Sample records for canine leishmaniasis transmission

  1. Canine Leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Alvar; Carmen Cañavate; Ricardo Molina; Javier Moreno; Javier Nieto

    2004-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi, in America) and is transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. Infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir of the parasite and play a key role in transmission to humans, in which the parasite produces visceral leishmaniasis. The increasing awareness that control of the human disease depends on effective

  2. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  3. Canine Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Yuste, Manuel; Acedo-Sánchez, Carmen; Barón, Sergio; Díaz, Victoriano; Morillas-Márquez, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    To examine prevalence changes and risk factors for canine leishmaniasis, we conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and a survey during April–June 2006. Seroprevalence had increased at the meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic level over 22 years. Risk was highest for dogs that were older, large, lived outside, and lived at the meso-Mediterranean level. PMID:19402973

  4. Canine leishmaniasis: epidemiological risk and the experimental model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier Moreno; Jorge Alvar

    2002-01-01

    Increasing risk factors are making zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis a growing public health concern in many countries. Domestic dogs constitute the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania chagasi, and play a key role in the transmission to humans. New reagents and tools allow the detailed investigation of canine leishmaniasis, permitting the monitoring of the immunological status of dogs in both

  5. Autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in Romania: neglected or (re)emerging?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. In Romania between 1955 and 2013, no cases of human autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis were reported. Data regarding canine leishmaniasis is similarly scarce. Since the first report of clinical autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in 1935, there were only three sporadic reports of positive dogs all without any clinical signs. Our study reports the first clinical case of autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in the last 80 years, stressing the importance of a targeted surveillance of Leishmania infection, as infected dogs act as the primary reservoir for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:24684827

  6. Canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in Senegal: risk of emergence in humans?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Faye; A. L. Bañuls; B. Bucheton; M. M. Dione; O. Bassanganam; M. Hide; J. Dereure; M. Choisy; J. L. Ndiaye; O. Konaté; M. Claire; M. W. Senghor; M. N. Faye; I. Sy; A. A. Niang; J. F. Molez; K. Victoir; P. Marty; P. Delaunay; R. Knecht; S. Mellul; S. Diedhiou; O. Gaye

    2010-01-01

    In the context of global warming and the risk of spreading arthropod-borne diseases, the emergence and reemergence of leishmaniasis should not be neglected. In Senegal, over the past few years, cases of canine leishmaniasis have been observed. We aim to improve the understanding of the transmission cycle of this zoonosis, to determine the responsible species and to evaluate the risk

  7. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: dog infectivity to sand flies from non-endemic areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Travi; C. Ferro; H. Cadena; J. Montoya-lerma; G. H. Adler

    2002-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (vl), caused by Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi in the New World), is a zoonotic, endemic disease in Western Europe and Latin America. The potential spreading to new regions was suggested by the appearance of canine vl among foxhounds in the US. Although the sand fly vectors in the major foci of transmission have been described, no information

  8. Culling Dogs in Scenarios of Imperfect Control: Realistic Impact on the Prevalence of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Danielle N. C. C.; Codeço, Cláudia T.; Silva, Moacyr A.; Werneck, Guilherme L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis belongs to the list of neglected tropical diseases and is considered a public health problem worldwide. Spatial correlation between the occurrence of the disease in humans and high rates of canine infection suggests that in the presence of the vector, canine visceral leishmaniasis is the key factor for triggering transmission to humans. Despite the control strategies implemented, such as the sacrifice of infected dogs being put down, the incidence of American visceral leishmaniasis remains high in many Latin American countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Mathematical models were developed to describe the transmission dynamics of canine leishmaniasis and its control by culling. Using these models, imperfect control scenarios were implemented to verify the possible factors which alter the effectiveness of controlling this disease in practice. Conclusions/Significance A long-term continuous program targeting both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs should be effective in controlling canine leishmaniasis in areas of low to moderate transmission (R0 up to 1.4). However, the indiscriminate sacrifice of asymptomatic dogs with positive diagnosis may jeopardize the effectiveness of the control program, if tests with low specificity are used, increasing the chance of generating outrage in the population, and leading to lower adherence to the program. Therefore, culling must be planned accurately and implemented responsibly and never as a mechanical measure in large scale. In areas with higher transmission, culling alone is not an effective control strategy. PMID:23951375

  9. Rapid immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Otranto, D; Paradies, P; Sasanelli, M; Spinelli, R; Brandonisio, O

    2004-06-01

    An rK39 immunochromatographic test and immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) for serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis were evaluated. The two tests showed correlation for all but one of the sera obtained from 68 dogs confirmed as leishmaniasis cases and 40 dogs (22 healthy dogs and 18 dogs with other diseases) from areas where the disease is not endemic. Specificity was 100% for both tests, while sensitivity was 97% for the rapid test and 99% for IFAT. PMID:15184465

  10. Rapid Immunochromatographic Test for Serodiagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Otranto, D.; Paradies, P.; Sasanelli, M.; Spinelli, R.; Brandonisio, O.

    2004-01-01

    An rK39 immunochromatographic test and immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) for serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis were evaluated. The two tests showed correlation for all but one of the sera obtained from 68 dogs confirmed as leishmaniasis cases and 40 dogs (22 healthy dogs and 18 dogs with other diseases) from areas where the disease is not endemic. Specificity was 100% for both tests, while sensitivity was 97% for the rapid test and 99% for IFAT. PMID:15184465

  11. Leishmania tropica: Another Etiological Agent of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Hajjaran; M Mohebali; Z Zarei

    Background: Dogs have been previously reported to be reservoirs of Leishmania infantum as the etiological agent of human visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. We report a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by L. tropica from the north- west of Iran where human visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Methods: The canine VL was initially screened by dipstick rK39 and direct agglutination

  12. Feline Leishmania infection in a canine leishmaniasis endemic region, Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Maia; J. Gomes; J. Cristóvão; M. Nunes; A. Martins; E. Rebêlo; L. Campino

    2010-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a serious zoonotic public health and veterinary problem in the Mediterranean basin. Leishmania infection in domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) has been reported in several countries where this zoonosis is endemic, such as Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Greece, Israel, Palestine and Brazil. The aim of this study was to contribute to the

  13. A canine leishmaniasis pilot survey in an emerging focus of visceral leishmaniasis: Posadas (Misiones, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An increasing number of reports are calling our attention to the worldwide spread of leishmaniasis. The urbanization of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been observed in different South American countries, due to changes in demographic and ecological factors. In May 2006, VL was detected for the first time in the city of Posadas (Misiones, Argentina). This event encouraged us to conduct a clinical and parasitological pilot survey on domestic dogs from Posadas to identify their potential role as reservoirs for the disease. Methods One hundred and ten dogs from the city of Posadas were included in the study. They were selected based on convenience and availability. All dogs underwent clinical examination. Symptomatology related to canine leishmaniasis was recorded, and peripheral blood and lymph node aspirates were collected. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using rK39-immunocromatographic tests and IFAT. Parasite detection was based on peripheral blood and lymph node aspirate PCR targeting the SSUrRNA gene. Molecular typing was addressed by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products obtained by SSUrRNA and ITS-1 PCR. Results According to clinical examination, 69.1% (76/110) of the dogs presented symptoms compatible with canine leishmaniasis. Serological analyses were positive for 43.6% (48/110) of the dogs and parasite DNA was detected in 47.3% (52/110). A total of 63 dogs (57.3%) were positive by serology and/or PCR. Molecular typing identified Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) as the causative agent. Conclusions This work confirms recent findings which revealed the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of L. infantum in this area of South America. This new VL focus could be well established, and further work is needed to ascertain its magnitude and to prevent further human VL cases. PMID:21122107

  14. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in urban and rural areas of Northeast Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula V. S. Queiroz; Glória R. G. Monteiro; Virgínia P. S. Macedo; Maria A. C. Rocha; Leopoldina M. M. Batista; José W. Queiroz; Selma M. B. Jerônimo; Maria F. F. M. Ximenes

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and laboratory profiles of canine leishmaniasis in two distinct areas. Dogs from urban and rural areas were examined. The population studied in the metropolitan area included 54 dogs. Of these, 20 (37%) animals did not present with any signs suggestive of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Among these, only eight were confirmed

  15. Original article Canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in Senegal

    E-print Network

    Choisy, Marc

    Original article Canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in Senegal: risk, the number of positive PCRs, clinical signs and the number of Leishmania isolates. For the first time, the discriminative PCRs performed on canine Leishmania strains clearly evidenced that the pathogenic agent

  16. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-01-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  17. Prevalence of Leishmania infantum Infection in Dogs Living in an Area of Canine Leishmaniasis Endemicity Using PCR on Several Tissues and Serology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAIA SOLANO-GALLEGO; PERE MORELL; MARGARITA ARBOIX; JORDI ALBEROLA; LLUIS FERRER

    2001-01-01

    We studied and compared the prevalence of Leishmania infection and the seroprevalence and the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in an area where canine leishmaniasis is endemic. One hundred dogs living on the island of Mallorca (Spain) were studied. In this study, we clinically examined each dog for the presence of symptoms compatible with leishmaniasis, determined the titer of anti-Leishmania antibodies,

  18. An immunodiffusion assay for the detection of canine leishmaniasis due to infection with Leishmania infantum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Bernadina; R. De Luna; G. Oliva; P. Ciaramella

    1997-01-01

    An immunodiffusion assay (IDA) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) was tested for usefulness as diagnostic test for canine leishmaniasis (CL). A comparative analysis of dog sera was made using IDA with PEG, immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Fourty-four dogs from Italy with CL (endemic dogs) and eight Dutch dogs with CL contracted in South Europe (expatriate dogs)

  19. Evaluation of canine and feline leishmaniasis by the association of blood culture, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in dogs and cats from Botucatu, São Paulo state, and Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, by the association of three diagnostic tests: blood culture in liver infusion tryptose medium, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction. Fifty blood samples of dogs and cats from the Center for Zoonosis Control in Campo Grande, an area endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis, were collected randomly, as well as canine and feline blood samples from the Municipal Kennel and Animal Protection Association in Botucatu, currently considered a transmission-free, non-endemic area. Results Of the 50 dog blood cultures from Botucatu, three (6%) were positive and of the 50 cats, two (4%) were positive. In Campo Grande, 29 dog blood cultures (58%) were positive and all (100%) cats negative by this test. Polymerase chain reaction detected Leishmania spp. in 100% of dog and cat samples from Botucatu but found all the cats from Campo Grande to be negative. On the other hand, 36 dogs from Campo Grande were positive (72%) by the same technique. Immunofluorescent antibody test in Botucatu found 100% of dogs and cats non-reactive, while in Campo Grande, it detected positivity in 32 dogs (64%) and 15 cats (30%). Conclusions The results show the importance of not only continuous epidemiological surveillance in areas not endemic for leishmaniasis, but also research for accurate diagnosis of this zoonosis. PMID:24565284

  20. Restricted Outbreak of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis with High Microfocal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.; Gil, José F.; Quipildor, Marcelo; Cajal, Silvana P.; Pravia, Carlos; Juarez, Marisa; Villalpando, Carlos; Locatelli, Fabricio M.; Chanampa, Mariana; Castillo, Gabriela; Oreste, María F.; Hoyos, Carlos L.; Negri, Vanesa; Nasser, Julio R.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Salta, the northwestern province of Argentina. We describe an outbreak involving five recreational hunters whose exposure was limited to several hours in a residual patch of primary forest. All patients presented with typical cutaneous lesions after a mean incubation period of 59 days (range 15–78), and one developed simultaneous mucosal involvement. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of lesions confirmed Leishmania (V.) braziliensis as the etiologic agent in three cases. All patients were cured with anti-Leishmania treatment. Entomologic surveys in the transmission area revealed a predominance of Lutzomyia neivai. This outbreak report confirms a microfocal transmission pattern of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Americas and based on a well-determined exposure, allows the determination of incubation times for leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis. PMID:23339200

  1. Canine Antibodies against Salivary Recombinant Proteins of Phlebotomus perniciosus: A Longitudinal Study in an Endemic Focus of Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kostalova, Tatiana; Lestinova, Tereza; Sumova, Petra; Vlkova, Michaela; Rohousova, Iva; Berriatua, Eduardo; Oliva, Gaetano; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Scalone, Aldo; Gramiccia, Marina; Gradoni, Luigi; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Background Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania parasites. During blood feeding, sand flies deposit into the host skin immunogenic salivary proteins which elicit specific antibody responses. These anti-saliva antibodies enable an estimate of the host exposure to sand flies and, in leishmaniasis endemic areas, also the risk for Leishmania infections. However, the use of whole salivary gland homogenates as antigen has several limitations, and therefore, recombinant salivary proteins have been tested to replace them in antibody detection assays. In this study, we have used for the first time sand fly salivary recombinant proteins in a longitudinal field study on dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera from dogs naturally exposed to P. perniciosus bites over two consecutive transmission seasons in a site endemic for canine leishmaniasis (CanL) were tested at different time points by ELISA for the antibodies recognizing whole saliva, single salivary 43 kDa yellow-related recombinant protein (rSP03B), and a combination of two salivary recombinant proteins, 43 kDa yellow-related protein and 35.5 kDa apyrase (rSP01). Dogs were also tested for Leishmania infantum positivity by serology, culture, and PCR and the infection status was evaluated prospectively. We found a significant association between active CanL infection and the amount of anti-P. perniciosus saliva antibodies. Importantly, we detected a high correlation between IgG antibodies recognizing rSP03B protein and the whole salivary antigen. The kinetics of antibody response showed for both a whole saliva and rSP03B a similar pattern that was clearly related to the seasonal abundance of P. perniciosus. Conclusions These results suggest that P. perniciosus rSP03B protein is a valid alternative to whole saliva and could be used in large-scale serological studies. This novel method could be a practical and economically-sound tool to detect the host exposure to sand fly bites in CanL endemic areas. PMID:26111018

  2. Seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Tripp, Shanesha; Kinlaw, Christopher; Sharma, R N; Stone, D; Dubey, J P

    2010-02-01

    Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections by both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi in dogs from Grenada, West Indies. We examined 70 dog sera using the qualitative immunochromatographic dipstick tests (ICTs) based on recombinant antigens specific for visceral leishmaniasis and AT. Antibodies to visceral Leishmania were not detected in Grenadian dogs by ICT. Using the canine dipsticks for AT, antibodies to T. cruzi were determined in 3 (4.3%) of the 70 dogs. Results from this study indicate that dogs in Grenada are exposed in low levels to T. cruzi , but not to visceral Leishmania spp. at all. PMID:19712013

  3. Application of an Improved Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Method for Serological Diagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Santarem; R. Silvestre; L. Cardoso; H. Schallig; S. G. Reed; A. Cordeiro-da-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is essential toward a more efficient control of this zoonosis, but it remains problematic due to the high incidence of asymptomatic infections. In this study, we present data on the development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based techniques for the detection of antibodies against the recombinant protein Leishmania infantum cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase (LicTXNPx) and a

  4. High-Throughput Analysis of Synthetic Peptides for the Immunodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Angélica R.; Costa, Míriam M.; Giusta, Mário S.; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Penido, Marcus L. O.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.; Andrade, Hélida M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis. Approximately 20% of zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis worldwide is caused by Leishmania infantum, which is also known as Leishmania chagasi in Latin America, and disease incidence is increasing in urban and peri-urban areas of the tropics. In this form of disease, dogs are the main reservoirs. Diagnostic methods used to identify Leishmania infected animals are not able to detect all of the infected ones, which can compromise the effectiveness of disease control. Therefore, to contribute to the improvement of diagnostic methods for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), we aimed to identify and test novel antigens using high-throughput analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunodominant proteins from L. infantum were mapped in silico to predict B cell epitopes, and the 360 predicted peptides were synthesized on cellulose membranes. Immunoassays were used to select the most reactive peptides, which were then investigated with canine sera. Next, the 10 most reactive peptides were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis protocol and tested using ELISA. The sensitivity and specificity of these peptides were also compared to the EIE-LVC Bio-Manguinhos kit, which is recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for use in leishmaniasis control programs. The sensitivity and specificity of the selected synthesized peptides was as high as 88.70% and 95.00%, respectively, whereas the EIE-LVC kit had a sensitivity of 13.08% and 100.00% of specificity. Although the tests based on synthetic peptides were able to diagnose up to 94.80% of asymptomatic dogs with leishmaniasis, the EIE-LVC kit failed to detect the disease in any of the infected asymptomatic dogs. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that ELISA using synthetic peptides is a technique with great potential for diagnosing CVL; furthermore, the use of these peptides in other diagnostic methodologies, such as immunochromatographic tests, could be beneficial to CVL control programs. PMID:21931874

  5. Masticatory and skeletal muscle myositis in canine leishmaniasis (Leishmania infantum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Vamvakidis; A. E Koutinas; M. Saridomichelakis; G. Kanakoudis; G. Georgiadis

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-four dogs with a parasitologically and serologically established diagnosis of leishmaniasis were studied to investigate the atrophy of the masticatory muscles which commonly occurs in this disease, and to compare the lesions in the masticatory muscles with those in the cranial tibial muscles. The 24 animals were divided into three groups of eight, group A dogs with no muscular atrophy,

  6. Occurrence of Trypanosoma caninum in areas overlapping with leishmaniasis in Brazil: what is the real impact of canine leishmaniasis control?

    PubMed

    Barros, J H S; Almeida, A B P F; Figueiredo, F B; Sousa, V R F; Fagundes, A; Pinto, A G S; Baptista, C; Madeira, M F

    2012-07-01

    Trypanosoma caninum is a parasite of the Trypanosoma genus recently described in the natural infection of dogs in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Suspecting the existence of a natural cycle and the circulation of this new species, the objective of this study was the taxonomic identification of samples of Trypanosoma spp. isolated from dogs in different Brazilian regions. Parasites were solely obtained from skin fragments culture and characterized by nested-PCR targeting the partial sequence of 18S rRNA gene and PCR products were sequenced. Thirty-three samples, obtained in São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso and Rio de Janeiro states were analyzed. PCR and sequencing showed that the isolates were genetically identical or closely similar and confirmed T. caninum identity. This report broadens the geographical distribution of T. caninum in Brazil and discusses the impact of the presence of this parasite in areas of canine leishmaniasis occurrence. PMID:22579558

  7. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: seroprevalence survey of asymptomatic dogs in an endemic area of northwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Barati, Mohammad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Alimohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Khamesipour, Ali; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Zarei, Zabiholah

    2015-06-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health problem that is endemic in tropical and sub tropical countries and is fatal in humans and dogs. In addition to symptomatic dogs, asymptomatic ones seem as source of Leishmania infantum infection. Thus surveillance and control programs of reservoir hosts are essential. This study aimed to evaluate the sero-prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in asymptomatic domestic dogs from in an endemic area of north west, Iran. A cross sectional study was carried out in Meshkin-Shahr district during 2011-2012. Blood samples collected from 508 asymptomatic domestic dogs were tested by direct agglutination test. In this study 508 dogs (397 males and 111 females, mean age, 3.24 years) from western and eastern parts of the Meshkin-Shahr were examined. A total of 508 dogs examined 119 dogs (23.4 %) had antibodies (titers of ?1:320) against L. infantum. Statistically significance was occurred between male (25.4 %) and female (16.2) sero-prevalence (P = 0.042). No statistically significance was observed between age groups (P = 0.22). Compared with previous studies it seems to increase sero-prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in the studied areas caused by ecological changes. High proportion of asymptomatic but seropositive dogs emphasizes the importance of dogs without clinical signs in the epidemiology of zoonotic leishmaniasis. Thus, the necessity of using serological tests in asymptomatic dogs is recommended for disease control strategy. PMID:26064004

  8. Leishmania spp. and\\/or Trypanosoma cruzi diagnosis in dogs from endemic and nonendemic areas for canine visceral leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcella Zampoli Troncarelli; Janaína Biotto Camargo; Juliana Giantomassi Machado; Simone Baldini Lucheis; Helio Langoni

    2009-01-01

    Due to the phylogenetic similarity between Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), serological cross-reactions and false-positive results are quite common. This study aimed to elucidate canine leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis diagnosis by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) on serum samples, and direct parasitological examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in liver and spleen samples. One hundred dogs from Zoonosis

  9. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: seroprevalence and risk factors in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; da Cruz, Felipe Augusto Constantino Seabra; Dahroug, Magyda Arabia Araji; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic and the number of cases in humans and dogs has increased in the Midwest region. A transversal study was carried out in endemic areas from Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, to assess data on seroprevalence and risk factors associated to canine infection. Four hundred and thirty (430) dogs were randomly evaluated through indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) considering variables related to the animals, the environment and the knowledge by owners on CVL aspects and control. From 430 dogs, 95 (22.1%) were seroreagent for leishmaniasis and animals living in rural environments present risk 1.9 times higher for acquiring the disease than those in urban environments (p = 0.01; OR 1.9). Factors related to animals' habits, such as free access to the street and guard function were considered indicators to predict infection by Leishmania sp. (p < 0.05) by statistical univariate analysis. The presence of agricultural activities was also a fact that contributed for the insurgence of the infection (p = 0.02; OR 1.68). The results contributed to the knowledge on the aspects of CVL in Cuiabá and point to an urgent need to include educational and sanitary programs in the city, since the region presents favorable characteristics for spreading the infection of CVL as already observed in other Brazilian cities. PMID:23184322

  10. Description of six autochthonous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in Pedregulho (São Paulo, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cássia Regina de; Parpinelli, Ana Cláudia; Lima, Romeika Reis de; Dias, Luis Gustavo Gosuen Gonçalves; Pereira, Lucas de Freitas; Dias, Fernanda Gosuen Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an infectious disease of chronic, emerging and zoonotic nature that presents various degrees of severity. In Brazil, this illness is caused by Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi), which is transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, and dogs are its main reservoir. Given the increasing spread of this disease across Brazil, the aim of this study was to report on six cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, diagnosed in June 2013, in the city of Pedregulho, State of São Paulo, considered to be a non-endemic area and free of phlebotomine sand flies. The diagnosis was based on clinical signs of the patients and additional tests (serological and parasitological). It was concluded that the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is complex because the clinical signs are similar to other systemic diseases, thus justifying the importance of parasitological test of bone marrow, considered "gold standard", in the confirmation of the disease. In addition, the area was not, until now, considered risk place, despite notification. PMID:26154962

  11. Specific Serodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Leishmania Species Ribosomal Protein Extracts?

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Eduardo A. F.; Ramírez, Laura; Costa, Mariana A. F.; Coelho, Vinicio T. S.; Martins, Vivian T.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Oliveira, Dulcilene M.; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Bonay, Pedro; Nieto, Carlos Gómez; Abánades, Daniel R.; Alonso, Carlos; Soto, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we have analyzed the antigenicity of Leishmania species ribosomal proteins (LRPs). To accomplish this, Leishmania infantum ribosomes were biochemically purified from promastigote cytosolic extracts, and their reactivities were analyzed by using the sera from dogs naturally infected with L. infantum. Since antibodies reacting against different ribosomal proteins were observed in all the serum samples obtained from dogs with symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis tested, we have analyzed the potential usefulness of the LRP extracts in the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in an area of Brazil where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic due to infection by Leishmania chagasi. A comparative ELISA with crude soluble Leishmania chagasi antigen (SLA) and L. infantum LRPs was performed. LRP- and SLA-based ELISAs gave similar sensitivities for the diagnosis of symptomatic CVL, but the LRP extract provided a very high sensitivity for the detection of oligosymptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. In addition, an LRP-based ELISA showed a higher specificity when the sera from dogs harboring other infections were included in the analysis. The LRP antigen displayed no cross-reactivity with sera from dogs that had any of the other diseases tested, notably, Chagas' disease. Our findings suggest that LRPs are a potential tool for the diagnosis of CVL and will be particularly useful for the diagnosis of asymptomatic CVL. PMID:19812259

  12. Recombinant K39 dipstick immunochromatographic test: a new tool for the serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Paradies, Paola; Sasanelli, Mariateresa; Leone, Nicola; de Caprariis, Donato; Chirico, Jan; Spinelli, Rosa; Capelli, Gioia; Brandonisio, Olga

    2005-01-01

    The spread of human leishmaniasis has prompted the scientific community to study dogs as reservoirs for Leishmania infantum. Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is widespread in the Mediterranean area with a prevalence of up to 50%. The first step toward controlling the disease is to monitor its distribution, mainly in stray dogs. The validity of a recombinant K39 (rK39) dipstick test, commercially available for the serodiagnosis of human leishmaniasis, was evaluated using sera from 165 dogs selected on the basis of positive or negative lymph node smears at parasitological examination. The results were compared with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (cutoff 1:80). Sera from a group of dogs with other diagnosed diseases but negative for leishmaniasis were also tested to evaluate any cross-reactivity. Various procedures were used for testing whole blood samples. The relative specificity of the rK39 dipstick and IFAT was 100% (97 of 97) and 98.97% (96 of 97), whereas the relative sensitivity was 97.06% (66 of 68) and 98.53% (67 of 68), respectively. The results of the dipstick and IFAT corresponded except for 2 sera (k = 0.987). This data confirm the usefulness of rK39 antigen for diagnosing CanL both in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. The rK39 dipstick proved to be a rapid, sensitive, and specific test that may be very useful in the field for large-scale screening and also in veterinary practice, requiring minimal equipment and operator expertise. PMID:15690948

  13. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Carla; Dionísio, Lídia; Afonso, Maria Odete; Neto, Luís; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Campino, Lenea

    2013-01-01

    The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection. PMID:23827997

  14. The distribution pattern of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the peridomiciles of a sector with canine and human visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the municipality of Dracena, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Osias; Sampaio, Susy Mary Perpetuo; Ciaravolo, Ricardo Mario de Carvalho; Holcman, Marcia Moreira

    2012-03-01

    The specimen distribution pattern of a species can be used to characterise a population of interest and also provides area-specific guidance for pest management and control. In the municipality of Dracena, in the state of São Paulo, we analysed 5,889 Lutzomyia longipalpis specimens collected from the peridomiciles of 14 houses in a sector where American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is transmitted to humans and dogs. The goal was to analyse the dispersion and a theoretical fitting of the species occurrence probability. From January-December 2005, samples were collected once per week using CDC light traps that operated for 12-h periods. Each collection was considered a sub-sample and was evaluated monthly. The standardised Morisita index was used as a measure of dispersion. Adherence tests were performed for the log-series distribution. The number of traps was used to adjust the octave plots. The quantity of Lu. longipalpis in the sector was highly aggregated for each month of the year, adhering to a log-series distribution for 11 of the 12 months analysed. A sex-stratified analysis demonstrated a pattern of aggregated dispersion adjusted for each month of the year. The classes and frequencies of the traps in octaves can be employed as indicators for entomological surveillance and AVL control. PMID:22415253

  15. Improved Canine and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis Immunodiagnosis Using Combinations of Synthetic Peptides in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Míriam Maria; Penido, Marcos; dos Santos, Mariana Silva; Doro, Daniel; de Freitas, Eloísa; Michalick, Marilene Susan Marques; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Fernandes, Ana Paula

    2012-01-01

    Background Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and the domestic dogs are the main urban parasite reservoir hosts. In Brazil, indirect fluorescence antibody tests (IFAT) and indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using promastigote extracts are widely used in epidemiological surveys. However, their sensitivity and specificity have often been compromised by the use of complex mixtures of antigens, which reduces their accuracy allowing the maintenance of infected animals that favors transmission to humans. In this context, the use of combinations of defined peptides appears favorable. Therefore, they were tested by combinations of five peptides derived from the previously described Leishmania diagnostic antigens A2, NH, LACK and K39. Methodology/Principal Findings Combinations of peptides derived A2, NH, LACK and K39 antigens were used in ELISA with sera from 44 human patients and 106 dogs. Improved sensitivities and specificities, close to 100%, were obtained for both sera of patients and dogs. Moreover, high sensitivity and specificity were observed even for canine sera presenting low IFAT anti-Leishmania antibody titers or from asymptomatic animals. Conclusions/Significance The use of combinations of B cell predicted synthetic peptides derived from antigens A2, NH, LACK and K39 may provide an alternative for improved sensitivities and specificities for immunodiagnostic assays of VL. PMID:22629475

  16. Validity and Reliability of Enzyme Immunoassays Using Leishmania major or L. infantum Antigens for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Cardoso, Fernanda Alvarenga; Hiamamoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Brazuna, Júlia Cristina Macksoud; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2013-01-01

    Background American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle. The limited accuracy of diagnostic tests for canine leishmaniasis may contribute to the lack of impact of control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays employing L. major or L. infantum antigens and their reliability between three laboratories of different levels of complexity. Methods A validation study of ELISA techniques using L. major or L. infantum antigens was conducted. Direct visualization of the parasite in hematoxylin/eosin-stained histopathological sections, immunohistochemistry, and isolation of the parasite in culture.were used as gold standard. An animal that was positive in at least one of the tests was defined as infected with L. infantum. Serum samples collected from 1,425 dogs were analyzed. Samples were separated in three aliquots and tested in three different laboratories. Sensitivity, specificity and the area under de ROC curve were calculated and the reliability was evaluated between the participant laboratories. Results The sensitivity was 91.8% and 89.8% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The specificity was 83.75% and 82.7% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The area under de ROC curve was 0.920 and 0.898 for L. major and L. infantum, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficients between laboratories ranged from 0.890 to 0.948 when L. major was used as antigen, and from 0.818 to 0.879 when L. infantum was used. Interpretation ELISA tests using L. major or L. infantum antigens have similar accuracy and reliability. Our results do not support the substitution of the L. major antigen of the ELISA test currently used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. PMID:23922884

  17. Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Von Stebut, Esther

    2015-03-01

    Infections with Leishmania spp. rank among the top three most common travel-associated dermatoses. Depending on the country where the infection was acquired and the patient's immune status, different disease manifestations may be observed. Ninety percent of cases present as cutaneous leishmaniasis, but the infection may also affect internal organs (visceral leishmaniasis). Without treatment, the latter is often fatal. Intermediate types include recurrent, diffuse, or mucocutaneous forms. Nodular lesions on exposed skin with a tendency to ulcerate over time in combination with a travel history should therefore prompt workup for leishmaniasis. The diagnosis is made through histology, parasite culture, and PCR using biopsy material. Therapeutic options range from local therapies in cases with singular lesions to systemic therapy in patients with more severe forms. The present review discusses the most important clinical features, details about diagnostic measures, and current therapeutic approaches. PMID:25721626

  18. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Tehran and Alborz Provinces of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Malmasi, Abdolali; Janitabar, Saeedeh; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Maazi, Nadi; Aramoon, Mehdi; Khorrami, Narges; Seifi, Hesam A

    2014-01-01

    Background: A two year seroepidemiological study was designed to find out the seroprevalence and risk factors of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) among stray and owned dogs in Tehran and Alborz Provinces of Iran. Methods: Blood samples of 602 dogs living in 11 counties of Tehran and Alborz Provinces were taken by venipuncture in 2008–2010. After separation of blood sera, anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT). Results: Overall, of the 408 and 194 serum samples collected randomly from dogs in 11 localities in Tehran and Alborz Provinces, 18/408 (4.41%) and 12/194 (6.18%) respectively were found positive. Among the localities, Shemiran in Tehran Province and Karaj In Alborz Province had the highest prevalence rates. No statistically significant differences were found between sex and living place but there was significant difference between living status (owned or stray) and CVL infection of dogs in Alborz Province (P= 0.018). The highest seroprevalence (7.5%) was found in dogs aged 3 to 5 years old. Only 20% of the seropositive dogs were symptomatic. Conclusion: Concerning possible human infections in Tehran and Alborz Provinces, both symptomatic and asymptomatic seropositive dogs should be considered as a risk.

  19. Evaluation of serological cross-reactivity between canine visceral leishmaniasis and natural infection by Trypanosoma caninum.

    PubMed

    Alves, A S; Mouta-Confort, E; Figueiredo, F B; Oliveira, R V C; Schubach, A O; Madeira, M F

    2012-12-01

    In order to evaluate if the presence of Trypanosoma caninum can lead to a confuse diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), we investigated the serological status of dogs infected by T. caninum and assessed the serological cross-reactivity with CVL. A set of 117 serum samples from dogs infected by T. caninum, Leishmania chagasi and not infected dogs (n=39 in each group) was tested using commercial kits--indirect immunofluorescence (IFI-LVC), ELISA (EIE-LVC) and immunochromatographic test (DPP)--and in house tests with T. caninum (IIF-Tc and ELISA-Tc) and L. chagasi antigens (IIF-Lc and ELISA-Lc). IIF-Tc and ELISA-Tc presented sensitivity of 64.1% and 94.9% and specificity of 23.1% and 35.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the IFI-LVC, EIE-LVC and DPP tests was 100% and the specificity was 70.5%, 68% and 97.5% respectively. The concordance between the tests was considered as satisfactory. The specificities of IFI-LVC, EIE-LVC and DPP were higher when the group Tc was excluded, with significant values for IFI-LVC (?2=4.36, P-value=0.036), thus suggesting that the infection by T. caninum can confuse the diagnosis of CVL. PMID:22840335

  20. Modelling canine leishmaniasis spread to non-endemic areas of Europe.

    PubMed

    Espejo, L A; Costard, S; Zagmutt, F J

    2015-07-01

    Expansion of sandflies and increasing pet travel have raised concerns about canine leishmaniasis (CanL) spread to new areas of Europe. This study aimed to estimate the probability of CanL introduction and persistence following movements of infected dogs. Stochastic modelling was used to estimate the probabilities of (1) CanL infection during travels or imports of infected dogs (P inf and P infCA, respectively), (2) CanL persistence in a dog network with sandflies after introduction of an infected dog (P per), and (3) persistence in a CanL-free region (P per region) for N dogs moving between endemic and free regions. Different mitigation measures (MMs) were assessed. P inf [7·8%, 95% predictive interval (PI) 2·6-16·4] and P per (72·0%, 95% PI 67·8-76·0) were reduced by use of repellent, vaccine, prophylactic medication, and insecticide, in decreasing order of effectiveness. Testing and exclusion of positive dogs was most effective in reducing P per region for a small N. The spread of CanL to CanL-free areas with sandflies is thus likely, but can be reduced by MMs. PMID:25345963

  1. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: performance of a rapid diagnostic test (Kalazar Detect) in dogs with and without signs of the disease.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Moreira, Márcio Antônio Batistela; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Raychaudhuri, Syamal; Dietze, Reynaldo

    2008-08-01

    Current visceral leishmaniasis (VL) control programs in Brazil include the infected dog elimination but, despite this strategy, the incidence of human VL is still increasing. One of the reasons is the long delay between sample collection, analysis, control implementation and the low sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Due to the high prevalence of asymptomatic dogs, the diagnosis of these animals is important considering their vector infection capacity. Hence, a rapid and accurate diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis is essential for an efficient surveillance program. In this study we evaluated the performance of rK39 antigen in an immunochromatographic format to detect symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs and compared the results with those using a crude antigen ELISA. The sensitivity of rK39 dipstick and ELISA were 83% vs. 95%, respectively, while the specificity was both 100%. Our results also demonstrated that the dipstick test was able to detect infected dogs presenting different clinical forms. PMID:18565485

  2. Evaluation of the conjunctival swab for canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR–hybridization in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidney de Almeida Ferreira; Leonardo Trindade Ituassu; Maria Norma de Melo; Antero Silva Ribeiro de Andrade

    2008-01-01

    The visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is caused by Leishmania chagasi (L. infantum) and dogs are considered to be the main domestic reservoir. The epidemiological control involves the elimination of infected dogs. Therefore, the correct diagnosis is very important in order to avoid the disease transmission or unnecessary culling of dogs. Recently, an antileishmanial vaccine for dogs was licensed and

  3. Canine leishmaniosis and its relationship to human visceral leishmaniasis in Eastern Uzbekistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Namangan Region in the Pap District, located in Eastern Uzbekistan is the main focus of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Uzbekistan. In total, 28 cases of human VL were registered during 2006-2008 in this region. A study on the epidemiology of VL in this area was carried out in 2007-2008 in the villages of Chodak, Oltinkan, Gulistan and Chorkesar located at elevations of 900-1200 above sea level. Results A total of 162 dogs were tested for Leishmania infection. Blood was drawn for serology and PCR. When clinical signs of the disease were present, aspirates from lymph nodes and the spleen were taken. Forty-two dogs (25.9%) had clinical signs suggestive of VL and 51 (31.5%) were sero-positive. ITS-1 PCR was performed for 135 dogs using blood and tissue samples and 40 (29.6%) of them were PCR-positive. Leishmanial parasites were cultured from lymph node or spleen aspirates from 10 dogs. Eight Leishmania strains isolated from dogs were typed by multi-locus microsatellite typing (MLMT) and by multilocus enzyme electrophoretic analysis (MLEE), using a 15 enzyme system. These analyses revealed that the strains belong to the most common zymodeme of L. infantum, i.e., MON-1, and form a unique group when compared to MON-1 strains from other geographical regions. Conclusions The data obtained through this study confirm the existence of an active focus of VL in the Namangan region of Uzbekistan. The fact that L. infantum was the causative agent of canine infection with typical clinical signs, and also of human infection affecting only infants, suggests that a zoonotic form of VL similar in epidemiology to Mediterranean VL is present in Uzbekistan. PMID:21489254

  4. Cohort study on canine emigration and leishmania infection in an endemic area for american visceral leishmaniasis. Implications for the disease control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Paranhos-Silva; E. G Nascimento; M. C. B. F Melro; G. G. S Oliveira; W. L. C dos Santos; L. C Pontes-de-Carvalho; A. J Oliveira-dos-Santos

    1998-01-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis is a main public health matter in Brazil. Since dogs have been incriminated as the main urban reservoir of AVL agent Leishmania chagasi, a cohort study aimed at understanding the dynamics of the canine infection was carried out in Jequié—an endemic community in the Northeast of Brazil. The inhabited urban and periurban areas of Jequié were divided

  5. Analysis of the humoral immune response against total and recombinant antigens of Leishmania infantum: correlation with disease progression in canine experimental leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G Nieto; M Garc??a-Alonso; J. M Requena; C Mirón; M Soto; C Alonso; I Navarrete

    1999-01-01

    Leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin constitutes an important problem in both human and veterinary medicine. Based in both the importance of canids as reservoirs for the human disease and the fact that the canine disease may be an excellent model for the human condition, the present work has been conducted to analyze clinical and immune mechanisms associated

  6. PCR as a rapid and sensitive tool in the diagnosis of human and canine leishmaniasis using Leishmania donovani s.l.-specific kinetoplastid primers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Cortes; N Rolão; J Ramada; L Campino

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed in order to test the efficacy of a new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the diagnosis of both human and canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum. The new primers were developed on the basis of a complete DNA sequence of the L. infantum kinetoplast minicircle. Specificity and sensitivity were evaluated by testing bone marrow spots

  7. Immunotherapy Using Autoclaved L. major Antigens and M. vaccae with Meglumine Antimoniate, for the Treatment of Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, Sh; Avizeh, R; Mohebali, M; Bokaie, S

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate immunotherapy against canine visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania major antigen and heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae (SRL172) were used as stimulators of immune defense mechanisms and the results were compared with standard chemotherapy meglumine antimoniate. Methods Nineteen mongrel dogs aging 1-3 years old were used in this experiment. Infection was carried out in 15 out of 19 dogs using L. infantum, isolated from a naturally infected poly-symptomatic dog. Results All the cases showed positive serologic results by direct agglutination test during 30-60 days following inoculation. In the first group, which was under chemotherapy (GlucantimeR), one of the members showed recurrence of the disease despite rapid effect of the therapeutic protocol. Immunotherapy using SRL172 caused complete cleaning of the parasite in group 2, but the speed was less than Glucantime. Immunotherapy using L. major antigen combined with M. vaccae in group 3 and combine administration of immunotherapy and chemotherapy in group 4 both were with relapsing of one case in each group. Group 5 and 6 were consisted of positive and negative control dogs, respectively. Conclusion Immunotherapy seems to be an adjuvant in treatment of canine leishmaniasis but it needs more investigation for final confirmation. PMID:22347294

  8. Canine leishmaniasis in Southern Italy: a role for nitric oxide released from activated macrophages in asymptomatic infection?

    PubMed Central

    Panaro, Maria A; Brandonisio, Olga; de Caprariis, Donato; Cavallo, Pasqua; Cianciulli, Antonia; Mitolo, Vincenzo; Otranto, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    Background Human and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum is endemic in Italy, with a high percentage of infected asymptomatic animals. However, the immune response mechanisms underlying the clinical presentation of CanL have not been fully investigated. Among leishmanicidal molecules produced by activated macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) produced by an inducible NO synthase seems to play an important protective role, but no conclusive data are available. Therefore, NO released by cultured macrophages from dogs with natural Leishmania infection living in an endemic area for CanL was evaluated. Methods On the basis of one year's clinical and laboratory follow-up, 22 dogs infected by Leishmania infantum were identified and grouped as: asymptomatic dogs (n = 13) and dogs with symptoms of leishmaniasis (n = 9). Each animal was bled twice at 4-month intervals and macrophage and lymphocyte cultures were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Supernatants of L. infantum-infected macrophage cultures, with or without addition of autologous lymphocytes, were assayed for NO production by Griess reaction for nitrites. Results In the first months of the infection the levels of NO in supernatants of Leishmania-infected macrophages were higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic dogs, but they were significantly increased in the latter group eight months after the diagnosis of infection. Furthermore, NO release significantly decreased in the presence of autologous lymphocytes in both groups of animals. Conclusion These results suggest that NO may be involved in the long-term protection of dogs against natural Leishmania infection and in the clinical presentation of canine leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean area. PMID:18471289

  9. Evaluation of rK39 Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis: Longitudinal Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quinnell, Rupert J.; Carson, Connor; Reithinger, Richard; Garcez, Lourdes M.; Courtenay, Orin

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a need for sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for canine visceral leishmaniasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic dipstick RDTs using rK39 antigen for canine visceral leishmaniasis by (i) investigating the sensitivity of RDTs to detect infection, disease and infectiousness in a longitudinal cohort study of natural infection in Brazil, and (ii) using meta-analysis to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs from published studies. Methodology We used a rK39 RDT (Kalazar Detect Canine Rapid Test; Inbios) to test sera collected from 54 sentinel dogs exposed to natural infection in an endemic area of Brazil. Dogs were sampled bimonthly for up to 27 months, and rK39 results compared to those of crude antigen ELISA, PCR, clinical status and infectiousness to sandflies. We then searched MEDLINE and Web of Knowledge (1993–2011) for original studies evaluating the performance of rK39 RDTs in dogs. Meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity was performed using bivariate mixed effects models. Principal Findings The sensitivity of the rK39 RDT in Brazil to detect infection, disease and infectiousness was 46%, 77% and 78% respectively. Sensitivity increased with time since infection, antibody titre, parasite load, clinical score and infectiousness. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. The combined sensitivity of rK39 RDTs was 86.7% (95% CI: 76.9–92.8%) to detect clinical disease and 59.3% (37.9–77.6%) to detect infection. Combined specificity was 98.7% (89.5–99.9%). Both sensitivity and specificity varied considerably between studies. Conclusion The diagnostic performance of rK39 RDTs is reasonable for confirmation of infection in suspected clinical cases, but the sensitivity to detect infected dogs is too low for large-scale epidemiological studies and operational control programmes. PMID:23326615

  10. Evaluating the Accuracy of Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Guedes, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio; Bordoni, Marcelo; Borja, Lairton Souza; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; da Silva Estrela Tuy, Pétala Gardênia; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Nascimento, Eliane Gomes; de Sá Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno; dos-Santos, Washington Luis Conrado; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2014-01-01

    Host tissues affected by Leishmania infantum have differing degrees of parasitism. Previously, the use of different biological tissues to detect L. infantum DNA in dogs has provided variable results. The present study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing (qPCR) in dogs from an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by determining which tissue type provided the highest rate of parasite DNA detection. Fifty-one symptomatic dogs were tested for CVL using serological, parasitological and molecular methods. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed for accuracy evaluation of these methods. qPCR detected parasite DNA in 100% of these animals from at least one of the following tissues: splenic and bone marrow aspirates, lymph node and skin fragments, blood and conjunctival swabs. Using latent variable as gold standard, the qPCR achieved a sensitivity of 95.8% (CI 90.4–100) in splenic aspirate; 79.2% (CI 68–90.3) in lymph nodes; 77.3% (CI 64.5–90.1) in skin; 75% (CI 63.1–86.9) in blood; 50% (CI 30–70) in bone marrow; 37.5% (CI 24.2–50.8) in left-eye; and 29.2% (CI 16.7–41.6) in right-eye conjunctival swabs. The accuracy of qPCR using splenic aspirates was further evaluated in a random larger sample (n?=?800), collected from dogs during a prevalence study. The specificity achieved by qPCR was 76.7% (CI 73.7–79.6) for splenic aspirates obtained from the greater sample. The sensitivity accomplished by this technique was 95% (CI 93.5–96.5) that was higher than those obtained for the other diagnostic tests and was similar to that observed in the smaller sampling study. This confirms that the splenic aspirate is the most effective type of tissue for detecting L. infantum infection. Additionally, we demonstrated that LCA could be used to generate a suitable gold standard for comparative CVL testing. PMID:25076494

  11. Molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis: Identification of Leishmania species by PCR-RFLP and quantification of parasite DNA by real-time PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia Flávia Quaresma; Silvane Maria Fonseca Murta; Eduardo de Castro Ferreira; Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha-Lima; Ana Amélia Prates Xavier; Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo

    2009-01-01

    The efficacies of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), and of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for the identification of Leishmania species, have been assessed. Quantitative real-time PCR employing a SYBR Green dye-based system was standardised for the quantification of Leishmania kDNA minicircles. Skin, peripheral blood and bone marrow samples collected from

  12. Higher Expression of CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CCL21, and CXCL8 Chemokines in the Skin Associated with Parasite Density in Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Menezes-Souza; Renata Guerra-Sá; Cláudia Martins Carneiro; Juliana Vitoriano-Souza; Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti; Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho; Denise Silveira-Lemos; Guilherme Corrêa Oliveira; Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira; Alexandre Barbosa Reis

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThe immune response in the skin of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum is poorly understood, and limited studies have described the immunopathological profile with regard to distinct levels of tissue parasitism and the clinical progression of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL).Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA detailed analysis of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages) as well as the expression of chemokines

  13. Identification of the Leishmania infantum P0 ribosomal protein epitope in canine visceral leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Soto; J. M. Requena; L. Quijada; F. Guzman; M. E. Patarroyo; C. Alonso

    1995-01-01

    In the present work we show that a high percentage of the sera from dogs naturally affected with viscero-cutaneous leishmaniasis contain antibodies reacting with the Leishmania infantum P0 ribosomal protein. In order to map the antigenic determinants of the LiP0 protein during Leishmania-infection, the complete amino acid sequence of the protein was synthesized as overlapping 20-mer peptides. We have identified

  14. Leishmania ( Viannia) braziliensis: Epidemiology of canine cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Paraná (Brazil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edilene A. Castro; Vanete Thomaz-Soccol; Christopher Augur; Ennio Luz

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the role that dogs play in the maintenance of the Leishmania cycle in the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Dogs were examined in three regions where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic or epidemic (R1—Vale da Ribeira; R2—Central region of Paraná State and R3—Northern region). To determine serum prevalence rates ELISA was used. In regions endemic for Trypanosoma

  15. Antibodies from dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis recognise two proteins from the saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Bahia; Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo; Ileana Rodríguez León; Jonas Perales; Marcos Horácio Pereira; Guilherme Oliveira; Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira; Alexandre Barbosa Reis

    2007-01-01

    The saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, a major vector of Leishmania, exhibits pharmacological and immunomodulatory activities that may facilitate entry and establishment of parasites into the\\u000a vertebrate host. Salivary gland components of the sand fly are, therefore, potential candidates in the development of a vaccine\\u000a against human leishmaniasis. With the objective of identifying sand fly saliva proteins that

  16. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN COLOMBIA: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLINICAL AND PARASITOLOGIC STATUS AND INFECTIVITY FOR SAND FLIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUNO L. TRAVI; CARLOS J. TABARES; HORACIO CADENA; CRISTINA FERRO; YANETH OSORIO

    2001-01-01

    We studied the reservoir competency of canines with distinct clinical presentations of Leishmania chagasi infection. The parasitologic status of asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs was determined by standard culture methods Infectivity was assessed by multiple xenodiagnoses with Lutzomyia longipalpis, over a period of 2-11 months. Asymp- tomatic dogs were non-infective (0 of 5) while 2 of 7 oligosymptomatic dogs infected L.

  17. A Surveillance Program on Canine Leishmaniasis in the Public Kennels of Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Santi, Annalisa; Renzi, Maria; Baldelli, Raffaella; Calzolari, Mattia; Caminiti, Antonino; Dell'Anna, Silvia; Galletti, Giorgio; Lombardini, Annalisa; Paternoster, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Since 2007, a canine leishmaniasis (CanL) surveillance program has been carried out in public kennels of the Emilia-Romagna region with the aim of providing health guarantees for dog adoptions. According to this program, monitoring activities were performed to verify the presence of sandflies and infected dogs, and a specific CanL risk class was assigned to each kennel, resulting in different control approaches (entomological and/or serological monitoring, clinical surveillance, therapeutic treatment of infected dogs, protections against vector bites). From 2007 to 2012, 20,931 dogs, 89.8% of which were identified by microchip and housed in 73 kennels, were examined using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. In all, 528 (2.8%) dogs tested positive, and 43.0% of these were asymptomatic. The authors used monitoring results, in particular serological tests performed on dogs at admittance to the kennel and annual controls of sentinel dogs, to estimate CanL risk in the whole region and to evaluate the efficacy of the preventive measures adopted. CanL seroprevalence in dogs tested at the admittance in kennels increased significantly from 2010 (1.0%; 29/2858) to 2012 (2.4%; 69/2841). In contrast, the number of seroconversions in sentinel dogs was stable in 2010 (1.2%; 11/896) and 2011 (1.6%; 13/825) and decreased in 2012 (0.9%; 8/850), suggesting the efficacy of the preventive measures applied. PMID:24575787

  18. Subtractive Phage Display Selection from Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Identifies Novel Epitopes That Mimic Leishmania infantum Antigens with Potential Serodiagnosis Applications

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lourena E.; Lima, Mayara I. S.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Lage, Paula S.; Lopes, Eliane G. P.; Lage, Daniela P.; Ribeiro, Tatiana G.; Andrade, Pedro H. R.; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F.; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Goulart, Luiz R.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs. PMID:24256622

  19. T-cell-derived cytokines, nitric oxide production by peripheral blood monocytes and seric anti- Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi IgG subclass patterns following immunization against canine visceral leishmaniasis using Leishvaccine and Leishmune ®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo; Renata Aline de Andrade; Renato Sathler-Avelar; Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho; Mariléia Chaves Andrade; Leonardo Rocha Vianna; Wilson Mayrink; Alexandre Barbosa Reis; Luiz Cosme Cotta Malaquias; Maria Norma Mello; Olindo Assis Martins-Filho

    2009-01-01

    It is generally accepted that distinct cytokine expression by the cellular immune response plays a critical role during the outcome of experimental as well as natural canine visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL). Despite the fact that immunoprophylaxis of CVL has become an important control strategy and protective immunity has been reported upon immunization with whole as well as purified Leishmania antigens, the

  20. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis from the island. The presence of L. (N.) flaviscutellata in peridomestic areas is also an important finding, since the species is involved in the transmission of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. Health education practices directed to the local community and tourists are important control actions that can be taken in Ilha Grande to reduce the burden of leishmaniases. PMID:24499568

  1. Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt

    E-print Network

    Samy, Abdallah Mohammed; Campbell, Lindsay P.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health...

  2. Canine leishmaniasis: the key points for qPCR result interpretation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and follow up of CanL is difficult since the range of clinical signs is varied and seroprevalence is high in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: i) demonstrate the advantages of Leishmania qPCR to diagnose and control CanL and highlight its prognostic value and ii) propose guidelines for tissue selection and infection monitoring. Findings This study included 710 dogs living in an endemic area of leishmaniasis. Forty percent (285/710) exhibited clinical signs consistent with CanL. Infection was detected in 36.3% (258/710) of the dogs of which 4.5% (32/710) were detected by qPCR, 16.2% (115/710) detected by ELISA and 15.6% (111/710) tested positive for both tests. Only 17.9% (127/710) of the dogs were classified sick (affected) with CanL. All symptomatic dogs with medium or high ELISA titers were qPCR-positive in blood samples. All dogs with inconclusive or low ELISA results with high or medium qPCR parasitemia values developed the disease. Seventy one percent of asymptomatic ELISA-positive dogs confirmed by qPCR (medium to high parasitemia) developed the disease. Bone marrow or lymph node aspirate should be selected to ensure the absence of the parasite in asymptomatic dogs: 100-1,000 parasites/ml in bone marrow are detectable in blood, whereas lower parasite loads are usually negative. Almost 10% of negative samples in blood were positive in conjunctival swabs. Conclusions Because qPCR allows parasite quantification, it is an effective tool to confirm a diagnosis of CanL in (i) cases of inconclusive ELISA results, (ii) when the dog has not yet seroconverted, or (iii) for treatment monitoring. PMID:21489253

  3. A multicentric evaluation of the recombinant Leishmania infantum antigen-based immunochromatographic assay for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health challenge in Brazil and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of the causative agent. The culling of animals to control VL in some countries makes the accurate diagnosis of canine VL (CVL) essential. Recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B were selected from a cDNA library of Leishmania infantum amastigotes due to their strong potential as candidates in diagnostic testing for CVL. The present multicentric study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of a prototype test using these antigens (DPP rLci1A/rLci2B) against 154 sera obtained from symptomatic dogs within three endemic areas of VL in Brazil. The specificity was evaluated using 40 serum samples from negative dogs and dogs infected with other pathogens. Sensitivity and specificity rates of DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype were compared to rates from other diagnostic tests currently in use by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, including DPP®LVC, EIE®LVC. Findings DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype offered similar performance to that offered by DPP®LVC rapid test, as follows: sensitivity of 87% (CI 81–91) and 88% (CI 82–93) and specificity of 100% (CI 91–100) and 97% (CI 87–100), respectively for DPP rLci1A/rLci2B and DPP®LVC. When results of these two tests were considered concomitantly, sensitivity increased to 93.5% (CI 89–96). Conclusions The recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B represent promising candidates for use in a multi-antigen rapid test for CVL. The inclusion of novel antigens to the DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype model could offer additionally enhanced sensitivity to detect animals infected by L. infantum. PMID:24684857

  4. Comparison between ELISA using total antigen and immunochromatography with antigen rK39 in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Fattori, Karina Reinaldo; Michelin, Aparecida de Fátima; da Silveira Neto, Luiz; Vasconcelos, Rosemere de O

    2010-10-29

    In this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using crude total antigen (CTA-ELISA) and immunochromatography with antigen rK39 were compared in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Fifty-two total blood samples from symptomatic dogs obtained from a location endemic for leishmaniasis and 52 blood samples from healthy dogs from a nonendemic region were tested. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect DNA from Leishmania spp. in both groups. Symptomatic dogs with positive PCR were considered infected by Leishmania spp. and the PCR technique was chosen as a gold standard test. The sensitivity determined for CTA-ELISA was 100%, with specificity of 91.2%, while the immunochromatographic assay with the antigen rK39 showed sensitivity of 91.5%, with specificity of 94.7%. A strong correlation was verified between CTA-ELISA and immunochromatography with antigen rK39, with a kappa coefficient of agreement of 0.88. Analysis of the results suggested that both assays presented good sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing CVL; however, immunochromatography with the antigen rK39 may be more advantageous when a fast field test is required. PMID:20810216

  5. Seasonal phenology, host-blood feeding preferences and natural Leishmania infection of Phlebotomus perniciosus (Diptera, Psychodidae) in a high-endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis in Rome province, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rossi; G. Bongiorno; E. Ciolli; T. Di Muccio; A. Scalone; M. Gramiccia; L. Gradoni; M. Maroli

    2008-01-01

    A 2-year survey aimed to study seasonal phenology, host-blood feeding preferences and Leishmania infections of Phlebotomus perniciosus, was carried out in a high-endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis in Rome province, Italy. Sandfly densities were monitored by sticky traps, while CDC light traps and hand collections were used for individual sandfly analyses. Four species were identified, three belonging to Phlebotomus (P.

