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Sample records for canine leishmaniasis transmission

  1. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi-Parvar, Faeze; Hatam, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now. PMID:25628897

  2. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  3. Ecology of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in the Rural Community of Mont Rolland (Thiès Region, Senegal): Area of Transmission of Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Senghor, Massila W.; Faye, Malick N.; Faye, Babacar; Diarra, Karamoko; Elguero, Eric; Gaye, Oumar

    2011-01-01

    Background Different epidemiological studies previously indicated that canine leishmaniasis is present in the region of Thiès (Senegal). However, the risks to human health, the transmission cycle and particularly the implicated vectors are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To improve our knowledge on the population of phlebotomine sand flies and the potential vectors of canine leishmaniasis, sand flies were collected using sticky traps, light traps and indoor spraying method using pyrethroid insecticides in 16 villages of the rural community of Mont Rolland (Thiès region) between March and July 2005. The 3788 phlebotomine sand flies we collected (2044 males, 1744 females) were distributed among 9 species of which 2 belonged to the genus Phlebotomus: P. duboscqi (vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Senegal) and P. rodhaini. The other species belonged to the genus Sergentomyia: S. adleri, S. clydei, S. antennata, S. buxtoni, S. dubia, S. schwetzi and S. magna. The number of individuals and the species composition differed according to the type of trap, suggesting variable, species-related degrees of endophily or exophily. The two species of the genus Phlebotomus were markedly under-represented in comparison to the species of the genus Sergentomyia. This study also shows a heterogeneous spatial distribution within the rural community that could be explained by the different ecosystems and particularly the soil characteristics of this community. Finally, the presence of the S. dubia species appeared to be significantly associated with canine leishmaniasis seroprevalence in dogs. Conclusions/Significance Our data allow us to hypothesize that the species of the genus Sergentomyia and particularly the species S. dubia and S. schwetzi might be capable of transmitting canine leishmaniasis. These results challenge the dogma that leishmaniasis is exclusively transmitted by species of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World. This hypothesis should be more thoroughly evaluated. PMID:21445295

  4. Xenodiagnosis on dogs with visceral leishmaniasis: Canine and sand fly aspects related to the parasite transmission.

    PubMed

    Magalhães-Junior, Jairo Torres; Mota, Tiago Feitosa; Porfirio-Passos, Gabriela; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria

    2016-06-15

    One of the main limitations for the effective control of canine leishmaniasis in endemic areas is the difficulty in identifying infectious dogs. The objective of this study was to determine factors, related to dogs and to parasite detection in sand flies, which are associated with the positive xenodiagnosis of Leishmania infantum using the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. The xenodiagnosis was performed in 50 owned dogs residing in endemic areas, which were divided into three different groups: G1-26 dogs proved to be infected and classified by severity of VL clinical signs on physical examination; G2-15 dogs proved to be infected and classified by severity of clinical signs and intensity of laboratory abnormalities; G3-nine dogs that were seropositive for anti-Leishmania IgG in ELISA tests. Parasite search in the sand flies after having fed on dogs in the xenodiagnosis was performed by both methodologies, PCR and dissection followed by microscopy. In G1, 58% (15/26) of dogs were able to transmit Leishmania to the vector, when parasite detection in sand flies were performed by PCR technique, 5 days after blood meal, whereas in G2, 53% (8/15) transmitted the parasite to the vector, however, confirmation was performed by direct observation of parasite through optical miscroscopy held 10 days after blood meal. Rate of infectiousness of dogs to sand flies was positively associated to severity of disease (p=0.042 and p=0.040), regardless the method used for clinical classification or for parasite detection in sand flies after xenodiagnosis. In G1 30% (3/10) of dogs with subclinical infection were infectious to the vector, while 80% (12/16) of dogs with clinical disease were also infectious. Even more, 17% (1/6) of dogs that had moderate disease were infectious to the sand flies, while 78% (7/9) of dogs with severe disease were infectious in G2. Still in G2, the proportion of sand flies infected (grade of infectiousness) was significantly lower (p=0.0098) when they fed on dogs with moderate disease (1%) in comparison with dogs with severe disease (38%). The dogs from G3 presented a rate of infectiousness of 11% (1/9), demonstrating that the indirect ELISA is not a good indicator of infectiousness and, therefore, should not be used as a confirmatory test for the euthanasia of dogs, as it is currently done in Brazil. PMID:27198788

