valuable for early detection and treatment evaluation of canine leishmaniasis. PMID:16467337

  6. Characterization of Novel Leishmania infantum Recombinant Proteins Encoded by Genes from Five Families with Distinct Capacities for Serodiagnosis of Canine and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Geraldo G. S.; Magalhães, Franklin B.; Teixeira, Márcia C. A.; Pereira, Andrea M.; Pinheiro, Cristiane G. M.; Santos, Lenita R.; Nascimento, Marília B.; Bedor, Cheila N. G.; Albuquerque, Alessandra L.; dos-Santos, Washington L. C.; Gomes, Yara M.; Moreira, Edson D.; Brito, Maria E. F.; Pontes de Carvalho, Lain C.; de Melo Neto, Osvaldo P.

    2011-01-01

    To expand the available panel of recombinant proteins that can be useful for identifying Leishmania-infected dogs and for diagnosing human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), we selected recombinant antigens from L. infantum, cDNA, and genomic libraries by using pools of serum samples from infected dogs and humans. The selected DNA fragments encoded homologs of a cytoplasmic heat-shock protein 70, a kinesin, a polyubiquitin, and two novel hypothetical proteins. Histidine-tagged recombinant proteins were produced after subcloning these DNA fragments and evaluated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with panels of canine and human serum samples. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different recombinant proteins had different sensitivities (67.4–93.0% and 36.4–97.2%) and specificities (76.1–100% and 90.4–97.3%) when tested with serum samples from Leishmania-infected dogs and human patients with VL. Overall, no single recombinant antigen was sufficient to serodiagnosis all canine or human VL cases. PMID:22144438

  7. Phlebotomine Vector Ecology in the Domestic Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Cristina; Marín, Dairo; Góngora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, María C.; Trujillo, Jorge E.; Rueda, Norma K.; Marín, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Pérez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.

    2011-01-01

    Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral. PMID:22049038

  8. Canine transmissible venereal tumour: cytogenetic origin, immunophenotype, and immunobiology. A review.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Gruys, E

    2003-09-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is the only known naturally occurring tumour that can be transplanted as an allograft across major histocompatibility (MHC) barriers within the same species, and even to other members of the canine family, such as foxes, coyotes and wolves. The progression of this tumour is unique in that, it follows a predictable growth pattern. In natural and experimental cases, the growth pattern includes progressive growth phase, static phase and regression phase, and this is followed by transplantation immunity in immunocompetent adults, while metastasis occurs in puppies and immunosuppressed dogs. Because of the uniqueness of CTVT transmission and progression, experimental investigations of various aspects of the biology of CTVT have been used to provide clues to the immunobiology of both animal and human tumours. This review examines the current state of knowledge of the aspects of the cytogenetic origin, immunophenotype, immunobiology and immunotherapy of CTVT. PMID:14535580

  9. Transmission Dynamics and Prospects for the Elimination of Canine Rabies 

    E-print Network

    Cleaveland S.; Hampson K.; Dushoff J.; Haydon D.T.; Kaare M.; Packer C.; Dobson A.

    2009-03-01

    Rabies has been eliminated from domestic dog populations in Western Europe and North America, but continues to kill many thousands of people throughout Africa and Asia every year. A quantitative understanding of transmission dynamics in domestic dog...

  10. Evaluation of Change in Canine Diagnosis Protocol Adopted by the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control Program in Brazil and a New Proposal for Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Coura-Vital, Wendel; Ker, Henrique Gama; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Leal, Gleisiane Gomes de Almeida; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Oliveira, Laser Antônio Machado; de Menezes Machado, Evandro Marques; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Carneiro, Mariângela; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The techniques used for diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Brazil ELISA and IFAT have been extensively questioned because of the accuracy of these tests. A recent change in the diagnosis protocol excluded IFAT and included the Dual-Path Platform (DPP). We evaluated the prevalence and incidence rates of Leishmania spp. before and after the change in the protocol. In addition, based on our results, we propose a new alternative that is less expensive for the screening and confirmation of CVL. Plasma samples were obtained from a serobank from dogs evaluated in a cross-sectional study (1,226 dogs) and in a cohort study of susceptible animals (n?=?447), followed for 26 months. Serology testing was performed using ELISA, IFAT, and DPP. The incidence and prevalence of CVL were determined by using the protocol of the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control and Surveillance Program until 2012 (ELISA and IFAT using filter paper) and the protocol used after 2012 (DPP and ELISA using plasma). The prevalence was 6.2% and the incidence was 2.8 per 1,000 dog-months for the protocol used until 2012. For the new diagnosis protocol for CVL resulted in an incidence of 5.4 per 1,000 dog-months and a prevalence of 8.1%. Our results showed that the prevalence and incidence of infection were far greater than suggested by the previously used protocol and that the magnitude of infection in endemic areas has been underestimated. As tests are performed sequentially and euthanasia of dogs is carried out when the serological results are positive in both tests, the sequence does not affect the number of animals to be eliminated by the Control Program. Then we suggest to municipalities with a large demand of exams to use ELISA for screening and DPP for confirmation, since this allows easier performance and reduced cost. PMID:24608904

  11. Immunogenicity in dogs of three recombinant antigens (TSA, LeIF and LmSTI1) potential vaccine candidates for canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Vale, André Macedo; França da Silva, João Carlos; da Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Quetz, Josiane da Silva; Martins Filho, Olindo Assis; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Corrêa Oliveira, Rodrigo; Machado-Coelho, George Lins; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Bethony, Jeffrey Michael; Frank, Glen; Nascimento, Evaldo; Genaro, Odair; Mayrink, Wilson; Reed, Steven; Campos-Neto, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Control of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains a difficult and serious problem mostly because there is no reliable and effective vaccine available to prevent this disease. A mixture of three recombinant leishmanial antigens (TSA, LeIF and LmSTI1) encoded by three genes highly conserved in the Leishmania genus have been shown to induce excellent protection against infection in both murine and simian models of cutaneous leishmaniasis. A human clinical trial with these antigens is currently underway. Because of the high degree of conservation, these antigens might be useful vaccine candidates for VL as well. In the present study, using the dog model of the visceral disease, we evaluated the immunogenicity of these three antigens formulated with two different adjuvants, MPL-SE and AdjuPrime. The results were compared with a whole parasite vaccine formulated with BCG as the adjuvant. In order to investigate if sensitization with the recombinant antigens would result in recognition of the corresponding native parasite antigens upon infection, the animals were exposed for four weeks after the termination of the immunization protocol with the recombinant antigens to a low number of L. chagasi promastigotes, an etiological agent of VL. Immune response was evaluated by quantitative ELISA in the animal sera before and after exposure to the viable parasites. Both antigen specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody levels were measured. Immunization of dogs with the recombinant antigens formulated in either MPL-SE or AdjuPrime resulted in high antibody levels particularly to LmSTI1. In addition, this immunization although to low levels, resulted in the development of antibody response to the whole parasite lysate. Importantly, experimental exposure with low numbers of culture forms of L. chagasi promastigotes caused a clear boost in the immune response to both the recombinant antigens and the corresponding native molecules. The boost response was predominantly of the IgG2 isotype in animals primed with the recombinant antigens plus MPL-SE. In contrast, animals primed with the recombinant antigens formulated in AdjuPrime as well as animals vaccinated with crude antigen preparation responded with mixed IgG1/IgG2 isotypes. These results point to the possible use of this antigen cocktail formulated with the adjuvant MPL-SE in efficacy field trials against canine VL. PMID:16120256

  12. A case of ocular canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    PubMed

    Milo, Jewel; Snead, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old, intact female mixed-breed dog was presented to St. George's University Small Animal Clinic in Grenada for a third eyelid mass. The dog was diagnosed with a rare ocular transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and concurrent anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and dirofilariasis. Treatment with vincristine sulfate resulted in complete resolution of the TVT. PMID:24381345

  13. A case of ocular canine transmissible venereal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Milo, Jewel; Snead, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old, intact female mixed-breed dog was presented to St. George’s University Small Animal Clinic in Grenada for a third eyelid mass. The dog was diagnosed with a rare ocular transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and concurrent anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and dirofilariasis. Treatment with vincristine sulfate resulted in complete resolution of the TVT. PMID:24381345

  14. Canine transmissible venereal tumor: a large-animal transplantable tumor model.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Belinda; Ahrar, Kamran; Kangasniemi, Marko M; Hazle, John D; Price, Roger E

    2005-08-01

    The canine transplantable venereal tumor is a naturally occurring transplantable round-cell tumor in dogs. Although experimental transplantable tumor models in rodents and rabbits are readily available, a reliable transplantable tumor model in a large animal that more closely resembles the physical dimensions of humans has not been available. A tumor model in a large animal would have a wide range of biomedical research applications, including the study of various interventional imaging techniques. In this report, we characterize the experimental transplantation of the canine transmissible venereal tumor in the brain, skin, muscle, prostate, lung, liver, and bone of dogs and provide X-ray computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the tumors in the brain, muscle, lung, and prostate. PMID:16158909

  15. A New Model of Progressive Visceral Leishmaniasis in Hamsters by Natural Transmission via Bites of Vector Sand Flies

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Hamide; Dey, Ranadhir; Meneses, Claudio; Castrovinci, Philip; Jeronimo, Selma Maria Bezerra; Oliva, Gætano; Fischer, Laurent; Duncan, Robert C.; Nakhasi, Hira L.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is transmitted by sand flies. Protection of needle-challenged vaccinated mice was abrogated in vector-initiated cutaneous leishmaniasis, highlighting the importance of developing natural transmission models for VL. Methods.?We used Lutzomyia longipalpis to transmit Leishmania infantum or Leishmania donovani to hamsters. Vector-initiated infections were monitored and compared with intracardiac infections. Body weights were recorded weekly. Organ parasite loads and parasite pick-up by flies were assessed in sick hamsters. Results.?Vector-transmitted L. infantum and L. donovani caused ?5-fold increase in spleen weight compared with uninfected organs and had geometric mean parasite loads (GMPL) comparable to intracardiac inoculation of 107–108 parasites, although vector-initiated disease progression was slower and weight loss was greater. Only vector-initiated L. infantum infections caused cutaneous lesions at transmission and distal sites. Importantly, 45.6%, 50.0%, and 33.3% of sand flies feeding on ear, mouth, and testicular lesions, respectively, were parasite-positive. Successful transmission was associated with a high mean percent of metacyclics (66%–82%) rather than total GMPL (2.0 × 104–8.0 × 104) per midgut. Conclusions.?This model provides an improved platform to study initial immune events at the bite site, parasite tropism, and pathogenesis and to test drugs and vaccines against naturally acquired VL. PMID:23288926

  16. Standardization of a rapid immunochromatographic test with the recombinant antigens K39 and K26 for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Roberto Teodoro; França, João Carlos; Mayrink, Wilson; Nascimento, Evaldo; Genaro, Odair; Campos-Neto, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) remains problematic because there areno reliable commercially available tests. Most laboratories use domestically prepared tests such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). We evaluated rapid immunochromatographic (RICH) test kits for the diagnosis of CVL. The tests were assembled with either Leishmania chagasi recombinant antigens K39 or K26 and with either gold-labelled Staphylococcus aureus protein A or Streptococcus pyogenes protein G. Fifty sera from dogs with CVL, 14 sera from dogs with Chagas disease, and 50 sera from normal healthy dogs were tested. The results show that the RICH test using recombinant antigen K39 has a sensitivity of 96% and 100% specificity for the diagnosis of CVL. No significant differences were observed in the tests assembled with either protein A or protein G. The RICH tests using recombinant antigen K26 were equally specific but less sensitive than those using K39. However, the 2 antigens complemented each other and increased the overall sensitivity of the test. Because of its simplicity and performance the RICH test is a quick and reliable alternative for the diagnosis of CVL either in conventional laboratories or for remote areas where laboratories are not readily accessible for conventional assays. PMID:16117962

  17. TP53 Polymorphisms allow for genetic sub-grouping of the canine transmissible venereal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Servín, Abel; Córdova-Alarcon, Emilio; Fajardo, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    The canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is found mainly in dogs' sexual organs. Currently, it is widely accepted that all samples of CTVT show similar histopathological characteristics and share common genetic alterations. Despite the common genetic origin of CTVT, mutations in the P53 gene have been reported. In this study, we proposed that tumor samples can be genetically grouped using this gene. The presence of different subgroups of CTVT was determined in Mexican dogs using the TP53 gene sequence in CTVT samples. Four new polymorphisms were found and therefore, the CTVT samples were classified in five subgroups. PMID:19934603

  18. TP53 Polymorphisms allow for genetic sub-grouping of the canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Servín, Abel; Martínez, Simón; Córdova-Alarcon, Emilio; Fajardo, Raúl

    2009-12-01

    The canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is found mainly in dogs' sexual organs. Currently, it is widely accepted that all samples of CTVT show similar histopathological characteristics and share common genetic alterations. Despite the common genetic origin of CTVT, mutations in the P53 gene have been reported. In this study, we proposed that tumor samples can be genetically grouped using this gene. The presence of different subgroups of CTVT was determined in Mexican dogs using the TP53 gene sequence in CTVT samples. Four new polymorphisms were found and therefore, the CTVT samples were classified in five subgroups. PMID:19934603

  19. Effect of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes on the expression of MHC molecules in canine transmissible venereal tumor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-Wen Hsiao; Kuang-Wen Liao; Shao-Wen Hung; Rea-Min Chu

    2002-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) can be allo-transplanted across major histocompatibility complex barriers. The expression of MHC molecules is usually low in the progression (P) stage and then greatly increases during tumor regression (R). We investigated the effects of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) on the expression of MHC molecules of CTVT cells. Isolated, viable CTVT cells were inoculated at each

  20. Quantifying the Contribution of Hosts with Different Parasite Concentrations to the Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ezer; Warburg, Alon; Novikov, Ilya; Hailu, Asrat; Volf, Petr; Seblova, Veronika; Huppert, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background An important factor influencing the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases is the contribution of hosts with different parasitemia (no. of parasites per ml of blood) to the infected vector population. Today, estimation of this contribution is often impractical since it relies exclusively on limited-scale xenodiagnostic or artificial feeding experiments (i.e., measuring the proportion of vectors that become infected after feeding on infected blood/host). Methodology We developed a novel mechanistic model that facilitates the quantification of the contribution of hosts with different parasitemias to the infection of the vectors from data on the distribution of these parasitemias within the host population. We applied the model to an ample data set of Leishmania donovani carriers, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. Results Calculations facilitated by the model quantified the host parasitemias that are mostly responsible for the infection of vector, the sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis. Our findings indicate that a 3.2% of the most infected people were responsible for the infection of between 53% and 79% (mean – 62%) of the infected sand fly vector population. Significance Our modeling framework can easily be extended to facilitate the calculation of the contribution of other host groups (such as different host species, hosts with different ages) to the infected vector population. Identifying the hosts that contribute most towards infection of the vectors is crucial for understanding the transmission dynamics, and planning targeted intervention policy of visceral leishmaniasis as well as other vector borne infectious diseases (e.g., West Nile Fever). PMID:25356795

  1. First report of venereal and vertical transmission of canine leishmaniosis from naturally infected dogs in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania (L.) infantum. It is endemic to several tropical and subtropical countries but also to the Mediterranean region. It is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies but occasional non-vector transmissions have been reported, including vertical and horizontal transmission. Findings The authors report a case of CanL in a female boxer dog from Dusseldorf, Germany, that had never been in an endemic region. A serum sample from the bitch was tested positive for antibodies against Leishmania (IFAT 1:2,000, ELISA 72). The bitch had whelped three litters, and one puppy from the third litter was also found to be seropositive for Leishmania antibodies (IFAT 1:4,000, ELISA 78). Conclusions Up to now, despite intensive searching, the occurrence of sandflies could not be proved in the bitch's region of origin. Thus, vertical and horizontal transmission are to be discussed as possible ways of infection. This may be the first report of venereal and vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally infected dogs in Germany. PMID:22463789

  2. Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a defined geographic focus of transmission.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J L; Diniega, B M; Small, J W; Miller, R N; Andujar, J M; Weina, P J; Lawyer, P G; Ballou, W R; Lovelace, J K

    1992-07-01

    An outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred in a unit of 608 Puerto Rican national guardsmen conducting jungle warfare training in the Panama Canal Area in July 1984. An epidemiologic investigation of reported nonhealing, ulcerating skin lesions was conducted among 540 (89%) unit members in November and December 1984. Fifteen (88%) of 17 individuals with chronic, ulcerating skin lesions were confirmed as cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis by culture or histopathology. Twelve cases yielded positive Leishmania cultures, identified as L. braziliensis panamensis by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Evaluation of different diagnostic techniques revealed that direct examination of tissues by Giemsa-stained histological examination was the most sensitive test (87% sensitivity), with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test being rather insensitive (67%). All but one of the confirmed cases operated in small units that trained and slept overnight at a mortar firing site for a period of three days, yielding a site-specific attack rate of 22% (14 of 64). This contrasted with a much lower attack rate of 0.2% (1 of 476), experienced by unit members who trained at other locations during the same time frame (P less than 0.001). The median incubation period calculated from day of arrival at the mortar firing site was 17 days (range 2-78) for the 15 confirmed cases. Available personal protection methods, such as the use of insect repellents, were not appropriately implemented by unit personnel and thus, were not found to effectively protect against Leishmania infection. This is the largest reported outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in military personnel associated with a single geographic focus of infection and contrasts with the usual sporadic disease experience in Panama. PMID:1636883

  3. Predictive factors for the regression of canine transmissible venereal tumor during vincristine therapy.

    PubMed

    Scarpelli, Karime C; Valladão, Maria L; Metze, Konradin

    2010-03-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a neoplasm transmitted by transplantation. Monochemotherapy with vincristine is considered to be effective, but treatment time until complete clinical remission may vary. The aim of this study was to determine which clinical data at diagnosis could predict the responsiveness of CTVT to vincristine chemotherapy. One hundred dogs with CTVT entered this prospective study. The animals were treated with vincristine sulfate (0.025 mg/kg) at weekly intervals until the tumor had macroscopically disappeared. The time to complete remission was recorded. A multivariate Cox regression model indicated that larger tumor mass, increased age and therapy during hot and rainy months were independent significant unfavorable predictive factors retarding remission, whereas sex, weight, status as owned dog or breed were of no predictive relevance. Further studies are necessary to investigate whether these results are due to changes in immunological response mechanisms in animals with a diminished immune surveillance, resulting in delays in tumor regression. PMID:19109042

  4. Evaluation of a gp63–PCR Based Assay as a Molecular Diagnosis Tool in Canine Leishmaniasis in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Guerbouj, Souheila; Djilani, Fattouma; Bettaieb, Jihene; Lambson, Bronwen; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben Salah, Afif; Ben Ismail, Riadh; Guizani, Ikram

    2014-01-01

    A gp63PCR method was evaluated for the detection and characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) (L.) parasites in canine lymph node aspirates. This tool was tested and compared to other PCRs based on the amplification of 18S ribosomal genes, a L. infantum specific repetitive sequence and kinetoplastic DNA minicircles, and to classical parasitological (smear examination and/or culture) or serological (IFAT) techniques on a sample of 40 dogs, originating from different L. infantum endemic regions in Tunisia. Sensitivity and specificity of all the PCR assays were evaluated on parasitologically confirmed dogs within this sample (N?=?18) and control dogs (N?=?45) originating from non–endemic countries in northern Europe and Australia. The gp63 PCR had 83.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity, a performance comparable to the kinetoplast PCR assay and better than the other assays. These assays had comparable results when the gels were southern transferred and hybridized with a radioactive probe. As different infection rates were found according to the technique, concordance of the results was estimated by (?) test. Best concordance values were between the gp63PCR and parasitological methods (74.6%, 95% confidence intervals CI: 58.8–95.4%) or serology IFAT technique (47.4%, 95% CI: 23.5–71.3%). However, taken together Gp63 and Rib assays covered most of the samples found positive making of them a good alternative for determination of infection rates. Potential of the gp63PCR-RFLP assay for analysis of parasite genetic diversity within samples was also evaluated using 5 restriction enzymes. RFLP analysis confirmed assignment of the parasites infecting the dogs to L. infantum species and illustrated occurrence of multiple variants in the different endemic foci. Gp63 PCR assay thus constitutes a useful tool in molecular diagnosis of L. infantum infections in dogs in Tunisia. PMID:25153833

  5. No evidence for zoonotic transmission of H3N8 canine influenza virus among US adults occupationally exposed to dogs

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Gray, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The zoonotic potential of H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) has not been previously examined; yet considering the popularity of dogs as a companion animal and the zoonotic capabilities of other influenza viruses, the public health implications are great. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against CIV among a US cohort. Design A cross-sectional seroepidemiological study was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Setting Recruitments primarily occurred in Iowa and Florida. Participants were enrolled at dog shows, or at their home or place of employment. Sample Three hundred and four adults occupationally exposed to dogs and 101 non-canine-exposed participants completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. Main outcome measures Microneutralization and neuraminidase inhibition assays were performed to detect human sera antibodies against A/Canine/Iowa/13628/2005(H3N8). An enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA) was adapted to detect antibodies against a recombinant N8 neuraminidase protein from A/Equine/Pennsylvania/1/2007(H3N8). Results For all assays, no significant difference in detectable antibodies was observed when comparing the canine-exposed subjects to the non-canine-exposed subjects. Conclusion While these results do not provide evidence for cross-species CIV transmission, influenza is predictably unpredictable. People frequently exposed to ill dogs should continually be monitored for novel zoonotic CIV infections. PMID:24237615

  6. Contact heterogeneity, rather than transmission efficiency, limits the emergence and spread of canine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Benjamin D; Huang, Kai; Geoghegan, Jemma L; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dubovi, Edward J; Grenfell, Bryan T; Ellner, Stephen P; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

    2014-10-01

    Host-range shifts in influenza virus are a major risk factor for pandemics. A key question in the study of emerging zoonoses is how the evolution of transmission efficiency interacts with heterogeneity in contact patterns in the new host species, as this interplay influences disease dynamics and prospects for control. Here we use a synergistic mixture of models and data to tease apart the evolutionary and demographic processes controlling a host-range shift in equine H3N8-derived canine influenza virus (CIV). CIV has experienced 15 years of continuous transfer among dogs in the United States, but maintains a patchy distribution, characterized by sporadic short-lived outbreaks coupled with endemic hotspots in large animal shelters. We show that CIV has a high reproductive potential in these facilities (mean R(0)?=?3.9) and that these hotspots act as refugia from the sparsely connected majority of the dog population. Intriguingly, CIV has evolved a transmission efficiency that closely matches the minimum required to persist in these refugia, leaving it poised on the extinction/invasion threshold of the host contact network. Corresponding phylogenetic analyses show strong geographic clustering in three US regions, and that the effective reproductive number of the virus (R(e)) in the general dog population is close to 1.0. Our results highlight the critical role of host contact structure in CIV dynamics, and show how host contact networks could shape the evolution of pathogen transmission efficiency. Importantly, efficient control measures could eradicate the virus, in turn minimizing the risk of future sustained transmission among companion dogs that could represent a potential new axis to the human-animal interface for influenza. PMID:25340642

  7. Contact Heterogeneity, Rather Than Transmission Efficiency, Limits the Emergence and Spread of Canine Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dalziel, Benjamin D.; Huang, Kai; Geoghegan, Jemma L.; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dubovi, Edward J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Ellner, Stephen P.; Holmes, Edward C.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2014-01-01

    Host-range shifts in influenza virus are a major risk factor for pandemics. A key question in the study of emerging zoonoses is how the evolution of transmission efficiency interacts with heterogeneity in contact patterns in the new host species, as this interplay influences disease dynamics and prospects for control. Here we use a synergistic mixture of models and data to tease apart the evolutionary and demographic processes controlling a host-range shift in equine H3N8-derived canine influenza virus (CIV). CIV has experienced 15 years of continuous transfer among dogs in the United States, but maintains a patchy distribution, characterized by sporadic short-lived outbreaks coupled with endemic hotspots in large animal shelters. We show that CIV has a high reproductive potential in these facilities (mean R0?=?3.9) and that these hotspots act as refugia from the sparsely connected majority of the dog population. Intriguingly, CIV has evolved a transmission efficiency that closely matches the minimum required to persist in these refugia, leaving it poised on the extinction/invasion threshold of the host contact network. Corresponding phylogenetic analyses show strong geographic clustering in three US regions, and that the effective reproductive number of the virus (Re) in the general dog population is close to 1.0. Our results highlight the critical role of host contact structure in CIV dynamics, and show how host contact networks could shape the evolution of pathogen transmission efficiency. Importantly, efficient control measures could eradicate the virus, in turn minimizing the risk of future sustained transmission among companion dogs that could represent a potential new axis to the human-animal interface for influenza. PMID:25340642

  8. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) of a canine-transmissible venereal tumour in a murine model with Pd-bacteriopheophorbide (WST09)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Vilensky; N. V. Koudinova; A. Harmelin; A. Scherz; Y. Salomon

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of canine-transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) with local vascular-targeted photody- namic therapy (VTP) using Pd-bacteriopheophorbide (WST09) as a drug is suggested as an alter- native to conventional chemotherapy. Male CD1 nude mice were subcutaneously grafted with the xenograft-transmissible canine venereal tumour (XTVT). The VTP protocol delivered once consisted of intravenous administration of WST09 (10 mg kg? 1) followed by immediate

  9. Role of Humoral Immunity in Progressive and Regressive and Metastatic Growth of the Canine Transmissible Venereal Sarcoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Anne Fenton; Tsu-Ju Yang

    1988-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal sarcoma (CTVS) is a contagious neoplasm which regresses spontaneously in adult dogs but metastasizes and kills puppies transplanted with the neoplasm at a very young age. Immunofluorescence studies showed that 30±14% of cells from steady-state and 22 ± 7% of cells from regressing tumors had membrane-bound antibodies which could be eluted out with warm washes at 24

  10. Leishmaniasis Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease Ulcerative skin lesion, with ... with some of the species (types) of the parasite that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis in parts of Latin ...

  11. Leishmaniasis FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... count (thrombocytopenia). How common is leishmaniasis in the world? The number of new cases per year is ... million (400,000). In what parts of the world is leishmaniasis found? In the Old World (the ...

  12. Risk factors and characteristics of canine transmissible venereal tumours in Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Kabuusu, R M; Stroup, D F; Fernandez, C

    2010-03-01

    We studied risk factors and characteristics of canine transmissible venereal tumours (TVTs) in Grenada. We abstracted data for 38 TVT cases and 114 TVT-free dogs submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory between 2003 and 2006. Occurrence profiles, odds ratios (ORs), and logistic regression models for TVT were determined using a significance level of alpha = 0.05. TVT was found in 20 (52.6%) female and 18 (47.4%) male dogs. Of the TVT cases, 32 (84.2%) were between 1 and 7 years old, 20 (52.6%) were mixed breeds of dogs, 14 (36.8%) were Grenadian pothounds, while 4 (10.6%) were pure-bred dogs. Characteristic TVT lesions were genital growths [OR = 96.7; 95% CI (27,461), P < 0.001], genital bleeding [OR = 12.7; 95% CI (4.6, 39.2), P < 0.001] and secondary inflammation of TVT lesion [OR = 4.3; 95% CI (2, 10), P < 0.001]. Extragenital TVT lesions were observed in 23% (9/38) of dogs. An increased risk for TVT was associated with age as adult (1-7 years) dogs [OR = 12; 95% CI (1.6, 94), P < 0.001] and status as a Grenadian pothound [OR = 8.6; 95% CI (3, 25), P < 0.001]. Clinicians should educate dog owners about increased risk of TVT for Grenadian pothounds and consider TVT as a possibility for some extragenital tumours. PMID:20230581

  13. Analysis of canine transmissible veneral tumor genotypes using the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Gómez, Linda G; Martínez-Castañeda, Simón; Córdova-Alarcón, Emilio; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is the only neoplasm that can be spread among dogs through cell transplantation. Therefore, this tumor does not originate from host cell transformation. Although CTVT has a monophyletic origin, several studies have shown the presence of genetic diversity which was probably acquired after the development of its original clone. To investigate the genetic diversity of CTVT in Mexico and its relation with CTVTs disseminated worldwide, we sequenced a fragment of mitochondrial DNA in 50 tumor samples and matched blood samples from dog hosts from Mexico. We found ten new haplotypes in tumor samples, which were all distinct from their matched host. The TVT1 haplotype was the most frequent in our samples, suggesting that it could be the origin of the others. We found that haplotypes in Mexico and other countries are distributed in two well-defined clusters. Our data also suggest a close relationship among American haplotypes (Mexico, USA, Chile and Brazil). Interestingly, these American haplotypes were also closely related to Asian haplotypes. Taking into account the estimated timing of the origin of CTVT, we propose that CTVT might have originated in Asia; consequently, haplotypes currently present in America could descend from Asiatic lineages. PMID:22362033

  14. Role of lymphocytes in spontaneous regression of experimentally transplanted canine transmissible venereal sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, S; Fujinaga, T; Hagio, M

    1994-02-01

    Sensitized peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) obtained from canine transmissible venereal sarcoma (CTVS)-regressed dogs were more cytotoxic against CTVS cells than non-sensitized PBL from untreated dogs. Cytotoxicity shown by sensitized PBL was inhibited significantly by the addition of anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II mouse monoclonal antibody as well as that of anti-dog thymocyte rabbit serum. The degree of cytotoxic activity shown by lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells induced from non-sensitized or sensitized PBL was similar to that of the activity shown by sensitized PBL. These LAK activities were also prohibited by the addition of anti-dog thymocyte rabbit serum. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that MHC class II antigens were expressed on the surface membrane of CTVS cells and thymocyte antigens were detected on the surface of the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. From the results mentioned above, lymphocytes which play a central role in tumor regression are considered to be T cells. These cells might recognize MHC class II antigens on the surface membrane of CTVS cells in tumor regression. PMID:8204742

  15. Domestic and peridomestic risk factors associated with transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in three hypo endemic, endemic, and hyper endemic areas: A randomized epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Heidari, Asieh; Bidabadi, Leila Shirani; Siadat, Amir Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis is an infection caused by leishmania protozoa. Knowledge about health effects associated with environment situation and human behavior in national and local levels seems to be very necessary. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional case-control study was carried out in three adjacent counties of Isfahan province in Iran. Data were collected by face-to-face interviewing and recorded structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test and logistic. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The economic level had significant association with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) transmission (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant association between existence of food storage and transmission of CL. We, however, found significant reduction of CL transmission following use of insect control measures (P < 0.05). The odds ratio for peridomestic transmission was 0.420 for houses that weren’t round with any old or ruined houses. Conclusion: We conclude that among aforementioned risk factors, the impact of peridomestic factors is stronger in CL transmission when compared with domestic and behavioral factors. PMID:25538774

  16. An outbreak investigation of visceral leishmaniasis among residents of Dharan town, eastern Nepal, evidence for urban transmission of Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a predominantly rural disease, common in the low lands of eastern Nepal. Since 1997 VL cases have also been reported among residents of the city of Dharan. Our main research objective was to find out whether there had been local transmission of VL inside the city. Methods We conducted an outbreak investigation including a case–control study; cases were all urban residents treated for VL between 2000 and 2008 at BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, a university hospital in the city. For each case, we selected four random controls, with no history of previous VL; frequency-matched for age. Cases and controls were subjected to a structured interview on the main exposures of interest and potential confounders; a binominal multilevel model was used to analyze the data. We also collected entomological data from all neighborhoods of the city. Results We enrolled 115 VL patients and 448 controls. Cases were strongly clustered, 70% residing in 3 out of 19 neighborhoods. We found a strong association with socio-economic status, the poorest being most at risk. Housing was a risk factor independent from socio-economic status, most at risk were those living in thatched houses without windows. ‘Sleeping upstairs’ and ‘sleeping on a bed’ were strongly protective, OR of 0.08 and 0.25 respectively; proximity to a case was a strong risk factor (OR 3.79). Sand flies were captured in all neighborhoods; in collections from several neighborhoods presence of L. donovani could be demonstrated by PCR. Conclusion The evidence found in this study is consistent with transmission of anthroponotic VL within the city. The vector P. argentipes and the parasite L. donovani have both been identified inside the town. These findings are highly relevant for policy makers; in VL endemic areas appropriate surveillance and disease control measures must be adopted not only in rural areas but in urban areas as well. PMID:23327548

  17. Overexpression of chemokine ligand 7 is associated with the progression of canine transmissible venereal tumor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemokines play multiple roles in the development and progression in a variety of tumors. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 (CXCL7) has been found associated with pro-inflammatory responses, but its role in cancer growth remains unclear. Our previous study showed that R phase tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) produced large amounts of interleukin (IL)-6 which antagonized transforming growth factor (TGF)-? derived from CTVT to diminish the immune-suppressive microenvironment. Now we intend to determine the expression pattern of CXCL7 and the role of IL-6/TGF-? in CXCL7 induction during spontaneous progressive (P) and regressive (R) phases in canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT). Results We have demonstrated that CXCL7 expressed at high level in P phase and down-regulated in R phase by western blot and real-time PCR. This suggested that CXCL7 expression was negatively correlated with the tumor growth. Co-culturing TILs with CTVT cells was found to reduce CXCL7 expression, while adding IL-6 blocking antibody reversed it. Moreover, in P phase CTVT, while IL-1? and TGF-? had no obvious effect on CXCL7 expression, IL-6 was found significantly to reduce CXCL7 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression results of CXCL7 receptor, CXCR2, further confirmed the effects of IL-6 concentration on the CXCL7 expression. Conclusion CXCL7 overexpression might be associated with the progressive growth of CTVT. The results shown here also suggest the role of CXCL7 in cancer development and the potential as the anti-cancer therapeutic target. PMID:23136963

  18. Canine transmissible venereal tumour: assessment of mast cell numbers as indicators of the growth phase.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Chiwome, T; Chitanga, S; Bhebhe, E

    2006-08-01

    Mast cells are immune cells that are involved mainly in type 1 hypersensitivity reactions, and they have been implicated in tumour angiogenesis. In this study we assessed the presence of mast cell numbers and microvessel density during the progression and regression stages of natural spontaneous canine transmissible venereal tumours (CTVT). Mast cells were demonstrated by histochemical staining with toluidine blue, alcian blue and safranin O. Microvessel counts were demonstrated by immunohistochemical labelling with an antibody against the endothelial cell marker factor VIII. Mitotic cells, apoptotic cells and tumour infiltrating lymphocytes were counted from haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections. Tumour fibrosis was evaluated on Masson's trichome-stained sections. The results showed that progressing tumours had significantly higher mast cell counts and microvessel counts at the invasive edges of the tumours than did regressing tumours. In both the progressing and regressing tumours, microvessel counts were significantly positively correlated with mast cell counts. Regressing tumours had significantly higher mast cell counts of the whole tumour than progressing tumours. The results also showed that progressing tumours had significantly higher mitotic rate than regressing tumours, and fibrosis and apoptosis were significantly higher in regressing tumours than progressing tumours. There were no significant differences between the biochemical and haematological values of dogs with progressing and regressing tumours. These results suggests that mast cells play a role in CTVT progression probably by promoting vascularization at the invasion front during the progression phase, and that mast cell count could be used as one of the histological factors to indicate growth stage of CTVT. PMID:16838203

  19. Compartmentalized gene expression of toll-like receptors 2, 4 and 9 in the brain and peripheral lymphoid organs during canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Melo, G D; Silva, J E S; Grano, F G; Homem, C G; Machado, G F

    2014-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an important parasitic disease that affects humans and animals. The response against the protozoan involves the interaction of both innate and adaptive branches of the immune system, and an important immune sensor is represented by the toll-like receptor (TLR) family. Here, we investigated the pattern of TLR-2, TLR-4 and TLR-9 gene expression in different compartments (brain, choroid plexus, spleen and lymph node) of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. Gene expression of the TLRs varied according to the compartment evaluated. In the brain, there was only an upregulation of TLR-2, whereas in the choroid plexus, TLR-2 and TLR-9 were both upregulated. Further, the peripheral lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes) showed increased TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression. This study provides the first insight about TLR expression in the central nervous system of infected dogs, and gives additional evidence of the compartmentalization of the immune response during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25283216

  20. A simple immune complex dissociation ELISA for leishmaniasis: standardization of the assay in experimental models and preliminary results in canine and human samples.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Camila Aparecida; Partata, Anette Kelsei; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Meireles, Luciana Regina; Nascimento, Nanci do; de Andrade, Heitor Franco

    2013-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, is a chronic parasitic disease of humans and dogs. Confirmation of the protozoal agent in bone marrow, lymph node or spleen aspirate is diagnostic, while specific-IgG serology is used mainly for epidemiology despite the general presence of high levels of serum immunoglobulin. Anecdotal reports of false-negative serology in active disease cases are known and are ascribed to the formation of immune complexes. Because dissociation of immune complexes can be accomplished by acid treatment, we devised a simple, routine enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) for the dissociation of immune complexes in serum samples using acid treatment in wells adsorbed with Leishmania antigen (dELISA). Confirmatory acid dot-blot was also developed for antigen detection by anti-Leishmania rabbit antiserum. In experimental L. chagasi hamster models, immune complexes interfered with ELISA mostly in the 30 and 60 days postinfection, according to both dELISA and antigen dot-blot results. In larger samples from endemic areas, dELISA was positive in 10% of seronegative dog samples (7/70) and 3.5% in negative human samples (3/88), showing that dELISA could be used in the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Moreover, dELISA could be used as an alternative approach to screening asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis patients, instead of invasive confirmatory testing. PMID:23123344

  1. The changing global distribution and prevalence of canine transmissible venereal tumour

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a contagious cancer that is naturally transmitted between dogs by the allogeneic transfer of living cancer cells during coitus. CTVT first arose several thousand years ago and has been reported in dog populations worldwide; however, its precise distribution patterns and prevalence remain unclear. Results We analysed historical literature and obtained CTVT prevalence information from 645 veterinarians and animal health workers in 109 countries in order to estimate CTVT’s former and current global distribution and prevalence. This analysis confirmed that CTVT is endemic in at least 90 countries worldwide across all inhabited continents. CTVT is estimated to be present at a prevalence of one percent or more in dogs in at least 13 countries in South and Central America as well as in at least 11 countries in Africa and 8 countries in Asia. In the United States and Australia, CTVT was reported to be endemic only in remote indigenous communities. Comparison of current and historical reports of CTVT indicated that its prevalence has declined in Northern Europe, possibly due to changes in dog control laws during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Analysis of factors influencing CTVT prevalence showed that presence of free-roaming dogs was associated with increased CTVT prevalence, while dog spaying and neutering were associated with reduced CTVT prevalence. Our analysis indicated no gender bias for CTVT and we found no evidence that animals with CTVT frequently harbour concurrent infectious diseases. Vincristine was widely reported to be the most effective therapy for CTVT. Conclusions Our results provide a survey of the current global distribution of CTVT, confirming that CTVT is endemic in at least 90 countries worldwide. Additionally, our analysis highlights factors that continue to modify CTVT’s prevalence around the world and implicates free-roaming dogs as a reservoir for the disease. Our analysis also documents the disappearance of the disease from the United Kingdom during the twentieth century, which appears to have been an unintentional result of the introduction of dog control policies. PMID:25186078

  2. The first report of autochthonous non-vector-borne transmission of canine leishmaniosis in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Karkamo, Veera; Kaistinen, Anu; Näreaho, Anu; Dillard, Kati; Vainio-Siukola, Katri; Vidgrén, Gabriele; Tuoresmäki, Niina; Anttila, Marjukka

    2014-12-10

    Background Leishmania spp. are zoonotic protozoans that infect humans and other mammals such as dogs. The most significant causative species in dogs is L. infantum. In dogs, leishmaniosis is a potentially progressive, chronic disease with varying clinical outcomes. Autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniosis have not previously been reported in the Nordic countries.ResultsIn this report we describe the first diagnosed autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniosis in Finland, in which transmission via a suitable arthropod vector was absent. Two Finnish boxers that had never been in endemic areas of Leishmania spp., had never received blood transfusions, nor were infested by ectoparasites were diagnosed with leishmaniosis. Another dog was found with elevated Leishmania antibodies. A fourth boxer dog that had been in Spain was considered to be the source of these infections. Transmission occurred through biting wounds and semen, however, transplacental infection in one of the dogs could not be ruled out.Two of the infected dogs developed a serious disease and were euthanized and sent for necropsy. The first one suffered from membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and the second one had a chronic systemic disease. Leishmania sp. was detected from tissues by PCR and/or IHC in both dogs. The third infected dog was serologically positive for Leishmania sp. but remained free of clinical signs.ConclusionsThis case report shows that imported Leishmania-infected dogs may pose a risk for domestic dogs, even without suitable local arthropod vectors. PMID:25492266

  3. Canine distemper outbreak in raccoons suggests pathogen interspecies transmission amongst alien and native carnivores in urban areas from Germany.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Solís, Zaida; Förster, Christine; Aue, Angelika; Wittstatt, Ulrich; Wibbelt, Gudrun; König, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    From December 2012 to May 2013, an outbreak occurred among urban wild carnivores from Berlin. We collected 97 free-ranging raccoons from the city area. PCR assays, histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in 74 raccoons. Phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin gene fragments (1767 nucleotides) of CDV isolated from four raccoons showed close relation to CDV isolates from foxes from Germany and a domestic dog from Hungary; all belonging to the "Europe" lineage of CDV. These study results suggest an inter-species transmission of CDV as the origin for the outbreak among the raccoon population. Implications for domestic pets and suggested interspecies transmission between urban wildlife and raccoons are discussed. This is the first major outbreak of CDV amongst free-ranging raccoons in Europe. PMID:25258173

  4. Experimental Transmission of Canine Malignant Lymphoma to the Beagle Neonate1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Kakuk; Ronald W. Hinz; Robert F. Langham; Gabel H. Conner

    SUMMARY Two serial passages of canine malignant lymphoma (CML) were accomplished in 2 litters of Beagle neonates with suspen sions of viable CML whole cells. In these experiments 3 of 15 dogs inoculated with a single dose of either a cell suspension or a cell-free extract developed malignant lymphoma at 50, 53, and 80 days postinoculation. Two dogs with overwhelming

  5. Leishmaniasis Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment Before considering treatment, the ... applies to some (not all) types of the parasite found in parts of Latin America: certain types ...

  6. Primary cutaneous extragenital canine transmissible venereal tumour with Leishmania-laden neoplastic cells: a further suggestion of histiocytic origin?

    PubMed

    Albanese, Francesco; Poli, Alessandro; Millanta, Francesca; Abramo, Francesca

    2002-10-01

    The clinical signs and histopathological features of a primary extragenital canine transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) are described. Three subcutaneous round alopecic nodules were located on the anterior and caudal dorsal region and in the ventral area of the neck. Cytologically, tumour cells were intermediate in size with a moderate amount of cytoplasm, and the nuclei were immature with finely reticular chromatin. The cytoplasm was lightly to heavily basophilic and contained distinct small vacuoles at the periphery. On the basis of these characteristics, a diagnosis of TVT was made and confirmed by histological and ultrastructural investigations. Leishmania amastigotes were detected in the cytoplasm of macrophages and neoplastic cells of the tumoral mass. The presence of the parasite within neoplastic cells is consistent with a histiocytic origin of TVT. PMID:12358607

  7. Canine transmissible venereal tumour: a morphological and immunohistochemical study of 11 tumours in growth phase and during regression after chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, C M; Griffey, S M; Naydan, D K; Flores, E; Cepeda, R; Cattaneo, G; Madewell, B R

    2000-05-01

    Eleven dogs with canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) were given vincristine sulphate chemotherapy to induce tumour regression. Biopsy specimens were collected from tumours during the growth phase, before chemotherapy, and again from the same dogs during the regression induced by chemotherapy. Laboratory assessment included cytology, histology, the number of tumour cells in relation to the number of intratumoral leucocytes, proliferative and apoptotic fractions of tumour cells, intratumoral vessel density, and fibrosis. The results revealed that during regression, tumour cell proliferation ceased, apoptosis increased, leucocytes increased (with increased proportion of T lymphocytes), tumour parenchyma collapsed around intratumoral vessels, and fibrosis increased. These results, which were similar to findings in dogs with spontaneous regression of CTVT, suggest that tumour immunity plays a role in tumour regression after modest chemotherapy. PMID:10805977

  8. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Babuadze, Giorgi; Alvar, Jorge; Argaw, Daniel; de Koning, Harry P.; Iosava, Merab; Kekelidze, Merab; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tsereteli, David; Chakhunashvili, Giorgi; Mamatsashvili, Tamar; Beria, Nino; Kalandadze, Irine; Ejov, Mikhail; Imnadze, Paata

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet) and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi. The highest proportions of seropositive pet dogs were present in District #2 (28.1%, 82/292) and District #1 (26.9%, 24/89) in Tbilisi, compared to 17.3% (26/150) of pet dogs in Kutaisi. The percentage of seropositive stray dogs was also twice as high in Tbilisi (16.1%, n?=?670) than in Kutaisi (8%, n?=?50); only 2/58 wild animals screened were seropositive (2. 6%). A total of 873 Phlebotomine sand flies were collected, with 5 different species identified in Tbilisi and 3 species in Kutaisi; 2.3% of the females were positive for Leishmania parasites. The Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) was performed on 981 human subjects in VL foci in urban areas in Tbilisi and Kutaisi. A particularly high prevalence of LST positives was observed in Tbilisi District #1 (22.2%, 37.5% and 19.5% for ages 5–9, 15–24 and 25–59, respectively); lower prevalence was observed in Kutaisi (0%, 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively; P<0.05). This study shows that Tbilisi is an active focus for leishmaniasis and that the infection prevalence is very high in dogs and in humans. Although exposure is as yet not as high in Kutaisi, this is a new VL focus. The overall situation in the country is alarming and new control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24603768

  9. Immunopathogenic behaviors of canine transmissible venereal tumor in dogs following an immunotherapy using dendritic/tumor cell hybrid.

    PubMed

    Pai, Chien-Chun; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Mao, Simon J T; Chuang, Tien-Fu; Lin, Chen-Si; Chu, Rea-Min

    2011-02-15

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a naturally occurring tumor that can be transmitted between dogs via live tumor cell inoculation. It is also a spontaneous self-regression tumor and its behavior is closely related to host immune responses. Since CTVT had been widely used for tumor models in canine cancers, whether this self-regression may overtake the immunity elicited from an exogenous tumor vaccine remains unclear and certainly worthwhile to be investigated. In this study, we used DCs/tumor hybrids as a tumor vaccine to evaluate the CTVT model. We prepared mature allogeneic dendritic cells from bone marrow and then assessed their phenotype (CD80, CD83, CD86, CD1a, CD11c, CD40 and MHC II), antigen uptake and presenting abilities. Fused dendritic cell/CTVT hybrids were then used as a vaccine, administered three times at two-week intervals via subcutaneous injection near the bilateral auxiliary and inguinal lymph nodes. In comparison with unvaccinated dogs (spontaneous regressed group), within a period of 2.5 months, the vaccinations substantially inhibited tumor progression (p<0.05) and accelerated the rate of regression by a mechanism involving amplification of the host tumor-specific adaptive immune responses and NK cytotoxicity (p<0.001). Pathologic examination revealed early massive lymphocyte infiltration resulting in final tumor necrosis. In addition, there are not any detectable effects on routine physical, body temperature or blood chemistry examinations. In conclusion, our data furnishes a reference value showing that CTVT is a model of potential use for the study of immunity elicited by vaccines against tumors, and also enable early-phase evaluation of the dendritic cell/tumor vaccine in terms of raising host immunity. PMID:21051091

  10. Extensive conservation of genomic imbalances in canine transmissible venereal tumors (CTVT) detected by microarray-based CGH analysis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rachael; Rebbeck, Clare; Leroi, Armand M; Burt, Austin; Breen, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is an intriguing cancer that is transmitted naturally as an allograft by transplantation of viable tumor cells from affected to susceptible dogs. At least initially, the tumor is able to evade the host's immune response; thus, CTVT has potential to provide novel insights into tumor immunobiology. The nature of CTVT as a "contagious" cancer, originating from a common ancestral source of infection, has been demonstrated previously by a series of studies comparing geographically distinct tumors at the molecular level. While these studies have revealed that apparently unrelated tumors share a striking degree of karyotypic conservation, technological restraints have limited the ability to investigate the chromosome composition of CTVTs in any detail. We present characterization of a strategically selected panel of CTVT cases using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis at ~one-megabase resolution. These data show for the first time that the tumor presents with an extensive range of non-random chromosome copy number aberrations that are distributed widely throughout the dog genome. The majority of abnormalities detected were imbalances of small subchromosomal regions, often involving centromeric and telomeric sequences. All cases also showed the sex chromosome complement XO. There was remarkable conservation in the cytogenetic profiles of the tumors analyzed, with only minor variation observed between different cases. These data suggest that the CTVT genome demonstrates a vast degree of both structural and numerical reorganization that is maintained during transmission among the domestic dog population. PMID:19798471

  11. The changing global distribution and prevalence of canine transmissible venereal tumour

    E-print Network

    Strakova, A.; Murchison, E. P.

    2014-09-03

    : Transmissible lymphosarcoma in the dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1949, 114(862):10–14. 82. Sastry GA, Narayana JV, Rao PR, Christopher J: A case of metastatic venereal tumour in a bitch. Indian Vet J 1965, 42(9):658–660. 83. Yang TJ: Metastatic transmissible venereal...