  6. Characterization of Novel Leishmania infantum Recombinant Proteins Encoded by Genes from Five Families with Distinct Capacities for Serodiagnosis of Canine and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Geraldo G. S.; Magalhães, Franklin B.; Teixeira, Márcia C. A.; Pereira, Andrea M.; Pinheiro, Cristiane G. M.; Santos, Lenita R.; Nascimento, Marília B.; Bedor, Cheila N. G.; Albuquerque, Alessandra L.; dos-Santos, Washington L. C.; Gomes, Yara M.; Moreira, Edson D.; Brito, Maria E. F.; Pontes de Carvalho, Lain C.; de Melo Neto, Osvaldo P.

    2011-01-01

    To expand the available panel of recombinant proteins that can be useful for identifying Leishmania-infected dogs and for diagnosing human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), we selected recombinant antigens from L. infantum, cDNA, and genomic libraries by using pools of serum samples from infected dogs and humans. The selected DNA fragments encoded homologs of a cytoplasmic heat-shock protein 70, a kinesin, a polyubiquitin, and two novel hypothetical proteins. Histidine-tagged recombinant proteins were produced after subcloning these DNA fragments and evaluated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with panels of canine and human serum samples. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different recombinant proteins had different sensitivities (67.4–93.0% and 36.4–97.2%) and specificities (76.1–100% and 90.4–97.3%) when tested with serum samples from Leishmania-infected dogs and human patients with VL. Overall, no single recombinant antigen was sufficient to serodiagnosis all canine or human VL cases. PMID:22144438

  7. Kinetics and Diagnostic and Prognostic Potential of Quantitative Western Blot Analysis and Antigen-Specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in Experimental Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Talmi-Frank, D.; Strauss-Ayali, D.; Jaffe, C. L.; Baneth, G.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative computerized Western blot analysis of antibody responses during experimental canine Leishmania infantum infection distinguished between immunodominant and nonimmunodominant protein bands. Six infected beagles, positive by both PCR and parasite culture, were monitored over 75 weeks postinfection and during a 12-week allopurinol treatment course. All dogs were symptomatic at the time of treatment. Of 12 antigenic bands examined, the immunodominant bands (12, 14, 24, 29, 48, and 68 kDa) showed significantly increased intensities (P < 0.01) and higher frequencies of recognition than the nonimmunodominant bands at all time points. Detection of the former bands at 6 weeks postinfection preceded seroconversion by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) both on crude Leishmania antigen or the recombinant proteins rK39 and HSP70. Reactivity with the 14-, 48-, and 68-kDa bands signified early infection, whereas increased reactivity with the 14-, 24-, and 29-kDa bands was associated with posttreatment parasite persistence and potential unfavorable prognosis. Total lane intensity (TLI) emerged as a sensitive marker for early infection and increased as early as 4 weeks postinfection. TLI had a significantly higher (P < 0.01) relative increase rate than crude Leishmania antigen or HSP70 or rK39 ELISA at all time points. These immunodominant antigens and TLI, as determined by quantitative Western blotting, will be valuable for early detection and treatment evaluation of canine leishmaniasis. PMID:16467337

  8. Canine Antibody Response to Phlebotomus perniciosus Bites Negatively Correlates with the Risk of Leishmania infantum Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaela Vlkova; Iva Rohousova; Jan Drahota; Dorothee Stanneck; Eva Maria Kruedewagen; Norbert Mencke; Domenico Otranto; Petr Volf

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundPhlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects that can transmit Leishmania parasites. Hosts bitten by sand flies develop an immune response against sand fly salivary antigens. Specific anti-saliva IgG indicate the exposure to the vector and may also help to estimate the risk of Leishmania spp. transmission. In this study, we examined the canine antibody response against the saliva of Phlebotomus

  9. Evaluation of Change in Canine Diagnosis Protocol Adopted by the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control Program in Brazil and a New Proposal for Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Coura-Vital, Wendel; Ker, Henrique Gama; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Leal, Gleisiane Gomes de Almeida; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Oliveira, Laser Antônio Machado; de Menezes Machado, Evandro Marques; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Carneiro, Mariângela; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The techniques used for diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Brazil ELISA and IFAT have been extensively questioned because of the accuracy of these tests. A recent change in the diagnosis protocol excluded IFAT and included the Dual-Path Platform (DPP). We evaluated the prevalence and incidence rates of Leishmania spp. before and after the change in the protocol. In addition, based on our results, we propose a new alternative that is less expensive for the screening and confirmation of CVL. Plasma samples were obtained from a serobank from dogs evaluated in a cross-sectional study (1,226 dogs) and in a cohort study of susceptible animals (n?=?447), followed for 26 months. Serology testing was performed using ELISA, IFAT, and DPP. The incidence and prevalence of CVL were determined by using the protocol of the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control and Surveillance Program until 2012 (ELISA and IFAT using filter paper) and the protocol used after 2012 (DPP and ELISA using plasma). The prevalence was 6.2% and the incidence was 2.8 per 1,000 dog-months for the protocol used until 2012. For the new diagnosis protocol for CVL resulted in an incidence of 5.4 per 1,000 dog-months and a prevalence of 8.1%. Our results showed that the prevalence and incidence of infection were far greater than suggested by the previously used protocol and that the magnitude of infection in endemic areas has been underestimated. As tests are performed sequentially and euthanasia of dogs is carried out when the serological results are positive in both tests, the sequence does not affect the number of animals to be eliminated by the Control Program. Then we suggest to municipalities with a large demand of exams to use ELISA for screening and DPP for confirmation, since this allows easier performance and reduced cost. PMID:24608904

  10. A New Model of Progressive Visceral Leishmaniasis in Hamsters by Natural Transmission via Bites of Vector Sand Flies

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Hamide; Dey, Ranadhir; Meneses, Claudio; Castrovinci, Philip; Jeronimo, Selma Maria Bezerra; Oliva, Gætano; Fischer, Laurent; Duncan, Robert C.; Nakhasi, Hira L.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is transmitted by sand flies. Protection of needle-challenged vaccinated mice was abrogated in vector-initiated cutaneous leishmaniasis, highlighting the importance of developing natural transmission models for VL. Methods.?We used Lutzomyia longipalpis to transmit Leishmania infantum or Leishmania donovani to hamsters. Vector-initiated infections were monitored and compared with intracardiac infections. Body weights were recorded weekly. Organ parasite loads and parasite pick-up by flies were assessed in sick hamsters. Results.?Vector-transmitted L. infantum and L. donovani caused ?5-fold increase in spleen weight compared with uninfected organs and had geometric mean parasite loads (GMPL) comparable to intracardiac inoculation of 107–108 parasites, although vector-initiated disease progression was slower and weight loss was greater. Only vector-initiated L. infantum infections caused cutaneous lesions at transmission and distal sites. Importantly, 45.6%, 50.0%, and 33.3% of sand flies feeding on ear, mouth, and testicular lesions, respectively, were parasite-positive. Successful transmission was associated with a high mean percent of metacyclics (66%–82%) rather than total GMPL (2.0 × 104–8.0 × 104) per midgut. Conclusions.?This model provides an improved platform to study initial immune events at the bite site, parasite tropism, and pathogenesis and to test drugs and vaccines against naturally acquired VL. PMID:23288926

  11. PERIDOMESTIC RISK FACTORS FOR CANINE LEISHMANIASIS IN URBAN DWELLINGS: NEW FINDINGS FROM A PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN BRAZIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDSON D. MOREIRA; VERENA M. M. DE SOUZA; MEERA SREENIVASAN; NILSON L. LOPES

    2003-01-01

    Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence and correlates of canine Leishmania infection (CLI), data on its incidence are still sparse, and little is known regarding risk factors for CLI. We studied a cohort of dogs in an urban area in Brazil to determine whether incidence varied with age, breed, and environmental characteristics. The mean follow-up was 1.5 years,

  12. Standardization of a rapid immunochromatographic test with the recombinant antigens K39 and K26 for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Roberto Teodoro; França, João Carlos; Mayrink, Wilson; Nascimento, Evaldo; Genaro, Odair; Campos-Neto, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) remains problematic because there areno reliable commercially available tests. Most laboratories use domestically prepared tests such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). We evaluated rapid immunochromatographic (RICH) test kits for the diagnosis of CVL. The tests were assembled with either Leishmania chagasi recombinant antigens K39 or K26 and with either gold-labelled Staphylococcus aureus protein A or Streptococcus pyogenes protein G. Fifty sera from dogs with CVL, 14 sera from dogs with Chagas disease, and 50 sera from normal healthy dogs were tested. The results show that the RICH test using recombinant antigen K39 has a sensitivity of 96% and 100% specificity for the diagnosis of CVL. No significant differences were observed in the tests assembled with either protein A or protein G. The RICH tests using recombinant antigen K26 were equally specific but less sensitive than those using K39. However, the 2 antigens complemented each other and increased the overall sensitivity of the test. Because of its simplicity and performance the RICH test is a quick and reliable alternative for the diagnosis of CVL either in conventional laboratories or for remote areas where laboratories are not readily accessible for conventional assays. PMID:16117962

  13. Evaluation of Live Recombinant Nonpathogenic Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinase and A2 Genes as a Candidate Vaccine against Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Mehdi; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Jamshidi, Shahram; Shirian, Sadegh; Mahdavi, Niousha; Hassankhani, Mehdi; Daneshbod, Yahya; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a major veterinary and public health problem caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) in many endemic countries. It is a severe chronic disease with generalized parasite spread to the reticuloendothelial system, such as spleen, liver and bone marrow and is often fatal when left untreated. Control of VL in dogs would dramatically decrease infection pressure of L. infantum for humans, since dogs are the main domestic reservoir. In the past decade, various subunits and DNA antigens have been identified as potential vaccine candidates in experimental animal models, but none has been approved for human use so far. In this study, we vaccinated outbreed dogs with a prime-boost regimen based on recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinase genes (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB-CTE) and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. infantum infectious challenge. We showed that vaccinated animals produced significantly higher levels of IgG2, but not IgG1, and also IFN-? and TNF-?, but low IL-10 levels, before and after challenge as compared to control animals. Protection in dogs was also correlated with a strong DTH response and low parasite burden in the vaccinated group. Altogether, immunization with recombinant L. tarentolae A2-CPA-CPB-CTE was proven to be immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, hence representing a promising live vaccine candidate against CVL. PMID:26197085

  14. Association of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (IRP2) with Leishmania Burden in Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Paulo Ricardo Porfírio; Martins, Daniella Regina Arantes; Monteiro, Glória Regina Góis; Queiroz, Paula Vivianne; Freire-Neto, Francisco Paulo; Queiroz, José Wilton; Morais Lima, Ádila Lorena; Jeronimo, Selma Maria Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania infantum infection in humans and dogs can evolve with a wide range of clinical presentations, varying from asymptomatic infections to visceral leishmaniasis. We hypothesized that the immune response elicited by L. infantum infection could modulate whether the host will remain asymptomatic or progress to disease. A total of 44 dogs naturally infected with L. infantum were studied. Leishmania burden was estimated in the blood and spleen by qPCR. The expression of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10 and Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (IRP2) were determined in the spleen by quantitative PCR. Sera cytokines were evaluated by ELISA. Dogs were grouped in quartiles according parasite burden. Increased expression of IFN-? and TNF-? was associated with reduced Leishmania burden, whereas increased IL-10 and IRP2 expressions were associated with higher Leishmania load. Increased plasma albumin and IFN-? expression explained 22.8% of the decrease in parasite burden in the spleen. These data confirm that lower IFN-? response and higher IL-10 correlated with increased parasite load and severity of the visceral leishmaniasis in dogs. The balance between the branches of immune response and the intracellular iron availability could determine, in part, the course of Leishmania infection. PMID:24146743

  15. One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming. PMID:21985335

  16. Quantifying the Contribution of Hosts with Different Parasite Concentrations to the Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ezer; Warburg, Alon; Novikov, Ilya; Hailu, Asrat; Volf, Petr; Seblova, Veronika; Huppert, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background An important factor influencing the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases is the contribution of hosts with different parasitemia (no. of parasites per ml of blood) to the infected vector population. Today, estimation of this contribution is often impractical since it relies exclusively on limited-scale xenodiagnostic or artificial feeding experiments (i.e., measuring the proportion of vectors that become infected after feeding on infected blood/host). Methodology We developed a novel mechanistic model that facilitates the quantification of the contribution of hosts with different parasitemias to the infection of the vectors from data on the distribution of these parasitemias within the host population. We applied the model to an ample data set of Leishmania donovani carriers, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. Results Calculations facilitated by the model quantified the host parasitemias that are mostly responsible for the infection of vector, the sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis. Our findings indicate that a 3.2% of the most infected people were responsible for the infection of between 53% and 79% (mean – 62%) of the infected sand fly vector population. Significance Our modeling framework can easily be extended to facilitate the calculation of the contribution of other host groups (such as different host species, hosts with different ages) to the infected vector population. Identifying the hosts that contribute most towards infection of the vectors is crucial for understanding the transmission dynamics, and planning targeted intervention policy of visceral leishmaniasis as well as other vector borne infectious diseases (e.g., West Nile Fever). PMID:25356795

  17. [Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Algeria. 7. Visceral leishmaniasis in the Grande Kabylie focus].

    PubMed

    Dedet, J P; Addadi, K; Lannuzel, B

    1977-01-01

    The authors present the results of a survey on visceral leishmaniasis in the Grande Kabylie region (Algeria). With a 2.6 human cases per 100,000 annual prevalence, and a 11.4 per cent incidence of canine leishmaniasis, the Grande Kabylie appears to be the most important focus of visceral leishmaniasis in North Africa. The endemicity ecological factors are discussed and a control program is proposed. PMID:580909

  18. The Genetic Structure of Leishmania infantum Populations in Brazil and Its Possible Association with the Transmission Cycle of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; dos Santos, Barbara Neves; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Ramos, Tereza Pompilio Bastos; Porrozzi, Renato; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Cupolillo, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, Mediterranean basin and West and Central Asia. Although the geographic structure of L. infantum populations from the Old World have been described, few studies have addressed the population structure of this parasite in the Neotropical region. We employed 14 microsatellites to analyze the population structure of the L. infantum strains isolated from humans and dogs from most of the Brazilian states endemic for VL and from Paraguay. The results indicate a low genetic diversity, high inbreeding estimates and a depletion of heterozygotes, which together indicate a predominantly clonal breeding system, but signs of sexual events are also present. Three populations were identified from the clustering analysis, and they were well supported by F statistics inferences and partially corroborated by distance-based. POP1 (111 strains) was observed in all but one endemic area. POP2 (31 strains) is also well-dispersed, but it was the predominant population in Mato Grosso (MT). POP3 (31 strains) was less dispersed, and it was observed primarily in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Strains originated from an outbreak of canine VL in Southern Brazil were grouped in POP1 with those from Paraguay, which corroborates the hypothesis of dispersal from Northeastern Argentina and Paraguay. The distribution of VL in MS seems to follow the west-east construction of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline from Corumbá municipality. This may have resulted in a strong association of POP3 and Lutzomyia cruzi, which is the main VL vector in Corumbá, and a dispersion of this population in this region that was shaped by human interference. This vector also occurs in MT and may influence the structure of POP2. This paper presents significant advances in the understanding of the population structure of L. infantum in Brazil and its association with eco-epidemiological aspects of VL. PMID:22606248

  19. First report of venereal and vertical transmission of canine leishmaniosis from naturally infected dogs in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania (L.) infantum. It is endemic to several tropical and subtropical countries but also to the Mediterranean region. It is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies but occasional non-vector transmissions have been reported, including vertical and horizontal transmission. Findings The authors report a case of CanL in a female boxer dog from Dusseldorf, Germany, that had never been in an endemic region. A serum sample from the bitch was tested positive for antibodies against Leishmania (IFAT 1:2,000, ELISA 72). The bitch had whelped three litters, and one puppy from the third litter was also found to be seropositive for Leishmania antibodies (IFAT 1:4,000, ELISA 78). Conclusions Up to now, despite intensive searching, the occurrence of sandflies could not be proved in the bitch's region of origin. Thus, vertical and horizontal transmission are to be discussed as possible ways of infection. This may be the first report of venereal and vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally infected dogs in Germany. PMID:22463789

  20. Transmission electron microscopy studies in an experimental model of canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Marsella, Rosanna; Samuelson, Don; Doerr, Katherine

    2010-02-01

    Impairment of skin barrier function has been hypothesized in canine atopic dermatitis (AD). In this prospective, controlled study, the ultrastructure of the upper epidermal layers was investigated using an experimental model of canine AD. Seven atopic Beagles sensitized to Dermatophagoides farinae and four healthy Beagles were used as controls. Both normal and atopic dogs were challenged with D. farinae for 3 days. Clinical signs were scored and skin biopsies were taken from the inguinal area before and 3 days after allergen exposure. Samples were processed to enhance lipid visibility and evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Emphasis was placed on evaluation of the lipid lamellae (LL), and lamellar bodies (LB) of the stratum corneum.After allergen challenge, atopic Beagles developed severe pruritic dermatitis while no skin lesions were noted in the controls. Ultrastructurally, before allergen challenge, atopic Beagles displayed focally severe abnormalities in LL organization and wider intercellular spaces containing abnormal lipid material. In atopic Beagles, LBs were frequently found inside corneocytes while this finding was not observed in the controls. After allergen challenge, further increase of intercellular spaces was observed in the stratum corneum of atopic Beagles while no appreciable changes were observed in the normal dogs. Intercellular spaces in atopic Beagles were filled with abundant amounts of abnormal lipid material and highly disorganized LL. It is concluded that baseline differences in the ultrastructure of the skin exist between normal and experimentally sensitized atopic Beagles and that these changes are aggravated by allergen challenge and the resulting flare-up of dermatitis. PMID:20042040

  1. The first records of Leishmania ( Leishmania) amazonensis in dogs ( Canis familiaris) diagnosed clinically as having canine visceral leishmaniasis from Araçatuba County, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José E. Tolezano; Sílvia R. B. Uliana; Helena H. Taniguchi; Maria F. L. Araújo; José A. R. Barbosa; José E. R. Barbosa; Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter; Jeffrey J. Shaw

    2007-01-01

    Two cases of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis are reported in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). These are the first records of this parasite in this species. The animals lived in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis area of Araçatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil and were initially diagnosed, on clinical grounds, as having visceral leishmaniasis. Attempted parasite isolation from inguinal lymph node aspirates was

  2. Recombinant canine coronaviruses related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus of Swine are circulating in dogs.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Campolo, Marco; Lorusso, Alessio; Camero, Michele; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Cordioli, Paolo; Enjuanes, Luis; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2009-02-01

    Four canine coronavirus type II (CCoV-II) strains were identified in the guts and internal organs of pups which had died of acute gastroenteritis. The CCoV-II strains were strictly related to porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in the N-terminal domain of the spike protein, whereas in the other parts of the genome, a higher genetic relatedness to recent CCoV-II isolates was observed. Experimental infection of dogs with a TGEV-like isolate induced mild gastroenteritis without any systemic involvement. By virus neutralization tests, antigenic differences between reference and TGEV-like CCoVs were found. Our data support the potential recombinant origin of the TGEV-like CCoVs. PMID:19036814

  3. Evaluation of a gp63–PCR Based Assay as a Molecular Diagnosis Tool in Canine Leishmaniasis in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Guerbouj, Souheila; Djilani, Fattouma; Bettaieb, Jihene; Lambson, Bronwen; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben Salah, Afif; Ben Ismail, Riadh; Guizani, Ikram

    2014-01-01

    A gp63PCR method was evaluated for the detection and characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) (L.) parasites in canine lymph node aspirates. This tool was tested and compared to other PCRs based on the amplification of 18S ribosomal genes, a L. infantum specific repetitive sequence and kinetoplastic DNA minicircles, and to classical parasitological (smear examination and/or culture) or serological (IFAT) techniques on a sample of 40 dogs, originating from different L. infantum endemic regions in Tunisia. Sensitivity and specificity of all the PCR assays were evaluated on parasitologically confirmed dogs within this sample (N?=?18) and control dogs (N?=?45) originating from non–endemic countries in northern Europe and Australia. The gp63 PCR had 83.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity, a performance comparable to the kinetoplast PCR assay and better than the other assays. These assays had comparable results when the gels were southern transferred and hybridized with a radioactive probe. As different infection rates were found according to the technique, concordance of the results was estimated by (?) test. Best concordance values were between the gp63PCR and parasitological methods (74.6%, 95% confidence intervals CI: 58.8–95.4%) or serology IFAT technique (47.4%, 95% CI: 23.5–71.3%). However, taken together Gp63 and Rib assays covered most of the samples found positive making of them a good alternative for determination of infection rates. Potential of the gp63PCR-RFLP assay for analysis of parasite genetic diversity within samples was also evaluated using 5 restriction enzymes. RFLP analysis confirmed assignment of the parasites infecting the dogs to L. infantum species and illustrated occurrence of multiple variants in the different endemic foci. Gp63 PCR assay thus constitutes a useful tool in molecular diagnosis of L. infantum infections in dogs in Tunisia. PMID:25153833

  4. An update on antileishmanial vaccine candidates and prospects for a canine Leishmania vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Gradoni

    2001-01-01

    Dogs are the domestic reservoir for Leishmania infantum, the parasite causing zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in both the Old and New Worlds. Since the available methods for canine leishmaniasis treatment and control have limited efficacy, the development of a canine Leishmania vaccine is highly desirable. Mechanisms of antileishmanial immune responses in murine, human, and canine infections are briefly presented. Vaccine

  5. No evidence for zoonotic transmission of H3N8 canine influenza virus among US adults occupationally exposed to dogs

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Gray, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The zoonotic potential of H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) has not been previously examined; yet considering the popularity of dogs as a companion animal and the zoonotic capabilities of other influenza viruses, the public health implications are great. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against CIV among a US cohort. Design A cross-sectional seroepidemiological study was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Setting Recruitments primarily occurred in Iowa and Florida. Participants were enrolled at dog shows, or at their home or place of employment. Sample Three hundred and four adults occupationally exposed to dogs and 101 non-canine-exposed participants completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. Main outcome measures Microneutralization and neuraminidase inhibition assays were performed to detect human sera antibodies against A/Canine/Iowa/13628/2005(H3N8). An enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA) was adapted to detect antibodies against a recombinant N8 neuraminidase protein from A/Equine/Pennsylvania/1/2007(H3N8). Results For all assays, no significant difference in detectable antibodies was observed when comparing the canine-exposed subjects to the non-canine-exposed subjects. Conclusion While these results do not provide evidence for cross-species CIV transmission, influenza is predictably unpredictable. People frequently exposed to ill dogs should continually be monitored for novel zoonotic CIV infections. PMID:24237615

  6. Leishmaniasis FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... count (thrombocytopenia). How common is leishmaniasis in the world? The number of new cases per year is ... million (400,000). In what parts of the world is leishmaniasis found? In the Old World (the ...

  7. Leishmaniasis Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease Ulcerative skin lesion, with ... with some of the species (types) of the parasite that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis in parts of Latin ...

  8. Assessment of an optimized dog-culling program in the dynamics of canine Leishmania transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edson Duarte Moreira; Verena Maria Mendes de Souza; Meera Sreenivasan; Eliane Góes Nascimento; Lain Pontes de Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    In Brazil, zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) control programs based on the mass elimination of seropositive dogs have failed to reduce the number of leishmaniasis cases. However, these programs have been done under sub-optimal conditions. We studied a cohort of dogs in an urban area in Brazil to determine, whether a dog-culling program optimized with: (i) replacement of a relatively low-sensitivity

  9. EVALUATION OF LYMPH NODE AND BONE MARROW CYTOLOGY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CANINE LEISHMANIASIS (LEISHMANIA INFANTUM )I N SYMPTOMATIC AND ASYMPTOMATIC DOGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MANOLIS N. SARIDOMICHELAKIS; MATHIOS E. MYLONAKIS; LEONIDAS S. LEONTIDES; ALEXANDER F. KOUTINAS; CHARALAMBOS BILLINIS; VASSILIOS I. KONTOS

    2005-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of lymph node and bone marrow smear microscopy for the diagnosis of Leishmania infantum-infected dogs was evaluated in 79 dogs with leishmaniasis (Group A), 52 asymptomatically infected dogs (Group B), and 44 healthy noninfected dogs (Group C). Light microscopy examination included 10 to 1,000 oil immersion fields, and the density of Leishmania amastigotes was scored b

  10. Differentiation between canine cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis by the detection of immunoglobulin G specific for Leishmania ( Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania ( Leishmania) chagasi antigens using flow cytometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta de Almeida Santiago; Flávia Coelho Ribeiro; Eliame Mouta-Confort; Lílian Dias Nascimento; Armando de Oliveira Schubach; Maria de Fatima Madeira; Álvaro Luiz Bertho

    2008-01-01

    Flow cytometry employing Leishmania (L.) chagasi (Lc) and L. (Viannia) braziliensis (Lb) antigen was used to establish the differential diagnosis between visceral (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in dogs. Flow cytometry permitted the detection of Leishmania-specific immunoglobulin G in sera from 19 dogs: nine with CL and 10 with VL. A significant difference in the percentage of positive staining was

  11. Compartmentalized gene expression of toll-like receptors 2, 4 and 9 in the brain and peripheral lymphoid organs during canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Melo, G D; Silva, J E S; Grano, F G; Homem, C G; Machado, G F

    2014-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an important parasitic disease that affects humans and animals. The response against the protozoan involves the interaction of both innate and adaptive branches of the immune system, and an important immune sensor is represented by the toll-like receptor (TLR) family. Here, we investigated the pattern of TLR-2, TLR-4 and TLR-9 gene expression in different compartments (brain, choroid plexus, spleen and lymph node) of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. Gene expression of the TLRs varied according to the compartment evaluated. In the brain, there was only an upregulation of TLR-2, whereas in the choroid plexus, TLR-2 and TLR-9 were both upregulated. Further, the peripheral lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes) showed increased TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression. This study provides the first insight about TLR expression in the central nervous system of infected dogs, and gives additional evidence of the compartmentalization of the immune response during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25283216

  12. Are insecticide-impregnated dog collars a feasible alternative to dog culling as a strategy for controlling canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Reithinger; Paul G Coleman; Bruce Alexander; Edvar Paula Vieira; Geraldo Assis; Clive R Davies

    2004-01-01

    In a zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL)-endemic area in Brazil, deltamethrin-impregnated collars (DMC) were fitted to 136 dogs for 5 months and significantly reduced the odds of increasing their anti-Leishmania antibody titer during this period by 50% (95% confidence interval 29–87%, P=0.01), as compared with a population of 97 uncollared dogs with pre-intervention prevalence within the same town. Mathematical modeling suggests

  13. The first report of autochthonous non-vector-borne transmission of canine leishmaniosis in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Karkamo, Veera; Kaistinen, Anu; Näreaho, Anu; Dillard, Kati; Vainio-Siukola, Katri; Vidgrén, Gabriele; Tuoresmäki, Niina; Anttila, Marjukka

    2014-12-10

    Background Leishmania spp. are zoonotic protozoans that infect humans and other mammals such as dogs. The most significant causative species in dogs is L. infantum. In dogs, leishmaniosis is a potentially progressive, chronic disease with varying clinical outcomes. Autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniosis have not previously been reported in the Nordic countries.ResultsIn this report we describe the first diagnosed autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniosis in Finland, in which transmission via a suitable arthropod vector was absent. Two Finnish boxers that had never been in endemic areas of Leishmania spp., had never received blood transfusions, nor were infested by ectoparasites were diagnosed with leishmaniosis. Another dog was found with elevated Leishmania antibodies. A fourth boxer dog that had been in Spain was considered to be the source of these infections. Transmission occurred through biting wounds and semen, however, transplacental infection in one of the dogs could not be ruled out.Two of the infected dogs developed a serious disease and were euthanized and sent for necropsy. The first one suffered from membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and the second one had a chronic systemic disease. Leishmania sp. was detected from tissues by PCR and/or IHC in both dogs. The third infected dog was serologically positive for Leishmania sp. but remained free of clinical signs.ConclusionsThis case report shows that imported Leishmania-infected dogs may pose a risk for domestic dogs, even without suitable local arthropod vectors. PMID:25492266

  14. Leishmaniasis Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment Before considering treatment, the ... applies to some (not all) types of the parasite found in parts of Latin America: certain types ...

  15. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Babuadze, Giorgi; Alvar, Jorge; Argaw, Daniel; de Koning, Harry P; Iosava, Merab; Kekelidze, Merab; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tsereteli, David; Chakhunashvili, Giorgi; Mamatsashvili, Tamar; Beria, Nino; Kalandadze, Irine; Ejov, Mikhail; Imnadze, Paata

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet) and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi. The highest proportions of seropositive pet dogs were present in District #2 (28.1%, 82/292) and District #1 (26.9%, 24/89) in Tbilisi, compared to 17.3% (26/150) of pet dogs in Kutaisi. The percentage of seropositive stray dogs was also twice as high in Tbilisi (16.1%, n?=?670) than in Kutaisi (8%, n?=?50); only 2/58 wild animals screened were seropositive (2. 6%). A total of 873 Phlebotomine sand flies were collected, with 5 different species identified in Tbilisi and 3 species in Kutaisi; 2.3% of the females were positive for Leishmania parasites. The Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) was performed on 981 human subjects in VL foci in urban areas in Tbilisi and Kutaisi. A particularly high prevalence of LST positives was observed in Tbilisi District #1 (22.2%, 37.5% and 19.5% for ages 5-9, 15-24 and 25-59, respectively); lower prevalence was observed in Kutaisi (0%, 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively; P<0.05). This study shows that Tbilisi is an active focus for leishmaniasis and that the infection prevalence is very high in dogs and in humans. Although exposure is as yet not as high in Kutaisi, this is a new VL focus. The overall situation in the country is alarming and new control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24603768

  16. Epidemiological aspects of vector, parasite, and domestic reservoir in areas of recent transmission and no reported human cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Fiuza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires; Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques; Regina-Silva, Shara; de Avelar, Daniel Moreira; Silva, Maiara Alves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; da Costa, Ailton Junior Antunes; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-08-01

    About 97% of the human cases of the American visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur in Brazil. In the last few years, the disease expanded to medium- and large-sized cities, in which surveillance and control actions have been intensified, in an effort to control VL spreading. Our two-year study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, the sixth most populous city in Brazil, which is endemic for VL. We focused in two particular districts of recent transmission of the disease, with no reported human cases and submitted to minor surveillance and control actions. Our aim was to draw an epidemiological profile of the local situation concerning Lutzomyia vector, Leishmania parasites, and the main domestic reservoirs (dogs). Lutzomyia longipalpis comprised 96.5% of the total phlebotomine sand flies captured and displayed an expressive minimal infection rate by Leishmania infantum (16.7%). Positive correlations were found between the population densities of L. longipalpis, rainfall and temperature. L. infantum was also detected in the cortelezzii complex and, for the first time, in Lutzomyia lloydi. Leishmania braziliensis, an etiological agent of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis, was also identified in L. longipalpis. Among the 1408 dogs serologically tested by standard enzyme-linked and fluorescence immune assays (ELISA/IFA) 3.6% were positive for VL. L. infantum DNA and Leishmania parasites were identified in 100% and 72.5% of the seropositive dogs, respectively. The co-positivity of other diagnostic tests for VL-Leishmania-nested PCR, imprint and myeloculture-was compared to the standard serology. Both symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs displayed an equal average number of positive diagnostic tests for VL. The districts studied display favorable conditions for the rapid spreading of human infection, in terms of L. longipalpis population density, and presence of L. infantum in both vector and main reservoir. PMID:25882769

  17. Control of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: recommendations from Brasileish

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    On 26 October 2012, veterinary medicine clinicians and researchers, members of Brasileish - Study Group about Animal Leishmaniasis - met at the Regional Council of Veterinary Medicine of Minas Gerais, in the city Belo Horizonte, in order to discuss many aspects of the situation of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Brazil. In the face of recent national and international scientific evidence, we, the members of Brasileish, have elaborated some recommendations for the management and control of CVL in Brazil. PMID:23311342

  18. SDS-PAGE and Western blot of urinary proteinsin dogs with leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Barrera; Francisco Centeno; Jose A. Tapia

    2003-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean area caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum, which usually produces renal failure. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot using antibodies to IgG and IgA from dogs were carried out in the urine of 22 dogs with leishmaniasis diagnosed by ELISA and confirmed by PCR, and 20 healthy dogs.

  19. Knowledge of the population about visceral leishmaniasis transmission in endemic areas near the banks of the Mossoró River in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Amorim, Camila Fernandes; Santos Albano Amóra, Sthenia; Kazimoto, Thaís Aparecida; de Lima Costa, Kalídia Felipe; Silva, Luanna Fernandes; de Sousa, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo; Freitas, Yannara Barbosa Nogueira; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Feijó, Francisco Marlon Carneiro

    2015-03-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an anthropozoonosis with high prevalence and incidence in the Northeastern region of Brazil. This study aimed to determine whether people living near the Mossoró River in the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, have knowledge of VL and to characterize the environmental properties of this region. Questionnaires were administered to 478 residents in three neighborhoods near the Mossoró River, addressing the population's knowledge about VL and environmental characteristics. Most survey participants were female, with ages between 18 and 40 years, 53.8% had completed primary education, and 61.5% owned pet dogs (p<0.05). The majority (95.9%) showed little knowledge about the characteristics inherent to sandflies, and 85.3% were unaware of the environments preferred by this vector (p<0.05). Sewage from the homes of respondents was mainly dumped into the river (44.6%), and 76.6% of the respondents complained about the accumulation of garbage in the streets (p<0.05). The association between education and knowledge about the transmission of VL and preferred vector locations was statistically significant (p<0.05). The lack of knowledge in the population about VL and the residential environment indicates a risk of maintaining sand fly habitats and hence disease transmission. PMID:25809514

  20. Knowledge of the Population about Visceral Leishmaniasis Transmission in Endemic Areas near the Banks of the Mossoró River in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Amorim, Camila Fernandes; Santos Albano Amóra, Sthenia; Aparecida Kazimoto, Thaís; de Lima Costa, Kalídia Felipe; Fernandes Silva, Luanna; de Sousa, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo; Barbosa Nogueira Freitas, Yannara; Dutra Alves, Nilza; Carneiro Feijó, Francisco Marlon

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an anthropozoonosis with high prevalence and incidence in the Northeastern region of Brazil. This study aimed to determine whether people living near the Mossoró River in the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, have knowledge of VL and to characterize the environmental properties of this region. Questionnaires were administered to 478 residents in three neighborhoods near the Mossoró River, addressing the population’s knowledge about VL and environmental characteristics. Most survey participants were female, with ages between 18 and 40 years, 53.8% had completed primary education, and 61.5% owned pet dogs (p < 0.05). The majority (95.9%) showed little knowledge about the characteristics inherent to sandflies, and 85.3% were unaware of the environments preferred by this vector (p < 0.05). Sewage from the homes of respondents was mainly dumped into the river (44.6%), and 76.6% of the respondents complained about the accumulation of garbage in the streets (p < 0.05). The association between education and knowledge about the transmission of VL and preferred vector locations was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The lack of knowledge in the population about VL and the residential environment indicates a risk of maintaining sand fly habitats and hence disease transmission. PMID:25809514

  1. Detection of Leishmania ( L.) chagasi in canine skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. G. P. de Queiroz; R. C. V. da Silveira; A. C. F. de Noronha; T. M. F. S. Oliveira; R. Z. Machado; W. A. Starke-Buzetti

    2011-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by a protozoa parasite of the specie Leishmania (L.) chagasi endemic for humans and dogs in many regions of Brazil. The purpose of the present study was the detection of (L.) chagasi in canine skin tissues from three different groups of clinical signs: asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polysymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs. Lesional or non-lesional skin tissue

  2. Transient downregulation of monocyte-derived dendritic-cell differentiation, function, and survival during tumoral progression and regression in an in vivo canine model of transmissible venereal tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Chi Liu; Yu-Shan Wang; Ching-Yi Lin; Tien-Fu Chuang; Kuang-Wen Liao; Kwan-Hwa Chi; Mo-Fan Chen; Hsin-Chien Chiang; Rea-Min Chu

    2008-01-01

    Tumors often target dendritic cells (DCs) to evade host immune surveillance. DC injury is reported in many rodent and human\\u000a tumors but seldom in tumors of other mammals. Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT), a unique and spontaneous cancer\\u000a transmitted by means of viable tumor cells. CTVT causes manifold damage to monocyte-derived DCs. This cancer provides an in\\u000a vivo model of

  3. Leishmaniasis eco-epidemiology in the Alpujarra region (Granada province, southern Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Acedo Sánchez; J. Martín Sánchez; I. D. Vélez Bernal; M. C. Sanchís Marín; M. Louassini; J. A. Maldonado; F. Morillas Márquez

    1996-01-01

    An eco-epidemiological study was carried out in the region of the Alpujarras (southern Spain, Granada province). Nine villages were chosen at random in 5 bioclimatic zones. A study of leishmaniasis in the canine and human populations, was carried out concentrating especially upon schoolchildren. A total of 615 dogs were screened, which represents almost 100% of the canine census. Of the

  4. Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries. PMID:24898032

  5. An ELISA based on recombinant spike protein S for the detection of antibodies to transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine-like canine coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Elia, Gabriella; Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Lorusso, Eleonora; Mari, Viviana; Maria, Stella Lucente; Cordioli, Paolo; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-02-01

    Recombinant canine coronaviruses, resembling the transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine (TGEV) in a 5' fragment of the S glycoprotein, have been detected recently and showed to be present in canine populations. The 5' fragment of the S protein (S') of a TGEV-like canine coronavirus (CCoV), strain 174/06, was expressed in an Escherichia coli cell-free system. The purified recombinant polypeptide was employed to develop an ELISA test for the detection of TGEV-like CCoV-specific antibodies in dog sera. Four canine sera positive for TGEV-like CCoV, six sera positive to classical CCoV-II strains and 10 negative control sera were examined. The recombinant S' was not recognized by antibodies to classical CCoV-II, as only sera from dogs infected experimentally with TGEV-like CCoV reacted strongly with the recombinant S' polypeptide whereas dog sera with antibodies to classical CCoV-II did not react. As classical CCoV-II and TEGV-like CCoVs are related antigenically, the recombinant S' ELISA is a useful method to investigate serologically the prevalence of TGEV-like CCoVs in dogs. PMID:19878695

  6. An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shiomoda, Hiroshi; Tamaru, Seiji; Shimojima, Masayuki; Goto, Megumi; Une, Yumi; Sato, Azusa; Ikebe, Yusuke; Maeda, Ken

    2012-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (<90%) to the vaccine strain (Onderstepoort). Seropositivity of lions (Panthera leo) in the zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species. PMID:22214864

  7. Do open garbage dumps play a role in canine rabies transmission in Biyem-Assi health district in Cameroon?

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Tabue N.; Roland, Madgan E.; Françoise, Kenfack M. M.; Francis, Zeukeng; Livo, Esemu F.; Clovis, Seumen T. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. In Cameroon, efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies are often thwarted by the lack of community awareness. The community knowledge, as well as attitudes and perception on rabies, is therefore important for both prevention of human deaths and control in animals. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the level of community knowledge as well as the role of open garbage dumps (OGDs) in the epidemiology of human rabies. Overall 420 heads of household were interviewed in the Biyem-Assi health district of Yaoundé. OGDs were identified through a systematic check, and household wastes they contained were characterized. Results Although 66.9% of respondents have knowledge on stray dogs, only 35% of respondents knew the role of OGDs in the increase of stray dog population. Overall OGDs consisted of fermentable wastes. Nutrition places for stray dogs were wild garbage dumps (68.1%), markets (18.3%), and houses (13.6%). The feeding behavior of stray dogs correlated significantly with the human rabies transmission (? 2=154.12, df=4, p<0.05). Conclusion Most participants knew that rabies could be transmitted by a dog bite as well as the measures to be taken in this type of situation. Increased knowledge of respondents on rabies showed OGDs and stray dogs as significant risk factors for canine rabies in Biyem-Assi health district. PMID:25595689

  8. A randomised, double-blind, controlled efficacy trial of the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine in naïve dogs exposed to two leishmania infantum transmission seasons.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Gaetano; Nieto, Javier; Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Cappiello, Silvia; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Di Muccio, Trentina; Scalone, Aldo; Moreno, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Carrillo, Eugenia; Butaud, Therese; Guegand, Laurie; Martin, Virginie; Cuisinier, Anne-Marie; McGahie, David; Gueguen, Sylvie; Cañavate, Carmen; Gradoni, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Canine leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis caused by uncontrolled infection with Leishmania infantum, where an inappropriate immune response is not only responsible for permitting this intracellular parasite to multiply, but is also responsible for several of the pathological processes seen in this disease. Effective canine vaccines are therefore a highly desirable prevention tool. In this randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial, the efficacy of the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine (CaniLeish, Virbac, France) was assessed by exposing 90 naïve dogs to natural L. infantum infection during 2 consecutive transmission seasons, in two highly endemic areas of the Mediterranean basin. Regular PCR, culture, serological and clinical examinations were performed, and the infection/disease status of the dogs was classified at each examination. The vaccine was well-tolerated, and provided a significant reduction in the risk of progressing to uncontrolled active infection (p?=?0.025) or symptomatic disease (p?=?0.046), with an efficacy of 68.4% and a protection rate of 92.7%. The probability of becoming PCR positive was similar between groups, but the probability of returning to a PCR negative condition was higher in the vaccinated group (p?=?0.04). In conclusion, we confirmed the interest of using this vaccine as part of a comprehensive control program for canine leishmaniasis, and validated the use of a protocol based on regular in-depth assessments over time to assess the efficacy of a canine leishmaniasis vaccine. PMID:25299614

  9. Comparison of FTIR transmission and transfection substrates for canine liver cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Kochan, Kamila; Heraud, Philip; Kiupel, Matti; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; McNaughton, Don; Baranska, Malgorzata; Wood, Bayden R

    2015-04-01

    FTIR spectroscopy is a widely used technique that provides insights into disease processes at the molecular level. Due to its numerous advantages it is becoming an increasingly powerful tool for the study of biological materials and has the potential to become an excellent diagnostic method, especially considering the low cost of transflection substrates. However, questions about the usefulness of the transflection measurement mode due to the complicated nature of physical processes occurring during the measurement and in particular the Electric Field Standing Wave (EFSW) effect have been raised. In this paper we present a comparison of the two most common FT-IR measurement modes: transmission and transfection using healthy and pathologically altered tissue (histiocytic sarcoma). We found that the major differences between normal and cancerous tissue were associated with changes DNA and carbohydrate content. In particular we identified a band at 964 cm(-1) assigned to a nucleic acid phosphodiester backbone mode, which appeared more pronounced in cancerous tissue irrespective of the substrate. We applied Principal Component Analysis, Unsupervised Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and k-means clustering to transmission and transflection substrates and found that both measurement modes were equally capable of discrimination normal form cancerous tissue. Moreover, the differences between spectra from cancerous and normal tissue were significantly more important than the ones arising from the measurement modes. PMID:25502543

  10. Canine neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Prier, J. E.; Brodey, R. S.

    1963-01-01

    The authors review current knowledge of spontaneous neoplasms in the dog. The prevalence of certain types of canine tumour has been studied, and comparisons have been made with the occurrence of similar neoplasms in man. Where there are appropriate analogies between the two species, the dog with spontaneous tumours can be used for studies that are not practicable in man. Nutritional and morphological studies have been done on cells cultured from canine tumours. Some consistency has been demonstrated in the morphology of cultures of different tumours of the same type. Nutritional studies with the transmissible venereal sarcoma of the dog have shown the cells to be subject to a growth-repressing effect by SH-containing amino-acids. Attempts to transmit tumours to other dogs or other species have generally been unsuccessful. A transplantable tumour developed in a mouse injected with non-cellular material from a canine thyroid carcinoma, but it is not certain that the tumour was induced. Cell-culture studies have shown that some tumours yield a factor that is cytopathogenic for normal cells, but none has been shown capable of inducing neoplasms in vivo. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 6 PMID:14058226

  11. Canine echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan: using prevalence data adjusted for measurement error to develop transmission dynamics models.

    PubMed

    Ziadinov, I; Mathis, A; Trachsel, D; Rysmukhambetova, A; Abdyjaparov, T A; Kuttubaev, O T; Deplazes, P; Torgerson, P R

    2008-08-01

    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A cross-sectional study of dogs in four villages in rural Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Echinococcus spp. A total of 466 dogs were examined by arecoline purgation for the presence of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. In addition, a faecal sample from each dog was examined for taeniid eggs. Any taeniid eggs found were investigated using PCR techniques (multiplex and single target PCR) to improve the diagnostic sensitivity by confirming the presence of Echinococcus spp. and to identify E. granulosus strains. A total of 83 (18%) dogs had either E. granulosus adults in purge material and/or E. granulosus eggs in their faeces as confirmed by PCR. Three genotypes of E. granulosus: G1, G4 and the G6/7 complex were shown to be present in these dogs through subsequent sequence analysis. Purge analysis combined with PCR identified 50 dogs that were infected with adult E. multilocularis and/or had E. multilocularis eggs in their faeces (11%). Bayesian techniques were employed to estimate the true prevalence, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the procedures used and the transmission parameters. The sensitivity of arecoline purgation for the detection of echinococcosis in dogs was rather low, with a value of 38% (credible intervals (CIs) 27-50%) for E. granulosus and 21% (CIs 11-34%) for E. multilocularis. The specificity of arecoline purgation was assumed to be 100%. The sensitivity of coproscopy followed by PCR of the isolated eggs was calculated as 78% (CIs 57-87%) for E. granulosus and 50% (CIs 29-72%) for E. multilocularis with specificity of 93% (CIs 88-96%) and 100% (CIs 97-100%), respectively. The 93% specificity of the coprological-PCR for E. granulosus could suggest coprophagia rather than true infections. After adjusting for the sensitivity of the diagnostic procedures, the estimated true prevalence of infection of E. granulosus was 19% (CIs 15-25%) and the infection pressure in the dog population was estimated to be 0.29 infections per year (CIs 0.014-0.75). Logistic regression analysis failed to identify any significant risk factors for infections for E. granulosus. After adjusting for the sensitivity of the test procedures, the estimated true prevalence for E. multilocularis was 18% (CIs 12-30%). Dogs that were restrained had a significantly lower prevalence of E. multilocularis of 11% (CIs 6-29%) compared with 26% in free-roaming dogs (CIs 17-44%) and independently within these groups hunting dogs were more likely to be infected than non-hunting dogs. PMID:18371969

  12. Chemotherapy of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Croft, Simon L; Yardley, Vanessa

    2002-01-01

    Leishmaniasis, in its variety of visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL) and mucocutaneous (MCL) forms, directly affects about 2 million people per annum, with approximately 350 million individuals at risk worldwide. During the last 10 years there have been extensive epidemics of the visceral form of the disease, which is also emerging as an important opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, especially those co-infected with HIV. The control of leishmaniasis remains a problem principally a zoonotic infection, except in epidemics where it is anthroponotic, interruption of transmission is difficult, though not impossible. No vaccines exist for either VL, CL or MCL and chemotherapy is inadequate and expensive. Current regimes use pentavalent antimony as primary therapy, which must be administered parenterally. Should this fail, a number of other drugs may be employed, depending upon the species of Leishmania concerned and the resources available to the health professionals involved. Recommended secondary treatment employs a variety of drugs, again depending on the nature of the infection. The most widely used of these is amphotericin B, which is highly active but has extensive toxicity complications. The newer formulations of this drug are too expensive to use for the majority of endemic countries. Pentamidine and paromomycin are used in some instances, and a new anti-leishmanial, miltefosine, may be used in the future. In short, there remains a pressing need for new anti-leishmanials and this chapter reviews the current status of chemotherapy, the various avenues being investigated by researchers and their potential application in the future. PMID:11860369

  13. Canine infection and the possible role of dogs in the transmission of American tegumentary leishmaniosis in Salta, Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M Padilla; J. D Marco; P Diosque; M. A Segura; M. C Mora; M. M Fernández; E. L Malchiodi; M. A Basombr??o

    2002-01-01

    Some Leishmania species affect humans in two principal forms: visceral and cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL). Several studies have identified dogs as the main reservoirs of the visceral leishmaniosis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum. The purpose of this work was to carry out a survey of the canine population associated with human cases of American tegumentary leishmaniosis (ATL), in order to establish

  14. Ethical and epidemiological dilemmas in the treatment of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Travi, Bruno L

    2014-01-01

    In the Americas there are between 4,500 and 6,800 annual cases of severe visceral leishmaniasis, and mortality is estimated to range between 7 and 10%. However, underreporting and subclinical infections mask the real epidemiological importance of visceral leishmaniasis. Control efforts, which have typically focused on insecticide spraying of sand fly vectors and dog culling, have yielded disparate results. Nevertheless, thousands of dogs are sacrificed each year in countries endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Additionally, current guidelines of leishmaniasis control programs have banned dog treatment with drugs of human use while therapy with other drugs resulted in high rates of relapses. Society requires that control programs take a more humanitarian approach aimed at limiting dog culling. There is an urgent need to promote responsible dog-ownership and support research on: a) novel veterinary therapies, b) low-cost molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and c) determination of dog infectivity threshold for proper reservoir management. PMID:24967853

  15. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal near-infrared optical tomography of canine prostate bearing transmissible venereal tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Piao, Daqing

    2009-02-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography is conducted on a tumor-bearing canine prostate with the assistance of trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The canine prostate tumor model is made possible by a unique round cell neoplasm of dogs, transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) that can be transferred from dog to dog regardless of histocompatibility. A characterized TVT cell line was homogenized and passed twice in subcutaneous tissue of NOD/SCID mice. Following the second passage, the tumor was recovered, homogenized and then inoculated by ultrasound guidance into the prostate gland of a healthy dog. The dog was then imaged with a combined trans-rectal NIR and TRUS imager using an integrated trans-rectal NIR/US applicator. The image was taken by NIR and US modalities concurrently, both in sagittal view. The trans-rectal NIR imager is a continuous-wave system that illuminates 7 source channels sequentially by a fiber switch to deliver sufficient light power to the relatively more absorbing prostate tissue and samples 7 detection channels simultaneously by a gated intensified high-resolution CCD camera. This work tests the feasibility of detecting prostate tumor by trans-rectal NIR optical tomography and the benefit of augmenting TRUS with trans-rectal NIR imaging.

  16. Risk maps for the presence and absence of Phlebotomus perniciosus in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in southern Spain: implications for the control of the disease.

    PubMed

    Barón, S D; Morillas-Márquez, F; Morales-Yuste, M; Díaz-Sáez, V; Irigaray, C; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to construct risk maps for the presence of the dominant Leishmania infantum vector, P. perniciosus, and check its usefulness (a) to predict the risk of canine leishmaniasis and (b) to define effective leishmaniasis control measures. We obtained data for the presence/absence of P. perniciosus at 167 sampling sites in southern Spain, from which we also took a series of ecological and climate-related data. The probability of P. perniciosus presence was estimated as a function of these environmental variables and generated spatial risk maps. Altitude, land use and drainage hole features (with or without PVC piping) were retained as the only predictors for the distribution of this vector species. Drainage hole features in retaining walls, with or without PVC piping, produce significant variations in the probability of P. perniciosus presence, varying from 2·3 to 91·8% if PVC piping is absent and from 0·4 to 66·5% if all holes have PVC piping. It was concluded that the use of PVC piping in drainage holes could help to reduce leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:21854702

  17. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled optical tomography of a transmissible venereal tumor model in the canine pelvic canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Piao, Daqing

    2009-05-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography was performed concurrently with, albeit reconstructed without spatial a prior of, trans-rectal ultrasound (US) on transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) developed as a model in the canine pelvic canal. Studies were taken longitudinally at prior to, 14 days after, and 35 days after the TVT injection. As the tumor grew, the nodules became increasingly hyperabsorptive and moderately hyperscattering on NIR. The regions of strong NIR contrast, especially on absorption images, correlated well with those of US hypoechoic masses indicative of tumors. Combining the information of trans-rectal NIR and US detected the tumor more accurately than did the US alone at 14 days postinjection.

  18. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis/HIV Coinfection Presented as a Diffuse Desquamative Rash

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; Sugui, Daniel; Nunes, Rafael Fernandes; de Azevedo, Karime; de Azevedo, Marcelo; Marques, Alexandre; Martins, Carlos; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is endemic in tropical areas and in the Mediterranean. This condition spreads to 98 countries in four continents, surpassing 12 million infected individuals, with 350 million people at risk of infection. This disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, with various animal reservoirs, such as rodents, dogs, wolves, foxes, and even humans. Transmission occurs through a vector, a sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The wide spectrum of nonvisceral forms includes: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, a papular lesion that progresses to ulceration with granular base and a large framed board; diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis; mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which can cause disfiguring and mutilating injuries of the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection is considered an emerging problem in several countries, including Brazil, where, despite the growing number of cases, a problem of late diagnosis occurs. Clinically, the cases of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection may demonstrate unusual aspects, such as extensive and destructive lesions. This study aims to report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection with atypical presentation of diffuse desquamative eruption and nasopharyngeal involvement. PMID:25548691

  19. Immunopathological aspects of leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Belehu; J. A. Louis; P. Pugin; P. A. Miescher

    1980-01-01

    Conclusions Our present understanding of the immunopathology of leishmaniasis has improved tremendously owing to immunological investigations of past years in patients as well as in experimental models. A general concept has emerged which helps in understanding the various forms of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. In this concept, one first has to take into consideration the generic background. While immune response

  20. The epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis in Andean countries.

    PubMed

    Davies, C R; Reithinger, R; Campbell-Lendrum, D; Feliciangeli, D; Borges, R; Rodriguez, N

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge of leishmaniasis epidemiology in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In all 5 countries leishmaniasis is endemic in both the Andean highlands and the Amazon basin. The sandfly vectors belong to subgenera Helcocyrtomyia, Nyssomiya, Lutzomyia, and Psychodopygus, and the Verrucarum group. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania in the Viannia subgenus. Human Leishmania infections cause cutaneous lesions, with a minority of L. (Viannia) infections leading to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are both rare. In each country a significant proportion of Leishmania transmission is in or around houses, often close to coffee or cacao plantations. Reservoir hosts for domestic transmission cycles are uncertain. The paper first addresses the burden of disease caused by leishmaniasis, focusing on both incidence rates and on the variability in symptoms. Such information should provide a rational basis for prioritizing control resources, and for selecting therapy regimes. Secondly, we describe the variation in transmission ecology, outlining those variables which might affect the prevention strategies. Finally, we look at the current control strategies and review the recent studies on control. PMID:11175518

  1. Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Diagnosis Light-microscopic examination of ... multiple Leishmania amastigotes (the tissue stage of the parasite). Note that each amastigote has a nucleus (red ...

  2. A review of leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Y; Gómez Landires, E A

    1991-01-01

    This article briefly reviews current knowledge about leishmaniasis in Ecuador--proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present. Regarding basic conditions, it appears that 14 of Ecuador's 20 provinces have endemic leishmaniasis. Nationally, over 4,000 cases were registered in the 1983-1986 period. Of 260 cases cited in the literature from 1920 through 1987, 240 (92.3%) were said to involve cutaneous forms of the disease and 18 (6.9%) mucocutaneous ones. Only one case each of visceral and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis was reported in 1920-1987, and neither of these has been confirmed. Various Leishmania strains isolated by the authors from wild animals and man are currently being studied. To date, tests employing isoenzyme electrophoresis and monoclonal antibodies have identified some of the isolated strains as L. amazonensis and L. panamensis. At present it seems evident that a detailed study of leishmaniasis transmission in Ecuador is needed in order to develop a plan for future control of the disease. Survey work directed at identifying the particular Leishmania varieties prevalent in the country's different endemic areas is also needed, as is research on the sandfly vectors and animal reservoirs of the disease. PMID:2054554

  3. Babesiosis due to the canine Babesia microti-like small piroplasm in dogs - first report from Portugal and possible vertical transmission

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis) is endemic in northern Portugal, but molecularly confirmed cases of infection with small piroplasms have not been reported in the country. Three German shepherd dogs - a bitch and its 2-month old pup and an unrelated male - clinically suspected of piroplasmosis were assessed for babesial infection. Results Parasitemia with small piroplasms was detected by microscopy in two dogs. All three dogs were positive by PCR and the Babesia microti-like small piroplasm (syn. Theileria annae) was identified by DNA sequencing. These are the first confirmed cases of babesiosis caused by the B. microti-like piroplasm both in dogs from Portugal and in dogs suspected of clinical piroplasmosis outside of Spain. Conclusions Although the bitch and the male had visited neighboring Galicia (northwestern Spain), where the disease is endemic, incursion of this piroplasm into northern Portugal is evident and infection of the non-traveled pup was due to either vertical transmission or autochthonous tick infection. PMID:21489238

  4. Reinfection studies of canine echinococcosis and role of dogs in transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan communities, Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Moss, J E; Chen, X; Li, T; Qiu, J; Wang, Q; Giraudoux, P; Ito, A; Torgerson, P R; Craig, P S

    2013-11-01

    In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities. PMID:23985352

  5. Facilitation of ganglionic transmission by sulpiride: evidence for an inhibitory role of dopamine in the canine sympathetic ganglion.