  5. Risk factors for canine leishmaniasis in an endemic Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Sofia; Vaz, Yolanda; Neves, Rodolfo; Maia, Carla; Cardoso, Luís; Campino, Lenea

    2012-10-26

    Human visceral leishmaniasis is an emergent/re-emergent parasitic zoonotic disease in Europe caused by Leishmania infantum, with domestic dog as its main reservoir host. This study presents the results of a canine epidemiological survey in a mediterranean region where human and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) are endemic - Portugal. The main goal was to identify risk factors, which can be relevant for Leishmania infection control. The national survey was carried out in January 2009 with a screening of 3974 dogs from all 18 districts of mainland Portugal. Direct Agglutination Test was used for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in canine blood. An overall CanL true prevalence of 6.31% was observed. Apparent prevalence at district level ranged from 0.88% to 16.16%, with the highest prevalence in the interior regions. Identified risk factors for positivity were: dogs of 2 years and older (adjusted odds ratio OR=5.39); spending exclusively/most of the time outdoors (OR=2.51); origin from the interior of Portugal in comparison to littoral/coast districts (OR=2.51); not having long fur (OR=2.03); and being pure exotic (OR=1.67). The results confirm the leishmaniasis endemicity in Portugal and the dynamic character of prevalence as new foci emerged and old foci lost their importance. The dog's age, fur size, district and living outdoors as opposed to indoors were more important than dog breeds and insecticide treatment in the transmission of Leishmania infection. The future of CanL prevention and control rely on an integrated approach involving veterinarians, dog owners and health authorities in order to reduce the canine infection risk and consequently, the human zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22575278

  6. Culling Dogs in Scenarios of Imperfect Control: Realistic Impact on the Prevalence of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Danielle N. C. C.; Codeço, Cláudia T.; Silva, Moacyr A.; Werneck, Guilherme L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis belongs to the list of neglected tropical diseases and is considered a public health problem worldwide. Spatial correlation between the occurrence of the disease in humans and high rates of canine infection suggests that in the presence of the vector, canine visceral leishmaniasis is the key factor for triggering transmission to humans. Despite the control strategies implemented, such as the sacrifice of infected dogs being put down, the incidence of American visceral leishmaniasis remains high in many Latin American countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Mathematical models were developed to describe the transmission dynamics of canine leishmaniasis and its control by culling. Using these models, imperfect control scenarios were implemented to verify the possible factors which alter the effectiveness of controlling this disease in practice. Conclusions/Significance A long-term continuous program targeting both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs should be effective in controlling canine leishmaniasis in areas of low to moderate transmission (R0 up to 1.4). However, the indiscriminate sacrifice of asymptomatic dogs with positive diagnosis may jeopardize the effectiveness of the control program, if tests with low specificity are used, increasing the chance of generating outrage in the population, and leading to lower adherence to the program. Therefore, culling must be planned accurately and implemented responsibly and never as a mechanical measure in large scale. In areas with higher transmission, culling alone is not an effective control strategy. PMID:23951375

  7. Canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in Senegal: risk of emergence in humans?

    PubMed

    Faye, B; Bauls, A L; Bucheton, B; Dione, M M; Bassanganam, O; Hide, M; Dereure, J; Choisy, M; Ndiaye, J L; Konat, O; Claire, M; Senghor, M W; Faye, M N; Sy, I; Niang, A A; Molez, J F; Victoir, K; Marty, P; Delaunay, P; Knecht, R; Mellul, S; Diedhiou, S; Gaye, O