  12. [Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Galluzzo, Christelle Weibel; Eperon, Gilles; Mauris, Anne; Chappuis, François

    2013-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that causes various clinical features depending on the infecting Leishmania species and the host immune response. Transmission occurs through the bite of an infected sand fly (subfamily of Phlebotominae). Leishmaniasis must be part of the differential diagnosis of persistent cutaneous lesions in travellers returning from an endemic area. The disease is most frequently characterized by one or more ulcerative lesions, which are predominant on the exposed parts of the body. The diagnosis is confirmed by microscopical observation of the parasite on a scraping or biopsy of the lesion, or by PCR, the latter allowing an identification of the Leishmania species. Treatment is dependent on the clinical presentation, the species of Leishmania and the comorbidities of the patient. PMID:23750392

  13. Knowledge of the Population about Visceral Leishmaniasis Transmission in Endemic Areas near the Banks of the Mossoró River in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Amorim, Camila Fernandes; Amóra, Sthenia Santos Albano; Kazimoto, Thaís Aparecida; de Lima Costa, Kalídia Felipe; Silva, Luanna Fernandes; de Sousa, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo; Freitas, Yannara Barbosa Nogueira; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Feijó, Francisco Marlon Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an anthropozoonosis with high prevalence and incidence in the Northeastern region of Brazil. This study aimed to determine whether people living near the Mossoró River in the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, have knowledge of VL and to characterize the environmental properties of this region. Questionnaires were administered to 478 residents in three neighborhoods near the Mossoró River, addressing the population's knowledge about VL and environmental characteristics. Most survey participants were female, with ages between 18 and 40 years, 53.8% had completed primary education, and 61.5% owned pet dogs (p < 0.05). The majority (95.9%) showed little knowledge about the characteristics inherent to sandflies, and 85.3% were unaware of the environments preferred by this vector (p < 0.05). Sewage from the homes of respondents was mainly dumped into the river (44.6%), and 76.6% of the respondents complained about the accumulation of garbage in the streets (p < 0.05). The association between education and knowledge about the transmission of VL and preferred vector locations was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The lack of knowledge in the population about VL and the residential environment indicates a risk of maintaining sand fly habitats and hence disease transmission. PMID:25809514

  14. Transmission and expansion of HOXB4-induced leukemia in two immunosuppressed dogs: Implications for a new canine leukemia model

    PubMed Central

    Thakar, Monica S; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Beard, Brian C; Sale, George E; Santos, Erlinda B; Peterson, Laura; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2009-01-01

    Objective There are currently no large animal models to study the biology of leukemia and the development of novel anti-leukemic therapies. We have previously shown that dogs transplanted with homeobox B4 (HOXB4)-transduced autologous CD34+ cells developed myeloid leukemia associated with HOXB4 overexpression. Here, we describe the transmission, engraftment, and expansion of these canine leukemia cells into two genetically unrelated, immunosuppressed dogs. Methods Two dogs immunosuppressed after MHC-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and exhibiting mixed donor-host chimerism were infused trace amounts of HOXB4-overexpressing leukemia cells from a third-party dog. Results Six weeks after infusion of HOXB4-overexpressing leukemia cells, these two dogs rapidly developed myeloid leukemia consisting of marrow and organ infiltration, circulating blasts, and in one dog, chloromatous masses. Despite neither of these dogs sharing any dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-haplotypes with the sentinel case, the HOXB4-transduced clones engrafted and proliferated without difficulty in the presence of immunosuppression. Chimerism studies in both dogs confirmed that donor and, in one case even, host hematopoietic cell engraftment was lost and replaced by third party HOXB4 cells. Conclusions The engraftment and expansion of these leukemia cells in dogs will allow studies into the biology of leukemia and the development and evaluation of novel anti-leukemia therapies in a clinically relevant large animal model. PMID:19616601

  15. Canine transmissible venereal tumor cell depletion of B lymphocytes: molecule(s) specifically toxic for B cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kuang-Wen; Hung, Shao-Wen; Hsiao, Ya-Wen; Bennett, Michael; Chu, Rea-Min

    2003-05-12

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is an excellent model for investigating the interaction between host immunity and tumor growth. Although CTVT is an allograft, initially the host immune system is unable to destroy the tumor cells, and the tumor grows progressively for about 4-6 months (P phase). After a short stable phase, the tumor undergoes regression (R phase). In this study, CTVT inoculation significantly reduced the proportion of B lymphocytes among all peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), but the proportion of B lymphocytes returned to normal after complete removal of CTVT. Following CTVT inoculation, immunoglobulin concentrations decreased gradually, coincident with B lymphocyte decline. Furthermore, CTVT secreted a soluble, heat- and protease K-sensitive cytotoxic molecule(s) that destroyed peripheral blood B lymphocytes (PBBL) but spared other types of immune cells regardless of whether mitogens, such as IL-2 or Con A, were present. The decrease in the proportion and viability of PBBL was caused by a cytotoxic molecule(s) that induced apoptosis. The molecular weight of the CTVT-derived cytotoxic molecule(s) was 30-100kDa. Human, domestic cat, horse and mouse B cells were also sensitive to the substance. PMID:12730015

  16. Do open garbage dumps play a role in canine rabies transmission in Biyem-Assi health district in Cameroon?

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Tabue N.; Roland, Madgan E.; Françoise, Kenfack M. M.; Francis, Zeukeng; Livo, Esemu F.; Clovis, Seumen T. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. In Cameroon, efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies are often thwarted by the lack of community awareness. The community knowledge, as well as attitudes and perception on rabies, is therefore important for both prevention of human deaths and control in animals. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the level of community knowledge as well as the role of open garbage dumps (OGDs) in the epidemiology of human rabies. Overall 420 heads of household were interviewed in the Biyem-Assi health district of Yaoundé. OGDs were identified through a systematic check, and household wastes they contained were characterized. Results Although 66.9% of respondents have knowledge on stray dogs, only 35% of respondents knew the role of OGDs in the increase of stray dog population. Overall OGDs consisted of fermentable wastes. Nutrition places for stray dogs were wild garbage dumps (68.1%), markets (18.3%), and houses (13.6%). The feeding behavior of stray dogs correlated significantly with the human rabies transmission (? 2=154.12, df=4, p<0.05). Conclusion Most participants knew that rabies could be transmitted by a dog bite as well as the measures to be taken in this type of situation. Increased knowledge of respondents on rabies showed OGDs and stray dogs as significant risk factors for canine rabies in Biyem-Assi health district. PMID:25595689

  17. A single-centre, open-label, controlled, randomized clinical trial to assess the preventive efficacy of a domperidone-based treatment programme against clinical canine leishmaniasis in a high prevalence area.

    PubMed

    Sabaté, David; Llinás, Jorge; Homedes, Josep; Sust, Mariano; Ferrer, Lluís

    2014-07-01

    The innate immune response acting immediately after initial infection with Leishmania parasites is known to play a relevant role in prevention against clinical progression of the disease. Domperidone is a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist that has shown to enhance the innate cell-mediated immune response. The aim of this study was to assess the preventive efficacy of a domperidone-based treatment programme against clinical canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a high prevalence area. The study was performed with 90 healthy, seronegative dogs of different sex, age, weight and breed from a single veterinary clinic located in Valencia (Spain). Dogs were randomly allocated into two groups. Dogs in one group (domperidone-treated group; n=44) were administered an oral suspension of domperidone at 0.5 mg/kg bw/day during 30 consecutive days, every 4 months. Dogs in the other group (negative control group; n=46) were left untreated. A 21-month follow-up period was implemented covering two seasonal phases of the sand fly vector. During this period all animals underwent periodic clinical examinations and blood samplings for anti-Leishmania serological testing. Dogs seropositive for Leishmania (IFAT antibody titre?1:80) plus at least one clinical sign consistent with CanL (indicative of active infection and incipient disease progression) were categorized as a 'prevention failure'. These dogs were withdrawn from the study after confirming the infection by direct observation of the parasite in smears of lymph nodes and/or bone marrow aspirates. The cumulative percentage of 'prevention failure' after 12 months was significantly lower in the domperidone-treated group than in the negative control group (7% versus 35%, p=0.003). Differences between groups persisted after 21 months (11% versus 48%, p<0.001). The prevention rate provided by domperidone was 80% during the first 12 months and 77% throughout the complete 21-month follow-up period, with odds ratios of 7.3 (p=0.001) and 7.15 (p<0.001), respectively, this indicating that the risk for domperidone-treated dogs to develop the clinical disease is quite 7 times lower than for dogs left untreated. The results of this study demonstrate that the implementation of a strategic domperidone-based treatment programme consisting in quarterly repeated 30-day treatments with domperidone effectively reduces the risk to develop clinical CanL in areas with high prevalence of the disease. PMID:24698328

  18. Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries. PMID:24898032

  19. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Enk, C D; Gardlo, K; Hochberg, M; Ingber, A; Ruzicka, T

    2003-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa, Leishmania, which resides in macrophages. The parasite is transmitted by an infected female sandfly. The incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis approaches 2 million new cases per year with 90% of the cases occurring in the "Old World", while the "New World" accounts for the rest. Infection may be restricted to the skin with development of characteristic ulcers, or may affect the mucous membranes in its mucocutaneous form. The clinical diagnosis is verified by the presence of amastigotes in slit-skin smears. Therapeutic modalities include systemic treatments such as the pentavalent antimony compound sodium stibogluconate, liposomal formulations of amphotericin B, oral ketoconazole or itraconazole, as well as topical paromomycin sulphate, local heat, freezing with liquid nitrogen, or photodynamic therapy. An effective vaccine is not available. PMID:12759734

  20. Cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis, which also appears in mucosal and visceral forms. It is a disease found worldwide, caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite of which there are more than 20 different species. The disease is transmitted by the bite of an infected, female, phlebotomine sand fly, causing skin lesions that can appear weeks to years after a bite. A typical lesion will start out in a papular form, progressing to a nodular plaque and, eventually, to a persistent ulcerative lesion. Special Operations Forces medical providers should be aware of this disease, which must be in the differential diagnosis of a patient who has lived in endemic areas and who has a persistent skin lesion nonresponsive to typical therapies. PMID:25770811

  1. Comparison of FTIR transmission and transfection substrates for canine liver cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Kochan, Kamila; Heraud, Philip; Kiupel, Matti; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; McNaughton, Don; Baranska, Malgorzata; Wood, Bayden R

    2015-03-16

    FTIR spectroscopy is a widely used technique that provides insights into disease processes at the molecular level. Due to its numerous advantages it is becoming an increasingly powerful tool for the study of biological materials and has the potential to become an excellent diagnostic method, especially considering the low cost of transflection substrates. However, questions about the usefulness of the transflection measurement mode due to the complicated nature of physical processes occurring during the measurement and in particular the Electric Field Standing Wave (EFSW) effect have been raised. In this paper we present a comparison of the two most common FT-IR measurement modes: transmission and transfection using healthy and pathologically altered tissue (histiocytic sarcoma). We found that the major differences between normal and cancerous tissue were associated with changes DNA and carbohydrate content. In particular we identified a band at 964 cm(-1) assigned to a nucleic acid phosphodiester backbone mode, which appeared more pronounced in cancerous tissue irrespective of the substrate. We applied Principal Component Analysis, Unsupervised Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and k-means clustering to transmission and transflection substrates and found that both measurement modes were equally capable of discrimination normal form cancerous tissue. Moreover, the differences between spectra from cancerous and normal tissue were significantly more important than the ones arising from the measurement modes. PMID:25502543

  2. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin as a chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of canine transmissible venereal tumor in murine models.

    PubMed

    Stettner, Noa; Brenner, Ori; Eilam, Raya; Harmelin, Alon

    2005-11-01

    The effectiveness of Doxil as a new chemotherapeutic agent against canine transmissible venereal tumor was evaluated, using NOD/ SCID and CD1-nu xenograft mouse models and the response between the two mouse strains was compared. Samples of xenografted venereal tumor were inoculated SC into 20 six week-old NOD/SCID mice and 20 six week-old CD1-nu mice. Seven weeks later, tumor-bearing mice were divided into treatment and control groups. Treatment group was injected with Doxil (6 mg/kg, IP, as a single injection). Control group was injected with buffered saline (0.75cc, IP). Tumor size was determined by caliper measurements and tumor response was assessed according to standard criteria. In both strains there was a significant decrease in tumor size in response to Doxil treatment (P<0.0001). In CD1-nu eight out of nine tumors (88%) responded to the treatment, and in 2 cases complete remission was observed. In NOD/SCID group response to the treatment was seen in eight out of ten tumors (80%) but none regressed fully. Response to the treatment was statistically equal in both strains even though the apoptotic rate, confirmed by TUNEL staining, was higher in NOD/SCID than in CD-1-nu (8.65% and 0.7%, respectively) and tumor infiltrating cells were different: eosinophils in NOD/SCID and CD45R-positive B lymphocytes, and plasma cells in CD-1-nu. In untreated CD1-nu mice, tumor progress was slower than in NOD/SCID. Our results indicate that Doxil is effective against CTVT in mouse xenograft models. PMID:16327225

  3. Stromal cells and extracellular matrix components in spontaneous canine transmissible venereal tumour at different stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Chimonyo, M; Obwolo, M; Gruys, E; Nederbragt, H

    2004-10-01

    Stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components are important for tumour cell behaviour. Little is known about the role of stromal cells and ECM components in the progression and regression of spontaneous canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT). In this study, the stromal cell type was determined by immunohistochemical labelling with antibodies to desmin, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) during the progressive and regressive stages of spontaneous CTVT. The distribution of ECM components tenascin-C, chondroitin sulphate and versican were determined immunohistochemically, and hyaluronan distribution was determined using a biotinylated protein complex with specific affinity for hyaluronan. Stromal cells of tumours in both the progressive and regressive stage were positive for vimentin and negative for desmin. The number of stromal cells expressing alpha-SMA was significantly higher (P=0.001) in regressing tumours, than progressing tumours. These results suggest that the modulation of stromal cells that occurs during the regression of CTVT is similar to that occurring during wound healing. Tenascin-C was weakly expressed in the stroma of tumours in the progressive stage and in regions of the regressing tumours with tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), but intensely expressed in the stroma of tumours in late regressive stage. In addition, tenascin-C was also expressed in the cytoplasm of some tumour cells in the late regressive stage. A strong stromal tenascin-C intensity was significantly associated with regressing tumours (P=0.001). Strong stromal hyaluronan intensity and a high proportion of hyaluronan-positive tumour cells were significantly associated with progressing tumours (P=0.001). This suggests that hyaluronan is involved in the growth of the tumour. There was no significant difference in the expression of chondroitin sulphate and versican in progressing and regressing tumours. PMID:15375754

  4. Immunohistochemical characterization of intraocular metastasis of a canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    PubMed

    Pereira, J.S.; Silva, A.B.F.; Martins, A.L.B.; Ferreira, A.M.R.; Brooks, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    Little has been published on intraocular metastasis of transmissible venereal tumors (TVT) in dogs. This report presents a 4-year-old male Labrador Retriever with a previous history of subcutaneous TVT which underwent total remission after treatment with vincristine. The dog presented with clinical signs of uveitis and increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in both eyes. After enucleation of the left eye, a diagnosis of TVT was made based on morphology, histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC staining for vimentin, S-100 protein, cytokeratin and HMB45 was performed to differentiate this lesion from TVT, lymphoma, melanoma, carcinomas, neurogenic tumors and fibrosarcoma. The IHC findings supported the diagnosis of TVT for this round cell tumor. PMID:11397282

  5. A Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Efficacy Trial of the LiESP/QA-21 Vaccine in Naïve Dogs Exposed to Two Leishmania infantum Transmission Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Gaetano; Nieto, Javier; Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Cappiello, Silvia; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Di Muccio, Trentina; Scalone, Aldo; Moreno, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Carrillo, Eugenia; Butaud, Therese; Guegand, Laurie; Martin, Virginie; Cuisinier, Anne-Marie; McGahie, David; Gueguen, Sylvie; Cañavate, Carmen; Gradoni, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis caused by uncontrolled infection with Leishmania infantum, where an inappropriate immune response is not only responsible for permitting this intracellular parasite to multiply, but is also responsible for several of the pathological processes seen in this disease. Effective canine vaccines are therefore a highly desirable prevention tool. In this randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial, the efficacy of the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine (CaniLeish, Virbac, France) was assessed by exposing 90 naïve dogs to natural L. infantum infection during 2 consecutive transmission seasons, in two highly endemic areas of the Mediterranean basin. Regular PCR, culture, serological and clinical examinations were performed, and the infection/disease status of the dogs was classified at each examination. The vaccine was well-tolerated, and provided a significant reduction in the risk of progressing to uncontrolled active infection (p?=?0.025) or symptomatic disease (p?=?0.046), with an efficacy of 68.4% and a protection rate of 92.7%. The probability of becoming PCR positive was similar between groups, but the probability of returning to a PCR negative condition was higher in the vaccinated group (p?=?0.04). In conclusion, we confirmed the interest of using this vaccine as part of a comprehensive control program for canine leishmaniasis, and validated the use of a protocol based on regular in-depth assessments over time to assess the efficacy of a canine leishmaniasis vaccine. PMID:25299614

  6. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ready, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-)tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control), surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL should be susceptible to elimination by rapid case detection and treatment combined with local vector control, and one of the most important interventions may well be socioeconomic development. PMID:24833919

  7. Effect of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes on the expression of MHC molecules in canine transmissible venereal tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ya-Wen; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Hung, Shao-Wen; Chu, Rea-Min

    2002-08-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) can be allo-transplanted across major histocompatibility complex barriers. The expression of MHC molecules is usually low in the progression (P) stage and then greatly increases during tumor regression (R). We investigated the effects of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) on the expression of MHC molecules of CTVT cells. Isolated, viable CTVT cells were inoculated at each of 12 sites (1 x 10(8) CTVT cells per site) on the back of six, mixed-breed dogs. Tumor masses were collected every 2-3 weeks and prepared for histopathologic, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and immunoblotting studies. The level of MHC expression on tumor cells from different stages of growth was measured. Initially, expression of MHC I and II molecules in P phase CTVT was low. Twelve weeks post-inoculation (PI), expression increased dramatically and it continued to increase during R phase. Tumor growth slowed after 12 weeks PI and tumors entered R phase around 17 weeks PI. We hypothesize that CTVT evades host immunosurveillance and grows progressively for 12 weeks, when it becomes vulnerable and subject to the host's anti-tumor immune responses. We further demonstrated that R phase, but not P phase, TIL were closely associated with the over-expression of MHC I and II molecules by CTVT cells. The number and proportion of TIL were higher in R phase tumors. Supernatants, from R phase co-cultures (CTVT+TIL) and TIL only, promoted MHC I and II expression on P phase CTVT cells. After culturing alone for 1 month, expression of MHC classes I and II molecules in R phase CTVT cells decreased to the level of P phase CTVT cells. However, the above-mentioned supernatants restored their expression of MHC I and II molecules. In contrast, supernatants from P phase TIL or CTVT cells increased expression slightly or had no effect. Therefore, TIL, not CTVT cells, produce the effective substance (s) to promote the expression of MHC molecules by the tumor cells. Heat treated supernatant was unable to promote the expression of MHC I and II molecules by CTVT cells. In conclusion, TIL isolated from R phase CTVT secreted a heat-sensitive, soluble substance(s) that triggered over-expression of MHC I and II after 12 weeks PI. This caused the tumor to enter R phase and helped stop CTVT growth. Our findings will facilitate the understanding and further investigation of the mechanisms that initiate host immune surveillance against tumors. PMID:12052339

  8. The increase in risk factors for leishmaniasis worldwide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Desjeux

    2001-01-01

    Economic development leads to changing interactions between humans and their physical and biological environment. Worldwide patterns of human settlement in urban areas have led in developing countries to a rapid growth of mega-cities where facilities for housing, drinking-water and sanitation are inadequate, thus creating opportunities for the transmission of communicable diseases such as leishmaniasis. Increasing risk factors are making leishmaniasis

  9. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) of a canine-transmissible venereal tumour in a murine model with Pd-bacteriopheophorbide (WST09).

    PubMed

    Vilensky, J; Koudinova, N V; Harmelin, A; Scherz, A; Salomon, Y

    2005-12-01

    Abstract Treatment of canine-transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) with local vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) using Pd-bacteriopheophorbide (WST09) as a drug is suggested as an alternative to conventional chemotherapy. Male CD1 nude mice were subcutaneously grafted with the xenograft-transmissible canine venereal tumour (XTVT). The VTP protocol delivered once consisted of intravenous administration of WST09 (10 mg kg(-1)) followed by immediate local illumination with a diode laser (763 nm). Controls included animals treated with light or WST09 alone. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations of tumour response were conducted 10, 24 and 48 h after treatment. Upon VTP, tumours underwent necrosis that lasted 8-10 days and exhibited complete healing by 25-35 days, reaching an overall long-term cure rate (83%) by 90 days after treatment. This study suggests that VTP with WST09 can efficiently treat CTVT in a single session, as compared with 4-6 sessions of chemotherapy and thus may be feasible for common veterinary practice, particularly under ambulatory conditions. PMID:19754773

  10. Leishmaniasis en la infancia Leishmaniasis in Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solange Castro Grüber; Olga Zerpa Rangel; Antonio Rondón Lugo

    2003-01-01

    Summary Leishmaniasis is an infection caused by a protozoan belongin to the genus Leishmania, and it is transmitted to man through the innoculation by a sandfly. The clinical manifestations include cutaneous, mucosal and visceral forms, and it depends on the virulence of the parasite or the immunity of the host. In infancy, the percentage of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is variable

  11. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Figueiró-Filho, Ernesto Antonio; Duarte, Geraldo; El-Beitune, Patrícia; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Maia, Tamara Lemos

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review was to close the gap in the approach to pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) by providing up-to-date information to obstetricians about physiopathology, epidemiology, vertical transmission, drugs and treatment during pregnancy. BACKGROUND: Infection with Leishmania chagasi during pregnancy is rare and deserves special attention since little information is available regarding the occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis during gestational period and the real possibility of vertical transmission of this disease. Because specific areas in the world are endemic for the disease and considering the continuous growth of the population, cases of pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis are becoming more frequent. Unfortunately, textbooks on infectious diseases do not include this specific group of patients, and studies in the literature on aspects related to pregnancy and visceral leishmaniasis are scarce. CONCLUSIONS: Vertical transmission of leishmaniasis is possible and the institution of treatment is imperative in cases of pregnant women with kala-azar. Amphotericin B is strongly recommended as the first choice drug due to its fewer maternal-fetal adverse effects. PMID:15460194

  12. Canine Parvovirus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as a way to limit spread of canine parvovirus infection as well as other diseases that can ... Although this brochure provides basic information about canine parvovirus, your veterinarian is always your best source of ...

  13. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal near-infrared optical tomography of canine prostate bearing transmissible venereal tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Piao, Daqing

    2009-02-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography is conducted on a tumor-bearing canine prostate with the assistance of trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The canine prostate tumor model is made possible by a unique round cell neoplasm of dogs, transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) that can be transferred from dog to dog regardless of histocompatibility. A characterized TVT cell line was homogenized and passed twice in subcutaneous tissue of NOD/SCID mice. Following the second passage, the tumor was recovered, homogenized and then inoculated by ultrasound guidance into the prostate gland of a healthy dog. The dog was then imaged with a combined trans-rectal NIR and TRUS imager using an integrated trans-rectal NIR/US applicator. The image was taken by NIR and US modalities concurrently, both in sagittal view. The trans-rectal NIR imager is a continuous-wave system that illuminates 7 source channels sequentially by a fiber switch to deliver sufficient light power to the relatively more absorbing prostate tissue and samples 7 detection channels simultaneously by a gated intensified high-resolution CCD camera. This work tests the feasibility of detecting prostate tumor by trans-rectal NIR optical tomography and the benefit of augmenting TRUS with trans-rectal NIR imaging.

  14. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    von Stebut, E; Sunderkötter, C

    2007-05-01

    Infections with Leishmania are increasing worldwide because of tourism and job-related travel; central Europe is no exception. Infections often first become apparent after return from an endemic region. Depending on the Leishmania species and the host immune status, different forms of cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (MCL) (L. brasiliensis complex) or visceral leishmaniasis (L. donovani as well as L. infantum) may develop. CL may heal spontaneously with scarring but can evolve into diffuse CL (with reduced immune response to L. amazonensis, L. guyanensis, L. mexicana or L. aethiopica) or into recurrent CL. Diagnostic criteria include travel to an endemic area as well as ulcerated plaques or nodules on an exposed site which show no tendency towards healing over 3-4 weeks. Differential diagnostic considerations include ecthyma, other infectious ulcers, and malignant neoplasms. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding Leishmania in a smear or tissue biopsy, as well as by culture. Therapy options range from topical treatment of simple CL of the Old World caused by L. major to systemic therapy which is needed for most complex cases of CL as well as MCL. Miltefosine is a less toxic option to replace the antimony compounds. PMID:17447043

  15. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled optical tomography of a transmissible venereal tumor model in the canine pelvic canal.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E; Ritchey, Jerry W; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F; Slobodov, Gennady; Piao, Daqing

    2009-01-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography was performed concurrently with, albeit reconstructed without spatial a prior of, trans-rectal ultrasound (US) on transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) developed as a model in the canine pelvic canal. Studies were taken longitudinally at prior to, 14 days after, and 35 days after the TVT injection. As the tumor grew, the nodules became increasingly hyperabsorptive and moderately hyperscattering on NIR. The regions of strong NIR contrast, especially on absorption images, correlated well with those of US hypoechoic masses indicative of tumors. Combining the information of trans-rectal NIR and US detected the tumor more accurately than did the US alone at 14 days postinjection. PMID:19566288

  16. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled optical tomography of a transmissible venereal tumor model in the canine pelvic canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Piao, Daqing

    2009-05-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography was performed concurrently with, albeit reconstructed without spatial a prior of, trans-rectal ultrasound (US) on transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) developed as a model in the canine pelvic canal. Studies were taken longitudinally at prior to, 14 days after, and 35 days after the TVT injection. As the tumor grew, the nodules became increasingly hyperabsorptive and moderately hyperscattering on NIR. The regions of strong NIR contrast, especially on absorption images, correlated well with those of US hypoechoic masses indicative of tumors. Combining the information of trans-rectal NIR and US detected the tumor more accurately than did the US alone at 14 days postinjection.

  17. Serological diagnosis of leishmaniasis: on detecting infection as well as disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dye, C.; Vidor, E.; Dereure, J.

    1993-01-01

    Serological tests are very frequently used in epidemiological surveys of leishmaniasis and other parasitoses. Their sensitivity and specificity are generally defined with respect to parasitism and disease, rather than infection. The reason is that known positives are those individuals most likely to yield parasites, or who have distinctive clinical signs, and concomitantly high antibody titres. This paper investigates the performance of one serological method, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), in detecting Leishmania infantum infection during an intensive 2-year cohort study of dogs in southern France. The results show that sensitivity and specificity with respect to infection can be simultaneously high, but maximum sensitivity is probably < 80%, and lasts for a relatively short period of 2-3 months after a lengthy incubation period. The IFAT gave the incidence of infection as 18-65% in the first year, whereas the best estimate of incidence based on parasite isolation and clinical observation was 72%. But data from the second year suggest that the 72% was itself an underestimate. We argue that, during epidemiological surveys, the IFAT in particular, and serological tests for leishmania in general, will underestimate prevalence, incidence and hence the scale of the control problem. However, there is evidence that tests for canine leishmaniasis employing high threshold titres will identify the most infectious animals, allowing selective treatment or culling of those which contribute disproportionately to transmission. PMID:8519330

  18. Ethical and epidemiological dilemmas in the treatment of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Travi, Bruno L

    2014-01-01

    In the Americas there are between 4,500 and 6,800 annual cases of severe visceral leishmaniasis, and mortality is estimated to range between 7 and 10%. However, underreporting and subclinical infections mask the real epidemiological importance of visceral leishmaniasis. Control efforts, which have typically focused on insecticide spraying of sand fly vectors and dog culling, have yielded disparate results. Nevertheless, thousands of dogs are sacrificed each year in countries endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Additionally, current guidelines of leishmaniasis control programs have banned dog treatment with drugs of human use while therapy with other drugs resulted in high rates of relapses. Society requires that control programs take a more humanitarian approach aimed at limiting dog culling. There is an urgent need to promote responsible dog-ownership and support research on: a) novel veterinary therapies, b) low-cost molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and c) determination of dog infectivity threshold for proper reservoir management. PMID:24967853

  19. Epidemiological study on leishmaniasis in an area of environmental tourism and ecotourism, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ana Rachel Oliveira de; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Rocca, Maria Elizabeth Gizi; Aquino, Ricardo Braga

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to carry out a serological survey of canine leishmaniasis and identify the phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The serological survey was conducted on a sample of 303 dogs, by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test. Phlebotomines were captured using automated light traps. The serological survey found that 30% of the dogs were seropositive, both from the center and from all districts of the town. A total of 2,772 specimens of phlebotomines were caught and the species most found was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%), which corroborated its role as the vector of for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the region. Phlebotomines of the species Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (the main vector for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Nyssomyia whitmani (the vector for Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis) were also caught. The findings indicate the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance, with attention towards diminishing the vector breeding sites and the transmission of these diseases in that region. PMID:19967228

  20. Risk maps for the presence and absence of Phlebotomus perniciosus in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in southern Spain: implications for the control of the disease.

    PubMed

    Barón, S D; Morillas-Márquez, F; Morales-Yuste, M; Díaz-Sáez, V; Irigaray, C; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to construct risk maps for the presence of the dominant Leishmania infantum vector, P. perniciosus, and check its usefulness (a) to predict the risk of canine leishmaniasis and (b) to define effective leishmaniasis control measures. We obtained data for the presence/absence of P. perniciosus at 167 sampling sites in southern Spain, from which we also took a series of ecological and climate-related data. The probability of P. perniciosus presence was estimated as a function of these environmental variables and generated spatial risk maps. Altitude, land use and drainage hole features (with or without PVC piping) were retained as the only predictors for the distribution of this vector species. Drainage hole features in retaining walls, with or without PVC piping, produce significant variations in the probability of P. perniciosus presence, varying from 2·3 to 91·8% if PVC piping is absent and from 0·4 to 66·5% if all holes have PVC piping. It was concluded that the use of PVC piping in drainage holes could help to reduce leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:21854702

  1. Identification of canine transmissible venereal tumor cells using in situ polymerase chain reaction and the stable sequence of the long interspersed nuclear element.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kuang-Wen; Lin, Zei-Yi; Pao, Hai-Nie; Kam, Sook-Yee; Wang, Fun-In; Chu, Rea-Min

    2003-09-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a unique tumor that can be transplanted across the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) barrier by viable tumor cells. In dogs, CTVT grows progressively for a few months and then usually regresses spontaneously. A long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) insertion is found specifically and constantly in the 5' end of the CTVT cell c-myc gene, outside the first exon. The rearranged LINE-c-myc gene sequence has been used with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to diagnose CTVT. However, in CTVT cells, the total length of the inserted LINE gene is not constant. In this experiment, variation in the inserted LINE gene was studied to determine which parts of the LINE sequence can be used as primers to identify CTVT cells with in situ PCR (IS PCR). The LINE gene was inserted between the TATA boxes in the promoter region of c-myc. In CTVT cells, deletions of different lengths are frequent in this gene. However, the 550-bp segment at the 5' end of the LINE-c-myc gene was stable. Thus, primers were designed to cover the stable 0.55-kb segment from the 5' end outside the first exon of the c-myc gene to the 5' end of LINE gene stable segment. With these primers and IS PCR, individual CTVT cells in formalin-fixed tissue sections and CTVT cultures were identified. Cells from other canine tumors were negative for this gene. In addition, the CTVT-specific, 0.55-kb segment was not found in any spindle-shaped cells from progressive or regressive phase CTVT. The IS PCR technique also did not detect any positive spindle-shaped cells in CTVT cell cultures. Thus, fibroblastic terminal differentiation is less likely to be a mechanism for spontaneous regression of CTVT cells. PMID:14535538

  2. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis/HIV Coinfection Presented as a Diffuse Desquamative Rash

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; Sugui, Daniel; Nunes, Rafael Fernandes; de Azevedo, Karime; de Azevedo, Marcelo; Marques, Alexandre; Martins, Carlos; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is endemic in tropical areas and in the Mediterranean. This condition spreads to 98 countries in four continents, surpassing 12 million infected individuals, with 350 million people at risk of infection. This disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, with various animal reservoirs, such as rodents, dogs, wolves, foxes, and even humans. Transmission occurs through a vector, a sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The wide spectrum of nonvisceral forms includes: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, a papular lesion that progresses to ulceration with granular base and a large framed board; diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis; mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which can cause disfiguring and mutilating injuries of the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection is considered an emerging problem in several countries, including Brazil, where, despite the growing number of cases, a problem of late diagnosis occurs. Clinically, the cases of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection may demonstrate unusual aspects, such as extensive and destructive lesions. This study aims to report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection with atypical presentation of diffuse desquamative eruption and nasopharyngeal involvement. PMID:25548691

  3. Babesiosis due to the canine Babesia microti-like small piroplasm in dogs - first report from Portugal and possible vertical transmission

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis) is endemic in northern Portugal, but molecularly confirmed cases of infection with small piroplasms have not been reported in the country. Three German shepherd dogs - a bitch and its 2-month old pup and an unrelated male - clinically suspected of piroplasmosis were assessed for babesial infection. Results Parasitemia with small piroplasms was detected by microscopy in two dogs. All three dogs were positive by PCR and the Babesia microti-like small piroplasm (syn. Theileria annae) was identified by DNA sequencing. These are the first confirmed cases of babesiosis caused by the B. microti-like piroplasm both in dogs from Portugal and in dogs suspected of clinical piroplasmosis outside of Spain. Conclusions Although the bitch and the male had visited neighboring Galicia (northwestern Spain), where the disease is endemic, incursion of this piroplasm into northern Portugal is evident and infection of the non-traveled pup was due to either vertical transmission or autochthonous tick infection. PMID:21489238

  4. Detection of the tumour suppressor gene TP53 and expression of p53, Bcl-2 and p63 proteins in canine transmissible venereal tumour.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, D; Ferrari, H F; Andrade, A L; Cardoso, T C; Luvizotto, M C R

    2011-12-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a neoplasm transmitted among healthy dogs by direct contact with injured skin and/or mucous tissue. This study aimed to identify the TP53 gene, messenger RNA (mRNA) as well as the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and p63 proteins in histological sections of 13 CTVT samples at different stages of evolution. The in situ hybridization (ISH) and in situ reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were used, which showed the DNA homologous to TP53 and its respective mRNA in 92.3% of the samples. We detected p53, p63 and Bcl-2 proteins in most of the cell samples in different grades of intensity. In addition, 46% of the samples were in the progressive and 54% in the regression phase. This is the first description of these proteins and a detailed study of their role in CTVT cells needs to be addressed in or to verify how these cells undergo apoptosis. PMID:22077405

  5. Reinfection studies of canine echinococcosis and role of dogs in transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan communities, Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Moss, J E; Chen, X; Li, T; Qiu, J; Wang, Q; Giraudoux, P; Ito, A; Torgerson, P R; Craig, P S

    2013-11-01

    In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities. PMID:23985352

  6. Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Diagnosis Light-microscopic examination of ... multiple Leishmania amastigotes (the tissue stage of the parasite). Note that each amastigote has a nucleus (red ...

  7. Leishmaniasis: Prevention and Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control No vaccines or drugs to prevent infection are ... and can be found in hardware, camping, and military surplus stores. Bed nets and clothing that already ...

  8. American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A.; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study conducted during 1990–2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ? 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were having 1–3 rooms in a house compared with ? 4 rooms, having a roof that was not made of cement, and having domestic animals. In contrast, only 19% of dogs were seropositive, suggesting that this species is not important in the transmission cycle of Leishmania. These data indicate that active transmission is taking place in the central valley of Chiapas State, Mexico, in communities located < 1,000 meters above sea level near the Grijalva River. PMID:22232459

  9. Epidemiological and Clinical Changes in American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in an Area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Transmission Over a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Jirmanus, Lara; Glesby, Marshall J.; Guimarães, Luiz H.; Lago, Ednaldo; Rosa, Maria Elisa; Machado, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2012-01-01

    The Health Post of Corte de Pedra is located in a region endemic for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the Brazilian state of Bahia, and it treats 500–1,300 patients annually. To describe temporal changes in the epidemiology of ATL, we reviewed a random sample of 10% of patient charts (N = 1,209) from 1988 to 2008. There was a twofold increase in the number of cases over the 20-year period, with fluctuations in 10-year cycles. Patients were most frequently male, between the ages of 10 and 30 years, and engaged in agricultural labor; 4.3% of patients had mucosal disease, and 2.4% of patients had disseminated disease. Over the study period, the number of disseminated cases increased threefold, the proportion of cases in younger patients and agricultural workers decreased, and the proportion of patients residing in coastal areas increased. ATL is on the rise in Bahia, with a 10-year periodicity and evolving changes in epidemiology and manifestations of disease. PMID:22403312

  10. Transient downregulation of monocyte-derived dendritic-cell differentiation, function, and survival during tumoral progression and regression in an in vivo canine model of transmissible venereal tumor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-Chi; Wang, Yu-Shan; Lin, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Tien-Fu; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Chen, Mo-Fan; Chiang, Hsin-Chien; Chu, Rea-Min

    2008-04-01

    Tumors often target dendritic cells (DCs) to evade host immune surveillance. DC injury is reported in many rodent and human tumors but seldom in tumors of other mammals. Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT), a unique and spontaneous cancer transmitted by means of viable tumor cells. CTVT causes manifold damage to monocyte-derived DCs. This cancer provides an in vivo model of cancer to study the role of monocyte-derived DCs during spontaneous regression. Using flow cytometry and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions, we compared the expression of surface molecules on monocyte-derived DCs between normal dogs and dogs with CTVT. These markers were CD1a, CD83, costimulatory factors (CD40, CD80, and CD86), and major histocompatability complex classes I and II. In immature DCs (iDCs) and lipopolysaccharide-treated mature DCs (mDCs), the surface markers were mostly downregulated during tumoral progression and regression. The tumor lowered endocytic activity of iDCs, as reflected in dextran uptake, and decreased allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions of mDCs. In addition, it decreased the number of monocytes in the peripheral blood by 40%. The tumor substantially impaired the efficiency with which DCs were generated from monocytes and with which mDCs were generated from iDCs. We also found that progression-phase CTVT supernatants that were cultured for 48 h and that contained protein components killed both monocytes and DCs. Additionally, DC numbers were significantly lower in the draining lymph nodes in CTVT dogs than in normal dogs. In conclusion, CTVT caused devastating damage to monocyte-derived DCs; this might be one of its mechanisms for evading host immunity. Reestablishment of monocyte-derived DC activity by the host potentially might contribute to spontaneous tumoral regression. These findings provide insight into the extent of tumoral effects on host immune systems and responses. This information is useful for developing cancer immunotherapies. PMID:17710396

  11. Canine transmissible venereal sarcoma: distribution of T and B lymphocytes in blood, draining lymph nodes and tumours at different stages of growth.

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, J. P.; Yang, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    The levels of T, B and null lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, draining lymph nodes, and tumour masses at different growth stages in dogs transplanted with canine transmissible venereal sarcoma (CTVS) were determined by immunofluorescence techniques. The tumours were classified at excision into "progressor", "steady state", and "regressor" stages of growth. The percentage of B cells in the lymphocytes infiltrating into the progressively growing tumours (n = 10, 37.3 +/- 7.4%) was significantly higher (P less than 0.025) than that in regressing tumours (n = 21, 26.1 +/- 1.9%). In contrast, the percentage of T cells in the lymphocytes infiltrating into the regressing tumours (n = 21, 61.2 +/- 2.6%) was significantly higher (P less than 0.005) than that in the progressively growing tumours (n = 10, 34.0 +/- 5.1%). The tumours at the steady-state growth stage (n = 9) had 50.8 +/- 5.7% infiltrating T-cells, which was significantly higher (P less than 0.005) than the progressors and lower (P less than 0.005) than the regressors. The percentage of null cells of progressors (n = 10, 26.0 +/- 6.9%) was significantly (P less than 0.025) higher than in regressors (n = 21, 13.5 +/- 2.9%). The draining lymph nodes of progressor dogs (n = 5) had significantly fewer (P less than 0.025) B cells (8.2 +/- 2.3%) than in normal (n = 5, 16.1 +/- 3.1%), regressors (n = 12, 19.1 +/- 1.7%) and steady-state dogs (n = 5, 15.8 +/- 2.6%). Although there was slight lymphopenia and fluctuation of null cells, no significant differences in T- and B-lymphocyte levels were noted in the peripheral blood of the tumour dogs (n = 44) studied. PMID:6975111

  12. Vincristine modulates the expression of Ki67 and apoptosis in naturally occurring canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT).

    PubMed

    Özalp, G R; Zik, B; Bastan, A; Peker, S; Özdemir-Salci, E S; Bastan, I; Darbaz, I; Salar, S; Karakas, K

    2012-07-01

    We investigated eight adult dogs that were brought to veterinary clinics with a history of transmissible venereal tumors (TVT). Our goal was to demonstrate the occurrence of apoptosis and the cessation of cell proliferation at every phase of scheduled chemotherapy for naturally occurring TVT. Tissue samples were collected immediately after weekly treatments with vincristine sulfate and processed for histological purposes. Sections 5 ?m thick were stained by the TUNEL reaction for apoptosis and immunostained for Ki67 as a proliferation marker. We observed that after vincristine applications, tumor cell proliferation ceased and apoptosis increased. Ki67 HSCORE values were significantly lowered after the first and second treatments with the chemotherapeutic agent compared to controls, whereas TUNEL HSCORE values were significantly higher after two applications of vincristine compared to controls. Our results suggest that scheduled vincristine sulfate applications stabilize the induction of tumor regression by inducing apoptosis and preventing cell proliferation. PMID:22404564

  13. [Serologic survey of dogs in an endemic area of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Paraná State, southern Brazil

    PubMed

    Silveira; Teodoro; Lonardoni; Toledo; Bertolini; Arraes; Vedovello Filho D

    1996-01-01

    Increased reporting of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Paraná points to the need for information on both this disease's epidemiology and pertinent control measures. A serological survey was thus performed, with indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) for canine leishmaniasis in farm operations belonging to the Companhia Melhoramentos Norte do Paraná, in Jussara and Terra Boa counties, in northwestern Paraná. IIF was performed on 132 dogs, of which 24 (18.2%) had significant titers (>/=40). Imprints of six dogs with lesions were made and all were negative for Leishmania sp. PMID:10904311

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Imported Cases of Leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Tamalee; Barratt, Joel; Sandaradura, Indy; Lee, Rogan; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent’s Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55). Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94%) with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans. PMID:25734905

  15. Canine lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weller

    1986-01-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets,

  16. American canine hepatozoonosis.

    PubMed

    Panciera, R J; Ewing, S A

    2003-06-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted infection of domestic dogs caused by a recently recognized species of apicomplexan parasite, Hepatozoon americanum. The known definitive host of the protozoan is the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Presently recognized intermediate hosts include the domestic dog and the coyote, Canis latrans. Laboratory-reared larval or nymphal A. maculatum can be infected readily by feeding to repletion on a parasitemic intermediate host; sporogony requires 35-40 days. Transmission of infection to the dog has been produced experimentally by oral administration of mature oocysts or oocyst-containing ticks. Canine disease follows experimental exposure in 4-6 weeks and is characterized by systemic illness, extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis, muscle and bone pain, and proliferation of periosteal bone. Histopathological findings include multifocal skeletal and cardiac myositis associated with escape of mature merozoites from within the host-cell environment. There is also rapid onset of periosteal activation and osteogenesis and, less frequently, glomerulopathy and amyloidosis. Sequential stages of development of H. americanum in both the dog and the tick have been elucidated. Gamonts potentially infectious to ticks have been observed in peripheral blood leukocytes of the dog in as few as 28 days after exposure to oocysts. Young coyotes experimentally exposed to a canine strain of H. americanum acquired disease indistinguishable from that of similarly exposed young dogs. PMID:12885206

  17. Canine transmissible venereal tumor and seminoma: a cytohistopathology and chemotherapy study of tumors in the growth phase and during regression after chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, J; Pedram, B; Taheriyan, M R; Khadivar, F; Hosseini, S H; Abdi, F S; Hosseini, E; Moloudizargari, M; Aghajanshakeri, S H; Javaherypour, S; Shafiee, R; Emrani Bidi, R

    2014-06-01

    In this study, 12 dogs affected by canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) and testicular seminoma tumor were studied retrospectively. The cytological sample was smeared onto a glass slide and either air-dried for May-Grünwald-stain, and masses were surgically removed. The tumors were grossly examined, and sections of 4-?m thick were obtained from each sample and stained with H&E. For chemotherapy, vincristine sulfate was administered weekly as an infusion over 3 min via the cephalic vein at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg after diluting with physiological saline to a total amount of 10 ml. If no remission was observed after 8 weeks, chemotherapy was continued with weekly doxorubicin infusion at a dose of 1 mg/kg. All the tumor samples were divided into four cytohistopathologic groups, namely: multilobular (six cases), papillary (two cases), pedunculated (two cases), and tubular (two cases of seminoma). The most frequently represented tumor type was multilobular (6/10, 60 %) followed by pedunculated (2/10, 20 %), papillary (2/10, 20 %), and tubular (two cases of seminoma, 100 %). Cytological smears from eight tumors in regression after chemotherapy were poorly cellular, and many cells were fragmented. In two progressive tumors, there was an average of 1,406 ± 972 CTVT 200 cells/?l or 96.71 % of total cells counted. Thus, tumor cells represented 96.71 % of total cells within the biopsy specimens and the leukocytes 4.29 % (leukocyte, tumor cell ratio=0.062 ± 0.031). In eight regressive tumors, there was an average of 1,245 ± 1,032 CTVT 200 cells/?l or 97.31 % of total cells counted. Thus, tumor cells represented 97.31 % of total cells and leukocytes 2.69 % (leukocyte, tumor cell ratio=0.071 ± 0.174). Our data suggested that combination treatment with vincristine and doxorubicin in the future could be an excellent therapeutic alternative for the treatment of TVT for probably reducing the resistance to vincristine, and also, treatment success could easily be followed by the cytological changes. PMID:24557542

  18. An investigation on vertical transmission of Leishmania infantum in experimentally infected dogs and assessment of offspring's infectiousness potential by xenodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ben Slimane, T; Chouihi, E; Ben Hadj Ahmed, S; Chelbi, I; Barhoumi, W; Cherni, S; Zoghlami, Z; Gharbi, M; Zhioua, E

    2014-12-15

    Dogs are the main reservoir host of Leishmania infantum, etiologic agent of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Transmission of L. infantum to humans and dogs is mainly through the bite of infected sand flies. In the Western Mediterranean basin, Phlebotomus perniciosus is the main vector of L. infantum. However, occasional vertical transmission of L. infantum has been reported. This study investigated L. infantum vertical transmission in offspring of experimentally infected dogs. Among 14 surviving puppies from three female beagle dogs that developed CVL following an experimental infection with L. infantum, one was tested positive by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test, by PCR and by xenodiagnosis with a high parasite burden in the spleen at 14 months old. None of the remaining puppies were tested positive for L. infantum. These findings strongly suggest that infected puppies following vertical transmission can sustain infection and contribute in infecting sand flies with L. infantum. Any strategy for controlling CVL should take into consideration the vertical transmission of L. infantum. PMID:25468025

  19. Visceral leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: eco-epidemiological aspects and control.

    PubMed

    Marzochi, Mauro Celio de Almeida; Fagundes, Aline; Andrade, Moacir Vieira de; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Marzochi, Keyla Belizia Feldman

    2009-01-01

    From 1977 (index case) to 2006, 87 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were confirmed in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in periurban areas on the continental and coastal slopes of the Pedra Branca massif and the continental slopes of the Gericinó massif. The majority (65.5%) of the patients were more than five years old, predominantly males (61.5%), but without any difference between the sexes below the age of 14 years. The overall fatality rate was 10.4%. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were detected. Leishmania chagasi was isolated from human and canine cases. The associations between the presence of phlebotomines and human and canine migrations, disorderly occupation involving degradation of environmental preservation areas and poor socioeconomic conditions may have created a favorable setting for the establishment and propagation of the disease. Close epidemiological surveillance associated with traditional control measures and others (active case researches, land clearing and health education), reduced the incidence of human cases from 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1981 to less than 0.01 per 100,000 since 1997. The canine infection rates decreased from 4.6% in 1984 to 1.6% in 2008. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected in some locations where human and canine cases occurred. In the years 2007 and 2008, no new human cases were reported, but there is a persistent and worrisome residual canine seroprevalence. PMID:19967242

  20. Canine Leishmania vaccines: Still a long way to go.

    PubMed

    Gradoni, Luigi

    2015-02-28

    Dogs are the main reservoir host for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, a sand fly-borne disease caused by Leishmania infantum. In endemic areas, "susceptible" dogs suffer from a severe disease characterized by chronic polymorphic viscerocutaneous signs that manifest several months from the exposure, whereas "resistant" dogs can remain subclinically infected for years or lifelong. The protective immune response to Leishmania is cell-mediated; for visceralizing Leishmania species a mixed T helper (Th)1/Th2 response with a dominant Th1 profile is required for protection. The activation of the adaptive immune system in naturally resistant dogs is revealed by parasite-specific lymphoproliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity, the production of interferon-? and tumour necrosis factor-? cytokines, and enhanced macrophage leishmanicidal activity via nitric oxide. Hence, an effective canine Leishmania vaccine should induce strong and long-lasting Th1-dominated immunity to control both infection progression and the parasite transmissibility via the vector. Preclinical research in rodent models has evaluated the efficacy of several categories of Leishmania antigens including killed parasites, cell purified fractions, parasite protein components or subunits, single or multiple chimeric recombinant proteins, plasmid DNA and viral particles encoding parasite virulence factors. Promising antigen(s)/adjuvant combinations from each of the above categories have also been tested in dogs; they mostly resulted in limited or no protection in Phase I-II studies (designed to test vaccine safety, immunogenicity and laboratory-induced protection) in which vaccinated dogs were challenged by the artificial intravenous injection of high-load L. infantum promastigotes. The recombinant A2 antigen plus saponin conferred about 40% protection against infection by this challenge system and has been registered in Brazil as a canine vaccine (LeishTec(®)). An increasing number of efficacy studies have privileged the use of natural challenge consisting in the long-term exposure of vaccinated dogs in endemic settings (Phase III). A 2-year field model including regular assessments by a set of standard diagnostic markers useful for an accurate infection staging has been developed. Again, most of the vaccines tested by this system, which included several antigen categories and adjuvants, failed to protect against infection and disease. Only two vaccines, consisting of parasite purified fractions with saponin derivative adjuvants, showed to confer significant protection against disease and death under natural conditions, and have been registered as canine vaccines: FML-QuilA (Leishmune(®)) in Brazil, and LiESP/QA-21 (CaniLeish(®)) in Europe. PMID:25620293

  1. The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in western China detected by PCR and serological tests

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in western China, resulting in important public health problem. It is essential to evaluate the prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection for designing control policy. In the present study we report for the first time prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs living in Jiuzhaigou County (Sichuan Provence, China), which is not only an important endemic area of CanL but also a tourism scenic spot, detected by PCR, ELISA and dipstick test. The results could provide key information for designing control programs against canine and human leishmaniasis. In addition, the complete sequence of the Leishmania isolate from Sichuan Province has not been reported to date and we present the sequences of 116 base-pair (bp) fragment of the conserved region in the minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and the results of phylogenetic analyses based on the sequence of the amplified fragment. Results The proportion of dogs infected with Leishmania in Jiuzhaigou County was 36.79%, 9.43%, and 51.88% detected by ELISA, dipstick test, and PCR, respectively. The ELISA and PCR tests were more sensitive than dipstick test. The PCR method is the most sensitive way to detect dogs infected with Leishmania parasites. The total positive rate for infected dogs in the area was 59.43% by the three methods. The PCR products of 116-bp fragment amplified from the kDNA conserved region of dog blood samples and laboratory maintained L. infantum were DNA sequenced and the variation of the sequences was observed. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 116-bp fragment reveals that L. infantum is more genetically related to visceralizing species L. donovani than to the Leishmania species associated with cutaneous disease. Conclusions More than half of dogs living in the endemic Jiuzhaigou County were infected by L. infantum. Control measures, such as treatment or eradication of infected dogs, or prohibition of maintaining dogs, must be taken against these infected dogs due to their role in the transmission of the infection to vectors. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of conserved region in kDNA of Leishmania can effectively distinguish species of Leishmania. PMID:21554677

  2. Interaction between canine and human visceral leishmaniases in a holoendemic focus of Central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Zoghlami, Z; Chouihi, E; Barhoumi, W; Dachraoui, K; Massoudi, N; Helel, K Ben; Habboul, Z; Hadhri, M H; Limam, S; Mhadhbi, M; Gharbi, M; Zhioua, E

    2014-11-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic in the Mediterranean basin. In Tunisia, CVL is spatially associated with human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) affecting mostly children younger than 5 years old. In this study, seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs was assessed in highly endemic districts of the governorate of Kairouan where more than 50% of HVL cases in Tunisia were reported. An entomological investigation was also carried out in two endemic districts (Bouhajla and Haffouz) to assess sand fly fauna and infection status of sand flies with Leishmania. A total of 191 serum samples were collected from healthy dogs and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Overall seroprevalence for L. infantum was 26.7% being highest among dogs in the district of Bouhajla (52.7%) and the lowest in the district of Chbika (5.2%). In dogs, seroprevalence did not differ significantly based on gender or age, with dogs younger than 1 year showing a higher seroprevalence compared to older dogs. These findings suggest strong force of infection in naïve animals in holoendemic regions leading to emerging high incidence of HVL. Concomitant to the high CVL prevalence observed in the Bouhajla district, a significantly high cumulative HVL incidence also was observed in this district. Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus longicuspis were the most abundant sand fly species in Bouhajla and Haffouz districts. The rate of Leishmania-DNA infection in sand flies was 9.4%. This finding points to spatial correlation between the occurrence of disease in humans, a high rate of infection in dogs and a high abundance of P. pernicious and P. longicuspis. Thus, CVL is the main risk factor for transmission to humans and subsequently, it is an important parameter for controlling transmission to humans. PMID:25004438

  3. Different optical spectral characteristics in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate observed by triple-band trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Rock, Kendra; Ownby, Charlotte L.; Slobodov, Gennady; Bunting, Charles F.; Piao, Daqing

    2011-03-01

    Different optical spectral characteristics were observed in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate by triple-wavelength trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The NIR imager acquiring at 705nm, 785nm and 808nm was used to quantify both the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) and oxygen saturation (StO2) in the prostate. The TVT tumor in the canine prostate as a model of prostate cancer was induced in a 7-year old, 27 kg dog. A 2 mL suspension of 2.5x106 cells/mL of homogenized TVT cells recovered from an in vivo subcutaneously propagated TVT tumor in an NOD/SCID mouse were injected in the cranial aspect of the right lobe of the canine prostate. The left lobe of the prostate had a cystic lesion present before TVT inoculation. After the TVT homogenate injection, the prostate was monitored weekly over a 9-week period, using trans-rectal NIR and TRUS in grey-scale and Doppler. A TVT mass within the right lobe developed a necrotic center during the later stages of this study, as the mass presented with substantially increased [HbT] in the periphery, with an area of reduced StO2 less than the area of the mass itself shown on ultrasonography. Conversely, the cystic lesion presented with slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the lesion shown on ultrasound with oxygen-reduction inside and in the periphery of the lesion. There was no detectable change of blood flow on Doppler US in the periphery of the cystic lesion. The slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the cystic lesion was correlated with intra-lesional hemorrhage upon histopathologic examination.