    PubMed

    Horn, P T; Kohli, J D; Goldberg, L I

    1982-11-01

    Effects of the (R) and (S) enantiomers of sulpiride, a potent dopamine (DA) antagonist, on ganglionic transmission were studied in anesthetized dogs. The pre- and postganglionic nerves of cardiac sympathetic ganglia were stimulated electrically, and heart rate was monitored as a measure of ganglionic transmission and sympathetic nerve activity. The heart rate was free from influence of the central nervous system. (R)- And (S)-sulpiride injected i.a. close to the blood supply of the ganglia did not alter basal heart rate, but facilitated ganglionic transmission as demonstrated by an increase in the tachycardia induced by preganglionic nerve stimulation. The (R) enantiomer was 4 times more active than the (S) enantiomer in this respect. Neither enantiomer affected the tachycardia induced by postganglionic nerve stimulation. Norepinephrine and DA injected i.a. caused inhibition of the tachycardia induced by preganglionic nerve stimulation. The inhibitory effect of both catecholamines was antagonized by the sulpiride enantiomers (R)-sulpiride was about 4-fold more potent than (S)-sulpiride in antagonizing DA, whereas (S)-sulpiride was more active against norepinephrine. The sulpiride enantiomers affected neither the tachycardia induced by i.a. administration of acetylcholine nor the bradycardia induced by vagal nerve stimulation. Thus, cholinesterase inhibition and ganglionic stimulation were excluded. These data are, therefore, consistent with the hypothesis that the facilitatory action of the sulpiride enantiomers is related to the antagonism of catecholamines. Positive correlation between the activity of the (R) enantiomer to facilitate ganglionic transmission and to antagonize DA suggests that DA is a physiologically released catecholamine modulating transmission in the cardiac sympathetic ganglia of the dog. PMID:6290639

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Imported Cases of Leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Tamalee; Barratt, Joel; Sandaradura, Indy; Lee, Rogan; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent’s Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55). Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94%) with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans. PMID:25734905

  7. Vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajiv; Engwerda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that encompasses a range of clinical manifestations affecting people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that protection from disease can be achieved in most people. In addition, we know how the host immune system must respond to infection in order to control parasite growth. However, there is still no vaccine for use in humans. Here, we review our understanding of host immunity following Leishmania infection and also discuss recent advances in the development of vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis, highlighting a new promising approach that targets the parasite hemoglobin receptor. PMID:25505961

  8. Cross-sectional serological study of canine Leishmania infection in Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. C. M. Rondon; C. M. L. Bevilaqua; C. R. Franke; R. S. Barros; F. R. Oliveira; A. C. Alcântara; A. T. Diniz

    2008-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important reemerging parasitic disease in the world. The domestic dog is the main reservoir in urban environments. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge on canine Leishmania infection in the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil, identifying the risk factors inherent in dog susceptibility to the infection. Two populations

  9. An alternative immunohistochemical method for detecting Leishmania amastigotes in paraffin-embedded canine tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wagner Luiz Tafuri; Renato de Lima Santos; Rosa Maria Esteves Arantes; Ricardo Gonçalves; Maria Norma de Melo; Marilene Suzan Marques Michalick; Washington Luiz Tafuri

    2004-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a zoonosis and a chronic systemic disease of the dog caused by a protozoan by the species Leishmania infantum in the Old World and Leishmania chagasi in the New World. Several methods are currently employed for the diagnosis of CVL including microscopic detection of the parasite in bone marrow and lymph node aspirates, demonstration of

  10. Schizodeme and zymodeme characterization of Leishmania in the investigation of foci of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Lopes, U G; Momen, H; Grimaldi, G; Marzochi, M C; Pacheco, R S; Morel, C M

    1984-02-01

    Leishmania parasites were isolated from humans and canines in foci of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. After in vitro cultivation the parasites were examined by the following biochemical techniques: (i) restriction analysis of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) also known as schizodeme analysis (Morel et al., 1980); (ii) zymodeme analysis (Barret et al., 1980); by agarose gel electrophoresis and (iii) isoelectricfocusing in polyacrylamide gels. The strains of cutaneous and visceralizing leishmanias studied could be differentiated by schizodeme analysis, using the endonuclease MspI, into three complexes agreeing with those accepted for human New World leishmaniasis. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, isolates from a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis were identified as L. braziliensis braziliensis and from a focus of visceral leishmaniasis were identified as L. donovani by zymodeme characterization. Identical restriction enzyme profiles of kDNA from human and canine isolates indicated that in the cutaneous focus at Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, the same strain was probably circulating in both the canine and human populations. This suggests a possible role for dogs as a reservoir host for L. braziliensis braziliensis. In addition, our results confirm the importance of dogs as reservoirs in visceral leishmaniasis. The stability of the electrophoretic patterns of restriction digest ("fingerprints") of Leishmania kDNA as well as differences in the sensitivity of the techniques used were demonstrated. Strains from widely different geographical areas as well as strains maintained in vivo and in vitro showed identical kDNA restriction patterns, while strains showing similar banding patterns by enzyme electrophoresis could be differentiated by schizodeme analysis. These results demonstrate the usefulness of an integrated biochemical approach in the identification of Leishmania. PMID:6204035

  11. The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in Sichuan Province, southwestern China detected by real time PCR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in western China, and becoming an important public health concern. Infected dogs are the main reservoir for Leishmania infantum, and a potential sentinel for human VL in endemic areas. In the present study we investigated the prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs from Wenchuan, Heishui and Jiuzhaigou County in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which are important endemic areas of zoonotic VL, detected by real time PCR. The results will help to design control strategies against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs and humans. Results The overall prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs was 24.8% (78/314) in Sichuan Province, with the positive rate of 23.5% (23/98) in Wenchuan County, 28.2% (20/71) in Heishui County, and 24.1% (35/145) in Jiuzhaigou County, and no significant difference was observed among the three counties (P > 0.05). The dogs were further allocated to different groups based on sexes, ages and external clinical symptoms. The logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher prevalence was found in older and external symptomatic dogs, compared to that of younger and asymptomatic dogs (P < 0.05). Conclusions The results revealed that L. infantum infection in dogs is widespread in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which has a public health significance, due to its contribution to the transmission of the infection to humans by sandflies. It is necessary to take measures, including treatment or eradication of infected dogs, to control canine leishmaniasis, which could be helpful to reduce human VL in this area. PMID:21910882

  12. The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in western China detected by PCR and serological tests

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in western China, resulting in important public health problem. It is essential to evaluate the prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection for designing control policy. In the present study we report for the first time prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs living in Jiuzhaigou County (Sichuan Provence, China), which is not only an important endemic area of CanL but also a tourism scenic spot, detected by PCR, ELISA and dipstick test. The results could provide key information for designing control programs against canine and human leishmaniasis. In addition, the complete sequence of the Leishmania isolate from Sichuan Province has not been reported to date and we present the sequences of 116 base-pair (bp) fragment of the conserved region in the minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and the results of phylogenetic analyses based on the sequence of the amplified fragment. Results The proportion of dogs infected with Leishmania in Jiuzhaigou County was 36.79%, 9.43%, and 51.88% detected by ELISA, dipstick test, and PCR, respectively. The ELISA and PCR tests were more sensitive than dipstick test. The PCR method is the most sensitive way to detect dogs infected with Leishmania parasites. The total positive rate for infected dogs in the area was 59.43% by the three methods. The PCR products of 116-bp fragment amplified from the kDNA conserved region of dog blood samples and laboratory maintained L. infantum were DNA sequenced and the variation of the sequences was observed. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 116-bp fragment reveals that L. infantum is more genetically related to visceralizing species L. donovani than to the Leishmania species associated with cutaneous disease. Conclusions More than half of dogs living in the endemic Jiuzhaigou County were infected by L. infantum. Control measures, such as treatment or eradication of infected dogs, or prohibition of maintaining dogs, must be taken against these infected dogs due to their role in the transmission of the infection to vectors. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of conserved region in kDNA of Leishmania can effectively distinguish species of Leishmania. PMID:21554677

  13. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 5. Leishmaniasis and anthropization on the Pacific coast].

    PubMed

    Mouchet, J; Le Pont, F; Leon, R; Echeverria, R; Guderian, R H

    1994-03-01

    We have evaluated the impact of anthropization of the forest on the incidence of leishmaniasis, due to Leishmania panamensis, in three coastal study areas, Corriente Grande (primary forest), Paraiso Escondido and La Tablada (secondary forest). The situation of isolated dwellings, in deforested areas, has also been analysed in the last two stations. In each station, the study of the density of anthropophilic sand flies, specially Lutzomyia trapidoi, has been conducted in the domestic environment, coffee plantations and undergrowth. The incidence of leishmaniasis was nearly non existent in primary forest, though it ranged from 106 to 147% in the more or less cleared forest. At Corriente Grande, none Lu. trapidoi was caught in houses. In the undergrowth, catches were low (8% of the total). At Paraiso Escondido, Lu. trapidoi was the dominant species, with more than 83% of the catches in the undergrowth and in the coffee plantations (41 Man/hour), as well as in dwellings (10.6 M/h). At La Tablada, in the domestic environment, Lu. gomezi, was the dominant species: 2.8 M/h against 0.1 M/h for Lu. trapidoi. In the coffee plantations and in the undergrowth Lu. trapidoi was the main species, 21 M/h and 14 M/h. Thus in the primary rainforest, leishmaniasis transmission can be very low. In disturbed forest, coffee plantations near houses are good biotopes for Lu. trapidoi. The cycle of L. panamensis has been adapted to this new ecological situation, by being closer to the houses. The reservoirs live and circulate throughout coffee plantations. In deforested areas, neither aggressive sand flies have been observed, nor leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:8024348

  14. Canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V; Coyne, M J

    1993-05-01

    Canine parvovirus is a truly new pathogen of dogs that emerged in the late 1970s. Initially seen as epidemic disease in all dogs, parvoviral enteritis is now primarily a disease of 1- to 6-month-old dogs. Maternal antibody interference with immunization accounts for the vast majority of vaccine "breaks." Molecular virologic methods have revealed continued evolution of the virus, but this appears to be of greater academic than practical interest. Clinical diagnosis can be definitive in fulminant cases but requires laboratory support--usually demonstration of virus in the feces--in less clear-cut cases. Treatment remains symptomatic, based simply on principles of good supportive care. As the virus is firmly entrenched in both the wild and domestic canine population, elimination of the virus is impossible, and CPV-2 will remain a concern for the small animal practitioner indefinitely. PMID:8389070

  15. Canine lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Canine babesiasis: occurrence and molecular characterization of Babesia isolates

    E-print Network

    Lehtinen, Lauren Elyse

    2009-05-15

    Canine babesiosis is an important worldwide disease caused by protozoan hemoparasites of the genus Babesia, which are primarily transmitted to a dog by the bite of an Ixodid tick, although vertical transmission has recently been reported...

  17. Leishmaniasis: Current Status of Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Handman, Emanuela

    2001-01-01

    Leishmaniae are obligatory intracellular protozoa in mononuclear phagocytes. They cause a spectrum of diseases, ranging in severity from spontaneously healing skin lesions to fatal visceral disease. Worldwide, there are 2 million new cases each year and 1/10 of the world's population is at risk of infection. To date, there are no vaccines against leishmaniasis and control measures rely on chemotherapy to alleviate disease and on vector control to reduce transmission. However, a major vaccine development program aimed initially at cutaneous leishmaniasis is under way. Studies in animal models and humans are evaluating the potential of genetically modified live attenuated vaccines, as well as a variety of recombinant antigens or the DNA encoding them. The program also focuses on new adjuvants, including cytokines, and delivery systems to target the T helper type 1 immune responses required for the elimination of this intracellular organism. The availability, in the near future, of the DNA sequences of the human and Leishmania genomes will extend the vaccine program. New vaccine candidates such as parasite virulence factors will be identified. Host susceptibility genes will be mapped to allow the vaccine to be targeted to the population most in need of protection. PMID:11292637

  18. New Clinicoepidemiologic Profile of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Rhajaoui, Mohamed; Fellah, Hajiba; Azmi, Kifaya; Amarir, Fatima; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Ereqat, Suheir; Planer, Joseph; Abdeen, Ziad

    2007-01-01

    During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. We describe distribution of Leishmania major and L. tropica in Morocco and a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. infantum. We recommend using molecular techniques to diagnose suspected leishmaniasis cases. PMID:18252108

  19. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leça Júnior, Nilo Fernandes; Guedes, Paula Elisa Brandão; Santana, Lailla Nascimento; Almeida, Valter Dos Anjos; Carvalho, Fábio Santos; Albuquerque, George Rego; Wenceslau, Amauri Arias; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias; Silva, Fabiana Lessa

    2015-08-01

    Leishmaniosis is a zoonosis caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. American cutaneous leishmaniosis (ACL) is mainly caused by the species L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, and American visceral leishmaniosis (AVL) is caused by L. infantum chagasi. In addition to their proven roles as reservoirs of AVL, dogs are also suspected by researchers to be reservoirs of ACL due to reports of this infection in domestic environments and of infected dogs in endemic areas. The aim of this study was to detect Leishmania sp. infection in dogs from Vila Operária, Buerarema, Bahia, using parasitological tests, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, this study also aimed to identify risk factors associated with illness in dogs in this locality by conducting an epidemiological survey. For this purpose, 292 dogs were clinically evaluated for the presence of skin lesions, and the dogs that showed these changes were submitted to scarification injury to enable preparation of slides for microscopic study of amastigotes. Subsequently, the dogs underwent blood sampling for serological (IFA) and molecular (PCR) tests. Additionally, the owners of the dogs answered an epidemiological questionnaire to facilitate the identification of risk factors for exposure of dogs to pathogens of ACL. Of the 292 dogs studied, 13 (4.5%) had lesions suggestive of ACL, but with a negative parasitological examination and 147 (50.3%) were seropositive according to the IFA. Of the 273 dogs studied using PCR test, 10 (3.66%) were positive for L. braziliensis, and all samples were negative for L. infantum chagasi. Wastelands in the peridomicile and the presence of light in the household were risk factors associated with ACL. The results show that Vila Operária has asymptomatic dogs with ACL and that the detection sensitivity of the IFA was higher than that of PCR for the infected dogs. PMID:25917715

  20. Modified direct agglutination test for simplified serologic diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ochoa, P; Castillo, J A; Lucientes, J; Gascón, M; Zarate, J J; Arbea, J I; Larraga, V; Rodriguez, C

    2003-09-01

    Human leishmaniasis is a severe health problem in many countries around the world. Hence, a cheap, reliable, and accurate diagnostic test is required to fight this disease. Perhaps the direct agglutination test (DAT) meets these criteria, but antigen elaboration involves many difficulties. We have developed a new antigen elaboration method, the EasyDAT method, that avoids the problems associated with the DAT. In this study, we compared the traditional DAT antigen method with our EasyDAT antigen method by using canine sera. The sensitivities (100%) and specificities (98.7%) were the same for both methods; we therefore concluded that the EasyDAT Leishmania antigen method simplifies serologic diagnosis, making this method easier and cheaper to use. PMID:12965935

  1. VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION Sand Fly (Lutzomyia vexator) (Diptera: Psychodidae) Populations in

    E-print Network

    in the vicinity of the kennel could be involved in transmission of canine leishmaniasis. KEY WORDS canine,FOXHOUNDS AT A HUNT clubinDutchessCounty, southeastern New York, experienced an outbreak of canine of sand ßies in areas near the New York hunt club where the canine leishmaniasis outbreak occurred

  2. Age modifies the immunologic response and clinical presentation of american tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Augusto M; Amorim, Camila F; Barbosa, Juliana L S; Lago, Alexsandro S; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2015-06-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main causal agent of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) that may present as cutaneous, mucosal, or disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease is highly prevalent in young males and there is a lack of studies of ATL in the elderly. Herein, we compared clinical manifestations, immunologic response, and response to antimony therapy between patients > 60 years of age (N = 58) and patients who were 21-30 years of age (N = 187). The study was performed in Corte de Pedra, Bahia, Brazil, a well-known area of L. braziliensis transmission. Cytokine production by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with soluble Leishmania antigen was performed. Elderly subjects more frequently had a previous history of cutaneous leishmaniasis, large lesions, or mucosal leishmaniasis, and they were less likely to have lymphadenopathy. There was no difference regarding gender and response to therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly subjects produced a similar amount of tumor necrosis factor than young patients but they produced less interferon-gamma and more interleukin-10 than young subjects. We concluded that elderly patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis should be searched for mucosal or disseminated leishmaniasis. The decreased interferon-gamma production and increase in interleukin-10 observed in elderly patients may contribute to parasite persistence and L. braziliensis infection dissemination. PMID:25918209

  3. Factors Associated with the Seroprevalence of Leishmaniasis in Dogs Living around Atlantic Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the control of visceral leishmaniasis in rural zones near forest fragments. PMID:25089629

  4. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 1. Incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis on the Pacific coast].

    PubMed

    Barrera, C; Herrera, M; Martinez, F; Leon, R; Richard, A; Guderian, R H; Mouchet, J; Echeverria, R; Le Pont, F

    1994-03-01

    A clinico-epidemiologic survey on cutaneous leishmaniasis, due to Leishmania panamensis, was carried out on 961 persons in two study areas of the Pacific coast of Ecuador, to estimate the prevalence and the incidence of the disease. In the preandean hills, at Paraiso Escondido, the prevalence of active lesions was 4.8%; in the hills of the coastal cordillera, at La Tablada, it was 3.6%. The incidence of new cases in 1991 was high: 147% in the first village, and 106% in the second. These data are far higher than the Health Ministry statistics. The cumulated prevalence, obtained by addition of the scars and active lesions of leishmaniasis, was as high as 66% at Paraiso Escondido, and 47% at La Tablada. Most of the patients (62%) had only one ulcer or scar. Most of the people are contaminated during the first five years they live in these endemic areas. Nevertheless, the incidence remains high in all the age groups, because large numbers of migrants coming from non endemic regions are continuously settling in these colonization areas. Interviews have shown that the contaminations had occurred in the dry season, between July and December. These findings were confirmed by passive case detection at the Hospital A. Egas of Santo Domingo which covered the region. Contamination of young children and position of the lesions on the face suggested a domiciliary transmission, like in Panama and on the Pacific coast of Colombia. PMID:8024344

  5. CAPA-gene products in the haematophagous sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) - Vector for leishmaniasis disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sandflies (Phlebotominae, Nematocera, Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan-borne diseases in humans, and these insects depend on the regulation of water balance to cope with the sudden and enormous intake of blood over a very short time period. The sandfly ...

  6. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission. PMID:25686382

  7. Voice Disorders in Mucosal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Jéssica Rafael; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Terceiro, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira; de Sousa Torraca, Tania Salgado; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. Objective To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age) and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. Results 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81%) were male and five (19%) female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years). The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%), followed by dysphonia (38.5%), odynophagia (30.8%) and dysphagia (26.9%). 23 patients (84.6%) presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. Conclusion We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some resonance structures (larynx, pharynx and nasal and oral cavities) or even to compensation mechanisms caused by the presence of lesions in the upper airways and digestive tract. PMID:25055046

  8. Leishmaniasis and autoimmune diseases in pediatric age.

    PubMed

    Nozzi, M; Del Torto, M; Chiarelli, F; Breda, L

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by the protozoa Leishmania, endemic in the Mediterranean countries. Clinical manifestations can be divided into three different forms: cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucosal leishmaniasis and the visceral leishmaniasis, the most severe form which is potentially lethal if untreated. Immunology and pathogenesis are complex: many different aspects of immune response, resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania have been studied but many others remain to be clarified. The gold standard in diagnosis of visceral Leishmaniasis is the presence of amastigotes in bone marrow or tissue sections. Patients can be initially misdiagnosed as having an autoimmune disease because it may mimic diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune hepatitis, dermatomyositis or others disorders. As in pediatric age the risk of life-threatening complications is very high, leishmaniasis, must be kept in mind to the clinician, in order to avoid wrong diagnosis and an inappropriate immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25240149

  9. Leishmaniasis at the end of the millennium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Pearson; Susan M. Lareau; Selma M. B. Jeronimo

    1999-01-01

    The term leishmaniasis refers to the spectrum of disease caused by Leishmania species. The clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis depend on complex interactions between the virulence characteristics\\u000a of the infecting Leishmania species and the genetically determined cell-mediated immune responses of its mammalian host. Leishmaniasis comprises three\\u000a major syndromes: cutaneous, mucosal, and visceral. Variations exist within each syndrome.

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Ecuador: popular perceptions, knowledge, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M M; Armijos, R X; Racines, R J; Zurita, C; Izurieta, R; Herrera, E; Hinojsa, E

    1994-06-01

    Popular perceptions and knowledge about cutaneous leishmaniasis and its treatment were studied in an endemic area of subtropical Northwest Ecuador. Although most of the adults surveyed were familiar with the disease, the vector, and traditional treatments, many showed a lack of knowledge about transmission of the disease, ulcer healing, and conventional treatment. Gender was found to have a significant impact on disease risk, perceptions, and treatment knowledge. Males experienced a risk of contracting cutaneous leishmaniasis that was almost triple that of women. Men were also more likely to perceive that the disease seriously diminished the victim's capacity to work. Women, on the other hand, were more prone to perceive that cutaneous leishmaniasis was a serious disease that significantly decreased self-esteem. Although 80% of the subjects knew at least one method of treating the disease, women tended to know more methods than men. Most of 150 different therapies reported involved the use of indigenous plants, chemicals, acids, antibiotics, heat treatments, or petroleum by-products. Some of these treatments could have clinical value. However, only 7% of the subjects knew about pentavalent antimonials. Almost 70% of the subjects with a past or present infection history were treated solely by traditional methods; only 12% received a full course of Glucantime, while 7.5% got an incomplete course. The findings indicate that it will be important to consider the identified gaps in knowledge and gender perceptions regarding the disease and its treatment when planning future control programs. PMID:8069334

  11. Respiratory disease outbreak in a veterinary hospital associated with canine parainfluenza virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. Scott; Stull, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A cluster of canine parainfluenza virus infections was identified in a veterinary referral hospital. While hospital-associated outbreaks of canine parainfluenza virus infection have not been previously reported, veterinary hospitals possess some of the same risk factors that may be present in traditional high-risk sites such as kennels. Hospital-associated transmission of canine respiratory pathogens, therefore, must be considered. PMID:23814307

  12. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 6. Epidemiological and entomological note on the focus of leishmaniasis in Zumba].

    PubMed

    Le Pont, F; Barrera, C; Caceres, A L; Galati, E A; Jarra, O; Riofrio, A R; Mouchet, J; Echeverria, R; Guderian, R H

    1994-03-01

    The Zumba focus of tegumentary leishmaniasis lies in the southwards Amazonian region of Ecuador. A clinico-epidemiological study has been carried out in the area on 83 patients attending health centers. All the biotopes suitable for sandflies, including dwellings, have been sampled from February to September 1992 by light trap and human bait catches. The number of sandflies caught amounts to 2,547. Anthropophilic sandfly fauna is poor and only three species have been recorded. Lutzomyia serrana abounds inside dwellings where it bites men even during daytime. The parasite was identified as an intermediate form between Leishmania panamensis and L. braziliensis. It will be described elsewhere. The high proportion of facial lesions suggests a domiciliary transmission for which Lu. serrana could be a good vector candidate. PMID:8024349

  13. Recent advances in phlebotomine sand fly research related to leishmaniasis control.

    PubMed

    Bates, Paul A; Depaquit, Jerôme; Galati, Eunice A B; Kamhawi, Shaden; Maroli, Michele; McDowell, Mary Ann; Picado, Albert; Ready, Paul D; Salomón, O Daniel; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Traub-Csekö, Yara M; Warburg, Alon

    2015-01-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are the subject of much research because of the role of their females as the only proven natural vectors of Leishmania species, the parasitic protozoans that are the causative agents of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. Activity in this field was highlighted by the eighth International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sand flies (ISOPS) held in September 2014, which prompted this review focusing on vector control. Topics reviewed include: Taxonomy and phylogenetics, Vector competence, Genetics, genomics and transcriptomics, Eco-epidemiology, and Vector control. Research on sand flies as leishmaniasis vectors has revealed a diverse array of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission cycles, mostly in subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America, but also in Mediterranean Europe. The challenge is to progress beyond descriptive eco-epidemiology, in order to separate vectors of biomedical importance from the sand fly species that are competent vectors but lack the vectorial capacity to cause much human disease. Transmission modelling is required to identify the vectors that are a public health priority, the ones that must be controlled as part of the integrated control of leishmaniasis. Effective modelling of transmission will require the use of entomological indices more precise than those usually reported in the leishmaniasis literature. PMID:25885217

  14. Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Kabul, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Mohsen, Mohammad; Aadil, Khoksar; Sidiqi, Majeed; Erasmus, Panna; Coleman, Paul G.

    2003-01-01

    A prevalence survey in Kabul City showed that 2.7% and 21.9% of persons have active leishmaniasis lesions or scars, respectively. Incidence of disease was estimated to be 2.9% (29 cases/1,000 persons per year; 95% confidence interval 0.018 to 0.031). Disease was associated with age and gender; logistic regression analyses showed significant clustering of cases. PMID:12781016

  15. Longitudinal study on the detection of canine Leishmania infections by conjunctival swab analysis and correlation with entomological parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Gramiccia; Trentina Di Muccio; Eleonora Fiorentino; Aldo Scalone; Gioia Bongiorno; Silvia Cappiello; Rosa Paparcone; Valentina Foglia Manzillo; Michele Maroli; Luigi Gradoni; Gaetano Oliva

    2010-01-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out on kennelled stray dogs in a canine leishmaniasis (CanL) endemic area, to evaluate early and late diagnostic performance of a non-invasive conjunctival swab (CS) nested (n)-PCR analysis for Leishmania detection in 2 cohorts of dogs, respectively. (A) Sixty-five IFAT- and CS n-PCR-negative dogs exposed to, and followed up once or twice a month during

  16. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania infection in naturally infected sand flies in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unknown. Methods 2650 sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and identified morphologically. The identified sand flies were tested for Leishmania infection by nested PCR. The source of blood meal of 10 freshly engorged females: 6 Phlebotomus longicuspis and 4 Phlebotomus sergenti, was determined using the Cyt b sequence. Results The collected sand flies consisted of 10 species, seven of which belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and three to the genus Sergentomyia. The most abundant species was P. longicuspis, accounting for 72% of the total sand flies collected. In females of three P. longicuspis and four P. sergenti, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica DNA was detected, respectively. The source of blood meal of engorged females showed that all sand flies tested fed on humans. Conclusions We report for the first time the natural infection of P. longicuspis with L. infantum in Morocco. The high frequency of this species in this region, in addition to its anthropophilic character make P. longicuspis the putative vector of L. infantum in this cutaneous leishmaniasis focus where L. tropica is confirmed as the causative agent of the disease and P. sergenti as its vector. The presence of L. infantum, and its presumed vector in this area, makes this a site of high risk of visceral leishmaniasis, mostly because of the proximity of a focus of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:24990497

  17. Field evaluation of alphacypermethrin in indoor residual spraying for leishmaniasis control in an endemic area, northern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Morocco, the main strategies of leishmaniasis vector control are based on environmental modifications. Use of local residual indoor spraying with synthetic pyrethroids is often envisaged. The need to evaluate this control method is essential. The current study was conducted to determine the efficacy of an alphacypermethrin IRS program against leishmaniasis vectors in an endemic area in the north of Morocco. Methods The survey was conducted in four neighbouring localities in three different districts in northern Morocco: Ait Chaib and Aichoun in Sefrou district, Bouassem (Boulmane) and Lmrouj (Taounate). Indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin at a dose of 30 mg/m2 was used in Ait Chaib and Lmrouj localities during 2010, 2011 and 2012, while localities of Aichoun and Bouassem were taken as control. In the four studied areas, sand flies were collected bimonthly from April to November in 2011 and 2012, using sticky traps, to determine their abundance and feeding pattern. Alphacypermethrin IRS were evaluated for their residual effect using the WHO cone bioassay test. Leishmaniasis incidence was estimated by passive and active case detection in each study area. Results Significant reductions in leishmaniasis incidence and in gravidity rate were observed when comparing sprayed and unsprayed localities. The residual activity of alphacypermethrin at the concentration used lasted 10 weeks after spraying. However, the abundance of sand flies was not significantly affected by alphacypermethrin IRS. Conclusion This study indicated that IRS has a significant impact on leishmaniasis transmission; therefore it could be recommended as an effective tool for leishmaniasis control in areas with high leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:24330760

  18. Advances in battle against leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    1998-10-01

    The UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) has been concerned with the production of vaccines and drugs against leishmaniasis for a number of years. Weapons against the responsible parasite are slowly being improved. Recent reports from vaccine trials in Ecuador, Iran, and India have yielded encouraging results. In Ecuador, more than 70% of vaccinated children in one study were protected from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The vaccine provided was given in 2 doses and consisted of whole killed Leishmania. In Iran, TDR supported the trial of a single dose vaccine in an area endemic for anthroponotic CL and with relatively low incidence, and another trial in an area endemic for zoonotic CL. The vaccines were comprised of whole killed L. major promastigotes together with BCG as adjuvant. 2 trials of vaccines given in single doses were supported by TDR. In a study in Bihar, India, aminosidine therapy yielded a 30-34% greater cure rate than did the standard regimen of pentostam. Aminosidine also had a low incidence of adverse reactions and was well tolerated. PMID:12294756

  19. Balancing immunity and pathology in visceral leishmaniasis

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Engwerda Experimental visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by infection with Leishmania donovani results: Leishmania; liver; spleen; pathology; granuloma Leishmania parasites of different species cause a broad. Leishmania parasites are obligate intra- cellular protozoan parasites that are transmitted

  20. Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Latin America—A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo A. S. Romero; Marleen Boelaert

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundWhile three countries in South Asia decided to eliminate anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by 2015, its control in other regions seems fraught with difficulties. Is there a scope for more effective VL control in the Americas where transmission is zoonotic? We reviewed the evidence on VL control strategies in Latin America—diagnosis, treatment, veterinary interventions, vector control—with respect to entomological and

  1. Aggregative Behavior of Bacteria Isolated from Canine Dental Plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Elliott; Michael Wilson; Catherine M. F. Buckley; David A. Spratt

    2006-01-01

    Interbacterial adhesion of bacteria isolated from canine dental plaque was assessed by performing a visual coaggregation assay. Using conditions mimicking those likely to be encountered in vivo, the entire cultivable plaque microbiota from a single dog was assessed, and eight (6.7%) unique coaggregation interactions were detected for 120 crosses. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize several of the bacteria

  2. Efficacy of canine influenza virus (H3N8) vaccine to decrease severity of clinical disease after co-challenge with canine influenza virus and Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since first emerging into the North American canine population in 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) subtype H3N8 has shown horizontal transmission among dogs, with a high level of adaptation to this species. Severity of disease is variable, and co-infection by other respiratory pathogens is an impo...

  3. Canine respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Buonavoglia, Canio; Martella, Vito

    2007-01-01

    Acute contagious respiratory disease (kennel cough) is commonly described in dogs worldwide. The disease appears to be multifactorial and a number of viral and bacterial pathogens have been reported as potential aetiological agents, including canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus and Bordetella bronchiseptica, as well as mycoplasmas, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, canine herpesvirus and reovirus-1,-2 and -3. Enhancement of pathogenicity by multiple infections can result in more severe clinical forms. In addition, acute respiratory diseases associated with infection by influenza A virus, and group I and II coronaviruses, have been described recently in dogs. Host species shifts and tropism changes are likely responsible for the onset of these new pathogens. The importance of the viral agents in the kennel cough complex is discussed. PMID:17296161

  4. Leishmaniasis in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose A. Ruiz Postigo

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis represents a major public health problem in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are mainly seen in 14 of the 22 countries of the region. In several of these countries outbreaks have an apparent tendency to occur at around 10-year intervals. In 2008, some 100000 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis

  5. Sandfly fauna of endemic leishmaniasis foci in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    González, R; Jorquera, A; De Sousa, L; Ledezma, E; Devera, R

    2002-01-01

    A census of the sandfly fauna was undertaken in 1993-98 in 5 endemic leishmaniasis foci situated at different altitudes in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. From the 17 species of Lutzomyia identified, we believe that Lu. ovallesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. gomezi are the probable vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, while Lu. evansi might transmit visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:11925994

  6. Changing Pattern of Visceral Leishmaniasis, United Kingdom, 1985-2004

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Aeesha N.J.; John, Lawrence; Bryceson, Anthony D.M.

    2006-01-01

    A 20-year (1985–2004) retrospective review of 39 patients with imported visceral leishmaniasis found that tourism to Mediterranean countries and HIV infection were associated with visceral leishmaniasis. Diagnosis was often delayed. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B has improved prognosis. Visceral leishmaniasis should be made a reportable disease. PMID:16965709

  7. Comparison of PCR with stained slides of bone marrow and lymph nodes aspirates with suspect diagnosis for leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Santos, T R; Carreira, V S; Ferrari, H F; Moreira, M A B; Luvizotto, M C R

    2014-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, is a disseminated protozoan infection caused by Leishmania donovani complex. Traditionally the definite diagnosis is made by amastigote detection in the tissue. The aim this study was to evaluate the PCR technique in stained slides of bone marrow and lymph nodes aspirates with suspect diagnosis for leishmaniasis. Slides were selected totaling 62 suspect cases (33 bone marrow samples and 29 lymph node samples) and 17 positive cases (8 bone marrow and 9 lymph node). From 62 suspect cases, 39 (62.90%) were confirmed to be positive being 17 (n=29) lymph node aspirates and 22 (n=33) bone marrow. This finding is in agreement with the higher sensitivity of the PCR assay compared to direct microscopic observation. In conclusion, the findings of this study supports the use of PCR on archive cytological preparation stained slides for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, emphasizing the higher sensitivity of this technique when compared to direct microscopic examination and mostly the use of the suspect status for the cytology samples that presents the previously mentioned particularities with focus on detecting the oligosymptomatic or assymptomatic dogs in endemic areas functioning as potential reservoirs for this disease. PMID:25159534

  8. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floyd E. Dewhirst; Erin A. Klein; Emily C. Thompson; Jessica M. Blanton; Tsute Chen; Lisa Milella; Catherine M. F. Buckley; Ian J. Davis; Marie-Lousie Bennett; Zoe V. Marshall-Jones

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S

  9. Do canine parvoviruses affect canine neurons? An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Url, A; Schmidt, P

    2005-08-01

    In cats (most of which died from panleukopenia), cerebral neurons have recently been shown to be susceptible to canine parvovirus infection. In addition to positive immunostaining and distinct in situ hybridization signals, signs of neurodegeneration were identified by histopathology, mainly in the diencephalic area. Similar histological lesions of the diencephalic regions in dogs have also attracted attention; therefore, an immunohistochemical study was initiated to determine the possible infection of canine neurons with canine parvoviruses. The study was carried out on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tissue, with and without signs of neurodegeneration, from 40 dogs, most of them dying from parvovirus enteritis. Immunohistochemistry, using polyclonal antiserum against canine parvoviruses, was negative in all 40 cases, suggesting that, unlike cats, canine parvoviruses do not seem capable of infecting canine neurons. PMID:15894025

  10. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is found in nearly 88 countries, from rain forests in Central and South America to deserts in ... as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. The World Health Organization estimates there are 1.5 million ...

  11. Climate and Leishmaniasis in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Amaury; Nacher, Mathieu; Hanf, Matthieu; Drogoul, Anne Sophie; Adenis, Antoine; Basurko, Celia; Dufour, Julie; Sainte Marie, Dominique; Blanchet, Denis; Simon, Stephane; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    To study the link between climatic variables and the incidence of leishmaniasis a study was conducted in Cayenne, French Guiana. Patients infected between January 1994 and December 2010. Meteorological data were studied in relation to the incidence of leishmaniasis using an ARIMA model. In the final model, the infections were negatively correlated with rainfall (with a 2-month lag) and with the number of days with rainfall > 50 mm (lags of 4 and 7 months). The variables that were positively correlated were temperature and the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index with lags of 8 and 4 months, respectively. Significantly greater correlations were observed in March for rainfall and in November for the Multivariate El Niño/Southern Oscillation Index. Climate thus seems to be a non-negligible explanatory variable for the fluctuations of leishmaniasis. A decrease in rainfall is linked to increased cases 2 months later. This easily perceptible point could lead to an interesting prevention message. PMID:23939706

  12. Transverse mode analysis of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy of canine hemangiosarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weina; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kisker, David W.; Lear, Kevin L.

    2010-02-01

    The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) uses the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic optical resonator to distinguish cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Based on their distinctive characteristic transmission spectra, canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been differentiated using the OFIS technique with high statistical significance (p<10- 6). 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity were achieved simultaneously. A cell lens model explains trends in the transverse mode pattern in the transmission spectra of HSA cells and allows extraction of cell focal length.

  13. Recent updates and perspectives on leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Dianella

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector-borne tropical infection considered to be a disease of the poor. Concentrated in poverty-stricken countries within Southeast Asia, East Africa, and Latin America, it is also endemic in several Mediterranean countries. The management of the heterogeneous syndromes determined by parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania is particularly difficult in developed, non-endemic countries owing to the unfamiliarity of physicians with clinical symptoms, diagnostic possibilities, and available treatment options. Therefore, travelers and other people who may be exposed to sand flies in endemic areas should receive counseling regarding leishmaniasis and appropriate protective measures. Serological diagnosis is rarely used for cutaneous and mucocutaneous diseases, but it is the most commonly used technique for visceral leishmaniasis. The drugs used to treat this last disease are expensive and sometimes have toxic side effects. This review highlights the diagnostic, chemotherapeutic, and immunizing strategies to control leishmaniasis, though no human vaccine is commercially available currently owing to the complexity of the cellular immune response to this parasite. PMID:26142667

  14. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many

  15. Leishmania major: activity of tamoxifen against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Maha M; Amer, Eglal I; El Sawy, Shefaa M F

    2011-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a family of diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Various Leishmania species can cause human infection, producing a spectrum of clinical manifestations. The current treatments are unsatisfactory, and in absence of a vaccine, there is an urgent need for effective drugs to replace/supplement those currently in use. Recent studies have shown that the antineoplastic drug, tamoxifen, had direct leishmanicidal effect on several Leishmania species in vitro. Moreover, in vivo testing was carried out on some of the species and showed promising results. The authors have carried out the present work to complement previous published studies by investigating in vivo activity of tamoxifen in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania major. Groups of infected mice were given tamoxifen, orally, at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 15 days. Efficacy was assessed clinically, parasitologically, histopathologically by light and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results showed that untreated infected mice suffered from autoamputation of the inoculated foot pad. However, those which received tamoxifen showed marked improvement of the cutaneous lesions and reduction of parasite burden. TEM of the cutaneous lesions from infected mice revealed the fine structure of normal Leishmania amastigotes, whereas those from infected mice treated with tamoxifen showed considerable changes. All male mice that received tamoxifen showed scrotal swelling with evident histopathological changes in the testes that could seriously compromise fertility of male mice. In conclusion, although tamoxifen causes significant side effects to the male reproductive system in the mouse model, it could provide an alternative to current agents. Results of this study demonstrated in vivo activity of tamoxifen against Leishmania major, thus, suggesting that tamoxifen is a suitable lead for the synthesis of more effective and less toxic antileishmanial derivatives. PMID:21620834

  16. Evaluation of canine and ovine oviducts for maturation of canine oocytes from antral follicles 

    E-print Network

    Epple-Farmer, Jessica A

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether canine or ovine oviducts improve the maturation of canine oocytes obtained from antral follicles over an in vitro system. The objective of the first experiment was to evaluate the canine oviduct...

  17. Quantification of parasite load in clinical samples of leishmaniasis patients: IL-10 level correlates with parasite load in visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sandeep; Kumar, Rajesh; Katara, Gajendra Kumar; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwor; Negi, Narender Singh; Ramesh, V; Salotra, Poonam

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and accurate method to detect and quantify Leishmania parasite is urgently needed to facilitate early diagnosis of leishmaniasis and monitoring of antileishmania therapy. In this study, real-time assay was applied to estimate parasite load in clinical samples of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) patients. The mean parasite load in blood of VL patients (n = 31) was 8,372 parasites/ml, while the mean parasite load in bone marrow aspirate (BMA) was 194,962 parasites/million nucleated cells (n = 12). Parasite load was undetectable after treatment with amphotericin B (n = 9) in VL, while a residual parasite burden was detected in 2 of 6 patients following treatment with sodium antimony gluconate. Further, circulating levels of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-2 were analysed in VL patients (n = 29) by Cytometric Bead Array to evaluate correlation with parasitic load. Interestingly, IL-10 levels correlated significantly with parasite load (r = 0.82, P<0.0001). The mean parasite load in dermal lesions of PKDL patients was 9,502 parasites/microg tissue DNA at pre-treatment stage (n = 25), with no detectable parasites after therapy (n = 5). Parasite burden was distinctly higher (P<0.0001) in nodular lesions (n = 12) (19,586 parasites/microg tissue DNA) compared to papular/macular lesions (n = 13, 193 parasites/microg tissue DNA). Further, chronic PKDL lesions showed significantly (P = 0.0166) higher parasite load in comparison with acute lesions. Results indicate that chronic, nodular cases constitute the major parasite reservoir for anthroponotic transmission. Our results establish that the high parasite load in VL is strongly correlated with a high level of IL-10, implicating IL-10 as a marker of disease severity. The assay is applicable for diagnosis as well as prognosis of both VL and PKDL, providing a simple molecular tool to monitor the efficacy of antileishmanial drugs or vaccines. PMID:20404924

  18. Vector control in cutaneous leishmaniasis of the old world: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kassi, Masoom; Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Marri, Shah Muhammad; Tareen, Iqbal; Khawar, Talha

    2008-01-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL), a disfiguring disease, is prevalent in many parts of Pakistan and neighboring Afghanistan. Leishmaniasis is second only to malaria in terms of the number of people affected; it is a major public health issue with significant social stigma. Although the different methods to diagnose and treat the disease are well discussed in the literature, the role of vector control in the prevention of CL has been underemphasized. Both Pubmed and Ovid search engines were used to obtain articles on prevention and control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. These materials were then screened for articles pertaining to vector control only. The World Health Organization's website along with the Cochrane database were also searched for relevant text. From this qualitative review, it can be seen that many effective interventions exist. Considering the multitude of factors involved in transmission of CL and the various effective control measures tried and tested by investigators, an interdisciplinary approach involving more than one of the above interventions would make sense. The interventions selected would then depend on the incidence of CL in that particular area, the population being targeted, the reservoir, the particular vector, the environment, the acceptability/popularity of the intervention, and the availability of funds. PMID:18713582

  19. Asymptomatic Infection with Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Disease-Endemic Area in Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    Topno, Roshan K.; Das, Vidya N. R.; Ranjan, Alok; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Dharmender; Kumar, Nawin; Siddiqui, Niyamat A.; Singh, Vijay P.; Kesari, Shreekant; Kumar, Narendra; Bimal, Sanjeev; Kumar, Annadurai Jeya; Meena, Chetram; Kumar, Ranjeet; Das, Pradeep

    2010-01-01

    A prospective study was carried out in a cohort of 355 persons in a leishmaniasis-endemic village of the Patna District in Bihar, India, to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic persons and rate of progression to symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. At baseline screening, 50 persons were positive for leishmaniasis by any of the three tests (rK39 strip test, direct agglutination test, and polymerase chain reaction) used. Point prevalence of asymptomatic VL was 110 per 1,000 persons and the rate of progression to symptomatic cases was 17.85 per 1,000 person-months. The incidence rate ratio of progression to symptomatic case was 3.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75–15.01, P = 0.09) among case-contacts of VL compared with neighbors. High prevalence of asymptomatic persons and clinical VL cases and high density of Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies can lead to transmission of VL in VL-endemic areas. PMID:20810810

  20. Severe Clinical Presentation of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Naturally Infected Dogs with Disruption of the Splenic White Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Isadora S.; Silva, Joselli S.; Almeida, Valter A.; Junior, Floriano G. Leal.; Souza, Patrício AN.; Larangeira, Daniela F.; Moura-Neto, José P.; Fraga, Deborah BM.; de Freitas, Luiz A. R.; dos-Santos, Washington L.C.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the association between the disruption of splenic lymphoid tissue and the severity of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs. Clinical and laboratory data from 206 dogs were reviewed. Spleen sections collected during the euthanasia of these animals were analyzed, and the splenic lymphoid tissue samples were classified as well organized (spleen type 1), slightly disorganized (spleen type 2), or moderately to extensively disorganized (spleen type 3). Of 199 dogs with evidence of Leishmania infection, 54 (27%) had spleen type 1, 99 (50%) had spleen type 2, and 46 (23%) had spleen type 3. The number of clinical signs associated with visceral leishmaniasis was significantly higher in the animals with evidence of Leishmania infection and spleen type 2 or 3 than in the animals with spleen type 1. Alopecia, anemia, dehydration, dermatitis, lymphadenopathy, and onychogryphosis were all more frequent among animals with evidence of Leishmania infection and spleen type 3 than among the dogs with evidence of Leishmania infection and spleen type 1. The association between the severity of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the disorganization of the splenic lymphoid tissue was even more evident in the group of animals with positive spleen culture. Conjunctivitis and ulceration were also more common in the animals with spleen type 3 than in the animals with spleen type 1. The serum levels (median, interquartile range) of albumin (1.8, 1.4–2.3 g/dL) and creatinine (0.7, 0.4–0.8 mg/dL) were significantly lower and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase were significantly higher (57, 39–95 U) in animals with spleen type 3 than in animals with spleen type 1 (2.8, 2.4–3.4 g/dL; 0.9, 0.7–1.2 mg/dL and 23, 20–32 U, respectively). Our data confirm the hypothesis that disruption of the splenic lymphoid tissue is associated with a more severe clinical presentation of canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:24498367

  1. Electron microscopic study of canine Babesia gibsoni infection.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A; Styer, Eloise L; Frazier, Ken S

    2004-05-01

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne parasitic disease caused by the intraerythrocytic parasites, Babesia canis and Babesia gibsoni. A lethargic, weak, American Staffordshire Terrier (pit bull) dog, which had regenerative, normocytic, normochromic anemia, was shown by polymerase chain reaction analysis to be infected with B. gibsoni. Transmission electron microscopy of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-treated blood disclosed many well-preserved, intraerythrocytic babesia trophozoites. Four morphologic forms of babesia trophozoites are described (small spheres, small rods, irregular forms lacking pseudoinclusions, and large spheres having pseudoinclusions) and are compared with intraerythrocytic forms of B. canis and B. gibsoni described in other light and electron microscopic studies of in vivo and in vitro Babesia infections. This is the first detailed transmission electron microscopic study of canine B. gibsoni-infected red blood cells in North America. PMID:15152839

  2. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Sand Flies in Punjab, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Ayesha; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Qadir, Abdul; Sabir, Arshad Makhdoom

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis make the disease a public health concern in Punjab, Pakistan. The knowledge of how the population perceives the disease and its vector is essential in order to design an effective management strategy, but such studies are rare in Pakistan. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study was based on a cross-sectional self-administered survey comprising 250 household samples collected from five localities including Bhawalpur, Multan, Jhang, Faisalabad and Lahore. The results revealed that the respondents had a poor knowledge of the vector and disease. Few of the respondents were aware about the identification of sand flies, their breeding place, biting time, transmission of leishmaniasis and control measures. Skin infection and sandflies as the main disease symptom and vector of the disease, respectively, were known to some of the respondents. Some believed that summer was the main peak incidence of the disease and it could be transmitted from man to man via contact. However, most of the respondents believed that the disease could be cured. Admission to hospitals, cleanliness and use of bed nets were the treatment measures for the disease in suspected patients, whereas some thought that the use of bed nets could be helpful in preventing leishmaniasis infection. Conclusions/Significance Poor knowledge of the disease and its vector in the study population emphasize the need to initiate health education and awareness campaigns to minimize the risks of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future. PMID:26090870

  3. Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Mascari, Thomas M.; Hanafi, Hanafi A.; Jackson, Ryan E.; Ouahabi, Souâd; Ameur, Btissam; Faraj, Chafika; Obenauer, Peter J.; Diclaro, Joseph W.; Foil, Lane D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of traditional vector control methods. The specific larval food source is unknown for all but a few sand fly species, and this is particularly true for the vectors of Leishmania parasites. We provide methods and materials that could be used to understand, and ultimately break, the transmission cycle of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods and Findings We demonstrated in laboratory studies that analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes found naturally in plant and animal tissues was highly effective for linking adult sand flies with their larval diet, without having to locate or capture the sand fly larvae themselves. In a field trial, we also demonstrated using this technique that half of captured adult sand flies had fed as larvae on rodent feces. Through the identification of rodent feces as a sand fly larval habitat, we now know that rodent baits containing insecticides that have been shown in previous studies to pass into the rodents' feces and kill sand fly larvae also could play a future role in sand fly control. In a second study we showed that rubidium incorporated into rodent baits could be used to demonstrate the level of bloodfeeding by sand flies on baited rodents, and that the elimination of sand flies that feed on rodents can be achieved using baits containing an insecticide that circulates in the blood of baited rodents. Conclusions Combined, the techniques described could help to identify larval food sources of other important vectors of the protozoa that cause visceral or dermal leishmaniasis. Unveiling aspects of the life cycles of sand flies that could be targeted with insecticides would guide future sand fly control programs for prevention of leishmaniasis. PMID:24069489

  4. First report of Warileya rotundipennis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Mabel; Ferro, Cristina; Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Rubiano, Luisa; Delgado, Marcela; Cossio, Alexandra; Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Ocampo, Clara; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2015-08-01

    The expansion of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis from sylvatic ecosystems into peri-urban and domestic settings has occurred as sand flies have adapted to anthropogenic environmental modifications. Assessment of the intradomiciliary presence of sand flies in households of the settlement "La Cabaña", in the Department of Risaralda, Colombia, revealed an abundance of Warileya rotundipennis. This unexpected observation motivated further analyses to evaluate the participation of this species in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collections using CDC light traps were conducted during two consecutive nights in May and August 2011.The total of 667 sand flies collected were classified into five species: W. rotundipennis (n=654; 98.05%), Nyssomyia trapidoi (n=7; 1.04%); Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (n=3; 0.44%); Lutzomyia lichyi (n=2; 0.29%) and Psychodopygus panamensis (n=1; 0.14%). The striking predominance of W. rotundipennis within households during both wet (May) and dry (August) seasons, anthropophilic behavior demonstrated by human blood in 95.23% (60/63) evaluable blood-engorged specimens, and natural infection (5/168-3%) with genetically similar parasites of the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus observed in a patient in this community, support the involvement of W. rotundipennis in the domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in "La Cabaña". PMID:25917717

  5. The Effect of Rubia Tinctorium Extract on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in BALB\\/c Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Fatahi Bafghi; Mohammad Taghi Noorbala; Syed Hasn Hejazian

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. There are wide differences in the clinical features of Leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is self-healing while visceral leishmaniasis is fatal. Efforts have been made since more than a century ago to control and treat the disease, but appropriate vaccines, drugs and pesticides have not yet been prepared. While in

  6. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  7. Molecular detection of canine parvovirus in flies (Diptera) at open and closed canine facilities in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Clarence; Isdell, Allen E; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma S; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sanchez, Susan

    2014-06-01

    More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV. Molecular diagnostic methods were used in this cross-sectional study to detect the presence of CPV in flies trapped at thirty-eight canine facilities. The flies involved were identified as belonging to the house fly (Mucidae), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae) and blow/bottle fly (Calliphoridae) families. A primary surveillance location (PSL) was established at a canine facility in south-central South Carolina, USA, to identify fly-virus interaction within the canine facility environment. Flies trapped at this location were pooled monthly and assayed for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These insects were found to be positive for CPV every month from February through the end of November 2011. Fly vector behavior and seasonality were documented and potential environmental risk factors were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean numbers of each of the three fly families captured, and after determining fly CPV status (positive or negative), it was determined whether there were significant relationships between numbers of flies captured, seasonal numbers of CPV cases, temperature and rainfall. Flies were also sampled at thirty-seven additional canine facility surveillance locations (ASL) and at four non-canine animal industry locations serving as negative field controls. Canine facility risk factors were identified and evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted on the number of CPV cases reported within the past year to determine the correlation of fly CPV status (positive or negative) for each facility, facility design (open or closed), mean number of dogs present monthly and number of flies captured. Significant differences occurred between fly CPV positive vs. negative sites with regard to their CPV case numbers, fly numbers captured, and number of dogs present. At the ASL, a statistically significant relationship was found between PCR-determined fly CPV status (positive or negative) and facility design (open vs. closed). Open-facility designs were likely to have more CPV outbreaks and more likely to have flies testing positive for CPV DNA. PMID:24679715

  8. First generation leishmaniasis vaccines: A review of field efficacy trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sassan Noazin; Farrokh Modabber; Ali Khamesipour; Peter G. Smith; Lawrence H. Moulton; Kiumarss Nasseri; Iraj Sharifi; Eltahir A. G. Khalil; Ivan Dario Velez Bernal; Carlos M. F. Antunes; Marie Paule Kieny; Marcel Tanner

    2008-01-01

    First generation candidate vaccines against leishmaniasis, prepared using inactivated whole parasites as their main ingredient, were considered as promising because of their relative ease of production and low cost. These vaccines have been the subject of many investigations over several decades and are the only leishmaniasis vaccine candidates which have undergone phase 3 clinical trial evaluation. Although the studies demonstrated

  9. Leishmaniasis in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Jose A Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    Leishmaniasis represents a major public health problem in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are mainly seen in 14 of the 22 countries of the region. In several of these countries outbreaks have an apparent tendency to occur at around 10-year intervals. In 2008, some 100000 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were reported. Foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania major, occur in Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen. Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by L. tropica, occurs in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Yemen. Anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis, caused by L. donovani, occurs mainly in Sudan and Somalia. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, caused by L. infantum, occurs in most countries of the region. In order to address the problem of leishmaniasis in the EMR, WHO is supporting ministries of health through a strategic plan focusing on (a) training programme managers and health workers on diagnosis and case management; (b) establishing a harmonized regional surveillance system; (c) creating a regional network of experts; (d) promoting political commitment of national governments. PMID:20728317

  10. Ongoing epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis among Syrian refugees, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar; Khalifeh, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%. PMID:25279543

  11. Complexities of Assessing the Disease Burden Attributable to Leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caryn Bern; James H. Maguire; Jorge Alvar

    2008-01-01

    Among parasitic diseases, morbidity and mortality caused by leishmaniasis are surpassed only by malaria and lymphatic filariasis. However, estimation of the leishmaniasis disease burden is challenging, due to clinical and epidemiological diversity, marked geographic clustering, and lack of reliable data on incidence, duration, and impact of the various disease syndromes. Non-health effects such as impoverishment, disfigurement, and stigma add to

  12. Canine osteosarcoma: an immunologic study

    E-print Network

    Nairn, Catherine Kodosky

    1976-01-01

    ; An Immunologic Study. (May 'l976) Catherine Kodosky Nairn, B. S. , Cornell University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. F. C. Heck Although osteosarcoma is a rather common bone neoplasia of dogs, little eff'ort has been devoted to exploration... 6. Incxdence of fluorescence in immune rabbit serum reacted with canine osteosarcoma tissue substrate Incidence of fluorescence in serum from a dog with long bone cs teosarcoma reacted with canine osteosarcoma tissue substrate 37 Incidence...