    2010-12-01

    In the context of global warming and the risk of spreading arthropod-borne diseases, the emergence and reemergence of leishmaniasis should not be neglected. In Senegal, over the past few years, cases of canine leishmaniasis have been observed. We aim to improve the understanding of the transmission cycle of this zoonosis, to determine the responsible species and to evaluate the risk for human health. An epidemiological and serological study on canine and human populations in the community of Mont Rolland (This area) was conducted. The data showed a high seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis (>40%) and more than 30% seropositive people. The dogs' seroprevalence was confirmed by PCR data (concordance > 0.85, Kappa > 0.7). The statistical analysis showed strong statistical associations between the health status of dogs and seropositivity, the number of positive PCRs, clinical signs and the number of Leishmania isolates. For the first time, the discriminative PCRs performed on canine Leishmania strains clearly evidenced that the pathogenic agent is Leishmania infantum. The results obtained show that transmission of this species is well established in this area. That the high incidence of seropositivity in humans may be a consequence of infection with this species is discussed. PMID:20868766

  8. [Canine leishmaniasis in Campania: new and old foci].

    PubMed

    Baldi, L; Mizzoni, V; Guarino, A

    2004-06-01

    Canine Leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in Campania Region (Italy) and is strictly related to Human Visceral Leishmaniasis. Past and present reports of the prevalence in the Region show that exist places were CanL has been known for a century (Vesuvius and Ischia Foci) and other localities where the disease appears to be recent (Caserta and Salerno provinces); moreover, the zoonosis is seen not only in endemic foci (autochthonous), but also in non-endemic areas (imported cases), for example in the Benevento and Avellino provinces. Two zymodemes have been identified in human and canine population and also in sandflies: MON 1 and MON 72. Endemic or stable CanL foci correspond with Vesuvius Area, Ischia island, Maddaloni and neighbouring Commons, other foci in the Salerno province. These foci are associated with optimal ecological condition, abundance of reservoirs and hosts, abundance of phlebotomine vectors, prevalence in canine population around 10-40%, incidence in canine population 5%, risk for human population 0.002%. Instable foci occur at the border of the stable foci: they may be the result of changes in climate with the occasional introduction of infected dogs in the areas; in the foci are registered low presence of phlebotomine vectors, prevalence around 0.5-3%, sporadic human cases. Today, in Campania region CanL undoubtedly has an increased incidence and a wider geographic distribution than before: new cases are now reported in areas that were previously non-endemic. Ecological, demographic and environmental changes, large population movements, urbanization have led to an increased incidence and to importation into suburbs with high densities of people and sand-flies. These changes include "global warming", increased number of stray dogs, dogs and population movements, changes in human population (increased number of immune-depressed and old people). Nowadays, the most important focus of CanL and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis of the Mediterranean area is located in Campania Region: during the year 2000, 143 cases of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis have been recorded in Italy, an half of them (83 cases) in Campania region. PMID:15305720

  9. Prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in Beichuan County, Sichuan, China and phylogenetic evidence for an undescribed Leishmania sp. in China based on 7SL RNA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease, which is still endemic in the west and northwest area of China. Canines are the major reservoirs of Leishmania, the etiological agent of human visceral leishmaniasis. Phlebotomus chinensis is the main transmission vector of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). Methods In this study, rK39 dip-stick, ELISA and PCR methods were used to investigate the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Beichuan County, Sichuan Province, China. Results Among the 86 dogs which were included in the study, 13 dogs were positive using the dip-stick test (15.12%), while 8 dogs were positive using ELISA (9.30%) and 19 dogs were positive for PCR (22.03%). In total, 32 dogs were positive for one or more tests (37.21%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis based on the partial 7SL RNA fragment provided evidence that an undescribed Leishmania species, which is clearly a causative agent of CanL and human visceral leishmaniasis, does exist in China. This result is consistent with our previous study. Conclusions Our work confirmed that canine leishmaniasis is still prevalent in Beichuan County. Further control is urgently needed, as canine leishmaniasis is of great public health importance. The phylogenetic analysis based on 7SL RNA segment provides evidence for the existence of an undescribed Leishmania sp. in China. PMID:22515334

  10. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, Amanda Codeço; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; SANTOS, Fernanda Nunes; de SOUZA, Marcos Barbosa; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ABRANTES, Tuanne Rotti; PÉRISSÉ, André Reynaldo Santos

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT). The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents) were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%). Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4), animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6), and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1) were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpiswas not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area. PMID:26422157