  4. The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in Sichuan Province, southwestern China detected by real time PCR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in western China, and becoming an important public health concern. Infected dogs are the main reservoir for Leishmania infantum, and a potential sentinel for human VL in endemic areas. In the present study we investigated the prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs from Wenchuan, Heishui and Jiuzhaigou County in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which are important endemic areas of zoonotic VL, detected by real time PCR. The results will help to design control strategies against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs and humans. Results The overall prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs was 24.8% (78/314) in Sichuan Province, with the positive rate of 23.5% (23/98) in Wenchuan County, 28.2% (20/71) in Heishui County, and 24.1% (35/145) in Jiuzhaigou County, and no significant difference was observed among the three counties (P > 0.05). The dogs were further allocated to different groups based on sexes, ages and external clinical symptoms. The logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher prevalence was found in older and external symptomatic dogs, compared to that of younger and asymptomatic dogs (P < 0.05). Conclusions The results revealed that L. infantum infection in dogs is widespread in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which has a public health significance, due to its contribution to the transmission of the infection to humans by sandflies. It is necessary to take measures, including treatment or eradication of infected dogs, to control canine leishmaniasis, which could be helpful to reduce human VL in this area. PMID:21910882

  5. Resurgence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gandacu, Dan; Anis, Emilia; Karakis, Isabella; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul; Grotto, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. After a 15-year period of moderate illness rates, reported incidence increased from 0.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2001 to 4.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2012, and the disease emerged in areas where its presence had previously been minimal. We analyzed all cases reported to the national surveillance system and found that outbreak patterns revealed an expansion of Leishmania major infections over large areas in the southern part of the country and the occurrence of spatially focused L. tropica outbreaks in the northern part of the country. Outbreaks often followed new construction in populated areas. Further study of factors affecting the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed in Israel, as well as the development of effective methods to control the disease, an increase in awareness among health care professionals, and intensive public education regarding control measures in areas of known leishmaniasis foci. PMID:25271882

  6. Resurgence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Gandacu, Dan; Glazer, Yael; Anis, Emilia; Karakis, Isabella; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul; Grotto, Itamar

    2014-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. After a 15-year period of moderate illness rates, reported incidence increased from 0.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2001 to 4.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2012, and the disease emerged in areas where its presence had previously been minimal. We analyzed all cases reported to the national surveillance system and found that outbreak patterns revealed an expansion of Leishmania major infections over large areas in the southern part of the country and the occurrence of spatially focused L. tropica outbreaks in the northern part of the country. Outbreaks often followed new construction in populated areas. Further study of factors affecting the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed in Israel, as well as the development of effective methods to control the disease, an increase in awareness among health care professionals, and intensive public education regarding control measures in areas of known leishmaniasis foci. PMID:25271882

  7. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis among travellers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Blum; P. Desjeux; E. Schwartz; B. Beck; C. Hat

    2004-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic in 88 countries on five continents. There are 1-1.5 million cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported yearly worldwide. There has been a sharp increase in recorded cases over the last 10 years. Based on geographical distribution, cutaneous leishmaniasis is divided into Old World and New World leishmaniasis. In the past, species could be inferred from geographical setting or

  8. Canine pododermatitis.

    PubMed

    Duclos, David

    2013-01-01

    This review article is meant to help the general veterinarian differentiate between 12 of the most common skin diseases that cause lesions on the canine paw. Most of these either look the same or have important features that are frequently missed. Each of these conditions will be described and the key features to note will be listed. These key features may be historical or signalment information or they may be diagnostic tests that are critical in making clear diagnostic separations between these diseases. PMID:23182325

  9. Canine lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Leishmaniasis: clinical syndromes and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Satoskar, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a global term for cutaneous and visceral anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases caused by the vector-borne parasites of the genus Leishmania. These diseases afflict at least 2 million people each year with more than 350 million at risk in 98 countries worldwide. These are diseases mostly of the impoverished making prevention, diagnosis and treatment difficult. Therapy of leishmaniasis ranges from local treatment of cutaneous lesions to systemic, often toxic, therapy for disseminated cutaneous, mucocutaneous and deadly visceral disease. This review is a summary of the clinical syndromes caused by Leishmania and treatment regimens currently used for various forms of leishmaniasis. PMID:23744570

  11. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Pankaj; Dayama, Anand; Mehrotra, Sanjana; Sundar, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with up to 350 million people at risk of infection worldwide. Among its different clinical manifestations, visceral is the most severe form. Since clinical features of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) mimic several other common diseases, accurate diagnosis of VL is crucial as the treatment is associated with significant toxicity. Invasive and risky techniques involving demonstration of the parasites in stained preparations from splenic and bone marrow aspirate is still the gold standard for VL diagnosis. Serological tests using rk39 in ELISA or rapid immunochromatographic format, Direct Agglutination Test (DAT), immunoblotting have issues related to a significant proportion of asymptomatic individuals being positive with these tests and their inability to diagnose relapses as these remain positive for several months to years after cure. PCR is the most common molecular technique successfully used for diagnosis and differentiation of species. Through this review we focus extensively on the comparative utilities of the various diagnostic tools currently available for VL, describing in depth their advantages and disadvantages, addressing the recent advances attained in the field. A simple, rapid, non invasive, accurate and cost effective marker of active VL, which can be used in field conditions, is necessary to improve diagnosis of VL. PMID:21074233

  12. Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sugano

    1988-01-01

    A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear

  13. Canine rabies ecology in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bingham, John

    2005-09-01

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio > or =1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in > or =1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids. PMID:16229759

  14. Emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in central Israel.

    PubMed

    Baneth, G; Dank, G; Keren-Kornblatt, E; Sekeles, E; Adini, I; Eisenberger, C L; Schnur, L F; King, R; Jaffe, C L

    1998-11-01

    In 1994-1995, a child and five dogs from villages located between Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv, Israel were diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Based on these findings, the distribution of VL in domestic and wild canids in central Israel was examined. In the two villages where canine index cases were identified, a substantial proportion (11.5%, 14 of 122) of the dogs examined were seropositive. However, the rate of infection in five neighboring villages was only 1% (1 of 99). Parasites were cultured from 92% (12 of 13) of the seropositive dogs biopsied and the strains were characterized as Leishmania infantum by a clamped polymorphic-polymerase chain reaction, monoclonal antibodies, and/or excreted factor serology. The discovery of VL close to major urban centers is an important public health issue. The disease appears to have emerged recently in this area, and it is unclear whether the parasite was re-introduced or was continuously present at low levels in this region. The presence of seropositive wild canids, jackals (7.6%, 4 of 53) and red foxes (5%, 1 of 20), in central Israel, and the reappearance of the jackal population after near extinction suggests that wild canids may play a role in spreading this disease. PMID:9840588

  15. Breast involvement in visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Alimoglu, Emel; Ceken, Kagan; Cassano, Enrico; Durum, Yasemin; Pestereli, Elif

    2009-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis usually involves the bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver and spleen. Involvement of the eye or respiratory or gastrointestinal systems is very rare and usually occurs in immunodepressed patients. Only one case of breast involvement by protozoa has been reported in the literature. We report a case of a visceral leishmaniasis with a solid breast mass caused by leishmania and diagnosed by sonography-guided core biopsy. PMID:19705438

  16. Cross-Protective Efficacy of a Prophylactic Leishmania donovani DNA Vaccine against Visceral and Cutaneous Murine Leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Aguilar-Be; Renata da Silva Zardo; Edilma Paraguai de Souza; Gulnara Patrõ ´ cia Borja-Cabrera; Miguel Rosado-Vallado; Mirza Mut-Martin; M. del Rosario Garcia-Miss; C. B. Palatnik de Sousa; E. Dumonteil

    2005-01-01

    The fucose-mannose ligand (FML) complex of Leishmania donovani is a promising vaccine candidate against murine and canine visceral leishmaniasis, and its main component is a 36-kDa nucleoside hydrolase (NH36). In this study, we tested the immune response and protection induced by the purified FML, the recombinant NH36 (rNH36), and NH36 DNA vaccines against the agents of visceral (L. chagasi) and

  17. New Clinicoepidemiologic Profile of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Rhajaoui, Mohamed; Fellah, Hajiba; Azmi, Kifaya; Amarir, Fatima; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Ereqat, Suheir; Planer, Joseph; Abdeen, Ziad

    2007-01-01

    During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. We describe distribution of Leishmania major and L. tropica in Morocco and a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. infantum. We recommend using molecular techniques to diagnose suspected leishmaniasis cases. PMID:18252108

  18. Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1988-12-27

    A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear selectively held stationary by a first brake, the first carrier is allowed to rotate in the same forward direction as the input shaft when the second clutch is engaged, but prevented from rotating in a reverse direction opposite to the forward direction by a first one-way clutch, the first carrier being selectively held stationary by a second brake; a second planetary gear set including a second sun gear connected to the input shaft, a second carrier connected to the first ring gear and also the the output shaft, and a second ring gear.

  19. Mucocutaneous Leishmania tropica infection in a dog from a human cutaneous leishmaniasis focus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leishmania tropica is a causative agent of cutaneous leishmanaisis in the Middle East, North Africa and parts of southeastern Europe. Although transmission of L. tropica has been reported as anthroponotic, in Israel it was found to have a zoonotic pattern. Findings A one year old male Pekingese dog from Maale Adumim, a focus of L. tropica human cutaneous leishmaniasis near Jerusalem, was presented by its owner with a large proliferative red mucocutaneous lesion on the lip between the mouth and nose. Physical examination and a biochemistry panel were normal and a complete blood count showed mild leukocytosis with lymphocytosis and eosinophilia. A biopsy of the lesion was suggestive of the presence of Leishmania organisms. Serology for Leishmania sp. by ELISA was positive and an aspirate from the lesion showed a large number of Leishmania amastigotes. ITS1-HRM-PCR of the lesion was positive and sequencing indicated that infection was caused by L. tropica, which was also cultured from the lesion. Blood PCR was negative. The dog responded well to allopurinol treatment and its lesion shrunk considerably within one month of therapy and healed after two months. Conclusions Only a few cases of dog infection with L. tropica have been described to date. They were reported from Morocco and Iran and involved infection of visceral organs. This is the first report of focal mucocutaneous L. tropica infection in a dog and its response to anti-leishmanial treatment. Domestic and wild canines should be evaluated for being possible animal reservoirs for human L. tropica infection in endemic areas or merely accidental hosts. PMID:24661746

  20. Leishmania amastigotes in neoplastic cells of 3 nonhistiocytic canine tumors.

    PubMed

    Ferro, S; Palmieri, C; Cavicchioli, L; De Zan, G; Aresu, L; Benali, S L

    2013-09-01

    Concurrent leishmaniasis and neoplasia has been reported in dogs. This study describes the presence of the protozoa within the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells in 3 different types of tumors. Leishmania amastigotes were detected by light and transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry in a fibrosarcoma, a T-cell lymphoma, and an adrenocortical adenoma. PMID:23482523

  1. Transmigration of Mandibular Canines

    PubMed Central

    Umashree, N.; Kumar, Avinash; Nagaraj, Tejavathi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the first case of unusual reverse oblique (110 degrees to midsagittal plane) migration of mandibular right canine crossing the jaw midline and piercing the lower border of the mandible at the level of the opposite canine and also to report two more cases of transmigrated mandibular canine and one case of transmigrating mandibular canine. Mandibular canines are “cornerstone” of dental arch; their importance is manifested by their efficiency in masticatory function, stability of dental arch, and aid in maintaining natural facial expression. Early detection of this anomaly can help preserving these canines by orthodontic intervention or by surgical transplantation. This developmental anomaly is properly diagnosed by radiographic evaluation, which is primarily based on the panoramic radiograph. In patients with overretained deciduous canines or missing permanent canines, an intraoral radiograph should be supplemented with panoramic radiograph. This paper discusses the importance of early diagnosis of canine transmigration in treatment planning and reviews the various possible treatment options. PMID:23606992

  2. Localization of Impacted Canines

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Praveen; Bhagchandani, Jitendra; Singh, Ashish; Garg, Aarti; Kumar, Snehi; Sharma, Ashish; Yadav, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. The impaction of canine can be prevented in some situationsif the canine displacement is diagnosed in the early mixed dentition period and this would be extremely useful for the clinician. Hence,it is very important to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, the differentmodalities used to diagnose the impacted canine are reviewed with an insight into current 3-D modalities. PMID:25738100

  3. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: an unresolved mystery

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Debanjan; Dalton, Jane E.; Kaye, Paul M.; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2014-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a cutaneous sequela of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), develops in some patients alongside but more commonly after apparent cure from VL. In view of the pivotal role of PKDL patients in the transmission of VL, here we review clinical, epidemiological, parasitological, and immunological perspectives of this disease, focusing on five hypotheses to explain the development of PKDL: (i) the role of antimonial drugs; (ii) UV-induced skin damage; (iii) reinfection; (iv) organ specific failure of memory T cell responses; and (v) genetic susceptibility of the host. This review will enable researchers and clinicians to explore the unresolved mystery of PKDL and provide a framework for future application of ‘omic’ approaches for the control and eventual elimination of VL. PMID:24388776

  4. Factors Associated with the Seroprevalence of Leishmaniasis in Dogs Living around Atlantic Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the control of visceral leishmaniasis in rural zones near forest fragments. PMID:25089629

  5. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Visceral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... through the bite of an infected female phlebotomine sand fly, although congenital and parenteral transmission (through blood ... Preventive measures are aimed at reducing contact with sand flies (see the Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, & Other ...

  6. Visceral leishmaniasis after cardiac surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Cummins; S Amin; O Halil; P L Chiodini; P E Hewitt; R Radley-Smith

    1995-01-01

    An English child developed visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) after cardiac surgery. Neither he nor his mother had ever been out of the UK, and his disease was probably transmitted by blood transfusion. Kala-azar should be considered in patients with unexplained fever and hepatosplenomegaly, even if there is no history of foreign travel.

  7. Voice Disorders in Mucosal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Jéssica Rafael; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Terceiro, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira; de Sousa Torraca, Tania Salgado; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. Objective To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age) and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. Results 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81%) were male and five (19%) female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years). The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%), followed by dysphonia (38.5%), odynophagia (30.8%) and dysphagia (26.9%). 23 patients (84.6%) presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. Conclusion We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some resonance structures (larynx, pharynx and nasal and oral cavities) or even to compensation mechanisms caused by the presence of lesions in the upper airways and digestive tract. PMID:25055046

  8. CAPA-gene products in the haematophagous sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) - Vector for leishmaniasis disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sandflies (Phlebotominae, Nematocera, Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan-borne diseases in humans, and these insects depend on the regulation of water balance to cope with the sudden and enormous intake of blood over a very short time period. The sandfly ...

  9. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Ecuador: popular perceptions, knowledge, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M M; Armijos, R X; Racines, R J; Zurita, C; Izurieta, R; Herrera, E; Hinojsa, E

    1994-06-01

    Popular perceptions and knowledge about cutaneous leishmaniasis and its treatment were studied in an endemic area of subtropical Northwest Ecuador. Although most of the adults surveyed were familiar with the disease, the vector, and traditional treatments, many showed a lack of knowledge about transmission of the disease, ulcer healing, and conventional treatment. Gender was found to have a significant impact on disease risk, perceptions, and treatment knowledge. Males experienced a risk of contracting cutaneous leishmaniasis that was almost triple that of women. Men were also more likely to perceive that the disease seriously diminished the victim's capacity to work. Women, on the other hand, were more prone to perceive that cutaneous leishmaniasis was a serious disease that significantly decreased self-esteem. Although 80% of the subjects knew at least one method of treating the disease, women tended to know more methods than men. Most of 150 different therapies reported involved the use of indigenous plants, chemicals, acids, antibiotics, heat treatments, or petroleum by-products. Some of these treatments could have clinical value. However, only 7% of the subjects knew about pentavalent antimonials. Almost 70% of the subjects with a past or present infection history were treated solely by traditional methods; only 12% received a full course of Glucantime, while 7.5% got an incomplete course. The findings indicate that it will be important to consider the identified gaps in knowledge and gender perceptions regarding the disease and its treatment when planning future control programs. PMID:8069334

  10. [Leishmaniasis with multiple cutaneous nodules].

    PubMed

    Stosiek, N; Bogdan, C; Solbach, W; Hornstein, O P

    1992-11-13

    Six weeks after a holiday trip to Yugoslavia, a previously well 48-year-old man developed a reddish-livid, firm nodule, 0.5 cm in diameter, on the proximal joint of the right thumb. A similar nodule appeared nearby, as well as over the left patella. Eleven additional nodules occurred over the next 4 months. His general health remained good and physical examination merely noted the liver edge palpable 3 cm below the costal margin. The histology of one of the nodules showed a tuberculoid, plasma-rich inflammatory reaction reminiscent of leishmaniasis or brucellosis. No organisms were seen. Immunohistochemistry of a frozen section demonstrated Leishmania-associated antigens, and the Western-blot test was characteristic for leishmaniasis. No systemic treatment was undertaken because of likely alcoholic toxic liver damage. On local treatment with paromomycin-containing ointment the cutaneous nodules healed without scar within 3 months. PMID:1425295

  11. Transplacental Transmission of Leishmania infantum as a Means for Continued Disease Incidence in North America

    PubMed Central

    Boggiatto, Paola Mercedes; Gibson-Corley, Katherine Nicole; Metz, Kyle; Gallup, Jack Michael; Hostetter, Jesse Michael; Mullin, Kathleen; Petersen, Christine Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs are the predominant domestic reservoir for human L. infantum infection. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is an emerging problem in some U.S. dog breeds, with an annual quantitative PCR prevalence of greater than 20% within an at-risk Foxhound population. Although classically Leishmania is transmitted by infected sand flies and phlebotomine sand flies exist in the United States, means of ongoing L. infantum transmission in U.S. dogs is currently unknown. Possibilities include vertical (transplacental/transmammary) and horizontal/venereal transmission. Several reports have indicated that endemic ZVL may be transmitted vertically. Aims Our aims for this present study were to establish whether vertical/transplacental transmission was occurring in this population of Leishmania-infected US dogs and determine the effect that this means of transmission has on immune recognition of Leishmania. Methodology A pregnant L. infantum-infected dam donated to Iowa State University gave birth in-house to 12 pups. Eight pups humanely euthanized at the time of birth and four pups and the dam humanely euthanized three months post-partum were studied via L. infantum-kinetoplast specific quantitative PCR (kqPCR), gross and histopathological assessment and CD4+ T cell proliferation assay. Key Results This novel report describes disseminated L. infantum parasites as identified by kqPCR in 8 day old pups born to a naturally-infected, seropositive U.S. dog with no travel history. This is the first report of vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally-infected dogs in North America, emphasizing that this novel means of transmission could possibly sustain infection within populations. Major Conclusions Evidence that vertical transmission of ZVL may be a driving force for ongoing disease in an otherwise non-endemic region has significant implications on current control strategies for ZVL, as at present parasite elimination efforts in endemic areas are largely focused on vector-borne transmission between canines and people. Determining frequency of vertical transmission and incorporating canine sterilization with vector control may have a more significant impact on ZVL transmission to people in endemic areas than current control efforts. PMID:21532741

  12. Recent advances in phlebotomine sand fly research related to leishmaniasis control.

    PubMed

    Bates, Paul A; Depaquit, Jerôme; Galati, Eunice Ab; Kamhawi, Shaden; Maroli, Michele; McDowell, Mary Ann; Picado, Albert; Ready, Paul D; Salomón, O Daniel; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Traub-Csekö, Yara M; Warburg, Alon

    2015-12-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are the subject of much research because of the role of their females as the only proven natural vectors of Leishmania species, the parasitic protozoans that are the causative agents of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. Activity in this field was highlighted by the eighth International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sand flies (ISOPS) held in September 2014, which prompted this review focusing on vector control. Topics reviewed include: Taxonomy and phylogenetics, Vector competence, Genetics, genomics and transcriptomics, Eco-epidemiology, and Vector control. Research on sand flies as leishmaniasis vectors has revealed a diverse array of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission cycles, mostly in subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America, but also in Mediterranean Europe. The challenge is to progress beyond descriptive eco-epidemiology, in order to separate vectors of biomedical importance from the sand fly species that are competent vectors but lack the vectorial capacity to cause much human disease. Transmission modelling is required to identify the vectors that are a public health priority, the ones that must be controlled as part of the integrated control of leishmaniasis. Effective modelling of transmission will require the use of entomological indices more precise than those usually reported in the leishmaniasis literature. PMID:25779250

  13. Canine CD20 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Kano; Chika Inoiue; Hiromi Okano; Junpei Yamazaki; Tomoko Takahashi; Toshihiro Watari; Mikihiko Tokuriki; Atsuhiko Hasegawa

    2005-01-01

    The human CD20 antigen, a 35kDa cell surface nonglycosylated hydrophobic phoshpoprotein is expressed consistently on almost all human B-cells, and its monoclonal antibody is used for the therapy on human B-cell lymphoma. In the present study, canine CD20 gene was cloned and sequenced, and the expression of CD20 mRNA was investigated in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and lymph

  14. Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum with renal involvement in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Matteo; Moranne, Olivier; Ambrosetti, Damien; Jeandel, Pierre-Yves; Pomares, Christelle; Cassuto, Elisabeth; Boscagli, Annick; Giraud, Guillaume; Montagne, Nathalie; Dentone, Chiara; Demacina, Ilaria; Villaggio, Barbara; Secondo, Giovanni; Ferrea, Giuseppe; Passeron, Corinne; Saudes, Laurence; Kaphan, Regis; Marty, Pierre; Rosenthal, Eric

    2014-10-30

    BackgroundWe describe histological, clinical findings and outcomes of renal involvement during Leishmania infantum infection in four HIV-infected patients in South France and North Italy hospital settings.Cases presentationFour HIV-infected Caucasian patients (age 24-49) performed renal biopsy during episodes of visceral leishmaniasis. They presented severe immunosuppression, frequent relapses of visceral leishmaniasis during a follow-up period of several years and partial or complete recovery of renal function after anti-parasitic treatment. Main clinical presentations were nephrotic or nephritic syndrome and/or acute renal failure secondary to membranoproliferative type III glomerulonephritis or acute interstitial nephritis. Clinical outcome was poor, probably as a consequence of insufficient immuno-virological control of the HIV infection.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that the main histological findings in case of renal involvement due to Leishmania infantum infection in HIV-infected patients are type III MPGN and acute interstitial nephritis, with a histological specificity similar to that observed in canine leishmaniasis. Poor immune status in HIV-infected patients, altering the capacity for parasite clearance, and prolonged course of chronic active VL in this population may lead to the development of specific renal lesions. PMID:25358548

  15. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30–40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures. PMID:24626301

  16. Management of trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Michael P.; Croft, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The current treatments for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease and leishmaniasis (collectively referred to as the kinetoplastid diseases) are far from ideal but, for some, there has been significant recent progress. For HAT the only advances in treatment over the past two decades have been the introduction of an eflornithine/nifurtimox co-administration and a shorter regime of the old standard melarsoprol. Sources of data PubMed. Areas of Agreement There is a need for new safe, oral drugs for cost-effective treatment of patients and use in control programmes for all the trypanosomatid diseases. Areas of controversy Cutaneous leishmaniasis is not on the agenda and treatments are lagging behind. Growing points There are three compounds in development for the treatment of the CNS stage of HAT: fexinidazole, currently due to entry into phase II clinical studies, a benzoxaborole (SCYX-7158) in phase I trials and a diamidine derivative (CPD-0802), in advanced pre-clinical development. For Chagas disease, two anti-fungal triazoles are now in clinical trial. In addition, clinical studies with benznidazole, a drug previously recommended only for acute stage treatment, are close to completion to determine the effectiveness in the treatment of early chronic and indeterminate Chagas disease. For visceral leishmaniasis new formulations, therapeutic switching, in particular AmBisome, and the potential for combinations of established drugs have significantly improved the opportunities for the treatment in the Indian subcontinent, but not in East Africa. Areas timely for developing research Improved diagnostic tools are needed to support treatment, for test of cure in clinical trials and for monitoring/surveillance of populations in control programmes. PMID:23137768

  17. Use of electron microscopy to classify canine perivascular wall tumors.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Avallone, G; Cimini, M; Roccabianca, P; Stefanello, D; Della Salda, L

    2013-03-01

    The histologic classification of canine perivascular wall tumors (PWTs) is controversial. Many PWTs are still classified as hemangiopericytomas (HEPs), and the distinction from peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) is still under debate. A recent histologic classification of canine soft tissue sarcomas included most histologic types of PWT but omitted those that were termed undifferentiated. Twelve cases of undifferentiated canine PWTs were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructural findings supported a perivascular wall origin for all cases with 4 categories of differentiation: myopericytic (n = 4), myofibroblastic (n = 1), fibroblastic (n = 2), and undifferentiated (n = 5). A PNST was considered unlikely in each case based on immunohistochemical expression of desmin and/or the lack of typical ultrastructural features, such as basal lamina. Electron microscopy was pivotal for the subclassification of canine PWTs, and the results support the hypothesis that canine PWTs represent a continuum paralleling the phenotypic plasticity of vascular mural cells. The hypothesis that a subgroup of PWTs could arise from a pluripotent mesenchymal perivascular wall cell was also considered and may explain the diverse differentiation of canine PWTs. PMID:22865645

  18. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania infection in naturally infected sand flies in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unknown. Methods 2650 sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and identified morphologically. The identified sand flies were tested for Leishmania infection by nested PCR. The source of blood meal of 10 freshly engorged females: 6 Phlebotomus longicuspis and 4 Phlebotomus sergenti, was determined using the Cyt b sequence. Results The collected sand flies consisted of 10 species, seven of which belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and three to the genus Sergentomyia. The most abundant species was P. longicuspis, accounting for 72% of the total sand flies collected. In females of three P. longicuspis and four P. sergenti, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica DNA was detected, respectively. The source of blood meal of engorged females showed that all sand flies tested fed on humans. Conclusions We report for the first time the natural infection of P. longicuspis with L. infantum in Morocco. The high frequency of this species in this region, in addition to its anthropophilic character make P. longicuspis the putative vector of L. infantum in this cutaneous leishmaniasis focus where L. tropica is confirmed as the causative agent of the disease and P. sergenti as its vector. The presence of L. infantum, and its presumed vector in this area, makes this a site of high risk of visceral leishmaniasis, mostly because of the proximity of a focus of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:24990497

  19. Field evaluation of alphacypermethrin in indoor residual spraying for leishmaniasis control in an endemic area, northern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Morocco, the main strategies of leishmaniasis vector control are based on environmental modifications. Use of local residual indoor spraying with synthetic pyrethroids is often envisaged. The need to evaluate this control method is essential. The current study was conducted to determine the efficacy of an alphacypermethrin IRS program against leishmaniasis vectors in an endemic area in the north of Morocco. Methods The survey was conducted in four neighbouring localities in three different districts in northern Morocco: Ait Chaib and Aichoun in Sefrou district, Bouassem (Boulmane) and Lmrouj (Taounate). Indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin at a dose of 30 mg/m2 was used in Ait Chaib and Lmrouj localities during 2010, 2011 and 2012, while localities of Aichoun and Bouassem were taken as control. In the four studied areas, sand flies were collected bimonthly from April to November in 2011 and 2012, using sticky traps, to determine their abundance and feeding pattern. Alphacypermethrin IRS were evaluated for their residual effect using the WHO cone bioassay test. Leishmaniasis incidence was estimated by passive and active case detection in each study area. Results Significant reductions in leishmaniasis incidence and in gravidity rate were observed when comparing sprayed and unsprayed localities. The residual activity of alphacypermethrin at the concentration used lasted 10 weeks after spraying. However, the abundance of sand flies was not significantly affected by alphacypermethrin IRS. Conclusion This study indicated that IRS has a significant impact on leishmaniasis transmission; therefore it could be recommended as an effective tool for leishmaniasis control in areas with high leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:24330760

  20. Epidemiology of human leishmaniasis in Greece, 1981-2011.

    PubMed

    Gkolfinopoulou, K; Bitsolas, N; Patrinos, S; Veneti, L; Marka, A; Dougas, G; Pervanidou, D; Detsis, M; Triantafillou, E; Georgakopoulou, T; Billinis, C; Kremastinou, J; Hadjichristodoulou, C

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic and mandatorily notifiable in Greece. Epidemiological surveillance data for leishmaniasis in Greece between 1981 and 2011 are presented. In 1998, the notification system began distinguishing between visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. The mean annual incidence of reported leishmaniasis cases between 1998 and 2011 was 0.36 per 100,000 population. Of a total 563 leishmaniasis cases reported after 1998, 523 (93%) were visceral leishmaniasis cases. Incidence of reported visceral leishmaniasis cases fluctuated during this period, generally decreasing after 2007, with a small re-increase in 2011. The mean annual incidence rate of reported visceral leishmaniasis cases was significantly higher in less than four year-olds (p <0.001). Leishmaniasis cases occurred both in the country mainland and islands. Between 1998 and 2011, Attica concentrated almost half of the reported visceral leishmaniasis cases, with incidence rates in western Attica and western Athens above 12.00 per 100,000 population. Compared to visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis had a rather sporadic distribution, with many prefectures appearing free of cases. From 2004, the notification also included risk factors and of 287 cases with known immune status, 44 (15%) were immunocompromised. Moreover having a dog at home was reported by 209 of 312 leishmaniasis cases (67%), whereas 229 of 307 cases (75%) reported the presence of stray dogs near their residence. Linking clinical surveillance data with laboratory data and improving collaboration with the veterinary public health sector are some of the future challenges for leishmaniasis surveillance in Greece. PMID:23929118

  1. Efficacy of canine influenza virus (H3N8) vaccine to decrease severity of clinical disease after co-challenge with canine influenza virus and Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since first emerging into the North American canine population in 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) subtype H3N8 has shown horizontal transmission among dogs, with a high level of adaptation to this species. Severity of disease is variable, and co-infection by other respiratory pathogens is an impo...

  2. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

  3. Leishmaniasis, an emerging infection in travelers.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2010-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection with a wide clinical spectrum, which ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. A review of the recent literature indicates a sharp increase in imported leishmaniasis cases in developed, non-endemic countries over the last decade, in association with increasing international tourism, military operations, and the influx of immigrants from endemic countries. South America is the main area for the acquisition of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and adventure travelers on long-term trips in highly-endemic forested areas are at particular risk. Popular Mediterranean destinations are emerging as the main areas of acquisition of visceral leishmaniasis for European travelers. Leishmaniasis should be considered in patients presenting with a compatible clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, even if this occurred several months or years ago. Appropriate counseling should be provided to adventure travelers, military personnel, researchers, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sandflies in endemic areas. PMID:20952234

  4. Leishmaniasis in travelers: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Pasquale; Seidita, Aurelio; Vitale, Giustina; Cascio, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection whose clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. Over the last decades, an increase in imported leishmaniasis cases in developed, non-endemic countries, have been pointed-out from a review of the international literature. Among the possible causes are increasing international tourism, influx of immigrants from endemic regions and military operations. The main area for the acquisition of cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially for adventure travelers on long-term trips in highly-endemic forested areas, is represented from South America, whereas popular Mediterranean destinations are emerging as the main areas to acquire visceral variant. Leishmaniasis should be considered in the diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with a compatible clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, even if this occurred several months or years before. Adventure travelers, researchers, military personnel, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sand flies in endemic areas, should receive counseling regarding leishmaniasis and appropriate protective measures. PMID:25287721

  5. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  6. Species typing in dermal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Van der Auwera, Gert; Dujardin, Jean-Claude

    2015-04-01

    Leishmania is an infectious protozoan parasite related to African and American trypanosomes. All Leishmania species that are pathogenic to humans can cause dermal disease. When one is confronted with cutaneous leishmaniasis, identification of the causative species is relevant in both clinical and epidemiological studies, case management, and control. This review gives an overview of the currently existing and most used assays for species discrimination, with a critical appraisal of the limitations of each technique. The consensus taxonomy for the genus is outlined, including debatable species designations. Finally, a numerical literature analysis is presented that describes which methods are most used in various countries and regions in the world, and for which purposes. PMID:25672782

  7. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Felinto de Brito, Maria Edileuza; Andrade, Maria Sandra; de Almeida, Éricka Lima; Medeiros, Ângela Cristina Rapela; Werkhäuser, Roberto Pereira; de Araújo, Ana Isabele Freitas; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Paiva de Almeida, Alzira Maria; Gomes Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique

    2012-01-01

    We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL): one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples) and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis. PMID:23227369

  8. A Review of Preventative Methods against Human Leishmaniasis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, Lisa; Newton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an intracellular parasitic infection transmitted to humans via the sandfly. Approximately 350 million people are at risk of contracting the disease and an estimated 1.6 million new cases occur annually. Of the two main forms, visceral and cutaneous, the visceral form is fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. Aims This literature review aims to identify and evaluate the current evidence base for the use of various preventative methods against human leishmaniasis. Methods A literature search was performed of the relevant database repositories for primary research conforming to a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 84 controlled studies investigating 12 outcome measures were identified, implementing four broad categories of preventative interventions: animal reservoir control, vector population control, human reservoir control and a category for multiple concurrently implemented interventions. The primary studies investigated a heterogeneous mix of outcome measures using a range of different methods. Conclusions This review highlights an absence of research measuring human-specific outcomes (35% of the total) across all intervention categories. The apparent inability of study findings to be generalizable across different geographic locations, points towards gaps in knowledge regarding the biology of transmission of Leishmania in different settings. More research is needed which investigates human infection as the primary outcome measure as opposed to intermediate surrogate markers, with a focus on developing a human vaccine. PMID:23818997

  9. Cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Orellano, Pablo Wenceslao; Vazquez, Nestor; Salomon, Oscar Daniel

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of reducing tegumentary leishmaniasis transmission using insecticide-impregnated clothing and curtains, and implementing training programs for early diagnosis. A societal perspective was adopted, with outcomes assessed in terms of costs per disability adjusted life years (DALY). Simulation was structured as a Markov model and costs were expressed in American dollars (US$). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of each strategy was calculated. One-way and multivariate sensitivity analyses were performed. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for early diagnosis strategy was estimated at US$ 156.46 per DALY averted, while that of prevention of transmission with insecticide-impregnated curtains and clothing was US$ 13,155.52 per DALY averted. Both strategies were more sensitive to the natural incidence of leishmaniasis, to the effectiveness of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis treatment and to the cost of each strategy. Prevention of vectorial transmission and early diagnosis have proved to be cost-effective measures. PMID:24356692

  10. Molecular Characterization of Leishmania Species Isolated from Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M.; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Bin Shuaib, Naemah O. M.; Azazy, Ahmed A.; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics with a global yearly incidence of 1.5 million. Although CL is the most common form of leishmaniasis, which is responsible for 60% of DALYs lost due to tropical-cluster diseases prevalent in Yemen, available information is very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was conducted to determine the molecular characterization of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous lesions in Yemen. Dermal scrapes were collected and examined for Leishmania amastigotes using the Giemsa staining technique. Amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS-1) gene was carried out using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from Leishmania isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified Leishmania tropica from 16 isolates which were represented by two sequence types. Conclusions/Significance The predominance of the anthroponotic species (i.e. L. tropica) indicates the probability of anthroponotic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yemen. These findings will help public health authorities to build an effective control strategy taking into consideration person–to-person transmission as the main dynamic of transmission of CL. PMID:20862227

  11. Ectopic maxillary canines: segregation analysis and a twin study.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, S; Lewis, C M; McDonald, F

    2008-06-01

    The etiology of ectopic canines is controversial, with opinion divided as to a genetic or environmental mechanism. This study addressed the hypothesis that genetic factors play a role in the etiology of ectopic maxillary canines. Sixty-three probands were identified, and information on the dental status of 395 relatives was determined. Pedigrees were constructed and the Relative Risk calculated. Complex segregation analysis was carried out by means of the Pedigree Analysis Package. The best mathematical model obtained was a single dominant gene with autosomal transmission, incomplete penetrance, and highly variable expression. Only two of seven pairs of monozygotic twins were concordant for ectopic canines. This is consistent with environmental or epigenetic variables affecting the phenotype. The low concordance rate is consistent with the low penetrance determined by the segregation analysis and further supports the existence of environmental factors. PMID:18502969

  12. FIRST CASE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE URBAN CENTER OF RIO DE JANEIRO: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; de Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement. PMID:24553614

  13. American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis: Effectiveness of an Immunohistochemical Protocol for the Detection of Leishmania in Skin

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Cibele Fontes; Alves, Cintia Fontes; Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Souza, Carolina Carvalho; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Melo, Maria Norma; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Raso, Pedro; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Background American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic in Latin America, where Brazil has over 27 thousand cases per year. The aim of the present study was to develop an immunohistochemical method (IHC) for ATL diagnosis. For this purpose, we used serum from a dog naturally infected with Leishmania (L) infantum (canine hyperimmune serum) as the primary antibody, followed by a detection system with a secondary biotinylated antibody. Methodology Skin samples were obtained from 73 patients in an endemic area of Caratinga, Minas Gerais (MG) State, Brazil all testing positive for ATL with the Montenegro skin test, microscopy, and PCR. Canine hyperimmune serum of a dog naturally infected with Leishmania (L.) infantum was employed as a primary antibody in an immunohistochemical diagnostic method using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase. To assess the specificity of this reaction, IHC assays employing two monoclonal antibodies were carried out. As the polymer-based technology is less time-consuming and labor intensive than the IHC labeled streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method, we compared the two methods for all samples. Results The IHC method detected ATL in 67 of the 73 cases (91.8%). Immunolabeled parasites were primarily detected inside macrophages either in the superficial or the deep dermis. Detection was facilitated by the high contrast staining of amastigotes (dark brown) against the light blue background. A lower detection rate (71.2%) was observed with the both of the monoclonal Leishmania antibodies compared to the canine hyperimmune serum. This may have been due to a non-specific background staining observed in all histological samples rendering positive detection more difficult. The higher efficacy of the canine hyperimmune serum in the IHC method was confirmed by the method using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase as well as that with the polymer-based technology (biotin-avidin-free system). Conclusions The data are encouraging with regard to validating IHC as a standard alternative method for ATL diagnosis. PMID:23704900

  14. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... American Osteopathic College of Dermatology. Community Search Search » Sign In Remember Me Forgot your password? Haven't registered yet? more Calendar 4/23/2015 » 4/26/2015 2015 AOCD Spring Current Concepts in Dermatology Meeting 3/30/2016 » ...

  15. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... parasitic disease transmitted by the bites of infected sand flies. It is found in nearly 88 countries, ... of disease-causing Leishmania parasites, the varieties of sand flies that transmit the parasites to animals and ...

  16. Entomological and ecological studies in a new potential zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in Torres Novas municipality, Central Region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Branco, S; Alves-Pires, C; Maia, C; Cortes, S; Cristovão, J M S; Gonçalves, L; Campino, L; Afonso, M O

    2013-03-01

    In Portugal human and canine leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania infantum, and Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi are the proven vectors. Three main foci were identified in eighty's decade: Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro region, Lisbon region and Algarve region, but according to OnLeish observatory data, canine leishmaniasis cases have been reported from several other regions, for which sand fly species and their infection rates are unknown. This study is the first phlebotomine survey in Torres Novas municipality, Santarém District, Portugal. The main objectives were to identify the phlebotomine species, their bioecological aspects, Leishmania infection rate and the risk factors for the presence of phlebotomine species in the municipality. From June to November, 2010, 275 biotopes were surveyed with CDC light-traps. Captures covered the 17 parishes of the municipality and included domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic biotopes. Specimens were identified morphologically and females were used for molecular detection of Leishmania and bloodmeal identification. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to identify risk factors for phlebotomine presence. Nonparametric tests were used to compare densities of independent groups. A total of 1262 sand flies were captured and identified, and four species detected: P. perniciosus (73.69%), P. ariasi (8.16%), P. sergenti (6.58%) and Sergentomyia minuta (11.57%). In 71.4% localities at least one L. infantum proven vector species was present. Risk factors were identified as: high average temperatures and low relative humidities, sheltered locations and absence of strong wind, presence of pine trees as dominant vegetation, peridomestic biotopes, particularly sheep pens or proximity of sheep, poultry and house martin nests. L. infantum infection rate was 4% for P. ariasi and 0.48% for the total of Larroussius females. P. perniciosus females exhibited an opportunistic behavior, feeding in a wide variety of vertebrate hosts. The high abundance and distribution of proven vector species, together with a canine leishmaniasis seroprevalence of 7.93% in the District, and the capture of a gravid infective sand fly female, suggests that Torres Novas municipality is a potential zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in the country. PMID:23262215

  17. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Egypt (review and comment).

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A

    1996-04-01

    Leishmania is primarily characterized by existing in two stages in its life cycle, each occurs in a distinct host. The amastigote stage found in the cytoplasm of the reticulo- endothelial cells, monocytes and other phagocytic cells of the vertebrate host. The promastigote stage found in the gut of its insect vector. The leishmaniasis comprise several diseases of wide diversity of manifestations caused by different species of the genus Leishmania. Because of the virtual morphological identity of the organisms throughout the genus, they are classified according to the clinical conditions which they produce in man, under three main headings: (1) Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL.), (2) Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL.), (3) Visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Generally speaking, leishmaniasis is an example of a zoonosis that reaches man through an insect vector. The great majority of the Leishmania species are maintained by mammalian reservoir hosts in natural foci of infection. Rodents, dogs, wild cats, jackals, foxes, sloths, hyraxes and other carnivores are the animal reservoirs which maintain the infection in nature. The insect vectors are over 50 species of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World and genus Lutzomyia in the New World. PMID:8721233

  18. American canine hepatozoonosis.

    PubMed

    Ewing, S A; Panciera, R J

    2003-10-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:14557294

  19. Experimental models in vaccine research: malaria and leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, C; Gomes, R

    2013-02-01

    Animal models have a long history of being useful tools, not only to test and select vaccines, but also to help understand the elaborate details of the immune response that follows infection. Different models have been extensively used to investigate putative immunological correlates of protection against parasitic diseases that are important to reach a successful vaccine. The greatest challenge has been the improvement and adaptation of these models to reflect the reality of human disease and the screening of vaccine candidates capable of overcoming the challenge of natural transmission. This review will discuss the advantages and challenges of using experimental animal models for vaccine development and how the knowledge achieved can be extrapolated to human disease by looking into two important parasitic diseases: malaria and leishmaniasis. PMID:23369975

  20. Optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy of canine hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weina; Kisker, David W; Thamm, Douglas H; Shao, Hua; Lear, Kevin L

    2011-04-01

    The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) uses light transmitted through a cellular body in a microfluidic optical resonator to distinguish different types of cells by their optical properties. The OFIS technique has differentiated canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cells from monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells based on their distinctive transmission spectra. A single characteristic parameter indicative of strong multi-transverse-mode resonances was determined for each cell by forming a linear combination of the mean and standard deviation of the transmission spectra over one free spectral range, excluding the peaks of passive Fabry-Pérot cavities without cells. The difference in the characteristic parameters of HSA and monocyte samples was statistically highly significant with a p-value as low as 10(-6). The same method shows that the characteristic parameters of canine lymphoma and lymphocytes are distinct with p < 0.005. A receiver operating-characteristic curve constructed from t-distributions fit to the HSA and monocyte data indicates that 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity can be simultaneously achieved. PMID:20483694

  1. Transverse mode analysis of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy of canine hemangiosarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weina; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kisker, David W.; Lear, Kevin L.