  13. Presentation of AIDS with Disseminated Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Davarpanah, Mohammadali; Rassaei, Masumeh; Sari aslani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease in form of visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL), and mucocutaneous (MCL) leishmaniasis. Immunocompromised patients have increased risk of Leishmania infection, especially in endemic areas for visceral leishmaniasis, where in the world HIV/VL coinfection has become endemic. The case here suffers from both AIDS and visceral-cutaneous leishmaniasis. We report an Iranian woman with disseminated cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis who became positive for HIV test.

  14. Epitope Mapping of the HSP83.1 Protein of Leishmania braziliensis Discloses Novel Targets for Immunodiagnosis of Tegumentary and Visceral Clinical Forms of Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Gold standard serological diagnostic methods focus on antigens that elicit a strong humoral immune response that is specific to a certain pathogen. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify linear B-cell epitopes that are conserved among Leishmania species but are divergent from the host species Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris and from Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, to select potential targets for the immunodiagnosis of leishmaniasis. Using these criteria, we selected heat shock protein 83.1 of Leishmania braziliensis for this study. We predicted three linear B-cell epitopes in its sequence. These peptides and the recombinant heat shock protein 83.1 (rHSP83.1) were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) against serum samples from patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and from dogs infected with Leishmania infantum (canine VL [CVL]). Our data show that rHSP83.1 is a promising target in the diagnosis of TL. We also identified specific epitopes derived from HSP83.1 that can be used in the diagnosis of human TL (peptide 3), both human and canine VL (peptides 1 and 3), and all TL, VL, and CVL clinical manifestations (peptide 3). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves confirmed the superior performance of rHSP83.1 and peptides 1 and 3 compared to that of the soluble L. braziliensis antigen and the reference test kit for the diagnosis of CVL in Brazil (EIE-LVC kit; Bio-Manguinhos, Fiocruz). Our study thus provides proof-of-principle evidence of the feasibility of using bioinformatics to identify novel targets for the immunodiagnosis of parasitic diseases using proteins that are highly conserved throughout evolution. PMID:24807053

  15. PD-1-mediated T cell exhaustion during visceral leishmaniasis impairs phagocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Kevin J.; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Martinez, Pedro A.; Jones, Douglas E.; Petersen, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    Control of Leishmania infantum infection is dependent upon Th1 CD4+ T cells to promote macrophage intracellular clearance of parasites. Deficient CD4+ T cell effector responses during clinical visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are associated with elevated production of IL-10. In the primary domestic reservoir of VL, dogs, we define occurrence of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell exhaustion as a significant stepwise loss of antigen-specific proliferation and IFN? production, corresponding to increasing VL symptomatology. Exhaustion was associated with a fourfold increase in the population of T cells with surface expression of Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) between control and symptomatic populations. Importantly, exhausted populations of CD8+ T cells and to a lesser extent CD4+ T cells were present prior to onset of clinical VL. VL exhausted T cells did not undergo significant apoptosis ex vivo after antigen stimulation. Antibody block of PD-1 ligand, B7.H1, promoted return of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell function and dramatically increased reactive oxygen species production in co-cultured monocyte-derived phagocytes. As a result, these phagocytes had decreased parasite load. We demonstrate for the first time that pan-T cell, PD-1-mediated, exhaustion during VL influenced macrophage reactive oxygen intermediate production. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway improved the ability of phagocytes isolated from dogs presenting with clinical VL to clear intracellular parasites. T cell exhaustion during symptomatic canine leishmaniasis has implications for the response to vaccination and therapeutic strategies for control of Leishmania infantum in this important reservoir species. PMID:24154626

  16. Molecular karyotype characterization of Leishmania panamensis, Leishmania mexicana, and Leishmania major-like parasites: agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Katakura, K; Matsumoto, Y; Gomez, E A; Furuya, M; Hashiguchi, Y

    1993-05-01

    Molecular karyotypes of Leishmania isolates from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Southern blot hybridization. The DNA karyotypes of L. major-like parasites were similar between two human isolates from a lowland coastal and a highland Andean region, but were apparently different from those of eleven World Health Organization reference strains including L. major. The smallest chromosome of 240 kilobases in L. major-like parasites was found to belong to the 715-class of small linear chromosomal DNAs, which have been shown to appear in some lines of Leishmania. Chromosome banding patterns of L. mexicana isolates exhibited a novel, ordered, chromosomal ladder, and were identical among four human isolates and one canine isolate from a restricted geographic region in the Andes. On the other hand, minor chromosome size polymorphisms were observed among three L. panamensis isolates from different endemic regions near the Pacific Coast. Chromosomal locations of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthetase and P-glycoprotein genes revealed further differences in chromosomal organizations among these Leishmania species in Ecuador. These results indicate that karyotype analysis by PFGE is useful for epidemiologic studies of leishmaniasis in Ecuador. PMID:8517490

  17. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  18. Reptiles and their importance in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Belova, E. M.

    1971-01-01

    Promastigote flagellates have been isolated from various species of lizard and from some other reptiles. It is known that sandflies readily feed upon lizards and it has been thought that reptiles could be a reservoir for mammalian leishmaniasis. A feature of reptilian infections is the extreme scarcity of parasites in blood smears and in tissue impression smears but isolations may readily be made in culture media. The intradermal inoculation of promastigote cultures from lizards into mammals and man induces a positive leishmanial response and gives rise to long-lasting dermal knots from which living parasites can be recovered for periods of several months. Associations between promastigotes and lizards in parts of the USSR, particularly in the Turkmenian SSR, and experimental work in the USSR on the transmission of promastigote strains to a variety of mammals, including gerbils, mice, monkeys, and man, are reviewed. The author accepts the generally held view that although promastigote flagellates of reptiles are important in an evolutionary context, having probably given rise to the mammalian leishmanias, present-day strains must be considered nonpathogenic for mammals. PMID:5316256

  19. Risk factors for canine echinococcosis in an endemic area of Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro L. Moro; Luis Lopera; Nilo Bonifacio; Armando Gonzales; Robert H. Gilman; Manuel H. Moro

    2005-01-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in a highland rural community in Peru to determine risk factors for canine echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Dogs were diagnosed using a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dog owners were interviewed prior to stool collection and asked for attitudes, practices and beliefs likely to be associated with local patterns of E. granulosus transmission. Univariate

  20. BRAF Mutations in Canine Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kennedy, Katherine; Shapiro, Susan G.; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations of the BRAF gene lead to constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Although many human cancers carry the mutated BRAF gene, this mutation has not yet been characterized in canine cancers. As human and canine cancers share molecular abnormalities, we hypothesized that BRAF gene mutations also exist in canine cancers. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced the exon 15 of BRAF, mutation hot spot of the gene, in 667 canine primary tumors and 38 control tissues. Sequencing analysis revealed that a single nucleotide T to A transversion at nucleotide 1349 occurred in 64 primary tumors (9.6%), with particularly high frequency in prostatic carcinoma (20/25, 80%) and urothelial carcinoma (30/45, 67%). This mutation results in the amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for valine at codon 450 (V450E) of canine BRAF, corresponding to the most common BRAF mutation in human cancer, V600E. The evolutional conservation of the BRAF V600E mutation highlights the importance of MAPK pathway activation in neoplasia and may offer opportunity for molecular diagnostics and targeted therapeutics for dogs bearing BRAF-mutated cancers. PMID:26053201

  1. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans. PMID:19426440

  2. A study of the interaction between humoral canine distemper antibody and canine distemper virus-infected cells (monolayers of canine brain 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, William Dean

    1973-01-01

    A STUDY OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN HUMORAL CANINE DISTEMPER ANTIBODY AND CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS INFECTED CELLS (MONOLAYERS OF CANINE BRAIN) A Thesis by WILLIAM DEAN JOHNSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&X University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May I973 Major Subject: Veterinary Pathology A STUDY OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN HUMORAL CANINE DISTEMPER ANTIBODY AND CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS INFECTED CELLS (MONOLAYERS OF CANINE BRAIN) A...

  3. Leishmaniasis treatment--a challenge that remains: a review.

    PubMed

    Santos, Dilvani O; Coutinho, Carlos E R; Madeira, Maria F; Bottino, Carolina G; Vieira, Rodrigo T; Nascimento, Samara B; Bernardino, Alice; Bourguignon, Saulo C; Corte-Real, Suzana; Pinho, Rosa T; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Castro, Helena C

    2008-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by flagellate protozoan Leishmania spp. and represents an emergent illness with high morbidity and mortality in the tropics and subtropics. Since the discovery of the first drugs for Leishmaniasis treatment (i.e., pentavalent antimonials), until the current days, the search for substances with antileishmanial activity, without toxic effects, and able to overcome the emergence of drug resistant strains still remains as the current goal. This article reports the development of new chemotherapies through the rational design of new drugs, the use of products derived from microorganisms and plants, and treatments related to immunity as new alternatives for the chemotherapy of leishmaniasis. PMID:18389282

  4. Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Everton Falcão de; Silva, Elaine Araújo e; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Gamarra, Roberto Macedo; Ribeiro, Alisson André; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de

    2012-05-01

    The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies. PMID:22510836

  5. Histological study of cell migration in the dermis of hamsters after immunisation with two different vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2009-04-15

    Vaccine candidates, including live and/or killed parasites, Leishmania-purified fractions, defined recombinant antigens and antigen-encoding DNA-plasmids have been proposed to use as vaccine anti-Leishmania. More recently, the hamsters have been used to pre-selection of antigens candidate to apply in further experiments using canine model. In this report we evaluated the kinetics of cell migration in dermal inflammatory infiltrate, circulating leukocytes and the presence of nitric oxide (NO)/induced nitric oxide synthase during the early (1-24h) and late (48-168h) periods following inoculation of hamsters with antigenic components of anti-canine visceral leishmaniasis vaccines Leishmune and Leishmania braziliensis antigen (LB) with and without saponin (Sap) adjuvant. Our results show that LB caused an early reduction of lymphocytes in the dermis while Sap and LBSap triggered a late recruitment, suggesting the role of the adjuvant in the traffic of antigen-presenting cells and the induction of lymphocyte migration. In that manner our results suggest that the kinetics of cell migration on hamster model may be of value in the selection of vaccine antigens prior the tests in dogs particularly in respect of the toxicity of the preparations. PMID:19147234

  6. Microspatial Distributional Patterns of Vectors of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Donalisio, Maria Rita; Peterson, A. Townsend; Costa, Pietra Lemos; da Silva, Fernando José; Valença, Hélio França; Shaw, Jeffrey J.; Brandão Filho, Sinval P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution and population trends through time of Lutzomyia species in a long-term focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in an Atlantic Forest area, northeastern Brazil. Sand fly populations of different ecological niches were monitored spatiotemporally in 2009. To summarize vegetation characteristics and phenology, we calculated the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index from Landsat images. Using niche modeling approaches, we assessed suites of environmental factors to identify areas of transmission risk. Although 12 species were detected, L. whitmani was the most abundant and broadly distributed across the area, particularly in peridomiciliary locations, and associated negatively with denser vegetation areas. On the other hand, L. complexa, L. sordelli, and L. tupynambai were found almost exclusively in forested areas (P < 0.05), and associated positively with denser vegetation. Lutzomyia species' occurrences are related to specific environmental combinations (with contrast among species) in the region. PMID:22315619

  7. Three Pediatric Cases of Leishmaniasis with Different Clinical Forms and Treatment Regimens.

    PubMed

    Ayd?n Teke, Türkan; Metin Timur, Özge; Gayretli Ayd?n, Zeynep Gökçe; Öz, Nur; Bayhan, Gülsüm ?clal; Y?lmaz, Nurullah; Mungan, Mesut; Tan?r, Gönül

    2015-06-01

    Several clinical syndromes caused by an obligate intracellular parasite Leishmania spp. subsumed under the term leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is endemic in Turkey and the neighboring countries Iran, Iraq, and Syria. Leishmania spp. causes three main clinical forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral disease. The clinical forms may vary by species and/or region of acquisition. Two forms are observed in Turkey; visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Two cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis with different treatment regimens and a case of visseral leishmaniasis associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis are presented in this report. PMID:26081889

  8. PCR identification of Leishmania in diagnosis and control of canine leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aparecida H. S. Gomes; Isabelle M. R. Ferreira; Maria L. S. R. Lima; Elaine A. Cunha; Andrea S. Garcia; Maria F. L. Araújo; Vera L. Pereira-Chioccola

    2007-01-01

    Leishmaniases are endemic in many countries, mainly in rural areas. In Brazil, Leishmania infection is responsible for many cases of Leishmaniases, including recent reports in urban regions. Despite their sensitivity, traditional serological and parasitological methods for detecting Leishmaniases have proven inadequate for species discrimination. This study aimed to identify Leishmania species in biological samples by a fast methodology, avoiding “in

  9. [Treatment of severe hemophagocytic syndrome associated with visceral leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Bouguila, J; Chabchoub, I; Moncef, Y; Mlika, A; Saghrouni, F; Boughamoura, L; Essoussi, A S

    2010-11-01

    The association of hemophagocytic syndrome (HS) and visceral leishmaniasis is a frequent disorder during infancy in endemic areas such as Tunisia. The range of severity of HS secondary to visceral leishmaniasis includes both pure biological forms that resolve with antimicrobial therapy and life-threatening emergencies that require specific treatment. We describe 2 cases of severe HS secondary to visceral leishmaniasis. The diagnosis of HS was based on the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria. Therapy involved pentavalent antimonial (Glucantime) in both cases. The combination of corticosteroids with immunoglobulins, used in the 1st case, but introduced late, led to an unfavorable course and death. In the 2nd case, the specific treatment of HS was based on immunochemotherapy including etoposide and corticosteroids. Progression was favorable with a follow-up of 24 months. Etoposide containing therapeutic regimens can be proposed in severe forms of HS associated with visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:20880678

  10. Leishmaniasis in the Middle East: Incidence and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Nasir; Al-Shaqha, Waleed Mohammed; Azzi, Arezki

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide, with several countries reporting cases of leishmaniasis resulting in loss of human life or a lifelong stigma because of bodily scars. The Middle East is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, with countries like Syria reporting very high incidence of the disease. Despite several countries establishing national control programs for containing the sandfly vector and treatment of infection, the disease continues to spread. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. These factors contribute to the spread and proliferation of the causative species Leishmania and its sandfly host. This review discusses the current epidemiological scenario in Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, emphasizing the number of cases reported, vector species, Leishmania species, and treatment available. The data is primarily from WHO reports for each country and current and old literature. PMID:25275483

  11. Association Between HTLV-I Infection with Chronic Lupoid Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshkpoor, Fakhrozaman; Rezaei, Seyed Abdol Rahim; Shirdel, Abbas; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Mansoreh; Yazdanpanah, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): One of the different types of skin leishmaniasis is the Chronic Lupoid Leishmaniasis (CLL), which is caused by abnormal immune response. On the other hand, HTLV-I has been known to exist in some infectious diseases. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type1 (HTLV-I) and cutanous leishmaniasis exists endemically in Mashhad. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HTLV-I in CLL patients. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study involved 51 CLL patients admitted to cutaneous leishmaniasis clinics of Ghaem and Imam Reza hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. The blood samples were examined for serology tests through ELISA method. Results: The results of the experiments for evaluating the existence of HTLV-I in 51 patients under study in this research were proved to be negative. Conclusion: According to this pilot study, the distribution of HTLV-I in CLL patients is not higher than normal population. PMID:24470878

  12. [Syndrome of inappropriate macrophage activation associated with infantile visceral leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Thabet, F; Tabarki, B; Fehem, R; Yacoub, M; Selmi, H; Essoussi, A S

    1999-12-01

    Hemophagocytosis has already been in cases of visceral leishmaniasis and thus may complicate search for diagnosis. We report a case of hemophagocytosis in a 20 month-old boy presenting with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia and coagulopathy. An initial diagnosis of kala-azar was refuted because of absence of biological inflammatory syndrome and negativity of bone-marrow aspiration. Specific serology for visceral leishmaniasis become positive. The boy was given stibogluconate for 21 days; he improves gradually with complete remission. PMID:10730157

  13. Polymorphism in Tumor Necrosis Factor Genes Associated with Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maira Cabrera; Marie-Anne Shaw; Claire Sharpies; Hazel Williams; Marianella Castes; Jacinto Convit; Jenefer M. Blackwell

    Summary Recent studies have shown that mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), a severe and debilitating form of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis infection, is accompanied by high circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-oL. Analysis of TNF polymorphisms in Venezuelan ACL patients and endemic unaffected controls demonstrates a high relative risk (RR) of 7.5 (P <0.001) of MCL disease

  14. Identification and characterization of canine dendritic cells generated in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mielcarek, Marco; Kucera, Kristin A; Nash, Richard; Torok-Storb, Beverly; McKenna, Hilary J

    2007-11-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that host dendritic cells (DC) initiate and regulate graft-versus-host and graft-versus-tumor reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Even though decades of experimentation in the preclinical canine HCT model have substantially improved our understanding of the biology and safety of HCT in human patients, the in vivo phenotype of potent antigen-presenting cells in dogs is poorly defined. Therefore, peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained from dogs treated with recombinant human Flt3-ligand and phenotypically distinct cell populations, including putative DC, were purified by 4-color flow-cytometry and tested for their stimulatory potential in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC). Cells characterized by surface expression of CD11c and HLA-DR, and absence of expression of CD14 and DM5, a marker of mature granulocytes, were found to be highly potent stimulators in allogeneic MLC. In contrast, all other immunophenotypically different cell populations tested had either weak or absent allostimulatory potential. Transmission electron microscopy of CD11c+/HLA-DR+/CD14-/DM5- cells revealed the morphology similar to that described for DC in humans and ex vivo-generated canine DC, including long cytoplasmic extensions, discrete lysosomes, and an abundant Golgi apparatus and endoplasmatic reticulum. In summary, CD11c+/HLA-DR+/CD14-/DM5- cells obtained from canine peripheral blood have functional and morphologic characteristics similar to those of human myeloid DC. PMID:17950915

  15. Identification and Characterization of Canine Dendritic Cells Generated In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mielcarek, Marco; Kucera, Kristin A.; Nash, Richard; Torok-Storb, Beverly; McKenna, Hilary J.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that host dendritic cells (DC) initiate and regulate graft-versus-host and graft-versus-tumor reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Even though decades of experimentation in the preclinical canine HCT model have substantially improved our understanding of the biology and safety of HCT in human patients, the in vivo phenotype of potent antigen-presenting cells in dogs is poorly defined. Therefore, peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained from dogs treated with recombinant human Flt3-ligand and phenotypically distinct cell populations, including putative DC, were purified by four-color flow-cytometry and tested for their stimulatory potential in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC). Cells characterized by surface expression of CD11c and HLA-DR, and absence of expression of CD14 and DM5, a marker of mature granulocytes, were found to be highly potent stimulators in allogeneic MLC. In contrast, all other immunophenotypically different cell populations tested had either weak or absent allostimulatory potential. Transmission electron microscopy of CD11c+/HLA-DR+/CD14?/DM5? cells revealed the morphology similar to that described for DC in humans and ex vivo-generated canine DC, including long cytoplasmic extensions, discrete lysosomes, and an abundant Golgi apparatus and endoplasmatic reticulum. In summary, CD11c+/HLA-DR+/CD14?/DM5? cells obtained from canine peripheral blood have functional and morphological characteristics similar to those of human myeloid DC. PMID:17950915

  16. Canine brucellosis: Outbreaks and compliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bruce Hollett

    2006-01-01

    Canine infertility has many causes that must be considered during evaluation of abnormal reproductive function. An important infectious agent is Brucella canis. Classically deemed a major reason of abortion, this organism also produces infertility in stud dogs and poses a potential health hazard to dogs and humans. The State of Georgia has, out of necessity, instigated regulations to manage outbreaks

  17. Breed differences in canine aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Duffy; Yuying Hsu; James A. Serpell

    2008-01-01

    Canine aggression poses serious public health and animal welfare concerns. Most of what is understood about breed differences in aggression comes from reports based on bite statistics, behavior clinic caseloads, and experts’ opinions. Information on breed-specific aggressiveness derived from such sources may be misleading due to biases attributable to a disproportionate risk of injury associated with larger and\\/or more physically

  18. Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Dunbar, Mike R; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel; Droge, Egil; Sakuya, Nicholas M; Matandiko, Wigganson; McRobb, Rachel; Hanlon, Cathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies. We provide the first comprehensive disease exposure data for these species in these ecosystems. Twenty-one lions, 20 hyenas, 13 wild dogs, and 38 domestic dogs were sampled across both regions from 2009 to 2011. Laboratory results show 10.5% of domestic dogs, 5.0% of hyenas, and 7.7% of wild dogs sampled were positive for CDV exposure. All lions were negative. Exposure to CPV was 10.0% and 4.8% for hyenas and lions, respectively. All wild dogs were negative, and domestic dogs were not tested due to insufficient serum samples. All species sampled were negative for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies except lions. Forty percent of lions tested positive for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Because these lions appeared clinically healthy, this finding is consistent with seroconversion following exposure to rabies antigen. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first ever documentation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies consistent with rabies exposure that did not lead to clinical disease in free-ranging African lions from this region. With ever-increasing human pressure on these ecosystems, understanding disease transmission dynamics is essential for proper management and conservation of these carnivore species. PMID:23805791

  19. [Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in five villages of Dogon country, Mali].

    PubMed

    Kone, A K; Delaunay, P; Djimdé, A A; Thera, M A; Giudice, P D; Coulibaly, D; Traoré, K; Goita, S M; Abathina, A; Izri, A; Marty, P; Doumbo, O K

    2012-02-01

    The epidemiology of the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with Leishmania major is poorly documented in Mali. Following reports of CL in the tourist areas of the Dogon country (Bandiagara Escarpment), a joint French and Malian bio-clinical team conducted a field study from 16 to 27 January, 2010. The population of 5 villages has been examined by a dermato-infectiologist and cases were selected by visual inspection of skin lesions. Smears and biopsies (from the lesions) and venous blood were obtained from suspected cases of CL. Diagnosis was performed by light microscopy, in vitro cultures, serology and molecular biology. Fifty patients with skin lesions have been examined. Twenty-one have been suspected as CL. At least one sample was obtained from 18 patients. The lesions were predominantly old, more or less scarring and secondary infected. A skin smear was performed for 15 patients, a skin biopsy for 14 patients: smears and cultures were all negative. The PCR (Leishmania spp.) made on 14 biopsies was positive for 12 patients (86%). The low amount of amplified DNA obtained did not allow the sequencing and identification of the species of Leishmania. Western blot (WB) serology was positive in 11 cases out of 12 (92%). This investigation showed the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bandiagara. A further investigation is required during transmission period (September-October) to confirm the presence of Leishmania major epidemic in Dogon country. PMID:22246557

  20. Andean leishmaniasis in Ecuador caused by infection with Leishmania mexicana and L. major-like parasites.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Y; Gomez, E A; de Coronel, V V; Mimori, T; Kawabata, M; Furuya, M; Nonaka, S; Takaoka, H; Alexander, J B; Quizhpe, A M

    1991-02-01

    Between 1986 and 1988, epidemiologic studies were carried out in a small rural community in an Andean region of Ecuador, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is highly endemic. A total of 25 human cases, positive for Leishmania parasites by culture and/or smear, were examined. Fourteen of the cases were in infants less than one year of age, suggesting intradomiciliary transmission of the disease. Clinically, many of these cases were similar to descriptions of "uta," a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis which occurs in Andean regions of Peru and is reported caused by L. peruviana. Of the 11 positive cultures obtained from human cases in the present study, eight were identified by molecular characterization as L. mexicana and three were identified as L. major-like. Two additional isolates of L. mexicana were also made from an infected dog and from a sand fly, Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, living in the region, thus implicating the latter species as possible reservoir and vector, respectively, of L. mexicana in this highland community. The significance and validity of recent isolates of L. major-like parasites from the New World are also discussed. PMID:1672799

  1. Proteome Profiling of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesion

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Santos, Claire; Attarha, Sanaz; Saini, Ravi Kanth; Boaventura, Viviane; Costa, Jackson; Khouri, Ricardo; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia Ida; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used proteomics and biological network analysis to evaluate the potential biological processes and components present in the identified proteins of biopsies from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis in comparison with normal skin. We identified 59 proteins differently expressed in samples from infected and normal skin. Biological network analysis employing identified proteins showed the presence of networks that may be involved in the cell death mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. After immunohistochemical analyses, the expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and granzyme B was validated in the tissue and positively correlated with the lesion size in CL patients. In conclusion, this work identified differentially expressed proteins in the inflammatory site of CL, revealed enhanced expression of caspase-9, and highlighted mechanisms associated with the progression of tissue damage observed in lesions. PMID:25207817

  2. Oral Manifestations in the American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Daniel Cesar Silva; Palmeiro, Mariana Reuter; Moreira, João Soares; Martins, Ana Cristina da Costa; da Silva, Aline Fagundes; de Fátima Madeira, Maria; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Confort, Eliame Mouta; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; da Conceição Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis – MCL) including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing. Objectives Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities. Methods A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test) and non parametric (Mann-Whitney) tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant. Results The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9%) have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites. Conclusion Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL. PMID:25386857

  3. Bacterial superinfection in Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Doudi, Monir; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Narimani, Manizheh

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is a polymorphic disease. It is generally accepted that bacterial superinfection may play a role in the clinical appearance of the lesions and may delay or prevent the healing process. However, the pattern of bacterial pathogens involved has rarely been investigated. Material/Methods The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species contaminating the suspected ZCL and their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. Microscopic examination of stained smears and cultures were used to differentiate ZCL from non-ZCL lesions in a rural area north of Isfahan, Iran from July to December 2009. Bacteria were isolated from the lesions and identified and antibiotic susceptibility was determined by standard microbiological techniques. Results The results show that 602 (68%) of 855 patients were positive for ZCL, of which 83.4% with volcano-shape, 8.8% psoriasiform, 6.6% popular form and 1.2% with other atypical forms of ZCL. The bacteria were isolated from 66.8% of ZCL (70% of volcano-shape, 60% of psoriasiform and 25% of popular form) and 64.7% of non-ZCL lesions. The most common species were Staphylococcus aureus (41.7%) and S. epidermidis (28%) followed by Bacillus sp. Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., Enterobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Cefazolin and Clindamycin were the most effective antibiotics. Conclusions Bacterial superinfection appears to be very common in ZCL, but its prevalence is not different from that of non-ZCL lesions and it has little effect on the clinical appearance of anthroponotic cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL). Local lesion care and management of bacterial superinfection must be considered in the treatment of ZCL. PMID:22936185

  4. Placebo controlled treatment of Ecuadorian cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Guderian, R H; Chico, M E; Rogers, M D; Pattishall, K M; Grogl, M; Berman, J D

    1991-07-01

    Pentavalent antimony has been considered to be the standard treatment for leishmaniasis, but more recently, the orally administrable agent allopurinol ribonucleoside has been the subject of several clinical trials. In this study, these two agents were evaluated in patients with Ecuadorian cutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients were randomly assigned to the two treatment groups. The mean reduction in lesion size for the 28 patients treated with Pentostam (20 mg Sb/kg/day intramuscularly for 20 days) was 61%, 23%, and 11% after one, two, and three weeks, respectively. There was a wide range in the individual values, and some lesions markedly enlarged in the first week of therapy. An initially healed lesion was defined as one that had greater than 80% re-epithelialized by the 1.5-month post-treatment followup. All Pentostam patients demonstrated this degree of lesion resolution (100% initial healing rate), but one patient showed evidence of relapse at the three month followup resulting in a 96% complete healing rate for the 12 month observation period. Patients in the untreated control group demonstrated a strikingly high rate of healing with 9 of 12 patients having re-epithelialized all lesions after 1.5 months observation (75% initial healing rate). The mean reduction in lesion size for the untreated patients was 56%, 29%, and 25% after one, two, and three weeks, respectively. Twenty-one patients received allopurinol ribonucleoside (1,500 mg QID) plus probenecid (500 mg QID) for 28 days. Lesions in nine of these patients were healed at the time of the 1.5 month followup (41% healing rate).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1651060

  5. Cross-Sectional Study to Assess Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Region in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Munasinghe, Asoka; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sivanantharajah, Sundaramoorthy; Seneviratne, Kamal; Bandara, Samantha; Athauda, Indira; Navaratne, Chaturi; Silva, Ositha; Wackwella, Hasini; Matlashewski, Greg; Wickremasinghe, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lanka reports significantly more cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases than visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, both of which are caused by Leishmania donovani MON-37. A cross-sectional study conducted in an area with a high prevalence of CL prevalent included 954 participants of an estimated population of 61,674 to estimate the number of CL cases, ascertain whether there is a pool of asymptomatic VL cases, and identify risk factors for transmission. A total of 31 cases of CL were identified, of whom 21 were previously diagnosed and 10 were new cases. Using rK39 rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies against Leishmania spp., we found that only one person was seropositive but did not have clinical symptoms of CL or VL, which indicated low transmission of VL in this area. ?2 test, independent sample t-test, and multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and spatial distribution of environmental risk factors showed that living near paddy fields is associated with increased risk for transmission of CL (P ? 0.01). PMID:23918217

  6. Persistent expression of canine factor IX in hemophilia B canines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Chao; R J Samulski; D A Bellinger; P E Monahan; T C Nichols; C E Walsh

    1999-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that direct intramuscular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying the human FIX (hFIX) cDNA can safely be administered to hemophilic B canines and express human factor IX protein; however, the functional activity of the hFIX protein could not be assessed due to anti-human FIX antibody (inhibitor) formation. To test the therapeutic efficacy of rAAV in hemophilic

  7. Peridomiciliary Breeding Sites of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Vivaldo Pim; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Biral dos Santos, Claudiney; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in areas modified by humans indicates that phlebotomine sand fly vectors breed close to human habitations. Potential peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomines were sampled in an area of transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil. Three concentric circles rounding houses and domestic animal shelters, with radii of 20, 40, and 60 m, defined the area to be monitored using adult emergence traps. Of the 67 phlebotomines collected, Lutzomyia intermedia comprised 71.6%; Lutzomyia schreiberi, 20.9%; and Lutzomyia migonei, 4.5%. The predominance of L. intermedia, the main species suspected of transmitting L. (V.) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil, indicates its participation in the domiciliary transmission of ACL, providing evidence that the domiciliary ACL transmission cycle might be maintained by phlebotomines that breed close to human habitations. This finding might also help in planning measures that would make the peridomiciliary environment less favorable for phlebotomine breeding sites. PMID:23091196

  8. Glomerulonephritis and cryoglobulinemia: first manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Milagros; Mon, Carmen; Herrero, Juan Carlos; Oliet, Aniana; Rodríguez, Isabel; Ortega, Olimpia; Gallar, Paloma; Hinostroza, Julie; Cobo, Gabriela; Del Alamo, Manuel; Jiménez, Juana; Torres, Rafael; Digiogia, Cristina; San Martin, Juan; Vigil, Ana I; Blanco, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania Infantum is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean area. Since 2009, Europe's largest outbreak of Leishmaniasis has been reported in the region of Madrid (Spain). Renal involvement is an unusual complication. Different forms of renal disease have been described: interstitial, glomerular, and vascular damage. Direct invasion of renal parenchyma by the parasite has been described as a mechanism of kidney damage, especially in the immunocompromised. Immune complex deposition and T cells adhesion molecules activation have demonstrated that a pathogenic role in glomerulonephritis related to visceral leishmaniasis. The association between mixed cryoglobulinemia and visceral leishmaniasis has been previously reported in six patients. Renal involvement is only described in one of them. From July 2009 to October 2012, 4 patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and mixed cryoglobulinemia with negative serology for hepatitis B and C were diagnosed in our hospital. Serology of Leishmania in serum bank samples was performed; it was positive in 3 patients. Leishmania parasite was confirmed by other tests. We present 3 patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis as first clinical manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25600859

  9. [Visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria. Evolution of visceral leishmaniasis in the Grande Kabylie area (1985-1990)].

    PubMed

    Harrat, Z; Berrouane, Y; Ben Abdesslam, S; Belkaid, M; Tabet-Derraz, O

    1992-01-01

    The authors report 285 cases of visceral leishmaniasis recorded over a 6 year-period from 1985-1990 in the Wilaya of Tizi-Ouzou (Grande Kabylie). The authors report a resurgence of this disease during the last years, with a 5 human cases per 100,000 annual prevalence and a 6 per cent of rate death, the most active part of mediterranean area appears to be the region of Grand-Kabylie. A control program in the Wilaya of Tizi-Ouzou is proposed. PMID:1309141

  10. Survey of Wild Mammal Hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Parasites in Panamá and Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E.; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A.; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D.; Adler, Gregory H.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America. PMID:25859156

  11. The fall and rise of Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis: transient impact of the DDT campaign in Peru.

    PubMed

    Davies, C R; Llanos-Cuentas, A; Canales, J; Leon, E; Alvarez, E; Monge, J; Tolentino, E; Gomero, Q; Pyke, S; Dye, C

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was carried out on census data collected from house-to-house surveys during 1991-1992 in 4 areas endemic for Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (uta) in the Department of Lima, Peru. Major changes in mean annual incidence in susceptible persons have taken place in these sites during the last 60 years. In particular, there is strong support for the hypothesis that, from the 1950s to the 1970s, the transmission rate was temporarily suppressed, largely as a by-product of the DDT house spraying campaign against malaria. These results are consistent with (i) anecdotal evidence, contemporary with the spraying campaign, and (ii) the official Ministry of Health records for the annual number of uta cases in the Departments of Lima and Ancash. PMID:7570813

  12. Evaluation of SPECT quantification of radiopharmaceutical distribution in canine myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianying; Jaszczak, R.L.; Greer, K.L. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    This study evaluates the quantitative accuracy of SPECT for in vivo distributions of {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals using fanbeam (FB) and parallel-beam (PB) collimators and compares uniform and nouniform attenuation correction methods in terms of quantitative accuracy. SPECT quantification of canine myocardial radioactivity was performed followed by well counter measurements of extracted myocardial tissue samples. Transmission scans using a line source and an FB collimator were performed to generate nonuniform attenuation maps of the canine thorax. Emission scans with two energy windows were acquired. Images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm, with a dual-window scatter subtraction combined with either no attenuation compensation or single iteration Chang attenuation compensation based on a uniform attenuation map {mu}=0.152 cm{sup -1} or the nonuniform transmission map. The measured mean counts from the SPECT images were converted using the well counter. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared with well counter values, the in vivo distributions of {sup 99m}Tc were most accurately determined in FB and PB SPECT reconstructions with nonuniform attenuation compensation, under-estimated without attenuation compensation and overestimated with uniform attenuation compensation. 37 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Recombinant canine coronaviruses in dogs, Europe.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Elia, Gabriella; Addie, Diane D; Camero, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-01-01

    Coronaviruses of potential recombinant origin with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), referred to as a new subtype (IIb) of canine coronavirus (CCoV), were recently identified in dogs in Europe. To assess the distribution of the TGEV-like CCoV subtype, during 2001-2008 we tested fecal samples from dogs with gastroenteritis. Of 1,172 samples, 493 (42.06%) were positive for CCoV. CCoV-II was found in 218 samples, and CCoV-I and CCoV-II genotypes were found in 182. Approximately 20% of the samples with CCoV-II had the TGEV-like subtype; detection rates varied according to geographic origin. The highest and lowest rates of prevalence for CCoV-II infection were found in samples from Hungary and Greece (96.87% and 3.45%, respectively). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the CCoV-IIb strains were related to prototype TGEV-like strains in the 5' and the 3' ends of the spike protein gene. PMID:20031041

  14. Recombinant Canine Coronaviruses in Dogs, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Viviana; Elia, Gabriella; Addie, Diane D.; Camero, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-01-01

    Coronaviruses of potential recombinant origin with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), referred to as a new subtype (IIb) of canine coronavirus (CCoV), were recently identified in dogs in Europe. To assess the distribution of the TGEV-like CCoV subtype, during 2001–2008 we tested fecal samples from dogs with gastroenteritis. Of 1,172 samples, 493 (42.06%) were positive for CCoV. CCoV-II was found in 218 samples, and CCoV-I and CCoV-II genotypes were found in 182. Approximately 20% of the samples with CCoV-II had the TGEV-like subtype; detection rates varied according to geographic origin. The highest and lowest rates of prevalence for CCoV-II infection were found in samples from Hungary and Greece (96.87% and 3.45%, respectively). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the CCoV-IIb strains were related to prototype TGEV-like strains in the 5? and the 3? ends of the spike protein gene. PMID:20031041

  15. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN CANINE REPRODUCTION: AN UPDATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Gobello; Y Corrada

    Canine biotechnology studies are far less developed than in other species. Canine reproduction and gametes have unique characteristics compared to other mammals which makes adaptation of knowledge from other species difficults. Culture media for oocytes with or without serum, hormonal or protein supplementation, and oviductal cells have been used for in vitro maturation. Age and phase of the estrous cycle

  16. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J Irwin

    2009-01-01

    Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the

  17. Serological diagnosis of canine alveolar echinococcosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Staebler; Felix Grimm; Tony Glaus; Christian M. O. Kapel; Markus Haller; Andreas Hasler; Régis Hanosset; Peter Deplazes

    2006-01-01

    Canine alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a rare liver disease caused by the larval stage (metacestode) of E. multilocularis. Its diagnosis so far is rather difficult and invasive. Imaging techniques for the diagnosis have been described recently and in this study, the serological diagnosis of canine AE was evaluated in 30 dogs with confirmed AE using ELISA based on seven different

  18. Oncolytic reovirus in canine mast cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chung Chew; Umeki, Saori; Kubo, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshiharu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken; Baba, Kenji; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Coffey, Matt; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    The usage of reovirus has reached phase II and III clinical trials in human cancers. However, this is the first study to report the oncolytic effects of reovirus in veterinary oncology, focusing on canine mast cell tumor (MCT), the most common cutaneous tumor in dogs. As human and canine cancers share many similarities, we hypothesized that the oncolytic effects of reovirus can be exploited in canine cancers. The objective of this study was to determine the oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine MCT in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. We demonstrated that MCT cell lines were highly susceptible to reovirus as indicated by marked cell death, high production of progeny virus and virus replication. Reovirus induced apoptosis in the canine MCT cell lines with no correlation to their Ras activation status. In vivo studies were conducted using unilateral and bilateral subcutaneous MCT xenograft models with a single intratumoral reovirus treatment and apparent reduction of tumor mass was exhibited. Furthermore, cell death was induced by reovirus in primary canine MCT samples in vitro. However, canine and murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMCMC) were also susceptible to reovirus. The combination of these results supports the potential value of reovirus as a therapy in canine MCT but warrants further investigation on the determinants of reovirus susceptibility. PMID:24073198

  19. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings. PMID:24232191

  20. Reactivation of cutaneous leishmaniasis after renal transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Hossein; Salehi, Mehrnaz; Kamyab, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old man with reactivation of previously existing and subsiding cutaneous leishmaniasis on his wrist and lower leg (shin) after renal transplantation was admitted to our dermatology service on March 2008. He presented to us with two huge tumoral and cauliflower-like lesions. Skin smear and histopathology of skin showed leishman bodies and confirmed the diagnosis. After renal transplantation, he received cyclosporine plus prednisolone to induce immunosuppression and reduce the probability of transplant rejection. After immunosuppressive therapy, reactivation of cutaneous leishmaniasis with the above presentation took place. The patient responded to 800?mg/day intravenous sodium stibogluconate for 3 weeks plus local cryotherapy. Systemic plus local therapy along with reducing the doses of immunosuppressive drugs led to improvement of lesions. Reactivation of leishmaniasis after immunosuppression has been rarely reported. PMID:24826350

  1. Bibliometric analysis of leishmaniasis research in Medline (1945-2010)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Publications are often used as a measure of success of research work. Leishmaniasis is considered endemic in 98 countries, most of which are developing. This article describes a bibliometric review of the literature on leishmaniasis research indexed in PubMed during a 66-year period. Methods Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. The search strategy was Leishmania [MeSH] or leishmaniasis [MeSH] from 1 January 1945 until 31 December 2010. Neither language nor document type restrictions were employed. Results A total of 20,780 references were retrieved. The number of publications increased steadily over time, with 3,380 publications from 1945-1980 to 8,267 from 2001-2010. Leishmaniasis documents were published in 1,846 scientific journals, and Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (4.9%) was the top one. The USA was the predominant country by considering the first author’s institutional address (16.8%), followed by Brazil (14.9%), and then India (9.0%), however Brazil leads the scientific output in 2001-2010 period (18.5%), followed by the USA (13.5%) and India (10%). The production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalised by population (Israel and Switzerland), by gross domestic product (Nepal and Tunisia), and by gross national income per capita (India and Ethiopia). For geographical area, Europe led (31.7%), followed by Latin America (24.5%). Conclusions We have found an increase in the number of publications in the field of leishmaniasis. The USA and Brazil led scientific production on leishmaniasis research. PMID:23497410

  2. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "? 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. PMID:23999330

  3. CANINE SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Robert M.; Schwartz, Robert S.

    1971-01-01

    Three breeding lines, originating from dogs with SLE, have been established. Two lines were initiated by mating a female with SLE with a normal male. The third line resulted from a mating of two affected dogs. Brother-to-sister matings have reached the third generation in each line. In addition, backcross and outcross matings were carried out. More than one-third of the autopsied dogs had thymic abnormalities. The commonest lesion was a lymphoid follicle; the thymus of one dog contained multiple granulomas, and in one animal a reticulum cell sarcoma of the thymus was found. Multiple serological abnormalities, including positive LE cell tests, anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), and rheumatoid factor, were found in the progeny. The development of ANA appeared unrelated to the incidence of positive LE cell tests. About 10% of the animals had rheumatoid factor in their serum. Control populations of dogs; including house pets; two other, unrelated lines of inbred dogs; and normal dogs housed in the same facility as the SLE colony did not have these abnormalities. The incidence of positive LE cell tests in the inbred, backcross, and outcross matings was not consistent with any conventional genetic mechanism of inheritance. It is conceivable that the results can be explained by vertical transmission of an infectious agent in a genetically susceptible individual. PMID:4104424

  4. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Peruvian Andes: risk factors identified from a village cohort study.

    PubMed

    Davies, C R; Llanos-Cuentas, E A; Campos, P; Monge, J; Villaseca, P; Dye, C

    1997-01-01

    Risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis were identified from a comparative study of transmission rates in 27 villages in the Departments of Lima, Ancash, and Piura in Peru. To evaluate regression analysis as a tool for the incrimination of sand fly vectors in the absence of other biologic evidence, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify which of 14 variables (the abundance of nine sand fly species, four social factors, and region) predicted transmission rates in villages (incidence, active prevalence, or cumulative prevalence). In general, suspected or proven vectors (e.g., Lutzomyia peruensis) had the strongest associations with transmission rate, indicating that regression is a useful supplementary method of incriminating vectors. Regression was then used to quantify the importance of suspected risk factors. Transmission rate increased with the abundance of Lu. peruensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. noguchii, and, to a lesser extent, Lu. verrucarum and transmission was higher among villagers who slept more frequently in temporary shelters in crop areas. There were also weak effects of the number of dogs/ person (negative) and the number of persons/household (positive). Linear regressions failed to detect a threshold sand fly density below which transmission ceases. The minimal adequate multiple regression model explained 82% of the variance in village incidence rates. This model was used to predict the effect on incidence of reducing each of the four suspected vectors in northern and southern Peru. The results indicate that vector control programs in the south should aim at Lu. peruensis, Lu. verrucarum, and Lu. noguchii, but focus on Lu. ayacuchensis in the north. PMID:9063368

  5. [Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Algeria. 6. Survey of clinical cases of infantile visceral leishmaniasis from 1965 to 1974].

    PubMed

    Addadi, K; Dedet, J P

    1976-01-01

    The authors present the results of an inquiry conducted in the principal hospitals of Algeria. The number of cases of visceral leishmaniasis recorded over the last ten years (1965 to 1974) totaled 497. The disease occurs essentially in children under 5 years of age (94%); it is mainly detected in central and eastern parts of the Tell region: principally in the Grande Kabylie, Algerois and Constantinois areas (humid and sub-humid bioclimatic stages). The results of the malaria eradication campaign in relation to the incidence of visceral Leishmaniasis is discussed. PMID:1036477

  6. Compensation for Decreased Expression of B7 Molecules on Leishmania infantum-Infected Canine Macrophages Results in Restoration of Parasite-Specific T-Cell Proliferation and Gamma Interferon Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELENA PINELLI; VICTOR P. M. G. RUTTEN; MARTIJN BRUYSTERS; PETER F. MOORE; E. JOOST RUITENBERG

    1999-01-01

    Infection of humans and dogs by Leishmania infantum may result in visceral leishmaniasis, which is characterized by impaired T-cell-mediated immune responses to parasite antigens. Dogs are natural hosts of Leishmania parasites and play an important role in the transmission of the parasites to humans. In an effort to characterize the immune response in dogs infected with this intracellular pathogen, we

  7. Setting the proportion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells co-cultured with canine macrophages infected with Leishmania chagasi.

    PubMed

    Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Ker, Henrique Gama; Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Sant'Ana, Rita de Cássia Oliveira; Wardini, Amanda Brito; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2015-07-30

    New methods for evaluating the canine immune system are necessary, not only to monitor immunological disorders, but also to provide insights for vaccine evaluations and therapeutic interventions, reducing the costs of assays using dog models, and provide a more rational way for analyzing the canine immune response. The present study intended to establish an in vitro toll to assess the parasitological/immunological status of dogs, applicable in pre-clinical trials of vaccinology, prognosis follow-up and therapeutics analysis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. We have evaluated the performance of co-culture systems of canine Leishmania chagasi-infected macrophages with different cell ratios of total lymphocytes or purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected dogs were used for the system set up. Employing the co-culture systems of L. chagasi-infected macrophages and purified CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell subsets we observed a microenvironment compatible with the expected status of the analyzed dogs. In this context, it was clearly demonstrated that, at this selected T-cell:target ratio, the adaptive immune response of uninfected dogs, composed by L. chagasi-unprimed T-cells was not able to perform the in vitro killing of L. chagasi-infected macrophages. Our data demonstrated that the co-culture system with T-cells from uninfected dogs at 1:5 and 1:2 ratio did not control the infection, yielding to patent in vitro parasitism (?80%), low NO production (?5?M) and IL-10 modulated (IFN-?/IL-10?2) immunological profile in vitro. CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cells at 1:5 or 1:2 ratio to L. chagasi-infected macrophages seems to be ideal for in vitro assays. This co-culture system may have great potential as a canine immunological analysis method, as well as in vaccine evaluations, prognosis follow-up and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26095951

  8. Canine leptospirosis in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Farrington, N P; Sulzer, K R

    1982-06-01

    Among 116 stray dogs in Puerto Rico surveyed for leptospiral agglutinins, 73 (62.9%) has significant titers to one or more leptospiral serotypes. The most common serogroup identified serologically was icterohaemorrhagiae accounting for 53 (72.6%) of the infections. Although the infection rates were comparable for male and female dogs the older were found to be more frequently infected. The significance of the canine in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in Puerto Rico is probably of paramount importance due to the extensive direct and indirect contact dogs have with rats and the human population. PMID:7174233

  9. No serologic evidence for zoonotic canine respiratory coronavirus infections among immunocompetent adults.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Heil, G L; Gray, G C

    2013-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases continue to emerge and threaten both human and animal health. Overcrowded shelters and breeding kennels create the perfect environment for amplified infectious disease transmission among dogs and present a critical opportunity for zoonotic pathogens to emerge and infect people who work in close contact with dogs. Coronaviruses' widespread prevalence, extensive host range, various disease manifestations and increased frequency of recombination events all underline their potential for interspecies transmission (Methods Mol. Biol. 2008, 454, 43). The objectives of this study were to determine whether people with occupational contact with dogs were more likely to have antibodies against canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) compared to persons with no dog exposure. A seroepidemiological cohort study was completed, for which 302 canine-exposed and 99 non-canine-exposed study subjects enrolled in the study by providing a serum sample and completing a self-administered questionnaire. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect human antibodies against CRCoV while controlling for cross-reacting antibodies against the human coronavirus OC43. All study subjects were negative for antibodies against CRCoV by this competitive ELISA. This study supports the premise that humans are not at risk for CRCoV infections; however, infrequent cross-species transmission of CRCoV cannot be ruled out. PMID:22925194

  10. Wave transmission characteristics and anisotropy of canine carotid arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moritz, W. E.; Anliker, M.

    1974-01-01

    A method was developed to generate and record three types of small amplitude waves (pressure, torsion and axial) in the exposed carotid artery of anesthetized dogs. The pressure waves were studied with the aid of miniature pressure transducers; electro-optical tracking units monitored the axial and circumferential surface displacements. Results from 6 dogs are presented in the form of the phase velocities and attenuation of three types of waves. The data demonstrate incompatibility with an isotropic elastic model for the mechanical behavior of the artery. The measured damping appears to be primarily due to the viscoelastic properties of the vessel wall material.

  11. xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx UnderstandingHumanLeishmaniasis:TheNeed

    E-print Network

    rodents, dogs, and other mammals [16,307], and great diversity of immune response exists dependingxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx CHAPTER 6 UnderstandingHumanLeishmaniasis:TheNeed foran of different species and strains of Leishmania, and the vector involved. The hosts can be humans but also

  12. Twenty years of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Aleppo, Syria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Tayeh; Lama Jalouk; Sandy Cairncross

    1997-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica has long been associated with Aleppo in Syria. For 20 years up to the mid-1980s, the number of cases reported annually in the city and environs has remained low, not exceeding a few hundred. Since then, there has been a sudden increase to several thousand cases reported each year. The increase seems too great

  13. Novel Arylimidamides for Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis? †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Michael Zhuo; Zhu, Xiaohua; Srivastava, Anuradha; Liu, Qiang; Sweat, J. Mark; Pandharkar, Trupti; Stephens, Chad E.; Riccio, Ed; Parman, Toufan; Munde, Manoj; Mandal, Swati; Madhubala, Rentala; Tidwell, Richard R.; Wilson, W. David; Boykin, David W.; Hall, James Edwin; Kyle, Dennis E.; Werbovetz, Karl A.