  11. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Amanda Codeço; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; de Souza, Marcos Barbosa; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Abrantes, Tuanne Rotti; Périssé, André Reynaldo Santos

    2015-01-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT). The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents) were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%). Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4), animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6), and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1) were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area. PMID:26422157

  12. First Record of Autochthonous Canine Leishmaniasis in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Tánczos, Balázs; Balogh, Nándor; Király, László; Biksi, Imre; Szeredi, Levente; Gyurkovsky, Monika; Scalone, Aldo; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Gramiccia, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hungary is traditionally regarded as a leishmaniasis-free country, and human or canine cases diagnosed locally have been recorded as imported. However, recent entomological surveys have verified the presence in Hungary of Phlebotomus neglectus and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi, which have been incriminated as competent vectors of Leishmania infantum elsewhere in Europe. Following the occurrence in October 2007 of an undisputable clinical case of L. infantum canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a 4-year-old female pug in a kennel of 20 dogs in Tolna province, an investigation was performed to assess the infection status in that canine population and to search for putative phlebotomine vectors. Another female pug became sick during the study period (May–November 2008) and L. infantum was confirmed as the causative agent. The other animals appeared clinically healthy; however, 4 additional dogs were found positive by indirect fluorescent antibody test (2 dogs), or by buffy-coat PCR (1 dog), or by both methods (1 dog). Hence the overall Leishmania infection prevalence in the kennel was 30% (6/20). All dogs were born in the same place and had been always kept outdoors. They had neither been abroad nor received a blood transfusion. No sand flies were collected with CDC Standard Miniature Light traps, Mosquito Magnet® X (MMX) dry ice-baited traps, or sticky traps placed either in or around the kennel and at nearby chicken yards during July and August of 2008 and 2009. Considering the dogs' historical background and the failure to trap any sand fly vectors in the kennel area, the origin of CanL in this site remains unexplained. PMID:22607079

  13. First record of autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Tánczos, Balázs; Balogh, Nándor; Király, László; Biksi, Imre; Szeredi, Levente; Gyurkovsky, Monika; Scalone, Aldo; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Gramiccia, Marina; Farkas, Róbert

    2012-07-01

    Hungary is traditionally regarded as a leishmaniasis-free country, and human or canine cases diagnosed locally have been recorded as imported. However, recent entomological surveys have verified the presence in Hungary of Phlebotomus neglectus and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi, which have been incriminated as competent vectors of Leishmania infantum elsewhere in Europe. Following the occurrence in October 2007 of an undisputable clinical case of L. infantum canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a 4-year-old female pug in a kennel of 20 dogs in Tolna province, an investigation was performed to assess the infection status in that canine population and to search for putative phlebotomine vectors. Another female pug became sick during the study period (May-November 2008) and L. infantum was confirmed as the causative agent. The other animals appeared clinically healthy; however, 4 additional dogs were found positive by indirect fluorescent antibody test (2 dogs), or by buffy-coat PCR (1 dog), or by both methods (1 dog). Hence the overall Leishmania infection prevalence in the kennel was 30% (6/20). All dogs were born in the same place and had been always kept outdoors. They had neither been abroad nor received a blood transfusion. No sand flies were collected with CDC Standard Miniature Light traps, Mosquito Magnet(®) X (MMX) dry ice-baited traps, or sticky traps placed either in or around the kennel and at nearby chicken yards during July and August of 2008 and 2009. Considering the dogs' historical background and the failure to trap any sand fly vectors in the kennel area, the origin of CanL in this site remains unexplained. PMID:22607079

  14. Seroprevalence of CANINE LEISHMANIASIS AND American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections with both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishman...