    2010-02-01

    The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) uses the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic optical resonator to distinguish cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Based on their distinctive characteristic transmission spectra, canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been differentiated using the OFIS technique with high statistical significance (p<10- 6). 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity were achieved simultaneously. A cell lens model explains trends in the transverse mode pattern in the transmission spectra of HSA cells and allows extraction of cell focal length.

  2. Study of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela. The role of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, C M; Fernández, E; de Fernández, R; Deane, L M

    1984-01-01

    During an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a locality (Las Rosas, Cojedes State, Venezuela) previously non-endemic, 12.9% of humans, 7% of dogs and 21.4% of donkeys (Equus asinus) had lesions with parasites. The agent in the three hosts was identified as Leishmania braziliensis, subspecies braziliensis at least in man and donkey. The probable vector was Lutzomyia panamensis. No infection was found in a small sample of wild mammals examined. The outbreak was apparently linked with the importation of donkeys with ulcers, from endemic areas. The authors call attention to the fact that not only in the foci of "uta", but also in areas of the other forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, dogs are frequently found infected. They emphasize the necessity of searching for the infection in donkeys and of performing hemocultures and xenodiagnosis with sandflies in human, canine and equine cases, to verify their possible role as sources of infection, and not merely as dead ends in the epidemiological chain of the disease. PMID:6535915

  3. [Lutzomyia longipalpis and Leishmaniasis visceral in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Salomón, O D; Sosa Estani, S; Rossi, G C; Spinelli, G R

    2001-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is reported for the second time after 50 years in Misiones Province, Argentina. This insect is the vector of Leishmania (L.) chagasi, visceral leishmaniasis' parasite. The literature concerning the 16 visceral leishmaniasis cases in the country is reviewed. The cases were reported from Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero and Chaco Provinces. Based on the clinical and entomo-epidemiological data two alternative hypotheses were evaluated: a) visceral leishmaniasis in Argentina is due to the visceralization of L. (V.) braziliensis or their variants, b) L (L.) chagasi remains in enzootic foci where the human contact is very unusual. Recommendations concerning the management of new cases have been made in order to confirm either one or both hypotheses. In consequence, the appropriate diagnosis and therapy could be arrived at according to the parasite actual identity, and the risk of outbreaks and mitigation measures could be estimated. PMID:11374140

  4. Post-Genomic Research on Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Paul M.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientific conferences, a major feature of academic life, rarely provide the opportunity for self appraisal of a research field. During a recent meeting on leishmaniasis research in the post-genomic era, ~60 researchers participated in group discussions that aimed to provide a critical self-appraisal of the state of the field and to highlight major roadblocks likely to prevent translation of new research into tools for leishmaniasis control. These discussions demonstrated a surprising concordance of views and highlighted a number of critical areas for future development. PMID:18684668

  5. Feline leishmaniasis in Jerusalem: serological investigation.

    PubMed

    Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Salant, Harold; Abdeen, Ziad

    2008-12-20

    Visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis, present in the Mediterranean area and well recognized in Israel and Palestine for human and dog disease. A serological study using an ELISA technique was performed on 104 cats living in the Jerusalem area. Seroprevalence was 6.7% (7/104). Significant correlation between seropositive cat results and altitude > 2500 ft was observed (p = 0.02). This is the first serological survey of feline leishmaniasis (FL) in the Middle East. To prove cat involvement as a secondary host, more investigations are still needed. The study concludes that cat involvement in Leishmania host studies should not be ignored. PMID:18986768

  6. The Biology and Control of Leishmaniasis Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Claborn, David M

    2010-01-01

    Vector control remains a key component of many anti-leishmaniasis programs and probably will remain so until an effective vaccine becomes available. Technologies similar to those used for control of adult mosquitoes, specifically interior residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets, are currently at the forefront as disease control measures. This article provides a review of literature on the biology and control of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the context of changing disease risks and the realities of modern vector control. The Literature Retrieval System of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Washington, DC, was the primary search engine used to review the literature. PMID:20606968

  7. Drug discovery algorithm for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Grogl, Max; Hickman, Mark; Ellis, William; Hudson, Thomas; Lazo, John S; Sharlow, Elizabeth R; Johnson, Jacob; Berman, Jonathan; Sciotti, Richard J

    2013-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is clinically widespread but lacks treatments that are effective and well tolerated. Because all present drugs have been grandfathered into clinical use, there are no examples of a pre-clinical product evaluation scheme that lead to new candidates for formal development. To provide oral agents for development targeting cutaneous leishmaniasis, we have implemented a discovery scheme that incorporates in vitro and in vivo testing of efficacy, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics/metabolism. Particular emphasis is placed on in vivo testing, progression from higher-throughput models to those with most clinical relevance, and efficient use of resources. PMID:23390221

  8. Drug Discovery Algorithm for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Grogl, Max; Hickman, Mark; Ellis, William; Hudson, Thomas; Lazo, John S.; Sharlow, Elizabeth R.; Johnson, Jacob; Berman, Jonathan; Sciotti, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is clinically widespread but lacks treatments that are effective and well tolerated. Because all present drugs have been grandfathered into clinical use, there are no examples of a pre-clinical product evaluation scheme that lead to new candidates for formal development. To provide oral agents for development targeting cutaneous leishmaniasis, we have implemented a discovery scheme that incorporates in vitro and in vivo testing of efficacy, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics/metabolism. Particular emphasis is placed on in vivo testing, progression from higher-throughput models to those with most clinical relevance, and efficient use of resources. PMID:23390221

  9. Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Indian Subcontinent: Modelling Epidemiology and Control

    PubMed Central

    Picado, Albert; Ostyn, Bart; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman; Boelaert, Marleen; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Duerr, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Indian subcontinent, about 200 million people are at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In 2005, the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh started the first regional VL elimination program with the aim to reduce the annual incidence to less than 1 per 10,000 by 2015. A mathematical model was developed to support this elimination program with basic quantifications of transmission, disease and intervention parameters. This model was used to predict the effects of different intervention strategies. Methods and Findings Parameters on the natural history of Leishmania infection were estimated based on a literature review and expert opinion or drawn from a community intervention trial (the KALANET project). The transmission dynamic of Leishmania donovani is rather slow, mainly due to its long incubation period and the potentially long persistence of parasites in infected humans. Cellular immunity as measured by the Leishmanin skin test (LST) lasts on average for roughly one year, and re-infection occurs in intervals of about two years, with variation not specified. The model suggests that transmission of L. donovani is predominantly maintained by asymptomatically infected hosts. Only patients with symptomatic disease were eligible for treatment; thus, in contrast to vector control, the treatment of cases had almost no effect on the overall intensity of transmission. Conclusions Treatment of Kala-azar is necessary on the level of the individual patient but may have little effect on transmission of parasites. In contrast, vector control or exposure prophylaxis has the potential to efficiently reduce transmission of parasites. Based on these findings, control of VL should pay more attention to vector-related interventions. Cases of PKDL may appear after years and may initiate a new outbreak of disease; interventions should therefore be long enough, combined with an active case detection and include effective treatment. PMID:22140589

  10. Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in Cape Verde archipelago. Results To provide information regarding the health status of the canine population in Vila do Maio, Maio Island, Cape Verde, 53 rectal swabs were collected from 53 stray dogs during 2010 and 93 rectal swabs and 88 blood samples were collected from 125 stray dogs in 2011. All rectal swabs (2010 n?=?53; 2011 n?=?93) were analysed for the presence of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus nucleic acids by quantitative PCR methods. Specific antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were also assessed (2011 n?=?88). From the 2010 sampling, 43.3% (23/53) were positive for canine parvovirus DNA, 11.3% (6/53) for canine distemper virus RNA and 1.9% (1/53) for canine coronavirus RNA. In 2011, the prevalence values for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus were quite similar to those from the previous year, respectively 44.1% (41/93), and 1.1% (1/93), but canine distemper virus was not detected in any of the samples analysed (0%, 0/93). Antibodies against canine parvovirus were detected in 71.6% (63/88) blood samples and the seroprevalence found for canine distemper virus was 51.1% (45/88). Conclusions This study discloses the data obtained in a molecular and serological epidemiological surveillance carried out in urban populations of stray and domestic animals. Virus transmission and spreading occurs easily in large dog populations leading to high mortality rates particularly in unvaccinated susceptible animals. In addition, these animals can act as disease reservoirs for wild animal populations by occasional contact. Identification of susceptible wildlife of Maio Island is of upmost importance to evaluate the risk of pathogen spill over from domestic to wild animals in Cape Verde and to evaluate the associated threat to the wild susceptible species. PMID:24755118

  11. Absence of Canine Papillomavirus Sequences in Canine Mammary Tumours.

    PubMed

    Sardon, D; Blundell, R; Burrai, G P; Alberti, A; Tore, G; Passino, E Sanna; Antuofermo, E

    2014-11-27

    Human papillomaviruses (PVs) are found in human breast cancer tissue; however, it remains controversial as to whether these viruses play a role in the aetiology of this tumour. There has been minimal study of whether PVs are found in normal or abnormal mammary glands of animals. The present study investigated whether a PV sequence could be found in the mammary glands of 33 female dogs by rolling circle amplification and polymerase chain reaction. No PV DNA was found in normal or neoplastic canine mammary tissues, suggesting that canine PVs are probably not involved in the pathogenesis of canine mammary neoplasia. PMID:25435511

  12. Serological and infection statuses of dogs from a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Laranjeira, Daniela Farias; da Matta, Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro; Tomokane, Thaíse Yumie; Marcondes, Mary; Corbet, Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study investigated the serological status of dogs living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area and its correlation with the parasitological condition of the animals. METHODS Canine humoral response was evaluated using the sera of 134 dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry to detect parasites in the skin, lymph node, and spleen of the animals. The specific antibodies investigated were IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgE. RESULTS According to the parasitological, laboratory, and clinical findings, the dogs were placed into one of four groups: asymptomatic with (AP+, n = 21) or without (AP-, n = 36) Leishmania tissue parasitism and symptomatic with (SP+, n = 52) or without (SP-, n = 25) parasitism. Higher IgG and IgE levels were positively correlated with the infection condition and parasite load, but not with the clinical status. In all groups, total IgG was the predominant antibody, which occurred at the expense of IgG2 instead of IgG1. Most of the infected dogs tested positive for IgG (SP+, 98.1%; AP+, 95.2%), whereas this was not observed with IgE (SP+, 80.8%; AP+, 71.2%). The most relevant finding was the high positivity of the uninfected dogs for Leishmania-specific IgG (SP-, 60.0%; AP-, 44.4%), IgE (SP-, 44.0%; AP-, 27.8%), IgG1 (SP-, 28.0%; AP-, 22.2%), and IgG2 antibodies (SP-, 56.0%; AP-, 41.7%). CONCLUSIONS The serological status of dogs, as determined by any class or subclass of antibodies, did not accurately distinguish dogs infected with L. (L.) infantum chagasi from uninfected animals. The inaccuracy of the serological result may impair not only the diagnosis, but also epidemiological investigations and strategies for visceral leishmaniasis control. This complex serological scenario occurring in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area highlights the challenges associated with canine diagnosis and points out the difficulties experienced by veterinary clinicians and coordinators of control programs. PMID:25210815

  13. [Comparative study of diagnostic methods for visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from Ilha Solteira, SP].

    PubMed

    de Assis, Juliana; de Queiroz, Nina Marí Gual Pimenta; da Silveira, Rita de Cássia Vieira; Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Oliveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Junior, Antonio Carlos Faconti de Noronha; Neves, Maria Francisca; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was a comparative study of diagnostic methods for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) using serological methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), histochemical (HE) and immunohistochemical (IMHC) tests using spleen, lymph node and liver canine tissues. In addition, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was done in blood and in tissues in order to compare and confirm no conclusive and negative diagnosis by the methods above. For this study, 34 dogs were divided according to clinical signs in asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polisymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs euthanized by Zoonotic Disease Control Center (CCZ) from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. The positivism indexes of ELISA, IMHC, IFAT and HE were 65.0, 62.0, 56.0 and 56.0%, respectively with the highest numbers of positive dogs in polisymptomatic (92.0%) followed by oligosymptomatic (57.0%) and asymptomatic dogs (12.5%). Furthermore, PCR confirmed the positive results and detected DNA in tissues from 100% of negative dogs and 89.0% suspects raising the animal positivism index up to 97.0%. In conclusion, PCR was the most sensitive and a valuable method for a definitive CVL diagnosis. PMID:20385055

  14. Role of leptin in human visceral leishmaniasis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dayakar; S. Chandrasekaran; J. Veronica; R. Maurya

    2011-01-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is frequently found in poor population who are suffering from malnutrition in endemic areas. Therefore, obviously they may have reduced levels of leptin due to reduction in number of adipocytes which are major source of leptin production. Human pathogenesis of VL and reduced levels of leptin both are associated with increase in Th2 type immune response,

  15. Molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis at the subgenus and species level.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Krishna; Lynde, Carrie; Ralevski, Filip; Keystone, Jay; McCarthy, Anne; Levine, Jeremy; Pillai, Dylan R

    2013-11-01

    We report three cases of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Canada. The current diagnostic modalities such as culture and histopathology demand expertise and are time consuming. We adapted a rapid molecular diagnostic method like real-time PCR (RT-PCR) for leishmaniasis, which enabled speciation not possible by traditional culture methods. Based on the findings of RT-PCR, the management of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) tropica may be done with a conservative approach; an aggressive treatment approach may be adapted for management of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis especially considering the potential risk of Leishmania Viannia complex causing mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The RT-PCR assay described here enables the speciation of Leishmania, which may be useful to the clinical management of leishmaniasis in returning travelers. PMID:24189975

  16. Serological investigation of canine encephalitozoonosis in Norway.

    PubMed

    Akerstedt, Johan

    2003-01-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a microsporidian parasite of vertebrates, is considered a health risk to AIDS patients and other immunocompromised human beings. In most hosts, infection with the parasite runs a subclinical course. In some carnivore species, however, clinical disease affecting whole litters arises from intrauterine transmission of the parasite. In both blue foxes ( Alopex lagpus) and dogs ( Canis familiaris), outbreaks of encephalitozoonosis can be severe. Canine encephalitooonosis has been reported from various parts of the world, including South Africa and the United States. In Norway, there have been large outbreaks of the disease in blue fox farms, affecting also mink, but there have been no reports of encephalitozoonosis in dogs. Infection in dogs would represent a zoonotic problem, due to the close social relationship between dog and man. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible occurrence of E. cuniculi infection in Norwegian dogs by serological methods. In the study, 1,104 canine serum samples, originally submitted for biochemical analysis by veterinary practitioners throughout Norway, were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to E. cuniculi. Samples from 237 of the dogs were tested also by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. All samples were concluded as negative. The results indicate that the likelihood of occurrence of E. cuniculi infection in Norwegian dogs is small. PMID:12474043

  17. Molecular detection of canine parvovirus in flies (Diptera) at open and closed canine facilities in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Clarence; Isdell, Allen E; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma S; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sanchez, Susan

    2014-06-01

    More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV. Molecular diagnostic methods were used in this cross-sectional study to detect the presence of CPV in flies trapped at thirty-eight canine facilities. The flies involved were identified as belonging to the house fly (Mucidae), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae) and blow/bottle fly (Calliphoridae) families. A primary surveillance location (PSL) was established at a canine facility in south-central South Carolina, USA, to identify fly-virus interaction within the canine facility environment. Flies trapped at this location were pooled monthly and assayed for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These insects were found to be positive for CPV every month from February through the end of November 2011. Fly vector behavior and seasonality were documented and potential environmental risk factors were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean numbers of each of the three fly families captured, and after determining fly CPV status (positive or negative), it was determined whether there were significant relationships between numbers of flies captured, seasonal numbers of CPV cases, temperature and rainfall. Flies were also sampled at thirty-seven additional canine facility surveillance locations (ASL) and at four non-canine animal industry locations serving as negative field controls. Canine facility risk factors were identified and evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted on the number of CPV cases reported within the past year to determine the correlation of fly CPV status (positive or negative) for each facility, facility design (open or closed), mean number of dogs present monthly and number of flies captured. Significant differences occurred between fly CPV positive vs. negative sites with regard to their CPV case numbers, fly numbers captured, and number of dogs present. At the ASL, a statistically significant relationship was found between PCR-determined fly CPV status (positive or negative) and facility design (open vs. closed). Open-facility designs were likely to have more CPV outbreaks and more likely to have flies testing positive for CPV DNA. PMID:24679715

  18. Severe clinical presentation of visceral leishmaniasis in naturally infected dogs with disruption of the splenic white pulp.

    PubMed

    Lima, Isadora S; Silva, Joselli S; Almeida, Valter A; Junior, Floriano G Leal; Souza, Patrício An; Larangeira, Daniela F; Moura-Neto, José P; Fraga, Deborah B M; de Freitas, Luiz A R; dos-Santos, Washington L C

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the association between the disruption of splenic lymphoid tissue and the severity of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs. Clinical and laboratory data from 206 dogs were reviewed. Spleen sections collected during the euthanasia of these animals were analyzed, and the splenic lymphoid tissue samples were classified as well organized (spleen type 1), slightly disorganized (spleen type 2), or moderately to extensively disorganized (spleen type 3). Of 199 dogs with evidence of Leishmania infection, 54 (27%) had spleen type 1, 99 (50%) had spleen type 2, and 46 (23%) had spleen type 3. The number of clinical signs associated with visceral leishmaniasis was significantly higher in the animals with evidence of Leishmania infection and spleen type 2 or 3 than in the animals with spleen type 1. Alopecia, anemia, dehydration, dermatitis, lymphadenopathy, and onychogryphosis were all more frequent among animals with evidence of Leishmania infection and spleen type 3 than among the dogs with evidence of Leishmania infection and spleen type 1. The association between the severity of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the disorganization of the splenic lymphoid tissue was even more evident in the group of animals with positive spleen culture. Conjunctivitis and ulceration were also more common in the animals with spleen type 3 than in the animals with spleen type 1. The serum levels (median, interquartile range) of albumin (1.8, 1.4-2.3 g/dL) and creatinine (0.7, 0.4-0.8 mg/dL) were significantly lower and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase were significantly higher (57, 39-95 U) in animals with spleen type 3 than in animals with spleen type 1 (2.8, 2.4-3.4 g/dL; 0.9, 0.7-1.2 mg/dL and 23, 20-32 U, respectively). Our data confirm the hypothesis that disruption of the splenic lymphoid tissue is associated with a more severe clinical presentation of canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:24498367

  19. Canine hypoadrenocorticism: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Susan C.; Peterson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease) has been referred to as “the great pretender,” due to its ability to mimic other common diseases in the dog and thereby represent a diagnostic challenge. Naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism is an uncommon canine disease. Young, female dogs are overrepresented. Hypoadrenocorticism typically results from immune-mediated destruction of all adrenocortical layers, resulting in deficiencies of min-eralocorticoids (aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (cortisol). A small number of dogs suffer from glucocorticoid deficiency only. Dogs suffering from hypoadrenocorticism may present in a variety of conditions, from a mildly ill dog to a shocky and recumbent dog. This review discusses etiology, pathophysiology, history, physical examination findings, and diagnostic findings in the Addisonian patient. A follow-up article (Part II) will discuss the definitive diagnosis and management strategies for these patients. PMID:20357943

  20. Leishmaniasis and Climate Change—Case Study: Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Mastrángelo, Andrea Verónica; Fernández, María Soledad

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases closely associated with the environment, such as leishmaniases, have been a usual argument about the deleterious impact of climate change on public health. From the biological point of view interaction of different variables has different and even conflicting effects on the survival of vectors and the probability transmission of pathogens. The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. These studies showed that the changes in transmission due to change or increase in frequency and intensity of climatic instability were expressed through changes in the probability of vector-human reservoir effective contacts. These changes of contact in turn are modulated by both direct effects on the biology and ecology of the organisms involved, as by perceptions and changes in the behavior of the human communities at risk. Therefore, from the perspective of public health and state policy, and taking into account the current nonlinear increased velocity of climate change, we concluded that discussing the uncertainties of large-scale models will have lower impact than to develop-validate mitigation strategies to be operative at local level, and compatibles with sustainable development, conservation biodiversity, and respect for cultural diversity. PMID:22685477

  1. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando José

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail) are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106) of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease. PMID:24553602

  2. Multi-modal Analysis of Courtship Behaviour in the Old World Leishmaniasis Vector Phlebotomus argentipes

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Daniel P.; Yaman, Khatijah; Underhilll, Beryl A.; Mitchell, Fraser; Carter, Victoria; Hamilton, James G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes is arguably the most important vector of leishmaniasis worldwide. As there is no vaccine against the parasites that cause leishmaniasis, disease prevention focuses on control of the insect vector. Understanding reproductive behaviour will be essential to controlling populations of P. argentipes, and developing new strategies for reducing leishmaniasis transmission. Through statistical analysis of male-female interactions, this study provides a detailed description of P. argentipes courtship, and behaviours critical to mating success are highlighted. The potential for a role of cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship is also investigated, by comparing chemicals extracted from the surface of male and female flies. Principal Findings P. argentipes courtship shared many similarities with that of both Phlebotomus papatasi and the New World leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. Male wing-flapping while approaching the female during courtship predicted mating success, and touching between males and females was a common and frequent occurrence. Both sexes were able to reject a potential partner. Significant differences were found in the profile of chemicals extracted from the surface of males and females. Results of GC analysis indicate that female extracts contained a number of peaks with relatively short retention times not present in males. Extracts from males had higher peaks for chemicals with relatively long retention times. Conclusions The importance of male approach flapping suggests that production of audio signals through wing beating, or dispersal of sex pheromones, are important to mating in this species. Frequent touching as a means of communication, and the differences in the chemical profiles extracted from males and females, may also indicate a role for cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship. Comparing characteristics of successful and unsuccessful mates could aid in identifying the modality of signals involved in P. argentipes courtship, and their potential for use in developing new strategies for vector control. PMID:25474027

  3. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  4. Intestinal leishmaniasis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Molaei, M; Minakari, M; Pejhan, Sh; Mashayekhi, R; Modaress Fatthi, A R; Zali, M R

    2011-05-01

    In endemic regions, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections in HIV positive patients. Simultaneous infection with Leishmania and HIV has been reported in some countries but this is the first report of such a case in Iran. Our patient was a 27 years old man with intermittent night fever, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, vomiting, watery diarrhea and severe weight loss for 6 months. He had low socio-economic status with an imprisonment history. The patient was quite cachectic and had low grade fever. Physical exam and upper GI endoscopy revealed oropharyngeal candidiasis. Microscopic evaluation of duodenal biopsy material showed Leishmania amastigotes in macrophages of lamina propria. Leishman bodies were also observed in bone marrow aspiration specimen. Serologic tests were positive for Leishmania infantum. HIV antibody was also positive with a CD4+cell count of 80/?l. The diagnosis was acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with simultaneous visceral leishmaniasis involving intestinal mucosa. PMID:22737493

  5. A new molecular surveillance system for leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Acharya, Jyoti; Kato, Kentaro; Kaneko, Osamu; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo

    2014-06-01

    Presently, global efforts are being made to control and eradicate the deadliest tropical diseases through the improvement of adequate interventions. A critical point for programs to succeed is the prompt and accurate diagnosis in endemic regions. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are being massively deployed and used to improve diagnosis in tropical countries. In the present report, we evaluated the hypothesis of, after use for diagnosis, the reuse of the Leishmania RDT kit as a DNA source, which can be used downstream as a molecular surveillance and/or quality control tool. As a proof of principle, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect Leishmania spp. minicircle kinetoplast DNA from leishmaniasis RDT kits. Our results show that Leishmania spp. DNA can be extracted from used RDTs and may constitute an important, reliable, and affordable tool to assist in future leishmaniasis molecular surveillance methods. PMID:24752687

  6. Role of leptin in human visceral leishmaniasis?

    PubMed

    Dayakar, A; Chandrasekaran, S; Veronica, J; Maurya, R

    2011-09-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is frequently found in poor population who are suffering from malnutrition in endemic areas. Therefore, obviously they may have reduced levels of leptin due to reduction in number of adipocytes which are major source of leptin production. Human pathogenesis of VL and reduced levels of leptin both are associated with increase in Th2 type immune response, characterized by secretion of cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-10. Whereas, the protective immune response during visceral leishmaniasis is associated with effective Th1 type immune response characterized by secretion of IFN-?, IL-2 and IL-12, which correlates with leptin induction of T cells polarizing to Th1 population and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and also inhibition of Th2 type response. Therefore, we hypothesized that leptin might be effective in treatment of visceral leishmaniasis alone or VL patients who have co-infection with other immune deficiency syndromes such as AIDS/diabetes/autoimmune disorders by regulation of Th1/Th2 homeostasis. PMID:21724337

  7. Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon1

    PubMed Central

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H.; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar

    2014-01-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%. PMID:25279543

  8. Animal Models for the Analysis of Immune Responses to Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, David L.; Melby, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    This unit focuses on the murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis and models of visceral leishmaniasis in mice and hamsters. Each basic protocol describes the methods used to inoculate parasites and to evaluate infections with regard to lesion progression and visceralization, and quantification of parasite load. PMID:18432753

  9. Complexities of Assessing the Disease Burden Attributable to Leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caryn Bern; James H. Maguire; Jorge Alvar

    2008-01-01

    Among parasitic diseases, morbidity and mortality caused by leishmaniasis are surpassed only by malaria and lymphatic filariasis. However, estimation of the leishmaniasis disease burden is challenging, due to clinical and epidemiological diversity, marked geographic clustering, and lack of reliable data on incidence, duration, and impact of the various disease syndromes. Non-health effects such as impoverishment, disfigurement, and stigma add to

  10. Bayesian Geostatistical Modeling of Leishmaniasis Incidence in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Scholte, Ronaldo G. C.; Guimarães, Luiz H.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries with an estimated 350 million people at risk and approximately 2 million cases annually. Brazil is one of the most severely affected countries. Methodology We applied Bayesian geostatistical negative binomial models to analyze reported incidence data of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil covering a 10-year period (2001–2010). Particular emphasis was placed on spatial and temporal patterns. The models were fitted using integrated nested Laplace approximations to perform fast approximate Bayesian inference. Bayesian variable selection was employed to determine the most important climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic predictors of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Principal Findings For both types of leishmaniasis, precipitation and socioeconomic proxies were identified as important risk factors. The predicted number of cases in 2010 were 30,189 (standard deviation [SD]: 7,676) for cutaneous leishmaniasis and 4,889 (SD: 288) for visceral leishmaniasis. Our risk maps predicted the highest numbers of infected people in the states of Minas Gerais and Pará for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Our spatially explicit, high-resolution incidence maps identified priority areas where leishmaniasis control efforts should be targeted with the ultimate goal to reduce disease incidence. PMID:23675545

  11. Rare variants of cutaneous leishmaniasis presenting as eczematous lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis may present with clinical presentation such as zosteriform, sporotrichoid and erysipeloid. The eczema variant has rarely been reported. We report a 27- year- old patient with atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling eczema on the hand of a man in Yazd province in the central of Iran. PMID:25405136

  12. Visceral leishmaniasis control in Thi Qar Governorate, Iraq, 2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Jassim; R. Maktoof; H. Ali; K. Campbell

    Since 1991, visceral leishmaniasis has extended to new areas rarely affected before in Iraq, such as the southern governorates. In 2003, in the aftermath of the invasion of the Coalition Forces, Thi Qar Governorate was at high risk for an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis. This paper de- scribes the cooperation of an international nongovernmental organization and a district primary health

  13. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in children with liposomal amphotericin B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucio di Martino; Robert N. Davidson; Raffella Giacchino; Silvestro Scotti; Francesco Raimondi; Elio Castagnola; Loredana Tasso; Antonio Cascio; Luigi Gradoni; Marina Gramiccia; Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani; Anthony D. M. Bryceson

    1997-01-01

    We used liposomal amphotericin B as first-choice treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in 106 immunocompetent children who acquired the infection in a temperate region of southern Europe (Italy) where Leishmania infantum visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. The aim of the study was to identify the minimum total dose of liposomal amphotericin B needed to cure the infection in children and reduce the

  14. Animal models for the analysis of immune responses to leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sacks, David L; Melby, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    This unit focuses on the murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis and models of visceral leishmaniasis in mice and hamsters. Each basic protocol describes the methods used to inoculate parasites and to evaluate infections with regard to lesion progression and visceralization, and quantification of parasite load. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25640990

  15. Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: Review of the Epidemiological and Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Mohebali, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening vector-borne parasitic disease is distributed in some parts of the new world and old world. The disease is endemic in different parts of Iran. This review article has been focused on major topics of epidemiological aspects and clinical features of VL in Iran for the period of 2002 through 2012. For the detection of VL in humans as well as animal reservoir hosts, anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using direct agglutination test (DAT) as a validated serological test. Parasitological examinations were performed on suspected VL patients as well as canines and rodents. Different molecular methods were used for identification of species and genotype/ or strain of Leishmania spp. isolated from infected humans, animal reservoir hosts and vectors. Altogether, 1698 out of 36081 (4.7%) human serum samples collected from 5 distinct geographical zones showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers ? 1:3200 using DAT. The majority of VL cases in the endemic areas were found among children up to 12 years old. Almost 75% of DAT-positive cases (?1:3200) in endemic areas showed clinical signs and symptoms. Predominant signs and symptoms in 217 hospitalized patients with DAT positive (?1:3200) results included paleness (99.5%), fever (96.9%), splenomegaly (91.5%), hepatomegaly (53.6%) and lymphadenopathy (21.1%). Integrated VL surveillance system in primary care using DAT, could decrease mortality and morbidity of the disease in the VL endemic areas of the northwestern Iran. Out of 7204 serum samples collected from domestic dogs in various geographical locations of Iran, 879 (12.2%) were DAT sero-positive at titers ? 1:320. L. infantum as the principal causative agent of the disease was isolated from infected humans, domestic and wild canines and rodents. The principal animal reservoir hosts of the infection are domestic and wild canines. Ph. kandelakii, Ph. perfiliewi transcaucasicus, Ph. tobbi in northwestern Iran; Ph. major s.l. (=Ph. neglectus), Ph. keshishiani, and Ph. alexandri in southern parts of Iran were molecularly and/or parasitologically positive for L. infantum infections. The zoonotic form of VL (ZVL) caused by L. infantum occurs sporadically in all geographical zones of Iran but in northwestern and southern parts of the country the disease is endemic. DAT as an appropriate and potential tool has been used for sero-diagnosis and sero-epidemiological of VL among humans as well as domestic and wild canines. PMID:24454426

  16. Canine thyroid fucokinase.

    PubMed

    Richards, W L; Serif, G S

    1977-10-13

    A radiometric assay was developed for fucokinase (ATP:6-deoxy-L-galactose 1-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.52) based on the conversion of L-[14C]fucose to L-[14C]fucose 1-phosphate which is trapped and counted on ion exchange paper. This assay was used to detect the presence of a fucokinase in canine thyroid tissue which was subsequently purified 2754-fold over the crude tissue extracts. The product of the fucokinase was identified as the beta-anomer. The pH versus activity curve for the enzyme appears biphasic with optima at pH 6.5 and pH 8.25. The enzyme was shown to be highly specific for L-fucose with a Km of 2.6 - 10(-5) M at pH 8.25. It was shown to be absolutely specific for ATP as a phosphate donor with a Km of 6.3 - 10(-4) M at pH 8.25. The enzyme requires a divalent cation. Mg2+ is slightly more effective than Mn2+ in meeting this need. The molecular weight of the enzyme has been determined to be 494 000 +/- 12 400. PMID:20962

  17. Epitope mapping of the HSP83.1 protein of Leishmania braziliensis discloses novel targets for immunodiagnosis of tegumentary and visceral clinical forms of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira

    2014-07-01

    Gold standard serological diagnostic methods focus on antigens that elicit a strong humoral immune response that is specific to a certain pathogen. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify linear B-cell epitopes that are conserved among Leishmania species but are divergent from the host species Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris and from Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, to select potential targets for the immunodiagnosis of leishmaniasis. Using these criteria, we selected heat shock protein 83.1 of Leishmania braziliensis for this study. We predicted three linear B-cell epitopes in its sequence. These peptides and the recombinant heat shock protein 83.1 (rHSP83.1) were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) against serum samples from patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and from dogs infected with Leishmania infantum (canine VL [CVL]). Our data show that rHSP83.1 is a promising target in the diagnosis of TL. We also identified specific epitopes derived from HSP83.1 that can be used in the diagnosis of human TL (peptide 3), both human and canine VL (peptides 1 and 3), and all TL, VL, and CVL clinical manifestations (peptide 3). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves confirmed the superior performance of rHSP83.1 and peptides 1 and 3 compared to that of the soluble L. braziliensis antigen and the reference test kit for the diagnosis of CVL in Brazil (EIE-LVC kit; Bio-Manguinhos, Fiocruz). Our study thus provides proof-of-principle evidence of the feasibility of using bioinformatics to identify novel targets for the immunodiagnosis of parasitic diseases using proteins that are highly conserved throughout evolution. PMID:24807053

  18. Epitope Mapping of the HSP83.1 Protein of Leishmania braziliensis Discloses Novel Targets for Immunodiagnosis of Tegumentary and Visceral Clinical Forms of Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Gold standard serological diagnostic methods focus on antigens that elicit a strong humoral immune response that is specific to a certain pathogen. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify linear B-cell epitopes that are conserved among Leishmania species but are divergent from the host species Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris and from Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, to select potential targets for the immunodiagnosis of leishmaniasis. Using these criteria, we selected heat shock protein 83.1 of Leishmania braziliensis for this study. We predicted three linear B-cell epitopes in its sequence. These peptides and the recombinant heat shock protein 83.1 (rHSP83.1) were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) against serum samples from patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and from dogs infected with Leishmania infantum (canine VL [CVL]). Our data show that rHSP83.1 is a promising target in the diagnosis of TL. We also identified specific epitopes derived from HSP83.1 that can be used in the diagnosis of human TL (peptide 3), both human and canine VL (peptides 1 and 3), and all TL, VL, and CVL clinical manifestations (peptide 3). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves confirmed the superior performance of rHSP83.1 and peptides 1 and 3 compared to that of the soluble L. braziliensis antigen and the reference test kit for the diagnosis of CVL in Brazil (EIE-LVC kit; Bio-Manguinhos, Fiocruz). Our study thus provides proof-of-principle evidence of the feasibility of using bioinformatics to identify novel targets for the immunodiagnosis of parasitic diseases using proteins that are highly conserved throughout evolution. PMID:24807053

  19. PD-1-mediated T cell exhaustion during visceral leishmaniasis impairs phagocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Kevin J.; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Martinez, Pedro A.; Jones, Douglas E.; Petersen, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    Control of Leishmania infantum infection is dependent upon Th1 CD4+ T cells to promote macrophage intracellular clearance of parasites. Deficient CD4+ T cell effector responses during clinical visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are associated with elevated production of IL-10. In the primary domestic reservoir of VL, dogs, we define occurrence of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell exhaustion as a significant stepwise loss of antigen-specific proliferation and IFN? production, corresponding to increasing VL symptomatology. Exhaustion was associated with a fourfold increase in the population of T cells with surface expression of Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) between control and symptomatic populations. Importantly, exhausted populations of CD8+ T cells and to a lesser extent CD4+ T cells were present prior to onset of clinical VL. VL exhausted T cells did not undergo significant apoptosis ex vivo after antigen stimulation. Antibody block of PD-1 ligand, B7.H1, promoted return of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell function and dramatically increased reactive oxygen species production in co-cultured monocyte-derived phagocytes. As a result, these phagocytes had decreased parasite load. We demonstrate for the first time that pan-T cell, PD-1-mediated, exhaustion during VL influenced macrophage reactive oxygen intermediate production. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway improved the ability of phagocytes isolated from dogs presenting with clinical VL to clear intracellular parasites. T cell exhaustion during symptomatic canine leishmaniasis has implications for the response to vaccination and therapeutic strategies for control of Leishmania infantum in this important reservoir species. PMID:24154626

  20. Seroepidemiological and entomological survey in a new focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Kars province, Northeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sari, Bar??; Limoncu, M Emin; Balcioglu, I Cuneyt; Aldemir, Adnan; Tasci, Gencay Taskin; Kiliç, Yunus; Toz, Seray; Demirci, Berna; Demir, Samiye; Kasap, Ozge Erisoz; Olgen, M Kirami; Ozbel, Yusuf

    2015-04-30

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has now been recorded from 38 provinces of Turkey. Twenty-one VL cases were reported within six years from settlements located in most northeastern Turkey and we therefore aimed to carry out an entomological and seroepidemiological survey in this new focus for clarifying risk factors. Blood samples from 290 children and 165 dogs were collected. Sera samples were investigated for anti-Leishmania antibodies using indirect fluorescent antibody test. Sand fly collection for determining the fauna and seasonal activity was performed in all settlements by CDC light traps between June and September 2006. Although no seropositive child was detected during the survey the overall seroprevalence rate of canine leishmaniasis was found as 7.2%. A total of 4154 sand flies were collected and 10 species of genus Phlebotomus were identified belonging to Adlerius, Larroussius, Paraphlebotomus and Phlebotomus subgenera. Among them Phlebotomus kandelakii s.l. (55.44%), Phlebotomus balcanicus (12.62%) and Phlebotomus neglectus (4.40%) was detected as probable vector species for this new focus. The poor sanitation, very high population size of sand flies, probably because of very short season, no control measures for sand flies as well as dogs, and presence of microclimate suitable for sand flies were considered as main risk factors in the area. PMID:25769470

  1. Cross-Protective Efficacy of a Prophylactic Leishmania donovani DNA Vaccine against Visceral and Cutaneous Murine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Be, Ingrid; da Silva Zardo, Renata; Paraguai de Souza, Edilma; Borja-Cabrera, Gulnara Patrícia; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel; Mut-Martin, Mirza; del Rosario García-Miss, Maria; Palatnik de Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz; Dumonteil, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The fucose-mannose ligand (FML) complex of Leishmania donovani is a promising vaccine candidate against murine and canine visceral leishmaniasis, and its main component is a 36-kDa nucleoside hydrolase (NH36). In this study, we tested the immune response and protection induced by the purified FML, the recombinant NH36 (rNH36), and NH36 DNA vaccines against the agents of visceral (L. chagasi) and cutaneous (L. mexicana) leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Mice developed weak humoral response to the vaccines alone, except for those immunized with FML. However, all three vaccine groups presented elevated immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1, and IgG2a levels after infection with L. chagasi, whereas no differences were observed between vaccine and control groups after infection with L. mexicana. A strong intradermal reaction to L. donovani and L. mexicana antigens was observed in mice immunized with rNH36 or FML, whereas mice immunized with NH36 DNA only reacted against L. donovani antigens. Experimental infection of immunized mice demonstrated that FML and rNH36 induced significant protection against L. chagasi infection with reductions in parasite loads of 79%. FML also conferred partial protection against L. mexicana infection. The best protection was observed in mice immunized with the VR1012-NH36 DNA vaccine, which induced an 88% reduction in L. chagasi parasite load and a 65% reduction in L. mexicana lesion size. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis indicated the DNA vaccine induced a two- to fivefold increase in gamma interferon-producing CD4+ T cells, indicating a Th1-type immune response. Our results showed that the NH36 DNA vaccine induced a strong immunoprotection against visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, suggesting that this DNA vaccine represents a very good candidate for use against several Leishmania species. PMID:15664920

  2. Leishmaniasis sand fly vector density reduction is less marked in destitute housing after insecticide thermal fogging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide thermal fogging (ITF) is a tool to control vector borne diseases. Insecticide application success for vector control has been associated with housing materials and architecture. Vector abundance is correlated with weather changes. Nevertheless, housing quality and weather impacts on vector abundance have been unaccounted for in most New World insecticide control trials for leishmaniasis vectors. Methods We conducted a 15 month insecticide control trial that included two deltamethrin [6 mg a.i.m-2] based ITF interventions in 12 of 24 monitored houses at Trinidad de Las Minas, a hyperendemic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission village in western Panamá. During the study we followed sand fly (SF) abundance, keeping track of rainfall and quantified housing quality using an index based on architecture and construction materials. Results We found a 50 to 80% reduction in SF density in the fogged houses when compared with control houses, while controlling for seasonal changes in SF abundance associated with rainfall. We found heterogeneities in the reductions, as abundance changed according to SF species: Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dysponeta and Lu. triramula reduced in density between 40% and 90% after ITF. In contrast, Lu. trapidoi density increased 5% after ITF. Differences in the impact of ITF were associated with housing quality, the most destitute houses, i.e., those with features that ease insect entrance, had a disproportionally larger SF abundance, in some cases with increased domiciliary SF density following the ITF. Conclusion Our results suggest the potential of insecticide application to control SF density and leishmaniasis transmission could depend on housing quality beyond insecticide efficiency. PMID:23742709

  3. Expanded repeat in canine epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lohi, Hannes; Young, Edwin J; Fitzmaurice, Susan N; Rusbridge, Clare; Chan, Elayne M; Vervoort, Mike; Turnbull, Julie; Zhao, Xiao-Chu; Ianzano, Leonarda; Paterson, Andrew D; Sutter, Nathan B; Ostrander, Elaine A; André, Catherine; Shelton, G Diane; Ackerley, Cameron A; Scherer, Stephen W; Minassian, Berge A

    2005-01-01

    Epilepsy afflicts 1% of humans and 5% of dogs. We report a canine epilepsy mutation and evidence for the existence of repeat-expansion disease outside humans. A canid-specific unstable dodecamer repeat in the Epm2b (Nhlrc1) gene recurrently expands, causing a fatal epilepsy and contributing to the high incidence of canine epilepsy. Tracing the repeat origins revealed two successive events, starting 50 million years ago, unique to canid evolution. A genetic test, presented here, will allow carrier and presymptomatic diagnosis and disease eradication. Clinicopathologic characterization establishes affected animals as a model for Lafora disease, the most severe teenage-onset human epilepsy. PMID:15637270

  4. Gentamicin-attenuated Leishmania infantum: cellular immunity production and protection of dogs against experimental canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, H; Molaei, M M; Kamiabi, H; Burchmore, R; Hagan, P; Stephen Phillips, R

    2010-01-01

    An attenuated line of Leishmania infantum (L. infantum H-line) has been established by culturing promastigotes in vitro under gentamicin pressure. Here, we show that L. infantum H-line induced significantly higher levels of IFN-? and lower levels of IL-10 compared with those in dogs infected with L. infantum wild type (WT). Anti-Leishmania-specific total IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 antibodies were present in the serum of all infected dogs, with levels of IgG2 subclass highest in the sera of dogs inoculated with L. infantum H-line. Relatively high levels of IgG1 were found in the sera of dogs infected with L. infantum WT. Six of seven dogs immunized intradermally (i.d.) with the attenuated line later showed a positive skin test to leishmanin, whereas the dogs infected with L. infantum WT did not. No clinical abnormalities were observed, and no parasites found in the visceral organs of the dogs inoculated intravenously (i.v.) with L. infantum H-line over 24 months post-inoculation. Dogs which had been immunized with L. infantum H-line i.d. 12 months previously were protected against challenge with L. infantum WT. These data suggest that the L. infantum H-line was safe and induced a protection which is correlated with cellular immunity in dogs. PMID:21039612

  5. First Molecular Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Amro, Ahmad; Gashout, Aisha; Al-Dwibe, Hamida; Zahangir Alam, Mohammad; Annajar, Badereddin; Hamarsheh, Omar; Shubar, Hend; Schönian, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in Libya. The objective of this study was to investigate, for the first time, epidemiological features of CL outbreaks in Libya including molecular identification of parasites, the geographical distribution of cases and possible scenarios of parasite transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 450 patients that came from 49 areas distributed in 12 districts in north-west Libya. The patients' ages ranged from 9 months to 87 years (median age 25 years); 54% of the cases were males. Skin scrapings spotted on glass slides were collected for molecular identification of causative agent. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was amplified and subsequently characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. In total, 195 samples were successfully identified of which 148 (75.9%) were Leishmania major, and 47 (24.1%) Leishmania tropica. CL cases infected with L. major were found in all CL areas whereas L. tropica cases came mainly from Al Jabal Al Gharbi (46.4%), Misrata (17.8%) and Tarhuna districts (10.7%). A trend of seasonality was noticed for the infections with L. major which showed a clear peak between November and January, but was less pronounced for infections by L. tropica. Conclusion The first molecular study on CL in Libya revealed that the disease is caused by L. major and L. tropica and the epidemiological patterns in the different foci were the same as in other Mediterranean foci of CL. PMID:22724036

  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with jungle training.

    PubMed

    Takafuji, E T; Hendricks, L D; Daubek, J L; McNeil, K M; Scagliola, H M; Diggs, C L

    1980-07-01

    In November 1977, 627 soldiers belonging primarily to the First Battalion, 82nd Airborne Division, stationed at Fort Bragg, were sent to the Canal Zone, Panama, for jungle warfare training. A medical surveillance program incorporating pre- and post-evaluations over a 6-month period with dermatologic examinations, questionnaires, and serologic tests was established. Ten cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (1.6/100 men) were diagnosed by positive Leishmania culture. The demonstrated lack of sensitivity and specificity of the indirect fluorescent antibody test and the direct agglutination test render these serological methods useless as diagnostic screening methods in the early stages of this disease. PMID:7406101

  7. Neuronal Degeneration in Canine Narcolepsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Siegel; R. Nienhuis; S. Gulyani; S. Ouyang; M. F. Wu; E. Mignot; R. C. Switzer; G. McMurry; M. Cornford

    1999-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a lifelong illness characterized by persistent sleepiness, hypnagogic hallucinations, and episodes of motor paralysis called cataplexy. We have tested the hypothesis that a transient neurodegenerative process is linked to symptom onset. Using the amino-cupric silver stain on brain sections from canine narcoleptics, we found elevated levels of axonal degeneration in the amygdala, basal forebrain (including the nucleus of

  8. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...individually tested for neutralizing antibody against canine parvovirus to determine...each dog and tested for neutralizing antibody to canine parvovirus in the same manner...pretreating one with specific canine parvovirus antibody. If there is not at least an...

  9. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...individually tested for neutralizing antibody against canine distemper to determine...individually tested for neutralizing antibody against canine distemper virus to determine...individually tested for neutralizing antibody against canine distemper virus in...

  10. [Prevention and control of leishmaniasis vectors: current approaches].