    2010-01-01

    Arylimidamides (AIAs) represent a new class of molecules that exhibit potent antileishmanial activity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], <1 ?M) against both Leishmania donovani axenic amastigotes and intracellular Leishmania, the causative agent for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). A systematic lead discovery program was employed to characterize in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities, pharmacokinetics, mutagenicities, and toxicities of two novel AIAs, DB745 and DB766. They were exceptionally active (IC50 ? 0.12 ?M) against intracellular L. donovani, Leishmania amazonensis, and Leishmania major and did not exhibit mutagenicity in an Ames screen. DB745 and DB766, given orally, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of liver parasitemia in two efficacy models, L. donovani-infected mice and hamsters. Most notably, DB766 (100 mg/kg of body weight/day for 5 days) reduced liver parasitemia in mice and hamsters by 71% and 89%, respectively. Marked reduction of parasitemia in the spleen (79%) and bone marrow (92%) of hamsters was also observed. Furthermore, these compounds distributed to target tissues (liver and spleen) and had a moderate oral bioavailability (up to 25%), a large volume of distribution, and an elimination half-life ranging from 1 to 2 days in mice. In a repeat-dose toxicity study of mice, there was no indication of liver or kidney toxicity for DB766 from serum chemistries, although mild hepatic cell eosinophilia, hypertrophy, and fatty changes were noted. These results demonstrated that arylimidamides are a promising class of molecules that possess good antileishmanial activity and desirable pharmacokinetics and should be considered for further preclinical development as an oral treatment for VL. PMID:20368397

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about leishmaniasis among cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Abazid, N; Jones, C; Davies, C R

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Aleppo and yet the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of CL patients in Aleppo has never been studied. We conducted a KAP study among 70 CL patients attending 4 clinics in Aleppo. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and then at the end of treatment to ascertain their views on access to treatment and the quality of care provided. The mean age of respondents was 32.3 (SD 12.4) years and 59% were female. Most respondents referred to the disease as "one-year sore", linked it to insect bites and believed it was not contagious. Most believed it was preventable by the use of bednets and insecticides and knew the treatment mode. Only 26 (37%) respondents completed the second part of the questionnaire after treatment. Most of these (80%) rated the quality of care as acceptable or better. Assessment f the quality as "bad" correlated with failure to complete follow-up. PMID:22360005

  15. Epidemiological changes in leishmaniasis in Spain according to hospitalization-based records, 1997-2011: raising awareness towards leishmaniasis in non-HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Herrador, Zaida; Gherasim, Alin; Jimenez, B Carolina; Granados, Marisol; San Martín, Juan Victor; Aparicio, Pilar

    2015-03-01

    In Spain, Leishmania infantum is endemic, human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occurring both in the Peninsula, as well as in the Balearic Islands. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis patients and the changes in the disease evolution after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in 1997. In this descriptive study, we used Spanish Centralized Hospital Discharge Database for the hospitalized leishmaniasis cases between 1997 and 2011. We included in the analysis only the records having leishmaniasis as the first registered diagnosis and calculated the hospitalization rates. Disease trend was described taking into account the HIV status. Adjusted odds-ratio was used to estimate the association between clinical and socio-demographic factors and HIV co-infection. Of the total 8010 Leishmaniasis hospitalizations records, 3442 had leishmaniasis as first diagnosis; 2545/3442 (75.6%) were males and 2240/3442 (65.1%) aged between 14-65 years. Regarding disease forms, 2844/3442 (82.6%) of hospitalizations were due to visceral leishmaniasis (VL), while 118/3442 (3.4%) hospitalizations were cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Overall, 1737/2844 of VL (61.1%) were HIV negatives. An overall increasing trend was observed for the records with leishmaniasis as first diagnosis (p=0.113). Non-HIV leishmaniasis increased during this time period (p=0.021) while leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection hospitalization revealed a slight descending trend (p=0.717). Leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection was significantly associated with male sex (aOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.25-2.04), 16-64 years age group (aOR=17.4; 95%CI: 2.1-143.3), visceral leishmaniasis aOR=6.1 (95%CI: 3.27-11.28) and solid neoplasms 4.5 (95% CI: 1.65-12.04). The absence of HIV co-infection was associated with lymph/hematopoietic neoplasms (aOR=0.3; 95%CI:0.14-0.57), other immunodeficiency (aOR=0.04; 95% CI:0.01-0.32) and transplant (aOR=0.01; 95%CI:0.00-0.07). Our findings suggest a significant increase of hospitalization in the absence of HIV co-infection, with a predomination of VL. We consider that clinicians in Spain should be aware of leishmaniasis not only in the HIV population but also in non HIV patients, especially for those having immunosuppression as an associate condition. PMID:25756785

  16. Epidemiological Changes in Leishmaniasis in Spain According to Hospitalization-Based Records, 1997–2011: Raising Awareness towards Leishmaniasis in Non-HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, B. Carolina; Granados, Marisol; San Martín, Juan Victor; Aparicio, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    In Spain, Leishmania infantum is endemic, human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occurring both in the Peninsula, as well as in the Balearic Islands. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis patients and the changes in the disease evolution after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in 1997. In this descriptive study, we used Spanish Centralized Hospital Discharge Database for the hospitalized leishmaniasis cases between 1997 and 2011. We included in the analysis only the records having leishmaniasis as the first registered diagnosis and calculated the hospitalization rates. Disease trend was described taking into account the HIV status. Adjusted odds-ratio was used to estimate the association between clinical and socio-demographic factors and HIV co-infection. Of the total 8010 Leishmaniasis hospitalizations records, 3442 had leishmaniasis as first diagnosis; 2545/3442 (75.6%) were males and 2240/3442 (65.1%) aged between 14-65 years. Regarding disease forms, 2844/3442 (82.6%) of hospitalizations were due to visceral leishmaniasis (VL), while 118/3442 (3.4%) hospitalizations were cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Overall, 1737/2844 of VL (61.1%) were HIV negatives. An overall increasing trend was observed for the records with leishmaniasis as first diagnosis (p=0.113). Non-HIV leishmaniasis increased during this time period (p=0.021) while leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection hospitalization revealed a slight descending trend (p=0.717). Leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection was significantly associated with male sex (aOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.25-2.04), 16-64 years age group (aOR=17.4; 95%CI: 2.1-143.3), visceral leishmaniasis aOR=6.1 (95%CI: 3.27-11.28) and solid neoplasms 4.5 (95% CI: 1.65-12.04). The absence of HIV co-infection was associated with lymph/hematopoietic neoplasms (aOR=0.3; 95%CI:0.14-0.57), other immunodeficiency (aOR=0.04; 95% CI:0.01-0.32) and transplant (aOR=0.01; 95%CI:0.00-0.07). Our findings suggest a significant increase of hospitalization in the absence of HIV co-infection, with a predomination of VL. We consider that clinicians in Spain should be aware of leishmaniasis not only in the HIV population but also in non HIV patients, especially for those having immunosuppression as an associate condition. PMID:25756785

  17. Thermotherapy. An alternative for the treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pentavalent antimonials (Sb5) and miltefosine are the first-line drugs for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia; however, toxicity and treatment duration negatively impact compliance and cost, justifying an active search for better therapeutic options. We compared the efficacy and safety of thermotherapy and meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. Method An open randomized Phase III clinical trial was performed in five military health centres. located in northwestern, central and southern Colombia. Volunteers with parasitological positive diagnosis (Giemsa-stained smears) of cutaneous leishmaniasis were included. A single thermotherapy session involving the application of 50°C at the center and active edge of each lesion. Meglumine antimoniate was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 20?mg Sb5/kg weight/day for 20?days. Results Both groups were comparable. The efficacy of thermotherapy was 64% (86/134 patients) by protocol and 58% (86/149) by intention-to-treat. For the meglumine antimoniate group, efficacy by protocol was 85% (103/121 patients) and 72% (103/143) by intention-to-treat, The efficacy between the treatments was statistically significant (p 0.01 and <0.001) for analysis by intention to treat and by protocol, respectively. There was no difference between the therapeutic response with either treatment regardless of the Leishmania species responsible for infection. The side effects of meglumine antimoniate included myalgia, arthralgia, headache and fever. Regarding thermotherapy, the only side effect was pain at the lesion area four days after the initiation of treatment. Conclusion Although the efficacy rate of meglumine antimoniate was greater than that of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, the side effects were also greater. Those factors, added to the increased costs, the treatment adherence problems and the progressive lack of therapeutic response, make us consider thermotherapy as a first line treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Registered ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00471705 PMID:22594858

  18. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Maria Antonietta; Matheson, Carney; Iachetta, Lucia; Llagostera, Agustín; Appenzeller, Otto

    2009-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. Methodology We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area–likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. Conclusions We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today. PMID:19746163

  19. Amphiphilic Antimony(V) Complexes for Oral Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Flaviana R.; Ferreira, Weverson A.; Campos, Mariana A.; Ramos, Guilherme S.; Kato, Kelly C.; Almeida, Gregório G.; Corrêa, José D.; Melo, Maria N.; Demicheli, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    The need for daily parenteral administration is an important limitation in the clinical use of pentavalent antimonial drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, amphiphilic antimony(V) complexes were prepared from alkylmethylglucamides (L8 and L10, with carbon chain lengths of 8 and 10, respectively), and their potential for the oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was evaluated. Complexes of Sb and ligand at 1:3 (SbL8 and SbL10) were obtained from the reaction of antimony(V) with L8 and L10, as evidenced by elemental and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses. Fluorescence probing of hydrophobic environment and negative-staining transmission electron microscopy showed that SbL8 forms kinetically stabilized nanoassemblies in water. Pharmacokinetic studies with mice in which the compound was administered by the oral route at 200 mg of Sb/kg of body weight indicated that the SbL8 complex promoted greater and more sustained Sb levels in serum and liver than the levels obtained for the conventional antimonial drug meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime [Glu]). The efficacy of SbL8 and SbL10 administered by the oral route was evaluated in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania infantum after a daily dose of 200 mg of Sb/kg for 20 days. Both complexes promoted significant reduction in the liver and spleen parasite burdens in relation to those in the saline-treated control group. The extent of parasite suppression (>99.96%) was similar to that achieved after Glu given intraperitoneally at 80 mg of Sb/kg/day. As expected, there was no significant reduction in the parasitic load in the group treated orally with Glu at 200 mg of Sb/(kg day). In conclusion, amphiphilic antimony(V) complexes emerge as an innovative and promising strategy for the oral treatment of VL. PMID:23796930

  20. Spatial and temporal distributions of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of leishmaniasis, in Iran.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ameneh; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Ghezelbash, Zahra

    2014-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major vector-borne disease and health problem in Iran. Studies on sand flies, as the vectors of the disease, began in the Northern and Western parts of the country in 1930 and have been continued up to now. Concerning many published information in the field of sand flies, providing a digital database for the country will help the public health authorities to make more correct and prompt decisions for planning leishmaniasis control programs as well as modeling and forecasting of transmission potential across the country. All published data on phlebotomine sand flies of Iran were collected. A database was then designed in Excel format, including all available information regarding sand flies. The valid data were transferred to ArcGIS9.3 to prepare the first spatial database of sand flies of Iran. The IrSandflybase includes 131 papers, 2 abstracts and 71 PhD/MSc theses, reporting studies conducted during 1930-2012. This database contains different available data covering all aspects of ecology and biology of 50 sand fly species in two genera of Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia in the country. The temporal activity of sand flies is reported 9 months in warm regions of the southern part, while it may reduce to 7-8 months in central plateau or 4-5 months in cold areas of the northwest. Occasional studies reported rare species from the borderlines of Iran. It seems that changing the climate due to global warming may affect the spatial distribution of different species and expand it into the country, the issue that can be followed by an updated database. PMID:24462940

  1. First Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Wild Adult Male and Female Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative targets for vector control via RNA interference (RNAi). PMID:23554910

  2. Phlebotominae fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an urban district of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, endemic for visceral leishmaniasis: characterization of favored locations as determined by spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Falcão, Alda Lima; de Carvalho, Deborah Aparecida Alves; de Souza, Carina Margonari; Freitas, Christian Rezende; Gomes Lopes, Camila Ragonezi; Moreno, Elizabeth Castro; Melo, Maria Norma

    2011-02-01

    Belo Horizonte, the capital of the southeastern state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the fourth-largest city in the country, has the highest incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) together with a high prevalence of canine VL. The Northeast Sanitary District (NSD) of Belo Horizonte has the largest historical average of human VL cases in the metropolitan region, and is classified as a priority area for epidemiological and entomological monitoring of the disease. The objectives of the present study were to determine the seasonal variation in phlebotomine fauna and to describe the environmental situations in the NSD through characterization of peri-domiciles and application of geographical information system analysis. Entomological captures were performed every two weeks during the period July 2006 to June 2007 using HP light traps placed at 16 locations where cases of human VL had been reported in 2005. The environmental characterization of these locations was accomplished using forms and photographic images. Spatial analyses was used to determine the influence of vegetation, hydrography, altitude and pockets of poverty on the occurrence of cases of human and canine VL, and of phlebotomine vectors. A total of 633 phlebotomines belonging to the subtribes Psychodopygina and Lutzomyina were captured and, of these, 75% were identified as Nyssomyia whitmani and 11% as Lutzomyia longipalpis. The majority of the studied peri-domiciles presented inadequate hygienic conditions that would favor the development of phlebotomines. No significant correlations could be established between biogeographical aspects and either the incidence of human and canine VL or the occurrence of phlebotomines. The proximity of areas with vegetation, villages, slums and open watercourses exerted little influence on the incidence of VL. These findings reinforce the urbanization of the VL profile since the disease occurred in locations where conditions that have been classically related to its prevalence were not present. The results reported herein will be important for implementing measures against VL in the study area. PMID:21110938

  3. Effects of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antimony in cutaneous leishmaniasis-infected hamsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lamya Alnaim; Nermeen Abou Alsoud; Iman Zaghloul; May AL-Jaser

    2007-01-01

    Pentavalent antimony (SbV) compounds are the drugs of choice for the treatment of all forms of leishmaniasis. For 20 years there has been an interest in antifungal azoles for treating leishmaniasis, with variable success. In the current study, we examined the effects of co-administration of fluconazole (FLZ) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of SbV in cutaneous leishmaniasis-infected hamsters. Hamsters were

  4. Canine parvovirus infection in Australia during 1980.

    PubMed

    Sabine, M; Herbert, L; Love, D N

    1982-06-12

    A questionnaire sent to all veterinary practitioners in Australia and many in New Zealand asking for details of their experience with canine parvovirus infections in 1980 elicited the following information. In 1980 explosive outbreaks of disease occurred in most parts of Australia. There was no obvious pattern of spread over the continent as a whole. In many cases outbreaks in country areas occurred after dog shows. Canine parvovirus enteritis affected all age groups with an overall mortality of 16 per cent. While the death rate in the young was high, most dogs responded well to fluid therapy. Canine parvovirus did not appear to be associated with clinical entities other than gastroenteritis and myocarditis. No connection with reproductive problems was established. Killed canine parvovirus vaccines were used extensively after the initial release for sale in July 1980. The vaccines appeared to be safe and effective at least in the short term. Problems arose only in vaccination of very young animals. PMID:7112869

  5. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease. PMID:19426443

  6. Canine Genetics Facilitates Understanding of Human Biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine A. Ostrander; Heidi G. Parker; Nathan B. Sutter

    In the past 15 years the field of canine genetics has advanced dramatically. Dense comparative maps, production of × 1.5 and\\u000a × 7.5 genome sequences, SNP chips, and a growing sophistication regarding how to tackle problems in complex genetics have\\u000a all propelled the canine system from a backwater to the forefront of the genomics landscape. In this chapter, we explore

  7. Canine Cytogenetics - From band to basepair

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Humans and dogs have coexisted for thousands of years, during which time we have developed a unique bond, centered on companionship. Along the way, we have developed purebred dog breeds in a manner that has resulted unfortunately in many of them being affected by serious genetic disorders, including cancers. With serendipity and irony the unique genetic architecture of the 21st Century genome of Man's best friend may ultimately provide many of the keys to unlock some of nature's most intriguing biological puzzles. Canine cytogenetics has advanced significantly over the past 10 years, spurred on largely by the surge of interest in the dog as a biomedical model for genetic disease and the availability of advanced genomics resources. As such the role of canine cytogenetics has moved rapidly from one that served initially to define the gross genomic organization of the canine genome and provide a reliable means to determine the chromosomal location of individual genes, to one that enabled the assembled sequence of the canine genome to be anchored to the karyotype. Canine cytogenetics now presents the biomedical research community with a means to assist in our search for a greater understanding of how genome architectures altered during speciation and in our search for genes associated with cancers that affect both dogs and humans. The cytogenetics ‘toolbox’ for the dog is now loaded. This review aims to provide a summary of some of the recent advancements in canine cytogenetics. PMID:18467825

  8. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  9. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding. PMID:23477413

  10. Leishmania Major Infection Among Psammomys Obesus and Meriones Shawi: Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sidi Bouzid (Central Tunisia)

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Amine; Snoussi, Mohamed-Ali; Chlif, Sadok; Zâatour, Amor; Boukthir, Aïcha; Bel Haj Hamida, Nabil; Chemkhi, Jomâa; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben-Salah, Afif

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A study was undertaken between November 2008 and March 2010, in the focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Central Tunisia, to evaluate the role of Psammomys obesus (n=472) and Meriones shawi (n=167) as reservoir hosts for Leishmania major infection. Prevalence of L. major infection was 7% versus 5% for culture (p=not signifiant [NS]), 19% versus 16% for direct examination of smears (p=NS), and 20% versus 33% (p=NS) for Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test among P. obesus and M. shawi, respectively. The peak of this infection was in winter and autumn and increased steadily with age for the both species of rodents. The clinical examination showed that depilation, hyper-pigmentation, ignition, and severe edema of the higher edge of the ears were the most frequent signs observed in the study sample (all signs combined: 47% for P. obesus versus 43% for M. shawi; p=NS). However, the lesions were bilateral and seem to be more destructive among M. shawi compared with P. obesus. Asymptomatic infection was ?40% for both rodents. This study demonstrated that M. shawi plays an important role in the transmission and the emergence of Leishmania major cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia. PMID:21919726

  11. Concomitant Infection with Leishmania donovani and L. major in Single Ulcers of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients from Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Babiker, A. M.; Ravagnan, S.; Fusaro, A.; Hassan, M. M.; Bakheit, S. M.; Mukhtar, M. M.; Cattoli, G.; Capelli, G.

    2014-01-01

    In Sudan human leishmaniasis occurs in different clinical forms, that is, visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Clinical samples from 69 Sudanese patients with different clinical manifestations were subjected to a PCR targeting the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene for Leishmania species identification. Mixed infections were suspected due to multiple overlapping peaks presented in some sequences of the COII amplicons. Cloning these amplicons and alignment of sequences from randomly selected clones confirmed the presence of two different Leishmania species, L. donovani and L. major, in three out of five CL patients. Findings were further confirmed by cloning the ITS gene. Regarding other samples no significant genetic variations were found in patients with VL (62 patients), PKDL (one patient), or ML (one patient). The sequences clustered in a single homogeneous group within L. donovani genetic group, with the exception of one sequence clustering with L. infantum genetic group. Findings of this study open discussion on the synergetic/antagonistic interaction between divergent Leishmania species both in mammalian and vector hosts, their clinical implications with respect to parasite fitness and response to treatment, and the route of transmission with respect to vector distribution and or adaptation. PMID:24744788

  12. Transport, meiotic arrest, and biphasic maturation of canine oocytes 

    E-print Network

    Hanna, Carol Bailey McCormick

    2001-01-01

    Assisted reproduction is undeveloped in the canine compared to most domestic mammalian species. One of the contributing reasons is the inefficiency of in vitro maturation (IVM) of the canine oocyte. This project was designed to examine several...

  13. Dilated Canine Hearts: A Specimen For Teaching Cardiac Anatomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Lee Anne Cope (Winthrop University)

    2008-09-01

    This article describes an alternate mechanism for teaching cardiovascular anatomy using dilated canine hearts. The article describes the methodology and academic benefits of using canine hearts in an anatomy laboratory.

  14. Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction.

    PubMed

    Morters, Michelle K; Restif, Olivier; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Wood, James L N; Conlan, Andrew J K

    2013-01-01

    Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historical field data for wildlife, with important implications for disease control in dog populations. Here, we examine historical and more recent field data, in the context of host ecology and epidemic theory, to understand better the role of density in rabies transmission and the reasons why culling fails to control rabies. We conclude that the relationship between host density, disease incidence and other factors is complex and may differ between species. This highlights the difficulties of interpreting field data and the constraints of extrapolations between species, particularly in terms of control policies. We also propose that the complex interactions between dogs and people may render culling of free-roaming dogs ineffective irrespective of the relationship between host density and disease incidence. We conclude that vaccination is the most effective means to control rabies in all species. PMID:23004351

  15. Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction

    PubMed Central

    Morters, Michelle K; Restif, Olivier; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Wood, James L N; Conlan, Andrew J K

    2013-01-01

    Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historical field data for wildlife, with important implications for disease control in dog populations. Here, we examine historical and more recent field data, in the context of host ecology and epidemic theory, to understand better the role of density in rabies transmission and the reasons why culling fails to control rabies. We conclude that the relationship between host density, disease incidence and other factors is complex and may differ between species. This highlights the difficulties of interpreting field data and the constraints of extrapolations between species, particularly in terms of control policies. We also propose that the complex interactions between dogs and people may render culling of free-roaming dogs ineffective irrespective of the relationship between host density and disease incidence. We conclude that vaccination is the most effective means to control rabies in all species. PMID:23004351

  16. Clinical Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Rates Are Associated with Household Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. Panamensis, and Lu. trapidoi Abundance in Trinidad de Las Minas, Western Panama

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, Azael; Chaves, Luis F.; Rigg, Chystrie A.; Wald, Coridalia; Smucker, Joanne E.; Calzada, Jose E.

    2013-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission patterns have been increasingly associated with domestic and peridomestic environments. Here, we present results from an epidemiological survey of 94 people from 24 households in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We studied the role of sand fly abundance, housing quality, peridomicile landscape matrix, and vegetation structure on shaping household clinical ACL rate patterns at Trinidad de Las Minas. We found that sand fly abundance was significantly associated with household clinical ACL rates, with a 6% rate increase for each additional Lutzomyia gomezi sand fly found inside a domicile. PMID:23339202

  17. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Antonietta Costa; Carney Matheson; Lucia Iachetta; Agustín Llagostera; Otto Appenzeller; Michael D. Petraglia

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundLeishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America.MethodologyWe discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections

  18. Live Vaccination Tactics: Possible Approaches for Controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Saljoughian, Noushin; Taheri, Tahareh; Rafati, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with durable immunity is the main goal and fundamental to control leishmaniasis. To stimulate the immune response, small numbers of parasites are necessary to be presented in the mammalian host. Similar to natural course of infection, strategy using live vaccine is more attractive when compared to other approaches. Live vaccines present the whole spectrum of antigens to the host immune system in the absence of any adjuvant. Leishmanization was the first effort for live vaccination and currently used in a few countries against cutaneous leishmaniasis, in spite of their obstacle and safety. Then, live attenuated vaccines developed with similar promotion of creating long-term immunity in the host with lower side effect. Different examples of attenuated strains are generated through long-term in vitro culturing, culturing under drug pressure, temperature sensitivity, and chemical mutagenesis, but none is safe enough and their revision to virulent form is possible. Attenuation through genetic manipulation and disruption of virulence factors or essential enzymes for intracellular survival are among other approaches that are intensively under study. Other designs to develop live vaccines for visceral form of leishmaniasis are utilization of live avirulent microorganisms such as Lactococcus lactis, Salmonella enterica, and Leishmania tarentolae called as vectored vaccine. Apparently, these vaccines are intrinsically safer and can harbor the candidate antigens in their genome through different genetic manipulation and create more potential to control Leishmania parasite as an intracellular pathogen. PMID:24744757

  19. Live vaccination tactics: possible approaches for controlling visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Saljoughian, Noushin; Taheri, Tahareh; Rafati, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with durable immunity is the main goal and fundamental to control leishmaniasis. To stimulate the immune response, small numbers of parasites are necessary to be presented in the mammalian host. Similar to natural course of infection, strategy using live vaccine is more attractive when compared to other approaches. Live vaccines present the whole spectrum of antigens to the host immune system in the absence of any adjuvant. Leishmanization was the first effort for live vaccination and currently used in a few countries against cutaneous leishmaniasis, in spite of their obstacle and safety. Then, live attenuated vaccines developed with similar promotion of creating long-term immunity in the host with lower side effect. Different examples of attenuated strains are generated through long-term in vitro culturing, culturing under drug pressure, temperature sensitivity, and chemical mutagenesis, but none is safe enough and their revision to virulent form is possible. Attenuation through genetic manipulation and disruption of virulence factors or essential enzymes for intracellular survival are among other approaches that are intensively under study. Other designs to develop live vaccines for visceral form of leishmaniasis are utilization of live avirulent microorganisms such as Lactococcus lactis, Salmonella enterica, and Leishmania tarentolae called as vectored vaccine. Apparently, these vaccines are intrinsically safer and can harbor the candidate antigens in their genome through different genetic manipulation and create more potential to control Leishmania parasite as an intracellular pathogen. PMID:24744757

  20. Elimination of visceral leishmaniasis in Nepal: Pipe-dreams and possibilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshi AB; Pokhrel S; Jimba M; Singhasivanon P; Ashford RW

    Introduction: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) re-emerged in the Indian subcontinent in the mid-1970s after an almost complete absence in the previous fifteen or so years. The disease was first noted in Nepal in 1978 and, since 1980, it has been reported regularly in increasing numbers. Elimination of visceral leishmaniasis by 2015 has been identified as regional priority program in the level

  1. Temporal Dynamics and Impact of Climate Factors on the Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Leishmaniasis in Central Tunisia Amine Toumi1 *, Sadok Chlif1 , Jihene Bettaieb1 , Nissaf Ben Alaya1 , Aicha of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia, 2 Regional Directorate of Public Health, Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia Abstract Background and Impact of Climate Factors on the Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Central Tunisia. PLo

  2. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Cuban immigrants to Texas who traveled through the Darién Jungle, Panama.

    PubMed

    Barry, Meagan A; Koshelev, Misha V; Sun, Grace S; Grekin, Sarah J; Stager, Charles E; Diwan, A Hafeez; Wasko, Carina A; Murray, Kristy O; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is rarely seen in the United States. Four Cuban immigrants traveled along the same route at different times from Cuba to Ecuador, then northward, including through the Darién Jungle in Panama. These patients had chronic ulcerative non-healing skin lesions and were given a diagnosis of leishmaniasis. PMID:24865687

  3. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-01-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age. PMID:22379198

  4. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer. PMID:22672137

  5. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    PubMed Central

    Gruszka, Katarzyna; Ró?y?o, T. Katarzyna; Ró?y?o-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Denkiewicz, Katarzyna; Mas?owska, Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. Results The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation. PMID:24520309

  6. Studies on the epizootiology of canine coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Tennant, B J; Gaskell, R M; Jones, R C; Gaskell, C J

    1993-01-01

    The seroprevalence and, or, incidence of canine coronavirus infection was determined in several dog populations in the UK. Seroprevalence ranged from 76 per cent for a rescue kennel to 100 per cent in a commercial breeding colony. In the rescue kennel there was no difference in seroprevalence of the virus between dogs less than or more than four months of age. In the breeding colony, subclinical seroconversion occurred between six and 10 weeks of age. The virus was isolated from faecal samples from 45 of 100 dogs in the rescue kennel; it was isolated from 73 per cent of the dogs with diarrhoea and from 43 per cent of those which did not have diarrhoea. In field cases of acute, mainly haemorrhagic diarrhoea in pet dogs, eight of 32 were positive for canine coronavirus. No canine coronavirus was isolated from either clinically healthy pet dogs in a boarding kennel or from non-diarrhoeic pet dogs examined at the University of Liverpool Small Animal Hospital. It would appear that although canine coronavirus is widespread, the role of the virus in canine enteritis is still equivocal. PMID:8382389

  7. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage. PMID:24906525

  8. Efficacy of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing Leishmania Antigen against Leishmania Challenge in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Misako; Takenaka, Akiko; Doki, Miho; Goto, Yasuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Endo, Yasuyuki; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Sugai, Akihiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination confers long-term protection against CDV reinfection. To investigate the utility of CDV as a polyvalent vaccine vector for Leishmania, we generated recombinant CDVs, based on an avirulent Yanaka strain, that expressed Leishmania antigens: LACK, TSA, or LmSTI1 (rCDV–LACK, rCDV–TSA, and rCDV–LmSTI1, respectively). Dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK were protected against challenge with lethal doses of virulent CDV, in the same way as the parental Yanaka strain. To evaluate the protective effects of the recombinant CDVs against cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, dogs were immunized with one recombinant CDV or a cocktail of three recombinant CDVs, before intradermal challenge (in the ears) with infective-stage promastigotes of Leishmania major. Unvaccinated dogs showed increased nodules with ulcer formation after 3 weeks, whereas dogs immunized with rCDV–LACK showed markedly smaller nodules without ulceration. Although the rCDV–TSA- and rCDV–LmSTI1-immunized dogs showed little protection against L. major, the cocktail of three recombinant CDVs more effectively suppressed the progression of nodule formation than immunization with rCDV–LACK alone. These results indicate that recombinant CDV is suitable for use as a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine for protection against both CDV and L. major infections in dogs. PMID:26162094

  9. Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H3N2) to Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Daesub; Kang, Bokyu; Lee, Chulseung; Jung, Kwonil; Ha, Gunwoo; Kang, Dongseok; Park, Seongjun; Park, Bongkyun

    2008-01-01

    In South Korea, where avian influenza virus subtypes H3N2, H5N1, H6N1, and H9N2 circulate or have been detected, 3 genetically similar canine influenza virus (H3N2) strains of avian origin (A/canine/Korea/01/2007, A/canine/Korea/02/2007, and A/canine/Korea/03/2007) were isolated from dogs exhibiting severe respiratory disease. To determine whether the novel canine influenza virus of avian origin was transmitted among dogs, we experimentally infected beagles with this influenza virus (H3N2) isolate. The beagles shed virus through nasal excretion, seroconverted, and became ill with severe necrotizing tracheobronchitis and bronchioalveolitis with accompanying clinical signs (e.g., high fever). Consistent with histologic observation of lung lesions, large amounts of avian influenza virus binding receptor (SA? 2,3-gal) were identified in canine tracheal, bronchial, and bronchiolar epithelial cells, which suggests potential for direct transmission of avian influenza virus (H3N2) from poultry to dogs. Our data provide evidence that dogs may play a role in interspecies transmission and spread of influenza virus. PMID:18439355

  10. High levels of plasma IL-10 and expression of IL-10 by keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M; Khalil, E A G; Ismail, A; Kadaru, A M Y; Kharazmi, A; Theander, T G

    1998-01-01

    Some patients develop post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) after they have been treated for the systemic infection kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). It has been an enigma why the parasites cause skin symptoms after the patients have been successfully treated for the systemic disease. We report here that PKDL development can be predicted before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, and that IL-10 is involved in the pathogenesis. Before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania parasites were present in skin which appeared normal on all patients. However, IL-10 was detected in the keratinocytes and/or sweat glands of all patients who later developed PKDL (group 1) and not in any of the patients who did not develop PKDL (group 2). Furthermore, the levels of IL-10 in plasma as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture supernatants were higher in group 1 than in group 2. PMID:9472662

  11. Furcation lesion in a mandibular canine.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Dimitri Ribas; Sena, Larryson Goncalves; Santos, Maria Helena; Goncalves, Patricia Furtado

    2011-01-01

    Morphological changes can complicate dental treatment. This report presents a rare case of a furcation lesion in a mandibular canine with two roots. A 39-year-old man in general good health sought dental care for severe pain in his maxillary anterior teeth. The clinical examination showed localized swelling in the vestibular mucosa close to the mandibular left canine. Radiographic examination revealed two distinct roots and vertical bone resorption in the canine's mesial surface. Periodontal evaluation led to a diagnosis of periodontal abscess associated with furcation lesion. Despite the occurrence in an atypical location, the site of periodontal furcation received conventional therapy for initial decontamination, including tissue debridement and a combination of polyvinylpyrrolidone irrigation and antibiotics. To improve access, the decontamination was completed with surgical techniques and scaling and root planing. Early diagnosis of this rare morphological change helped to determine appropriate, timely treatment planning and optimal patient recovery. PMID:21903558

  12. Epidemiologic features of canine hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Milne, K L; Hayes, H M

    1981-01-01

    This study investigates the epidemiologic features of 3,206 dogs diagnosed with hypothyroidism (including myxedema) from 1.1 million dogs seen at 15 veterinary teaching hospitals between March, 1964 and June, 1978. Nine breeds found to be at high-risk for hypothyroidism were: golden retrievers, Doberman pinschers, dachshunds, Shetland sheepdogs, Irish setters, Pomeranians, miniature schnauzers, cocker spaniels, and Airedales. Two breed with a significant deficit of risk were German shepherds and mixed breed (mongrel) dogs. Age risk was greatest among younger dogs of high-risk breeds, further suggesting a genetic component to the etiology of this disease. In contrast, low-risk dogs had increasing relative risk through nine years of age. Spayed female dogs displayed a significantly higher risk when compared to intact females. Though not statistically significant, male castrated dogs had 30% more hypothyroidism compared to their intact counterparts. Among the case series were 91 endocrine and hormone-related neoplasms and 198 other endocrine-related disorders. Further studies linking canine hypothyroidism to other conditions, particularly cancer, could provide valuable insight into human disease experience. PMID:7226844

  13. Establishment and Characterization of an Air-Liquid Canine Corneal Organ Culture Model To Study Acute Herpes Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Harman, Rebecca M.; Bussche, Leen; Ledbetter, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the clinical importance of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced ocular disease, the underlying pathophysiology of the disease remains poorly understood, in part due to the lack of adequate virus–natural-host models in which to study the cellular and viral factors involved in acute corneal infection. We developed an air-liquid canine corneal organ culture model and evaluated its susceptibility to canine herpesvirus type 1 (CHV-1) in order to study ocular herpes in a physiologically relevant natural host model. Canine corneas were maintained in culture at an air-liquid interface for up to 25 days, and no degenerative changes were observed in the corneal epithelium during cultivation using histology for morphometric analyses, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Next, canine corneas were inoculated with CHV-1 for 48 h, and at that time point postinfection, viral plaques could be visualized in the corneal epithelium and viral DNA copies were detected in both the infected corneas and culture supernatants. In addition, we found that canine corneas produced proinflammatory cytokines in response to CHV-1 infection similarly to what has been described for HSV-1. This emphasizes the value of our model as a virus–natural-host model to study ocular herpesvirus infections. IMPORTANCE This study is the first to describe the establishment of an air-liquid canine corneal organ culture model as a useful model to study ocular herpesvirus infections. The advantages of this physiologically relevant model include the fact that (i) it provides a system in which ocular herpes can be studied in a virus–natural-host setting and (ii) it reduces the number of experimental animals needed. In addition, this long-term explant culture model may also facilitate research in other fields where noninfectious and infectious ocular diseases of dogs and humans are being studied. PMID:25231295

  14. Transmission Communication

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Digital Communication System . Purpose: communicate: rate, quality # spectral bandwidth requirement . Major components: CODEC, MODEM and channel modulation input output CODEC MODEM Medium 1 #12; ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Digital

  15. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  16. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S.; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer. PMID:24841386

  17. Canine hematopoietic tumors: diagnosis, treatment and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Canine hematopoietic tumors constitute a group of neoplasms that are frequently encountered in veterinary practice. Although common, they are also a diagnostically confusing group of tumors due to continued revision of their definition and classification. The confusion that arises from these changes presents the clinician with a perpetual challenge of diagnosis and therapy. Therapy of canine hematopoietic tumors has traditionally evolved from treatment of human patients with similar diseases, and in turn, these neoplasms have served as models for evaluating newer therapies for possible application in human patients. Methods of treatment have included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hyperthermia. 9 tabs.

  18. A serological survey of canine respiratory coronavirus and canine influenza virus in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Jeong, Wooseog; Chae, Sungwon; Song, Dae-Sub; Oh, Jin-Sik; Park, Bong-Kyun

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) and canine influenza virus (CIV) seropositivity in dogs in Korea was examined. Sixty-two of the 483 samples (12.8%) were seropositive for CRCoV by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) analysis. Nineteen animals were seropositive for CIV by ELISA out of the 385 samples tested. Serum antibodies for both viruses were detected in 6 of the 483 dogs sampled, suggesting that these viruses are present in dogs in Korea. Although the role of CRCoV in canine infectious tracheobronchitis has not been fully elucidated, co-infection with CIV may synergistically worsen respiratory clinical signs and result in more severe canine tracheobronchitis. PMID:20410676

  19. The Seroprevalence of Canine Parvovirus-2 in a Selected Sample of the Canine Population in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Carman, P. S.; Povey, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Canine sera, collected from dogs presented to the Ontario Veterinary College between 1976 and 1980, were assessed for canine parvovirus-2 antibody using a microtitre hemagglutination-inhibition test. Special emphasis was made on the period from September 1979 to October 1980 (2892 samples). No antibody was detected in samples collected in 1976 or 1977. The first positive sera were obtained in January 1978. By the end of 1978 antibodies to canine parvovirus-2 were widespread in Ontario dogs and in 1980, 683 of 2191 dogs (31.2%) had antibody. This was before widespread vaccination was being practised and indicates canine parvovirus-2 infection occurred frequently. Evaluation of clinical records of these dogs suggested that most infections had been subclinical. PMID:17422418

  20. Canine parvovirus infection potentiates canine distemper encephalitis attributable to modified live-virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Krakowka, S; Olsen, R G; Axthelm, M K; Rice, J; Winters, K

    1982-01-15

    Twelve gnotobiotic dogs from 2 litters were allotted to 3 groups. Group A dogs received a modified-live polyvalent (canine distemper, adenovirus type 2, and parainfluenza virus and Leptospira -canicola-icterohemorrhagiae bacterin) vaccine 3 days prior to oral inoculation with canine parvovirus (CPV). Group B dogs received CPV alone. Group C dogs received 1 dose of vaccine only. In none of the 9 CPV-inoculated dogs did clinical signs of CPV infection develop, although high serum antibody titers for CPV developed in all of them. However, in 2 of the 5 CPV-inoculated vaccinates, canine distemper virus encephalomyelitis subsequently developed. The results suggested that CPV exerts an immunomodulating effect on canine immune responses and may be responsible for vaccination failures in dogs. PMID:7061309

  1. Transmission zerocrossings

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Revision of Lecture 2 . Pulse shaping Tx/Rx filter­o# factor, and required baseband transmission bandwidth B = fs 2 (1+ #) MODEM components pulse shaping Tx: modulator/demodulator 27 #12; ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen QAM Modulator / Demodulator

  2. Isolation and investigation of canine phosducin as a candidate for canine generalized progressive retinal atrophies.

    PubMed

    Lin, C T; Petersen-Jones, S M; Sargan, D R

    1998-10-01

    A subtractive cDNA cloning strategy was used to isolate canine retina-specific genes. Canine phosducin cDNA was cloned from a canine subtracted retinal cDNA library and was analysed as a candidate for canine generalized progressive retinal atrophies (gPRA). Canine phosducin cDNA is 1230 bp in length encoding 245 amino acids. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of canine phosducin are highly conserved when compared with those of five other mammalian species, namely human, cat, cow, rat, and mouse. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the mRNA transcript for phosducin was approximately 1.3 kb in size and was present in canine retina, but showed no visible signals in 13 other canine tissues. The phosducin gene was examined for polymorphisms in a total of 101 pedigree dogs of eight breeds, including normal, obligate gPRA carriers, and gPRA-affected dogs, by single-stranded conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) analysis. Polymorphisms in the phosducin gene were detected only in the 3' untranslated region of the gene in two breeds of dogs: allelic heterozygous polymorphisms in miniature poodles suffering from one form of gPRA (progressive rod-cone degeneration, prcd), and a different polymorphism in a single normal Irish wolfhound. The polymorphisms of phosducin in prcd-affected miniature poodles did not segregate with the autosomal recessive form of gPRA. Heterozygous inheritance of the polymorphisms suggests that phosducin is very unlikely to carry the mutation causing prcd, so phosducin was probably excluded as a candidate for prcd-affected miniature poodles in this study. PMID:9820795

  3. Canine respiratory coronavirus: an emerging pathogen in the canine infectious respiratory disease complex.

    PubMed

    Erles, Kerstin; Brownlie, Joe

    2008-07-01

    Infectious respiratory disease in dogs is a constant challenge because of the involvement of several pathogens and environmental factors. Canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) is a new coronavirus of dogs, which is widespread in North America, Japan, and several European countries. CRCoV has been associated with respiratory disease, particularly in kenneled dog populations. The virus is genetically and antigenically distinct from enteric canine coronavirus; therefore, specific tests are required for diagnosis. PMID:18501280

  4. Ecology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sinai: linking parasites, vectors and hosts

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Abdallah Mohammed; Doha, Said Abdallah; Kenawy, Mohamed Amin

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected clinical form of public health importance that is quite prevalent in the northern and eastern parts of Egypt. A comprehensive study over seven years (January 2005-December 2011) was conducted to track CL transmission with respect to both sandfly vectors and animal reservoirs. The study identified six sandfly species collected from different districts in North Sinai: Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus kazeruni, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus alexandri, Sergentomyia antennata and Sergentomyia clydei. Leishmania (-)-like flagellates were identified in 15 P. papatasi individuals (0.5% of 3,008 dissected females). Rodent populations were sampled in the same districts where sandflies were collected and eight species were identified: Rattus norvegicus (n = 39), Rattus rattus frugivorous (n = 13), Rattus rattus alexandrinus (n = 4), Gerbillus pyramidum floweri (n = 38), Gerbillus andersoni (n = 28), Mus musculus (n = 5), Meriones sacramenti (n = 22) and Meriones crassus (n = 10). Thirty-two rodents were found to be positive for Leishmania infection (20.12% of 159 examined rodents). Only Leishmania major was isolated and identified in 100% of the parasite samples. The diversity of both the vector and rodent populations was examined using diversity indices and clustering approaches. PMID:24821060

  5. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in dogs: is high seroprevalence indicative of a reservoir role?

    PubMed

    Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; González, Kadir; Rigg, Chystrie; Pineda, Vanessa; Santamaría, Ana María; Rodríguez, Indra; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Laurenti, Marcia D; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-08-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complex disease with a rich diversity of animal host species. This diversity imposes a challenge, since understanding ACL transmission requires the adequate identification of reservoir hosts, those species able to be a source of additional infections. In this study we present results from an ACL cross-sectional serological survey of 51 dogs (Canis familiaris), where we used diagnostic tests that measure dog's exposure to Leishmania spp. parasites. We did our research in Panamá, at a village that has undergone significant ecosystem level transformations. We found an ACL seroprevalence of 47% among dogs, and their exposure was positively associated with dog age and abundance of sand fly vectors in the houses of dog owners. Using mathematical models, which were fitted to data on the proportion of positive tests as function of dog age, we estimated a basic reproductive number (R 0 ± s.e.) of 1·22 ± 0·09 that indicates the disease is endemically established in the dogs. Nevertheless, this information by itself is insufficient to incriminate dogs as ACL reservoirs, given the inability to find parasites (or their DNA) in seropositive dogs and previously reported failures to experimentally infect vectors feeding on dogs with ACL parasites. PMID:25990429

  6. Forty years of canine vaccination.

    PubMed

    Appel, M J

    1999-01-01

    During the last 40 years vaccines have been developed that have greatly reduced the incidence of infectious diseases of dogs. In general, modified live products have been superior to inactivated vaccines for dogs. It can be expected that recombinant and/or DNA vaccines may dominate the market in the future. Although most vaccines on the market are safe and efficacious, there have been exceptions where disease was induced by vaccination or dogs were not protected. The failure of protection may in part be due to variations in individual vaccine batches. Only potency tests but not efficacy tests are required, which may not be sufficient. For example, a virus titer in a vaccine may be meaningless if the minimum protective dose is not known. Overattenuated virus (e.g., CDV-Ond or parvovirus in cat cells) may have a high titer in tissue culture but is not immunogenic. The question of frequency of vaccination of dogs should be addressed. Annual revaccinations for CDV, CPV, and CAV are probably not needed. However, it would be desirable to collect more data to support less frequent vaccinations. Annual immunization for bacterial diseases such as kennel cough, Lyme disease, and leptospirosis should continue. It also would be desirable to develop more oro/nasal vaccines, perhaps combined with newly developed vectors that are less likely to induce undesirable side effects that may be seen after parenteral vaccination. Finally a word of warning against homeopathic "nosodes" to replace tested canine vaccines. They will appear highly effective as long as the majority of dogs remain vaccinated. As soon as a nonvaccinated dog population is large enough to allow virulent agents to spread, disease outbreaks will occur and we will be back where we began 40 years ago. PMID:9890024

  7. Characterization of an H3N2 canine influenza virus isolated from Tibetan mastiffs in China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Qiaoyang; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Dawei; Zhou, Jiewen; Dai, Xiaoguang; Chen, Zhaoguo; Li, Zejun

    2013-03-23

    Ten 3-month-old Tibetan mastiffs became ill 2 days after they were bought from a Tibetan mastiff exhibition, and 4 of them died 2 weeks later. A canine influenza virus (ZJ0110) was isolated from the lung of a deceased Tibetan mastiff and was characterized in detail. Sequence analysis indicated that the 8 genes of the canine isolate were most similar to those of avian-origin canine influenza viruses (H3N2) isolated in South Korea in 2007, with which they shared >98% sequence identity. ZJ0110 could experimentally infect 6-month-old beagles by intranasal inoculation and by airborne transmission, causing severe respiratory syndrome. Moreover, ZJ0110 could replicate in the upper respiratory tracts of mice and guinea pigs, and the virus titer was comparable to that in the upper respiratory tracts of dogs. Although the virus was genetically of avian origin, ZJ0110 could not experimentally infect chicken or ducks by intranasal inoculation. These results suggest that dogs might be an intermediary host in which avian influenza viruses adapt to replicate in mammals. PMID:23107656

  8. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Leslie; Ritmeijer, Koert; Piriou, Erwan; Siddiqui, M. Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz

    2015-01-01

    Background Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367) in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526) in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively). Conclusion The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study. PMID:26161864

  9. Visceral Leishmaniasis as a Possible Reason for Pancytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Koster, Kira-Lee; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Troeger, Anja; Meisel, Roland; Borkhardt, Arndt; Oommen, Prasad Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by different species of the protozoa, Leishmania, and frequently found in South-Western Asia, Eastern Africa, Brazil, and Mediterranean countries. Leishmania are transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies. After weeks to months, unspecific symptoms may occur, accompanied by more specific findings like pancytopenia and organomegaly. We report two children with pancytopenia and hepato-/splenomegaly: a 1-year-old boy was first diagnosed with an Adenovirus-infection, accompanied by fever, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly who had spent his summer vacation in Spain and a 3-year-old boy of Macedonian origin who was first diagnosed with a Parvovirus B19-infection again accompanied by splenomegaly and pancytopenia. In both children, leukemia was excluded by an initial bone marrow puncture. As fever was still persistent weeks after the children’s first hospital stay, both children received antibiotics empirically without sustainable effect. While different autoantibodies were present in both children, an immunosuppressive therapy was initiated in the younger boy without therapeutic success. A second bone marrow puncture was performed and Leishmania were finally detected morphologically and proven serologically. After weight-adjusted treatment with liposomal Amphotericin B for 10?days, both children recovered completely without relapse. Aim of this report is to broaden the spectrum of differential diagnoses in children with pancytopenia, splenomegaly, and fever to visceral leishmaniasis particularly when travel history is positive for the Mediterranean area. The infection may mimic more common diseases, such as leukemia, viral infections, or autoimmune diseases, because polyclonal B cell activation and other mechanisms may lead to multiple positive serologic tests. Both cases illustrate typical pitfalls and shall encourage taking Leishmaniasis into diagnostic consideration. PMID:26176005

  10. American tegumentary leishmaniasis: correlations among immunological, histopathological and clinical parameters*

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Luiza Grizzo Peres; Barreto, Jaison Antonio; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Martins, Ana Claudia Grizzo Peres

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND American tegumentary leishmaniasis has an annual incidence of 1 to 1.5 million cases. In some cases, the patient's immune response can eliminate the parasite, and the lesion spontaneously resolves. However, when this does not occur, patients develop the disseminated form of the disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. METHODS A retrospective study of the medical records of 47 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data were collected, and semi-quantitative histopathological analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (p <0.05). RESULTS Mean patient age was 40.5 years. A total of 29.7% individuals were female and 70.2% were male, and 40.4% of the patients were farmers. The ulcerative form was found in 53.2% of patients, of whom 59.6% had lesions in the limbs. The average time to diagnosis was 22.3 months. The following positive correlations were significant: age and duration of the disease, Montenegro reaction, degree of granulomatous transformation and epithelioid cell count; duration of disease, Montenegro reaction and number of lymphocytes; epithelial hyperplasia and edema, hemorrhaging, and epithelial aggression; number of plasmocytes and number of parasites. The main negative correlations found were as follows: age and serology; time and parasite load; epithelial hyperplasia and degree of granulomatous transformation. CONCLUSION The long duration of the disease could be explained by the fact that lesions were relatively asymptomatic, and therefore ignored by patients with low literacy levels. Individuals may have simply waited for spontaneous healing, which proved to be dependent on the activation of hypersensitivity mechanisms. PMID:24626648

  11. A novel bocavirus in canine liver

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bocaviruses are classified as a genus within the Parvoviridae family of single-stranded DNA viruses and are pathogenic in some mammalian species. Two species have been previously reported in dogs, minute virus of canines (MVC), associated with neonatal diseases and fertility disorders; and Canine bocavirus (CBoV), associated with respiratory disease. Findings In this study using deep sequencing of enriched viral particles from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, necrotizing vasculitis, granulomatous lymphadenitis and anuric renal failure, we identified and characterized a novel bocavirus we named Canine bocavirus 3 (CnBoV3). The three major ORFs of CnBoV3 (NS1, NP1 and VP1) shared less than 60% aa identity with those of other bocaviruses qualifying it as a novel species based on ICTV criteria. Inverse PCR showed the presence of concatemerized or circular forms of the genome in liver. Conclusions We genetically characterized a bocavirus in a dog liver that is highly distinct from prior canine bocaviruses found in respiratory and fecal samples. Its role in this animal’s complex disease remains to be determined. PMID:23402347

  12. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain. PMID:21801646

  13. Prostate histotripsy for BPH: initial canine results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    Histotripsy is an extracorporeal ablative technology that utilizes microsecond pulses of intense ultrasound (< 1% duty cycle) to produce nonthermal, mechanical fractionation of targeted tissue. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of histotripsy prostate ablation. In this study we sought to assess the chronic tissue response, tolerability and safety of histotripsy in a chronic in vivo canine model. Five acute and thirteen chronic canine subjects were anesthetized and treated with histotripsy targeting the prostate. Pulses consisted of 3 cycle bursts of 750 kHz ultrasound at a repetition rate of 300 Hz delivered transabdominally from a highly focused 15 cm aperture array. Transrectal ultrasound imaging provided accurate targeting and real-time monitoring of histotripsy treatment. Prostates were harvested at 0, 7, 28, or 56 days after treatment. Consistent mechanical tissue fractionation and debulking of prostate tissue was seen acutely and at delayed time points without collateral injury. Urothelialization of the treatment cavity was apparent 28 days after treatment. Canine subjects tolerated histotripsy with minimal hematuria or discomfort. Only mild transient lab abnormalities were noted. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive therapy for prostate tissue fractionation and debulking that appears safe and well tolerated without systemic side effects in the canine model.

  14. Canine coronavirus: not only an enteric pathogen.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews the currently available literature on pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV), providing a meaningful update on the virologic, epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic, and prophylactic aspects of the infections caused by this emerging pathogen of dogs. It also describes pantropic CCoV-induced disease reproduced under experimental conditions. PMID:22041207

  15. Gait Synthesis of Abnormal Gaits in Canines 

    E-print Network

    Playle, Amber

    2014-10-10

    analysis is used to isolate the components of canine gait that are the direct result of poor health. These components are then synthesized with the healthy motion of a new dog to create the appearance of the unhealthy motion in that breed. Given two...

  16. Post-Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Nepal: A Retrospective Cohort Study (2000–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Uranw, Surendra; Ostyn, Bart; Rijal, Arpana; Devkota, Saru; Khanal, Basudha; Menten, Joris; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a cutaneous complication appearing after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, and PKDL patients are considered infectious to sand flies and may therefore play a role in the transmission of VL. We estimated the risk and risk factors of PKDL in patients with past VL treatment in south-eastern Nepal. Methods Between February and May 2010 we traced all patients who had received VL treatment during 2000–2009 in five high-endemic districts and screened them for PKDL-like skin lesions. Suspected cases were referred to a tertiary care hospital for confirmation by parasitology (slit skin smear (SSS)) and/or histopathology. We calculated the risk of PKDL using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and exact logistic regression for risk factors. Results Out of 680 past-treated VL patients, 37(5.4%) presented active skin lesions suspect of PKDL during the survey. Thirty-three of them underwent dermatological assessment, and 16 (2.4%) were ascertained as probable (2) or confirmed (14) PKDL. Survival analysis showed a 1.4% risk of PKDL within 2 years of VL treatment. All 16 had been previously treated with sodium stibogluconate (SSG) for their VL. In 5, treatment had not been completed (?21 injections). Skin lesions developed after a median time interval of 23 months [interquartile range (IQR) 16–40]. We found a higher PKDL rate (29.4%) in those inadequately treated compared to those who received a full SSG course (2.0%). In the logistic regression model, unsupervised treatment [odds ratio (OR)?=?8.58, 95% CI 1.21–374.77], and inadequate SSG treatment for VL in the past (OR?=?11.68, 95% CI 2.71–45.47) were significantly associated with PKDL. Conclusion The occurrence of PKDL after VL treatment in Nepal is low compared to neighboring countries. Supervised and adequate treatment of VL seems essential to reduce the risk of PKDL development and active surveillance for PKDL is needed. PMID:22206030

  17. Risk factors for canine echinococcosis in an endemic area of Peru.

    PubMed

    Moro, Pedro L; Lopera, Luis; Bonifacio, Nilo; Gonzales, Armando; Gilman, Robert H; Moro, Manuel H

    2005-06-10

    An epidemiological study was conducted in a highland rural community in Peru to determine risk factors for canine echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Dogs were diagnosed using a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dog owners were interviewed prior to stool collection and asked for attitudes, practices and beliefs likely to be associated with local patterns of E. granulosus transmission. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). The main risk factors found to be significantly associated with canine echinococcosis by univariate analysis were dog age (3-25 months) (OR, 5.14; CI, 1.7-15.7), female sex (OR, 4.3; CI, 1.4-13.3) and having been fed hydatid infected offal (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.0-8.6). There was complete lack of knowledge about echinococcosis transmission. In addition to periodic dog treatment, control programs need to emphasize education of the human population to increase knowledge of parasite transmission and to change human practices associated with high rates of infection. PMID:15893076

  18. Nano-Synthetic Devices in Leishmaniasis: A Bioinformatics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Milsee; Kosey, Dipali; Singh, Shailza

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an investigative and constructive means of understanding the complexities of biology. Substantial progress in the fields has resulted in the creation of synthetic gene circuits, which when uploaded into the appropriate nanoliposomal vehicle, can be used for a tunable response in a cell. These tunable elements can be applied to treat diseased condition for a transition to a healthy state. Though in its nascent stage of development synthetic biology is beginning to use its constructs to bring engineering approaches into biomedicine for treatment of infectious disease leishmaniasis.

  19. Canine cytochrome P450 (CYP) pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Court, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes are essential for the efficient elimination of many clinically used drugs. These enzymes typically display high interindividual variability in expression and function resulting from enzyme induction, inhibition, and genetic polymorphism thereby predisposing patients to adverse drug reactions or therapeutic failure. There are also substantial species differences in CYP substrate specificity and expression that complicate direct extrapolation of information from humans to veterinary species. This article reviews the available published data regarding the presence and impact of genetic polymorphisms on CYP-dependent drug metabolism in dogs in the context of known human-dog CYP differences. Canine CYP1A2, which metabolizes phenacetin, caffeine, and theophylline, is the most widely studied polymorphic canine CYP. A single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in a CYP1A2 premature stop codon (c.1117C>T; R383X) with a complete lack of enzyme is highly prevalent in certain dog breeds including Beagle and Irish wolfhound. This polymorphism was shown to substantially affect the pharmacokinetics of several experimental compounds in Beagles during preclinical drug development. However, the impact on the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin (a substrate specific for human CYP1A2) was quite modest probably because other canine CYPs are capable of metabolizing phenacetin. Other canine CYPs with known genetic polymorphisms include CYP2C41 (gene deletion), as well as CYP2D15, CYP2E1, and CYP3A12 (coding SNPs). However the impact of these variants on drug metabolism in vitro or on drug pharmacokinetics is unknown. Future systematic investigations are needed to comprehensively identify CYP genetic polymorphisms that are predictive of drug effects in canine patients. PMID:23890236

  20. A comparison of the immune parameters of dogs infected with visceral leishmaniasis using Western blot and neutralization techniques.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Yeda L; Odorizzi, Rosa M F N; Nakamura, Paulo M

    2007-01-01

    The Western blot technique was used to demonstrate the presence of antibodies in the blood of dogs that presented canine visceral leishmaniasis. This technique was used against some specific molecules present in the lysate of the promastigote form of Leshmania chagasi. Through the association of the results of the Western blot technique with the morphological alterations seen as a result of the serum neutralization technique performed in McCoy cells (which mimetizes the macrophage) it was possible to observe the role of some molecules of great relevance in determining the disease in symptomatic dogs as well as that of some other molecules associated with asymptomatic infected dogs that may become transmitters as well as differentiating them as asymptomatic resistant dogs. In the sera analyses carried out during the immunobloting a variation of 9 to 27 immunoreacting bands was observed, which were then compared using Dice's similarity coefficient. In the dendrogram constructed on the basis of the coefficient, 50% similarity was observed among the total number of reagent bands with the promastigote lysate, thus creating five groups. The main difference observed related to the clinical condition of the dogs: symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs were found in separate groups. The asymptomatic group of dogs was distributed in two different places in the dendrogram because they presented two different behavior patterns regarding the cellular morphology in the serum neutralization reaction: the presence or absence of cellular lysis. According to this analysis it is possible to evaluate the immune status and associate it with specific markers observed in the reaction found in the Western blot strips. PMID:18157405

  1. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Sand Fly Fluctuations Are Associated with El Niño in Panamá

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Calzada, José E.; Valderrama, Anayansí; Saldaña, Azael

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical vector-borne disease. Sand fly vectors (SF) and Leishmania spp parasites are sensitive to changes in weather conditions, rendering disease transmission susceptible to changes in local and global scale climatic patterns. Nevertheless, it is unclear how SF abundance is impacted by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and how these changes might relate to changes in CL transmission. Methodology and Findings We studied association patterns between monthly time series, from January 2000 to December 2010, of: CL cases, rainfall and temperature from Panamá, and an ENSO index. We employed autoregressive models and cross wavelet coherence, to quantify the seasonal and interannual impact of local climate and ENSO on CL dynamics. We employed Poisson Rate Generalized Linear Mixed Models to study SF abundance patterns across ENSO phases, seasons and eco-epidemiological settings, employing records from 640 night-trap sampling collections spanning 2000–2011. We found that ENSO, rainfall and temperature were associated with CL cycles at interannual scales, while seasonal patterns were mainly associated with rainfall and temperature. Sand fly (SF) vector abundance, on average, decreased during the hot and cold ENSO phases, when compared with the normal ENSO phase, yet variability in vector abundance was largest during the cold ENSO phase. Our results showed a three month lagged association between SF vector abundance and CL cases. Conclusion Association patterns of CL with ENSO and local climatic factors in Panamá indicate that interannual CL cycles might be driven by ENSO, while the CL seasonality was mainly associated with temperature and rainfall variability. CL cases and SF abundance were associated in a fashion suggesting that sudden extraordinary changes in vector abundance might increase the potential for CL epidemic outbreaks, given that CL epidemics occur during the cold ENSO phase, a time when SF abundance shows its highest fluctuations. PMID:25275503

  2. Survivin inhibition via EZN-3042 in canine lymphoma and osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Shoeneman, J K; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, J B; Thamm, D H

    2014-06-13

    Canine lymphoma (LSA) and osteosarcoma (OS) have high mortality rates and remain in need of more effective therapeutic approaches. Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family member protein that inhibits apoptosis and drives cell proliferation, is commonly elevated in human and canine cancer. Survivin expression is a negative prognostic factor in dogs with LSA and OS, and canine LSA and OS cell lines express high levels of survivin. In this study, we demonstrate that survivin downregulation in canine LSA and OS cells using a clinically applicable locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotide (EZN-3042, Enzon Pharmaceuticals, Piscataway Township, NJ, USA) inhibits growth, induces apoptosis and enhances chemosensitivity in vitro, and inhibits survivin transcription and protein production in orthotopic canine OS xenografts. Our findings strongly suggest that survivin-directed therapies might be effective in treatment of canine LSA and OS and support evaluation of EZN-3042 in dogs with cancer. PMID:24923332

  3. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Algeria: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Amel; Boughoufalah, Amel; Saegerman, Claude; De Deken, Redgi; Bouchene, Zahida; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Berkvens, Dirk; Boelaert, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, is endemic in Algeria. This report describes a retrospective epidemiological study conducted on human VL to document the epidemiological profile at national level. All human VL cases notified by the National Institute of Public Health between 1998 and 2008 were investigated. In parallel all VL cases admitted to the university hospitals of Algiers were surveyed to estimate the underreporting ratio. Fifteen hundred and sixty-two human VL cases were reported in Algeria between 1998–2008 with an average annual reported incidence rate of 0.45 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, of which 81.42% were in the age range of 0–4 years. Cases were detected year-round, with a peak notification in May and June. One hundred and seventy patients were admitted to the university hospitals in Algiers in the same period, of which less than one in ten had been officially notified. Splenomegaly, fever, pallor and pancytopenia were the main clinical and laboratory features. Meglumine antimoniate was the first-line therapy for paediatric VL whereas the conventional amphotericin B was used for adult patients. Visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria shows the epidemiological profile of a paediatric disease with a decrease of the annual reported incidence rate. However, vigilance is required because of huge underreporting and an apparent propagation towards the south. PMID:24949958

  4. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria: an update.