    PubMed

    Maroli, M; Khoury, C

    2004-06-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the suspected or proven vectors of Leishmania spp. in at least 88 countries, including over 40 Phlebotomus species in the Old World and a further 30 belonging to the genus Lutzomyia in the New World. In recent years, both cutaneous (CL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) have become increasingly prevalent in urban areas, including large Latin American cities. A similar trend has been recorded in all Mediterranean areas during the last decade. Based on mathematical models, insecticidal control of sandflies appears to represent a more effective way of reducing Leishmania infantum transmission than the present strategy of culling infected dogs in Latin America as well as being more acceptable to the human population. Since man is a dead-end host of most Leishmania species, treatment of existing human cases generally does not affect transmission. Interruption of the cycle by vector control may offer a cheaper, more practical solution to treatment and improved knowledge of the alternatives available could lead to preventative measures being undertaken in more leishmaniasis foci. In this note a review of current knowledge on sandfly control is presented. Different measures to control phlebotomine sandflies, including residual spraying of dwellings and animal shelters, insecticide treated nets, application of repellents/insecticides to skin or to fabrics and impregnated dog collars are discussed. Although effective in urban areas with high concentrations of sandflies, residual spraying of insecticides is no often longer tenable in most situations. In rural areas where dwellings are more dispersed and surrounded by large, untargeted "reservoir" populations of sandflies, residual spraying of houses may be both impractical for logistic reasons and ineffective. Actually, this control measure depends on the availability of a suitable public health infrastructure, including adequate supplies of insecticide, spraying equipment and trained personnel. Ideally such personnel should be trained in insecticide application, monitoring techniques and interpretation of sampling data, as well as safety techniques. To date reports of resistance refer to one insecticide (DDT) in only three species (Phlebotomus papatasi, P. argentipes and Sergentomyia shorti) in one country (India), although there are reports of increased tolerance to this compound in several countries. Fortunately the insects remain susceptible to all the major insecticidal groups. Impregnated bednets may offer the best solution in rural areas where transmission is largely intradomiciliary. This measure has the advantage that it can be employed at the individual household level and affords collateral benefits such as privacy and control of other biting insects such as mosquitoes, fleas and bedbugs. Sandfly larvae are generally difficult to find in nature so control measures that act specifically against immatures are not feasible, although the effectiveness of a few biological and chemical agents has been demonstrated in laboratory evaluations. In ZVL foci, where dogs are the unique domestic reservoir, a reduction in Leishmania transmission would be expected if we could combine an effective mass treatment of infected dogs with a protection of both healthy and infected dogs from the sandfly bites. Laboratory and field evaluations have shown that impregnated dog collars and topical application of insecticides could protect dogs from most sandfly bites by means of both anti-feeding and killing effect of the pirethorids used. PMID:15305719

  11. Risk of Infection with Leishmania spp. in the Canine Population in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    The dog is the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in humans in Southern Europe. In order to identify the risk of dogs from a Leishmania non-endemic area traveling to a Leishmania-endemic area becoming infected and the risk of transmitting infection to humans in non-endemic areas an investigation was performed, in which the results of a questionnaire were combined with the results of a serologic survey. The questionnaire was sent to 1478 at random chosen families in the Netherlands. Of the 59.0% responders 28.0% had one or more dogs and 4.8% of these dogs had visited Southern Europe during the summer period of that year. On a total population of 1,200,000 dogs in the Netherlands, this means that each year some 58,000 dogs are at risk of being exposed to a Leishmania infection in Southern Europe. During the period 1990–1992 blood was collected for serology in 1911 dogs presented to the Utrecht University Clinic because of clinical problems not related to leishmaniasis, of which 434 had been in Southern Europe in the foregoing years. None was serologically positive. From these data it can be deduced that the highest chance to obtain leishmaniasis during a vacation in Southern Europe is mathematically less than 1/434 or less than 0.23%. Serology was also performed during the period 1989–1993 in 597 dogs that had been in Southern Europe and were suspected of leishmaniasis. Titers were positive in 145 of these samples. Sixty-four of these dogs were born in the Mediterranean and had been imported into the Netherlands. Excluding these imported dogs, it was calculated that at least 0.027% of the 58,000 dogs yearly taken to Southern Europe during holidays become infected with Leishmania. In order to establish the risk of disease transmission for people in close contact with an infected dog, serum samples of owners and house mates of 37 dogs with leishmaniasis were tested. All 112 sera tested negative. It was concluded that the risk to get leishmaniasis was between 0.027% and 0.23% for the dog when taken to Southern Europe during vacation, and that the risk for owners in non-endemic areas to get leishmaniasis from an infected dog is minimal. PMID:12831172

  12. Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Dunbar, Mike R; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel; Droge, Egil; Sakuya, Nicholas M; Matandiko, Wigganson; McRobb, Rachel; Hanlon, Cathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies. We provide the first comprehensive disease exposure data for these species in these ecosystems. Twenty-one lions, 20 hyenas, 13 wild dogs, and 38 domestic dogs were sampled across both regions from 2009 to 2011. Laboratory results show 10.5% of domestic dogs, 5.0% of hyenas, and 7.7% of wild dogs sampled were positive for CDV exposure. All lions were negative. Exposure to CPV was 10.0% and 4.8% for hyenas and lions, respectively. All wild dogs were negative, and domestic dogs were not tested due to insufficient serum samples. All species sampled were negative for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies except lions. Forty percent of lions tested positive for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Because these lions appeared clinically healthy, this finding is consistent with seroconversion following exposure to rabies antigen. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first ever documentation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies consistent with rabies exposure that did not lead to clinical disease in free-ranging African lions from this region. With ever-increasing human pressure on these ecosystems, understanding disease transmission dynamics is essential for proper management and conservation of these carnivore species. PMID:23805791

  13. Microspatial Distributional Patterns of Vectors of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Donalisio, Maria Rita; Peterson, A. Townsend; Costa, Pietra Lemos; da Silva, Fernando José; Valença, Hélio França; Shaw, Jeffrey J.; Brandão Filho, Sinval P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution and population trends through time of Lutzomyia species in a long-term focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in an Atlantic Forest area, northeastern Brazil. Sand fly populations of different ecological niches were monitored spatiotemporally in 2009. To summarize vegetation characteristics and phenology, we calculated the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index from Landsat images. Using niche modeling approaches, we assessed suites of environmental factors to identify areas of transmission risk. Although 12 species were detected, L. whitmani was the most abundant and broadly distributed across the area, particularly in peridomiciliary locations, and associated negatively with denser vegetation areas. On the other hand, L. complexa, L. sordelli, and L. tupynambai were found almost exclusively in forested areas (P < 0.05), and associated positively with denser vegetation. Lutzomyia species' occurrences are related to specific environmental combinations (with contrast among species) in the region. PMID:22315619

  14. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: An Evolving Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  15. Persistent expression of canine factor IX in hemophilia B canines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Chao; R J Samulski; D A Bellinger; P E Monahan; T C Nichols; C E Walsh

    1999-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that direct intramuscular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying the human FIX (hFIX) cDNA can safely be administered to hemophilic B canines and express human factor IX protein; however, the functional activity of the hFIX protein could not be assessed due to anti-human FIX antibody (inhibitor) formation. To test the therapeutic efficacy of rAAV in hemophilic

  16. Association Between HTLV-I Infection with Chronic Lupoid Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshkpoor, Fakhrozaman; Rezaei, Seyed Abdol Rahim; Shirdel, Abbas; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Mansoreh; Yazdanpanah, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): One of the different types of skin leishmaniasis is the Chronic Lupoid Leishmaniasis (CLL), which is caused by abnormal immune response. On the other hand, HTLV-I has been known to exist in some infectious diseases. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type1 (HTLV-I) and cutanous leishmaniasis exists endemically in Mashhad. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HTLV-I in CLL patients. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study involved 51 CLL patients admitted to cutaneous leishmaniasis clinics of Ghaem and Imam Reza hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. The blood samples were examined for serology tests through ELISA method. Results: The results of the experiments for evaluating the existence of HTLV-I in 51 patients under study in this research were proved to be negative. Conclusion: According to this pilot study, the distribution of HTLV-I in CLL patients is not higher than normal population. PMID:24470878

  17. Mucosal Leishmaniasis: An Underestimated Presentation of a Neglected Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cocuzza, Salvatore; Cosentino, Stefano; Serra, Agostino; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We present a review of current knowledge about mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). Although involvement of mucous membranes is classically admitted in New World leishmaniasis, particularly occurring in infection by Leishmania (L.) braziliensis species complex, ML is also a possible presentation of Old World leishmaniasis, in either L. donovani or L. major species complex infections. Thus, ML has to be considered not only as a Latin American disease but as an Old and New World disease. We describe ML epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinics, diagnosis, and therapy. Considering both its highly disfiguring lesions and its possible lethal outcome, ML should not be underestimated by physicians. Moreover, leishmaniasis is expected to increase its burden in many countries as sandfly vector distribution is widespreading towards non-endemic areas. Finally, the lack of clear understanding of ML pathogenesis and the absence of effective human vaccines strongly claim for more research. PMID:23853773

  18. Mucosal leishmaniasis: an underestimated presentation of a neglected disease.

    PubMed

    Strazzulla, Alessio; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Postorino, Maria Concetta; Cosentino, Stefano; Serra, Agostino; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We present a review of current knowledge about mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). Although involvement of mucous membranes is classically admitted in New World leishmaniasis, particularly occurring in infection by Leishmania (L.) braziliensis species complex, ML is also a possible presentation of Old World leishmaniasis, in either L. donovani or L. major species complex infections. Thus, ML has to be considered not only as a Latin American disease but as an Old and New World disease. We describe ML epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinics, diagnosis, and therapy. Considering both its highly disfiguring lesions and its possible lethal outcome, ML should not be underestimated by physicians. Moreover, leishmaniasis is expected to increase its burden in many countries as sandfly vector distribution is widespreading towards non-endemic areas. Finally, the lack of clear understanding of ML pathogenesis and the absence of effective human vaccines strongly claim for more research. PMID:23853773

  19. Zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed with the help of dermoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ramot, Yuval; Nanova, Krassimira; Alper-Pinus, Ruslana; Zlotogorski, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is usually easy to recognize; however, several atypical features exist, which may pose a diagnostic challenge. Here we report a 55-year-old female patient, who presented with an itchy and painful eruption localized in a dermatomal distribution along the right upper chest. Although the clinical appearance of the lesions suggested the diagnosis of herpes zoster, dermoscopic evaluation revealed erythema, hyperkeratosis, burst star whitish appearance and hairpin vessels, compatible with the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Indeed, leishmania amastigotes were detected by smear from the lesions. Zosteriform presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis, as exemplified by our patient, is especially rare. In our case dermoscopy has proven to be an accessible and easy tool to diagnose such atypical presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and dermatologists in endemic areas should be familiar with its typical dermoscopic features. PMID:25126460

  20. Leishmaniasis in the Middle East: Incidence and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Nasir; Al-Shaqha, Waleed Mohammed; Azzi, Arezki

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide, with several countries reporting cases of leishmaniasis resulting in loss of human life or a lifelong stigma because of bodily scars. The Middle East is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, with countries like Syria reporting very high incidence of the disease. Despite several countries establishing national control programs for containing the sandfly vector and treatment of infection, the disease continues to spread. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. These factors contribute to the spread and proliferation of the causative species Leishmania and its sandfly host. This review discusses the current epidemiological scenario in Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, emphasizing the number of cases reported, vector species, Leishmania species, and treatment available. The data is primarily from WHO reports for each country and current and old literature. PMID:25275483

  1. The impacted canine--an orthodontic perspective.

    PubMed

    Madsen, David P

    2012-04-01

    The impacted canine is relatively common in incidence and can often lead to difficult treatment planning decisions. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) imaging has improved diagnosis and treatment planning of impacted canines. In particular, this technology has allowed the clinician to accurately locate and visualize these teeth better than ever before, as well as greater appreciate the degree of damage to neighbouring teeth such as lateral incisors. Improved diagnosis and treatment planning with CBCT has therefore resulted in improved treatment outcomes. The objective of this presentation will be to cover the incidence, complications and management of impacted canines from an orthodontic perspective. Impacted canines are commonly cited as occurring in 1% of the population. Complications of impacted canines include root resorption and devitalization of the adjacent lateral incisor, ankylosis, cyst formation and prolonged retention of the deciduous canine. Interceptive management of impacted canines may include the removal of the deciduous canine. Managementof impacted canines also include either their removal or orthodontic movement into their correct position. PMID:24783845

  2. Cost-effectiveness of canine vaccination to prevent human rabies in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Meagan C; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Mzimbiri, Imam; Lankester, Felix; Lembo, Tiziana; Meyers, Lauren A.; Paltiel, A David; Galvani, Alison P

    2014-01-01

    Background The annual mortality rate of human rabies in rural Africa is 3.6 deaths per 100,000 individuals. Rabies can be prevented by prompt post-exposure prophylaxis, but this is costly and often inaccessible in rural Africa. As 99% of human exposures occur through rabid dogs, canine vaccination also prevents transmission of rabies to humans. Objective Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rabies control through annual canine vaccination campaigns in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Design We model transmission dynamics in dogs and wildlife and assess empirical uncertainty in the biological parameters to make probability-based evaluations of cost-effectiveness. Data Sources Epidemiological parameters from contact tracing study and literature; cost data from ongoing vaccination campaigns Target Population Two districts of rural Tanzania, Ngorongoro and Serengeti Time Horizon Ten years Perspective Health policymaker Interventions Vaccination coverage ranging from 0 to 95% in increments of 5% Outcome Measures Life-years for health outcomes and 2010 USD for economic outcomes Results of Base-Case Analysis Annual canine vaccination campaigns are very cost-effective in both districts compared with no canine vaccination. In Serengeti, annual campaigns up to 70% coverage are cost-saving. Results of Sensitivity Analysis Across a wide range of parameter assumptions and levels of societal willingness-to-pay for life-years, the optimal vaccination coverage for Serengeti is 70%. In Ngorongoro, though optimal coverage depends on willingness-to-pay, vaccination campaigns are always cost-effective and life-saving, and therefore preferred. Limitations Canine vaccination is very cost-effective in both districts, but there is greater uncertainty regarding the optimal coverage in Ngorongoro. Conclusions Annual canine rabies vaccination campaigns confer extraordinary value and dramatically reduce the health burden of rabies. Primary Funding Source US National Institutes of Health (U01 GM087719) PMID:24592494

  3. [Consolidation of international guidelines for the management of canine populations in urban areas and proposal of performance indicators].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Rita de Cassia Maria; Calderón, Néstor; Ferreira, Fernando

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a generic program for the management of urban canine populations with suggestion of performance indicators. The following international guidelines on canine population management were revised and consolidated: World Health Organization, World Organisation for Animal Health, World Society for the Protection of Animals, International Companion Animal Management Coalition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Management programs should cover: situation diagnosis, including estimates of population size; social participation with involvement of various sectors in the planning and execution of strategies; educational actions to promote humane values, animal welfare, community health, and responsible ownership (through purchase or adoption); environmental and waste management to eliminate sources of food and shelter; registration and identification of animals; animal health care, reproductive control; prevention and control of zoonoses; control of animal commerce; management of animal behavior and adequate solutions for abandoned animals; and laws regulating responsible ownership, prevention of abandonment and zoonoses. To monitor these actions, four groups of indicators are suggested: animal population indicators, human/animal interaction indicators, public service indicators, and zoonosis indicators. The management of stray canine populations requires political, sanitary, ethologic, ecologic, and humanitarian strategies that are socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable. Such measures must also include the control of zoonoses such as rabies and leishmaniasis, considering the concept of "one health," which benefits both the animals and people in the community. PMID:23099875

  4. Polymorphism in Tumor Necrosis Factor Genes Associated with Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maira Cabrera; Marie-Anne Shaw; Claire Sharpies; Hazel Williams; Marianella Castes; Jacinto Convit; Jenefer M. Blackwell

    Summary Recent studies have shown that mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), a severe and debilitating form of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis infection, is accompanied by high circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-oL. Analysis of TNF polymorphisms in Venezuelan ACL patients and endemic unaffected controls demonstrates a high relative risk (RR) of 7.5 (P <0.001) of MCL disease

  5. First case of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis.

    PubMed

    Liautaud, Bernard; Vignier, Nicolas; Miossec, Charline; Plumelle, Yves; Kone, Moumini; Delta, Delphine; Ravel, Christophe; Cabié, André; Desbois, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis in the Caribbean, which until now, was known only to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease presented with fatigue, anemia, and hepatosplenomegaly in a 61-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who was receiving antiretroviral therapy. Diagnosis was made by bone marrow biopsy. VL is life-threatening, and its emergence in the Caribbean is of concern. PMID:25404076

  6. [Therapy of leishmaniasis in France: consensus on proposed guidelines].

    PubMed

    Buffet, Pierre A; Rosenthal, Éric; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Lightburne, Edward; Couppié, Pierre; Morizot, Gloria; Lachaud, Laurence; Marty, Pierre; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2011-02-01

    Because it relies on potentially toxic, difficult-to-handle, or expensive compounds the therapy of leishmaniasis is still a complex issue in 2010, especially for visceral leishmaniasis in immuno-suppressed subjects, or in patients with cutaneous and mucosal involvement. This induces a wide diversity of observed therapeutic practices, some being sub-optimal. The Société de Pathologie Exotique organised a meeting dedicated to the therapy of leishmaniasis in France that led to the first consensus on therapeutic guidelines. Liposomal amphotericin B is the first-line option for visceral leishmaniasis both in immunocompetent, and immunosuppressed patients (cumulated doses of 20 mg/kg and 30-40 mg/kg, respectively). Secondary prophylaxis with either liposomal amphotericin B, pentamidine or meglumine antimoniate is proposed to patients with heavy immunosuppression until immunity has been restored for at least 6 months. While the efficacy of new topical formulations of paromomycin is being tested, patients with Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis may be left untreated, or be administered a combination of superficial cryotherapy plus intralesional antimony, or even--in complex situations--receive systemic therapy. The efficacy of a short course of pentamidine (L. guyanensis/L. panamensis) and a 20-day schedule of meglumine antimoniate (L. braziliensis) is solidly established. However, in well-defined situations, local therapy of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis is now considered acceptable. PMID:21106333

  7. Report of the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) consortium meeting, New Delhi, India, 27–29 June 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a neglected complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)?a deadly, infectious disease that claims approximately 20,000 to 40,000 lives every year. PKDL is thought to be a reservoir for transmission of VL, thus, adequate control of PKDL plays a key role in the ongoing effort to eliminate VL. Over the past few years, several expert meetings have recommended that a greater focus on PKDL was needed, especially in South Asia. This report summarizes the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Consortium Meeting held in New Delhi, India, 27–29 June 2012. The PKDL Consortium is committed to promote and facilitate activities that lead to better understanding of all aspects of PKDL that are needed for improved clinical management and to achieve control of PKDL and VL. Fifty clinicians, scientists, policy makers, and advocates came together to discuss issues relating to PKDL epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and control. Colleagues who were unable to attend participated during drafting of the consortium meeting report. PMID:23819611

  8. Environmental risk factors for the incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in a sub-Andean zone of Colombia (Chaparral, Tolima).

    PubMed

    Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Ferro, Cristina; Cadena, Horacio; Marín, Dairo; Holford, Theodore R; Munstermann, Leonard E; Ocampo, Clara B

    2010-02-01

    Environmental risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis were investigated for the largest outbreak recorded in Colombia. The outbreak began in 2003 in Chaparral, and in the following five years produced 2,313 cases in a population of 56,228. Candidate predictor variables were land use, elevation, and climatic variables such as mean temperature and precipitation. Spatial analysis showed that incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was higher in townships with mean temperatures in the middle of the county's range. Incidence was independently associated with higher coverage with forest or shrubs (2.6% greater for each additional percent coverage, 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.5-4.9%), and lower population density (22% lower for each additional 100 persons/km(2), 95% CI = 7-41%). The extent of forest or shrub coverage did not show major changes over time. These findings confirmed the roles of climate and land use in leishmaniasis transmission. However, environmental variables were not sufficient to explain the spatial variation in incidence. PMID:20134000

  9. Proteome profiling of human cutaneous leishmaniasis lesion.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Claire; Attarha, Sanaz; Saini, Ravi Kanth; Boaventura, Viviane; Costa, Jackson; Khouri, Ricardo; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia Ida; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we used proteomics and biological network analysis to evaluate the potential biological processes and components present in the identified proteins of biopsies from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis in comparison with normal skin. We identified 59 proteins differently expressed in samples from infected and normal skin. Biological network analysis employing identified proteins showed the presence of networks that may be involved in the cell death mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. After immunohistochemical analyses, the expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and granzyme B was validated in the tissue and positively correlated with the lesion size in CL patients. In conclusion, this work identified differentially expressed proteins in the inflammatory site of CL, revealed enhanced expression of caspase-9, and highlighted mechanisms associated with the progression of tissue damage observed in lesions. PMID:25207817

  10. Vector Saliva in Vaccines for Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Brief Encounter of High Consequence?

    PubMed Central

    Kamhawi, Shaden; Aslan, Hamide; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies and remains the most serious form of the disease with no available human vaccine. Repeatedly, studies have demonstrated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a number of sand fly salivary proteins against cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. All Leishmania species including agents of VL are co-deposited into the skin together with vector saliva. Generally, the immune response to a protective salivary protein in vaccinated animals is rapid and possibly acts on the parasites soon after delivery into the skin by the bite of an infective sand fly. This is followed by the development of a stronger Leishmania-specific immunity in saliva-vaccinated animals compared to controls. Considering that several of the most efficacious protective molecules were identified from a proven vector of VL, we put forward the notion that a combination vaccine that includes a Leishmania antigen and a vector salivary protein has the potential to improve vaccine efficacy by targeting the parasite at it most vulnerable stage just after transmission. PMID:25152872

  11. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Paraguayan Communities, Patients, and Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Ruoti, Mónica; Oddone, Rolando; Lampert, Nathalie; Orué, Elizabeth; Miles, Michael A.; Alexander, Neal; Rehman, Andrea M.; Njord, Rebecca; Shu, Stephanie; Brice, Susannah; Krentel, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) due to Leishmania (V.) braziliensis are endemic in Paraguay. We performed a series of knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys simultaneously with individuals in endemic communities in San Pedro department (n = 463), health professionals (n = 25), and patients (n = 25). Results showed that communities were exposed to high risk factors for transmission of L. braziliensis. In logistic regression analysis, age was the only factor independently associated with having seen a CL/MCL lesion (P = 0.002). The pervasive attitude in communities was that CL was not a problem. Treatment seeking was often delayed, partly due to secondary costs, and inappropriate remedies were applied. Several important cost-effective measures are indicated that may improve control of CL. Community awareness could be enhanced through existing community structures. Free supply of specific drugs should continue but ancillary support could be considered. Health professionals require routine and standardised provision of diagnosis and treatment algorithms for CL and MCL. During treatment, all patients could be given simple information to increase awareness in the community. PMID:23690792

  12. First report of the visceral leishmaniasis vector Phlebotomus martini (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Clark, J W; Kioko, E; Odemba, N; Ngere, F; Kamanza, J; Oyugi, E; Kerich, G; Kimbita, E; Bast, J D

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomus martini is a known vector of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is known to be endemic in areas of north and south Sudan, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda, and Somalia but has not been reported from Tanzania. In this report we present the first documented collection of P. martini and P. vansomerenae in Tanzania. Sand flies were collected using standard dry-ice baited CDC light traps (John W. Hock Company, Gainesville, FL) from five sampling sites in the Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions from 14 to 20 July 2010. Phlebotomus martini was collected from all sites and represented 6.6% of the total identified sand flies. Phlebotomus martini ranged from 4.5 to 9.4% of the total identified catch from the four sites in the Kilimanjaro region and 17.9% of the total identified catch at the one collection site in the Arusha region. In addition, one male specimen of the sibling species, Phlebotomus vansomerenae, was found at Chemka Springs in the Kilimanjaro region. These data indicate the presence of an established population(s) of P. martini in northern Tanzania that could support L. donovani transmission in an area with no prior case history of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:23427673

  13. [Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in five villages of Dogon country, Mali].

    PubMed

    Kone, A K; Delaunay, P; Djimdé, A A; Thera, M A; Giudice, P D; Coulibaly, D; Traoré, K; Goita, S M; Abathina, A; Izri, A; Marty, P; Doumbo, O K

    2012-02-01

    The epidemiology of the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with Leishmania major is poorly documented in Mali. Following reports of CL in the tourist areas of the Dogon country (Bandiagara Escarpment), a joint French and Malian bio-clinical team conducted a field study from 16 to 27 January, 2010. The population of 5 villages has been examined by a dermato-infectiologist and cases were selected by visual inspection of skin lesions. Smears and biopsies (from the lesions) and venous blood were obtained from suspected cases of CL. Diagnosis was performed by light microscopy, in vitro cultures, serology and molecular biology. Fifty patients with skin lesions have been examined. Twenty-one have been suspected as CL. At least one sample was obtained from 18 patients. The lesions were predominantly old, more or less scarring and secondary infected. A skin smear was performed for 15 patients, a skin biopsy for 14 patients: smears and cultures were all negative. The PCR (Leishmania spp.) made on 14 biopsies was positive for 12 patients (86%). The low amount of amplified DNA obtained did not allow the sequencing and identification of the species of Leishmania. Western blot (WB) serology was positive in 11 cases out of 12 (92%). This investigation showed the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bandiagara. A further investigation is required during transmission period (September-October) to confirm the presence of Leishmania major epidemic in Dogon country. PMID:22246557

  14. An analysis of reported cases of leishmaniasis in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region, 1986-2012.

    PubMed

    Olalla, Hector R; Velez, Lenin N; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Caceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Zambrano, Flavio C; Romero-Álvarez, Daniel A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-06-01

    An analysis of reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed using the data registered in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region during 27 years from 1986 to 2012. The cases/subjects with both the suspected CL lesions and the amastigote-positive results were recruited for the analysis. The yearly occurrence of cases showed a markedly higher number during the six years, 1988 and 1993. After 1994 when the insecticide spraying campaign using helicopter in 1993-1994, the number dropped remarkably. Then, the yearly occurrence gradually fluctuated from 101 cases in 1996 to 11 in 2009, maintaining a low number of cases after the campaign. The monthly occurrence of cases showed a markedly high number during March and August, suggesting a correlation to the rainy season (months) in the areas. A statistical significance was found between the monthly average number of the CL case and the average precipitation (p=0.01474). It was suggested that the time of transmission of CL would depend on the rainy seasons at each endemic area of Ecuador, which has a diverse climatic feature depending on the geographic regions. Such information at given leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador would be important for the future planning of the disease control. Molecular analysis and characterization of clinical samples revealed the presence of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. PMID:25796313

  15. [Leishmaniasis: knowledge and practice in populations of the Pacific coast of Colombia].

    PubMed

    Isaza, D M; Restrepo, B N; Arboleda, M; Casas, E; Hinestroza, H; Yurgaqui, T

    1999-09-01

    In 1997 a descriptive study with a qualitative emphasis was carried out in order to document, by gender, the knowledge and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis among inhabitants 14 years and older in seven communities of Colombia's Pacific coastal department of Chocó. Since the control activities carried out by the Chocó Sectional Health Services had not had the desired results, the residents of the region were at high risk of contracting leishmaniasis, which they called bejuco (liana) and yateví. Qualitative data were collected by directly involving each community in discussion workshops and by interviewing knowledgeable informants. Using these materials as a foundation, the researchers prepared a survey with 10 closed-ended questions, which they administered to all persons over 14 years of age in each randomly chosen home visited. The results indicate that 94% of the population knew that leishmaniasis appeared as a skin disease; those not knowing that were more often women than men. With respect to the mode of transmission, 35% of the respondents connected the disease to the bite of an insect, but they did not what the etiologic agent was and thought that the bite was inflicted by a worm that lives in the mountains. In the communities studied, the residents used a great variety of treatments to cure the disease. The treatments were based on plants, chemical substances, burning the lesions with a piece of heated metal, and, to a lesser degree, drugs. Despite being responsible for taking care of sick persons in the household, women were not acquainted with the traditional treatments used in the community. This gender difference in treatment knowledge was statistically significant, the only such statistically significant gender difference found in the research. Of the people surveyed, 45% did not know how to prevent the disease. This was more often true for women; 102 of the 155 respondents saying they did not know how to prevent the disease were women. This research emphasizes the importance of studying the knowledge and practices of local inhabitants before designing and organizing educational programs to control leishmaniasis. PMID:10517095

  16. New developments in canine hepatozoonosis in North America: a review

    PubMed Central

    Little, Susan E; Allen, Kelly E; Johnson, Eileen M; Panciera, Roger J; Reichard, Mason V; Ewing, Sidney A

    2009-01-01

    Canine hepatozoonosis is caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum, apicomplexan parasites transmitted to dogs by ingestion of infectious stages. Although the two agents are phylogenetically related, specific aspects, including characteristics of clinical disease and the natural history of the parasites themselves, differ between the two species. Until recently, H. canis infections had not been clearly documented in North America, and autochthonous infection with H. americanum has yet to be reported outside of the southern United States. However, recent reports demonstrate H. canis is present in areas of North America where its vector tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has long been endemic, and that the range of H. americanum is likely expanding along with that of its vector tick, Amblyomma maculatum; co-infections with the two organisms have also been identified. Significant intraspecific variation has been reported in the 18S rRNA gene sequence of both Hepatozoon spp.-infecting dogs, suggesting that each species may represent a complex of related genogroups rather than well-defined species. Transmission of H. americanum to dogs via ingestion of cystozoites in muscle of infected vertebrates was recently demonstrated, supporting the concept of predation as a means of natural transmission. Although several exciting advances have occurred in recent years, much remains to be learned about patterns of infection and the nature of clinical disease caused by the agents of canine hepatozoonosis in North America. PMID:19426444

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of canine and human Staphylococcus aureus collected in Saskatoon, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rubin, J E; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2011-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of infection in people and is increasingly recognized in dogs. The increasing prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is complicating the treatment of these infections. Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a toxin involved in the pathogenesis of necrotic syndromes in people may be partially responsible for the rise of MRSA. Canine and human S. aureus from the same geographic area are genetically similar, indicating a common population and likely transmission. The implications of increasing antimicrobial resistance complicated by interspecies transmission, necessitates including both dogs and humans in S. aureus resistance surveillance studies. A collection of 126 S. aureus isolates from people (n = 99) and dogs (n = 27) were included, minimum inhibitor concentrations to a panel of 33 antimicrobials used in human and veterinary medicine were determined. No resistance to vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin or nitrofurantoin was found. A wide range of antibiograms were found; including resistance to 0-12 drugs (0-6 drug classes). Outstanding antibiograms included a canine MRSA resistant to rifampin and a human MRSA resistant to chloramphenicol. Inducible clindamycin resistance was found among 78% and 4% of canine and human MRSA and 17% and 25% of canine colonizing and human methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), respectively. Resistance to mupirocin was only found among human isolates including 20% of MRSA and 4% of MSSA. While no canine isolates were PVL positive, 39% of human MRSA and 2% of MSSA carried the gene. The bidirectional transmission of S. aureus between people and dogs necessitates the inclusion of isolates from both species in future studies. PMID:21824346

  18. Oncolytic Reovirus in Canine Mast Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Chung Chew; Umeki, Saori; Kubo, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshiharu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken; Baba, Kenji; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Coffey, Matt; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    The usage of reovirus has reached phase II and III clinical trials in human cancers. However, this is the first study to report the oncolytic effects of reovirus in veterinary oncology, focusing on canine mast cell tumor (MCT), the most common cutaneous tumor in dogs. As human and canine cancers share many similarities, we hypothesized that the oncolytic effects of reovirus can be exploited in canine cancers. The objective of this study was to determine the oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine MCT in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. We demonstrated that MCT cell lines were highly susceptible to reovirus as indicated by marked cell death, high production of progeny virus and virus replication. Reovirus induced apoptosis in the canine MCT cell lines with no correlation to their Ras activation status. In vivo studies were conducted using unilateral and bilateral subcutaneous MCT xenograft models with a single intratumoral reovirus treatment and apparent reduction of tumor mass was exhibited. Furthermore, cell death was induced by reovirus in primary canine MCT samples in vitro. However, canine and murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMCMC) were also susceptible to reovirus. The combination of these results supports the potential value of reovirus as a therapy in canine MCT but warrants further investigation on the determinants of reovirus susceptibility. PMID:24073198

  19. Cross-sectional study to assess risk factors for leishmaniasis in an endemic region in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Munasinghe, Asoka; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sivanantharajah, Sundaramoorthy; Seneviratne, Kamal; Bandara, Samantha; Athauda, Indira; Navaratne, Chaturi; Silva, Ositha; Wackwella, Hasini; Matlashewski, Greg; Wickremasinghe, Renu

    2013-10-01

    Sri Lanka reports significantly more cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases than visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, both of which are caused by Leishmania donovani MON-37. A cross-sectional study conducted in an area with a high prevalence of CL prevalent included 954 participants of an estimated population of 61,674 to estimate the number of CL cases, ascertain whether there is a pool of asymptomatic VL cases, and identify risk factors for transmission. A total of 31 cases of CL were identified, of whom 21 were previously diagnosed and 10 were new cases. Using rK39 rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies against Leishmania spp., we found that only one person was seropositive but did not have clinical symptoms of CL or VL, which indicated low transmission of VL in this area. ?(2) test, independent sample t-test, and multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and spatial distribution of environmental risk factors showed that living near paddy fields is associated with increased risk for transmission of CL (P ? 0.01). PMID:23918217

  20. Cross-Sectional Study to Assess Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Region in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Munasinghe, Asoka; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sivanantharajah, Sundaramoorthy; Seneviratne, Kamal; Bandara, Samantha; Athauda, Indira; Navaratne, Chaturi; Silva, Ositha; Wackwella, Hasini; Matlashewski, Greg; Wickremasinghe, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lanka reports significantly more cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases than visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, both of which are caused by Leishmania donovani MON-37. A cross-sectional study conducted in an area with a high prevalence of CL prevalent included 954 participants of an estimated population of 61,674 to estimate the number of CL cases, ascertain whether there is a pool of asymptomatic VL cases, and identify risk factors for transmission. A total of 31 cases of CL were identified, of whom 21 were previously diagnosed and 10 were new cases. Using rK39 rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies against Leishmania spp., we found that only one person was seropositive but did not have clinical symptoms of CL or VL, which indicated low transmission of VL in this area. ?2 test, independent sample t-test, and multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and spatial distribution of environmental risk factors showed that living near paddy fields is associated with increased risk for transmission of CL (P ? 0.01). PMID:23918217

  1. Differential effects of antigens from L. braziliensis isolates from disseminated and cutaneous leishmaniasis on in vitro cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Leopoldo, Paulo TG; Machado, Paulo RL; Almeida, Roque P; Schriefer, Albert; Giudice, Angela; de Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro; Ho, John L; Guimarães, Luiz Henrique; Bacellar, Olívia; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2006-01-01

    Background Disseminated leishmaniasis is an emerging infectious disease, mostly due to L. braziliensis, which has clinical and histopathological features distinct from cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods In the current study we evaluated the in vitro production of the cytokines IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-5 and IL-10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 15 disseminated leishmaniasis and 24 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients upon stimulation with L. braziliensis antigens genotyped as disseminated leishmaniasis or cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates. Results Regardless of the source of L. braziliensis antigens, PBMC from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients produced significantly higher IFN-? than PBMC from disseminated leishmaniasis patients. Levels of TNF-? by PBMC from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients were significantly higher than disseminated leishmaniasis patients only when stimulated by genotyped cutaneous leishmaniasis antigens. The levels of IL-5 and IL-10 production by PBMC were very low and similar in PBMCs from both disseminated leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. The immune response of each patient evaluated by the two L. braziliensis antigens was assessed in a paired analysis in which we showed that L. braziliensis genotyped as disseminated leishmaniasis isolate was more potent than L. braziliensis genotyped as cutaneous leishmaniasis isolate in triggering IFN-? and TNF-? production in both diseases and IL-5 only in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Conclusion This study provides evidence that antigens prepared from genotypically distinct strains of L. braziliensis induce different degrees of immune response. It also indicates that both parasite and host play a role in the outcome of L. braziliensis infection. PMID:16638143

  2. Peridomiciliary Breeding Sites of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Vivaldo Pim; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Biral dos Santos, Claudiney; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in areas modified by humans indicates that phlebotomine sand fly vectors breed close to human habitations. Potential peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomines were sampled in an area of transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil. Three concentric circles rounding houses and domestic animal shelters, with radii of 20, 40, and 60 m, defined the area to be monitored using adult emergence traps. Of the 67 phlebotomines collected, Lutzomyia intermedia comprised 71.6%; Lutzomyia schreiberi, 20.9%; and Lutzomyia migonei, 4.5%. The predominance of L. intermedia, the main species suspected of transmitting L. (V.) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil, indicates its participation in the domiciliary transmission of ACL, providing evidence that the domiciliary ACL transmission cycle might be maintained by phlebotomines that breed close to human habitations. This finding might also help in planning measures that would make the peridomiciliary environment less favorable for phlebotomine breeding sites. PMID:23091196

  3. Isolated Laryngeal Leishmaniasis in Immunocompetent Patients: An Underdiagnosed Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cocuzza, Salvatore; Strazzulla, Alessio; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Cosentino, Stefano; Serra, Agostino; Caltabiano, Rosario; Lanzafame, Salvatore; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of isolated primary laryngeal leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent Italian patient with a previous medical history negative for visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, presenting with hoarseness. We also summarize the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic features and the therapeutic management of other cases of laryngeal leishmaniasis in immunocompetent subjects, described in the literature. Considering the insidious and nonspecific clinical presentation, the increasing number of different forms of mild or underestimated immunosuppressive conditions, and the number of people travelling in endemic zones, along with the ability of Leishmania amastigotes to survive for a long period in the body, we believe it is important for pathologists and clinicians to be aware of this unusual form of leishmaniasis in order to avoid delayed recognition and treatment. The rarity of the presentation and the lack of guidelines on mucosal leishmaniasis may contribute to the potential undiagnosed cases or delayed diagnosis, the possible relapses, as well as the correct pharmacological and/or surgical therapeutic approach. PMID:23662221

  4. Isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis in immunocompetent patients: an underdiagnosed disease.

    PubMed

    Cocuzza, Salvatore; Strazzulla, Alessio; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Cosentino, Stefano; Serra, Agostino; Caltabiano, Rosario; Lanzafame, Salvatore; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of isolated primary laryngeal leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent Italian patient with a previous medical history negative for visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, presenting with hoarseness. We also summarize the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic features and the therapeutic management of other cases of laryngeal leishmaniasis in immunocompetent subjects, described in the literature. Considering the insidious and nonspecific clinical presentation, the increasing number of different forms of mild or underestimated immunosuppressive conditions, and the number of people travelling in endemic zones, along with the ability of Leishmania amastigotes to survive for a long period in the body, we believe it is important for pathologists and clinicians to be aware of this unusual form of leishmaniasis in order to avoid delayed recognition and treatment. The rarity of the presentation and the lack of guidelines on mucosal leishmaniasis may contribute to the potential undiagnosed cases or delayed diagnosis, the possible relapses, as well as the correct pharmacological and/or surgical therapeutic approach. PMID:23662221

  5. Regulation of PKC Mediated Signaling by Calcium during Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Nivedita; Chakraborty, Supriya; Paul Chowdhury, Bidisha; Banerjee, Sayantan; Halder, Kuntal; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Subrata; Sen, Parimal C.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is an ubiquitous cellular signaling molecule that controls a variety of cellular processes and is strictly maintained in the cellular compartments by the coordination of various Ca2+ pumps and channels. Two such fundamental calcium pumps are plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) which play a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis. This intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is often disturbed by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study we have dileneated the involvement of PMCA4 and SERCA3 during leishmaniasis. We have observed that during leishmaniasis, intracellular Ca2+ concentration was up-regulated and was further controlled by both PMCA4 and SERCA3. Inhibition of these two Ca2+-ATPases resulted in decreased parasite burden within the host macrophages due to enhanced intracellular Ca2+. Contrastingly, on the other hand, activation of PMCA4 was found to enhance the parasite burden. Our findings also highlighted the importance of Ca2+ in the modulation of cytokine balance during leishmaniasis. These results thus cumulatively suggests that these two Ca2+-ATPases play prominent roles during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25329062

  6. Survey of Wild Mammal Hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Parasites in Panamá and Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E.; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A.; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D.; Adler, Gregory H.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America.

  7. CD20 Expression in Normal Canine B Cells and in Canine non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Jubala; J. W. Wojcieszyn; V. E. O. Valli; D. M. Getzy; S. P. Fosmire; D. Coffey; D. Bellgrau; J. F. Modiano

    2005-01-01

    We examined the expression of CD20 in normal canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, normal canine spleen, and canine non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to determine the feasibility of using this antigen as a diagnostic aid and as a possible target for therapy. An antibody generated against a C-terminal (intracytoplasmic) epitope of human CD20 recognized proteins of 32-36 kd in normal and malignant

  8. CD20 expression in normal canine B cells and in canine non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jubala, C M; Wojcieszyn, J W; Valli, V E O; Getzy, D M; Fosmire, S P; Coffey, D; Bellgrau, D; Modiano, J F

    2005-07-01

    We examined the expression of CD20 in normal canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, normal canine spleen, and canine non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to determine the feasibility of using this antigen as a diagnostic aid and as a possible target for therapy. An antibody generated against a C-terminal (intracytoplasmic) epitope of human CD20 recognized proteins of 32-36 kd in normal and malignant canine lymphocytes. This antibody showed restricted membrane binding in a subset of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, in the B-cell regions from a normal canine spleen and lymph node, and in malignant cells from 19 dogs with B-cell NHL, but not from 15 dogs with T-cell NHL. The patterns of CD20 reactivity in these samples overlapped those seen using an antibody that recognizes canine CD79a. This anti-CD20 antibody is therefore suitable as an aid to phenotype canine NHL. In contrast, normal canine B cells were not recognized by any of 28 antibodies directed against the extracellular domains of human CD20 (including the chimeric mouse-human antibody Rituximab) or by any of 12 antibodies directed against the extracellular domains of mouse CD20. Thus, the use of CD20 as a therapeutic target will require the generation of specific antibodies against the extracellular domains of canine CD20. PMID:16006606

  9. Evidence for canine rehabilitation and physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Millis, Darryl L; Ciuperca, Ionut Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews some important studies regarding canine physical rehabilitation. Bones, cartilage, muscles, ligaments, and tendons undergo atrophy if loading is decreased. Knowledge of the changes that occur with immobilization and the time course of events helps in the development of a rehabilitation program to improve tissue integrity. Outcome assessment instruments are clinically useful indicators of patient progress and the success of rehabilitation programs. A number of physical modalities are used in canine rehabilitation, although there are relatively few canine-specific studies. Rehabilitation has specific benefits in the treatment of various orthopedic and neurologic conditions. PMID:25432679

  10. Primary oral leishmaniasis mimicking oral cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Celentano, A; Ruoppo, E; Mansueto, G; Mignogna, M D

    2015-04-01

    Primary mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare infectious disease, particularly in immunocompetent patients. We present a 50-year-old patient with a 6-week history of a painful lesion of the left buccal mucosa that mimicked cancer. The exophytic lesion looked invasive, and we took an incisional biopsy specimen to exclude cancer. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was unexpected, and the patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B for five weeks. After five months the patient had a visceral recurrence. Chronic exophytic and ulcerated mucosal lesions that do not heal within 3-4 weeks should be regarded as the first signs of oral cancer, but primary oral leishmaniasis can easily mimic it. PMID:25701438

  11. Wave transmission characteristics and anisotropy of canine carotid arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moritz, W. E.; Anliker, M.

    1974-01-01

    A method was developed to generate and record three types of small amplitude waves (pressure, torsion and axial) in the exposed carotid artery of anesthetized dogs. The pressure waves were studied with the aid of miniature pressure transducers; electro-optical tracking units monitored the axial and circumferential surface displacements. Results from 6 dogs are presented in the form of the phase velocities and attenuation of three types of waves. The data demonstrate incompatibility with an isotropic elastic model for the mechanical behavior of the artery. The measured damping appears to be primarily due to the viscoelastic properties of the vessel wall material.

  12. Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT; also known as

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    to further characterize this unusual tumour. The authors initially sequenced mitochondria from 37CTVTs and metabolic rates might render mitochondria in CTVT cells dysfunctional and, in the absence of selection for cells with functional mitochondria, tumour cells might acquire mitochondria from the host to repair

  13. Canine retinal angioblasts are multipotent.

    PubMed

    Lutty, Gerard A; Merges, Carol; Grebe, Rhonda; Prow, Tarl; McLeod, D Scott

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to culture and characterize endothelial cells and angioblasts, vascular precursors, from adult and neonatal dog retina and determine if angioblasts are committed to endothelial cell lineage or have the potential to be multipotent, i.e. express phenotypic characteristics of other vascular cell types. Endothelial cells were established from adult dog retina (ADREC) by the technique of Gitlin and D'Amore. For angioblasts, pieces of neonatal day 2 (P2) avascular peripheral retina were placed under coverslips until sufficient cells had explanted. All cells were maintained initially on hyaluronic acid (HA)/fibronectin (FN) substratum. Neonatal canine retinal angioblasts (NCRA) were maintained initially on retinal-derived growth factor with alpha-amino adipic acid to inhibit growth of Muller cells. Cell lines were characterized by enzyme histochemistry [menadione-dependent alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alphaGPDH), marker for angioblasts] and immunocytochemistry. Once characterized, cells were grown on FN, or collagens I or IV substrata and fed platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) or fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The phenotypic expression of a marker for endothelial cells [acetylated LDL (acLDL) uptake] or a marker for pericytes and smooth muscle cells, production of alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA), was evaluated under those conditions. The canine retinal cell lines that were established had the following characteristics when maintained on serum and a retinal extract. Angioblasts had low expression of vWf and VEGF-R2 (two markers for canine endothelial cells), and very low uptake of acLDL but high expression of alphaGPDH and adenosine A2a receptors (A2aR) (two markers for canine angioblasts in vivo). ADREC had high expression of endothelial cell markers (vWf, VEGF-R2, and acLDL uptake) but minimal expression of alphaGPDH and A2aR. Both angioblasts and endothelial cells expressed CXCR4, a marker for hemangioblasts. Angioblasts grown on any of the substrata in the presence of FGF-2 had high uptake of acLDL and low expression of alphaSMA, while those grown in the presence of PDGF-BB had high expression of alphaSMA and low uptake of acLDL. In conclusion, angioblasts cultured from peripheral vascular retina have low expression of endothelial cell markers and high alphaGPDH and A2aR, markers for canine angioblasts in vivo. Angioblasts will internalize acLDL when maintained on FGF-2 and express alphaSMA when maintained on PDGF-BB, suggesting that they have the potential to become endothelial cells or pericytes, i.e. are multipotent. PMID:16545371

  14. Heterologous protection in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G F; Handman, E

    1987-10-01

    Mice immunized with a glycolipid antigen (GL) of Leishmania major plus adjuvant are relatively resistant to subsequent infection with this protozoan parasite. The GL is affinity purified on the monoclonal antibody WIC-79.3 which is L. major-specific and does not react with L. donovani. When another monoclonal, WIC-108.3, which cross-reacts with several Leishmania species, is used to affinity purify GL from L. donovani, the eluted material can partially protect genetically resistant mice against L. major. Thus, GL cross-reactions may in part underlie the known protective effects of crude L. donovani antigens against L. major infection. Experiments with live parasites of the L. major isolate LRC-L119, that is non-pathogenic in mice, that does not survive long in macrophages in vitro, and that has not been shown to contain any WIC-79.3 reactive GL, indicated that this isolate will very effectively protect mice against subsequent infection. This raises the possibility that GL is only one of at least two different classes of vaccinating antigen capable of protectively immunizing mice in this cutaneous leishmaniasis model. PMID:3436638

  15. [Visceral leishmaniasis in Central Asia and Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, T I; Darchenkova, N N

    1990-01-01

    At present sporadic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are encountered mainly in the natural foci. The natural foci of VL are situated mainly in valleys and foothills. In southern areas of the Turkmen SSR the majority of cases were registered in small settlements situated near wells in interbarkhan lowerings. The reservoir of pathogen here may be Vulpes vulpes and dogs and the most likely vector is Phlebotomus turanicus. In Kazakhstan cases of VL are encountered in the thickets of the Syr-Darya floodlands in Kzyl-Orda Province, where the natural reservoir of the pathogen are Canis aureus L. and Vulpes corsac, and the vector is P. smirnovi. Synanthropic foci in Dzhambul and Chimkent, where dogs were most likely the source of the infection and P. longiductus was the vector, are at present inactive. The maps have been plotted where landscape dissemination of mosquitoes (VL vectors) is compared to places of habitation of Canis aureus L. and VL incidence in humans at peaks of the disease endemia. Medical personnel should be on the look-out for VL on the whole territory with VL natural foci. PMID:2146471

  16. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "? 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. PMID:23999330

  17. Visceral leishmaniasis: Experimental models for drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Suman; Nishi

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is a chronic protozoan infection in humans associated with significant global morbidity and mortality. The causative agent is a haemoflagellate protozoan Leishmania donovani, an obligate intracellular parasite that resides and multiplies within macrophages of the reticulo-endothelial system. Most of the existing anti-leishmanial drugs have serious side effects that limit their clinical application. As an alternate strategy, vaccination is also under experimental and clinical trials. The in vitro evaluation designed to facilitate rapid testing of a large number of drugs has been focussed on the promastigotes milt little attention on the clinically relevant parasite stage, amastigotes. Screening designed to closely reflect the situation in vivo is currently time consuming, laborious, and expensive, since it requires intracellular amastigotes and animal model. The ability to select transgenic Leishmania expressing reporter proteins, such as the green fluorescent proteins (GFP) or the luciferase opened up new possibilities for the development of drug screening models. Many experimental animal models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, but none accurately reproduces what happens in humans. Available in vitro and in vivo methodologies for antileishmanial drug screening and their respective advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. PMID:21321417

  18. Key Facts about Canine Influenza (Dog Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bat Flu Canine Flu Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... American Veterinary Medical Association Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  19. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  20. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species.