    PubMed

    Adel, Amel; Boughoufalah, Amel; Saegerman, Claude; De Deken, Redgi; Bouchene, Zahida; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Berkvens, Dirk; Boelaert, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, is endemic in Algeria. This report describes a retrospective epidemiological study conducted on human VL to document the epidemiological profile at national level. All human VL cases notified by the National Institute of Public Health between 1998 and 2008 were investigated. In parallel all VL cases admitted to the university hospitals of Algiers were surveyed to estimate the underreporting ratio. Fifteen hundred and sixty-two human VL cases were reported in Algeria between 1998-2008 with an average annual reported incidence rate of 0.45 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, of which 81.42% were in the age range of 0-4 years. Cases were detected year-round, with a peak notification in May and June. One hundred and seventy patients were admitted to the university hospitals in Algiers in the same period, of which less than one in ten had been officially notified. Splenomegaly, fever, pallor and pancytopenia were the main clinical and laboratory features. Meglumine antimoniate was the first-line therapy for paediatric VL whereas the conventional amphotericin B was used for adult patients. Visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria shows the epidemiological profile of a paediatric disease with a decrease of the annual reported incidence rate. However, vigilance is required because of huge underreporting and an apparent propagation towards the south. PMID:24949958

  5. Comparison of meglumine antimoniate and pentamidine for peruvian cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ellen M; Cruz-Saldarriaga, Maria; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Luz-Cjuno, Maria; Echevarria, Juan; Miranda-Verastegui, Cesar; Colina, Olga; Berman, Jonathan D

    2005-02-01

    Pentamidine was compared with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) for 80 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis in Peru. Of the 40 patients administered Glucantime (20 mg of antimony [Sb]/kg/day intravenously for 20 days), 31 cured (78%), 6 failed (15%), of which 5 were due to relapse, and 3 were lost to follow-up (7%). Of the 40 patients administered pentamidine (2 mg/kg every other day for seven injections), 14 were cured (35%), 23 failed (58%), and 3 were lost to follow-up (7%). Five pentamidine failures were due to relapse, and 14 failures were due to the presence of parasites two weeks after therapy. Both regimens were well tolerated. Gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and total adverse events were not statistically different in either group. Elevations in levels of liver enzymes and pancreatic enzymes were statistically higher in the Glucantime group, but no patient terminated therapy prematurely. In this study, Glucantime was more effective than pentamidine for treatment of L. braziliensis cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru based on parasitologic as well as clinical criteria. PMID:15741547

  6. Development of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after Leishmania Skin Test

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Augusto M.; Machado, Gustavo U.; Dantas, Marina L.; Arruda, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-year-old female with a previous history of a cutaneous ulcer suspicious of leishmaniasis 20 years ago presented with a new complaint of a depressed papular lesion 8 × 7?mm in the right lower extremity. The lesion was of 10-day duration. Because early cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions may have a non-ulcerated appearance, a Leishmania skin test (LST) was performed on the forearm with a strong positive result (38 × 32?mm). After 8 days, the lesion in the leg, which was diagnosed as folliculitis, completely healed. However, a typical CL ulcer (26 × 24?mm) developed at the LST site. Histopathology of the new lesion did not identifiy parasites, but the findings were consistent with a diagnosis of CL. Further analysis identified amastigotes by immunohistochemical stain. Mononuclear cells harvested from the patient were stimulated with Leishmania antigen and showed high levels of production of both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interferon-gamma (IFN-?): 2,943?pg/mL and 2,313?pg/mL, respectively. After 40 days of treatment with antimony and pentoxifylline, the ulcer resolved. The development of CL at the LST site suggests a strong Th1 immune response, and it is an in vivo documentation of the role of the host immune response in the pathology of CL. It teaches us that LST should be cautiously, if at all, used in patients with self-healing CL ulcers. PMID:22162702

  7. A case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed by serology.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Yoko; Yamauchi, Asako; Nagano, Isao; Itoh, Makoto; Hagiwara, Keisuke; Takahashi, Kenzo; Uezato, Hiroshi; Maeda, Manabu; Seishima, Mariko

    2014-08-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese Bolivian male had been suffering from a right leg ulcer after an insect bite during his residence in Bolivia. The ulcer healed after herbal medicine treatment. Ten years later, the patient had symptoms of nasal obstruction, nasal bleeding, and pharyngodynia, which were accompanied by a destructive ulcer with surrounding erythema involving the right nostril apex and columella. Papillary, irregular mucosal lesions were seen on the soft palate. Giemsa staining and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using biopsy specimens of the papillary mucosal lesions on the soft palate failed to identify Leishmania parasites. However, the IgG antibody test was positive for Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani, and the dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) using five Leishmania antigens L. (L.) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, and L. (V.) panamensis was positive. Combined, the findings suggested mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B was started but was soon terminated because of palpitation, epigastralgia and facial flushing. It is sometimes difficult to identify the parasites in lesions of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and serological tests are useful for such occasions. PMID:25041360

  8. Visceral leishmaniasis mimicking as second line anti retroviral therapy failure.

    PubMed

    Yanamandra, Uday; Jairam, Anantaram; Shankar, Subramanian; Negi, Rakhi; Guleria, Bupesh; Nair, Velu

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has increased as a complicating infection in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developing countries. Both infections tend to lower the cell-mediated immunity resulting in poor drug response. In HIV-positive subjects the clinical course as well as organ involvement of VL simulates tuberculosis, another very common tropical infection. We present a case of VL/HIV co-infection where the individual failed to respond to first and second line antiretroviral therapy with persistently low CD4 counts. This patient was also subjected empirically to antitubercular therapy with no clinical improvement; he was finally diagnosed as a case of VL in HIV upon revelation of amastigotes in bone marrow despite the initial negative serology on two occasions. He showed dramatic improvement in CD4 counts and clinical status on Amphotericin B therapy. In endemic areas and in HIV positive subjects a systemic and careful parasitology follow-up is necessary to ensure that no clinical form of leishmaniasis is overlooked. PMID:22082903

  9. Cytotoxic T Cells Mediate Pathology and Metastasis in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Fernanda O.; Carvalho, Lucas P.; Graff, Joel W.; Beiting, Daniel P.; Ruthel, Gordon; Roos, David S.; Betts, Michael R.; Goldschmidt, Michael H.; Wilson, Mary E.; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Scott, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Disease progression in response to infection can be strongly influenced by both pathogen burden and infection-induced immunopathology. While current therapeutics focus on augmenting protective immune responses, identifying therapeutics that reduce infection-induced immunopathology are clearly warranted. Despite the apparent protective role for murine CD8+ T cells following infection with the intracellular parasite Leishmania, CD8+ T cells have been paradoxically linked to immunopathological responses in human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Transcriptome analysis of lesions from Leishmania braziliensis patients revealed that genes associated with the cytolytic pathway are highly expressed and CD8+ T cells from lesions exhibited a cytolytic phenotype. To determine if CD8+ T cells play a causal role in disease, we turned to a murine model. These studies revealed that disease progression and metastasis in L. braziliensis infected mice was independent of parasite burden and was instead directly associated with the presence of CD8+ T cells. In mice with severe pathology, we visualized CD8+ T cell degranulation and lysis of L. braziliensis infected cells. Finally, in contrast to wild-type CD8+ T cells, perforin-deficient cells failed to induce disease. Thus, we show for the first time that cytolytic CD8+ T cells mediate immunopathology and drive the development of metastatic lesions in cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:23874205

  10. Complementary exams in the diagnosis of american tegumentary leishmaniasis*

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ciro Martins; de Paula, Natália Aparecida; de Morais, Orlando Oliveira; Soares, Killarney Ataíde; Roselino, Ana Maria; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis is a difficult but essential task when considering the high toxicity profile of the drugs available. Since the discovery of its etiologic agent, numerous diagnostic tests have been developed. None of the tests available today can be considered as the gold standard, since they do not add enough accuracy for the disease detection. Good epidemiological and clinical knowledge of the disease are fundamental precepts of the dermatology practice and precede the rational use of existing diagnostic tests. In this article we aim, through extensive literature review, to recall fundamental concepts of any diagnostic test. Subsequently, based on this information, we will weave important comments about the characteristics of existing diagnostic tests, including immunological tests such as Montenegro's skin test, serology and detection of parasites by direct examination, culture or histopathology. Finally we will discuss the new technologies and options for the diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The molecular biology technique is considered a promising tool, promoting the rapid identification of the species involved. We also aim to educate dermatologists about a disease with high morbidity and assist in its difficult recognition. PMID:25184908

  11. Larval Breeding Sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Urban Areas in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Cláudio; Andrighetti, Maria T. M.; Sampaio, Susy M. P.; Marcoris, Maria L. G.; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Prado, Ângelo P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. Methodology/Principal finding In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. Conclusion The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. PMID:24069494

  12. American cutaneous leishmaniasis: use of a skin test as a predictor of relapse after treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Passos, V. M.; Barreto, S. M.; Romanha, A. J.; Krettli, A. U.; Volpini, A. C.; Lima e Costa, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    While relapses following clinical cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis are frequent, no test has been described until now to predict such relapses. A cohort of 318 American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was followed up for two years after treatment with meglumine antimoniate, during which time 32 relapses occurred, 30 in the first year and two in the second (accumulated risk: 10.5%). No association was found between these relapses and the parasite-specific antibody response before and after treatment, or between the relapses and stratification by sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. However when Leishmania was used as antigen, patients with a negative skin test at the time of diagnosis presented a 3.4-fold higher risk (hazard risk = 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.0) of American cutaneous leishmaniasis relapse, compared with patients with a positive response. This result shows that the skin test can be a predictor of American cutaneous leishmaniasis relapse after treatment. PMID:10994280

  13. Cutaneous New World Leishmaniasis on a Port-wine stain birthmark*

    PubMed Central

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Valente, Neusa Sakai; Noda, Aliene; Belda, Walter

    2014-01-01

    We present an interesting case report of two sarcoid-like lesions on a port-wine stain (PWS) birthmark in a Brazilian patient which on investigation proved to be cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25054762

  14. No evidence for association between SLC11A1 and visceral leishmaniasis in India

    E-print Network

    Mehrotra, Sanjana; Oommen, Joyce; Mishra, Anshuman; Sudharshan, Medhavi; Tiwary, Puja; Jamieson, Sarra E; Fakiola, Michaela; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Rai, Madhukar; Sundar, Shyam; Blackwell, Jenefer M

    2011-05-20

    AbstractBackgroundSLC11A1 has pleiotropic effects on macrophage function and remains a strong candidate for infectious disease susceptibility. 5' and/or 3' polymorphisms have been associated with tuberculosis, leprosy, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL...

  15. HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, George M.; Hunter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces, by maternal-infant exposure, and by percutaneous inoculation. For reasons that are still incompletely understood, CCR5-tropic viruses (R5 viruses) are preferentially transmitted by all routes. Transmission is followed by an orderly appearance of viral and host markers of infection in the blood plasma. In the acute phase of infection, HIV-1 replicates exponentially and diversifies randomly, allowing for an unambiguous molecular identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and a precise characterization of the population bottleneck to virus transmission. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 most often results in productive clinical infection arising from a single virus, highlighting the extreme bottleneck and inherent inefficiency in virus transmission. It remains to be determined if HIV-1 transmission is largely a stochastic process whereby any reasonably fit R5 virus can be transmitted or if there are features of transmitted/founder viruses that facilitate their transmission in a biologically meaningful way. Human tissue explant models of HIV-1 infection and animal models of SIV/SHIV/HIV-1 transmission, coupled with new challenge virus strains that more closely reflect transmitted/founder viruses, have the potential to elucidate fundamental mechanisms in HIV-1 transmission relevant to vaccine design and other prevention strategies. PMID:23043157

  16. Vaccination of dogs with six different candidate leishmaniasis vaccines composed of a chimerical recombinant protein containing ribosomal and histone protein epitopes in combination with different adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Poot, J; Janssen, L H M; van Kasteren-Westerneng, T J; van der Heijden-Liefkens, K H A; Schijns, V E J C; Heckeroth, A

    2009-07-16

    Chimerical protein "Q", composed of antigenic ribosomal and histone sequences, in combination with live BCG is a promising canine leishmaniasis vaccine candidate; one of the few vaccine candidates that have been tested successfully in dogs. Unfortunately, live BCG is not an appropriate adjuvant for commercial application due to safety problems in dogs. In order to find a safe adjuvant with similar efficacy to live BCG, muramyl dipeptide, aluminium hydroxide, Matrix C and killed Propionibacterium acnes in combination with either E. coli- or baculovirus-produced recombinant JPCM5_Q protein were tested. Groups of five or seven dogs were vaccinated with six different adjuvant-antigen combinations and challenged with a high dose intravenous injection of Leishmania infantum JPC strain promastigotes. All candidate vaccines proved to be safe, and both humoral and cellular responses to the recombinant proteins were detected at the end of the prime-boost vaccination scheme. However, clinical and parasitological data obtained during the 10 month follow-up period indicated that protection was not induced by either of the six candidate vaccines. Although no direct evidence was obtained, our data suggest that live BCG may have a significant protective effect against challenge with L. infantum in dogs. PMID:19500553

  17. Application of spatio-temporal scan statistics for the detection of areas with increased risk for American visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Deborah D M T; Bavia, Maria E; Rocha, Washington J S F; Tavares, Antônio C Q; Cardim, Luciana L; Alemayehu, Biruk

    2007-11-01

    Mirroring the global increase of registered cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), this infection has become a growing public health problem in Brazil during the last several years. As the traditional approach to control employed by the governmental health agencies has failed to reduce the incidence and epidemic outbreaks of this illness, we propose a re-evaluation of the national strategy of intervention and monitoring. Our thinking is based on a series of spatio-temporal scan statistics of the west-central region of the state of Bahia covering the 11-year period from 1994 to 2004. By analyzing the situation, spatially and temporally, we show that the disease is a not only a growing focal threat but that it is also appearing in the form of endemic clusters in the cities. The areas where the disease has been found have been classified according to the degree of risk of infection for humans and canines. The overall objective of this study was to identify areas of increased risk of AVL, including its seasonality, and to suggest ways and means to improve the detection of the disease. The findings presented here should not only be of interest for the efforts to control AVL in the study area but also be useful for developing control strategies in other endemic regions of Brazil. PMID:18686261

  18. Topical treatment with hexadecylphosphocholine (Miltex ®) efficiently reduces parasite burden in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruprecht Schmidt-Ott; Thomas Klenner; Peter Overath; Toni Aebischer

    1999-01-01

    Ether-lipids and alkylphosphocholines have been found to have anti-leishmanial activity. Oral treatment with hexadecylphosphocholine (HePC) efficiently reduces parasite burden in murine visceral leishmaniasis. Drugs for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis are most commonly administered parenterally, whereas efficient drugs for topical treatment are not in current use. Here we investigate the efficacy of topical treatment with HePC in mice infected with

  19. Evolution of Clinical Manifestations of Neck and Face due to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Resulting In Diagnostic Errors

    PubMed Central

    ZATONSKIKH, Vera; VENGLOVSKIY, Anatoliy; ZHUMAMBAEVA, Saule; ZHUSSUPOV, Bulat; DAKENOV, Baurzhan; TOULEBAEV, Rais; SHAIDAROV, Mazhit

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis caused by flagellate protozoa of the genus Leishmania transmitted by sand fly bites. Old World leishmaniasis is endemic in the Mediterranean Sea and the neighbouring countries. We believe, that this case is interesting by the fact that we had a very rear disease case that can be observed in nonendemic area. We present a case of a 22-year-old man with a cutaneous leishmaniasis in a localised form of ulcers on the right cheek and the right part of the neck. Histopathological examination showed diffuse dermal infiltrate predominantly of macrophages with admixture of few lymphocytes, eosinophils and plasma cells. In a very small number of macrophages amastigotes were seen. On their surface and occasionally extracellularly rod-shaped kinetoplasts were noticeable. It should be stressed that both clinical and laboratory data were not peculiar for this disease. Adults in endemic areas have stable immunity for protozoal infections. This made diagnostication and timely management of the disease very difficult. But clinical effect of drug therapy which is specific for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment proved, in spite of the absence of ulcer soft tissues, blood and cerebrospinal puncture Leishmania, that our diagnosis was correct. The case, described by us, may be interesting for dermatologists, parasitologists, surgeons and other medical specialists. Because of higher rate of travel and work abroad increased number of sporadic cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in non-endemic areas should be taken into account. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a rare disease in Kazakhstan, especially in the north region. Because of higher rate of travel and work abroad increased number of sporadic cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in non-endemic areas should be taken into account.

  20. Visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan: parasite identification in humans and dogs; host-parasite relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Dereure; Sayda Hassan El-Safi; Bruno Bucheton; Mickaël Boni; Musa Mohamed Kheir; Bernard Davoust; Francine Pratlong; Eric Feugier; Monique Lambert; Alain Dessein; Jean-Pierre Dedet

    2003-01-01

    In 1996, an epidemic outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) started in Barbar el Fugara, a village in Gedarif State (eastern Sudan). From 1997 to 2000, regular epidemiological studies were carried out in the human population, as well as in mammals and sand flies. In symptomatic patients, 46\\/69 lymph node, 6\\/20 post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and 1\\/4 cutaneous cultures in NNN medium were

  1. A Case of Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Aparijita; Mallik, Rabinarayn; Misra, Debiprasad; Rout, Niranjan; Rath, Jayshree

    2010-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a rare disease. This is a solitary case report from Orissa, India. We describe a case of PKDL in a 55-year-old male who presented with multiple nodular lesions over face, trunk, and extremities. The patient had been to an endemic area of kala-azar and had a previous history of leishmaniasis. Fine needle aspiration cytology samples from skin nodules revealed Leishmania amastigotes. PMID:20877504

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Combination Therapies for Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Indian Subcontinent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filip Meheus; Manica Balasegaram; Piero Olliaro; Shyam Sundar; Suman Rijal; Marleen Boelaert

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundVisceral leishmaniasis is a systemic parasitic disease that is fatal unless treated. We assessed the cost and cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent. In particular we examined whether combination therapies are a cost-effective alternative compared to monotherapies.Methods and FindingsWe assessed the cost-effectiveness of all possible mono- and combination therapies for the treatment

  3. Endemic Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Brazil: Correlation between Level of Endemicity and Number of Cases of Mucosal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bedoya-Pacheco, Sandro J.; Araujo-Melo, Maria H.; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia M.; Pimentel, Maria Inês F.; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Schubach, Armando O.; Marzochi, Mauro C. A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a correlation between the endemic level of tegumentary leishmaniasis in different regions of Brazil during 2002–2009 and the number of cases of mucosal or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The proportion of mucosal leishmaniasis was inversely correlated with prevalence of infection. In areas with a lower infection prevalence, the proportion of mucosal leishmaniasis increased (P < 0.05). The hypothesis of an Amazonian origin and dissemination through human migration is considered. Our results show that in regions with lower prevalence and endemically younger, the proportion of cases that evolve to the mucosal form is higher than in regions with higher prevalence and endemically older. PMID:21633026

  4. Characterization of ?-catenin expression in canine osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stein, T. J.; Holmes, K. E.; Muthuswamy, A.; Thompson, V.; Huelsmeyer, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most frequently occurring malignant primary bone tumour in dogs and children and arises from cells of the osteoblast lineage. Inappropriate Wnt signalling activity has been implicated in human OSA. Altered expression of ?-catenin, an integral member of the Wnt signalling pathway, has been associated with numerous human cancers, including OSA. In this study, 30 of the 37 primary canine OSA tissues and 2 of the 3 metastatic OSAs were positive for ?-catenin expression as determined by immunohistochemistry, whereas 2 normal bones stained negative for ?-catenin. No mutations were identified in exon 3 of ?-catenin in the three OSA cases in which DNA sequencing was performed. Finally, there was no relationship between ?-catenin expression and overall survival time or disease-free interval. Our results indicate ?-catenin is frequently expressed within the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells in canine OSA but contains no detectable mutations in exon 3, similar to human OSA. PMID:21303455

  5. Characterization of pantropic canine coronavirus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Luciane D; Barros, Iracema N; Budaszewski, Renata F; Weber, Matheus N; Mata, Helena; Antunes, Jéssica R; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Wouters, Angélica T B; Driemeier, David; Brandão, Paulo E; Canal, Cláudio W

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains currently in circulation is essential for understanding viral evolution. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pantropic CCoV type IIa in tissue samples from five puppies that died in Southern Brazil as a result of severe gastroenteritis. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to generate amplicons for sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the CCoV-IIa strains indicated that they were similar to those found in other countries, suggesting a common ancestor of these Brazilian isolates. This is the first report of pantropic CCoV-II in puppies from Latin America and our findings highlight that CCoV should be included as a differential diagnosis when dogs present with clinical signs and lesions typically seen with canine parvovirus infection. PMID:25294661

  6. Functional characterization of canine interferon-lambda.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenhui; Xu, Lei; Ren, Liqian; Qu, Hongren; Li, Jing; Liang, Jingjing; Liu, Wenjun; Yang, Limin; Luo, Tingrong

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-? (CaIFN-?, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-? is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-?1 (SwIFN-?), Bat IFN-?1 (BaIFN-?), and human IFN-?1 (HuIFN-?1). CaIFN-? was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to further investigate the biological activity in vitro. The recombinant CaIFN-? (rCaIFN-?) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively. In addition, we also found that rCaIFN-? exhibits a significant antiproliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CaIFN-? activated the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the expression of CaIFN-? induced by virus and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induced by rCaIFN-? in the MDCK cells, we measured the relative mRNA level of CaIFN-? and ISGs (ISG15, Mx1, and 2'5'-OAS) by quantitative real-time PCR and found that the mRNA level of CaIFN-? and the ISGs significantly increased after treating the MDCK cells with viruses and rCaIFN-? protein, respectively. Finally, to evaluate the binding activity of rCaIFN-? to its receptor, we expressed the extracellular domain of the canine IFN-? receptor 1 (CaIFN-?R1-EC) and determined the binding activity via ELISA. Our results demonstrated that rCaIFN-? bound tightly to recombinant CaIFN-?R1-EC (rCaIFN-?R1-EC). PMID:24950142

  7. Canine mdr1 Gene Mutation in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akiko KAWABATA; Yasuyuki MOMOI; Miho INOUE-MURAYAMA; Toshiroh IWASAKI

    2005-01-01

    Frequency of the 4-bp deletion mutant in canine mdr1 gene was examined in 193 dogs of eight breeds in Japan. The mutant allele was found in Collies, Australian Shepherds, and Shetland Sheepdogs, where its respective frequencies were 58.3%, 33.3%, and 1.2%. The MDR1 protein was detected on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a MDR1\\/MDR1 dog, but not on PBMC

  8. Canine bullous pemphigoid (BP): identification of the 180-kd canine BP antigen by circulating autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, T; Olivry, T; Lapiere, J C; Chan, L S; Peavey, C; Liu, Y Y; Jones, J C; Ihrke, P J; Woodley, D T

    1995-07-01

    Human bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an immune-mediated blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies against BP antigens (230/180 kd), which are constitutive glycoproteins of hemidesmosomes found in basal keratinocytes. Blistering diseases similar to human BP have been reported in dogs. IgG deposits at the basement membrane zone (BMZ) are a common feature of canine BP. Although circulating anti-BMZ IgG autoantibodies have been demonstrated in some cases of canine BP, the specific skin protein targeted by these autoantibodies has not been identified. In this study, we characterized the antigenic target of the autoantibodies in the serum from a 3-year-old castrated male Pit Bull Terrier with BP. Direct immunofluorescence of the patient's skin demonstrated IgG deposits at the dermal-epidermal junction. Indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated autoantibodies in the patient's serum that stained the epidermal roof of salt-split canine skin and left the dermal floor unstained. These serum autoantibodies did not stain normal intact dog skin but labeled intact bovine tongue. Direct immunoelectron microscopy of the dog's skin revealed IgG deposits within the hemidesmosomes of the basal keratinocytes. Western immunoblotting experiments showed that canine keratinocytes express both the 230-kd and 180-kd bullous pemphigoid antigens, and the autoantibodies from the patient's serum recognized the 180-kd bullous pemphigoid antigen in proteins extracted from canine and human keratinocytes. Canine BP has many parallel features with human BP including similar immune deposition of IgG within hemidesmosomes and a hemidesmosome-associated 180-kd glycoprotein target for circulating autoantibodies. PMID:7483213

  9. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. PMID:23806200

  10. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  11. XLPRA: A canine retinal degeneration inherited as an X-linked trait

    SciTech Connect

    Acland, G.M.; Blanton, S.H.; Hershfield, B.; Aguirre, G.D.

    1994-08-01

    Breeding studies are reported of a previously undescribed hereditary retinal degeneration identified in the Siberian Husky breed of dog. This disorder clinically resembles the previously reported autosomal recessive canine hereditary retinal degenerations collectively termed progressive retinal atrophy (PRA). However, the pedigree of the propositus, a male Siberian Husky, exhibited an X-linked pattern of transmission. This dog was outcrossed to three phenotypically normal female laboratory Beagles and two of their F1 daughters were bred to a phenotypically normal male Beagle, producing affected males in the F2 generation. Subsequent inbreedings produced further affected males and affected females as well. X-linked transmission was established by exclusion of alternative modes of inheritance and, consequently, the disease has been termed X-linked progressive retinal atrophy (XLPRA). This is the first reported X-linked retinal degeneration in an animal. Because of the many similarities of PRA in dogs to retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in humans, this new disease may not only represent the first animal model of X-linked RP (XLRP) but may well be a true homolog of one of the XLRP loci (RP2, RP3, RP6). It is the first retinal degeneration in dogs that can be assigned to an identified canine chromosome, and the first for which linkage mapping offers a realistic approach to proceed by positional cloning towards identifying the responsible gene. 58 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Fatal outbreaks in dogs associated with pantropic canine coronavirus in France and Belgium.

    PubMed

    Zicola, A; Jolly, S; Mathijs, E; Ziant, D; Decaro, N; Mari, V; Thiry, E

    2012-05-01

    Infection with pantropic canine coronavirus was detected during outbreaks in France and Belgium. This was concurrent in most cases with canine parvovirus 2c. One outbreak was a deadly acute systemic disease with a single pantropic canine coronavirus infection. This is the first report of a fatality associated with pantropic canine coronavirus alone outside Italy. PMID:22320357

  13. Genetic analysis of multicase families of visceral leishmaniasis in northeastern Brazil: no major role for class II or class III regions of HLA.

    PubMed

    Peacock, C S; Sanjeevi, C B; Shaw, M-A; Collins, A; Campbell, R D; March, R; Silveira, F; Costa, J; Coste, C H; Nascimento, M D; Siddiqui, R; Shaw, J J; Blackwell, J M

    2002-09-01

    Familial aggregation, high relative risk to siblings, and segregation analysis, suggest genetic control of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Class II gene effects in mice, and high circulating tumour necrosis factor alpha in humans, provide reasons to target HLA. Fifteen polymorphic markers across 1.03 Mb (DQB1 to TNFa) were genotyped (87 multicase families; 638 individuals). Model-based parametric analyses using single-point combined segregation and linkage in COMDS, or multi-point linkage in ALLEGRO, failed to detect linkage. Model-free nonparametric affected sibling pair (SPLINK) or NPL(all) score (ALLEGRO) analyses also failed to detect linkage. Information content mapping confirmed sufficient marker information to detect linkage. Analysis of simulated data sets demonstrated that these families had 100% power to detect NPL(all) scores of 5 to 6 (>LOD4; P < 0.00001) over the range (7% to 61%) of age-related penetrances for a disease susceptibility gene. The extended transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) showed no consistent allelic associations between disease and the 15 loci. TDT also failed to detect significant associations between extended haplotypes and disease, consistent with failure to detect significant linkage disequilibrium across the region. Linkage disequilibrium between adjacent groups of markers (HLADQ/DR; 82-1/82-3/-238bpTNFA; LTA/62/TNFa) was not accompanied by significant global haplotype TDT associations with disease. The data suggest that class II/III regions of HLA do not contain major disease gene(s) for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. PMID:12209362

  14. C-kit expression in canine mucosal melanomas.

    PubMed

    Newman, S J; Jankovsky, J M; Rohrbach, B W; LeBlanc, A K

    2012-09-01

    The c-kit receptor is responsible for transmission of promigration signals to melanocytes; its downregulation may be involved in malignant progression of human melanocytic neoplasms. Expression of this receptor has not been examined in normal or neoplastic melanocytes from dogs. In this study, 14 benign dermal and 61 malignant mucosal melanocytic tumors were examined for c-kit (KIT) expression. Sites of the mucosal melanomas were gingiva (not further specified; n = 30), buccal gingiva (n = 6), soft palate (n = 4), hard palate (n = 5), tongue (n = 7), lip (n = 6), and conjunctiva (n = 3). Melan A was expressed in all 14 dermal melanocytomas and in 59 of 61 (96.7%) tumors from oral or conjunctival mucosa, confirming melanocytic origin. C-kit receptor expression was strong and diffuse throughout the cytoplasm in all 14 dermal melanocytomas and was identified in basilar mucosal melanocytes over submucosal neoplasms (27 of 61, 44.3%), junctional (neoplastic) melanocytes (17 of 61, 27.9%), and, less commonly, neoplastic melanocytes of the subepithelial tumors (6 of 61, 9.8%). KIT expression anywhere within the resected melanomas correlated with significantly longer survival. These results suggest that c-kit receptor expression may be altered in canine melanomas and may have potential as a prognostic indicator for mucosal melanomas. PMID:21825314

  15. M gene analysis of canine coronavirus strains detected in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Seok-Young; Ann, So-Yun; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Kim, Doo

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic features of canine coronavirus (CCV) strains detected in Korea. M gene sequences obtained for isolates from 22 dogs with enteritis over a 5-year period were evaluated. Sequence comparison revealed that the 22 Korean CCV strains had an 87.2 to 100% nucleotide homology. Comparing to the typical reference CCV strains (type II), the nucleotide sequence of Korean strains had homology ranged from 86.3% to 98.3% (89.1% to 99.2% for the amino acid sequence) and 87.7% to 97.8% (92.4% to 100% for the amino acid sequence) when compared to FCoV-like CCV strains (type I). Three amino acid variations in the M gene were characteristic for the Korean CCV strains. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the 22 Korean CCV strains belonged to four typical CCV clusters (i.e., a unique Korean CCV cluster, a type II and transmissible gastroenteritis virus cluster, an intermediate cluster between type I and II, and a type I cluster). This study was the first to identify genetic differences of the M gene from Korean CCV strains and provided a platform for molecular identification of different Korean CCV strains. PMID:25234323

  16. Canine and Human Dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region (Southern Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Kartashev, Vladimir; Batashova, Irina; Kartashov, Sergey; Ermakov, Alexey; Mironova, Anna; Kuleshova, Yulia; Ilyasov, Boris; Kolodiy, Irina; Klyuchnikov, Alexander; Ryabikina, Elena; Babicheva, Marina; Levchenko, Yulia; Pavlova, Raisa; Pantchev, Nicola; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological data on canine and human dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region (Southern Russia) are presented. Prevalence of Dirofilaria spp. infections in 795 autochthonous dogs, assessed by the Knott test, was 20.25%. The highest prevalence was found in Novocherkassk (38.3%) and Rostov-on-Don (18.5%), while prevalences were lower in other points of the region. Prevalence of D. repens was 44.7%, prevalence of D. immitis was 30.3%, and coinfections were observed in 25.0% of the dog population. A case finding study carried out during 9 years (2000–2009) revealed 131 cases of human dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region, 129 of subcutaneous dirofilariosis and 2 of pulmonary dirofilariosis. Seroprevalence among 317 healthy blood donors from the Rostov Region was 10.4%, while seroprevalence in policemen living in Rostov city and working in training dogs was 19%. These data show high infection rates of Dirofilaria spp. in both human and dog populations of Rostov, probably because of the existence of favorable conditions for the transmission in this region. PMID:21253482

  17. M gene analysis of canine coronavirus strains detected in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Seok-Young; Ann, So-Yun; Kim, Hyun-Tae

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic features of canine coronavirus (CCV) strains detected in Korea. M gene sequences obtained for isolates from 22 dogs with enteritis over a 5-year period were evaluated. Sequence comparison revealed that the 22 Korean CCV strains had an 87.2 to 100% nucleotide homology. Comparing to the typical reference CCV strains (type II), the nucleotide sequence of Korean strains had homology ranged from 86.3% to 98.3% (89.1% to 99.2% for the amino acid sequence) and 87.7% to 97.8% (92.4% to 100% for the amino acid sequence) when compared to FCoV-like CCV strains (type I). Three amino acid variations in the M gene were characteristic for the Korean CCV strains. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the 22 Korean CCV strains belonged to four typical CCV clusters (i.e., a unique Korean CCV cluster, a type II and transmissible gastroenteritis virus cluster, an intermediate cluster between type I and II, and a type I cluster). This study was the first to identify genetic differences of the M gene from Korean CCV strains and provided a platform for molecular identification of different Korean CCV strains. PMID:25234323

  18. Canine Distemper Virus Strains Circulating among North American Dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Kapil; Robin W. Allison; Larry Johnston; Brandy L. Murray; Steven Holland; Jim Meinkoth; Bill Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes multisystemic disease in dogs. We received seven samples from dogs with CD from the United States during 2007. CDV isolates from these samples formed large, multinucleated syncytia in a Vero cell line expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Based on the hemagglutinin gene sequences, the CDV isolates from

  19. Ultrastructure of the Retina in Canine Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. Goebel; N. Koppang; W. Zeman

    1979-01-01

    Electron microscopic studies on the retinae of 3 English setters, homozygous for the trait of canine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), revealed preservation of photoreceptors early and late in the course of the disease. This is in sharp contrast to the severe neuroepithelial degeneration in human NCL, for which canine NCL is considered a spontaneous animal model. Ubiquitous accretion of NCL-specific

  20. Oncogene HER2 in Canine Mammary Gland Carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Martín de las Mulas; J. Ordás; Y. Millán; V. Fernández-Soria; S. Ramón y Cajal

    2003-01-01

    Immunohistochemical (IHC) HER-2\\/neu protein overexpression was found in 17.6% of canine mammary gland carcinomas, a percentage similar to that observed in human breast carcinoma, but there was no gene amplification by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Canine mammary carcinoma would be a suitable natural model of that subset of human breast carcinomas with HER-2 protein overexpression without gene amplification.

  1. Canine distemper virus in Lake Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Mamaev; I. K. G. Visser; S. I. Belikov; N. N. Denikina; T. C. Harder; L. Goatley; B. Rima; B. Edginton; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; T. Barrett

    1996-01-01

    The virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality in Siberian seals (Phoca sibirica) in Lake Baikal during 1987\\/88 was caused by canine distemper virus. Sequence analysis of the virus glycoprotein genes revealed that it was most closely related to recent European field isolates of canine distemper virus. This paper presents evidence that the same virus continued to circulate in seals

  2. The canine contagious respiratory disease complex (kennel cough).

    PubMed

    Appel, M; Bemis, D A

    1978-01-01

    Several infectious agents are involved in the kennel cough complex in dogs. They include canine parainfluenza virus (SV5), canine adenovirus 2, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and possibly several mycoplasma species. The importance of each of these agents in the disease syndrome is discussed as well as possible prevention or treatment. PMID:204455

  3. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Streck, André Felipe; de Souza, Carine Kunzler; Gonçalves, Karla Rathje; Zang, Luciana; Pinto, Luciane Dubina; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2009-01-01

    The presence of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), 2a and 2b has been described in Brazil, however, the type 2c had not been reported until now. In the current study, seven out of nine samples from dogs with diarrhea were characterized as CPV-2c, indicating that this virus is already circulating in the Brazilian canine population. PMID:24031389

  4. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism. PMID:18472142

  5. Agrochemicals against malaria, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Witschel, Matthias; Rottmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto

    2012-01-01

    In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively. PMID:23145187

  6. Misdiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis and recurrence after surgical excision.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Mark S; Langman, G

    2014-12-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) occurs in British troops deployed to Belize, Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere. From 1998 to 2009, 156 (45%) of 343 confirmed cases seen in the UK were in military personnel. CL is a rare disease and requires specialist clinical management because numerous pitfalls exist during diagnosis and treatment. A 19-year-old soldier developed CL on his neck 6?weeks after taking part in jungle warfare training in Belize. However, this was not suspected and the diagnosis was not made from either a skin biopsy or following surgical excision. The travel history and the patient's own photograph prompted retrospective investigations that confirmed this was CL due to Leishmania mexicana. Three months after surgery, the disease recurred locally and was treated appropriately with a good outcome. British military personnel with suspected CL should be referred to the UK Role 4 Military Infectious Diseases & Tropical Medicine Service. PMID:24109111

  7. Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis with Sterically Stabilized Liposomes Containing Camptothecin

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Marie-Eve; Désormeaux, André; Marquis, Jean-François; Olivier, Martin; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of 20(S)-camptothecin (CPT), free and incorporated into sterically stabilized liposomes, has been investigated in vitro against Leishmania donovani promastigotes and in vivo in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis. Incubation of L. donovani promastigotes with free or liposomal CPT inhibited the growth of parasites in a dose-dependent manner. Tissue distribution studies revealed that the intraperitoneal administration of liposomal CPT was efficient for the delivery of high drug levels to the liver and spleen. Treatment of infected mice with intraperitoneal injections of free and liposomal CPT significantly reduced the parasite loads in the livers by 43 and 55%, respectively, compared with the loads for untreated controls. However, both treatments caused normochromic anemia and neutropenia. PMID:11502539

  8. The natural focality of leishmaniasis in the USSR

    PubMed Central

    Petriš?eva, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    The paper contains up-to-date information on the occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in natural foci in the USSR. Data are given on the vertebrates that are the main carriers and reservoirs of leishmaniae, the phlebotomines that are the vectors of the parasite, and the conditions required for the independent existence of foci of infection unlinked with any human economic activity. The main achievements of Soviet investigators in research on natural foci are described, a preliminary schema is given for typing foci by the nature of the terrain, and there is also an account of biocoenoses in the wild animal burrows that constitute the primary natural unit foci. The biology and ecology of the main hosts of leishmaniae, the interrelationships between leishmaniae, vertebrate animals, and phlebotomines, and the conditions required for infection of human beings with leishmaniae are also discussed. PMID:5316258

  9. Agrochemicals against Malaria, Sleeping Sickness, Leishmaniasis and Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Witschel, Matthias; Rottmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto

    2012-01-01

    In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively. PMID:23145187

  10. Visceral Leishmaniasis: Clinical Features, Pathology, Diagnosis and Chemotherapeutic Developments.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Seema; Ram, Vishnu Ji

    2002-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, is a chronic disease caused by Leishmania donovani, Leishmania chagasi or Leishmania infantum. The disease is transmitted through the bite of a species of sandfly of the genus Phlebotomus, releasing amastigote parasites that invade various organs of the body and eventually result in such conditions as anemia, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Although no vaccine exists for the disease, diagnostic techniques based not only on pathological tests, but more sophisticated detectors such as polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, latex agglutination and immunochromatographic strip testing have been developed. Traditional treatment for the disease consists of two pentavalent antimonial drugs, sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate, but the growing resistance to these drugs has compelled scientists to search for new efficient compounds. (c) 2002 Prous Science. All rights reserved. PMID:12677177

  11. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 3. Lutzomyia trapidoi, vector of Leishmania panamensis].

    PubMed

    Le Ponti, F; Leon, R; Guerrini, F; Gantier, J C; Mouchet, J; Echeverria, R; Guderian, R H

    1994-03-01

    Lutzomyia trapidoi, the more abundant anthropophilic species, is a presumed leishmaniasis vector in the Pacific foothills of Ecuador. Three biotopes have been sampled (dwelling, and nearby coffee crop and primary forest) in the focus of Paraiso Escondido, by human bait catches, from August 1991 to October 1992. A large number of sandflies, 6,965 specimens, have been dissected to estimate peri and hypopyloric infections. All the peripyloric infections, characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, were Leishmania panamensis. The percentage of these infections was low, around 3%, but they were massive. They occurred only in dry season. Hypopyloric infections were observed in Lu. trapidoi all the year round in the three biotopes. Their percentage was high, reaching 40%. Despite of many trials to cultivate the parasite on NNN medium, no stain could be isolated. It is suggested that the parasite could be L. equatorensis. PMID:8024346

  12. Leishmania ( Leishmania) chagasi is not vertically transmitted in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hélida M Andrade; Vicente de P. C. P de Toledo; Marcos José Marques; João C França Silva; Wagner L Tafuri; Wilson Mayrink; Odair Genaro

    2002-01-01

    The most frequent and most important mode of human or canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) transmission is through the bite of infected sand flies. This study investigates Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi vertical transmission in offspring of naturally infected dogs. Thus 63 puppies from 18 female dogs with CVL were used. Parasite presence was evaluated through parasitologic and histopathologic examination of lymphatic organs,

  13. Topical buparvaquone formulations for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Tracy; Mäntylä, Antti; Järvinen, Tomi; Lawrence, M Jayne; Brown, Marc B; Croft, Simon L

    2007-01-01

    As the part of a study to develop buparvaquone (BPQ) formulations for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, the topical delivery of BPQ and one of its prodrugs from a range of formulations was evaluated. In previous studies, BPQ and its prodrugs were shown to be potent antileishmanials in-vitro, with ED50 values in the nanomolar range. 3-Phosphono-oxymethyl-buparvaquone (3-POM-BPQ) was the most potent antileishmanial and was chosen, together with the parent drug, for further investigation. The ability of the parent and prodrug formulations to cross human and murine skin was tested in-vitro using the Franz diffusion cells. Formulations intended for topical application containing either BPQ or 3-POM-BPQ were developed using excipients that were either acceptable for topical use (GRAS or FDA inactive ingredients) or currently going through the regulatory process. BPQ was shown to penetrate both human epidermal membranes and full thickness BALB/c skin from a range of formulations (gels, emulsions). Similarly, 3-POM-BPQ penetrated full-thickness BALB/c skin from several gel formulations. In-vitro binding studies showed that BPQ bound melanin in a dose-dependent manner and preferably bound to delipidized skin over untreated BALB/c skin (on a weight to weight basis). The results confirm that BPQ and its prodrug 3-POM-BPQ can penetrate the skin from several formulations, making them potentially interesting candidates for further investigation of topical formulations using in-vivo models of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:17227619

  14. The Aerodynamics and Transport Phenomena of Canine Olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Brent; Settles, Gary; Paterson, Eric

    2008-11-01

    A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the canine nasal airway, developed from a 3-D reconstruction of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, is used to study the aerodynamics of canine olfaction. Simulation results reveal that a unique olfactory airflow pattern exists within the canine nasal cavity during sniffing that is critical for efficient olfaction. The physics of olfactory mass transport are next considered via a reduced-order numerical model of multi-phase odorant transport in mucus-lined olfactory airways. Calculations show that this novel olfactory airflow pattern provides a crucial residence time for odorant absorption in the sensory region and promotes spatiotemporal fractionation of odorant mixtures along the olfactory epithelium. Consequently, the aerodynamics and transport phenomena of canine olfaction are highly-optimized for odorant transfer and olfactory discrimination, which may largely explain the high olfactory acuity of the canine.

  15. The effects of oncolytic reovirus in canine lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hwang, C C; Umeki, S; Igase, M; Coffey, M; Noguchi, S; Okuda, M; Mizuno, T

    2014-10-15

    Reovirus is a potent oncolytic virus in many human neoplasms that has reached phase II and III clinical trials. Our laboratory has previously reported the oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine mast cell tumour (MCT). In order to further explore the potential of reovirus in veterinary oncology, we tested the susceptibility of reovirus in 10 canine lymphoma cell lines. Reovirus-induced cell death, virus replication and infectivity were confirmed in four cell lines with variable levels of susceptibility. The level of Ras activation varied among the cell lines with no correlation with reovirus susceptibility. Reovirus-susceptible cell lines underwent apoptosis as proven by propidium iodide (PI) staining, Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, cleavage of PARP and inhibition of cell death by caspase inhibitor. A single intratumoral injection of reovirus suppressed the growth of canine lymphoma subcutaneous tumour in NOD/SCID mice. Unlike canine MCT, canine lymphoma is less susceptible to reovirus. PMID:25319493

  16. Estimation of canine Leishmania infection prevalence in six cities of the Algerian littoral zone using a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Adel, Amel; Abatih, Emmanuel; Speybroeck, Niko; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Bouguedour, Rachid; Boughalem, Karim; Bouhbal, Abdelmalek; Djerbal, Mouloud; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale study on canine Leishmania infection (CanL) was conducted in six localities along a west-east transect in the Algerian littoral zone (Tlemcen, Mostaganem, Tipaza, Boumerdes, Bejaia, Jijel) and covering two sampling periods. In total 2,184 dogs were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a direct agglutination test (DAT). Combined multiple-testing and several statistical methods were compared to estimate the CanL true prevalence and tests characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). The Bayesian full model showed the best fit and yielded prevalence estimates between 11% (Mostaganem, first period) and 38% (Bejaia, second period). Sensitivity of IFAT varied (in function of locality) between 86% and 88% while its specificity varied between 65% and 87%. DAT was less sensitive than IFAT but showed a higher specificity (between 80% and 95% in function of locality or/and season). A general increasing trend of the CanL prevalence was noted from west to east. A concordance between the present results and the incidence of human cases of visceral leishmaniasis was observed, where also a maximum was recorded for Bejaia. The results of the present study highlight the dangers when using IFAT as a gold standard. PMID:25793942

  17. Divergent Profile of Emerging Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Subtropical Brazil: New Endemic Areas in the Southern Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Mariel Asbury; da Silva Mattos, Marise; Makowiecky, Maria Ernestina; Eger, Iriane; Rossetto, Andre Luiz; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Steindel, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Background Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. Methodology/Principal Findings For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n?=?401, 73.99%) and occurring in urban zones (n?=?422, 77.86%). Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56–21.09). Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania) amazonensis cases (1.20%), majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia) braziliensis (n?=?248, 98.80%). Conclusions/Significance CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V.) braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region. PMID:23457521

  18. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in White Nile, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Widaa, Sally Osman; Ahmed, Khalid Awadelkarim; Bari, Amel Ahmed Elsheikh; Ali, Mayada Mohmmedelhassan; Ibrahim, Mihad Abdelaal; Bashir, Mohammed Ahmed; Mastour, Ahmed Hamid Awadelkarim; Yagi, Zakkiah Algali; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar

    2012-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to occur since the 1980s on the western bank of the White Nile River (Central Sudan), 150 km south of Khartoum, and has resulted in high mortality. The most recent outbreak of the disease in this area began in 2006. Entomological surveys were carried out during May 2008, June 2010 and May and July 2011 in the White Nile area. Sandflies were collected using Centers for Disease Control light traps and sticky oil traps in the village of Kadaba and the nearby woodland. Phlebotomus females were dissected for the presence of Leishmania promastigotes. A total of 17,387 sandflies, including six species of Phlebotomus and 10 species of Sergentomyia, were identified. The Phlebotomus species recorded were Phlebotomus orientalis, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus duboscqi, Phlebotomus rodhaini and Phlebotomus saevus. P. orientalis was collected in both habitats. The relative abundance of P. orientalis in the woodland habitat was higher than that recorded in the village habitat. In the woodland habitat, there was a notable increase in the relative abundance of P. orientalis during the surveys conducted in 2008 and 2010 compared to 2011. None of the 311 P. orientalis females dissected were infected with Leishmania promastigotes, although relatively high parous rates were recorded in both habitats. Based on the distribution of P. orientalis recorded in this study, this species is the most likely vector of VL in the endemic focus in the White Nile area. Further investigation is required to elucidate the seasonal abundance and distribution of the vector, as well as the transmission season of VL in both habitats so that appropriate control strategies for the vector can be designed. PMID:22666856

  19. Reliability of mandibular canine and mandibular canine index in sex determination: A study using Uyghur population.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Raza; Zhang, Shuang; Mi, Congbo

    2015-07-01

    Sex determination is a key process that is required to establish the forensic profile of an individual. Mandibular canine index (MCI) method yields fairly positive results for sex determination. However, this method has been challenged by a few authors. This study aimed to examine the reliability of MCI in Chinese Uyghur population and to establish its normal value for this ethnic group. Dental casts of 216 students (117 males and 119 females) from the College of Stomatology of Xinjiang Medical University in China were used to determine the sexing accuracy of MCI. The mesiodistal (MD) dimension of mandibular canine crowns, the inter-canine distance, and the MCI were calculated. The accuracy of the standard MCI derived from the current data was compared with that of the standard MCIs derived from previous data. Results were statistically described using the independent-samples t-test. The MD dimension of mandibular crown, the inter-canine distance, and the MCI exhibited statistically significant sexual dimorphism. Sex determination using the MCI derived from the current data revealed fairly reliable results. Therefore, MCI is a reliable method for sex determination for Uyghur population, with 0.248 as standard MCI value. PMID:26048489

  20. Nosocomial outbreak of serious canine infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) caused by canine herpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kazuo; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Ken; Imai, Ayako; Ohashi, Emi; Matsunaga, Satoru; Tohya, Yukinobu; Ohshima, Takahisa; Mochizuki, Masami

    2010-04-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV; Canid herpesvirus 1) is principally a perinatal pathogen of pregnant bitches and newborn pups and secondarily a respiratory tract pathogen of older pups and dogs. Infectious disease of the canine respiratory tract frequently occurs among dogs in groups, in which it is called " infectious tracheobronchitis" (ITB). Mortality from ITB is generally negligible, and the clinical importance of CHV as an ITB pathogen is considered to be low. The present report describes a novel ITB outbreak accompanied by death among aged dogs in an animal medical center. Most inpatient dogs had received medications that could induce immunosuppression. CHV was the only pathogen identified, and several CHV isolates were recovered in cell culture. No other viral pathogens or significant bacterial pathogens were found. Molecular and serological analyses revealed that the causative CHV isolates were from a single source but that none was a peculiar strain when the strains were compared with previous CHV strains. The virus had presumably spread among the dogs predisposed to infection in the center. The present results serve as a warning to canine clinics that, under the specific set of circumstances described, such serious CHV outbreaks may be expected wherever canine ITB occurs. PMID:20107103

  1. Nosocomial Outbreak of Serious Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis (Kennel Cough) Caused by Canine Herpesvirus Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Kazuo; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Ken; Imai, Ayako; Ohashi, Emi; Matsunaga, Satoru; Tohya, Yukinobu; Ohshima, Takahisa; Mochizuki, Masami

    2010-01-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV; Canid herpesvirus 1) is principally a perinatal pathogen of pregnant bitches and newborn pups and secondarily a respiratory tract pathogen of older pups and dogs. Infectious disease of the canine respiratory tract frequently occurs among dogs in groups, in which it is called “ infectious tracheobronchitis” (ITB). Mortality from ITB is generally negligible, and the clinical importance of CHV as an ITB pathogen is considered to be low. The present report describes a novel ITB outbreak accompanied by death among aged dogs in an animal medical center. Most inpatient dogs had received medications that could induce immunosuppression. CHV was the only pathogen identified, and several CHV isolates were recovered in cell culture. No other viral pathogens or significant bacterial pathogens were found. Molecular and serological analyses revealed that the causative CHV isolates were from a single source but that none was a peculiar strain when the strains were compared with previous CHV strains. The virus had presumably spread among the dogs predisposed to infection in the center. The present results serve as a warning to canine clinics that, under the specific set of circumstances described, such serious CHV outbreaks may be expected wherever canine ITB occurs. PMID:20107103

  2. Evaluation of first generation vaccines against human leishmaniasis and the implication of Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) response

    E-print Network

    Amrhein, Valentin

    Evaluation of first generation vaccines against human leishmaniasis and the implication for leishmaniasis 30 1.6.2 Leishmanin skin test (LST) and its application in vaccine clinical trials 30 1.7 Vaccine (Leishmanization) 33 1.7.4 Whole parasite vaccines 34 1.7.4.1 Killed whole parasite (first generation) prophylactic

  3. Changing epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Brazil: a disease of the urban–rural interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos C. G Oliveira; Henio G Lacerda; Daniella R. M Martins; James. D. A Barbosa; Gloria R Monteiro; Jose W Queiroz; Jacira M. A Sousa; Maria F. F. M Ximenes; Selma M. B Jeronimo

    2004-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was first reported from the south-western region of the state of Rio Grande do Norte in1987. São Miguel municipality and adjacent areas have accounted for 90% of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the region since then. A population survey conducted in São Miguel and adjacent areas was undertaken to identify individuals with a history of

  4. Multiple relapses of visceral leishmaniasis in an adolescent with idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia associated with novel immunophenotypic and molecular features.

    PubMed

    Prigione, Ignazia; Castagnola, Elio; Imberti, Luisa; Gambini, Claudio; Gradoni, Luigi; Dianzani, Umberto; Ramenghi, Ugo; Giacopelli, Francesca; Moretta, Alessandro; Moretta, Lorenzo; Plebani, Alessandro; Fischer, Alain; Pistoia, Vito

    2009-02-01

    An adolescent with idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia suffered from 4 visceral leishmaniasis relapses despite appropriate treatment. CD8 lymphocytopenia and abnormal expansion of TCRalphabeta, CD4, CD8 cells were consistently detected together with reduced export of mature T cells from thymus. This novel form of idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia may predispose to multiple visceral leishmaniasis relapses. PMID:19106781

  5. Prion transmission

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Ben C

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases range from being highly infectious, for example scrapie and CWD, which show facile transmission between susceptible individuals, to showing negligible horizontal transmission, such as BSE and CJD, which are spread via food or iatrogenically, respectively. Scrapie and CWD display considerable in vivo dissemination, with PrPSc and infectivity being found in a range of peripheral tissues. This in vivo dissemination appears to facilitate the recently reported excretion of prion through multiple routes such as from skin, feces, urine, milk, nasal secretions, saliva and placenta. Furthermore, excreted scrapie and CWD agent is detected within environmental samples such as water and on the surfaces of inanimate objects. The cycle of “uptake of prion from the environment—widespread in vivo prion dissemination—prion excretion—prion persistence in the environment” is likely to explain the facile transmission and maintenance of these diseases within wild and farmed populations over many years. PMID:20948292

  6. T cells, adhesion molecules and modulation of apoptosis in visceral leishmaniasis glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Immune complex deposition is the accepted mechanism of pathogenesis of VL glomerulopathy however other immune elements may participate. Further in the present study, no difference was seen between immunoglobulin and C3b deposit intensity in glomeruli between infected and non-infected dogs thus T cells, adhesion molecules and parameters of proliferation and apoptosis were analysed in dogs with naturally acquired VL from an endemic area. The dog is the most important domestic reservoir of the protozoa Leishmania (L.) chagasi that causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The similarity of VL manifestation in humans and dogs renders the study of canine VL nephropathy of interest with regard to human pathology. Methods From 55 dogs with VL and 8 control non-infected dogs from an endemic area, kidney samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for immunoglobulin and C3b deposits, staining for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, ICAM-1, P-selectin and quantified using morphometry. Besides proliferation marker Ki-67, apoptosis markers M30 and TUNEL staining, and related cytokines TNF-?, IL-1? were searched and quantified. Results We observed similar IgG, IgM and IgA and C3b deposit intensity in dogs with VL and non-infected control dogs. However we detected the Leishmania antigen in cells in glomeruli in 54, CD4+ T cells in the glomeruli of 44, and CD8+ T cells in 17 of a total of 55 dogs with VL. Leishmania antigen was absent and T cells were absent/scarse in eight non-infected control dogs. CD 4+ T cells predominate in proliferative patterns of glomerulonephritis, however the presence of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were not different in intensity in different patterns of glomerulonephritis. The expression of ICAM-1 and P-selectin was significantly greater in the glomeruli of infected dogs than in control dogs. In all patterns of glomerulonephritis the expression of ICAM-1 ranged from minimum to moderately severe and P-selectin from absent to severe. In the control animals the expression of these molecules ranged from absent to medium intensity. It was not observed any correlation between severity of the disease and these markers. There was a correlation between the number of Leishmania antigen positive cells and CD4+ T cells, and between the number of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. In dogs presenting different histopathological patterns of glomerulonephritis, parameters of proliferation and apoptosis were studied. Ki-67, a proliferative marker, was not detected locally, but fewer apoptotic cells and lower TNF-? expression were seen in infected animals than in non-infected controls. Conclusion Immunopathogenic mechanisms of VL glomerulonephritis are complex and data in the present study suggest no clear participation of immunoglobulin and C3b deposits in these dogs but the possible migration of CD4+ T cells into the glomeruli, participation of adhesion molecules, and diminished apoptosis of cells contributing to determine the proliferative pattern of glomerulonephritis in VL. PMID:20459816

  7. Derivation of Canine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Baird, Aeg; Barsby, T; Guest, D J

    2015-08-01

    Dogs and humans have many inherited genetic diseases in common and conditions that are increasingly prevalent in humans also occur naturally in dogs. The use of dogs for the experimental and clinical testing of stem cell and regenerative medicine products would benefit canine health and welfare and provide relevant animal models for the translation of therapies to the human field. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the capacity to turn into all cells of the body and therefore have the potential to provide cells for therapeutic use and for disease modelling. The objective of this study was to derive and characterize iPSCs from karyotypically abnormal adult canine cells. Aneuploid adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AdMSCs) from an adult female Weimeraner were re-programmed into iPSCs via overexpression of four human pluripotency factors (Oct 4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-myc) using retroviral vectors. The iPSCs showed similarity to human ESCs with regard to morphology, pluripotency marker expression and the ability to differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro (endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm). The iPSCs also demonstrated silencing of the viral transgenes and re-activation of the silent X chromosome, suggesting full reprogramming had occurred. The levels of aneuploidy observed in the AdMSCs were maintained in the iPSCs. This finding demonstrates the potential for generating canine induced pluripotent stem cells for use as disease models in addition to regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical testing. PMID:26074059

  8. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Ecuador: current status of knowledge -- a review.