    PubMed

    Dutari, Larissa C; Loaiza, Jose R

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  1. Recent evolution of equine influenza and the origin of canine influenza

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Patrick J.; Vachieri, Sebastien G.; Haire, Lesley F.; Ogrodowicz, Roksana W.; Martin, Stephen R.; Walker, Philip A.; Xiong, Xiaoli; Gamblin, Steven J.; Skehel, John J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2004 an hemagglutinin 3 neuraminidase 8 (H3N8) equine influenza virus was transmitted from horses to dogs in Florida and subsequently spread throughout the United States and to Europe. To understand the molecular basis of changes in the antigenicity of H3 hemagglutinins (HAs) that have occurred during virus evolution in horses, and to investigate the role of HA in the equine to canine cross-species transfer, we used X-ray crystallography to determine the structures of the HAs from two antigenically distinct equine viruses and from a canine virus. Structurally all three are very similar with the majority of amino acid sequence differences between the two equine HAs located on the virus membrane-distal molecular surface. HAs of canine viruses are distinct in containing a Trp-222?Leu substitution in the receptor binding site that influences specificity for receptor analogs. In the fusion subdomain of canine and recent equine virus HAs a unique difference is observed by comparison with all other HAs examined to date. Analyses of site-specific mutant HAs indicate that a single amino acid substitution, Thr-30?Ser, influences interactions between N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the subdomain that are important in the structural changes required for membrane fusion activity. Both structural modifications may have facilitated the transmission of H3N8 influenza from horses to dogs. PMID:25024224

  2. Canine distemper virus infection of canine footpad epidermis.

    PubMed

    Gröne, Andrea; Doherr, Marcus G; Zurbriggen, Andreas

    2004-06-01

    Infection of the footpad epidermis can occur in natural canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of dogs. Footpads from 19 dogs experimentally inoculated with virulent distemper strain A75/17 and from two nonexposed dogs were examined histopathologically and assessed for the presence of viral antigen and nucleoprotein mRNA, as well as number of inflammatory and apoptotic cells. Dogs were divided into four groups based on inoculation status and postmortem examination: inoculated dogs with severe distemper (group 1, n = 7); inoculated dogs with mild distemper (group 2, n = 4); inoculated dogs without distemper (group 3, n = 8); and noninoculated dogs (group 4, n = 2). Footpads from dogs of all groups had a comparably thick epidermis. Eosinophilic viral inclusions and syncytial cells were present in footpad epidermis of one dog of group 1. Footpads of group 1 dogs contained viral antigen and mRNA in the epidermis with strongest staining in a subcorneal location. Additionally, in these dogs footpad dermal structures including eccrine glands and vascular walls were positive for virus particles. No CDV antigen or mRNA was present in the footpad epidermis and dermis of any other dog. Group 1 dogs had more CD3-positive cells and apoptotic cells within the basal layer of the epidermis when compared to the other groups. These findings demonstrate that in experimental infection CDV antigen and mRNA were colocalized in all layers of the infected canine footpad epidermis. The scarcity of overt pathological reactions with absence of keratinocyte degeneration indicates a noncytocidal persisting infection of footpad keratinocytes by CDV. PMID:15214952

  3. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease. PMID:19426443

  4. Serologic Investigations of Canine Parvovirus and Canine Distemper in Relation to Wolf (Canis lupus) Pup Mortalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Johnson; Diane K. Boyd; Daniel H. Pletscher

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-one serum samples from 18 wolves (Canis lupus) were collected from 1985 to 1990 from northwestern Montana (USA) and southeastern British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper (CD), infectious ca- nine hepatitis, and Lyme disease; we found prevatences of 13 (65%) of 19, five (29%) of 17, seven (36%) of 19, and 0 of

  5. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...clinical signs of canine adenovirus type 2 infection other than fever, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (iv) If...not show clinical signs of canine adenovirus type 2 other than fever, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (v)...

  6. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...clinical signs of canine adenovirus type 2 infection other than fever, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (iv) If...not show clinical signs of canine adenovirus type 2 other than fever, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (v)...

  7. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...clinical signs of canine adenovirus type 2 infection other than fever, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (iv) If...not show clinical signs of canine adenovirus type 2 other than fever, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (v)...

  8. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  9. [Severe macrophage activation syndrome following visceral leishmaniasis in a child].

    PubMed

    Oudaina, W; Assini, K; El Ouardi, M; Tligui, H

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic disease that is a public health problem in Morocco and is one of the frequent infectious causes of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). The combination of clinical and laboratory criteria, even very unspecific, make it possible to diagnose MAS, but a definitive diagnosis requires cytological examination. Rapid treatment is essential. The outcome was favorable. PMID:24876180

  10. Liposomal amphotericin B as a treatment for human leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Balasegaram, Manica; Ritmeijer, Koert; Lima, Maria Angeles; Burza, Sakib; Ortiz Genovese, Gemma; Milani, Barbara; Gaspani, Sara; Potet, Julien; Chappuis, François

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Between 700,000 and 1.2 million cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and between 200,000 and 400,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is fatal if left untreated, occur annually worldwide. Liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB), alone or in combination with other drugs, has been extensively studied as VL treatment, but data on routine field use are limited, and several challenges to patients' access to this life-saving drug remain. Areas covered: This article provides a review of clinical studies on LAMB for VL and other forms of leishmaniasis. The current development of generic versions of LAMB and related challenges are also discussed. Expert opinion: LAMB proved to be highly efficacious and safe in over 8000 VL patients treated by MÉdecins Sans Frontières in South Asia, and its use was feasible even at primary healthcare level. Despite requiring higher doses, LAMB is the drug of choice to treat vulnerable groups (e.g., pregnant or HIV positive) and relapsing VL patients in East Africa. LAMB should be included in national VL guidelines and registered in all VL endemic countries. Its cost should be further reduced and regulatory pathways to prove bioequivalence for generic LAMB products should be implemented. PMID:23167833

  11. Comparative salivary gland transcriptomics of sandfly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M Anderson; Fabiano Oliveira; Shaden Kamhawi; Ben J Mans; David Reynoso; Amy E Seitz; Phillip Lawyer; Mark Garfield; MyVan Pham; Jesus G Valenzuela

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immune responses to sandfly saliva have been shown to protect animals against Leishmania infection. Yet very little is known about the molecular characteristics of salivary proteins from different sandflies, particularly from vectors transmitting visceral leishmaniasis, the fatal form of the disease. Further knowledge of the repertoire of these salivary proteins will give us insights into the molecular evolution of

  12. Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Indian Subcontinent: Modelling Epidemiology and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anette Stauch; Ram Rup Sarkar; Albert Picado; Bart Ostyn; Shyam Sundar; Suman Rijal; Marleen Boelaert; Jean-Claude Dujardin; Hans-Peter Duerr

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundIn the Indian subcontinent, about 200 million people are at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In 2005, the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh started the first regional VL elimination program with the aim to reduce the annual incidence to less than 1 per 10,000 by 2015. A mathematical model was developed to support this elimination program with basic

  13. Renal tubular dysfunction in patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo A Oliveira; Lúcyo F B Diniz; Leonardo O Teotônio; Cláudio G Lima; Rosa M S Mota; Alice Martins; Talita R Sanches; Antônio C Seguro; Lúcia Andrade; Geraldo B Silva; Alexandre B Libório; Elizabeth F Daher

    2011-01-01

    Renal dysfunction seen in patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) has been attributed to the use of antimonials for treatment. To determine whether ACL itself causes tubular dysfunction, we measured renal function in 37 patients with ACL prior to their treatment and compared results to that in 10 healthy volunteers of similar mean age. None of the patients presented with

  14. Serologic survey for canine coronavirus in wolves from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarnke, R.L.; Evermann, J.; Ver Hoef, J.M.; McNay, M.E.; Boertje, R.D.; Gardner, C.L.; Adams, L.G.; Dale, B.W.; Burch, J.

    2001-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) were captured in three areas of Interior Alaska (USA). Four hundred twenty-five sera were tested for evidence of exposure to canine coronavirus by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody procedure. Serum antibody prevalence averaged 70% (167/ 240) during the spring collection period and 25% (46/185) during the autumn collection period. Prevalence was 0% (0/42) in the autumn pup cohort (age 4-5 mo), and 60% (58/97) in the spring pup cohort (age 9-10 mo). Prevalence was lowest in the Eastern Interior study area. A statistical model indicates that prevalence increased slightly each year in all three study areas. These results indicate that transmission occurs primarily during the winter months, antibody decay is quite rapid, and reexposure during the summer is rare.

  15. Complications of misdiagnosis of maxillary canine ectopic eruption.

    PubMed

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Janson, Guilherme; Baldo, Taiana de Oliveira; dos Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra

    2012-08-01

    Ectopic eruption of maxillary canines can be associated with root resorption of adjacent teeth. This case report describes and discusses an interesting case of a 15-year-old girl with a Class III malocclusion and an impacted maxillary canine. Because of the unfavorable position of the ectopic canine and the severe root resorption of the maxillary left central and lateral incisors, the treatment options included extraction of the maxillary permanent canines. The mandibular first premolars were extracted to compensate for the Class III malocclusion. A panoramic radiograph taken earlier in the mixed dentition already indicated a possible eruption disturbance of the maxillary left permanent canine. The importance of early diagnosis of maxillary canine ectopic eruption is highlighted in this case report. The early identification of radiographic signs of an ectopic pathway of eruption should be followed by deciduous canine extraction to prevent canine retention and maxillary incisor root resorption. PMID:22858336

  16. Dilated Canine Hearts: A Specimen For Teaching Cardiac Anatomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Lee Anne Cope (Winthrop University)

    2008-09-01

    This article describes an alternate mechanism for teaching cardiovascular anatomy using dilated canine hearts. The article describes the methodology and academic benefits of using canine hearts in an anatomy laboratory.

  17. Low Quality Evidence of Epidemiological Observational Studies on Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mário; Marlow, Mariel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. Methods/Principal Findings For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n?=?59), case-control (8.5%, n?=?24), and cohort (6.0%, n?=?17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n?=?181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n?=?24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n?=?112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n?=?38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n?=?178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n?=?659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. Conclusions/Significance A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the last two years, an emphasis on observational research which employs comparison groups and representative samples is urgently needed. PMID:25197965

  18. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Maria Antonietta; Matheson, Carney; Iachetta, Lucia; Llagostera, Agustín; Appenzeller, Otto

    2009-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. Methodology We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area–likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. Conclusions We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today. PMID:19746163

  19. Epidemiological Changes in Leishmaniasis in Spain According to Hospitalization-Based Records, 1997-2011: Raising Awareness towards Leishmaniasis in Non-HIV Patients.

    PubMed

    Herrador, Zaida; Gherasim, Alin; Jimenez, B Carolina; Granados, Marisol; San Martín, Juan Victor; Aparicio, Pilar

    2015-03-01

    In Spain, Leishmania infantum is endemic, human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occurring both in the Peninsula, as well as in the Balearic Islands. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis patients and the changes in the disease evolution after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in 1997. In this descriptive study, we used Spanish Centralized Hospital Discharge Database for the hospitalized leishmaniasis cases between 1997 and 2011. We included in the analysis only the records having leishmaniasis as the first registered diagnosis and calculated the hospitalization rates. Disease trend was described taking into account the HIV status. Adjusted odds-ratio was used to estimate the association between clinical and socio-demographic factors and HIV co-infection. Of the total 8010 Leishmaniasis hospitalizations records, 3442 had leishmaniasis as first diagnosis; 2545/3442 (75.6%) were males and 2240/3442 (65.1%) aged between 14-65 years. Regarding disease forms, 2844/3442 (82.6%) of hospitalizations were due to visceral leishmaniasis (VL), while 118/3442 (3.4%) hospitalizations were cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Overall, 1737/2844 of VL (61.1%) were HIV negatives. An overall increasing trend was observed for the records with leishmaniasis as first diagnosis (p=0.113). Non-HIV leishmaniasis increased during this time period (p=0.021) while leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection hospitalization revealed a slight descending trend (p=0.717). Leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection was significantly associated with male sex (aOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.25-2.04), 16-64 years age group (aOR=17.4; 95%CI: 2.1-143.3), visceral leishmaniasis aOR=6.1 (95%CI: 3.27-11.28) and solid neoplasms 4.5 (95% CI: 1.65-12.04). The absence of HIV co-infection was associated with lymph/hematopoietic neoplasms (aOR=0.3; 95%CI:0.14-0.57), other immunodeficiency (aOR=0.04; 95% CI:0.01-0.32) and transplant (aOR=0.01; 95%CI:0.00-0.07). Our findings suggest a significant increase of hospitalization in the absence of HIV co-infection, with a predomination of VL. We consider that clinicians in Spain should be aware of leishmaniasis not only in the HIV population but also in non HIV patients, especially for those having immunosuppression as an associate condition. PMID:25756785

  20. Epidemiological Changes in Leishmaniasis in Spain According to Hospitalization-Based Records, 1997–2011: Raising Awareness towards Leishmaniasis in Non-HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, B. Carolina; Granados, Marisol; San Martín, Juan Victor; Aparicio, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    In Spain, Leishmania infantum is endemic, human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occurring both in the Peninsula, as well as in the Balearic Islands. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis patients and the changes in the disease evolution after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in 1997. In this descriptive study, we used Spanish Centralized Hospital Discharge Database for the hospitalized leishmaniasis cases between 1997 and 2011. We included in the analysis only the records having leishmaniasis as the first registered diagnosis and calculated the hospitalization rates. Disease trend was described taking into account the HIV status. Adjusted odds-ratio was used to estimate the association between clinical and socio-demographic factors and HIV co-infection. Of the total 8010 Leishmaniasis hospitalizations records, 3442 had leishmaniasis as first diagnosis; 2545/3442 (75.6%) were males and 2240/3442 (65.1%) aged between 14-65 years. Regarding disease forms, 2844/3442 (82.6%) of hospitalizations were due to visceral leishmaniasis (VL), while 118/3442 (3.4%) hospitalizations were cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Overall, 1737/2844 of VL (61.1%) were HIV negatives. An overall increasing trend was observed for the records with leishmaniasis as first diagnosis (p=0.113). Non-HIV leishmaniasis increased during this time period (p=0.021) while leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection hospitalization revealed a slight descending trend (p=0.717). Leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection was significantly associated with male sex (aOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.25-2.04), 16-64 years age group (aOR=17.4; 95%CI: 2.1-143.3), visceral leishmaniasis aOR=6.1 (95%CI: 3.27-11.28) and solid neoplasms 4.5 (95% CI: 1.65-12.04). The absence of HIV co-infection was associated with lymph/hematopoietic neoplasms (aOR=0.3; 95%CI:0.14-0.57), other immunodeficiency (aOR=0.04; 95% CI:0.01-0.32) and transplant (aOR=0.01; 95%CI:0.00-0.07). Our findings suggest a significant increase of hospitalization in the absence of HIV co-infection, with a predomination of VL. We consider that clinicians in Spain should be aware of leishmaniasis not only in the HIV population but also in non HIV patients, especially for those having immunosuppression as an associate condition. PMID:25756785

  1. Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis: IgM and Polyclonal B-Cell Activation Lead to Disease Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Eszter; Jayakumar, Asha; Wing Cho, Ka; Goldsmith-Pestana, Karen; Dondji, Blaise; Lambris, John D.; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2010-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the draining lymph node (DLN) is the initial site for colonization and establishment of infection after intradermal transmission by the sand fly vector; however, little is known about the developing immune response within this site. Using an intradermal infection model, which allows for parasite visceralization, we have examined the ongoing immune responses in the DLN of BALB/c mice infected with L. infantum. Although not unexpected, at early times post-infection there is a marked B cell expansion in the DLN, which persists throughout infection. However, the characteristics of this response were of interest; as early as day 7 post-infection, polyclonal antibodies (TNP, OVA, chromatin) were observed and the levels appeared comparable to the specific anti-leishmania response. Although B-cell-deficient JHD BALB/c mice are relatively resistant to infection, neither B-cell-derived IL-10 nor B-cell antigen presentation appear to be primarily responsible for the elevated parasitemia. However, passive transfer and reconstitution of JHD BALB/c with secretory immunoglobulins, (IgM or IgG; specific or non-specific immune complexes) results in increased susceptibility to L. infantum infection. Further, JHD BALB/c mice transgenetically reconstituted to secrete IgM demonstrated exacerbated disease in comparison to wild type BALB/c mice as early as 2 days post-infection. Evidence suggests that complement activation (generation of C5a) and signaling via the C5aR (CD88) is related to the disease exacerbation caused by IgM rather than cytokine levels (IL-10 or IFN-?). Overall these studies indicate that polyclonal B cell activation, which is known to be associated with human visceral leishmaniasis, is an early and intrinsic characteristic of disease and may represent a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20213734

  2. First comparative transcriptomic analysis of wild adult male and female Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Christina B; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F P; Diambra, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative targets for vector control via RNA interference (RNAi). PMID:23554910

  3. Spatial and temporal distributions of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of leishmaniasis, in Iran.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ameneh; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Ghezelbash, Zahra

    2014-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major vector-borne disease and health problem in Iran. Studies on sand flies, as the vectors of the disease, began in the Northern and Western parts of the country in 1930 and have been continued up to now. Concerning many published information in the field of sand flies, providing a digital database for the country will help the public health authorities to make more correct and prompt decisions for planning leishmaniasis control programs as well as modeling and forecasting of transmission potential across the country. All published data on phlebotomine sand flies of Iran were collected. A database was then designed in Excel format, including all available information regarding sand flies. The valid data were transferred to ArcGIS9.3 to prepare the first spatial database of sand flies of Iran. The IrSandflybase includes 131 papers, 2 abstracts and 71 PhD/MSc theses, reporting studies conducted during 1930-2012. This database contains different available data covering all aspects of ecology and biology of 50 sand fly species in two genera of Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia in the country. The temporal activity of sand flies is reported 9 months in warm regions of the southern part, while it may reduce to 7-8 months in central plateau or 4-5 months in cold areas of the northwest. Occasional studies reported rare species from the borderlines of Iran. It seems that changing the climate due to global warming may affect the spatial distribution of different species and expand it into the country, the issue that can be followed by an updated database. PMID:24462940

  4. First Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Wild Adult Male and Female Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative targets for vector control via RNA interference (RNAi). PMID:23554910

  5. Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction

    PubMed Central

    Morters, Michelle K; Restif, Olivier; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Wood, James L N; Conlan, Andrew J K

    2013-01-01

    Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historical field data for wildlife, with important implications for disease control in dog populations. Here, we examine historical and more recent field data, in the context of host ecology and epidemic theory, to understand better the role of density in rabies transmission and the reasons why culling fails to control rabies. We conclude that the relationship between host density, disease incidence and other factors is complex and may differ between species. This highlights the difficulties of interpreting field data and the constraints of extrapolations between species, particularly in terms of control policies. We also propose that the complex interactions between dogs and people may render culling of free-roaming dogs ineffective irrespective of the relationship between host density and disease incidence. We conclude that vaccination is the most effective means to control rabies in all species. PMID:23004351

  6. Interest in paromomycin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease, and it is classified as one of the most important tropical fly-borne infections. This disease can cause two types of clinical manifestations: cutaneous forms and visceral forms. Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also called kala-azar, is a very serious infection that can be fatal. The management of visceral leishmaniasis requires informed diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Continuous research and development regarding the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis had led to many improvements. Paromomycin is a relatively new antibiotic drug that has been used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis for several years. This article reviews and discusses the use of paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis therapy. PMID:22802694

  7. Karyotype of canine soft tissue sarcomas: a multi-colour, multi-species approach to canine chromosome painting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce S. Milne; Tess Hoather; Patricia C. M. O’Brien; Fengtang Yang; Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith; Jane Dobson; David Sargan

    2004-01-01

    Many canine tumour types represent useful models for tumours also found in humans. Studies of chromosomal abnormalities in\\u000a canine tumours have been impeded by the complexity of the canine karyotype (2n = 78), which has made accurate identification\\u000a of rearranged chromosomes difficult and laborious. To overcome this difficulty we have developed a seven-colour paint system\\u000a for canine chromosomes, with six

  8. Canine distemper virus infection: proliferation of canine footpad keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Gröne, A; Engelhardt, P; Zurbriggen, A

    2003-09-01

    The proliferation of footpad keratinocytes of canine distemper virus (CDV)-infected dogs was investigated. Footpads of 19 dogs inoculated experimentally with a virulent distemper strain (A75/17) and of two noninoculated control dogs were collected at necropsy. Dogs were divided into four groups according to results of the postmortem examination: dogs with severe distemper (group 1), dogs with mild distemper (group 2), inoculated dogs without distemper (group 3) and noninoculated dogs (group 4). There was no distinct difference of epidermal thickness among the four groups. Infection of the footpad epidermis with CDV was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry for viral nucleoprotein and in situ hybridization for nucleoprotein messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Only group 1 dogs had viral antigen and mRNA in the footpad epidermis with the same distribution. Footpad epidermis of group 1 dogs had more mitotic figures in the basal layer, and significantly more basal keratinocytes were positive for the proliferation markers Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Double-staining for Ki-67 and viral nucleoprotein identified rare double-labeled basal keratinocytes. These findings suggest that the presence of CDV particles in the footpad epidermis is associated with keratinocyte proliferation. PMID:12949417

  9. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    PubMed Central

    Gruszka, Katarzyna; Ró?y?o, T. Katarzyna; Ró?y?o-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Denkiewicz, Katarzyna; Mas?owska, Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. Results The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation. PMID:24520309

  10. Transmission assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Klazura, K.

    1990-08-28

    This paper discusses a transmission assembly. It comprises a first automatic transmission having a forward end adapted to be coupled to an internal combustion engine and a rearward end, the first automatic transmission including a drive shaft; a second automatic transmission having a forward end and a rearward end, and including a stator plate having a forward portion and a rearward portion. The stator plate located adjacent the forward end of the second automatic transmission, the drive shaft connecting the first automatic transmission in driving relation with the second automatic transmission; a coupling plate for connecting the rearward end of the first automatic transmission with the forward end of the second automatic transmission. The coupling plate rotatably supporting the drive shaft; and means for providing communication of pressurized transmission fluid between the first and second automatic transmissions.

  11. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia migonei in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque; Santos, Fabricio Kassio Moura; Sousa, Lindemberg Caranha de; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2014-01-01

    The main vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, the absence of L. longipalpis in a region of autochthonous VL demonstrates the participation of other species in the transmission of the parasite. Studies conducted in La Banda, Argentina, and São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco State, Brazil, have correlated the absence of L. longipalpis and the presence of L. migonei with autochthonous cases of VL. In São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, there was evidence for the natural infection of L. migonei with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the ecology of the sand flies L. longipalpis and L. migonei in Fortaleza, an endemic area for VL. Insect capture was conducted at 22 sampling points distributed across four regions of Fortaleza. In total, 32,403 sand flies were captured; of these, 18,166 (56%) were identified as L. longipalpis and 14,237 (44%) as L. migonei. There were significant density differences found between the vectors at each sampling site (indoors and outdoors) (p <0.0001). These findings confirm that L. migonei and L. longipalpis are distributed throughout Fortaleza, where they have adapted to an indoor environment, and suggest that L. migonei may share the role as a vector with L. longipalpis in the transmission of VL in Fortaleza. PMID:25271451

  12. Canine pododermatitis and idiopathic disease.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Rory M; Fanning, Shay; Mulcahy, Grace; Bassett, Hugh F; Jones, Boyd R

    2008-05-01

    Pododermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease of dogs. As pedal lesions are reported in many canine dermatoses, a methodical series of diagnostic tests is required to establish the underlying aetiology. However, laboratory/ancillary investigations may prove unrewarding, prompting a diagnosis of idiopathic disease. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of idiopathic pododermatitis including pedal conformation, trauma, immunosuppression, bacterial infection, furunculosis and dermal granuloma formation. Idiopathic pododermatitis accounts for 0.5% of all dermatology referrals to the authors' clinic. A sub-group within this population is characterised histopathologically by epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, spongiosis, dermal oedema and perivascular aggregates of lymphocytes and plasma cells. The term lymphocytic-plasmacytic pododermatitis (LPP) has previously been proposed to reflect the histological appearance of such lesions. Affected dogs, although systemically well, characteristically have pruritus, erythema, swelling, pain and alopecia of the feet. Although non-responsive to antimicrobial therapy, antiparasitic agents and elimination diets, these dogs typically respond well to immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:17919951

  13. Leishmania Major Infection Among Psammomys Obesus and Meriones Shawi: Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sidi Bouzid (Central Tunisia)

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Amine; Snoussi, Mohamed-Ali; Chlif, Sadok; Zâatour, Amor; Boukthir, Aïcha; Bel Haj Hamida, Nabil; Chemkhi, Jomâa; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben-Salah, Afif

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A study was undertaken between November 2008 and March 2010, in the focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Central Tunisia, to evaluate the role of Psammomys obesus (n=472) and Meriones shawi (n=167) as reservoir hosts for Leishmania major infection. Prevalence of L. major infection was 7% versus 5% for culture (p=not signifiant [NS]), 19% versus 16% for direct examination of smears (p=NS), and 20% versus 33% (p=NS) for Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test among P. obesus and M. shawi, respectively. The peak of this infection was in winter and autumn and increased steadily with age for the both species of rodents. The clinical examination showed that depilation, hyper-pigmentation, ignition, and severe edema of the higher edge of the ears were the most frequent signs observed in the study sample (all signs combined: 47% for P. obesus versus 43% for M. shawi; p=NS). However, the lesions were bilateral and seem to be more destructive among M. shawi compared with P. obesus. Asymptomatic infection was ?40% for both rodents. This study demonstrated that M. shawi plays an important role in the transmission and the emergence of Leishmania major cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia. PMID:21919726

  14. Concomitant Infection with Leishmania donovani and L. major in Single Ulcers of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients from Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Babiker, A. M.; Ravagnan, S.; Fusaro, A.; Hassan, M. M.; Bakheit, S. M.; Mukhtar, M. M.; Cattoli, G.; Capelli, G.

    2014-01-01

    In Sudan human leishmaniasis occurs in different clinical forms, that is, visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Clinical samples from 69 Sudanese patients with different clinical manifestations were subjected to a PCR targeting the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene for Leishmania species identification. Mixed infections were suspected due to multiple overlapping peaks presented in some sequences of the COII amplicons. Cloning these amplicons and alignment of sequences from randomly selected clones confirmed the presence of two different Leishmania species, L. donovani and L. major, in three out of five CL patients. Findings were further confirmed by cloning the ITS gene. Regarding other samples no significant genetic variations were found in patients with VL (62 patients), PKDL (one patient), or ML (one patient). The sequences clustered in a single homogeneous group within L. donovani genetic group, with the exception of one sequence clustering with L. infantum genetic group. Findings of this study open discussion on the synergetic/antagonistic interaction between divergent Leishmania species both in mammalian and vector hosts, their clinical implications with respect to parasite fitness and response to treatment, and the route of transmission with respect to vector distribution and or adaptation. PMID:24744788

  15. Canine heartworms in coyotes in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Thomas A; Gregory, David G; Laursen, Jeffrey R

    2003-07-01

    Canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease affects wild canids and may be a factor impacting the health and population dynamics of coyotes (Canis latrans). Coyotes may serve also as a potential reservoir for transmission of these parasites to domestic dogs. We investigated 920 coyotes harvested by hunters and trappers throughout Illinois (USA) from 1995-1997. The objectives of the study were to: 1) survey the regional prevalence and intensity of heartworms in coyotes in Illinois, 2) determine whether heartworm intensity correlates with physical condition, particularly body weight and winter fat levels, and 3) evaluate the relationship between heartworm infections and the reproductive success of females. Prevalence of heartworms statewide was 16.0%. Prevalence was significantly higher in males (17.7%) than in females (14.1%; P = 0.04) and was higher in the older age-classes (P < 0.0001). The regional prevalence of heartworms increased from northern to southern Illinois. Intensity ranged from 1 to 111 with a mean of 8.7 (SD = 13.2) worms. Intensities did not differ significantly between sexes (P = 0.53) or among age-classes (P = 0.84). Most infected coyotes had low intensity infections, 78.2% carried < 12 heartworms, 11.6% had 12-24 worms, and 10.2% were infected with > 24 worms. Body weights were not correlated with the presence of heartworms, nor were levels of kidney fat and marrow fat. However, reproductive success was lower in infected females. The percent of yearling females that bred was lower among infected females, as was the number of offspring produced by adults > or = 3.5 yr old. Our study demonstrates that heavy infections adversely affect fur quality and reduce fecundity of some females, but these effects are small and few coyotes (4.1%) had enough worms to trigger them. Coyote populations have increased in Illinois during the past 20 yr, but prevalence and intensity of heartworm disease appears to have changed little in that period. We conclude that heartworm disease is only a minor factor influencing coyote population dynamics in Illinois. PMID:14567221

  16. Dens invaginatus (dilated odontome) in mandibular canine

    PubMed Central

    Halawar, Sangamesh S; Satyakiran, GVV; Krishnanand, PS; Prashanth, R

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth related to shape of the teeth. Affected teeth show a deep infolding of enamel and dentin starting from the tip of the cusps and may extend deep into the root. It results from the invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla before calcification has occurred. Teeth most affected are maxillary lateral incisors. The presence of dens invaginatus in mandibular canine is extremely rare. The tooth was symptomatic in that it was mobile and was oriented horizontally. This article presents a case of symptomatic dens invaginatus in mandibular canine. PMID:25364169

  17. Measuring mesiodistal width of impacted maxillary canines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Hofmann; Jürgen Medelnik; Thomas Keller; Stefanie Steinhäuser; Ursula Hirschfelder

    2011-01-01

    Aim  Precise, three-dimensional localization of impacted maxillary canines is central to their clinical management. Predicting\\u000a precisely the crown’s mesiodistal width is paramount in planning orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to verify\\u000a the exact mesiodistal width of impacted canines via MSCT (multislice spiral computed tomography) examinations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  3D MSCT images from 17 patients with a total of 24

  18. Visceral Leishmaniasis with Endobronchial Involvement in an Immunocompetent Adult

    PubMed Central

    Kotsifas, Konstantinos; Metaxas, Eugenios; Koutsouvelis, Ioannis; Skoutelis, Athanassios; Kara, Panayiota; Tatsis, George

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by fever, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Cough may be a presenting symptom as well. However, pulmonary involvement is considered rare and mainly described in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of an immunocompetent adult whose clinical presentation was dominated by cough and hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy revealed a discreet polypoid mucosal endobronchial lesion whose biopsy yielded Leishmania amastigotes within histiocytes. Transbronchial needle biopsy of a right paratracheal lymph node was also positive. Leishmania amastigotes were also found on bone marrow and liver biopsies. Treatment with IV Amphotericin B was successful. In conclusion, cough should not be overlooked as a presenting symptom of visceral leishmaniasis and may be a sign of pulmonary involvement. PMID:21577261

  19. Leishmaniasis Recidiva Cutis of the Lips Mimicking Granulomatous Cheilitis

    PubMed Central

    Ekiz, Özlem; Rifaio?lu, Emine Nur; ?en, Bilge Bülbül; Çulha, Gülnaz; Özgür, Tümay; Do?ramaci, Asena Çi?dem

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis recidiva cutis (LRC) is an unusual form of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. Herein, we present a case of LRC of the lips mimicking granulomatous cheilitis. An 8-year-old, Syrian child admitted with a swelling and disfigurement of his lips for 4 years. Abundant intra and extracellular Leishmania amastigotes were determined in the smear prepared from the lesion with Giemsa stain. Histopathology showed foamy histiocytes and leishmania parasites within the cytoplasm of macrophages in the epidermis and a dense dermal mixed type inflammatory cell infiltrate composed of lymphocytes, foamy histiocytes with multinucleated giant cells. On the basis of anamnestic data, the skin smears results, clinical and histopathologic findings, LRC was diagnosed. The patient was treated with meglumine antimoniate intramuscularly and fluconazole orally. Cryotherapy was applied to the residual papular lesions. The lesion improved markedly at the first month of the treatment.

  20. The seroprevalence of canine respiratory coronavirus and canine influenza virus in dogs in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Knesl; FJ Allan; S Shields

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) and canine influenza virus (CIV) are present in dogs in New Zealand.METHODS: Serum samples from 251 dogs of varying age, breed and clinical histories were tested for the presence of antibodies to CRCoV and CIV, using indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) analysis. The population sampled represented a wide geographic area but principally encompassed

  1. Characterization of the Priming Effect by Pituitary Canine Growth Hormone on Canine Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Granulocyte Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS K. PETERSEN; C. WAYNE SMITH; ASGER L. JENSEN

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that canine growth hormone (cGH) is capable of priming canine polymor- phonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) in a manner resembling that of human PMN. The cGH influences important functions that are involved in the process of recruitment of PMN, i.e., shape change, chemotaxis, CD11b\\/CD18 expression, adhesion, and subsequent transendothelial migration. Also, intracellular O2 2 pro- duction

  2. [Detection of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Hatay and surrounding areas].

    PubMed

    Culha, Gülnaz; Akçali, Cenk

    2006-01-01

    Leishmaniasis; is a disease that is transmitted by infected sand flies when they suck the blood of mammals. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which is given such names as the Antep boil in Turkey, is mostly seen on the skin and sometimes on the mucosa and heals with a recessed scar. Between June 2003 and October 2005, 55 patients with skin lesions presented at the parasitology laboratory of the Mustafa Kemal University Medical Faculty for the detection of CL. Microscopic examination showed Leishmania amastigotes in 40 patients who were given a diagnosis of CL. Thirteen patients were men (32.5%) and 27, women (67.5%). The most frequent age range was 0-20 (57.0%). The lesions were mostly found on the face in 27 (67.5%) patients and on the hands and feet in 13 (32.5%). Fourteen patients (35.0%) had 2 or more lesions. The duration of the lesions was from a minimum of 1 month to a maximum of 3 years. The patients were mostly from Iskenderun/Kirikhan, Iskenderun/Arsus Serinyol, Altinözü, Samanda? Antakya, Harbiye and they were farmers. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was more often detected during the May-June period. Some patients came to our laboratory from regions that had not reported CL before. Therefore, we think that CL has been increasing in Hatay and its surroundings. PMID:17309024

  3. Systematic Review of Biomarkers To Monitor Therapeutic Response in Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kip, Anke E.; Balasegaram, Manica; Beijnen, Jos H.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the development of new drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. This has spurred the need for pharmacodynamic markers to monitor and compare therapies specifically for visceral leishmaniasis, in which the primary recrudescence of parasites is a particularly long-term event that remains difficult to predict. We performed a systematic review of studies evaluating biomarkers in human patients with visceral, cutaneous, and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, which yielded a total of 170 studies in which 53 potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers were identified. In conclusion, the large majority of these biomarkers constituted universal indirect markers of activation and subsequent waning of cellular immunity and therefore lacked specificity. Macrophage-related markers demonstrate favorable sensitivity and times to normalcy, but more evidence is required to establish a link between these markers and clinical outcome. Most promising are the markers directly related to the parasite burden, but future effort should be focused on optimization of molecular or antigenic targets to increase the sensitivity of these markers. In general, future research should focus on the longitudinal evaluation of the pharmacodynamic biomarkers during treatment, with an emphasis on the correlation of studied biomarkers and clinical parameters. PMID:25367913

  4. [Macrophage activation syndrome and autoimmunity due to visceral leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Higel, L; Froehlich, C; Pages, M-P; Dupont, D; Collardeau-Frachon, S; Dijoud, F; Cochat, P; Belot, A

    2015-04-01

    Hemophagocytic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by an excessive immune response, mediated by activated cytotoxic T cells and macrophages. Among hemophagocytic syndromes, genetic and secondary forms can be distinguished. We report on the case of a male newborn who presented with macrophage activation syndrome associated with lymphoproliferation with favorable outcome under prednisone and cyclosporin. Hemopathy, infection, or genetic lymphohistiocytosis were initially ruled out. Severe autoimmunity was suspected because of positive antinuclear antibodies and Farr test associated with anemia and a positive Coombs test as well as cytolytic hepatitis with anti-liver, kidney microsome (LKM) antibodies. Treatment was therefore intensified by adding mycophenolate mofetil. This led to an unexpected deterioration of general health and lab exam results with recurrence of fever and inflammation. The initial investigations were revisited and completed by a liver biopsy, which revealed the presence of numerous leishmania parasites at the amastigote stage, enabling the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. The patient's condition dramatically improved under liposomal amphotericin B treatment. Our observation shows that visceral leishmaniasis can present as lupus-like syndrome with lymphoproliferation. Moreover, the lack of leishmania on marrow aspiration cannot rule out the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Detection of leishmania by serological or molecular tests is mandatory in case of hepatosplenomegaly with hemophagocytic syndrome together with autoantibodies, in order to avoid useless and life-threatening exposure to immunosuppressive treatments. PMID:25617995

  5. Live Vaccination Tactics: Possible Approaches for Controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Saljoughian, Noushin; Taheri, Tahareh; Rafati, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with durable immunity is the main goal and fundamental to control leishmaniasis. To stimulate the immune response, small numbers of parasites are necessary to be presented in the mammalian host. Similar to natural course of infection, strategy using live vaccine is more attractive when compared to other approaches. Live vaccines present the whole spectrum of antigens to the host immune system in the absence of any adjuvant. Leishmanization was the first effort for live vaccination and currently used in a few countries against cutaneous leishmaniasis, in spite of their obstacle and safety. Then, live attenuated vaccines developed with similar promotion of creating long-term immunity in the host with lower side effect. Different examples of attenuated strains are generated through long-term in vitro culturing, culturing under drug pressure, temperature sensitivity, and chemical mutagenesis, but none is safe enough and their revision to virulent form is possible. Attenuation through genetic manipulation and disruption of virulence factors or essential enzymes for intracellular survival are among other approaches that are intensively under study. Other designs to develop live vaccines for visceral form of leishmaniasis are utilization of live avirulent microorganisms such as Lactococcus lactis, Salmonella enterica, and Leishmania tarentolae called as vectored vaccine. Apparently, these vaccines are intrinsically safer and can harbor the candidate antigens in their genome through different genetic manipulation and create more potential to control Leishmania parasite as an intracellular pathogen. PMID:24744757

  6. Canine distemper virus associated proliferation of canine footpad keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, P; Wyder, M; Zurbriggen, A; Gröne, A

    2005-04-25

    Infection of canine footpads with canine distemper virus (CDV) can result in so-called hard pad disease characterized by footpad epidermal proliferation and hyperkeratosis. Cultured canine footpad keratinocytes (CFK) were inoculated with a virulent canine distemper virus strain (A75/17-CDV) to study the effects of CDV-infection on keratinocyte proliferation. Infection was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for CDV nucleoprotein (N-protein) antigen and mRNA. CDV caused a persistent, non-cytocidal infection with spread from single cells to infection of the confluent cell layer 7 days post infection (p.i.). Absolute cell numbers were significantly higher in infected cultures compared to control cultures from day 4 until day 6 p.i. Infected cultures contained significantly more total DNA on day 5 p.i. compared to controls. Immunohistochemical investigation of proliferation markers Ki67 and BrdU demonstrated a nearly two-fold increase in numbers of positive cells on day 5 p.i. compared to controls. These findings demonstrate that canine distemper virus infection of canine footpad keratinocytes in vitro was associated with proliferation. PMID:15795073

  7. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in dogs of an MF59™-adjuvanted vaccine against recombinant canine\\/porcine coronavirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Decaro; Viviana Mari; Rossana Sciarretta; Valeriana Colao; Michele Losurdo; Cristiana Catella; Gabriella Elia; Vito Martella; Giuseppe Del Giudice; Canio Buonavoglia

    2011-01-01

    Recently, canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains with putative recombinant origin with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were shown to be widespread in Europe. In this study, a killed vaccine against TGEV-like CCoV strains, included in the new subtype CCoV-IIb, was developed through inactivation with betapropiolactone and emulsification with MF59™ adjuvant. Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the developed vaccine were evaluated in

  8. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Cuban immigrants to Texas who traveled through the Darién Jungle, Panama.

    PubMed

    Barry, Meagan A; Koshelev, Misha V; Sun, Grace S; Grekin, Sarah J; Stager, Charles E; Diwan, A Hafeez; Wasko, Carina A; Murray, Kristy O; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is rarely seen in the United States. Four Cuban immigrants traveled along the same route at different times from Cuba to Ecuador, then northward, including through the Darién Jungle in Panama. These patients had chronic ulcerative non-healing skin lesions and were given a diagnosis of leishmaniasis. PMID:24865687

  9. Prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Lower Dir District (N.W.F.P), Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sami Ullah; Abdul Hamid Jan; Shad Mohammad Wazir; Nawab Ali

    2009-01-01

    Patients and methods A total of 224 subjects of different age groups wer e examined. Of the total (224) individuals, 50.89% were found positive for C L. The prevalence of leishmaniasis was also examined in relation to age, sex, site of involveme nt, number of lesions and nature of the lesions. Results The prevalence of leishmaniasis was 55% in local

  10. Renal cryoablation in a canine model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Stephenson; Dawn K. King; L. Ralph Rohr

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the potential safety and utility of cryoablation for treatment of selected renal tumors in a canine model.Methods. Ultrasound and direct physical measurements (depth and width) of five cryolesions were compared. Cryolesions were examined histologically in 6 animals, which were killed at 4 hours, 2 days, 1 week, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Mortality\\/morbidity was assessed

  11. DELINEATING TOXIC AREAS BY CANINE OLFACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project was undertaken to learn how the highly acute olfactory sensitivity of the canine could be applied with advantage to environmental problems. The objectives were to determine how dogs could be trained to detect hazardous and toxic pollutants in the environment an...

  12. Prostate histotripsy for BPH: initial canine results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    Histotripsy is an extracorporeal ablative technology that utilizes microsecond pulses of intense ultrasound (< 1% duty cycle) to produce nonthermal, mechanical fractionation of targeted tissue. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of histotripsy prostate ablation. In this study we sought to assess the chronic tissue response, tolerability and safety of histotripsy in a chronic in vivo canine model. Five acute and thirteen chronic canine subjects were anesthetized and treated with histotripsy targeting the prostate. Pulses consisted of 3 cycle bursts of 750 kHz ultrasound at a repetition rate of 300 Hz delivered transabdominally from a highly focused 15 cm aperture array. Transrectal ultrasound imaging provided accurate targeting and real-time monitoring of histotripsy treatment. Prostates were harvested at 0, 7, 28, or 56 days after treatment. Consistent mechanical tissue fractionation and debulking of prostate tissue was seen acutely and at delayed time points without collateral injury. Urothelialization of the treatment cavity was apparent 28 days after treatment. Canine subjects tolerated histotripsy with minimal hematuria or discomfort. Only mild transient lab abnormalities were noted. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive therapy for prostate tissue fractionation and debulking that appears safe and well tolerated without systemic side effects in the canine model.

  13. Association of Treponema spp. with canine periodontitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Nordhoff; Bärbel Rühe; Claudia Kellermeier; Annette Moter; Rose Schmitz; Leo Brunnberg; Lothar H. Wieler

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the association of oral Treponema (T.) spp. with severity of canine periodontitis, subgingival plaque samples of dogs of various breeds undergoing surgery were investigated. A wide range of oral Treponema spp. was analysed by a molecular and culture-independent approach applying DNA–DNA dot blot hybridization analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization using Treponema specific oligonucleotide probes specific for phylogenetic

  14. Original article Comparative analysis of canine monocyte-

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    morphology that expressed CD1c, CD11c and CD14, similar to macrophages. However, CD40 was only found on DCOriginal article Comparative analysis of canine monocyte- and bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells capacity. DC were derived from monocytes (MoDC) and from bone marrow hematopoietic cells cultured

  15. A novel bocavirus in canine liver

    E-print Network

    Li, Linlin; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Estrada, Marko; Coffey, Lark L.; Naccache, Samia N.; Samayoa, Erik; Chiu, Charles; Qiu, Jianming; Wang, Chunlin; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric

    2013-02-13

    gastroenteritis, necrotizing vasculitis, granulomatous lymphadenitis and anuric renal failure, we identified and characterized a novel bocavirus we named Canine bocavirus 3 (CnBoV3). The three major ORFs of CnBoV3 (NS1, NP1 and VP1) shared less than 60% aa...

  16. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain. PMID:21801646

  17. 78 FR 29698 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing a Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ...Field Testing a Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...an unlicensed Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA. The environmental assessment, which is...Inc. Product: Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA. Possible Field Test Locations:...

  18. Model-Based Investigations of Different Vector-Related Intervention Strategies to Eliminate Visceral Leishmaniasis on the Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Picado, Albert; Ostyn, Bart; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman; Boelaert, Marleen; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Eichner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The elimination of infectious diseases requires reducing transmission below a certain threshold. The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Initiative in Southeast Asia aims to reduce the annual VL incidence rate below 1 case per 10,000 inhabitants in endemic areas by 2015 via a combination of case management and vector control. Using a previously developed VL transmission model, we investigated transmission thresholds dependent on measures reducing the sand fly density either by killing sand flies (e.g., indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets) or by destroying breeding sites (e.g., environmental management). Model simulations suggest that elimination of VL is possible if the sand fly density can be reduced by 67% through killing sand flies, or if the number of breeding sites can be reduced by more than 79% through measures of environmental management. These results were compared to data from two recent cluster randomised controlled trials conducted in India, Nepal and Bangladesh showing a 72% reduction in sand fly density after indoor residual spraying, a 44% and 25% reduction through the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and a 42% reduction after environmental management. Based on model predictions, we identified the parameters within the transmission cycle of VL that predominantly determine the prospects of intervention success. We suggest further research to refine model-based predictions into the elimination of VL. PMID:24762676

  19. Model-based investigations of different vector-related intervention strategies to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Stauch, Anette; Duerr, Hans-Peter; Picado, Albert; Ostyn, Bart; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman; Boelaert, Marleen; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Eichner, Martin

    2014-04-01

    The elimination of infectious diseases requires reducing transmission below a certain threshold. The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Initiative in Southeast Asia aims to reduce the annual VL incidence rate below 1 case per 10,000 inhabitants in endemic areas by 2015 via a combination of case management and vector control. Using a previously developed VL transmission model, we investigated transmission thresholds dependent on measures reducing the sand fly density either by killing sand flies (e.g., indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets) or by destroying breeding sites (e.g., environmental management). Model simulations suggest that elimination of VL is possible if the sand fly density can be reduced by 67% through killing sand flies, or if the number of breeding sites can be reduced by more than 79% through measures of environmental management. These results were compared to data from two recent cluster randomised controlled trials conducted in India, Nepal and Bangladesh showing a 72% reduction in sand fly density after indoor residual spraying, a 44% and 25% reduction through the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and a 42% reduction after environmental management. Based on model predictions, we identified the parameters within the transmission cycle of VL that predominantly determine the prospects of intervention success. We suggest further research to refine model-based predictions into the elimination of VL. PMID:24762676

  20. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  1. Spread of Vector-borne Diseases and Neglect of Leishmaniasis, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Campino, Lenea; Cañavate, Carmen; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Gradoni, Luigi; Soteriadou, Ketty; Mazeris, Apostolos; Ozbel, Yusuf; Boelaert, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    The risk for reintroduction of some exotic vector-borne diseases in Europe has become a hot topic, while the reality of others is neglected at the public health policy level. Leishmaniasis is endemic in all southern countries of Europe, with ?700 autochthonous human cases reported each year (3,950 if Turkey is included). Asymptomatic cases have been estimated at 30–100/1 symptomatic case, and leishmaniasis has up to 25% seroprevalence in domestic dogs. Even though leishmaniasis is essentially associated with Leishmania infantum and visceral leishmaniasis, new species, such as L. donovani and L. tropica, might colonize European sand fly vectors. Drug-resistant L. infantum strains might be exported outside Europe through dogs. Despite this possibility, no coordinated surveillance of the disease exists at the European level. In this review of leishmaniasis importance in Europe, we would like to bridge the gap between research and surveillance and control. PMID:18598618

  2. Genogroup IV and VI Canine Noroviruses Interact with Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (HuNV) are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. HuNV attaches to cell surface carbohydrate structures known as histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) prior to internalization, and HBGA polymorphism among human populations is closely linked to susceptibility to HuNV. Noroviruses are divided into 6 genogroups, with human strains grouped into genogroups I (GI), II, and IV. Canine norovirus (CNV) is a recently discovered pathogen in dogs, with strains classified into genogroups IV and VI. Whereas it is known that GI to GIII noroviruses bind to HBGAs and GV noroviruses recognize terminal sialic acid residues, the attachment factors for GIV and GVI noroviruses have not been reported. This study sought to determine the carbohydrate binding specificity of CNV and to compare it to the binding specificities of noroviruses from other genogroups. A panel of synthetic oligosaccharides were used to assess the binding specificity of CNV virus-like particles (VLPs) and identified ?1,2-fucose as a key attachment factor. CNV VLP binding to canine saliva and tissue samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunohistochemistry confirmed that ?1,2-fucose-containing H and A antigens of the HBGA family were recognized by CNV. Phenotyping studies demonstrated expression of these antigens in a population of dogs. The virus-ligand interaction was further characterized using blockade studies, cell lines expressing HBGAs, and enzymatic removal of candidate carbohydrates from tissue sections. Recognition of HBGAs by CNV provides new insights into the evolution of noroviruses and raises concerns regarding the potential for zoonotic transmission of CNV to humans. IMPORTANCE Infections with human norovirus cause acute gastroenteritis in millions of people each year worldwide. Noroviruses can also affect nonhuman species and are divided into 6 different groups based on their capsid sequences. Human noroviruses in genogroups I and II interact with histo-blood group antigen carbohydrates, bovine noroviruses (genogroup III) interact with alpha-galactosidase (?-Gal) carbohydrates, and murine norovirus (genogroup V) recognizes sialic acids. The canine-specific strains of norovirus are grouped into genogroups IV and VI, and this study is the first to characterize which carbohydrate structures they can recognize. Using canine norovirus virus-like particles, this work shows that representative genogroup IV and VI viruses can interact with histo-blood group antigens. The binding specificity of canine noroviruses is therefore very similar to that of the human norovirus strains classified into genogroups I and II. This raises interesting questions about the evolution of noroviruses and suggests it may be possible for canine norovirus to infect humans. PMID:25008923

  3. Characterization of an H3N2 canine influenza virus isolated from Tibetan mastiffs in China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Qiaoyang; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Dawei; Zhou, Jiewen; Dai, Xiaoguang; Chen, Zhaoguo; Li, Zejun

    2013-03-23

    Ten 3-month-old Tibetan mastiffs became ill 2 days after they were bought from a Tibetan mastiff exhibition, and 4 of them died 2 weeks later. A canine influenza virus (ZJ0110) was isolated from the lung of a deceased Tibetan mastiff and was characterized in detail. Sequence analysis indicated that the 8 genes of the canine isolate were most similar to those of avian-origin canine influenza viruses (H3N2) isolated in South Korea in 2007, with which they shared >98% sequence identity. ZJ0110 could experimentally infect 6-month-old beagles by intranasal inoculation and by airborne transmission, causing severe respiratory syndrome. Moreover, ZJ0110 could replicate in the upper respiratory tracts of mice and guinea pigs, and the virus titer was comparable to that in the upper respiratory tracts of dogs. Although the virus was genetically of avian origin, ZJ0110 could not experimentally infect chicken or ducks by intranasal inoculation. These results suggest that dogs might be an intermediary host in which avian influenza viruses adapt to replicate in mammals. PMID:23107656

  4. Canine cytochrome P450 (CYP) pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Court, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes are essential for the efficient elimination of many clinically used drugs. These enzymes typically display high interindividual variability in expression and function resulting from enzyme induction, inhibition, and genetic polymorphism thereby predisposing patients to adverse drug reactions or therapeutic failure. There are also substantial species differences in CYP substrate specificity and expression that complicate direct extrapolation of information from humans to veterinary species. This article reviews the available published data regarding the presence and impact of genetic polymorphisms on CYP-dependent drug metabolism in dogs in the context of known human-dog CYP differences. Canine CYP1A2, which metabolizes phenacetin, caffeine, and theophylline, is the most widely studied polymorphic canine CYP. A single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in a CYP1A2 premature stop codon (c.1117C>T; R383X) with a complete lack of enzyme is highly prevalent in certain dog breeds including Beagle and Irish wolfhound. This polymorphism was shown to substantially affect the pharmacokinetics of several experimental compounds in Beagles during preclinical drug development. However, the impact on the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin (a substrate specific for human CYP1A2) was quite modest probably because other canine CYPs are capable of metabolizing phenacetin. Other canine CYPs with known genetic polymorphisms include CYP2C41 (gene deletion), as well as CYP2D15, CYP2E1, and CYP3A12 (coding SNPs). However the impact of these variants on drug metabolism in vitro or on drug pharmacokinetics is unknown. Future systematic investigations are needed to comprehensively identify CYP genetic polymorphisms that are predictive of drug effects in canine patients. PMID:23890236

  5. Development of a label-free immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance technique for the detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies in canine serum.