    PubMed

    Calvopina, Manuel; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2004-11-01

    Although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in Ecuador by the Ministry of Health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. This article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in Ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a national control strategy. The disease is endemic in most provinces throughout Pacific coastal region, Amazonian lowlands, and some inter-Andean valleys with a total 21,805 cases reported during 1990-2003. Whereas cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is found throughout Ecuador, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) appears to be restricted to the Amazon region; one, parasitologically unconfirmed case of visceral form was reported in 1949. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) spp., which is distributed in the subtropical and tropical lowlands; infections due to L. (Leishmania) spp. are found in the Andean highlands and in the Pacific lowlands as well. The proven vectors are Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. ayacuchensis. Canis familiaris, Sciurus vulgaris, Potos flavus, and Tamandua tetradactyla have been found infected with Leishmania spp. It is estimated that around 3000-4500 people may be infected every year, and that 3.1 to 4.5 millions people are estimated to be at risk of contracting leishmaniasis. PMID:15654419

  9. The Genetics of Canine Skull Shape Variation

    PubMed Central

    Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2013-01-01

    A dog’s craniofacial diversity is the result of continual human intervention in natural selection, a process that began tens of thousands of years ago. To date, we know little of the genetic underpinnings and developmental mechanisms that make dog skulls so morphologically plastic. In this Perspectives, we discuss the origins of dog skull shapes in terms of history and biology and highlight recent advances in understanding the genetics of canine skull shapes. Of particular interest are those molecular genetic changes that are associated with the development of distinct breeds. PMID:23396475

  10. Creation of distal canine limb lymphedema

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.C.; Pribaz, J.J.; O'Brien, B.M.; Knight, K.R.; Morrison, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    A canine model of distal limb lymphedema was established in order to study the treatment of this condition by lymph node transfer. This model was more difficult to establish than whole-limb lymphedema. Significant edema was achieved by a combination of preoperative irradiation and circumferential removal of skin from the irradiated areas followed by removal of the contents of the popliteal fossa. Despite these measures, it was not possible to produce lymphedema in every case, possibly because of the presence of lymphaticovenous shunts and panvascular compensation mechanisms.

  11. [Canine parvovirus infection in dogs: a consideration].

    PubMed

    Rimmelzwaan, G F; Uytdenhaag, F G; Osterhaus, A D

    1986-09-15

    The current knowledge of canine parvovirus (CPV) and the clinical symptoms associated with CPV infection within seven years after the first outbreaks of the disease are reviewed in the present paper. The most important symptoms result from the occurrence of acute enteritis and/or acute myocarditis. Besides characteristics of the virus, symptoms of disease and (histo)pathological findings, particular attention is focussed on recent developments in diagnosis and prevention. A protocol for the prevention of CPV infections in situations in kennels, consisting of combined vaccination and hygienic procedures is presented. PMID:3020734

  12. Canine parvovirus in asymptomatic feline carriers.

    PubMed

    Clegg, S R; Coyne, K P; Dawson, S; Spibey, N; Gaskell, R M; Radford, A D

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) are two closely related viruses, which are known to cause severe disease in younger unvaccinated animals. As well as causing disease in their respective hosts, CPV has recently acquired the feline host range, allowing it to infect both cats and dogs. As well as causing disease in dogs, there is evidence that under some circumstances CPV may also cause disease in cats. This study has investigated the prevalence of parvoviruses in the faeces of clinically healthy cats and dogs in two rescue shelters. Canine parvovirus was demonstrated in 32.5% (13/50) of faecal samples in a cross sectional study of 50 cats from a feline only shelter, and 33.9% (61/180) of faecal samples in a longitudinal study of 74 cats at a mixed canine and feline shelter. Virus was isolated in cell cultures of both canine and feline origin from all PCR-positive samples suggesting they contained viable, infectious virus. In contrast to the high CPV prevalence in cats, no FPLV was found, and none of 122 faecal samples from dogs, or 160 samples collected from the kennel environment, tested positive for parvovirus by PCR. Sequence analysis of major capsid VP2 gene from all positive samples, as well as the non-structural gene from 18 randomly selected positive samples, showed that all positive cats were shedding CPV2a or 2b, rather than FPLV. Longitudinally sampling in one shelter showed that all cats appeared to shed the same virus sequence type at each date they were positive (up to six weeks), despite a lack of clinical signs. Fifty percent of the sequences obtained here were shown to be similar to those recently obtained in a study of sick dogs in the UK (Clegg et al., 2011). These results suggest that in some circumstances, clinically normal cats may be able to shed CPV for prolonged periods of time, and raises the possibility that such cats may be important reservoirs for the maintenance of infection in both the cat and the dog population. PMID:22257775

  13. Upper canine inclination influences the aesthetics of a smile.

    PubMed

    Bothung, C; Fischer, K; Schiffer, H; Springer, I; Wolfart, S

    2015-02-01

    This current study investigated which angle of canine inclination (angle between canine tooth axis (CA-line) and the line between the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral labial angle (EM-line)) is perceived to be most attractive in a smile. The second objective was to determine whether laymen and dental experts share the same opinion. A Q-sort assessment was performed with 48 posed smile photographs to obtain two models of neutral facial attractiveness. Two sets of images (1 male model set, 1 female model set), each containing seven images with incrementally altered canine and posterior teeth inclinations, were generated. The images were ranked for attractiveness by three groups (61 laymen, 59 orthodontists, 60 dentists). The images with 0° inclination, that is CA-line (maxillary canine axis) parallel to EM-line (the line formed by the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral corner of the mouth) (male model set: 54·4%; female model set: 38·9%), or -5° (inward) inclination (male model set: 20%; female model set: 29·4%) were perceived to be most attractive within each set. Images showing inward canine inclinations were regarded to be more attractive than those with outward inclinations. Dental experts and laymen were in accordance with the aesthetics. Smiles were perceived to be most attractive when the upper canine tooth axis was parallel to the EM-line. In reconstructive or orthodontic therapy, it is thus important to incline canines more inwardly than outwardly. PMID:25244536

  14. Cone-beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Luana Costa; Oliveira-Santos, Christiano; da Silva, Silvio José Albergaria; Neves, Frederico Sampaio; Campos, Paulo Sérgio Flores

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Materials and Methods Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Results Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Conclusion Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth. PMID:25473636

  15. Transmission communication

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Revision of Lecture 1 . Major blocks of digital communication system . MODEM functions . Channel has finite bandwidth and introduces noise: two main factors recovering of transmitted data symbols MODEM components pulse shaping Tx/Rx filter pair modulator

  16. Shingles Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... VZV Laboratory Surveillance Resources & References Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus NIH SeniorHealth AgePage on Shingles Immunization Action ... Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Related Links Medline Plus NIH SeniorHealth AgePage on Shingles Immunization Action ...

  17. Immune Responses of Iranian Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis and Recovered Individuals to LCR1 of Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Abrishami, Firoozeh; Doroudian, Mohammad; Rostamian, Mosayeb; Moradi, Maryam; Khaze, Vahid; Iravani, Davood

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem. Leishmania infantum is one of its causative agents. LCR1 is an immunogen from L. infantum. Antibodies against this protein have been detected in visceral leishmaniasis patients. The aim of this study was to define the antibody and cellular immune responses against LCR1 in Iranian visceral leishmaniasis patients and recovered individuals. The LCR1 protein was produced in recombinant form. Antibody responses against this protein were studied in Iranian individuals with a recent history of visceral leishmaniasis. Responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to this protein were studied in Iranian individuals who had recovered from visceral leishmaniasis. Our data show that (i) there was an antibody response to LCR1 in each individual with a recent history of visceral leishmaniasis studied, (ii) there was neither a proliferative response nor production of gamma interferon (IFN-?) or interleukin 10 in response to LCR1 by mononuclear cells from individuals who had recovered from visceral leishmaniasis, and (iii) individuals who have recovered from visceral leishmaniasis show ongoing immune responses long after recovery from the disease. These data show that there are no detectable cellular memory responses to LCR1 in Iranian individuals who have recovered from visceral leishmaniasis, while there are detectable antibody responses in patients with this disease. Our data suggest that LCR1 has potential applications for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis through antibody detection, while the application of LCR1 alone for induction of IFN-? in individuals who recovered from this disease is not supported. The presence of long-lasting immune reactivities in individuals who recovered from the disease may show the necessity of extended medical surveillance for these individuals. PMID:24501341

  18. Utilizing Remote Sensing to Explore Hydrological and Climatic Factors of Visceral Leishmaniasis in South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruczkiewicz, A.; Sweeney, A.; Reid, C.; Seaman, J.; Abubakar, A.; Ritmeijer, K.; Jensen, K.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Lessel, J.; Thomson, M. C.; Elnaiem, D.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Sudan and South Sudan (locally known as Kala Azar) have caused an estimated 100,000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of this vector borne disease. In the past 30 years outbreaks have occurred cyclically within this country, but recent shifts in endemicity have necessitated a more robust understanding of the drivers of the disease. Previous work (e.g. Gebre-Michael et al., 2004; Ashford & Thomson, 1991; Hoogstraal & Heyneman, 1969) has suggested that the primary biological vector in this region, the female sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis, exhibits sensitivities to environmental and climatic variables. Results of this study showed a relationship between precipitation and inundation during months of the transmission season (April-July) and the number of confirmed cases in the following September-January period. Particular months of the transmission season with below-average precipitation were better indicators of lagged reports of VL than others. During VL epidemics (2009, 2010, 2011) the month of June exhibited below average precipitation. The two largest epidemics (2010, 2011) were associated with years of below average precipitation in the month of April. Inundation during April-July (AMJJ) also exhibited a strong inverse relationship with reported VL cases in the following September- January (SONDJ). This relationship was best explored when comparing the VL case data of a specific medical center to the inundation anomalies. Results are typified by the Lankien Medical Center analysis where below average inundation during April displays an inverse relationship with VL cases in the following SONDJ. Drought may lead to below average inundation, which could allow for soils to maintain their fissures, thus maintaining the sand fly breeding habitat, resulting in a sustained breeding season for the sandflies (Quate, 1964). Above-average precipitation and inundation might have the inverse effect, eliminating their breeding sites within the soil. Land surface temperature (LST) Night, LST Day, and relative humidity did not show a particularly strong relationship with VL. Further research is needed, as these variables are known to exist across strong gradients within the northern states of South Sudan (Quate, 1964).

  19. Isolation, tissue distribution and molecular characterization of two recombinant canine coronavirus strains.

    PubMed

    Ntafis, V; Mari, V; Decaro, N; Papanastassopoulou, M; Papaioannou, N; Mpatziou, R; Buonavoglia, C; Xylouri, E

    2011-08-01

    Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is an enveloped RNA virus, responsible for gastrointestinal infection in dogs. To date, two different CCoV genotypes have been recognized, CCoV type I and CCoV type II. Recently, CCoV type II strains of potential recombinant origin with transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were detected and characterized as a new subtype (CCoV-IIb) of canine coronavirus, in order to be differentiated from the "classical" CCoV type II strains (CCoV-IIa). In the present study, two CCoV-IIb strains were detected in the faeces and internal organs of two puppies, which died after presenting gastrointestinal symptoms. Mixed infection of both subtypes (CCoV-IIa/IIb) was detected in the faeces, while only CCoV-IIb was detected in the organs. Puppies were also infected by canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). Both CCoV-IIb strains were isolated on cell cultures and subjected to sequence analysis and phylogeny. By means of RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR assays, tissue distribution and quantitation of viral loads took place. These cases represent the first description of tissue distribution and quantitation of CCoV-IIb strains, detected in the organs. The detection of CCoV-IIa strains, which is restricted to the faeces, suggests that CCoV-IIb strains may have an advantage in disseminating throughout a dog with CPV-2 coinfection, in contrast to common enteric CCoV-IIa strains. PMID:21481551

  20. A new approach for evaluation of canine dento alveolar distraction using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, Chandrasekaran; Kannan, M. S.; Sukumar, M. R.; Rajesekar, L.; Datta, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate and plan the canine dento alveolar distractions (DADs) with the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: 5 patients are requiring 10 canine DADs were selected for the study. A custom-made DAD distractor was fabricated for the study. CBCT scans were taken prior to and post thedistraction. DAD parameters such as Canine retraction, canine and molar rotation, molar anchor loss and level of the osteotomy cut above the canine was evaluated. Results: Average canine retraction was 7.5 mm in 17 days, molar anchor loss was 0.5 mm, canine and molar rotations were 8° and 0.40° and thedistance of the osteotomy cut to the canine was1.93 mm. Conclusion: The CBCT can be used to accurately evaluate the canine DADtechnique. PMID:26015689

  1. Intranasal vaccine trial for canine infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough).

    PubMed

    Glickman, L T; Appel, M J

    1981-08-01

    Two field trials were conducted during periods of endemic (summer) and epizootic (winter) canine infectious tracheobronchitis activity to evaluate the efficacy of three intranasal vaccines in a closed commercial beagle breeding kennel. A trivalent vaccine containing Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine parainfluenza, and canine adenovirus-2 was administered at 3 weeks of age. The vaccine was 71.2% and 81.8% effective in decreasing the incidence of coughing during the winter and summer trials, respectively. The number of deaths was lower in each of the vaccine groups than in the placebo groups. No adverse reactions were observed with any of the intranasal vaccines. PMID:6273648

  2. The class A macrophage scavenger receptor CD204 is a useful immunohistochemical marker of canine histiocytic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kato, Y; Murakami, M; Hoshino, Y; Mori, T; Maruo, K; Hirata, A; Nakagawa, T L D R; Yanai, T; Sakai, H

    2013-02-01

    The immunohistochemical expression of the class A macrophage scavenger receptor CD204, was investigated in 50 canine histiocytic sarcomas (HSs) and compared with that of CD18, CD163, CD11d and class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Expression of CD204 was also determined in 81 canine round cell tumours and pleomorphic sarcomas including T- and B-cell lymphomas, mast cell tumours, extramedullary plasmacytomas, cutaneous histiocytomas, transmissible venereal tumours, pigmented or amelanotic melanomas, poorly differentiated haemangiosarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas. All of the 50 HSs expressed CD204, CD18 and MHC class II; 27 were positive for CD163 and seven expressed CD11d. All of the round cell tumours, except for one grade III mast cell tumour, were negative for CD204; however, they showed varying immunoreactivity patterns for CD18 and MHC class II. None of the pleomorphic sarcomas were immunoreactive for CD204. CD204 would appear to be a useful marker for canine HS. PMID:22901707

  3. Pink plaque on the arm of a man after a trip to Mexico: cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeffrey M; Saavedra, Arturo P; Sax, Paul E; Lipworth, Adam D

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus that presents as asymptomatic pink papules that may ulcerate. There are several species of Leishmania found in 98 endemic countries and whereas all are associated with cutaneous disease, only specific species can cause mucocutaneous or visceral disease. Although the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis can be confirmed with Giemsa staining of a biopsy or "touch prep" specimen, only speciation at specialized centers such as the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) can determine the risk of mucocutaneous or visceral disease. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis is varied and depends on the extent of cutaneous disease and the risk of mucocutaneous or visceral disease. PMID:26158361

  4. Almiramides A–C: Discovery and Development of a New Class of Leishmaniasis Lead Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Laura M.; Lopez, Dioxelis; Vesely, Brian A.; Togna, Gina Della; Gerwick, William H.; Kyle, Dennis E.; Linington, Roger G.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a debilitating disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, which affects an estimated 12 million people worldwide. The discovery of new lead compounds for leishmaniasis is therefore a pressing concern for global health programs. The organic extract of a Panamanian collection of the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula showed strong in vitro activity in two complementary screens against the tropical parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Chromatographic separation of this complex mixture led to the isolation of the highly N-methylated linear lipopeptides, almiramides A–C (1–3). Comparison with the biological activities of a number of related metabolites and semisynthetic derivatives revealed key features required for activity and afforded one new compound (11) with superior in vitro activity. Subsequent synthesis of a library of simplified analogues led to the discovery of several compounds with improved therapeutic indices to the natural products. PMID:20441198

  5. Mucosal leishmaniasis mimicking squamous cell carcinoma in a liver transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A; Múñez, E; García-Domínguez, J; Martinez-Ruiz, R; Chicharro, C; Baños, I; Suarez-Massa, D; Cuervas-Mons, V

    2015-06-01

    Organ transplant recipients living in endemic regions are at increased risk of Leishmania infections. Visceral leishmaniasis is the most common kind of presentation in the Mediterranean basin. Rarely, Leishmania infantum may cause localized mucosal disease. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of a liver transplant recipient with localized mucosal leishmaniasis. Twenty-two years after transplantation, a painless, very slow growing ulcer appeared on the inner side of the patient's upper lip. A biopsy performed in the community hospital showed non-specific chronic inflammation without neoplastic signs. Because of a high suspicion of malignancy, the patient was transferred to the referral hospital to consider complete excision. The excisional biopsy revealed a granulomatous inflammatory reaction together with intracellular Leishmania amastigotes within macrophages. Leishmaniasis was confirmed by the nested polymerase chain reaction assay. The clinical and laboratory findings did not suggest visceral involvement. The patient received meglumine antimoniate for 21 days without relevant adverse effects. PMID:25816835

  6. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J; Bingham, J; van Vuuren, M; Burroughs, R E J; Stylianides, E

    2002-03-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictuis (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation. PMID:12088076

  7. The evolutionary processes of canine coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Annamaria

    2011-01-01

    Since the first identification of the virus in 1971, the disease caused by canine coronavirus (CCoV) has not been adequately investigated, and the role that the virus plays in canine enteric illness has not been well established. Only after the emergence in 2002 of SARS in human has new attention been focused on coronaviruses. As a consequence of the relatively high mutation frequency of RNA-positive stranded viruses, CCoV has evolved and, with the biomolecular techniques developed over the last two decades, new virus strains, serotypes, and subtypes have been identified in infected dogs. Considering the widespread nature of CCoV infections among dog populations, several studies have been carried out, focusing upon the epidemiological relevance of these viruses and underlining the need for further investigation into the biology of CCoVs and into the pathogenetic role of the infections. This paper reports the evolutionary processes of CCoVs with a note onto recent diagnostic methods. PMID:22315601

  8. The Evolutionary Processes of Canine Coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pratelli, Annamaria

    2011-01-01

    Since the first identification of the virus in 1971, the disease caused by canine coronavirus (CCoV) has not been adequately investigated, and the role that the virus plays in canine enteric illness has not been well established. Only after the emergence in 2002 of SARS in human has new attention been focused on coronaviruses. As a consequence of the relatively high mutation frequency of RNA-positive stranded viruses, CCoV has evolved and, with the biomolecular techniques developed over the last two decades, new virus strains, serotypes, and subtypes have been identified in infected dogs. Considering the widespread nature of CCoV infections among dog populations, several studies have been carried out, focusing upon the epidemiological relevance of these viruses and underlining the need for further investigation into the biology of CCoVs and into the pathogenetic role of the infections. This paper reports the evolutionary processes of CCoVs with a note onto recent diagnostic methods. PMID:22315601

  9. Calcium secretion in canine tracheal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Bazzaz, F.J.; Jayaram, T.

    1985-10-01

    Calcium (Ca) affects many cellular functions of the respiratory tract mucosa and might alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. To evaluate Ca homeostasis in a respiratory epithelium we investigated transport of Ca by the canine tracheal mucosa. Mucosal tissues were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and bathed with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. Unidirectional fluxes of 45Ca were determined in tissues that were matched by conductance and short-circuit current (SCC). Under short-circuit conditions there was a significant net Ca secretion of 1.82 +/- 0.36 neq . cm-2 . h-1 (mean +/- SE). Under open-circuit conditions, where the spontaneous transepithelial potential difference could attract Ca toward the lumen, net Ca secretion increased significantly to 4.40 +/- 1.14 compared with 1.54 +/- 1.17 neq . cm-2 . h-1 when the preparation was short-circuited. Addition of a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (2 mM in the mucosal bath), decreased tissue conductance and SCC and slightly decreased the unidirectional movement of Ca from submucosa to lumen. Submucosal epinephrine (10 microM) significantly enhanced Ca secretion by 2.0 +/- 0.63 neq . cm-2 . h-1. Submucosal ouabain (0.1 mM) failed to inhibit Ca secretion. The data suggest that canine tracheal mucosa secretes Ca; this secretory process is augmented by epinephrine or by the presence of a transepithelial potential difference as found under in vivo conditions.

  10. Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis and species discrimination of parasites by PCR and hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, N; Guzman, B; Rodas, A; Takiff, H; Bloom, B R; Convit, J

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of PCR methodology in establishing the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in patients from areas of endemicity in Venezuela. Biopsies from 233 patients with cutaneous ulcers suggestive of leishmaniasis were analyzed by PCR, employing oligonucleotides directed against conserved regions of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), and the PCR products were then hybridized to nonradioactively labeled, species-specific, cloned kDNA fragments. The ability of PCR to detect Leishmania cells was compared with those of the conventional methodologies: skin testing with killed promastigotes (Montenegro test), examination of Giemsa-stained biopsy smears, and in vitro culture of biopsy tissue. The PCR-hybridization technique detected the presence of Leishmania cells in 98% of patients clinically diagnosed as having leishmaniasis and also positive by the Montenegro skin test. In comparison, leishmania positivity was found in only 42% of cultures and 64% of biopsy smears. By hybridizing the PCR product to new kDNA probes specific for either Leishmania mexicana or Leishmania braziliensis, we found that both species are major causes of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela, and the species identification was confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis of kDNA from biopsy cultures. This work demonstrates that PCR coupled with hybridization is useful not only for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis but also for the taxonomic discrimination essential for both epidemiology and therapy. This technique can be used to diagnose leishmaniasis in a country in which the disease is endemic and can perhaps be adapted for use in a rural clinic. Images PMID:7814554

  11. Notes from the field: wildlife rabies on an island free from canine rabies for 52 years--Taiwan, 2013.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsiu; Chang, Su-San; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Wallace, Ryan M; Recuenco, Sergio E; Doty, Jeffrey B; Vora, Neil M; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2014-02-28

    Dog-to-dog transmission of rabies in Taiwan was eliminated in 1961; the island was considered canine rabies-free for 52 years. On July 16, 2013, three ferret-badgers (Melogale moschata) tested positive for rabies by fluorescent antibody testing at the Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture of Taiwan. This was the first time wild animals other than bats were tested. During 1999-2012, a total of 6,841 clinically healthy dogs and five apparently normal cats from shelters were tested and found negative for rabies. During 2009-2012, a total of 322 bats were tested and found negative for rabies. PMID:24572614

  12. Environmental and Animal Characteristics as Factors Associated with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rural Locations with Presence of Dogs, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Membrive, Norberto Assis; Rodrigues, Gesse; Gualda, Kezia Peres; Bernal, Marcos Vinícius Zandonadi; Oliveira, Diego Molina; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Teodoro, Ueslei; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the importance of dogs, other domesticated animals and environmental characteristics as risk factors in the epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). A retrospective survey of cases of human ACL in the last ten years and visits to homes in rural locations were carried out in the municipality of Arapongas (southern Brazil) from 2008 to 2010. ACL in humans was significantly associated with a distance of up to 25 meters from the residence to a forest area (OR 5.08; 95% CI: 1.35–21.04), undergrowth area (OR 6.80; 95% CI: 1.69–45.33) and stream (OR 5.87; 95% CI: 1.15–24.59); banana plants near the residence (OR 5.98; 95% CI: 1.49–39.84), absence of ceiling below the roof in the residence (OR 7.30; 95% CI: 1.26–158.1), the dumping of trash in the forest area (OR 26.33; 95% CI: 7.32–93.46) and presence of ACL in dogs in the surrounding area (OR 4.39; 95% CI: 1.37–13.45). In dogs, ACL was associated with a distance of 25 to 50 meters and 51 to 100 meters, respectively, from the residence to a forest area (OR 2.59; 95% CI: 1.08–5.98; OR 3.29; 95% CI: 1.64–6.62), the presence of a stream up to 25 m from the residence (OR 6.23; 95% CI: 2.34–16.54) and banana plants near the residence (OR 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25–0.80). In the locations studied in the municipality of Arapongas (Brazil), the results reveal that canine infection increases the risk of human infection by ACL and the characteristics surrounding the residence increase the risk of infection in both humans and dogs. Thus, integrated environmental management could be a useful measure to avoid contact between humans and phlebotomines. PMID:23144799

  13. Sequence analysis of divergent canine coronavirus strains present in a UK dog population.

    PubMed

    Erles, Kerstin; Brownlie, Joe

    2009-04-01

    Forty faecal samples were tested by RT-PCR using coronavirus consensus primers to determine faecal shedding of canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) in a dog population housed at a rescue centre. Seven samples were positive for CCoV while all samples were negative for CRCoV. Sequence analysis of five CCoV strains showed a high similarity with transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) at the N-terminus of the spike protein. All strains contained an open reading frame for the nonstructural protein 7b, which is not present in TGEV, indicating that the strains were related to the previously described CCoV strain UCD-1. Two samples contained CCoV strains with 5' spike sequences most similar to type II CCoV while one sample was found to contain type I CCoV. Primers directed to the N gene allowed specific detection of all CCoV strains analysed in this study. This investigation shows that CCoV strains containing spike proteins similar to TGEV are present in the UK dog population. PCR primers directed to conserved regions of the CCoV genome are recommended for detection of CCoV in clinical samples due to high genetic variability. PMID:19162099

  14. Detection and genotyping of canine coronavirus RNA in diarrheic dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Soma, Takehisa; Ohinata, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Toshikazu; Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Hara, Motonobu

    2011-04-01

    To clarify the prevalence of canine coronavirus (CCoV) infection in Japan, faecal samples from 109 dogs with diarrhoea were examined for CCoV RNA together with canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) DNA. The detection rates of CCoV and CPV-2 for dogs aged less than 1 year were 66.3% and 43.8%, while those for dogs aged 1 year or older were 6.9% and 10.3%, respectively, which were significantly different (p<0.0001 and p=0.0003, respectively), indicating not CPV-2 but CCoV is an important diarrhoea-causing organism in juvenile dogs. Among the CCoV-positive dogs, 65.5% and 72.7% showed to be positive for CCoV types I and II, respectively, and simultaneous detection rate of both types was high at 40.0%. Furthermore, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)-like CCoV RNA was detected from 8 dogs. These findings indicate that CCoV type I and TGEV-like CCoV are already circulating in Japan, though no reports have been presented to date. PMID:20557915

  15. [Investigation of Serum Macrophage Migration Inhibitor Factor (MIF) levels in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis.].

    PubMed

    Kozaci, Didem L; Ertu?, Sema; Kavak, Tülay; Okyay, P?nar; Chikanza, Ian C; Ertabaklar, Hatice

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the possible role of MIF as an immunologic marker in cutaneous leishmaniasis was evaluated. Twenty patients with acute cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. MIF serum levels were measured using a sandwich ELISA method. The MIF levels were 3.50 +/- 7.07 ng/ml in the control group and 69.05 +/- 149.48 ng/ml in the CL group (p < 0,001). The increase in MIF levels in CL patients may be due to the stimulation of a T cell-mediated cellular immune response by Leishmania. PMID:17160809

  16. Contribution of molecular diagnosis to the management of cutaneous leishmaniasis in travellers.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, R A; Iriart, X; Martin-Blondel, G; Chauvin, P; Menard, S; Fillaux, J; Cassaing, S; Roques-Malecaze, C; Arnaud, S; Valentin, A; Magnaval, J F; Marchou, B; Berry, A

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most frequent skin diseases occurring after travelling in endemic areas. Optimal management requires identification of the species of Leishmania involved. In this study we aimed to evaluate the use of molecular diagnosis as routine, in comparison with direct examination and culture. Thirty positive diagnoses were carried out between 2007 and 2013. Classical PCR enabled 11 positive cases to be identified that were found to be negative by conventional methods. Sequencing led to the identification of eight different species. Routine use of PCR and sequencing appears very efficient in the management of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:24279601

  17. Frequency of IFN?-producing T cells correlates with seroreactivity and activated T cells during canine Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Ashley N; Cooley, Gretchen; Gwyn, Sarah; Orozco, Marcela M; Tarleton, Rick L

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines to prevent Trypanosoma cruzi infection in humans or animals are not available, and in many settings, dogs are an important source of domestic infection for the insect vector. Identification of infected canines is crucial for evaluating peridomestic transmission dynamics and parasite control strategies. As immune control of T. cruzi infection is dependent on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, we aimed to define a serodiagnostic assay and T cell phenotypic markers for identifying infected dogs and studying the canine T. cruzi-specific immune response. Plasma samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from forty-two dogs living in a T. cruzi-endemic region. Twenty dogs were known to be seropositive and nine seronegative by conventional serologic tests two years prior to our study. To determine canine seroreactivity, we tested sera or plasma samples in a multiplex bead array against eleven recombinant T. cruzi proteins. Ninety-four percent (17/18) of dogs positive by multiplex serology were initially positive by conventional serology. The frequency of IFN?-producing cells in PBMCs responding to T. cruzi correlated to serological status, identifying 95% of multiplex seropositive dogs. Intracellular staining identified CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations as the sources of T. cruzi lysate-induced IFN?. Low expression of CCR7 and CD62L on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells suggested a predominance of effector/effector memory T cells in seropositive canines. These results are the first, to our knowledge, to correlate T. cruzi-specific antibody responses with T cell responses in naturally infected dogs and validate these methods for identifying dogs exposed to T. cruzi. PMID:24456537

  18. Environmental factors underlying spatial patterns of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with leishmaniasis in southern Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hala A; Siri, Jose; Kamal, Hany A; Wilson, Mark L

    2012-07-01

    Although Leishmania major is endemic in parts of the Sinai of Egypt, the ecology and distribution of Leishmania sand fly vectors in southern Sinai has not been well characterized. Accordingly, additional sand fly samples were obtained at 41 sites in the southern Sinai region during 1996-1997, and analyzed to improve the characterization of risk of sand fly-borne pathogens. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), species-specific spatial distributions that might suggest zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) risk areas were determined in relation to contextual environmental factors, including geology, hydrogeology, climate variables and elevation. Southern Sinai was characterized by a diverse sand fly fauna (eight Phlebotomus species), probably attributable to highly variable landscape and environmental factors. Phlebotomus alexandri, Phlebotomus kazeruni and Phlebotomus sergenti were widespread and abundant, Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus bergeroti were less frequent, and Phlebotomus arabicus, Phlebotomus major and Phlebotomus orientalis had highly restricted distributions. Logistic regression models indicated that elevation and climatic conditions were limiting determinants for the distributions of sand flies in southern Sinai. Based on the predicted distribution of P. papatasi, a recognized vector of L. major, about one-quarter of southern Sinai may be at high risk of ZCL. Risk areas for the suspected ZCL vector P. bergeroti had a more patchy distribution. Results suggest that future studies should include other factors related to vector abundance, vector competence, human population, and parasite and reservoir host(s) to produce more comprehensive ZCL transmission risk maps, thus helping in planning effective prevention and control strategies. PMID:22410540

  19. Tissue granuloma structure-function in experimental visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    MURRAY, HENRY W

    2001-01-01

    In experimental visceral leishmaniasis in normal mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6) acquired resistance to Leishmania donovani, a protozoan which targets tissue macrophages, depends upon T cells, Th1 cell-type cytokine generation and activated mononuclear phagocytes. In the intact host, initial control and eventual resolution of L. donovani hepatic infection in normal mice is expressed by and accomplished within well-formed, mature tissue granulomas. In the liver, these immunologically active, inflammatory structures are assembled around a core of fused, parasitized resident macrophages (Kupffer cells) which come to be encircled by both cytokine-secreting T cells and influxing leishmanicidal blood monocytes. This pro-host defense granuloma structure-function relationship, in which histologically mature granulomas provide the microenvironment for intracellular L. donovani killing, however, is only one of seven which have been identified through experimental modifications in this model. This report reviews these structure-function relationships and illustrates the broad spectrum of additional possible responses. These responses range from structurally intact granulomas which provide no antileishmanial function (the ‘ineffective’ granuloma), to enlarged granulomas which show enhanced parasite killing (the ‘hypertrophied’ granuloma), to effective antileishmanial activity in the absence of any tissue reaction (the ‘invisible’ granuloma). PMID:11703536

  20. Is the IL-10 -819 polymorphism associated with visceral leishmaniasis?

    PubMed

    Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Sardarian, Kosro; Dadmanesh, Maryam; Matini, Mohamad; Lotfi, Pegah; Bazmani, Ahad; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Momeni, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    Previous investigations demonstrated that immune responses play critical roles in the defense against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). A key regulator of immune responses is the cytokine, IL-10 and polymorphisms within its promoter which could alter its expression. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the correlation between polymorphism at the -819 position of the IL-10 gene and VL in a selected Iranian population. This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 patients with clinical presentation of VL and seropositive for the leishmania (group 1), 62 patients without clinical presentation but seropositive (group 2), and 128 healthy controls (group 3). The IL-10 -819 polymorphism was evaluated using the PCR-RFLP technique. The anti-leishmania antibody titration was assessed using an immunofluorescence assay. Our results showed that the polymorphism at IL-10 -819 (C/T) position was significantly associated with VL, and C/T genotype was significantly higher in VL patients when compared to groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.001). However, the results demonstrated that the C and T alleles were not associated with VL (p = 0.855). The data presented here confirm the results of previous reports that polymorphisms at the -819 position of the IL-10 gene can influence susceptibility to VL suggesting that the C/T genotype may be considered as a risk factor for the disease. PMID:23912644

  1. Advances in Development of New Treatment for Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio; Petersen, Antônio Luis de Oliveira Almeida; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected infectious disease caused by several different species of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Current strategies to control this disease are mainly based on chemotherapy. Despite being available for the last 70 years, leishmanial chemotherapy has lack of efficiency, since its route of administration is difficult and it can cause serious side effects, which results in the emergence of resistant cases. The medical-scientific community is facing difficulties to overcome these problems with new suitable and efficient drugs, as well as the identification of new drug targets. The availability of the complete genome sequence of Leishmania has given the scientific community the possibility of large-scale analysis, which may lead to better understanding of parasite biology and consequent identification of novel drug targets. In this review we focus on how high-throughput analysis is helping us and other groups to identify novel targets for chemotherapeutic interventions. We further discuss recent data produced by our group regarding the use of the high-throughput techniques and how this helped us to identify and assess the potential of new identified targets.

  2. Hexadecylphosphocholine: oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlencord, A; Maniera, T; Eibl, H; Unger, C

    1992-01-01

    Hexadecylphosphocholine (He-PC), a novel phospholipid derivative, was tested against Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum, the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis. In vitro, promastigotes were highly susceptible to He-PC; the 50% inhibitory concentrations were between 0.89 and 2.25 micrograms/ml for the different leishmanial strains. In vivo, a marked antileishmanial activity in infected BALB/c mice could be demonstrated after oral administration of He-PC. Whereas parasite suppression and killing in the liver were comparable after 5 days of treatment with He-PC (10 or 20 mg/kg of body weight per day administered orally) and sodium stibogluconate (120 mg of pentavalent antimonal agent per kg/day administered subcutaneously), a superior reduction in the parasite load in the spleen and bone marrow was observed after oral treatment with He-PC. After a 4-week treatment period, parasite suppression in the spleen was better than that observed with standard sodium stibogluconate therapy by a factor of more than 600. PMID:1329624

  3. Clinical Manifestations and Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Afghan, Abaseen Khan; Kassi, Masoom; Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Ayub, Adil; Kakar, Niamatullah; Marri, Shah Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a rising epidemic in Pakistan. It is a major public health problem in the country especially alongside regions bordering the neighboring Afghanistan and cities that have had the maximum influx of refugees. The purpose of our paper is to highlight the diverse clinical manifestations of the disease seen along with the geographic areas affected, where the hosts are particularly susceptible. This would also be helpful in presenting the broad spectrum of the disease for training of health care workers and help in surveillance of CL in the region. The increased clinical diversity and the spectrum of phenotypic manifestations noted underscore the fact that the diagnosis of CL should be not only considered when dealing with common skin lesions, but also highly suspected by dermatologists and even primary care physicians even when encountering uncommon pathologies. Hence, we would strongly advocate that since most of these patients present to local health care centers and hospitals, primary care practitioners and even lady health workers (LHWs) should be trained in identification of at least the common presentations of CL. PMID:22174721

  4. Clinical manifestations and distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afghan, Abaseen Khan; Kassi, Masoom; Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Ayub, Adil; Kakar, Niamatullah; Marri, Shah Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a rising epidemic in Pakistan. It is a major public health problem in the country especially alongside regions bordering the neighboring Afghanistan and cities that have had the maximum influx of refugees. The purpose of our paper is to highlight the diverse clinical manifestations of the disease seen along with the geographic areas affected, where the hosts are particularly susceptible. This would also be helpful in presenting the broad spectrum of the disease for training of health care workers and help in surveillance of CL in the region. The increased clinical diversity and the spectrum of phenotypic manifestations noted underscore the fact that the diagnosis of CL should be not only considered when dealing with common skin lesions, but also highly suspected by dermatologists and even primary care physicians even when encountering uncommon pathologies. Hence, we would strongly advocate that since most of these patients present to local health care centers and hospitals, primary care practitioners and even lady health workers (LHWs) should be trained in identification of at least the common presentations of CL. PMID:22174721

  5. Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis: why punch when you can scrape?

    PubMed

    Saab, Mario; El Hage, Hussein; Charafeddine, Khalil; Habib, Robert H; Khalifeh, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has been introduced to the Leishmania under-endemic Lebanese population in an uncontrolled manner as a result of recent large-scale displacement of refugees from endemic Syria. Accordingly, a quick and reliable method to diagnose CL is essential. Matched punch biopsies and air-dried scrapings on 72 patients were obtained. Scrapings were collected in two forms: thick drop (N = 33) or thin smear (N = 39). Clinical information was recorded. Sections of punch biopsies and scrapings were stained and examined microscopically. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on both scraping forms and biopsies. The diagnostic sensitivity of the tests performed revealed that microscopy in conjunction with PCR on punch biopsies was the most sensitive test (93%) overall. However, taken individually, microscopy and PCR yielded the highest sensitivities when performed on drop scrapings (63% and 85%, respectively), and not smear scrapings (38% and 56%, respectively) as compared with the punch biopsies (44% and 83%, respectively). Microscopic concordance for punch biopsies and drop scrapings was present in 25 of 33 cases. Concordance was predicted only by the high/low parasitic index (PI: 3.1 ± 1.7 and 0.4 ± 0.5, respectively; P < 0.05). Herein, we optimized a novel rapid method for reliable diagnosis of CL based on drop scrapings with good agreement with the gold standard punch biopsy technique. PMID:25561563

  6. Drug delivery by tattooing to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shio, Marina Temi; Paquet, Marilene; Martel, Caroline; Bosschaerts, Tom; Stienstra, Stef; Olivier, Martin; Fortin, Anny

    2014-01-01

    This study establishes a proof-of-concept that a tattoo device can target intra-dermal drug delivery against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The selected drug is oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) formulated as liposomes, particles known to be prone to macrophage ingestion. We first show that treatment of cultured Leishmania-infected macrophages with OlPC-liposomes results in a direct dose-dependent killing of intracellular parasites. Based on this, in vivo efficacy is demonstrated using a 10 day tattooing-mediated treatment in mice infected with L. major and L. mexicana. In both models this regimen results in rapid clinical recovery with complete regression of skin lesions by Day 28. Parasite counts and histopathology examination confirm high treatment efficacy at the parasitic level. Low amount of drug required for tattooing combined with fast clinical recovery may have a positive impact on CL patient management. This first example of tattoo-mediated drug delivery could open to new therapeutic interventions in the treatment of skin diseases. PMID:24561704

  7. Comparison of clinical samples and methods in chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Fadime; Uzun, Soner; Koltas, Ismail Soner

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed at finding out the most effective clinical samples and methods in chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL). Smear, aspiration fluid, and filter paper samples were taken from 104 skin lesions of suspected cases with CCL, and they were compared using microscopic examination, culture, and molecular methods. We characterized four different forms of CCL and identified the causative agents in CCL forms using high-resolution melting curve real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. We observed that smear was detected to be the most sensitive (63.5%) among clinical samples, and real-time polymerase chain reaction method was the most sensitive (96.8%) among the methods used in diagnosis of CCL. We identified 68.8% Leishmania tropica and 31.2% L. infantum in papular lesions, 69.2% L. infantum and 30.8% L. tropica in nodular lesions, 57.9% L. tropica and 42.1% L. major in ulcerating plaque lesions, and 55.5% L. tropica and 44.5% L. major in noduloulcerative lesions in CCL patients. PMID:25223940

  8. Dissemination in cutaneous leishmaniasis. 3. Lymph node involvement.

    PubMed

    al-Gindan, Y; Kubba, R; el-Hassan, A M; Omer, A H; Kutty, M K; Saeed, M B

    1989-05-01

    In a study of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to leishmania major in an endemic focus in Saudi Arabia, lymph node enlargement was observed in 66 of 643 patients (10.26%). The epitrochlear lymph nodes were most commonly involved (68%), but cervical (11%), axillary (15%), and inguinal (18%) lymph nodes were also involved. In eight patients (12%), two lymph node areas were involved. The affected lymph nodes were typically solitary, firm, mobile, nontender, only moderately enlarged, and appeared to persist beyond the clinical healing of the associated skin lesions. The results of pathologic and immunopathologic studies carried out on eight lymph nodes obtained from this group of patients supported the leishmanial etiology. Although amastigotes were only demonstrated in two lymph nodes, the leishmanial antigen was found in all eight specimens. The lymph node involvement is another manifestation of dissemination in infection with a dermotropic leishmania. It appears that in some cases, instead of the parasite, it may be the leishmanial antigen that disseminates and produces lymphadenitis. PMID:2722339

  9. Epidemiologic and Clinical Features of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Bousslimi, Nadia; Aoun, Karim; Ben-Abda, Imène; Ben-Alaya-Bouafif, Nissaf; Raouane, Mohamed; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2010-01-01

    Species-specific diagnosis was performed in 66 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) living in Tataouine focus in southeastern Tunisia. Leishmania DNA was extracted directly from dermal scrapings (n = 66) and from parasites obtained in culture (n = 12). Species were identified by using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for internal transcribed spacer region 1 and isoenzyme analysis. Leishmania tropica and L. major were identified in 31 (47%) and 35 (53%) cases respectively. Leishmania tropica CL cases were geographically scattered, and L. major CL cases were clustered. Lesions caused by L. tropica were mostly single (83.8%) and face-localized (55.8%), and lesions caused by L. major were multiple (57.1%; P < 0.001) and situated on limbs (83.7%; P < 0.001). For both species, most lesion onsets were reported during June–January. However, lesions that emerged during February–May were mainly caused by L. tropica (83.3%; P < 0.01). Moreover, the delay before seeking medical advice was higher for L. tropica infections than for L. major infections (P < 0.05). PMID:21036833

  10. Forecasting Temporal Dynamics of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lewnard, Joseph A.; Jirmanus, Lara; Júnior, Nivison Nery; Machado, Paulo R.; Glesby, Marshall J.; Ko, Albert I.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Schriefer, Albert; Weinberger, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne disease of increasing importance in northeastern Brazil. It is known that sandflies, which spread the causative parasites, have weather-dependent population dynamics. Routinely-gathered weather data may be useful for anticipating disease risk and planning interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings We fit time series models using meteorological covariates to predict CL cases in a rural region of Bahía, Brazil from 1994 to 2004. We used the models to forecast CL cases for the period 2005 to 2008. Models accounting for meteorological predictors reduced mean squared error in one, two, and three month-ahead forecasts by up to 16% relative to forecasts from a null model accounting only for temporal autocorrelation. Significance These outcomes suggest CL risk in northeastern Brazil might be partially dependent on weather. Responses to forecasted CL epidemics may include bolstering clinical capacity and disease surveillance in at-risk areas. Ecological mechanisms by which weather influences CL risk merit future research attention as public health intervention targets. PMID:25356734

  11. Cytotoxic Effects of Loperamide Hydrochloride on Canine Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    REGAN, Rebecca Cohen; GOGAL, Robert Michael; BARBER, James Perry; TUCKFIELD, Richard Cary; HOWERTH, Elizabeth Wynne; LAWRENCE, Jessica Ann

    2014-01-01

    Loperamide is a peripheral opiate agonist that can cause apoptosis and G2/M arrest in human cancer cell lines and may sensitize cells to chemotherapy. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of loperamide on viability, apoptosis and cell cycle kinetics in canine cancer cells and to establish whether the drug sensitizes cells to doxorubicin. Cell viability was assessed using Alamar Blue. Cell death and cell cycle were studied using flow cytometry with 7-Aminoactinomycin-D (7-AAD) and propidium iodide (PI), respectively. Loperamide decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent fashion and was most effective against canine osteosarcoma cells. In all cell lines, it induced a dose and time dependent apoptosis and resulted in accumulation in G0/G1. When co-incubated with doxorubicin, loperamide induced a synergistic cell kill in canine carcinoma cells. Investigation is warranted into the role of loperamide in the treatment of canine cancer. PMID:25649936

  12. Management of Class II malocclusion with ectopic maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Rohan; Parveen, Shahista; Ansari, Tariq Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Correction of Class II relationship, deep bite and ectopically erupting canines is an orthodontic challenge for the clinician. A 13-year-old male patient presented with Class II malocclusion, ectopically erupting canines, and cross bite with maxillary left lateral incisor. He was treated with a combination of Headgear, Forsus™ fatigue resistant device [FFRD] with fixed mechanotherapy for the management of space deficiency and correction of Class II malocclusions. Headgear was used to distalize upper first molars and also to prevent further downward and forward growth of the maxilla. Then Forsus™ FFRD was used for the advancement of the mandible. The molar and canine relationship were corrected from a Class II to a Class I. The objectives were to establish good occlusion and enable eruption of unerupted canines. All these objectives were achieved and remained stable. PMID:26097371

  13. Bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Oligodontia, or agenesis of six or more teeth, excluding third molars, which involves canine agenesis is rare, and restorative management can be challenging. Bilateral agenesis of a permanent canine in the general population often indicates a several missing adult teeth. The most common sign of it is the primary canine retention beyond its exfoliation age. The multistage restorative management includes the early diagnosis, excluding associated medical problems as well as assessment of patient's malocclusion and facial skeletal pattern, life span of deciduous teeth, possibility of premolar substitution, minimum required number of prosthetic units, patient's preferences, and the cost of treatment. A 10-year-old boy with bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is described. Some thoughts on the multidisciplinary restorative management of this case are discussed. PMID:25657989

  14. Contact with dogs, canine distemper virus, and multiple sclerosis 

    E-print Network

    Hutka, Marcus Dietrich

    1999-01-01

    , and multiple sclerosis data. Serum antibody titers to MV and CDV were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Associations with serum antibodies to measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) were evaluated, while attempting...

  15. Feline interferon-omega treatment on canine parvovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, T; Ishiwata, K; Kajimoto, T

    1999-09-01

    Recombinant feline interferon-omega preparation (rFeIFN-omega, trade name: INTERCAT) showed good clinical efficacy on canine parvovirus infection both in an experimental trial with beagles, and in field trials. PMID:10515269

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy and duration of immunity of a canine combination vaccine against virulent parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, and distemper virus experimental challenges.

    PubMed

    Abdelmagid, Omar Y; Larson, Laurie; Payne, Laurie; Tubbs, Anna; Wasmoen, Terri; Schultz, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The results of this study confirmed that dogs vaccinated subcutaneously with a commercially available multivalent vaccine containing modified-live canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 2, canine parvovirus type 2b, and canine parainfluenza virus antigens were protected against sequential experimental challenge 55 to 57 months after initial vaccination given at 7 to 8 weeks of age. All 10 vaccinates were protected against clinical diseases and mortality following parvovirus and infectious canine hepatitis experimental infections. All vaccinates were protected against mortality and 90% against clinical disease following distemper challenge. These data support at least a 4-year duration of immunity for these three "core" fractions in the combination vaccine. PMID:15578450

  17. Attempted traction of impacted and ankylosed maxillary canines.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marlio Vinícius; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this article is to report the clinical orthodontic treatment of an adult patient with 2 impacted maxillary canines. Traction was applied to the impacted teeth; however, after 7 months, the teeth were found to be ankylosed and were extracted. The extraction spaces were closed by moving the posterior teeth mesially with mini-implant anchorage. The results were satisfactory, with the premolars in the functional position of the canines. PMID:22748996

  18. Lymphoscintigraphic evaluation of the thoracic duct in the canine 

    E-print Network

    Hodges, Carlos Cintron

    1990-01-01

    LYMPHOSCINTIGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE THORACIC DUCT IN THE CANINE A Thesis by CARLOS CINTRON HODGES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Veterinary Medicine and Surgery LYMPHOSCINTIGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE THORACIC DUCT IN THE CANINE A Thesis by CARLOS CINTRON HODGES Approved as to style and content by: H W. Boothe (Chair of Committee) D...

  19. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills ( Mandrillus sphinx)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. Leigh; Joanna M. Setchell; Marie Charpentier; Leslie A. Knapp; E. Jean Wickings

    2008-01-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data

  20. A narrative review of visceral leishmaniasis in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, the Crimean Peninsula and Southern Russia.

    PubMed

    Strelkova, Margarita V; Ponirovsky, Evgeny N; Morozov, Evgeny N; Zhirenkina, Ekaterina N; Razakov, Shavkat A; Kovalenko, Dmitriy A; Schnur, Lionel F; Schönian, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    There is an extensive body of medical and scientific research literature on visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Crimean Peninsula and the southern part of The Russian Federation that is written in Russian, making it inaccessible to the majority of people who are interested in the leishmaniases in general and VL in particular. This review and summary in English of VL in what was Imperial Russia, which then became the Soviet Union and later a number of different independent states intends to give access to that majority. There are numerous publications in Russian on VL and, mostly, those published in books and the main scientific journals have been included here. The vast geographical area encompassed has been subdivided into four main parts: the southern Caucasus, covering Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia; Central Asia, covering Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; the Crimean Peninsula and the northern Caucasus, which is part of The Russian Federation. Only rare cases of VL have been recorded in the northern Caucasus and Crimean Peninsula. In the other countries mentioned, human VL has been more intense but epidemics like those associated with L. donovani in India and East Africa have not occurred. For most of the countries, there are sections on the distribution, clinical aspects, the causative agent, the reservoirs and the vectors. Serological surveys and research into therapy are also covered. Recent studies on VL in Uzbekistan covered the application of serological, biochemical and molecular biological methods to diagnose human and canine VL, to identify the leishmanial parasites causing them in Uzbekistan and neighbouring Tajikistan and the epidemiology of VL in the Namangan Region of the Pap District, Eastern Uzbekistan. More recently, two studies were carried out in Georgia investigating the prevalence of human and canine VL, and the species composition of phlebotomine sand flies and their rates of infection with what was probably L. infantum in Tbilisi, eastern Georgia and Kutaisi, a new focus, in western Georgia. Though published in English, summaries of this information have been included where relevant to update the parts on VL in Uzbekistan and Georgia. PMID:26077778

  1. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 2. Man/vector contacts in leishmaniasis: the case of Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. Gomezi].

    PubMed

    Le Ponti, F; Leon, R; Moucheti, J; Echeverria, R; Guderian, R H

    1994-03-01

    In two leishmaniasis endemic foci of the Pacific coast of Ecuador, where the primary forest is severely attacked by human settlements, intradomiciliary sandfly catches, with light trap and human bait, have been carried out from August 1991 to October 1992. The presumed vector Lutzomyia trapidoi was by far the dominant species inside dwellings at Paraiso Escondido in the preandean hills (86% of the anthropophilic sandfly population, and 8.5 females/night catch by light trap). Not a single Lu. gomezi was caught in this village. At La Tablada, Lu. gomezi was the dominant anthropophilic species in the coastal cordillera (83% of anthropophilic sandfly population and 3.7 females/night catch by light trap); Lu. trapidoi accounted only for 4.6% of the total catches in this village. On human bait, catches were variable depending on the day and on the season, but dominant species were always the same. The percentage of Lu. trapidoi was higher on human bait than in light trap. Blood meal identifications of engorged Lu. gomezi and Lu. trapidoi confirmed the anthropophily of these two species in the houses. PMID:8024345

  2. Successful treatment of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in a HIV infected patient with multiple relapsing leishmaniasis from Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Rihl, Markus; Stoll, Matthias; Ulbricht, Kai; Bange, Franz-Christoph; Schmidt, Reinhold-Ernst

    2006-07-01

    We present a 42-year-old man who was admitted with worsening of his general condition and facial skin lesions. He had previously been diagnosed with HIV infection and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Diagnostic work-up revealed a new relapse of VL paralleled by the diagnosis of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). The patient was treated with IV liposomal amphotericin B as well as sodium stibogluconate followed by oral hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) over a period of 9 months. PKDL lesions began to disappear after 8 months of treatment. In addition, severe and relapsing VL so far remains in remission. This case demonstrates successful treatment of PKDL and relapsing VL in a Western European patient with HIV infection. PMID:16274744

  3. European surveillance for pantropic canine coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Cordonnier, Nathalie; Demeter, Zoltan; Egberink, Herman; Elia, Gabriella; Grellet, Aurélien; Le Poder, Sophie; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Ntafis, Vasileios; von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Rottier, Peter J; Rusvai, Miklos; Shields, Shelly; Xylouri, Eftychia; Xu, Zach; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-01-01

    Highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains belonging to subtype IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterized as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5' end of the spike protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other, with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains. PMID:23100349

  4. Canine Distemper in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher H.; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M. Karen; Malcolm, James R.; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world’s rarest canid; ?500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005–2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%–87% vs. 34%–39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP’s Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. PMID:25898177

  5. European Surveillance for Pantropic Canine Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Cordonnier, Nathalie; Demeter, Zoltan; Egberink, Herman; Elia, Gabriella; Grellet, Aurélien; Le Poder, Sophie; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Ntafis, Vasileios; von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Rottier, Peter J.; Rusvai, Miklos; Shields, Shelly; Xylouri, Eftychia; Xu, Zach; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-01-01

    Highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains belonging to subtype IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterized as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5? end of the spike protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other, with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains. PMID:23100349

  6. Temporal Dynamics and Impact of Climate Factors on the Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Central Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Amine; Chlif, Sadok; Bettaieb, Jihene; Alaya, Nissaf Ben; Boukthir, Aicha; Ahmadi, Zaher E.; Salah, Afif Ben

    2012-01-01

    Background Old world Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is a vector-borne human disease caused by Leishmania major, a unicellular eukaryotic parasite transmitted by pool blood-feeding sand flies mainly to wild rodents, such as Psammomys obesus. The human beings who share the rodent and sand fly habitats can be subverted as both sand fly blood resource. ZCL is endemic in the Middle East, Central Asia, Subsaharan and North Africa. Like other vector-borne diseases, the incidence of ZCL displayed by humans varies with environmental and climate factors. However, so far no study has addressed the temporal dynamics or the impact of climate factors on the ZCL risk. Principal Findings Seasonality during the same epidemiologic year and interval between ZCL epidemics ranging from 4 to 7 years were demonstrated. Models showed that ZCL incidence is raising i) by 1.8% (95% confidence intervals CI:0.0–3.6%) when there is 1 mm increase in the rainfall lagged by 12 to 14 months ii) by 5.0% (95% CI: 0.8–9.4%) when there is a 1% increase in humidity from July to September in the same epidemiologic year. Conclusion/Significance Higher rainfall is expected to result in increased density of chenopods, a halophytic plant that constitutes the exclusive food of Psammomys obesus. Consequently, following a high density of Psammomys obesus, the pool of Leishmania major transmissible from the rodents to blood-feeding female sand flies could lead to a higher probability of transmission to humans over the next season. These findings provide the evidence that ZCL is highly influenced by climate factors that could affect both Psammomys obesus and the sand fly population densities. PMID:22563513

  7. Incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the Vaishali district of Bihar, India: spatial patterns and role of inland water bodies.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Kesari, Shreekant; Chatterjee, Nandini; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Kumar, Vijay; Ranjan, Alok; Das, Pradeep

    2011-05-01

    The role of the distribution of inland water bodies with respect to the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and its dominant vector, Phlebotomous argentipes, has been studied at the regional scale in Bihar, eastern India. The Landsat TM sensor multispectral scanning radiometer, with a spatial resolution of 30 m in the visible, reflective-infrared and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) bands, was used to identify water bodies using the normalized differential pond index (NDPI) calculated as follows: (Green - SWIR I)/(Green + SWIR I). Nearest neighbour and grid square statistics were used to delineate spatial patterns and distribution of the sandfly vector and the disease it transmits. The female P. argentipes sandfly was found to be associated with the distance from open water and particularly abundant near non-perennial river banks (68.4%; P <0.001), while its association with rivers was focused further away from the water source (?(2) = 26.3; P <0.001). The results also reveal that the distribution of VL is clustered around non-perennial riverbanks, while the pattern is slightly random around the perennial river banks. The grid square technique illustrate that the spatial distribution of the disease has a much stronger correlation with lower density of open waters surfaces as well as with sandfly densities (?(2) = 26.0; P <0.001). The results of our study suggest that inland water presence poses a risk for VL by offering suitable breeding sites for P. argentipes, a fact that should be taken into account when attempting to control disease transmission. PMID:21590671

  8. Canine Hip Dysplasia is Predictable by Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Gang; Zhou, Zhengkui; Wang, Yachun; Zhao, Keyan; Zhu, Lan; Lust, George; Hunter, Linda; Friedenberg, Steven; Li, Junya; Zhang, Yuan; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Paul; Sandler, Jody; Krotscheck, Ursula; Todhunter, Rory; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective To establish a predictive method using whole genome genotyping for early intervention in canine hip dysplasia (CHD) risk management, for the prevention of the progression of secondary osteoarthritis (OA), and for selective breeding. Design Two sets of dogs (6 breeds) were genotyped with dense SNPs covering the entire canine genome. The first set contained 359 dogs upon which a predictive formula for genomic breeding value (GBV) was derived by using their estimated breeding value (EBV) of the Norberg angle (a measure of CHD) and their genotypes. To investigate how well the formula would work for an individual dog with genotype only (without using EBV or phenotype), a cross validation was performed by masking the EBV of one dog at a time. The genomic data and the EBV of the remaining dogs were used to predict the GBV for the single dog that was left out. The second set of dogs included 38 new Labrador retriever dogs, which had no pedigree relationship to the dogs in the first set. Results The cross validation showed a strong correlation (r>0.7) between the EBV and the GBV. The independent validation showed a strong correlation (r=0.5) between GBV for the Norberg angle and the observed Norberg angle (no EBV was available for the new 38 dogs). Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive value of the genomic data were all above 70%. Conclusions Prediction of CHD from genomic data is feasible, and can be applied for risk management of CHD and early selection for genetic improvement to reduce the prevalence of CHD in breeding programs. The prediction can be implemented before maturity, at which age current radiographic screening programs are traditionally applied, and as soon as DNA is available. PMID:21215318

  9. An annotated historical account of canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, L E

    2005-01-01

    A brief annotated history of canine parvovirus-type 2 (CPV-2) and its variants is summarized with emphasis on the most significant contributions of individuals involved in the initial recognition of CPV-2 and subsequent discoveries that have advanced our knowledge of the nature and evolution of this novel canine virus. Time has obscured the observations of many veterinary clinicians and researchers throughout the world who sensed the presence of a new disease when CPV-2 first made its appearance in 1978 and then, within 1-2 years, spread worldwide. Since 1979, nearly 600 articles, papers, numerous text chapters and monographs have been published on the subject of CPV-2. The early history is well known by veterinary infectious diseases specialists and noteworthy publications are recorded on the National Library of Medicine (USA) website, PubMed and in review articles. Because of the great number of publications, it is not practicable to cite them individually; however, reference is made to certain individuals, reviews and selected papers that I consider particularly relevant to the history of progress in the understanding of CPV-2 and the disease it causes. The clinical disease caused by CPV-2 and its variants, the immune response to infection or vaccines, host range and the development of practical diagnostic assays are noted in historical context. The basic biological properties and the physical, molecular and antigenic structure of CPV-2 and its variants are also discussed briefly. Finally, key players who have contributed to the antigenic and DNA sequence (evolutionary) relationships between CPV-2 and the other autonomous parvoviruses of carnivores are noted and hypotheses regarding the origin and evolution of CPV-2 and its variants are mentioned. PMID:16316389

  10. Tumor targeting using canine parvovirus nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Singh, P

    2009-01-01

    Advances in genetics, proteomics and cellular and molecular biology are being integrated and translated to develop effective methods for the prevention and control of cancer. One such combined effort is to create multifunctional nanodevices that will specifically recognize tumors and thus enable early diagnosis and provide targeted treatment of this disease. Viral particles are being considered for this purpose since they are inherently nanostructures with well-defined geometry and uniformity, ideal for displaying molecules in a precise spatial distribution at the nanoscale level and subject to greater structural control. Viruses are presumably the most efficient nanocontainer for cellular delivery as they have naturally evolved mechanisms for binding to and entering cells. Virus-based systems typically require genetic or chemical modification of their surfaces to achieve tumor-specific interactions. Interestingly, canine parvovirus (CPV) has a natural affinity for transferrin receptors (TfRs) (both of canine and human origin) and this property could be harnessed as TfRs are overexpressed by a variety of human tumor cells. Since TfR recognition relies on the CPV capsid protein, we envisioned the use of virus or its shells as tumor targeting agents. We observed that derivatization of CPV virus-like particles (VLPs) with dye molecules did not impair particle binding to TfRs or internalization into human tumor cells. Thus CPV-based VLPs with a natural tropism for TfRs hold great promise in the development of novel nanomaterial for delivery of a therapeutic and/or genetic cargo. PMID:19198573

  11. Wilson disease and canine copper toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Brewer, G J

    1998-05-01

    In this article we review the current clinical and research status of Wilson disease and canine copper toxicosis. One of the main clinical challenges in Wilson disease is for clinicians to recognize the possibility of Wilson disease when young patients present with liver disease, psychiatric disease, or a movement-disorder type of neurologic disease. Once the possibility of the disease is recognized, many copper-related tests are available that are quite accurate in making the diagnosis or ruling it out. It is important to remember that this is an inherited disease and that family members at risk should be screened, particularly siblings. The cloning of the Wilson disease gene opened up the possibility that a direct DNA test could be developed, allowing convenient screening of certain patients and family members. However, the large number of mutations already found, with no small set of mutations dominating the picture, have thwarted this approach. Once the diagnosis has been made, a variety of treatments are available. For maintenance therapy, therapy of presymptomatic patients, and therapy of pregnant patients, we use zinc. For initial therapy of patients with liver disease, we use a combination of zinc and trientine. For initial therapy of patients with neurologic disease we use tetrathiomolybdate. Canine copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers is due to a gene different from the gene for Wilson disease. However, the disease is treatable with the same array of anticopper therapies that work in humans. Recently, we established linkage of the copper toxicosis gene to a microsatellite marker, which has made available a linkage test to breeders of Bedlington terriers. PMID:9587157

  12. A long-lasting topical deltamethrin treatment to protect dogs against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Courtenay, O; Kovacic, V; Gomes, P A F; Garcez, L M; Quinnell, R J

    2009-09-01

    To develop long-lasting, topical pour-on insecticides for dogs to control zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, two deltamethrin-based formulations (emulsifiable concentrate [EC] and suspension concentrate [SC]) were tested for their efficacy against the phlebotomine sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), vector of Leishmania infantum Nicolle (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). The entomological outcomes tested were anti-feeding effect (proportion of female sandflies unfed), lethal effect (24-h female sandfly mortality) and these two effects combined, and the insecticide persistence time at 50% (residual activity, RA50) and 80% (RA80) efficacy. On initial application, the proportions of female flies that demonstrated anti-feeding activity or were killed were similar for both formulations, at 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.856-0.977) vs. 0.81 (95% CI 0.763-0.858) (anti-feeding) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.787-0.920) vs. 0.76 (95% CI 0.698-0.817) (24-h mortality) for EC and SC, respectively. The RA(50) rates for anti-feeding and mortality caused by the EC formulation were 4.7 months (95% CI 4.18-5.84) and 2.5 months (95% CI 2.25-2.90), respectively, compared with 1.1 months (95% CI 0.96-1.15) and 0.6 months (95% CI 0.50-0.61), respectively, for the SC formulation. The RA(50) for the combined anti-feeding and mortality effects of EC was 5.2 months (95% CI 4.73-5.96), compared with only 0.9 months (95% CI 0.85-1.00) for the SC formulation. The four- to six-fold superior residual activity of the EC formulation was attributed to the addition of a solvent-soluble resin in the formulation which improved fur adhesion and acted as a reservoir for the slow release of the active ingredient. These results identify the potential of such a low-cost formulation to reduce the inter-intervention interval to 5-6 months, similar to that recommended for deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars or for re-impregnation of conventional bednets, both of which are currently used to combat Leishmania transmission. Finally, a novel bioassay was developed in which sandflies were exposed to fur from treated dogs, revealing no detectable tolerance (24-h mortality) in wild-caught sandflies to the insecticide formulations up to 8 months after the initiation of communitywide application of the insecticides to dogs. PMID:19712155

  13. Spraying houses in the Peruvian Andes with lambda-cyhalothrin protects residents against cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Davies; E. A. Llanos-Cuentas; P. Campos; J. Monge; E. Leon; J. Canales

    2000-01-01

    A household vector control trial was carried out in the Peruvian Andes to measure the effect of spraying inside walls and ceilings with lambda-cyhalothrin on the risk for residents of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania peruviana. The mortality rates of Lutzomyia verrucarum measured with WHO contact bioassay cones set on adobe walls characteristic of the endemic region indicated an LD95

  14. Acute renal failure as initial presentation of visceral leishmaniasis in an HIV-1-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Clevenbergh, P; Okome, M Nkoumou; Benoit, S; Bendini, J C; De Salvador, F; Elbeze, M; Cassuto, E; Marty, P; Dellamonica, P

    2002-01-01

    We report the case of an HIV-infected patient who presented with acute renal failure due to visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Although renal failure is the leading cause of death in dogs, the natural reservoir of Leishmania infantum, renal involvement is usually absent in human VL. However, L. infantum can be considered a cause of renal failure in HIV-infected patients. PMID:12195888

  15. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after Travel to Cyprus and Successful Treatment with Miltefosine

    PubMed Central

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Walochnik, Julia; Pustelnik, Tom; Auer, Herbert; Mooseder, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    A patient presenting with an atypical manifestation of cutaneous leishmaniasis after travel to Cyprus was successfully treated with miltefosine. The K26 typing revealed a hitherto undescribed strain of the Leishmania donovani/infantum complex as the causing agent. PMID:21460010

  16. Exploring the Role of Medicinal Plant-Based Immunomodulators for Effective Therapy of Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Garima; Islamuddin, Mohammad; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a pestilent affliction that importunately needs better therapeutics necessitated by the absence of effective vaccine, emergence as HIV co-infection, and the dread of debilitating chemotherapy. The Leishmania parasites incapacitate host macrophages by preventing the formation of phagolysosomes, impeding antigen presentation to T cells, leading to suppression of cell-mediated immunity. An ideal approach to cure leishmaniasis includes administration of antileishmanial compounds that can concomitantly establish an effective Th1 response via restoration of requisite signaling between macrophages and T cells, for subsequent activation of macrophages to eliminate intracellular amastigotes. Plants have provided an opulent treasure of biomolecules that have fueled the discovery of antileishmanial drugs. Modulation of immune functions using medicinal plants and their products has emerged as an effective therapeutic strategy. Herein, we review the plant extracts and natural products that have resulted in therapeutic polarization of host immunity to cure leishmaniasis. These immunostimulatory phytochemicals as source of potential antileishmanials may provide new strategies to combat leishmaniasis, alone or as adjunct modality. PMID:24829566

  17. Immune Responses of Leishmaniasis Patients to Heat Shock Proteins ofLeishmaniaSpecies and Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasir A. W. Skeiky; Darin R. Benson; Jeffrey A. Guderian; Jacqueline A. Whittle; Olivia Bacelar; Edgar M. Carvalho; Andsteven G. Reed

    1995-01-01

    The course of human infection withLeishmania braziliensisis variable, ranging from self-healing infection to chronic disease. It is therefore a useful system in which to study immunoregulatory aspects of leishmaniasis, including the effects of parasite antigens on host responses. In the present study, we report on the cloning of, expression of, and comparative analyses of patient immune response to two different

  18. Simplified molecular detection of Leishmania parasites in various clinical samples from patients with leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular methods to detect Leishmania parasites are considered specific and sensitive, but often not applied in endemic areas of developing countries due to technical complexity. In the present study isothermal, nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) was coupled to oligochromatography (OC) to develop a simplified detection method for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. NASBA-OC, detecting Leishmania RNA, was evaluated using clinical samples from visceral leishmaniasis patients from East Africa (n = 30) and cutaneous leishmaniasis from South America (n = 70) and appropriate control samples. Results Analytical sensitivity was 10 parasites/ml of spiked blood, and 1 parasite/ml of culture. Diagnostic sensitivity of NASBA-OC was 93.3% (95% CI: 76.5%-98.8%) and specificity was 100% (95% CI: 91.1%-100%) on blood samples, while sensitivity and specificity on skin biopsy samples was 98.6% (95% CI: 91.2%-99.9%) and 100% (95% CI: 46.3%-100%), respectively. Conclusion The NASBA-OC format brings implementation of molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis in resource poor countries one step closer. PMID:20196849

  19. IL10 AND IL12 ARE THE MAIN REGULATORY CYTOKINES IN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ol??via Bacellar; Argemiro D'oliveira; Selma Jerônimo; Edgar M Carvalho

    2000-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is characterized by the absence of cytokines such as IFN-? and IL-12. Cure of VL is associated with a restoration of the ability to make these cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of IL-12 in the recovery of the ability to produce IFN-? and to test whether or not IL-4 IL-10

  20. Plasma levels of interlukin-4 and Interferon-? in patients with chronic or healed cutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Ahmad Reza; Mashayekhi Goyonlo, Vahid; Nahidi, Yalda; Moheghi, Nasrin; Tavakkol Afshari, Jalil

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): In this study, the serum level of interferon-? (IFN- ?) and interlukin-4 (IL-4) was evaluated as a marker of Th1 and Th2 immune response that influence the clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis . Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 44 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (21 cases with healed lesions and 23 cases with chronic non-healing lesions. Thirty-two non-infected persons living in the area were considered as controls. Serum levels of IFN- ? and IL-4 were determined using ELISA, and the results along with clinical data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5. Results: Serum IFN-? level was not significantly different between various patient groups and control (P=0.27), but the serum level of IL-4 in patient groups was higher than in healthy subjects, and it was higher in patients with non-healed chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis than those with healed lesions (P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum IL-4 level is a good marker for evaluation of the clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:24847425

  1. An NLRP3 inflammasome–triggered Th2-biased adaptive immune response promotes leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Prajwal; Karki, Rajendra; Vogel, Peter; Watanabe, Makiko; Bix, Mark; Lamkanfi, Mohamed; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major tropical disease that can present with cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral manifestation and affects millions of individuals, causing substantial morbidity and mortality in third-world countries. The development of a Th1-adaptive immune response is associated with resistance to developing Leishmania major (L. major) infection. Inflammasomes are key components of the innate immune system that contribute to host defense against bacterial and viral pathogens; however, their role in regulating adaptive immunity during infection with protozoan parasites is less studied. Here, we demonstrated that the NLRP3 inflammasome balances Th1/Th2 responses during leishmaniasis. Mice lacking the inflammasome components NLRP3, ASC, or caspase 1 on a Leishmania-susceptible BALB/c background exhibited defective IL-1? and IL-18 production at the infection site and were resistant to cutaneous L. major infection. Moreover, we determined that production of IL-18 propagates disease in susceptible BALB/c mice by promoting the Th2 cytokine IL-4, and neutralization of IL-18 in these animals reduced L. major titers and footpad swelling. In conclusion, our results indicate that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is detrimental during leishmaniasis and suggest that IL-18 neutralization has potential as a therapeutic strategy to treat leishmaniasis patients. PMID:25689249

  2. Visceral leishmaniasis vector control assessment in Bihar, India - an ecohealth approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manish Kakkar; Vidya Venkataramanan; Syed Shahid Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Background: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Bihar accounts for almost half the disease burden in South Asia. While the goal for VL elimination in India by 2015 still remains elusive, it has resulted in renewed emphasis on Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) with DDT. However, there is limited evidence on the association between quality of IRS operations and DDT resistance levels in

  3. American cutaneous leishmaniasis: epidemiological profile of patients treated in Londrina from 1998 to 2009*

    PubMed Central

    Junior, Rubens Pontello; Gon, Airton dos Santos; Ogama, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a dermatozoonosis of compulsory notification with relevant morbidity. The disease is considered endemic in northern Paraná. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological aspects of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis treated at Clinics Hospital, State University of Londrina, Brazil (Paraná). METHODS This was an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study. The medical records of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis treated at the University Hospital of Londrina - Paraná, from 1998 to 2009 were evaluated. RESULTS A total of 470 patients, with prevalence of 8.72 cases / 100,000 inhabitants, participated in the study. Most patients were male, aged 21-40 years, with a single ulcerated lesion as the most common clinical presentation, located mainly in an exposed area of the body. With regard to immunological tests, the Montenegro intradermal reaction was positive in 84.4% of cases. Treatment with pentavalent antimony was well tolerated, and patient follow-up for a year occurred in 59% of cases. CONCLUSION American cutaneous leishmaniasis is still an endemic disease in the region, with a high potential for morbidity, but with a cure rate of around 95% after treatment. The use of immunological techniques facilitates the diagnosis of clinically suspicious cases. PMID:24173180

  4. Leishmania mini-exon genes for molecular epidemiology of leishmaniasis in China and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Katakura, K; Kawazu, S I; Sanjyoba, C; Naya, T; Matsumoto, Y; Ito, M; Nagakura, K; Aikawa, M; Hashiguchi, Y

    1998-12-01

    The mini-exon gene is unique and is tandemly repeated in the Leishmania genome. The transcribed region is highly conserved, but the non-transcribed spacer region is distinct in length and in sequence among different Leishmania species. The usefulness of PCR amplification of the Leishmania mini-exon gene was examined for molecular epidemiology of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. We previously described a PCR method for amplification of the mini-exon gene and obtained positive amplification in bone marrow aspirates of patients with visceral leishmaniasis in China. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced two PCR products from the patients. The sequences of two products revealed 100% identity and showed more similarity to the mini-exon gene of L. donovani Indian strain than those of L. donovani complex in Africa and South America. We also applied this PCR method to the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. We obtained positive PCR amplification in skin biopsy materials taken from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Since this PCR amplification is simple and requires only a pair of primers to detect all Leishmania species distributed in Ecuador, the method may be a useful tool for the detection of parasites, not only from patients, but also from sandflies and reservoir animals in this area of endemicity. PMID:10622637

  5. The epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Armijos, R X; Weigel, M M; Izurieta, R; Racines, J; Zurita, C; Herrera, W; Vega, M

    1997-02-01

    An epidemiologic survey (n = 466) was conducted in an area of subtropical rainforest in north-west Ecuador with the following objectives: (1) to determine the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), (2) to identify the Leishmania species causing human disease, (3) to investigate the major clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis, (4) to study cellular and humoral immune response indicators associated with disease status and (5) to identify risk factors for CL. Fourteen percent of subjects had parasitologically confirmed CL; 33% had evidence of prior disease. However, 17.2% of subjects with a negative CL clinical history presented with a positive Montenegro skin test (MST), indicating the possibility of subclinical infection. The species isolated from subject lesions were L. guyanensis (63%), L. panamensis (33%), and L. brazilensis (4%). Mean specific anti-Leishmania IgG and IgM OD serum levels were highest in subjects diagnosed with current CL, followed by those with prior CL, and were lowest in healthy subjects, respectively (0.56 +/- 0.27 vs 0.33 +/- 0.2 vs 0.22 +/- 0.14; F-ratio = 74; P < 0.00001) and (665 +/- 270 vs 481 +/- 220 vs 301 +/- 128.5; F-ratio = 37; P < 0.00001). Likewise, subjects with present CL had measurably higher MST reactions (13 +/- 6.7 mm) than those with prior CL (10.9 +/- 7.8 mm) or healthy individuals (2.4 +/- 2.5 mm; F-ratio = 106; P < 0.00001). Serum concentrations of IgG were predicted by lesion number (t = 2.5; P = 0.018), size (t = 3.7; P = 0.0006), and duration (t = 3.5; P = 0.0013). Furthermore, the MST induration size increased as a function of lesion number (t = 3.0; P = 0.005) and size (t = 3.4; P = 0.022). Subject age and sex did not predict serum IgG or IgM concentrations or MST reactions in the 3 disease groups. Although no sex differences were found with respect to clinical characteristics, children < or = 12 years of age were almost 3 times more likely to have CL lesions or scars located on the face and head area compared to adults (OR = 2.75; 95% CI = 1.4-5.6, P = 0.004). The risk factors associated with disease included age under 5 years (AOR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.48-2.35), male gender in adults (AOR = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.1-7.8), and wood and/or cane exterior house walls (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.4-2.5). In contrast, electric home lighting was associated with decreased risk (AOR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.4-2.3). The results suggest that it may be possible to modify a portion of the risk of CL by making changes in the housing environment which may help to reduce the amount of human-vector contact. PMID:9472299

  6. Serological evidence of H3N8 canine influenza-like virus circulation in USA dogs prior to 2004.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T C; Bromfield, C R; Crawford, P C; Dodds, W J; Gibbs, E P J; Hernandez, J A

    2012-03-01

    H3N8 canine influenza virus (H3N8 CIV) was first reported as a novel canine respiratory pathogen in racing greyhounds and shelter dogs in the U.S.A. in 2004. Phylogenetic analyses determined that this host-adapted pathogen originated from interspecies transmission of an equine influenza virus (EIV), but it is unknown when the transmission occurred prior to discovery in 2004. The objective of this study was to determine if racing greyhound and shelter dog sera collected from 1984 to 2004 had serological evidence of exposure to H3N8 CIV or EIV. Archived sera from 702 racing greyhounds and 1568 shelter dogs were tested for H3 antibodies to the original 2004 CIV isolate, as well as EIV isolates from 1991 to 1999. None of the racing greyhounds from 1984 and 1985 had detectable H3 antibodies. One of the shelter dogs, which entered a north Florida shelter in 2004, was seropositive. For racing greyhounds sampled from 1999 to 2004, 133/520 (26%) dogs had antibodies to both CIV and EIV H3 proteins. The annual seroprevalence was 27% in 1999, 28% in 2000, 10% in 2001, 1% in 2002, 41% in 2003, and 28% in 2004. The odds of H3 seropositivity were greater among dogs that raced > or =6 months, raced on > or =2 tracks, and raced in 1998, 2002, and 2003. Many of the seropositive dogs raced at tracks that were involved in 'kennel cough' epidemics in 1998-1999 and 2002-2003. Based on serological evidence, a H3N8 canine influenza-like virus was circulating in racing greyhounds in the U.S.A. as early as 1999. PMID:22178358

  7. [Visceral leishmaniasis as a threat for non-endemic countries].

    PubMed

    Górski, Stanis?aw; Wierci?ska-Drapa?o, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    Global warming, globalisation, and constantly increasing number of people involved in long-distance tourism and travel to exotic destinations are likely to increase the number of cases of exotic diseases "imported" to nonendemic countries. One of the often forgotten and neglected diseases has been visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar). The disease is endemic to 62 countries, with India and Sudan accounting for the majority of the cases. It is typically fatal if left untreated. Each year about 500 000 new cases are reported worldwide, and 50 000 die as a result of the disease. Kala-azar is present in the Mediterranean Europe and 70% of cases are imported to non-endemic countries of European Union from that area. Immunocompromised status of patients, like HIV carriers are the principal prospective target for kala-azar. HIV/VL-coinfected patients have significantly higher relapse rates and decreased life expectancy. There is no formal system of reporting imported cases in Europe, except from Germany. In non-endemic countries, including Poland, there is usually the substantial delay between the onset of symptoms and the final diagnosis, with an average exceeding 3 months. This fact suggests that physicians are not familiar with leishmania infections. Despite progress in vaccine development, the only way to prevent the infection is avoiding sandfly bites. Mosquito nets, wearing appropriate clothes and repellents containing DEET (diethyl toluamide) can reduce number of bites and protect also from the other vector-borne diseases like malaria or dengue. Education concerning kala-azar risk and ways of the disease prevention is a needed for tourists and the other travelers. PMID:19856834

  8. Nutritional status and cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural Ecuadorian children.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M M; Armijos, R X; Zurita, C; Racines, J; Reddy, A; Mosquera, J

    1995-02-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was evaluated in 230 children living in a rural subtropical rainforest in Northwest Ecuador. One-third of the subjects had evidence of either current (13 per cent) or past CL infection (21 per cent). Subjects with current (4.71 +/- 0.44 mg) or previous disease (4.29 +/- 0.35 mg) had lower mean daily dietary iron intakes than non-infected children (5.45 +/- 0.2 mg; chi 2 = 0.048), but not energy, protein, or other micronutrients. The low dietary iron intake data was corroborated by the reduced mean haemoglobin values observed in children with current (11.7 +/- 0.3 mg/dL) or past infection (11.3 +/- 0.2 mg/dL) compared to non-infected subjects (12.7 +/- 0.15 mg/dL; F-ratio = 17.0, P < 0.0001). Mean hematocrit values were also lower in the two infected groups (37.4 +/- 0.9 per cent and 37.4 +/- 0.6 per cent v. 39.5 +/- 0.5 per cent; F-ratio = 4.23, P = 0.0175). Furthermore, they were more likely to suffer from iron-deficiency anaemia than their non-infected counterparts (chi 2 = 4.64, P = 0.03). However, the children with active disease accounted for most of the excess risk for anemia (Fisher's exact test P = 0.009; OR = 10.0, exact 95 per cent CI = 1.37-111.8). Finally, growth stunting (< -2SD height-for-age) was more common in subjects with current (54 per cent) or past infection (51 per cent) compared to those without CL history (31 per cent; chi 2 = 8.03, P = 0.004).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7723125

  9. Epidemiological Feature of Visceral Leishmaniasis in China, 2004-2012

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Shuqing; LI, Zhongjie; ZHOU, Sheng; ZHENG, Canjun; MA, Huilai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains an important public health problem in China. It is essential to elucidate the current epidemiological characteristics of VL for designing control policy. Methods The data were obtained from China Disease Prevention and Control Information System from 2004 to 2012. Characteristics by major variables, such as age, gender, season and geography were analyzed using SPSS13.0. Results The incidence of VL in China remained at a lower level in recent years. The outbreak appeared in xinjiang kashgar region in 2008. A total of 3337 VL cases were reported in China from 2004 to 2012, 97.03% of cases were concentrated in Xinjiang, Gansu and Sichuan provinces. The cases under 5 year-old accounted for 59.21%. concentrated in 3 ~ 5 months each year and annual December to January of next year The ratio of males to females was 1.67:1(2088:1249). The lag time between symptom onset and diagnosis of VL appeared a marked decrease after 2008, and were shorter in endemic provinces of Xinjiang, Gansu and Sichuan than non-endemic provinces. The case fatality rate was 2.99% (10/3337) during the study period. Conclusion The reported cases of VL were concentrated in Xinjiang, Gansu, Sichuan provinces in China, 2004-2012. The onset was given priority to children. The lag time between symptom onset and diagnosis of VL were difference among years and provinces. Therefore, prevention and control measures should be focused on improving awareness and capacities of diagnosis and treatment, targeting high-risk people in high-risk areas.

  10. Canine retraction: A systematic review of different methods used.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Rohit S; Tandon, Ragni; Chandra, Pratik

    2015-01-01

    Canine retraction is a very important step in treatment of patients with crowding, or first premolar extraction cases. In severe crowding cases until, the canines have been distilized to relive the crowding, space to correctly align the incisors will not be available. Correct positioning of the canines after retraction is of great importance for the function, stability, and esthetics. The aim of this systematic review was to examine, in an evidence-based way, which kinds of canine retraction methods/techniques are most effective and which have the least side effects. A literature survey was performed by applying the Medline Database (Entrez PubMed) and Science Direct database covering the period from 1985 to 2014, to find out efficient ways to accomplish canine retraction. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective controlled studies, and clinical trials were included. Two reviewers selected and extracted the data independently and assessed the quality of the retrieved studies. The search strategy resulted in 324 articles, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Due to the vast heterogeneity in study methods, the scientific evidence was too weak to evaluate retraction efficiency during space closure. The data so far reviewed proved that elastomeric power chains, elastic threads, magnets, NiTi coil springs, corticotomies, distraction osteogenesis, and laser therapy, all are able to provide optimum rate of tooth movements. All the methods were nearly similar to each other for retraction of canines Most of the techniques lead to anchorage loss in various amounts depending on the methods used. Most of the studies had serious problems with small sample size, confounding factors, lack of method error analysis, and no blinding in measurements. To obtain reliable scientific evidence, controlled RCT's with sufficient sample sizes are needed to determine which method/technique is the most effective in the respective retraction situation. Further studies should also consider patient acceptance and cost analysis as well as implants and minor surgeries for canine retraction. PMID:25657985

  11. Exon 15 BRAF mutations are uncommon in canine oral malignant melanomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Shelly; May B. Chien; Becky Yip; Michael S. Kent; Alain P. Theon; Jennifer L. McCallan; Cheryl A. London

    2005-01-01

    An activating mutation in codon 599 of BRAF has been identified in approximately 60% of human cutaneous nevi and melanomas, but not melanomas of mucosal origin. The purpose of this study was to determine if BRAF mutations occur in canine oral malignant melanomas. The canine BRAF gene was first cloned from normal canine testicular cDNA, and a novel previously unreported

  12. Dosimetric considerations of interstitial photodynamic therapy of the canine prostate mediated by intra-arterially administered hypocrellin derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiyang; Dickey, Dwayne J.; Xiao, Zhengwen; Moore, Ronald B.; Tulip, John

    2008-02-01

    Interstitial photodynamic therapy (iPDT) is a promising minimally invasive treatment modality for locally confined prostate cancer. Therapeutically excited at 635nm, the photophysical properties of SL-052 (a novel hypocrellin derivative photosensitizer) lend themselves uniquely to iPDT, facilitating real-time monitoring. Under 635nm excitation, SL-052 exhibits near infrared fluorescence, allowing both photosensitizer fluorescence and tissue transmissivity to be continuously monitored. The absorption and fluorescence characteristics of SL-052 in vivo and in vitro are first illustrated. SL-052 mediated iPDT of canine prostate was performed with a novel switched light delivery system and novel intra-arterial drug delivery method. A preliminary examination of the dosimetric properties of intra-arterial iPDT is presented, focusing on transmissivity dynamics. Spectrofluorimetry results relating specifically to the unique photophysical properties of SL-052 iPDT are also included.

  13. Citizen science: a new direction in canine behavior research.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Julie; Spicer Rice, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Researchers increasingly rely on members of the public to contribute to scientific projects-from collecting or identifying, to analyzing and disseminating data. The "citizen science" model proves useful to many thematically distinctive fields, like ornithology, astronomy, and phenology. The recent formalization of citizen science projects addresses technical issues related to volunteer participation--like data quality--so that citizen scientists can make longstanding, meaningful contributions to scientific projects. Since the late 1990s, canine science research has relied with greater frequency on the participation of the general public, particularly dog owners. These researchers do not typically consider the methods and technical issues that those conducting citizen science projects embrace and continue to investigate. As more canine science studies rely on public input, an in-depth knowledge of the benefits and challenges of citizen science can help produce relevant, high-quality data while increasing the general public's understanding of canine behavior and cognition as well as the scientific process. We examine the benefits and challenges of current citizen science models in an effort to enhance canine citizen science project preparation, execution, and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:25444773

  14. Ontogenetic bases of canine dimorphism in anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Buchanan, Laurel S

    2005-07-01

    This study tests hypotheses regarding the ontogeny of canine tooth size dimorphism in five anthropoid primate species (Saguinus fuscicollis, Macaca mulatta, Cercocebus atys, Papio hamadryas, and Mandrillus sphinx). Canine measurements and chronological age data are analyzed to determine if bimaturism, a sex difference in the age at which eruption ceases, accounts for canine tooth sexual dimorphism. Canine height measurements are evaluated through a variety of regression techniques. Results show a lack of sexual dimorphism in Saguinus. While size dimorphism is absent in the deciduous teeth of all species analyzed, the adult teeth in cercopithecines become increasingly dimorphic through ontogeny. Female adult tooth eruption regularly precedes male tooth eruption, and regression-based eruption trajectories for both sexes intersect at about the age at which the female tooth reaches adult size. Males erupt the tooth later and more rapidly than females. Males also reach a larger adult size than females by erupting the tooth for much longer periods of time. Bimaturism is primary in the production of dimorphism, but rates of eruption show modest variation. These results point to the scheduling of sexual selection through intermale competition as a primary factor determining male eruption timing, rates of eruption, and adult size. Life history factors may play a role in determining the relations between the scheduling of intrasexual competition and canine eruption. Female contributions to sexual dimorphism are apparent in these species, suggesting that similar levels of dimorphism can be attained through diverse ontogenetic pathways. PMID:15584072

  15. A 22-Year Survey of Leishmaniasis Cases in a Tertiary-Care Hospital in an Endemic Setting

    PubMed Central

    Calderaro, Adriana; Montecchini, Sara; Rossi, Sabina; Gorrini, Chiara; Dell’Anna, Maria Loretana; Piccolo, Giovanna; Medici, Maria Cristina; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora

    2014-01-01

    The northward spread of leishmaniasis from Mediterranean to Continental Europe affects our area where it is typically associated with Leishmania infantum infection. In this study a 22-year survey was performed in patients (including both patients with and without history of travel through endemic areas other than Italy) attending the University Hospital of Parma, Northern Italy, in order to make a contribution to describe the cases of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) diagnosed in this area. One hundred fifty-six samples from 134 patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis (96 suspected of having VL, 37 CL and one both VL and CL) were analyzed in our laboratory during 1992–2013 by microscopy, culture and, from 2005, also by real-time PCR. Leishmania spp. were detected in 23 samples of 15 patients (seven with VL and eight with CL), representing an infection rate of 11.2%. The figure of the cases of leishmaniasis herein reported, even if not comparable to that described for Italian areas other than Parma, underlines that suitable tools are mandatory for correct diagnosis. Moreover, the severity of this disease, particularly VL with its documented northward spread, requires physicians of continental Europe to increase their attention about the possibility of suspecting leishmaniasis in patients reporting related signs and symptoms and/or risk factors. PMID:24619118

  16. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for coinfections of Leishmania and HIV to improve the consistency of research on the current situation of VL-HIV coinfections. Such a network would improve the collection of vital data and samples for better understanding of the clinical manifestations and immunopathogenic aspects of VL in immunosuppressed patients. Ultimately, a concerted effort would improve trials for new diagnostic methodologies and therapeutics, which could accelerate the implementation of more specific and effective diagnosis as well as public policies for treatments to reduce the impact of VL-HIV coinfections on the Latin American population. PMID:25233461

  17. Comparative mapping of canine and human proximal Xq and genetic analysis of canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Deschenes, S.M.; Puck, J.M.; Dutra, A.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); and others

    1994-09-01

    Parallel genetic analysis of animal and human genetic diseases can facilitate the identification and characterization of the causative gene defects. For example, canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by clinical, pathological, and immunological manifestations similar to the most common form of human SCID. To derive a canine syntenic map including genes that in humans are located in proximal Xq, near human X-linked SCID, poly (TG) polymorphisms were identified at the canine phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and choroideremia (CHM) loci. These plus a polymorphic poly (CAG) sequence in exon 1 of the canine androgen receptor gene (AR) were used to genotype members of the colony informative for X-linked SCID. No recombinations among SCIDX1, AR, PGK, or CHM were observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized PGK and CHM to proximal Xq in the dog, in the same chromosomal location occupied by the human genes. Somatic cell hybrid analysis and methylation differences at AR demonstrated that female dogs carrying X-linked SCID have the same lymphocyte-limited skewed X-chromosome inactivation patterns as human carriers. These genetic and phenotypic findings provide evidence that mutations in the same gene, now identified as the {gamma} chain of the IL-2 receptor, cause canine and human X-linked SCID. This approach is an efficient method for comparative gene mapping and disease identification. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in experimentally induced and naturally occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    PubMed

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Theodorou, Konstantina; Siarkou, Victoria I; Steiner, Jörg M; Harrus, Shimon; Leontides, Leonidas; Rallis, Timoleon; Suchodolski, Jan S; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2014-03-14

    Ehrlichia canis infection causes multisystemic disease in dogs (canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, CME) which is associated with variable morbidity and mortality. Atypical clinical manifestations, including gastrointestinal signs, may occasionally occur in CME and approximately 10-15% of dogs are presented with historical or clinical evidence of vomiting, diarrhea, and/or abdominal discomfort. The objective of this study was to investigate if there are any alterations in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in dogs with experimentally induced or naturally occurring monocytic ehrlichiosis. Serum samples from 10 Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis and two healthy uninfected Beagles were serially examined; samples from 20 naturally infected dogs (10 with non-myelosuppressive [NME] and 10 with myelosuppressive [ME] ehrlichiosis) were also examined at a given point in time (cross-sectional sampling). None of the experimentally infected Beagles showed gastrointestinal signs or increased cPLI concentrations prior to or following the artificial infection. Three naturally infected dogs with NME and one with ME demonstrated serum cPLI concentrations in the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (>400 ?g/L) without showing gastrointestinal signs. The results of the present study indicated that 4/20 (20%) of dogs naturally infected with E. canis demonstrated increased serum cPLI concentrations consistent with mild and clinically inapparent pancreatitis. PMID:24530039

  19. Soluble form of canine transferrin receptor inhibits canine parvovirus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiexia; Pan, Sumin; Liang, Shuang; Zhong, Zhenyu; He, Ying; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wang, Liyue; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR) was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR)) possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24089666

  20. Soluble Form of Canine Transferrin Receptor Inhibits Canine Parvovirus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiexia; Pan, Sumin; Liang, Shuang; Zhong, Zhenyu; He, Ying; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wang, Liyue; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR) was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR)) possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24089666

  1. Expression of canine Kdap in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic epidermis.

    PubMed

    Yagihara, Hiroko; Kinjo, Emiko; Kobayashi, Yohei; Tsuji, Ayaka; Nishimura, Yudai; Shinozaki, Nao; Tamura, Kyoichi; Isotani, Mayu; Nakagaki, Kazuhide; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Ono, Kenichiro; Washizu, Tsukimi; Bonkobara, Makoto

    2009-06-01

    Keratinocyte differentiation-associated protein, Kdap, is a recently identified small secretory protein that may act as a soluble regulator for the cornification and/or desquamation of keratinocytes. To clarify the role of Kdap in the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes, detailed in situ localisation of Kdap was studied using canine skin with normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic epidermis. In normal canine trunk skin, Kdap was expressed by granular keratinocytes, with polarity to the apical side of the cells, suggesting that canine Kdap is present in lamellar granules, as in humans. Expression of Kdap was widespread in the spinous layers in hyperplastic epidermis, but was undetectable in squamous cell carcinomas. These findings suggest that Kdap is closely related to the delay of terminal differentiation and/or release of cells in hyperplastic epidermis. PMID:18691918

  2. Feline and canine coronaviruses: common genetic and pathobiological features.

    PubMed

    Le Poder, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and pantropic canine coronavirus infection in cats and dogs, respectively. In this paper, different aspects of the genetics, host cell tropism, and pathogenesis of the feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV) will be discussed, with a view to illustrating how study of FCoVs and CCoVs can improve our general understanding of the pathobiology of coronaviruses. PMID:22312347

  3. Spinosad is a potent inhibitor of canine P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Schrickx, Johannes A

    2014-04-01

    Inhibition of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by the oral flea preventative spinosad has been suggested as the underlying cause of the drug-drug interaction with ivermectin. In this study, an in vitro model consisting of canine cells was validated to describe the inhibitory effect of drugs on canine P-gp. In this model, ivermectin, cyclosporin, verapamil, loperamide and ketoconazole inhibited P-gp function with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 3.7 ?mol/L. Spinosad was a potent inhibitor of canine P-gp with an IC50 value of 0.27 ?mol/L or 0.2 ?g/mL. The risk of spinosad causing P-gp related drug-drug interactions in the dog could be predicted by the IC50 value, the oral dosage and plasma concentrations. PMID:24582422

  4. Dose-dependent radiation-induced hypotension in the canine

    SciTech Connect

    Cockerham, L.G.; Hampton, J.D.; Doyle, T.F.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced early transient incapacitation (ETI) is often accompanied by severe systemic hypotension. However, postradiation hypotension does not occur with equal frequency in all species and is not reported with consistency in the canine. In an attempt to clarify the differences in reported canine post-radiation blood pressures, canine systemic blood pressures were determined both before and after exposure to gamma radiation of either 80 or 100 Gy. Data obtained from six sham-radiated beagles and 12 radiated beagles indicated that 100-Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation produced a decrease in systemic mean blood pressure while 80-Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation did not. Analysis of this data could be consistent with a quantal response to a gamma radiation dose between 80 Gy and 100 Gy.

  5. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  6. The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A; Shwiff, S A

    2015-08-01

    We estimated the economic impacts of canine rabies in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Direct and indirect costs of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, dog vaccination and control, rabies diagnostic testing and cattle mortality-related costs were accounted for. The number of human deaths was updated from previous estimates based on population growth, and the costs associated with the risk of human mortality were incorporated. We accounted for uncertainty associated with the parameter estimates using a Monte Carlo simulation and estimated that the global burden of canine rabies is approximately $124 billion annually. This result illustrates the potential benefits that could be realized if canine rabies was eliminated and provides an important benchmark against which the cost of any potential elimination campaign can be compared. PMID:24112194

  7. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Otávio Valério; Botelho, Clarisse Vieira; Ferreira, Caroline Gracielle Torres; Scherer, Paulo Oldemar; Soares-Martins, Jamária Adriana Pinheiro; Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Silva Júnior, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV), which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availability of effective vaccines, and no specific treatment. CDV infection in dogs is characterized by the presentation of systemic and/or neurological courses, and viral persistence in some organs, including the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphoid tissues. An elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in canine distemper disease will lead to a better understanding of the injuries and clinical manifestations caused by CDV. Ultimately, further insight about this disease will enable the improvement of diagnostic methods as well as therapeutic studies. PMID:23193403

  8. A comparative field study of the relative importance of Lutzomyia peruensis and Lutzomyia verrucarum as vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Villaseca, P; Llanos-Cuentas, A; Perez, E; Davies, C R

    1993-08-01

    A two-year field study of Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (uta) in the valley of Purisima, Ancash Department, Peru has provided quantitative epidemiologic and entomologic evidence for the predominant role of Lutzomyia peruensis in the transmission of Leishmania peruviana in this endemic area. The monthly incidence in the valley was greatest in the wet season (from December to May), when Lu. peruensis was particularly endophilic. A significant correlation was detected between intradomiciliary (but not extradomiciliary) Lu. peruensis abundance and the monthly incidence of uta in the valley following a one-month time lag. In contrast, no significant correlation was detected between any measure of Lu. verrucarum abundance and the incidence of uta. Lutzomyia peruensis and Lu. verrucarum comprise more than 98% of all the sand fly captures made in this valley. The increase in incidence of uta with altitude, which reached a peak rate between 2,250 and 2,750 meters above sea level, was associated with an increase in the relative abundance of Lu. peruensis as compared with Lu. verrucarum. Seasonal and altitudinal variation was also detected in the peak time of activity for both sand fly species, a phenomenon that could significantly influence the transmission rate: later host-seeking sand flies being more likely to find sleeping, nondefensive, human hosts. PMID:8357089

  9. Recombinant vaccine for canine parvovirus in dogs.

    PubMed

    López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Martínez, C; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R; Simarro, I; Vela, C; Casal, I

    1992-05-01

    VP2 is the major component of canine parvovirus (CPV) capsids. The VP2-coding gene was engineered to be expressed by a recombinant baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. A transfer vector that contains the lacZ gene under the control of the p10 promoter was used in order to facilitate the selection of recombinants. The expressed VP2 was found to be structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from authentic VP2. The recombinant VP2 shows also the capability to self-assemble, forming viruslike particles similar in size and appearance to CPV virions. These viruslike particles have been used to immunize dogs in different doses and combinations of adjuvants, and the anti-CPV responses have been measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, monolayer protection assays, and an assay for the inhibition of hemagglutination. A dose of ca. 10 micrograms of VP2 was able to elicit a good protective response, higher than that obtained with a commercially available, inactivated vaccine. The results indicate that these viruslike particles can be used to protect dogs from CPV infection. PMID:1313899

  10. Genotyping of Canine parvovirus in western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Roldán, César; Páez-Magallan, Varinia; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Leonel De Cervantes-Mireles, Raúl; López-Amezcua, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico. PMID:25525144

  11. Infectious entry pathway for canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Basak, S; Turner, H

    1992-02-01

    We have investigated whether canine parvovirus (CPV) infection involves a low pH-dependent entry pathway. The effects of two lysosomotropic bases, NH4Cl and chloroquine, on CPV entry were studied by immunofluorescence and ultrastructural and biochemical methods. In the presence of these reagents, input virions appear to accumulate in large vacuoles. Ultrastructural studies indicated that uptake of virions takes place predominantly in small uncoated vesicles that appear to fuse with larger vesicles. In the presence of NH4Cl, virions accumulate in the latter structures and their uncoating appears to be prevented. Viral DNA as well as antigen synthesis were found to be significantly inhibited in the presence of these reagents. In addition, inhibition of viral DNA and antigen synthesis appeared to be most extensive when NH4Cl was present from 30 min preinfection, whereas no significant inhibition was observed when the cells were treated after 2 hr postinfection. Thus, the results indicate that CPV requires exposure to low pH in an endosomal compartment to initiate a productive infection. PMID:1733094

  12. Experimental canine parvovirus infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V

    1982-04-01

    In specific pathogen-free dogs, clinical signs of experimental canine parvovirus infection were mild, inconsistent and transient. Clinical signs were more pronounced in conventionally-raised dogs, but the severe disease reported in field cases was not reproduced in either group. A pronounced plasma viremia occurred on the 2nd to 4th day post-infection (d.p.i.) in dogs challenged oronasally. Antibody was detectable on the 5th d.p.i. Marked pyrexia was rare, but a significant temperature rise usually coincided with the appearance of antibody and the cessation of viremia. Significant lymphopenia, but not leukopenia, occurred on the 3rd to 7th d.p.i. Virus could be readily isolated from fecal matter on the 3rd to 8th d.p.i.; a few dogs continued to shed virus for up to 12 days. In dogs challenged parenterally, the onset of elevated temperatures, viral shed and antibody production occurred 24-48 hours sooner. Convalescent dogs were no longer contagious for susceptible contact animals 25 days or longer after challenge, although infectious virus persisted in feces for more than 6 months at room temperature. Active giardiasis seemed to exacerbate the clinical syndrome, although treatment with corticosteroids or anti-thymocyte serum did not. PMID:6211333

  13. Canine parvovirus infection in South American canids.

    PubMed

    Mann, P C; Bush, M; Appel, M J; Beehler, B A; Montali, R J

    1980-11-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infections occurred in 5 of 35 South American canids at the Department of Conservation (DC), a breeding facility of the National Zoological Park in Front Royal, Va. The clinical signs were anorexia, lethargy, diarrhea, and vomiting. Three of the affected canids survived and had high hemagglutination-inhibition titers to CPV in the recovery period. Necropsy of the 2 that died revealed extensive necrosis of the intestinal mucosa; CPV particles were observed by electron microscopy in the intestinal contents of both animals. Six of the 30 canids that remained healthy had high hemagglutination-inhibition titers to CPV prior to the episode of illness, indicating earlier subclinical exposure. Pet dogs belonging to DC personnel that were screened as a possible source of the infection had no evidence of disease. All canids (including pet dogs) on the DC grounds were vaccinated repeatedly with a killed feline panleukopenia virus product after the episode, with little or no effect on existing titers. PMID:7451312

  14. Canine coronavirus, Greece. Molecular analysis and genetic diversity characterization.

    PubMed

    Ntafis, Vasileios; Mari, Viviana; Decaro, Nicola; Papanastassopoulou, Maria; Pardali, Dimitra; Rallis, Timoleon S; Kanellos, Theophanis; Buonavoglia, Canio; Xylouri, Eftychia

    2013-06-01

    Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is an etiologic agent of diarrhea in dogs and is known to have spread worldwide. Mild disease or asymptomatic carriage are probably in many cases common outcomes of infection. To date, two different genotypes of CCoV are known, CCoV type I (CCoV-I) and CCoV type II (CCoV-II). CCoV type II is divided in two subtypes, CCoV-IIa (classical strains) and CCoV-IIb, with CCoV-IIb emerging as a result of a putative recombination between CCoV-IIa and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of CCoV in Greece and to genetically analyze the circulating strains. Between December 2007 and December 2009, 206 fecal samples were collected from dogs with diarrhea from kennels, pet shops and veterinary clinics of different country regions. RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR assays were used for CCoV detection and characterization. CCoV was identified in 65.1% of the dogs presenting diarrhea, being more frequently detected in animals younger than 3 months old and in animals housed in groups. In 47% of the positive samples more than one CCoV genotype/subtype were detected, with triple CCoV-I/CCoV-IIa/CCoV-IIb infections being identified for the first time. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis revealed that CCoV-I Greek strains share low genetic relatedness to each other and to the prototype CCoV-I strains in the 5' end of the S gene. Moreover, a divergent CCoV-IIa strain was identified. The circulation of highly variable CCoV-I and CCoV-IIb emerging strains, as well as the detection of the divergent strain, raise concerns on the importance of these new strains as primary pathogens of diarrhoeic syndromes diagnosed in dogs. PMID:23410992

  15. A new surgical approach to the canine prostate gland 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Donald Robert

    1969-01-01

    A NEW SURGICAL APPROACH TO THE CANINE PROSTATE GLAND A Thesis DONALD ROBERT HOWARD Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1969 Major... Subject: Veterinary Medicine and Surgery A NEW SURGICAL APPROACH TO THE CANINE PROSTATE GLAND A Thesis By DONALD ROBERT HOWARD Approved as to style and content by: Chairman o Committee &ember Mem er (lldb Member May 1969 481e88 ABSTRACT A New...

  16. A possible role for Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) rodhaini (Parrot, 1930) in transmission of Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala azar), caused by Leishmania donovani is a major health problem in Sudan and other East African countries. In this region the only proven vectors of L. donovani are Phlebotomus orientalis in eastern Sudan, Ethiopia and Upper Nile areas of Southern Sudan and Phlebotomus martini in Ethiopia, Kenya and Southern Sudan. In this report, we present the first evidence that Phlebotomus rodhaini may also play a role in maintaining transmission of L. donovani between animal reservoir hosts in eastern Sudan. The study was conducted in a zoonotic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Dinder National Park, eastern Sudan, where previous work showed high infection rates of L. donovani in P. orientalis. Sand flies, captured by CDC traps were dissected and examined for infection with Leishmania parasites. Parasite isolates were subjected to L. donovani specific PCR. Field experiments were also carried out to compare efficiency of rodent baited and un-baited CDC traps in collection of P. rodhaini and determine its man-biting rate. Results Three female P. rodhaini were found infected with Leishmania parasites in an astonishingly small number of flies captured in three separate field trips. Two of these isolates were typed by molecular methods as L. donovani, while the third isolate was inoculated into a hamster that was subsequently lost. Although P. rodhaini is generally considered a rare species, results obtained in this study indicate that it can readily be captured by rodent-baited traps. Results of human landing collection showed that it rarely bites humans in the area. Conclusion It is concluded that P. rodhaini is a possible vector of L. donovani between animal reservoir hosts but is not responsible for infecting humans. It is suggested that the role of P. rodhaini in transmission of L. donovani in other zoonotic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Africa should be re-examined. PMID:22188864

  17. Role of multiple hosts in the cross-species transmission and emergence of a pandemic parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Allison, Andrew B; Harbison, Carole E; Pagan, Israel; Stucker, Karla M; Kaelber, Jason T; Brown, Justin D; Ruder, Mark G; Keel, M Kevin; Dubovi, Edward J; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of cross-species virus transmission is critical to anticipating emerging infectious diseases. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged as a variant of a feline parvovirus when it acquired mutations that allowed binding to the canine transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR). However, CPV-2 was soon replaced by a variant virus (CPV-2a) that differed in antigenicity and receptor binding. Here we show that the emergence of CPV involved an additional host range variant virus that has circulated undetected in raccoons for at least 24 years, with transfers to and from dogs. Raccoon virus capsids showed little binding to the canine TfR, showed little infection of canine cells, and had altered antigenic structures. Remarkably, in capsid protein (VP2) phylogenies, most raccoon viruses fell as evolutionary intermediates between the CPV-2 and CPV-2a strains, suggesting that passage through raccoons assisted in the evolution of CPV-2a. This highlights the potential role of alternative hosts in viral emergence. PMID:22072763

  18. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  19. Vaccine prospects of killed but metabolically active Leishmania against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Das, Amrita; Ali, Nahid

    2012-07-01

    Leishmanization or live vaccination, the gold standard for immunoprophylactic success against cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been abandoned for safety reasons. Killed but metabolically active (KBMA) Leishmania, a new class of whole-cell vaccine, holds promise for safe vaccination. Amotosalen (S-59)-treated and UVA-irradiated Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum chagasi (KBMA-Lic) were rendered replication-incompetent and incapable of causing disease; this was demonstrated convincingly by sensitive techniques. However, the immune response and the level of protection elicited by vaccination with both live Lic and KBMA-Lic in BALB/c mice are less than optimal and warrant further studies to establish their potentiality as an effective vaccine strategy against visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22913255

  20. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in travellers: a focus on epidemiology and treatment in 2015.

    PubMed

    Showler, Adrienne J; Boggild, Andrea K

    2015-07-01

    Imported cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a growing problem with increasing global travel to endemic areas. Returned travellers seeking care encounter significant barriers to treatment, including diagnostic delays and difficult access to anti-leishmanial drugs. Treatment recommendations in non-endemic settings are a moving target, reflecting recent developments in Leishmania diagnostics and therapeutics. Accumulating experience with molecular-based species identification has enabled species-directed therapy. Clinicians are reevaluating more toxic traditional regimens in light of newly approved therapeutic agents and emerging data on local cutaneous treatments. Referral centers are implementing treatment decision algorithms designed to maximize efficacy while minimizing adverse events. Although management strategies continue to evolve, treatment of CL in non-endemic settings remains controversial. Persistent reliance on expert opinion reflects lack of research focused on travellers and limited randomized controlled trial evidence. We herein review the current epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in travellers and species-specific evidence for available therapies. PMID:26031962