    PubMed

    Souto, Dênio E P; Silva, Jussara V; Martins, Helen R; Reis, Alexandre B; Luz, Rita C S; Kubota, Lauro T; Damos, Flávio S

    2013-08-15

    In this work, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor was developed using an 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) modified gold SPR sensor chip for the detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies. The soluble antigens of L. infantum were securely immobilized on an SPR gold disk by an 11-MUA self-assembled monolayer. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) techniques were employed in the characterization of the antigen immobilization. After the immunosensor construction, canine serum positive for visceral leishmaniasis was added to its surface and showed significant variation in the SPR angle, indicating excellent sensitivity of the technique for antigen-antibody interaction detection. Moreover, the addition of negative serum was accompanied by a smaller response, demonstrating that the immunosensor shows good specificity against anti-L. infantum antibodies. Therefore, this work demonstrates the successful development of an SPR sensor for anti-L. infantum antibodies detection in short time, showing a great perspective as a sensing system of visceral leishmaniasis in endemic regions. PMID:23500472

  6. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  7. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours.

    PubMed

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  8. Antibodies to selected canine pathogens and infestation with intestinal helminths in golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shamir, M; Yakobson, B; Baneth, G; King, R; Dar-Verker, S; Markovics, A; Aroch, I

    2001-07-01

    Blood and fecal samples, collected from 46 healthy adult free-ranging golden jackals captured in two different locations in Israel, were examined. A serological Study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of circulating antibodies reacting with four common canine pathogens: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum. Faecal flotation and haematological tests were also performed. The seroprevalence of CPV, E. canis, CDV, and L. infantum were 72.3% (34/47), 54.3% (25/46), 52.2% (24/46), and 6.5% (3/46) respectively. Faecal flotation tests revealed a high prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum (13/17, 76%) and a low prevalence of Dipilidium caninum infestation. Examination of blood smears revealed Hepatazoon canis gamonts in one jackal. Golden jackals are among the most common free-ranging carnivores in Israel and neighboring countries. Their habitats are in proximity to densely populated areas and they bear close phylogenic relation to the domestic dog. These facts, combined with the high prevalence of the jackals' exposure to the major canine pathogens demonstrated in this study, suggest that they may serve as a reservoir for the transmission of certain diseases to domestic dogs. PMID:11409931

  9. Clinical signs, seasonal occurrence and causative agents of canine babesiosis in France: results of a multiregional study.

    PubMed

    René-Martellet, M; Chêne, J; Chabanne, L; Chalvet-Monfray, K; Bourdoiseau, G

    2013-10-18

    Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis) is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genera Babesia and Theileria. In dogs, infection by these parasites usually induces a haemolytic syndrome that can be fatal when complicated. Canine babesiosis prevalence is high in France, with Babesia canis thought to be the main etiological agent of the disease. This article presents the results of a multiregional prospective longitudinal survey on canine babesiosis conducted in France from October 2006 to December 2007. A total of 836 cases were reported by veterinarians using a multiple choice questionnaire and blood samples from 70 dogs were analyzed using PCR-RFLP to identify species responsible for canine babesiosis cases across the country. The main clinical signs reported were lethargy (98%), anorexia (98%) and hyperthermia ? 39 °C (80%) followed by pale mucous membranes (54%), modification of urine aspect (45%) and splenomegaly (33%). The dog population at risk was mainly represented by young dogs living in rural areas. Twenty-five out of the 70 blood samples (36%) tested by diagnostic PCR were found to contain Babesia/Theileria genus-specific DNA and all had profiles similar to that of Babesia canis genomic DNA after restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. The survey results provide a reference for further molecular studies to assess the species and vectors involved in the transmission of the disease in France and across the Mediterranean basin. PMID:23685063

  10. Survivin inhibition via EZN-3042 in canine lymphoma and osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Shoeneman, J K; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, J B; Thamm, D H

    2014-06-13

    Canine lymphoma (LSA) and osteosarcoma (OS) have high mortality rates and remain in need of more effective therapeutic approaches. Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family member protein that inhibits apoptosis and drives cell proliferation, is commonly elevated in human and canine cancer. Survivin expression is a negative prognostic factor in dogs with LSA and OS, and canine LSA and OS cell lines express high levels of survivin. In this study, we demonstrate that survivin downregulation in canine LSA and OS cells using a clinically applicable locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotide (EZN-3042, Enzon Pharmaceuticals, Piscataway Township, NJ, USA) inhibits growth, induces apoptosis and enhances chemosensitivity in vitro, and inhibits survivin transcription and protein production in orthotopic canine OS xenografts. Our findings strongly suggest that survivin-directed therapies might be effective in treatment of canine LSA and OS and support evaluation of EZN-3042 in dogs with cancer. PMID:24923332

  11. Tractor transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Omura, T.; Horii, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Nakata, M.

    1986-12-16

    A transmission is described for a tractor including: a transmission case comprising a clutch housing containing a clutch mechanism, a second transmission case, and a first transmission case removably attached from between the clutch housing and second transmission case; a primary speed change mechanism housed in the first transmission case, the primary speed change mechanism being operatively connected through a speed change shaft to a secondary speed change mechanism housed in the second transmission case. The speed change shaft comprises a first shaft and a second shaft connected thereto by means of a first coupler, the first coupler arranged in the second transmission case forwardly of the secondary speed change mechanism; a backward and forward switching mechanism operatively connected to the engine through the clutch mechanism and to the primary speed change mechanism through an intermediate shaft and adapted to be supported by a supporting member removably mounted in a forward portion of the first transmission case; the intermediate shaft comprising a first intermediate shaft and a second intermediate shaft connected thereto by means of a second coupler, the second coupler arranged between the backward and forward switching and primary speed change mechanisms. The first intermediate shaft is supported by the supporting member, the second intermediate shaft supported by the first transmission case and having a portion projecting into the second transmission case. The projecting portion is adapted to mount a reversing mechanism for operatively connecting the second intermediate shaft with the first shaft of the speed change shaft.

  12. Full-genome sequencing of a Hungarian canine G3P[3] Rotavirus A strain reveals high genetic relatedness with a historic Italian human strain.

    PubMed

    Papp, H; Mihalov-Kovács, E; Dóró, R; Marton, S; Farkas, S L; Giammanco, G M; De Grazia, S; Martella, V; Bányai, K

    2015-04-01

    A canine Rotavirus A strain was identified in the fecal specimen of a young dog during 2012 in Hungary. The strain RVA/Dog-wt/HUN/135/2012/G3P[3] shared complete genotype constellation (G3-P[3]-I3-R3-C3-M3-A15-N2-T3-E3-H6) and high genome sequence similarity (nt, 98.8 %) with a historic human strain, RVA/Human-tc/ITA/PA260-97/1997/G3P[3]. This study provides evidence for the canine origin of the unusual NSP1 genotype, A15, and reinforces the hypothesis of direct interspecies transmission of canine rotaviruses to humans. PMID:25634124

  13. Immunohistochemical studies in acute and chronic canine chagasic cardiomyopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo V. Caliari; Marta de Lana; Rosângela A. F. Cajá; Cláudia M. Carneiro; Maria T. Bahia; César A. B. Santos; Gustavo A. Magalhães; Ivan B. M. Sampaio; Washington L. Tafuri

    2002-01-01

    A major characteristic of Chagas' disease is a myocarditis constituted primarily of mononuclear cells, both during the acute and chronic phases of the disease. Using monoclonal antibodies and image analyses we have quantified canine CD8+ T cells (caCD8+ T cells), canine CD4+ T cells (caCD4+ T cells) and neutrophils in canine chagasic myocardiopathy induced by two strains isolated from the

  14. Unilateral Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Nagihan; Ça??rankaya, L. Berna; Akkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Congenital absence of maxillary permanent canines is an extremely rare condition, which may appear as part of a syndrome or as a nonsyndromic form. Nonsyndromic canine agenesis combined with other types of tooth agenesis has occasionally been described in the literature but isolated cases are rarely observed. This report presents an isolated case of maxillary permanent canine agenesis in a healthy 18-year-old female patient and a literature review on the prevalence, etiology, and differential diagnosis of the condition. PMID:25177502

  15. Effects of different concentrations of artemisinin and artemisinin-iron combination treatment on Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Payman; Mohammadpour, Hemn; Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquitrepenelactone with an endoperoxide bridge. It is a naturally occurring substance from Artemisia species plants. Artemisia species have been used in oriental medicine for centuries to treat malaria, gastrointestinal helminthosia, diarrhea, and as an antipyretic and sedative agent. Antileishmanial activity of the plants has been announced a few years ago. Dogs are the most important reservoir of leishmaniasis in some parts of the world. To use it as an antileishmanial drug in dogs, its side effects on different organs, among them the kidney as the organ of elimination have to be elucidated. Artemisinin with different concentrations (0.15, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 ?g/ml) was added to the culture of MDCK (Madin darby canine kidney) cells with and without iron (86 ?g/dl). All the changes were controlled and photographed every 12 hours using an invert microscope. After 60 hours, supernatants and cell extracts were examined for LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) concentration and total protein. Also TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) test was performed on cell extracts. Some microscopic slides were prepared from the cells and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic exams. Biochemical parameters showed cellular reaction and injury in a concentration dependent manner. Cell injury was more severe in the iron-added groups. Microscopic exams showed cell and nuclear swelling, granular degeneration, vacuole and vesicle formation, cellular detachment, piknosis, karyorrhexis, cellular necrosis and inhibition of new mitosis. On using the drug for leishmaniasis treatment in the dog, it should be done with caution and supervision. PMID:22783147

  16. Ecology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sinai: linking parasites, vectors and hosts

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Abdallah Mohammed; Doha, Said Abdallah; Kenawy, Mohamed Amin

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected clinical form of public health importance that is quite prevalent in the northern and eastern parts of Egypt. A comprehensive study over seven years (January 2005-December 2011) was conducted to track CL transmission with respect to both sandfly vectors and animal reservoirs. The study identified six sandfly species collected from different districts in North Sinai: Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus kazeruni, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus alexandri, Sergentomyia antennata and Sergentomyia clydei. Leishmania (-)-like flagellates were identified in 15 P. papatasi individuals (0.5% of 3,008 dissected females). Rodent populations were sampled in the same districts where sandflies were collected and eight species were identified: Rattus norvegicus (n = 39), Rattus rattus frugivorous (n = 13), Rattus rattus alexandrinus (n = 4), Gerbillus pyramidum floweri (n = 38), Gerbillus andersoni (n = 28), Mus musculus (n = 5), Meriones sacramenti (n = 22) and Meriones crassus (n = 10). Thirty-two rodents were found to be positive for Leishmania infection (20.12% of 159 examined rodents). Only Leishmania major was isolated and identified in 100% of the parasite samples. The diversity of both the vector and rodent populations was examined using diversity indices and clustering approaches. PMID:24821060

  17. Risk Factors for Visceral Leishmaniasis and Asymptomatic Leishmania donovani Infection in India and Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Picado, Albert; Ostyn, Bart; Singh, Shri Prakash; Uranw, Surendra; Hasker, Epco; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Boelaert, Marleen; Chappuis, François

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of asymptomatic infection in transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). We studied the individual, household and environmental factors associated with asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infected individuals and VL. 7,538 individuals living in VL endemic villages in India and Nepal were divided into three mutually exclusive groups based on their VL history and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) results in yearly serosurveys over a two-year period. The groups were (1) VL cases, (2) asymptomatically infected individuals (seroconverters) and (3) seronegative individuals. VL cases and seroconverters were compared to seronegative individuals in mixed logistic regression models. The risk of seroconversion and disease was significantly increased in individuals aged 14 to 24 years old and by the presence of other DAT-positive, asymptomatically infected individuals and VL cases in the house. The risk of seroconversion was higher in Indian than in Nepalese villages and it increased significantly with age, but not so for VL. This study demonstrates that, when risk factors for leishmanial infection and VL disease are evaluated in the same population, epidemiological determinants for asymptomatic infection and VL are largely similar. PMID:24498159

  18. Mapping B-Cell Epitopes for the Peroxidoxin of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Its Potential for the Clinical Diagnosis of Tegumentary and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Santos, Thaís Teodoro de Oliveira; Silva, Ana Luíza Teixeira; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; de Carvalho, Silvio Fernando Guimarães; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The search toward the establishment of novel serological tests for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and proper differential diagnosis may represent one alternative to the invasive parasitological methods currently used to identify infected individuals. In the present work, we investigated the potential use of recombinant peroxidoxin (rPeroxidoxin) of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis as a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of human tegumentary (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Linear B-cell epitope mapping was performed to identify polymorphic epitopes when comparing orthologous sequences present in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent for Chagas disease (CD), and the Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris hosts. The serological assay (ELISA) demonstrated that TL, VL and CVL individuals showed high levels of antibodies against rPeroxidoxin, allowing identification of infected ones with considerable sensitivity and great ability to discriminate (specificity) between non-infected and CD individuals (98.46% and 100%; 98.18% and 95.71%; 95.79% and 100%, respectively). An rPeroxidoxin ELISA also showed a greater ability to discriminate between vaccinated and infected animals, which is an important requirement for the public campaign control of CVL. A depletion ELISA assay using soluble peptides of this B-cell epitope confirmed the recognition of these sites only by Leishmania-infected individuals. Moreover, this work identifies two antigenic polymorphic linear B-cell epitopes of L. braziliensis. Specific recognition of TL and VL patients was confirmed by significantly decreased IgG reactivity against rPeroxidoxin after depletion of peptide-1- and peptide-2-specific antibodies (peptide 1: reduced by 32%, 42% and 5% for CL, ML and VL, respectively; peptide-2: reduced by 24%, 22% and 13% for CL, ML and VL, respectively) and only peptide-2 for CVL (reduced 9%). Overall, rPeroxidoxin may be a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of TL, VL or CVL, as it has a higher agreement with parasitological assays and is better than other reference tests that use soluble Leishmania antigens for diagnosing CVL in Brazil (EIE-LVC, Bio-manguinhos, FIOCRUZ). PMID:24921246

  19. A Canine Conditionally Replicating Adenovirus for Evaluating Oncolytic Virotherapy

    E-print Network

    Hemminki, Akseli

    A Canine Conditionally Replicating Adenovirus for Evaluating Oncolytic Virotherapy in a Syngeneic, immunosuppressive agents, biological therapy, dogs, humans INTRODUCTION Oncolytic virotherapy with adenoviruses

  20. Early identification and management of mandibular canine ectopia.

    PubMed

    Hudson, A P G; Harris, A M P; Mohamed, N

    2011-11-01

    Mandibular canine impaction and transmigration have serious consequences for the patient, as removal of the tooth or teeth in question is often the only solution. The loss of one or both mandibular canines complicates orthodontic treatment. Early warning signs of mandibular canine ectopia are explored in this paper as well as how to assess the potential for displacement, impaction and/or transmigration. This paper highlights the value of interceptive treatment once the early signs of an aberrant mandibular canine have been detected. PMID:23193881

  1. Cutaneous leishmaniasis predisposing to human skin cancer: forty years local and regional studies.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-12-01

    Different types of association between leishmaniasis and cancer were established: leishmaniasis mimicking a malignant disorder, such as lymphoma; leishmaniasis arising as a difficult to diagnose and treat infection among patients receiving chemotherapy for various malignant disorders; simultaneous diagnosis of leishmaniasis and a neoplastic disorder in the same tissue samples of immunocompromised patients; and direct involvement of Leishmania spp. in pathogenesis/occurrence of malignant lesions, especially of the skin and mucous membranes. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a protozoan skin disease occurring in all the Middle East countries. Only the cutaneous form is a self-curing, which may develop a certain degree of immunity against the parasite, resulting in healing of the lesion(s). However, the parasites probably never disappear completely, since in situations where immune system is compromised, as in AIDS, or suppressed by cancer chemotherapy or in organ transplantation, Leishmania spp. may suddenly reappear. The cell-mediated immunity is responsible for skin lesion healing but humeral response plays a protective role against the disease. Skin biopsies from 65 parasitological proven cutaneous leishmaniasis patients from Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Libya were histopathologically studied. The results showed that cutaneous leishmaniasis especially in hot areas pave the way to the mutation and development of skin cancer. PMID:24640863

  2. Characterization of pantropic canine coronavirus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Luciane D; Barros, Iracema N; Budaszewski, Renata F; Weber, Matheus N; Mata, Helena; Antunes, Jéssica R; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Wouters, Angélica T B; Driemeier, David; Brandão, Paulo E; Canal, Cláudio W

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains currently in circulation is essential for understanding viral evolution. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pantropic CCoV type IIa in tissue samples from five puppies that died in Southern Brazil as a result of severe gastroenteritis. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to generate amplicons for sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the CCoV-IIa strains indicated that they were similar to those found in other countries, suggesting a common ancestor of these Brazilian isolates. This is the first report of pantropic CCoV-II in puppies from Latin America and our findings highlight that CCoV should be included as a differential diagnosis when dogs present with clinical signs and lesions typically seen with canine parvovirus infection. PMID:25294661

  3. Impacted canines: Etiology, diagnosis, and orthodontic management

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Ranjit; Gandikota, ChandraSekhar; Juvvadi, Shubhaker Rao; Rama, Haranath Reddy Medapati; Anche, Sampath

    2012-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary and mandibular canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem, the treatment of which usually requires an interdisciplinary approach. Surgical exposure of the impacted tooth and the complex orthodontic mechanisms that are applied to align the tooth into the arch may lead to varying amounts of damage to the supporting structures of the tooth, not to mention the long treatment duration and the financial burden to the patient. Hence, it seems worthwhile to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, an overview of the incidence and sequelae, as well as the surgical, periodontal, and orthodontic considerations in the management of impacted canines is presented. PMID:23066259

  4. Ultrasonographic characteristics of canine renal lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Angela J; Lara-Garcia, Ana; Benigni, Livia

    2014-01-01

    There is little published information on the ultrasonographic appearance of canine renal lymphoma. The purpose of this retrospective study was to provide additional information regarding the ultrasonographic characteristics of canine renal lymphoma, suggest ultrasonographic description criteria, and evaluate the role of fine-needle aspirate cytology in the diagnosis of this disease. The ultrasonographic features of confirmed renal lymphoma were reviewed in ten dogs. Pyelectasia was found in all dogs. Other ultrasonographic findings were loss of corticomedullary distinction (9/10 dogs), renomegaly (8/10 dogs), renal deformity (6/10 dogs), hypoechoic lesion(s) (6/10 dogs), and hyperechoic lesion(s) (2/10 dogs). Hypoechoic lesions were described as masses, nodules, and indistinct areas. In 30% of the cases (3/10 dogs) ultrasound revealed only minor abnormalities, including grade 1 pyelectasia, mild renomegaly, and focal loss of corticomedullary definition. Bilateral lesions were seen in nine dogs (90%). Renal fine-needle aspirates were performed in 9/10 dogs, yielding a diagnosis in seven on first attempt (78%). Two dogs had been given a provisional cytological diagnosis of round cell neoplasia; in one dog lymphoma was confirmed by second aspirate and by tissue core biopsy in the other. In 1/10 dogs, lymphoma was found at necropsy. Findings indicated that ultrasonographic signs of canine renal lymphoma may be subtle, canine renal lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis when the above ultrasonographic features are observed, and fine-needle aspirate cytology is a useful method for diagnosing this disease. PMID:24629062

  5. Increased cancer risk in canine radiation chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Prentice, R.; Fritz, T.E.; Weiden, P.L.; Sale, G.E.; Graham, T.C.; Thomas, E.D.

    1980-02-01

    The present study analyzes the cancer risk in marrow graft recipients (chimeras) in a canine model that has been used to study many of the principles of marrow transplantation that have been applied to man. Specifically, the cancer incidence among 108 radiation chimeras and 15 chemotherapy chimeras observed from 6 to 121 mo is compared to that amoung 215 normal dogs observed for similar periods of time.

  6. Mitochondrial capture by a transmissible cancer.

    PubMed

    Rebbeck, Clare A; Leroi, Armand M; Burt, Austin

    2011-01-21

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is an infectious cell line circulating in many feral dog populations. It originated once, about 10,000 years ago. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial sequences from dogs, wolves, and a geographically diverse collection of CTVT samples indicate that the cancer has periodically acquired mitochondria from its host. We suggest that this may be because the cancer's own mitochondria have a tendency to degenerate, due to high mutation rates and relaxed selection, resulting in host mitochondria being more fit. PMID:21252340

  7. Canine diabetes mellitus: from phenotype to genotype.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, B; Kennedy, L J; Davison, L J; Ollier, W E R

    2008-01-01

    Breed differences in susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in dogs suggest an underlying genetic component to the pathogenesis of the disease. There is little evidence for an equivalent of human type 2 diabetes in dogs, and it has been proposed that canine diabetes is more comparable to the type 1 form of the disease. Certain immune response genes, particularly those encoding major histocompatibility complex molecules involved in antigen presentation, are important in determining susceptibility to human type 1 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that canine major histocompatibility complex genes (known as the dog leucocyte antigen) are associated with diabetes in dogs. A total of 530 diabetic dogs and more than 1000 controls were typed for dog leucocyte antigen, and associations were found with three specific haplotypes. The DLA-DRB1*009/DQA1*001/DQB1*008 haplotype shows the strongest association with diabetes in the UK dog population. This haplotype is common in diabetes-prone breeds (Samoyed, cairn terrier and Tibetan terrier) but rare in diabetes-resistant breeds (boxer, German shepherd dog and golden retriever), which could explain differences in the prevalence of diabetes in these different breeds. There is evidence that the DLA-DQA1*001 allele is also associated with hypothyroidism, suggesting that this could represent a common susceptibility allele for canine immune-mediated endocrinopathies. PMID:17617163

  8. Prostate Histotripsy in an Anticoagulated Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, Jeffery C.; Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Cain, Charles A.; Xu, Zhen; Roberts, William W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Histotripsy is a non-invasive ultrasound technology which induces microbubble formation (cavitation) within tissues producing mechanical tissue fractionation. During initial in-vivo feasibility canine studies of prostate ablation, minimal hematuria was observed. In the current study, we sought to further explore this phenomenon by performing extensive prostate histotripsy treatments in anticoagulated canines. Materials and Methods Histotripsy was performed on 9 canine subjects pre-treated with 6 mg of oral warfarin for 3 to 5 days using an extracorporeal 750 kHz therapeutic ultrasound transducer delivering acoustic pulses to the prostatic urethra and periurethral parenchyma. After 7–28 days, the subjects were euthanized, transrectal prostate ultrasound was performed and the prostate was harvested. Serum hemoglobin and International Normalization Ratio (INR) were measured immediately prior to histotripsy treatment and at euthanasia. Results Mean treatment INR was 4.6 (median 2.4, range 1.2 to 11.3). There was no clinically significant change in hemoglobin concentration at euthanasia compared to baseline. At harvest, histologic sections of the prostate revealed a large cavity corresponding to the planned treatment volume incorporating the prostatic urethra and parenchyma in all subjects. Urine was clear within 2 days of treatment and no blood clots were seen. Conclusions Despite therapeutic and supratherapeutic anticoagulation, histotripsy resulted in minimal bleeding despite significant fractionation and tissue debulking of the prostate. These results have prompted further studies to understand the mechanism of non-thermal hemostasis underlying histotripsy. PMID:19931897

  9. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  10. New evidence for canine dietary function in Afropithecus turkanensis.

    PubMed

    Deane, Andrew S

    2012-06-01

    Despite considerable post-cranial and cranial morphological overlap with Proconsul, Afropithecus turkanensis is distinguished from that taxon by a suite of anterior dental and gnathic characters shared in common with extant pitheciin monkeys (i.e. low crowned, robust and laterally splayed canines, procumbent incisors, prognathic premaxilla, powerful temporalis muscles, reduced or absent maxillary sinuses, and deep mandibular corpora). Pitheciins are unique among living anthropoids because their canines serve a habitual dietary function and are not strictly influenced by inter-male competition. Given the functional association between pitheciin canine morphological specializations and sclerocarp foraging, a feeding strategy where the hard pericarps of unripe fruit are mechanically deformed by the canines, it has been suggested that Afropithecus may also have used its canines in a dietary context. This is confirmed by quantitative morphometric analyses of Afropithecus canine curvature and basal dimensions demonstrating that Afropithecus and extant pitheciins (Chiropotes, Cacajao) are distinguished from all other anthropoids by pronounced and evenly distributed mesial canine crown contours as well as greater resistance to canine bending in both the mesiodistal and labiolingual axes. In addition, Afropithecus, Chiropotes and Cacajao are also shown to have significantly longer and more curved premaxillae with greater incisor procumbency that effectively isolates the incisor and canine functional complexes. These morphological similarities are a result of convergence and not a shared derived ancestry. Despite their considerable morphological overlap, it is unlikely that Afropithecus and extant pitheciin diets are identical given significant dissimilarities in their post-canine morphology, maximum angular gape and body size. Nevertheless, Afropithecus canine dietary function is unique among hominoids and may have been a key component for the expansion of hominoids into Eurasia at the end of the early Miocene. PMID:22554411

  11. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Sand Fly Fluctuations Are Associated with El Niño in Panamá

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Calzada, José E.; Valderrama, Anayansí; Saldaña, Azael

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical vector-borne disease. Sand fly vectors (SF) and Leishmania spp parasites are sensitive to changes in weather conditions, rendering disease transmission susceptible to changes in local and global scale climatic patterns. Nevertheless, it is unclear how SF abundance is impacted by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and how these changes might relate to changes in CL transmission. Methodology and Findings We studied association patterns between monthly time series, from January 2000 to December 2010, of: CL cases, rainfall and temperature from Panamá, and an ENSO index. We employed autoregressive models and cross wavelet coherence, to quantify the seasonal and interannual impact of local climate and ENSO on CL dynamics. We employed Poisson Rate Generalized Linear Mixed Models to study SF abundance patterns across ENSO phases, seasons and eco-epidemiological settings, employing records from 640 night-trap sampling collections spanning 2000–2011. We found that ENSO, rainfall and temperature were associated with CL cycles at interannual scales, while seasonal patterns were mainly associated with rainfall and temperature. Sand fly (SF) vector abundance, on average, decreased during the hot and cold ENSO phases, when compared with the normal ENSO phase, yet variability in vector abundance was largest during the cold ENSO phase. Our results showed a three month lagged association between SF vector abundance and CL cases. Conclusion Association patterns of CL with ENSO and local climatic factors in Panamá indicate that interannual CL cycles might be driven by ENSO, while the CL seasonality was mainly associated with temperature and rainfall variability. CL cases and SF abundance were associated in a fashion suggesting that sudden extraordinary changes in vector abundance might increase the potential for CL epidemic outbreaks, given that CL epidemics occur during the cold ENSO phase, a time when SF abundance shows its highest fluctuations. PMID:25275503

  12. Zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania ( Viannia ) panamensis and Leishmania ( Viannia ) braziliensis: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Morales, Camilo Andrés; Palacio, Juliana; Rodríguez, Gerzaín; Camargo, Yenny Carolina

    2014-01-01

    In Colombia, zosteriform leishmaniasis is a little-known and infrequent clinical variant of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Its clinical features include one or more plaques made up of papules and pseudo-vesicles, which conform to a lineal pattern, as well as satellite lesions that affect one or more dermatomes, without crossing the median line. We present three zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in which Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania braziliensis were identified as the infective species. In light of the fact that the disease occurs infrequently, diagnosis was reached by taking into account epidemiological and clinical suspicion. PMID:25504121

  13. Immunological stimulation for the treatment of leishmaniasis: a modality worthy of serious consideration.

    PubMed

    Musa, Ahmed Mudawi; Noazin, Sassan; Khalil, E A G; Modabber, Farrokh

    2010-01-01

    Instead of relying on drugs to reduce the parasite burden of leishmaniasis, and waiting for the effector immune response to develop in time to control the parasites, immunotherapy in conjunction with chemotherapy can rapidly induce the effector immune response. With a safe and potent drug plus an affordable therapeutic vaccine (immunostimulant), which remains to be developed, a single visit by patients with visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis might be sufficient to induce a quick and lasting recovery. Drug toxicity and the emergence of resistance could also be dramatically reduced compared with present long-term monotherapy. Immunotherapy could be an effective addition to chemotherapy for leishmaniasis. PMID:19712953

  14. Global and quantitative proteomic analysis of dogs infected by avian-like H3N2 canine influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Tian, Jin; Hong, Malin; Zhou, Pei; Lu, Gang; Zhu, Huachen; Zhang, Guihong; Lai, Alexander; Li, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Canine influenza virus A (H3N2) is a newly emerged etiological agent for respiratory infections in dogs. The mechanism of interspecies transmission from avian to canine species and the development of diseases in this new host remain to be explored. To investigate this, we conducted a differential proteomics study in 2-month-old beagles inoculated intranasally with 106 TCID50 of A/canine/Guangdong/01/2006 (H3N2) virus. Lung sections excised at 12 h post-inoculation (hpi), 4 days, and 7 days post-inoculation (dpi) were processed for global and quantitative analysis of differentially expressed proteins. A total of 17,796 proteins were identified at different time points. About 1.6% was differentially expressed between normal and infected samples. Of these, 23, 27, and 136 polypeptides were up-regulated, and 14, 18, and 123 polypeptides were down-regulated, at 12 hpi, 4 dpi, and 7 dpi, respectively. Vann diagram analysis indicated that 17 proteins were up-regulated and one was down-regulated at all three time points. Selected proteins were validated by real-time PCR and by Western blot. Our results show that apoptosis and cytoskeleton-associated proteins expression was suppressed, whereas interferon-induced proteins plus other innate immunity proteins were induced after the infection. Understanding of the interactions between virus and the host will provide insights into the basis of interspecies transmission, adaptation, and virus pathogenicity.

  15. Prostasomes of canine seminal plasma - zinc-binding ability and effects on motility characteristics and plasma membrane integrity of spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, M; Strze?ek, R; Wasilewska, K; Kordan, W

    2015-06-01

    Prostasomes are small lipid membrane-confined vesicles that are involved in various fertilization-related processes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate canine seminal plasma prostasomes' ability to bind zinc ions, as well as examining their effects on sperm motility characteristics and plasma membrane integrity during cold storage. Ejaculates, collected from five cross-bred dogs (n = 50), were subjected to ultracentrifugation followed by gel filtration (GF) on a Superose 6 column. Prostasomes appeared as a single fraction in the elution profile. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of canine prostasomes revealed the presence of membrane vesicles with diameters ranging from 20.3 to 301 nm. The zinc-affinity chromatography on a Chelating Sepharose Fast Flow - Zn(2 +) showed that from 93 to 100% of the prostasome proteins bind zinc ions (P(+) Zn). SDS-PAGE revealed that canine P(+) Zn comprised four protein bands, with low molecular weights (10.2-12 kDa). We have also shown a positive effect of prostasomes (p < 0.05), especially variant B (2% of total seminal plasma protein) on canine sperm motility parameters after 2 h storage at 5°C (TMOT%, 44.75 ± 5.18) and PMOT%, 12.42 ± 1.59) and VAP, VSL, VCL, when compared with Control (TMOT%, 7.30 ± 1.41 and PMOT%, 1.70 ± 0.42). Higher percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane (SYBR/PI dual staining) and intact acrosome (Giemsa stained), after 2 h storage at 5°C, was showed, in variant A (1.5% of total seminal plasma protein) and B, when compared with Control and variant C (2.5% of total seminal plasma protein). The prostasomes' effect on motility and plasma membrane integrity of canine cold-stored spermatozoa may be related to their ability to bind zinc ions and regulate their availability to the sperm. PMID:25809561

  16. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission eigenvalue problem. The need to answer these questions became important after a series of papers by Cakoni et al [5], and Cakoni et al [6] suggesting that these transmission eigenvalues could be used to obtain qualitative information about the material properties of the scattering object from far-field data. The first answer to the existence of transmission eigenvalues in the general case was given in 2008 when Päivärinta and Sylvester showed the existence of transmission eigenvalues for the index of refraction sufficiently large [7] followed in 2010 by the paper of Cakoni et al who removed the size restriction on the index of refraction [8]. More importantly, in the latter it was shown that transmission eigenvalues yielded qualitative information on the material properties of the scattering object and Cakoni et al established in [9] that transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the Tikhonov regularized solution of the far-field equation. Since the appearance of these papers there has been an explosion of interest in the transmission eigenvalue problem (we refer the reader to our recent survey paper [10] for a detailed account of the developments in this field up to 2012) and the papers in this special issue are representative of the myriad directions that this research has taken. Indeed, we are happy to see that many open theoretical and numerical questions raised in [10] have been answered (totally or partially) in the contributions of this special issue: the existence of transmission eigenvalues with minimal assumptions on the contrast, the numerical evaluation of transmission eigenvalues, the inverse spectral problem, applications to non-destructive testing, etc. In addition to these topics, many other new investigations and research directions have been proposed as we shall see in the brief content summary below. A number of papers in this special issue are concerned with the question of existence of transmission eigenvalues and the structure of the associated transmission eigenfunctions. The three papers by respectively Robbiano [11], Blasten and P

  17. Leishmaniasis: new insights from an old and neglected disease.

    PubMed

    Antinori, S; Schifanella, L; Corbellino, M

    2012-02-01

    Leishmaniases are a clinically heterogeneous group of diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. There is growing evidence that the true incidence of the disease is underestimated, especially in hyperendemic regions. Moreover, climate changes together with the increasing movement of humans and animals raise concerns about the possible introduction of Leishmania infection in previously spared areas. The disease is emerging in immunocompromised patients undergoing bone marrow or solid organ transplantation or treatment with biologic drugs. Furthermore, the deployment of military troops and travel to endemic areas are associated with the observation of a growing number of patients with cutaneous disease. Improvement in diagnostic methods, both in the field and in specialized laboratories, has been obtained through the implementation of molecular amplification methods and using the rK39 antigen as the substrate. Finally, new therapeutic approaches are gaining attention, such as the use of miltefosine for cutaneous leishmaniasis and paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis, as well as the use of various antileishmanial drugs in combination. PMID:21533874

  18. Complementary exams in the diagnosis of american tegumentary leishmaniasis*

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ciro Martins; de Paula, Natália Aparecida; de Morais, Orlando Oliveira; Soares, Killarney Ataíde; Roselino, Ana Maria; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis is a difficult but essential task when considering the high toxicity profile of the drugs available. Since the discovery of its etiologic agent, numerous diagnostic tests have been developed. None of the tests available today can be considered as the gold standard, since they do not add enough accuracy for the disease detection. Good epidemiological and clinical knowledge of the disease are fundamental precepts of the dermatology practice and precede the rational use of existing diagnostic tests. In this article we aim, through extensive literature review, to recall fundamental concepts of any diagnostic test. Subsequently, based on this information, we will weave important comments about the characteristics of existing diagnostic tests, including immunological tests such as Montenegro's skin test, serology and detection of parasites by direct examination, culture or histopathology. Finally we will discuss the new technologies and options for the diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The molecular biology technique is considered a promising tool, promoting the rapid identification of the species involved. We also aim to educate dermatologists about a disease with high morbidity and assist in its difficult recognition. PMID:25184908

  19. Andrographolide nanoparticles in leishmaniasis: characterization and in vitro evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Partha; Das, Suvadra; Bera, Tanmoy; Mondol, Subhasis; Mukherjee, Arup

    2010-01-01

    Andrographolide (AG) is a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. AG is a potent and low-toxicity antileishmanial agent. Chemotherapy applications of AG are, however, seriously constrained because of poor bioavailability, short plasma half-life, and inappropriate tissue localization. Nanoparticulation of AG was therefore envisaged as a possible solution. AG nanoparticles (AGnp) loaded in 50:50 poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolic acid) were prepared for delivery into the monocyte–macrophage cells infested with the amastigote form of leishmanial parasite for evaluation in the chemotherapy of leishmaniasis. Particle characteristics of AGnp were optimized by proportionate application of a stabilizer, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Physicochemical characterization of AGnp by photon correlation spectroscopy exhibited an average particle size of 173 nm and zeta potential of ?34.8 mV. Atomic force microscopy visualization revealed spherical nanoparticles with a smooth surface. Antileishmanial activity was found to be significant for the nanoparticle preparation with 4% PVA (IC50 34 ?M) in about one-fourth of the dosage of the pure compound AG (IC50 160 ?M). AGnp therefore have significant potential to target the infested macrophage cells and prove valuable in chemotherapy of neglected tropical diseases such as leishmaniasis. PMID:21270962

  20. Natural killer cells in experimental and human leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Infections with parasites of the genus Leishmania lead to a rapid, but transient activation of natural killer (NK) cells. In mice activation of NK cells requires a toll-like-receptor 9-dependent stimulation of dendritic cells (DC) which is followed by the production of IL-12. Although NK cells appear to be non-essential for the ultimate control of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and can exhibit immunosuppressive functions, they form an important source of interferon (IFN)-?, which elicits antileishmanial activity in macrophages and helps to pave a protective T helper cell response. In contrast, the cytotoxic activity of NK cells is dispensable, because Leishmania-infected myeloid cells are largely resistant to NK-mediated lysis. In human cutaneous and VL, the functional importance of NK cells is suggested by reports that demonstrate (1) a direct activation or inhibition of NK cells by Leishmania promastigotes, (2) the suppression of NK cell numbers or activity during chronic, non-healing infections, and (3) the recovery of NK cell activity following treatment. This review aims to provide an integrated view on the migration, activation, inhibition, function, and therapeutic modulation of NK cells in experimental and human leishmaniasis. PMID:22919660

  1. HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, George M.; Hunter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces, by maternal-infant exposure, and by percutaneous inoculation. For reasons that are still incompletely understood, CCR5-tropic viruses (R5 viruses) are preferentially transmitted by all routes. Transmission is followed by an orderly appearance of viral and host markers of infection in the blood plasma. In the acute phase of infection, HIV-1 replicates exponentially and diversifies randomly, allowing for an unambiguous molecular identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and a precise characterization of the population bottleneck to virus transmission. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 most often results in productive clinical infection arising from a single virus, highlighting the extreme bottleneck and inherent inefficiency in virus transmission. It remains to be determined if HIV-1 transmission is largely a stochastic process whereby any reasonably fit R5 virus can be transmitted or if there are features of transmitted/founder viruses that facilitate their transmission in a biologically meaningful way. Human tissue explant models of HIV-1 infection and animal models of SIV/SHIV/HIV-1 transmission, coupled with new challenge virus strains that more closely reflect transmitted/founder viruses, have the potential to elucidate fundamental mechanisms in HIV-1 transmission relevant to vaccine design and other prevention strategies. PMID:23043157

  2. Biphasic pulses enhance bleomycin efficacy in a spontaneous canine genital tumor model of chemoresistance: Sticker sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Spugnini , Enrico P; Dotsinsky , Ivan; Mudrov , Nikolay; Citro , Gennaro; D'Avino , Alfredo; Baldi , Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Sticker's sarcoma (also known as transmissible venereal tumor) is a horizontally transmitted neoplasm of the dog, that is passed with coitus. It is a locally aggressive tumor with a low tendency to metastatic spread. The most common locations are the genitals, the nose, the perianal area. Standard treatment consists with chemotherapy with vincristine, however other therapies such as, cryotherapy, immunotherapy or, in selected cases, radiation therapy, have been reported. In this article we describe the outcome of a small cohort of canine patients, with chemotherapy resistant transmissible venereal tumor (TVT), treated with bleomycin selectively driven by trains of biphasic pulses (electrochemotherapy). Three canine patients, with refractory TVT, entered the study and received two sessions of ECT under sedation. The pets had local injection of bleomycin at the concentration of 1.5 mg/ml and five minutes after the chemotherapy, trains of 8 biphasic electric pulses lasting 50 + 50 ?s each, with 1 ms interpulse intervals, were delivered by means of modified caliper or, for difficult districts, through paired needle electrode. All the patients responded to the treatment and are still in remission at different times. Electrochemotherapy appears as a safe and efficacious modality for the treatment of TVT and warrants further investigations. PMID:18980687

  3. Biphasic pulses enhance bleomycin efficacy in a spontaneous canine genital tumor model of chemoresistance: Sticker sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Spugnini, Enrico P; Dotsinsky, Ivan; Mudrov, Nikolay; Citro, Gennaro; D'Avino, Alfredo; Baldi, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Sticker's sarcoma (also known as transmissible venereal tumor) is a horizontally transmitted neoplasm of the dog, that is passed with coitus. It is a locally aggressive tumor with a low tendency to metastatic spread. The most common locations are the genitals, the nose, the perianal area. Standard treatment consists with chemotherapy with vincristine, however other therapies such as, cryotherapy, immunotherapy or, in selected cases, radiation therapy, have been reported. In this article we describe the outcome of a small cohort of canine patients, with chemotherapy resistant transmissible venereal tumor (TVT), treated with bleomycin selectively driven by trains of biphasic pulses (electrochemotherapy). Three canine patients, with refractory TVT, entered the study and received two sessions of ECT under sedation. The pets had local injection of bleomycin at the concentration of 1.5 mg/ml and five minutes after the chemotherapy, trains of 8 biphasic electric pulses lasting 50 + 50 mus each, with 1 ms interpulse intervals, were delivered by means of modified caliper or, for difficult districts, through paired needle electrode. All the patients responded to the treatment and are still in remission at different times. Electrochemotherapy appears as a safe and efficacious modality for the treatment of TVT and warrants further investigations. PMID:18980687

  4. Evidence for dopaminergic vasodilator innervation of the canine paw pad.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C.; Lang, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    1 In chloralose-anaesthetized dogs pretreated with guanethidine and pancuronium, electrical stimulation (0.2 to 5 Hz) of the peripheral end of the cut tibial nerve caused a frequency-dependent increase in femoral blood flow which was restricted to the paw pads. 2 This neurogenic vasodilatation was not attenuated by atropine, mepyramine plus burimamide, indomethacin or propranolol. It was, however, attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by intra-arterial administration of the dopamine receptor antagonist, ergometrine (0.05 to 0.5 mg). 3 The effect of ergometrine could not be explained by non-specific effects on axonal conduction or transmission or by vasospasm of the blood vessels of the paw-pads. 4 In dogs with intact tibial nerves, a pharmacologically similar dilator response localized to the paw-pads could be elicited by electrical stimulation of loci in the ipsilateral diencephalon and midbrain. This response was not due to inhibition of adrenergic vasomotor tone and was abolished by systemic ganglion blockade or by tibial nerve section as well as by femoral arterial administration of ergometrine. 5 It is suggested that the vasculature of the canine paw pads is innervated by a population of autonomic axons which utilize dopamine or a related substance as a transmitter substance and activation of which causes vasodilation. PMID:40651

  5. M gene analysis of canine coronavirus strains detected in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Seok-Young; Ann, So-Yun; Kim, Hyun-Tae

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic features of canine coronavirus (CCV) strains detected in Korea. M gene sequences obtained for isolates from 22 dogs with enteritis over a 5-year period were evaluated. Sequence comparison revealed that the 22 Korean CCV strains had an 87.2 to 100% nucleotide homology. Comparing to the typical reference CCV strains (type II), the nucleotide sequence of Korean strains had homology ranged from 86.3% to 98.3% (89.1% to 99.2% for the amino acid sequence) and 87.7% to 97.8% (92.4% to 100% for the amino acid sequence) when compared to FCoV-like CCV strains (type I). Three amino acid variations in the M gene were characteristic for the Korean CCV strains. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the 22 Korean CCV strains belonged to four typical CCV clusters (i.e., a unique Korean CCV cluster, a type II and transmissible gastroenteritis virus cluster, an intermediate cluster between type I and II, and a type I cluster). This study was the first to identify genetic differences of the M gene from Korean CCV strains and provided a platform for molecular identification of different Korean CCV strains. PMID:25234323

  6. Molecular identification of potential leishmaniasis vector species within the Phlebotomus (Euphlebotomus) argentipes species complex in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an emerging vector-borne disease in Sri Lanka. Phlebotomus (Euphlebotomus) argentipes sensu lato Annandale and Brunette 1908 is suspected to be a potential vector. Three sibling species have been reported in the species complex based on analysis of morphological data. A study was carried out in different parts of Sri Lanka including cutaneous leishmaniasis prevailing localities to characterise the sibling species of Phlebotomus (Euphlebotomus) argentipes sensu lato and to establish their possible role in Leishmania transmission. Methods Sandflies were collected using cattle baited trap nets and mouth aspirator. They were identified based on existing taxonomic keys. Sequences of amplified cytochrome oxidase subunit I (CO I), cytochrome oxidase b (cyt b), internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), 18s and 28s rDNA regions were analysed to confirm the number of sibling species. Vectorial capacity of the sibling species was checked by detecting human and Leishmania DNA. Results Sandflies collected using different techniques were processed for identification, parasite detection and molecular characterization. The 18s, 28s rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (CO I), internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and cytochrome b oxidase (cytb) sequences confirmed that the species belonged to the Argentipes complex. 18s and 28s sequences did not show any variation among the proposed sibling species. The phylogeny created from mitochondrial CO I and cytochrome b data and from the nuclear ITS2 region supports the existence of only two groups of flies (termed A and B) from Phlebotomus (Euphlebotomus) argentipes complex instead of the previously proposed three. The Leishmania mini-circle kinetoplastid, heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and internal transcribed spacer I DNA along with human blood were detected from sibling species A only, which has not previously been considered to be a vector. Conclusions The taxonomy of the Sri Lankan Argentipes species complex is reassessed based on the molecular data. The existence of two sibling species is proposed; sibling species A has a long sensilla chaetica (>?50% length of the second antennal flagellomere) and sibling species B has a short sensilla cheatica (leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. PMID:24499561

  7. Consultative meeting to develop a strategy for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Institute Pasteur, Paris. 13–15 June, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Modabber, Farrokh; Buffet, Pierre A; Torreele, Els; Milon, Geneviéve; Croft, Simon L

    2007-01-01

    Background A meeting was organized by Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) and the Institute Pasteur (IP), Paris, to review the treatment for all forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and to propose a strategy for the development of new efficacious and affordable treatments. Method The global burden of CL was discussed with respect to financial impact; relation to poverty; the stigma of CL lesions and scars (particularly in young women); lack of effective, affordable, easily implemented tools and political will and resources to implement available control tools; and lack of input from pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to develop new drugs and vaccines. Results According to the experts from different endemic countries present, the financial and social burdens of CL are high, but we have limited quantitative data. The analysis of published trials indicates that the quality of most trials is poor and requires both improvement and standardization. The available drugs are inadequate. Criteria by which different CL types could be prioritized as target disease were set. These criteria included: severity of the disease; lack of response to available drugs; overall incidence and prevalence of the disease; sequelae of the disease, (including recidivans and mucosal leishmaniasis); the impact of treatment of individuals on control of transmission and lack of other major parties involved in drug development. Based on these, the anthroponotic CL and its sequel "recidivans" caused by L. tropica and CL caused by L. braziliensis and its sequel, mucosal leishmaniasis were considered to be the target diseases. The mechanism for controlling Leishmania infection to reach a stable self healing process is a balanced immune response. Immune stimulation during chemotherapy can enhance cure. There is no adequately effective vaccine, but some encouraging results have been obtained with whole killed Leishmania parasites or imiquimod (an immuno-modulator) plus antimonials. Further studies are needed. One safety/immunogenicity clinical trial is currently ongoing with a Second Generation Vaccine (SGV). Conclusions and recommendations There is an urgent need for new treatments for all CL types. CL should be considered as a neglected disease and organizations, such as DNDi, should include it in their list of target diseases. It was agreed that immuno-chemotherapy (with "therapeutic" vaccines or immunomodulators) has a strong potential to make an impact as a new therapy of CL with the view of shortening/reducing duration and dose of drug treatment and preventing resistance. There is also a need for safe, affordable and efficacious new chemotherapeutics. The quality of clinical trials needs to be enhanced and standardized. Short and long-term objectives and activities were defined as a part of meeting recommendations. PMID:17456237

  8. Canine Evolution in Sabretoothed Carnivores: Natural Selection or Sexual Selection?

    PubMed Central

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T.

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition. PMID:23951334

  9. Distribution and density of the canine renal cortical lymphatic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt H Albertine; Charles C C O'Morchoe

    1979-01-01

    Distribution and density of the canine renal cortical lymphatic system. The pattern, distribution, and extent of the lymphatic circulation in the canine renal cortex was studied with light and electron microscopy, in two groups of animals, one with and one without ipsilateral ureteric obstruction for 3 days. Recognition of lymphatics in tissue sections was facilitated by mild dilatation, induced in

  10. Identification of avian malaria (Plasmodium sp.) and canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in the mosquitoes of Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, Rebecca T Trout; Lewis, Taylor Thompson; Peace, Hannah; Hendricks, Brian B M; Paulsen, David

    2014-08-01

    Plasmodium reticulum, the causative agent for avian malaria (a protozoan), and Dirofilaria immitis, the causative agent for canine heartworm (a filarial nematode), are 2 obligate parasites transmitted by mosquitoes. The objective of this project was to identify whether either parasite was present in Tennessee mosquitoes and to illustrate the need for collecting spatial and temporal vector-parasite data. During 2012, mosquitoes were collected from the East Tennessee Research and Education Center (ETREC) in eastern Tennessee and the Ames Plantation Research and Education Center (AMES) in western Tennessee using CO(2) traps and gravid traps. Once mosquitoes were identified to species, their heads and thoraces were pooled in groups of ?10, and the entire pool underwent DNA extraction and parasite amplification via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasite DNA (cytochrome b) and for Dirofilaria species DNA (internal transcribed spacer-2 ribosomal DNA). All positive PCR amplicons were bidirectionally sequenced to confirm positivity and to identify the potential parasite genotype. This approach resulted in 762 mosquito pools, 150 pools from AMES and 612 pools from ETREC. In total, 3,260 mosquitoes were collected, representing 28 mosquito species. The 3 abundant genera were Culex (2,440 specimens, 74.8%), Aedes (720, 22.1%), and Anopheles (85, 2.6%). The remaining specimens included 13 Psorophora, 1 Orthopodomyia signiferia, and 1 Coquillettidia perturbans. Of the 150 pools from AMES, 1 pool (0.7%) was positive for avian malaria and 12 pools (8.0%) were positive for canine heartworm. Of the 612 pools from ETREC, 61 pools (10.0%) were positive for avian malaria and 8 pools (1.3%) were positive for canine heartworm. Positive pools for both Plasmodium and Dirofilaria were primarily Culex pipiens and occurred later in the season. The confirmation of the agents for avian malaria and canine heartworm illustrates the need for concurrent spatial and temporal studies using different trapping methods. The confirmation of avian malaria and canine heartworm in Tennessee illustrates the need for concurrent spatial and temporal studies. Future studies incriminating the potential vector populations will begin to unravel the complex relationships that intimately tie together hosts, vectors, and parasites. Results provide a significant contribution to the knowledge of the diversity of mosquito parasites present in Tennessee, and the presence of positive field populations warrants additional research exploring the environmental factors contributing to transmission. PMID:24588536

  11. Comparative immunohistochemical characterization of canine seminomas and Sertoli cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chi-Ho; Hwang, Du-Na; Yhee, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Im, Keum-Soon; Nho, Whan-Gook; Lyoo, Young-Soo

    2009-01-01

    Primary testicular tumors are the most common causes of cancer in male dogs. Overall, the majority of canine patients should be cured by testicular surgery. However, tumor markers are not well-known in veterinary medicine. We sought to determine using immunohistochemistry whether the combined human testicular tumor markers (placental alkaline phosphatase, OCT3/4, CD30, alpha-fetoprotein, inhibin-alpha, vimentin, c-KIT, and desmin) are expressed in canine seminomas and Sertoli cell tumors (SCTs). We examined 35 canine testicular tumors, 20 seminomas and 15 SCTs. c-KIT was expressed markedly in canine seminomas. Both inhibin-alpha and vimentin were expressed significantly in canine SCTs. The results of this study demonstrate differences and similarities between tumor marker expression of testicular tumors in dogs and humans. All the main markers in current routine use are discussed as well as potential useful markers for benign and malignant tumors, and tumor progression. PMID:19255517

  12. The effects of oncolytic reovirus in canine lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hwang, C C; Umeki, S; Igase, M; Coffey, M; Noguchi, S; Okuda, M; Mizuno, T

    2014-10-15

    Reovirus is a potent oncolytic virus in many human neoplasms that has reached phase II and III clinical trials. Our laboratory has previously reported the oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine mast cell tumour (MCT). In order to further explore the potential of reovirus in veterinary oncology, we tested the susceptibility of reovirus in 10 canine lymphoma cell lines. Reovirus-induced cell death, virus replication and infectivity were confirmed in four cell lines with variable levels of susceptibility. The level of Ras activation varied among the cell lines with no correlation with reovirus susceptibility. Reovirus-susceptible cell lines underwent apoptosis as proven by propidium iodide (PI) staining, Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, cleavage of PARP and inhibition of cell death by caspase inhibitor. A single intratumoral injection of reovirus suppressed the growth of canine lymphoma subcutaneous tumour in NOD/SCID mice. Unlike canine MCT, canine lymphoma is less susceptible to reovirus. PMID:25319493

  13. The Aerodynamics and Transport Phenomena of Canine Olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Brent; Settles, Gary; Paterson, Eric

    2008-11-01

    A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the canine nasal airway, developed from a 3-D reconstruction of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, is used to study the aerodynamics of canine olfaction. Simulation results reveal that a unique olfactory airflow pattern exists within the canine nasal cavity during sniffing that is critical for efficient olfaction. The physics of olfactory mass transport are next considered via a reduced-order numerical model of multi-phase odorant transport in mucus-lined olfactory airways. Calculations show that this novel olfactory airflow pattern provides a crucial residence time for odorant absorption in the sensory region and promotes spatiotemporal fractionation of odorant mixtures along the olfactory epithelium. Consequently, the aerodynamics and transport phenomena of canine olfaction are highly-optimized for odorant transfer and olfactory discrimination, which may largely explain the high olfactory acuity of the canine.

  14. Larval Breeding Sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Urban Areas in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Cláudio; Andrighetti, Maria T. M.; Sampaio, Susy M. P.; Marcoris, Maria L. G.; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Prado, Ângelo P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. Methodology/Principal finding In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. Conclusion The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. PMID:24069494

  15. Molecular Detection of Leishmania in Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus at Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Rugani, Jeronimo Marteleto Nunes; Shimabukuro, Paloma Helena Fernandes; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Autochthonous cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) have been reported since 2001 in the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve located in the municipality of São João das Missões in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. In order to study the presence of Leishmania DNA in phlebotomine sand flies, six entomological collections were carried out from July 2008 through July 2009, using 40 light traps placed in peridomicile areas of 20 randomly selected houses. From October 2011 through August 2012, another six collections were carried out with 20 light traps distributed among four trails (five traps per trail) selected for a previous study of wild and synanthropic hosts of Leishmania. A total of 4,760 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to ten genera and twenty-three species. Single female specimens or pools with up to ten specimens of the same locality, species and date, for Leishmania detection by molecular methods. Species identification of parasites was performed with ITS1 PCR-RFLP using HaeIII enzyme and genetic sequencing for SSU rRNA target. The presence of Leishmania DNA was detected in eleven samples from peridomicile areas: Lu. longipalpis (two), Nyssomyia intermedia (four), Lu. renei (two), Lu. ischnacantha, Micropygomyia goiana and Evandromyia lenti (one pool of each specie). The presence of Leishmania DNA was detected in twelve samples from among the trails: Martinsmyia minasensis (six), Ny. intermedia (three), Mi. peresi (two) and Ev. lenti (one). The presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in Lu. longipalpis and Leishmania braziliensis DNA in Ny. intermediasupport the epidemiological importance of these species of sand flies in the cycle of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. The results also found other species associated with Leishmania DNA, such as Mt. minasensis and Ev. lenti, which may participate in a wild and/or synanthropic cycle of Leishmania transmission in the studied area. PMID:25853254

  16. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Current Treatment Practices in the USA for Returning Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Eiras, Daniel P.; Kirkman, Laura A.; Murray, Henry W.

    2015-01-01

    Opinion statement Leishmaniasis, a protozoal infection transmitted by sandfly bite, produces a clinical spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic infection to ulcerative skin and mucosal lesions to visceral involvement. Leishmaniasis is endemic in regions of Africa, the Middle East, south Asia, southern Europe, northern South America, and Central America. There has been an increase in imported leishmaniasis into developed, non-endemic countries due to increasing global travel. While pentavalent antimonials have been the mainstay of antileishmanial treatment for decades, newer therapeutic options have become available for all forms of infection, including liposomal amphotericin B, miltefosine, fluconazole, and ketoconazole. For the returning traveler with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the USA, treatment approaches are determined based on infecting species, initial presentation, extent and progression of disease, the advantages and drawbacks of available parenteral and oral drugs, and clinician-consultant experience. PMID:25788870

  17. Miltefosine for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis: drug characteristics and evidence-based treatment recommendations.

    PubMed

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2015-05-01

    Miltefosine is the only recognized oral agent with potential to treat leishmaniasis. Miltefosine had demonstrated very good cure rates for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, but high rates of clinical failures have been recently reported. Moderate efficacy has been observed for VL in East Africa, whereas data from Mediterranean countries and Latin America are scarce. Results have not been very promising for patients coinfected with VL and human immunodeficiency virus. However, miltefosine's long half-life and its oral administration could make it a good option for maintenance prophylaxis. Good evidence of efficacy has been documented in Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), and different cure rates among New World CL have been obtained depending on the geographical areas and species involved. Appropriate regimens for New World mucocutaneous leishmaniasis need to be established, although longer treatment duration seems to confer better results. Strategies to prevent the development and spread of miltefosine resistance are urgently needed. PMID:25601455

  18. Comparative mapping of canine and human proximal Xq and genetic analysis of canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Deschenes; J. M. Puck; A. S. Dutra

    1994-01-01

    Parallel genetic analysis of animal and human genetic diseases can facilitate the identification and characterization of the causative gene defects. For example, canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by clinical, pathological, and immunological manifestations similar to the most common form of human SCID. To derive a canine syntenic map including genes that in humans are located in proximal

  19. Sand Flies of the Subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Introduction of Phlebotomus (Adlerius) comatus as a New Record for Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zahraei-Ramazani, Ali Reza; Kumar, Dinesh; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Naghian, Abdollah; Jafari, Reza; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Abdoli, Hamid; Soleimani, Hassan; Shareghi, Niloofar; Ghanei, Maryam; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sand flies of subgenus Adlerius has a wide geographical distribution in Iran and are mostly found in wild form in mountainous areas. They are always considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to determine the Adlerius species and its composition in an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of the country. Methods: Sand flies were collected from 6 different areas of Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province using sticky paper traps from August to September which is active season for sand flies in this area, in 2009. The flies were mounted and identified. The length of third antennal segments, ascoid, labrum, coxite, surstyle, style, aedeagus, genital filament, genital pump, width of style, and the end of aedeagus were measured and the number of costal hairs group was also counted as the morphological characters. Results: A total of 30 adult sand flies, (26 males and 4 females) including Phlebotomus halepensis (46.8%), P. longiductus (13.3%), P. balcanicus (23.3%), P. comatus (3.3%), and Adlerius spp. (13.3%) belong to subgenus Adlerius were identified respectively in 6 counties. One P. comatus male was captured in front of a cave located in the hillside of a mountain covered with the vegetation in Varzeqan area. Conclusion: The presence of at least 5 species of the subgenus Adlerius in Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province, an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iran, shows that the risk of parasite transmission among man and reservoir animals is high during the active season of sand flies. P. comatus is a new record for Iran and needs to be added to the list of Iranian phlebotomines of subgenus Adlerius. PMID:23785689

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy of Olyset® Plus in a village-based cohort study in the Cukurova Plain, Turkey, in an area of hyperendemic cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Gunay, Filiz; Karakus, Mehmet; Oguz, Gizem; Dogan, Mert; Karakaya, Yasemen; Ergan, Gokhan; Kaynas, Sinan; Kasap, Ozge Erisoz; Ozbel, Yusuf; Alten, Bulent

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the protective efficacy of Olyset(®) Plus, a new long-lasting factory-treated insecticidal net (LLIN) incorporated with 2% permethrin and 1% of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO), against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) transmission under field conditions. A village-scale trial, promoting the use of LLIN by the local inhabitants of the study area was conducted as a pilot study in a new hyperendemic focus of CL caused by a Leishmania infantum/L. donovani hybrid parasite transmitted by proven vector species Phlebotomus tobbi in Cukurova Plain, Adana, Turkey, between May, 2013 and May, 2014. The study area comprised eight villages; two of them were selected as an intervention village with Olyset(®) Plus net (Kizillar) and a control village without net application (Malihidirli). Six villages with surrounding allopatric barriers were utilized as a buffer zone cluster between intervention and control villages. Monthly entomological surveys were performed in the intervention and control villages and Damyeri, representing the other six villages, to collect adults of Phlebotomus tobbi. Results showed a significant reduction in cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence in the intervention village from 4.78% to 0.37%. The protective efficacy rate of LLIN was 92.2%. In contrast, incidence rates increased in the control village from 3.67% to 4.69%. We also evaluated residual insecticide levels of used nets after six and 12 months of usage. It was determined that the nets had retained full insecticidal strength. These results highlight the value of real-world data on bed net effectiveness and longevity to guide decisions regarding sand fly control strategies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first field study to evaluate Olyset(®) Plus efficacy in a hyperendemic cutaneous leishmaniasis area. PMID:25424269

  1. Prevalence and zoonotic potential of canine hookworms in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canine hookworm infection is endemic in Southeast Asian countries with a prevalence ranging from 70% to 100%, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. However, there are limited data available on the prevalence of canine hookworms in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hookworm and Ancylostoma species among dogs in Malaysia. Methods Faecal samples were collected from 221 dogs living in urban areas, rural areas and animal shelters in Selangor. Faecal samples were processed using the formal-ether concentration technique followed by wet mount preparation and iodine staining for the detection of hookworm eggs. Samples positive for hookworm eggs were examined using PCR, targeting ITS2 and 28?s rRNA region, and subsequently sequenced in both directions. The sequences were phylogenetically analysed using MrBayes for Bayesian Inference. Results The overall prevalence of hookworm among dogs was 48% (95%CI; 41.41–54.95). Rural stray dogs had the highest prevalence 71.4% (95%CI; 61.13–81.49) followed by urban stray dogs, recording 48% (95%CI; 34.15–61.85) and lastly dogs in shelters with 28.7% (95%CI; 19.56–37.84). Logistic regression identified rural stray dogs as a high risk group (OR?=?4.55, 95%; 2.50–8.31) and keeping dogs in shelters as a protective factor (OR?=?0.24, 95%; 0.14–0.43). Molecular methods identified both Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum with A. ceylanicum being predominant among urban stray dogs. Rural dogs had a higher prevalence of A. caninum than A. ceylanicum, while both species showed equal distribution among dogs in shelters. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. ceylanicum isolated from dogs in one group with A. ceylanicum human isolates. Conclusion This study indicates that dogs have the potential to act as reservoir hosts of human hookworm infection in Malaysia. This finding necessitates the inclusion of dogs in any interventions to combat hookworm in the country. PMID:22564445

  2. SLC11A1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in Moroccan patients.

    PubMed

    Ejghal, Rajaâ; Hida, Moustapha; Idrissi, Mona Lakhdar; Hessni, Aboubaker El; Lemrani, Meryem

    2014-12-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the Mediterranean basin. Since most infections are sub-clinical or asymptomatic, host genetics can provide concrete evidence in determining disease outcome. SLC11A1/NRAMP1 is a candidate gene that may be related to host susceptibility versus resistance to intracellular pathogens. This study aimed to determine possible association of SLC11A1 polymorphisms with visceral leishmaniasis among Moroccan children. A total of 106 children who developed visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum were enrolled in this study. The control group was composed of 137 unrelated children, 97 asymptomatic subjects (DTH+) and 42 healthy individuals (DTH) who had no evidence of present or past infection. Four polymorphisms were studied by PCR-RFLP and sequencing: (GT)n microsatellite in the 5' exon 1; silent substitutions 469+14G/C in intron 4; amino acid substitution D543N in exon 15 and 823C/T polymorphism in exon 8. Thereafter, the frequencies of genotypes, alleles and haplotypes were estimated. Two polymorphisms were each significantly associated in the genotypes with visceral leishmaniasis: 823C/T in exon 8 and D543N in exon 15 when comparing visceral leishmaniasis and DTH+ groups. The results of haplotype frequencies suggested an evidence of association with resistance to visceral leishmaniasis for the "286GTG" and "288GCA" haplotypes, whereas, the "286GCG" haplotype appears to increase the risk to visceral leishmaniasis susceptibility.Our data provide insights into the possible role of SLC11A1 variation in visceral leishmaniasis susceptibility. These results must be regarded as preliminary but suggestive that further study with larger populations is worthwhile. PMID:25151047

  3. Arginase Activity in the Blood of Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weldegebreal, Teklu; Hailu, Asrat; Hailu, Workagegnehu; Hurissa, Zewdu; Ali, Jemal; Diro, Ermiyas; Sisay, Yifru; Cloke, Tom; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Müller, Ingrid; Kropf, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease associated with high mortality. The most important foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia are in the Northwest and are predominantly associated with high rates of HIV co-infection. Co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis patients with HIV results in higher mortality, treatment failure and relapse. We have previously shown that arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, was increased in patients with visceral leishmaniasis and in HIV seropositive patients; further our results showed that high arginase activity is a marker of disease severity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increased arginase activities associated with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infections synergize in patients co-infected with both pathogens. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited a cohort of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and a cohort of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infection from Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, and recorded and compared their clinical data. Further, we measured the levels of arginase activity in the blood of these patients and identified the phenotype of arginase-expressing cells. Our results show that CD4+ T cell counts were significantly lower and the parasite load in the spleen was significantly higher in co-infected patients. Moreover, our results demonstrate that arginase activity was significantly higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma of co-infected patients. Finally, we identified the cells-expressing arginase in the PBMCs as low-density granulocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that increased arginase might contribute to the poor disease outcome characteristic of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection. PMID:23349999

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Combination Therapies for Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Indian Subcontinent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filip Meheus; Manica Balasegaram; Piero Olliaro; Shyam Sundar; Suman Rijal; Marleen Boelaert

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundVisceral leishmaniasis is a systemic parasitic disease that is fatal unless treated. We assessed the cost and cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent. In particular we examined whether combination therapies are a cost-effective alternative compared to monotherapies.Methods and FindingsWe assessed the cost-effectiveness of all possible mono- and combination therapies for the treatment

  5. Canine autotransplantation: effect of extraction site preservation with a titanium prosthesis and a bioresorbable membrane.

    PubMed

    Ru, Nan; Bai, Yuxing

    2013-05-01

    The permanent canine is the most frequently displaced or impacted tooth. The standard treatment for an impacted canine includes surgical exposure and orthodontic alignment. Autotransplantation is a treatment alternative for canines with complete root formation. The purpose of this article is to report a canine autotransplantation where the extraction site was preserved with a titanium prosthesis and a bioresorbable membrane. The autotransplanted canine had minimal root resorption and no ankylosis. PMID:23631974

  6. Frequent cross-species transmission of parvoviruses among diverse carnivore hosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allison, Andrew B.; Kohler, Dennis J.; Fox, Karen A.; Brown, Justin D.; Gerhold, Richard W.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Parrish, Colin R.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. A phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus (“FPV-like”) or canine parvovirus (“CPV-like”). Cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, relatively little evidence for onward transmission in nondomestic species.

  7. Local Increase of Arginase Activity in Lesions of Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abebe, Tamrat; Hailu, Asrat; Woldeyes, Mihretu; Mekonen, Woinshet; Bilcha, Kassahun; Cloke, Thomas; Fry, Lionel; Seich al Basatena, Nafisa-Katrin; Corware, Karina; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is in Ethiopia mainly caused by the parasite Leishmania aethiopica. This neglected tropical disease is common in rural areas and causes serious morbidity. Persistent nonhealing cutaneous leishmaniasis has been associated with poor T cell mediated responses; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We have recently shown in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis that arginase-induced L-arginine metabolism suppresses antigen-specific T cell responses at the site of pathology, but not in the periphery. To test whether these results translate to human disease, we recruited patients presenting with localized lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis and assessed the levels of arginase activity in cells isolated from peripheral blood and from skin biopsies. Arginase activity was similar in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients and healthy controls. In sharp contrast, arginase activity was significantly increased in lesion biopsies of patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis as compared with controls. Furthermore, we found that the expression levels of CD3?, CD4 and CD8 molecules were considerably lower at the site of pathology as compared to those observed in paired PBMCs. Conclusion Our results suggest that increased arginase in lesions of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis might play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease by impairing T cell effector functions. PMID:22720104

  8. In vitro responses to Leishmania antigens by lymphocytes from patients with leishmaniasis or Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, S G; Carvalho, E M; Sherbert, C H; Sampaio, D P; Russo, D M; Bacelar, O; Pihl, D L; Scott, J M; Barral, A; Grabstein, K H

    1990-01-01

    T cell responses are correlated with recovery from and resistance to leishmaniasis. Antigens of Leishmania chagasi were evaluated by determining their ability to elicit in vitro proliferation and cytokine production in peripheral blood lymphocytes and in T cell lines and clones from patients with histories of leishmaniasis or Chagas' disease. Antigens tested were selected by their reactivity with patient antibodies. Several of the antigens induced proliferative responses in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients recovered from visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis or with chronic Chagas' disease. Two purified glycoproteins, 30 and 42 kD, were consistently among the most effective in eliciting high proliferative responses and IL-2 production. Lymphocytes from a recovered visceral leishmaniasis patient were used to produce T cell lines against either the 30- or 42-kD antigen. Each of the lines responded to both of these antigens as well as to crude leishmania lysate. CD4+ T cell clones specific for either or both of these antigens were also isolated from a visceral leishmaniasis patient. In contrast, rabbit antisera produced against these two antigens were not crossreactive. Both antigens were effective in inducing the production of IFN-gamma from T cell lines from both leishmaniasis and Chagas' disease patients. These studies demonstrate the potential for defining parasite antigens with broad immunostimulatory capabilities. Images PMID:2107208

  9. Shingles Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Shingles Home About Shingles Overview Signs & Symptoms Transmission Complications ...

  10. Endemic Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Brazil: Correlation between Level of Endemicity and Number of Cases of Mucosal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bedoya-Pacheco, Sandro J.; Araujo-Melo, Maria H.; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia M.; Pimentel, Maria Inês F.; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Schubach, Armando O.; Marzochi, Mauro C. A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a correlation between the endemic level of tegumentary leishmaniasis in different regions of Brazil during 2002–2009 and the number of cases of mucosal or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The proportion of mucosal leishmaniasis was inversely correlated with prevalence of infection. In areas with a lower infection prevalence, the proportion of mucosal leishmaniasis increased (P < 0.05). The hypothesis of an Amazonian origin and dissemination through human migration is considered. Our results show that in regions with lower prevalence and endemically younger, the proportion of cases that evolve to the mucosal form is higher than in regions with higher prevalence and endemically older. PMID:21633026

  11. Characterization of lymphocytes in canine gastrointestinal lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Coyle, K A; Steinberg, H

    2004-03-01

    Primary canine gastrointestinal lymphoma has been believed to be of B-cell origin based on the morphology and behavior of the neoplastic cells and the evidence from the human medical field. However, the neoplasms have not to date been characterized as to the origin of the cell population. Forty-four cases diagnosed as canine gastrointestinal lymphoma were retrieved from the records of the Veterinary Teaching Hospitals at the University of Minnesota and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Four of the cases have been previously identified as epitheliotropic T-cell gastrointestinal lymphoma. Twenty-three of the dogs were female, with 11 intact and 12 neutered, and 21 of the dogs were male, with 12 intact and nine neutered. Sixteen breeds as well as individuals of mixed breeding were represented. The Boxer and the sharpei were the most commonly represented breeds with six individuals each. The age range of the dogs was 1.5-14.66 years, with two dogs identified as adult and two of unknown age. Archived tissue blocks of gastrointestinal samples were sectioned in duplicate and prepared for immunohistochemical staining with CD3 (T-cell marker) and CD20 (B-cell marker). In 75% of the cases examined under light microscopy, 50-95% of the neoplastic cells stained positively with CD3 and exhibited marked epitheliotropic behavior. In three of the cases, from 10% up to 50% of the neoplastic cells stained positively with CD20, with widely scattered CD3(+) cells. In the remainder of the cases, few to none of the neoplastic cells stained with either of the markers. This retrospective study shows that canine primary gastrointestinal lymphoma is more commonly of T-cell origin, rather than B-cell origin. PMID:15017027

  12. Estimation of canine leishmania infection prevalence in six cities of the algerian littoral zone using a bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Adel, Amel; Abatih, Emmanuel; Speybroeck, Niko; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Bouguedour, Rachid; Boughalem, Karim; Bouhbal, Abdelmalek; Djerbal, Mouloud; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale study on canine Leishmania infection (CanL) was conducted in six localities along a west-east transect in the Algerian littoral zone (Tlemcen, Mostaganem, Tipaza, Boumerdes, Bejaia, Jijel) and covering two sampling periods. In total 2,184 dogs were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a direct agglutination test (DAT). Combined multiple-testing and several statistical methods were compared to estimate the CanL true prevalence and tests characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). The Bayesian full model showed the best fit and yielded prevalence estimates between 11% (Mostaganem, first period) and 38% (Bejaia, second period). Sensitivity of IFAT varied (in function of locality) between 86% and 88% while its specificity varied between 65% and 87%. DAT was less sensitive than IFAT but showed a higher specificity (between 80% and 95% in function of locality or/and season). A general increasing trend of the CanL prevalence was noted from west to east. A concordance between the present results and the incidence of human cases of visceral leishmaniasis was observed, where also a maximum was recorded for Bejaia. The results of the present study highlight the dangers when using IFAT as a gold standard. PMID:25793942

  13. Estimation of Canine Leishmania Infection Prevalence in Six Cities of the Algerian Littoral Zone Using a Bayesian Approach

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Amel; Abatih, Emmanuel; Speybroeck, Niko; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Bouguedour, Rachid; Boughalem, Karim; Bouhbal, Abdelmalek; Djerbal, Mouloud; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale study on canine Leishmania infection (CanL) was conducted in six localities along a west-east transect in the Algerian littoral zone (Tlemcen, Mostaganem, Tipaza, Boumerdes, Bejaia, Jijel) and covering two sampling periods. In total 2,184 dogs were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a direct agglutination test (DAT). Combined multiple-testing and several statistical methods were compared to estimate the CanL true prevalence and tests characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). The Bayesian full model showed the best fit and yielded prevalence estimates between 11% (Mostaganem, first period) and 38% (Bejaia, second period). Sensitivity of IFAT varied (in function of locality) between 86% and 88% while its specificity varied between 65% and 87%. DAT was less sensitive than IFAT but showed a higher specificity (between 80% and 95% in function of locality or/and season). A general increasing trend of the CanL prevalence was noted from west to east. A concordance between the present results and the incidence of human cases of visceral leishmaniasis was observed, where also a maximum was recorded for Bejaia. The results of the present study highlight the dangers when using IFAT as a gold standard. PMID:25793942

  14. Canine tooth in hand – A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Ranganatha, B.T.; Pawan Kumar, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    The hand plays an important role in day to day activities and is more prone for accidental injuries. Injuries to the hand are frequently associated with foreign body penetration. Many a times the foreign body is not detected at the initial visit and can later present with other complications. We present a case of canine tooth presenting as a retained foreign body in the hand following a dog bite. The article stresses the importance of looking for foreign bodies in penetrating hand injuries, even in wounds that seem to be minor in nature.

  15. Canine blood groups: description of 20 specificities.

    PubMed

    Symons, M; Bell, K

    1992-01-01

    Twenty blood typing reagents, four agglutinins and 16 operable in the antiglobulin test, were prepared from 54 antisera which were produced in 24 dogs. Two of the reagents were identified as anti-B and Nf6. Two of the antigens were shown by absorption and family studies to be linear subtypes. In most cases, detailed family studies demonstrated a Mendelian dominant inheritance for the genes controlling the canine red cell antigens. Gene frequencies were determined in various breeds of dogs and in the dingo. PMID:1492701

  16. The Genetics of Canine Skull Shape Variation

    PubMed Central

    Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2013-01-01

    A dog’s craniofacial diversity is the result of continual human intervention in natural selection, a process that began tens of thousands of years ago. To date, we know little of the genetic underpinnings and developmental mechanisms that make dog skulls so morphologically plastic. In this Perspectives, we discuss the origins of dog skull shapes in terms of history and biology and highlight recent advances in understanding the genetics of canine skull shapes. Of particular interest are those molecular genetic changes that are associated with the development of distinct breeds. PMID:23396475

  17. Characterization of the antibody response to the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in people living in endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Marzouki, Soumaya; Ben Ahmed, Mélika; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Abdeladhim, Maha; Ben Aleya-Bouafif, Nissaf; Namane, Abdelkader; Hamida, Nabil Belhaj; Ben Salah, Afif; Louzir, Hechmi

    2011-05-01

    Important data obtained in mice raise the possibility that immunization against the saliva of sand flies could protect from leishmaniasis. Sand fly saliva stimulates the production of specific antibodies in individuals living in endemic areas of parasite transmission. To characterize the humoral immune response against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in humans, we carried out a prospective study on 200 children living in areas of Leishmania major transmission. We showed that 83% of donors carried anti-saliva IgG antibodies, primarily of IgG4 isotype. Positive sera reacted differentially with seven salivary proteins. The protein PpSP30 was prominently recognized by all the sera. The salivary proteins triggered the production of various antibody isotypes. Interestingly, the immunodominant PpSP30 was recognized by all IgG subclasses, whereas PpSP12 was not by IgG4. Immunoproteomic analyses may help to identify the impact of each salivary protein on the L. major infection and to select potential vaccine candidates. PMID:21540371

  18. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: knowledge, attitude and practices of the inhabitants of the Kani forest tribal settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Nandha, B; Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P

    2014-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for control/prevention of CL is to create awareness among the community and ensure optimal utilization of interventions. First step in this direction would be to carry out a situation analysis on prevailing knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of inhabitants. A study among 103 respondents from 10 Kani tribal settlements showed that though 39.8% of respondents recognized pictures of CL shown to them, but did not have any lay perceptions. There was absolutely no awareness on vector, transmission, risk factors and control measures. The role of sandflies in CL causation was not known to the residents and this prevented them from using any personal protection and adhering to control measures which in turn pose risk of spread of infection within settlements and to newer areas. CL has emerged as a challenging infection in this area and an urgent need for designing appropriate preventive measures and health education strategies is addressed in this article. PMID:25325998

  19. Visceral leishmaniasis with HIV co-infection and cervical lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sanjay; Shukla, Ayush; Tripathi, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is prevalent worldwide. In the past there has been steep rise in the incidence of VL in southern Europe and Africa. Factors attributed for this are economic development, a shift of the reservoir of Leishmania, immunodeficiency due to HIV infection and intravenous drug abuse. The co-infection of VL and HIV is common in southern European—African countries and is proposed that it should be included as an AIDS-defining illness. VL is not only considered to be an opportunistic infection in HIV-infected individuals but it may also reactivate latent infection. This case is worth reporting as it highlights increasing incidence of VL-HIV co-infection and its sparse literature from India, changing ecology and possible evolving epidemic in the Indian subcontinent. Additionally an atypical presentation such as lymphadenopathy in VL should arouse suspicion of HIV co-infection and vice versa. PMID:23576652

  20. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Immigrant Saudi Worker: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Razzak, Mohammad A.; Chanda, Bikash C.; Bhaskar, Khondaker R.H.; Mondal, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), an uncommon disorder in South-East Asia, including Bangladesh, often presents as granulomatous plaque on the exposed areas, with a high index of suspicion required for diagnosis. Here we report the first imported case of CL caused by Leishmania tropica in a migrant Bangladeshi worker in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The case, initially suspected as a case of cutaneous tuberculosis, arrived at specimens reception unit (SRU) of diagnostic labs of icddr,b being referred by the physician for ALS testing for tuberculosis. At his arrival in the SRU, one of the health personnel of the unit who used to work in KSA suspected him as a case of CL. The diagnosis was confirmed by smear microscopy which revealed plenty of amastigotes within macrophages. PCR was performed to confirm the species. He was treated with sodium stibogluconate at Shahid Suhrawardy Medical College Hospital, Dhaka. PMID:25076674

  1. Agrochemicals against Malaria, Sleeping Sickness, Leishmaniasis and Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Witschel, Matthias; Rottmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto

    2012-01-01

    In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively. PMID:23145187

  2. Misdiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis and recurrence after surgical excision.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Mark S; Langman, G

    2014-12-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) occurs in British troops deployed to Belize, Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere. From 1998 to 2009, 156 (45%) of 343 confirmed cases seen in the UK were in military personnel. CL is a rare disease and requires specialist clinical management because numerous pitfalls exist during diagnosis and treatment. A 19-year-old soldier developed CL on his neck 6?weeks after taking part in jungle warfare training in Belize. However, this was not suspected and the diagnosis was not made from either a skin biopsy or following surgical excision. The travel history and the patient's own photograph prompted retrospective investigations that confirmed this was CL due to Leishmania mexicana. Three months after surgery, the disease recurred locally and was treated appropriately with a good outcome. British military personnel with suspected CL should be referred to the UK Role 4 Military Infectious Diseases & Tropical Medicine Service. PMID:24109111

  3. Visceral Leishmaniasis: Clinical Features, Pathology, Diagnosis and Chemotherapeutic Developments.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Seema; Ram, Vishnu Ji

    2002-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, is a chronic disease caused by Leishmania donovani, Leishmania chagasi or Leishmania infantum. The disease is transmitted through the bite of a species of sandfly of the genus Phlebotomus, releasing amastigote parasites that invade various organs of the body and eventually result in such conditions as anemia, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Although no vaccine exists for the disease, diagnostic techniques based not only on pathological tests, but more sophisticated detectors such as polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, latex agglutination and immunochromatographic strip testing have been developed. Traditional treatment for the disease consists of two pentavalent antimonial drugs, sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate, but the growing resistance to these drugs has compelled scientists to search for new efficient compounds. (c) 2002 Prous Science. All rights reserved. PMID:12677177

  4. A cluster of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with human smuggling.

    PubMed

    Cannella, Anthony P; Nguyen, Bichchau M; Piggott, Caroline D; Lee, Robert A; Vinetz, Joseph M; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2011-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is rarely seen in the United States, and the social and geographic context of the infection can be a key to its diagnosis and management. Four Somali and one Ethiopian, in U.S. Border Patrol custody, came to the United States by the same human trafficking route: Djibouti to Dubai to Moscow to Havana to Quito; and then by ground by Columbia/Panama to the United States-Mexico border where they were detained. Although traveling at different times, all five patients simultaneously presented to our institution with chronic ulcerative skin lesions at different sites and stages of evolution. Culture of biopsy specimens grew Leishmania panamensis. Soon thereafter, three individuals from East Africa traveling the identical route presented with L. panamensis CL to physicians in Tacoma, WA. We document here the association of a human trafficking route and new world CL. Clinicians and public health officials should be aware of this emerging infectious disease risk. PMID:21633017

  5. Upper canine inclination influences the aesthetics of a smile.

    PubMed

    Bothung, C; Fischer, K; Schiffer, H; Springer, I; Wolfart, S

    2015-02-01

    This current study investigated which angle of canine inclination (angle between canine tooth axis (CA-line) and the line between the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral labial angle (EM-line)) is perceived to be most attractive in a smile. The second objective was to determine whether laymen and dental experts share the same opinion. A Q-sort assessment was performed with 48 posed smile photographs to obtain two models of neutral facial attractiveness. Two sets of images (1 male model set, 1 female model set), each containing seven images with incrementally altered canine and posterior teeth inclinations, were generated. The images were ranked for attractiveness by three groups (61 laymen, 59 orthodontists, 60 dentists). The images with 0° inclination, that is CA-line (maxillary canine axis) parallel to EM-line (the line formed by the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral corner of the mouth) (male model set: 54·4%; female model set: 38·9%), or -5° (inward) inclination (male model set: 20%; female model set: 29·4%) were perceived to be most attractive within each set. Images showing inward canine inclinations were regarded to be more attractive than those with outward inclinations. Dental experts and laymen were in accordance with the aesthetics. Smiles were perceived to be most attractive when the upper canine tooth axis was parallel to the EM-line. In reconstructive or orthodontic therapy, it is thus important to incline canines more inwardly than outwardly. PMID:25244536

  6. Cone-beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Luana Costa; Oliveira-Santos, Christiano; da Silva, Silvio José Albergaria; Neves, Frederico Sampaio; Campos, Paulo Sérgio Flores

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Materials and Methods Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Results Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Conclusion Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth. PMID:25473636

  7. Transmission of Brucella canis by contact exposure.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, L E; Joubert, J C

    1988-01-01

    Transmission studies demonstrated that canine brucellosis can spread from infected to susceptible males maintained in close contact after 4 to 6 months of cohabitation. Spread by males occurred after epididymitis was observed in the infected dogs. Transmission via contaminated urine was suspected, but not proved. The bladder urine of infected males, probably contaminated with seminal fluid, contained higher numbers of B. canis organisms than did that of female dogs. Highest concentrations of bacteria in urine were found between postinfection weeks 8 and 12. Infected females transmitted the infection to contact females after 5 months. Immature females or males infected with B. canis did not transmit brucellosis until after an estrus or a mating was observed--about post-contact months 10-12. PMID:3335131

  8. An Individual-Based Model of Transmission of Resistant Bacteria in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Neeraj; Roy, Sandip; Call, Douglas R.; Besser, Thomas E.; Davis, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary nosocomial infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria cause increased morbidity, higher cost and length of treatment and increased zoonotic risk because of the difficulty in treating them. In this study, an individual-based model was developed to investigate the effects of movements of canine patients among ten areas (transmission points) within a veterinary teaching hospital, and the effects of these movements on transmission of antibiotic susceptible and resistant pathogens. The model simulates contamination of transmission points, healthcare workers, and patients as well as the effects of decontamination of transmission points, disinfection of healthcare workers, and antibiotic treatments of canine patients. The model was parameterized using data obtained from hospital records, information obtained by interviews with hospital staff, and the published literature. The model suggested that transmission resulting from contact with healthcare workers was common, and that certain transmission points (housing wards, diagnostics room, and the intensive care unit) presented higher risk for transmission than others (lobby and surgery). Sensitivity analyses using a range of parameter values demonstrated that the risk of acquisition of colonization by resistant pathogens decreased with shorter patient hospital stays (P<0.0001), more frequent decontamination of transmission points and disinfection of healthcare workers (P<0.0001) and better compliance of healthcare workers with hygiene practices (P<0.0001). More frequent decontamination of heavily trafficked transmission points was especially effective at reducing transmission of the model pathogen. PMID:24893006

  9. Skeletal features in patient affected by maxillary canine impaction

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, Emanuele; Cavallini, Costanza; Vicari, Donatella; Leonardi, Rosalia; Barbato, Ersilia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the skeletal features of patients with maxillary canine impaction. Material and Methods: The complete pre-treatment records of 1674 orthodontic patients were examined. From the subjects with maxillary impacted canine 12 patients were excluded , remaining 108. The subjects with maxillary impacted canine were divided into two study groups: a palatally displaced canine group (PDCG) (77 patients) and a buccally displaced canine group (BDCG) (31 patients). The values of the skeletal features measured on the lateral cephalometric radiograph were compared with a control group (CG) of 121 subjects randomly selected from the initial sample without maxillary canine impaction. The statistical analysis of the difference between the study groups and the CG was tested using ?2 test and Fisher’s exact test. The level of significance was set at P ?0.05. Results: The CG was characterized by increased values of A point-Nasion-B point angle (ANB) and by a retro-positioned or smaller lower jaw. PDCG patients showed normal skeletal features compared to the CG, presenting mainly I class and lower rank of II and III sagittal skeletal features. PDCG subjects presented also normal values of the Steiner vertical skeletal relationship angles with normal facial divergence compared to the CG. PDCG cases were also characterized by horizontal and prognathic growth. BDCG did not present significant differences in skeletal features compared to the CG, except for an increased ANB. Conclusions: Palatally displaced canine (PDC) was frequently the only orthodontic problem of patients and was not associated whit altered skeletal features. The frequent absence of malocclusion in PDC patients explains the delayed identification of this problem. BDCG patients did not present significant differences in skeletal features with respect to the orthodontic population. The presence of both buccally displaced canine (BDC) and malocclusion makes the patient with BDC both aware of the need for, and motivated to undergo, orthodontic treatment. Key words:Canine impaction, palatal displacement, buccal displacement, skeletal features. PMID:23722128

  10. [Correlation of the presence of phlebotominae species (Diptera: Psichodidae) with records of American tegumentary leishmaniasis cases in the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Camargo-Neves, Vera Lucia Fonseca; Gomes, Almério de Castro; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    The study used environmental parameters associated with standardized coefficients incidence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, between 1986 and 1995. In the 140 municipalities with leishmaniasis transmission, the entomological collection of sandflies showed the most frequent species collected in the domestic environment: Lutzomyia intermedia was present in 87.7% of the surveyed municipalities, L. whitmani in 53.6%, L. migonei in 49.7%, L. pessoai in 28.5% and L. fischeri in 53.6%. It was found that the topographical relief and natural vegetation cover significantly influenced the mean values of standardized coefficients of accumulated incidence of ATL in the state (p < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that incidence of the disease was significantly associated with the presence of L. migonei (p = 0.029), in the municipalities of the Atlantic Plateau geomorphological region (p = 0.005) and those in which predominant vegetation cover was Type V forest (p < 0.001). This analysis reinforces the hypothesis that L. migonei is a vector for Leishmania in São Paulo State. PMID:12170323

  11. [The isoenzyme identification of Leishmania isolates taken from greater gerbils, sandflies and human patients in foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Strelkova, M V; Eliseev, L N; Ponirovski?, E N; Erokhin, P I; Rakitskaia, T A; Valevich, T A; Sysoev, V V; Allenov, V A; Adamishina, T A; Dergacheva, T I

    1993-01-01

    In 1991-1992, 230 isolates were obtained in the Tedzhen oasis and its adjacent desert areas: 172 isolates from great gerbils, 39 from P. papatasi, and 19 from human cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. All the isolates were identified by the isoenzyme polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by 8 enzymes. The characteristics of Leishmania circulation in the hyperendemic foci of Turkmenistan were similar to those previously studied in the mesoendemic areas of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. L. turanica which is non-pathogenic for man prevailed among infected great gerbils in winter, spring, and early summer, making the natural foci epidemiologically safe in that period of time. It was only in August-September that the great gerbil infection rate by L. major appeared to increase, occasionally reaching 100%. Epizootics due to L. major are developing in the presence of L. turanica, therefore most isolates are clone mixtures of L. major and L. turanica. P. papatasi is the only vector in the Tedzhen oasis; there has been strong evidence for its transmission of both L. major and L. turanica, which makes the concept inconsistent that P. papatasi is associated only with L. major. The overall analysis of recent findings of the distribution of L. major in the populations of great gerbils makes it possible to limit the former endemic zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis areas to 40 degrees N latitude and the southern borders of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Within this area, the distribution of L. major is uneven and associated basically with rivers, valleys, oases, and foothill desert plains. PMID:8127269

  12. Controller for vehicle transmission with auxiliary transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nishimura; N. Sekine

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a vehicular transmission having an auxiliary transmission with high-speed and low-speed transmission connected in series to a main transmission and an engine. The auxiliary transmission has a hydraulic clutch disposed in the high-speed transmission line and a one-way clutch disposed in the low-speed transmission line. The low-speed transmission line is engaged through the one-way clutch when the

  13. Molecular Epizootiology of Rodent Leishmaniasis in a Hyperendemic Area of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan, AA; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, MR; Mirhendi, H; Alimohammadian, MH; Rassi, Y; Shareghi, N; Jafari, R; Arandian, MH; Abdoli, H; Ghanei, M; Jalali-zand, N; Khamesipour, A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an expanding disease and public health problem in Iran. In the current study, natural Leishmania infection rate and seasonal fluctuation of the infection in Rhombomys opimus population of a hyperendemic focus of ZCL in Iran was investigated. Methods: The study was conducted from October 2006 to October 2008 in Esfahan Province, central part of Iran. An extensive sampling of rodents using Sherman traps was done in different seasons. Nested PCR assay was used for detection and identification of Leishmania species and the results were confirmed using PCR-RFLP. Results: Leishmania infection rate was 58.6% (34 of 58) using nested PCR. 44.8% of the gerbils were infected only with L. turanica and 1.7% with L. gerbilli alone. A mixed natural infection with L. major and L. turanica was seen in 12.1% of the rodents. L. major infection alone was not seen in R. opimus population in the study area. The highest and lowest Leishmania infection rates were observed in fall and spring respectively. L. turanica infection was observed throughout the year whereas mixed infections with L. major and L. turanica was not seen in spring. Conclusion: It is concluded that in the study area, L. major, L. gerbilli and L. turanica circulate in the population of R. opimus. Leishmania major infection usually accompanied by L. turanica in naturally infected gerbils with the highest rate in fall. It is recommended that the role of L. turanica in the epidemiology and transmission of ZCL be revisited. PMID:23112983

  14. Kinetics of canine dental calculus crystallization: an in vitro study on the influence of inorganic components of canine saliva.

    PubMed

    Borah, Ballav M; Halter, Timothy J; Xie, Baoquan; Henneman, Zachary J; Siudzinski, Thomas R; Harris, Stephen; Elliott, Matthew; Nancollas, George H

    2014-07-01

    This work identifies carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) as the primary component of canine dental calculus, and corrects the long held belief that canine dental calculus is primarily CaCO3 (calcite). CAP is known to be the principal crystalline component of human dental calculus, suggesting that there are previously unknown similarities in the calcification that occurs in these two unique oral environments. In vitro kinetic experiments mimicking the inorganic components of canine saliva have examined the mechanisms of dental calculus formation. The solutions were prepared so as to mimic the inorganic components of canine saliva; phosphate, carbonate, and magnesium ion concentrations were varied individually to investigate the roll of these ions in controlling the nature of the phases that is nucleated. To date, the inorganic components of the canine oral systems have not been investigated at concentrations that mimic those in vivo. The mineral composition of the synthetic calculi grown under these conditions closely resembled samples excised from canines. This finding adds new information about calculus formation in humans and canines, and their sensitivity to chemicals used to treat these conditions. PMID:24776659

  15. Sensitivity of canine oocytes to low temperature.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Yin, X J; Kong, I K

    2006-10-01

    This study compared the viability of canine oocytes after storage for 5 h at 4 or 38 degrees C. The ovaries were collected after ovariohysterectomy of bitches and transported to the laboratory within 5 h at 4 or 38 degrees C. The collected oocytes were matured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS, 0.6 mM/mL cysteine, 0.2 mM pyruvic acid, 20 ng/mL E2 and 1 microg/mL rbST, and incubated for 0, 24 and 48 h, at 38 degrees C and in 95% air with 5% CO2. The viability of the oocytes after 0 h did not differ significantly between 4 and 38 degrees C group (79.6% versus 83.9%), but after 24 and 48 h, significant differences were apparent (13.2% versus 77.8% after 24 h and 0.0% versus 72.9% after 48 h; P < 0.05). Therefore, canine oocytes were remarkably sensitive to low temperatures. PMID:16499959

  16. Management of a transmigrated mandibular canine

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sneh Lata; Sharma, V. P.; Singh, Gyan P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the management of a transmigrated mandibular canine with emphasis on saving the tooth as natural part rather than surgical removal of the transmigrated tooth. There are several treatment options proposed for impacted mandibular canines including surgical removal, exposure and orthodontic alignment, intra-alveolar tooth transplantation (surgical repositioning of a tooth in its alveolar socket) and observation. The technique, surgical repositioning of a tooth involves the surgical extraction of impacted tooth and fixation in the correct position in the dental arch after surgical preparation (correction) of the alveolar socket. It is especially valuable in cases of difficult-to-treat impaction. A repositioned tooth is better substitute than fixed or removable prostheses, and the technique is more cost effective than other methods. Patients with excellent oral hygiene should be considered as preferred candidates for surgical repositioning of tooth. Disadvantages include the invasiveness of surgery, the difficulty of projecting long term stability due to chances of root resorption and loss of gingival attachment. PMID:24987621

  17. Immunology and pathogenesis of canine demodicosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Lluis; Ravera, Ivan; Silbermayr, Katja

    2014-10-01

    Demodex mites colonized the hair follicles and sebaceous glands of mammals millions of years ago and have remained relatively unchanged in this protected ecologic niche since then. The ho