  15. Characterization of widespread canine leishmaniasis among wild carnivores from Spain.

    PubMed

    Sobrino, R; Ferroglio, E; Oleaga, A; Romano, A; Millan, J; Revilla, M; Arnal, M C; Trisciuoglio, A; Gortázar, C

    2008-08-17

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is an emerging zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Leishmania infantum in Mediterranean countries, with sand flies (Phlebotomus spp.) as vectors and dogs as the main domestic reservoir. The role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis is still controversial. In order to determine the prevalence of natural infection with L. infantum in wild carnivores from Spain, we analyzed 217 samples by PCR and western blotting and used restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to compare the patterns present in wild carnivores with those of domestic dogs from the same areas. DNA of the parasite was detected in spleen or blood samples from 35 (16.12%) analyzed wild carnivores, including 8 of 39 (20.5%) wolves (Canis lupus), 23 of 162 (14.1%) foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 2 of 7 (28.6%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 1 of 4 genets (Geneta geneta), and 1 of 4 Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus). No significant sex or age differences in prevalence were observed in wolves and foxes (P>0.05), but there was a significant difference among regions in foxes (P<0.05). A total of 12 PCR-RFLP patterns were found in foxes, 6 in wolves, 4 in dogs, 2 in Egyptian mongooses and 1 in lynx and genet. RFLP patterns differed between dogs and foxes in the two areas where they could be compared. This is the first study of canine leishmaniasis in wild canids and other carnivores from different regions of Spain by PCR. The prevalence of infection indicates the existence of natural infection in apparently healthy wild carnivore populations, and our results are suggestive of a sylvatic cycle independent of dogs. PMID:18579311

  16. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in the Madrid region, Spain.

    PubMed

    Amela, C; Mendez, I; Torcal, J M; Medina, G; Pachón, I; Cañavate, C; Alvar, J

    1995-04-01

    A cross-sectional serological survey was carried out in the Madrid Autonomous Region (Comunidad de Madrid) in order to study and describe canine leishmaniasis epidemiology. The presence of leishmaniasis-specific antibodies was ascertained by immunofluorescence testing, 591 dogs were screened, revealing a prevalence of 5.25% (95% confidence interval 7.4-3.6), with no difference being encountered between rural and periurban areas. Age-specific prevalence exhibits a peak at 2-3 years and another at 7-8 years. Incidence or force of infection by occupation is as follows: pet dogs 0.059 (95% confidence interval 0.009-0.108) and working dogs 0.035 (95% confidence interval 0.012-0.057), there being a ratio between infection rates of 1.7, viz., indicating a 70% greater risk of infection among pet than among working dogs. The basic case reproduction number R0 is 1.06, suggesting that very intense control measures would not be needed for a drop in prevalence and incidence of infection to be achieved. PMID:7672069

  17. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-01-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  18. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-04-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  19. Environmental Factors and Ecosystems Associated with Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; de Carvalho Araújo, Andreina; da Silva Ferreira, Juliana Isabel Giuli; Tonhosolo, Renata; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2015-12-01

    Environment influences the composition, distribution, and behavior of the vectors and mammalian hosts involved in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), affecting the epidemiology of the disease. In Brazil, the urbanization process and canine cases of VL are indicators for local health authorities. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of the canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Maranhão State, Brazil. Blood samples collected from 960 dogs from six municipalities and six different ecosystems (Baixada Maranhense, Mangue, Mata dos Cocais, Amazônia, Cerrado, and Restinga) to serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], indirect fluorescence antibody test [IFAT], and chromatographic immunoassay methods [Dual Path Platform technology, DPP(®)]) and parasitological diagnosis. From serological tests, 11.14% (107) of the dogs were positive for CVL, with 59.16% (568), 14.5% (148), and 131% (126) positives to ELISA, DPP, and IFAT tests, respectively. Only seven animals (0.73%) were positive in a parasitological test. We also performed parasite isolation and phylogenetic characterization. All isolates of dogs obtained from Maranhão were grouped in a single branch with Leishmania infantum chagasi from Brazil. The ecosystem Amazonia presented the highest positivity rates to CVL in serological and parasitological tests. Brazilian biomes/ecosystems suffer large degradation and may favor, depending on climatic conditions, the installation of new diseases. In the case of VL, dogs are reservoirs of parasites and sentinels for human infection. PMID:26684524

  20. Endemic Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bhutan

    PubMed Central

    Yangzom, Thinley; Cruz, Israel; Bern, Caryn; Argaw, Daniel; den Boer, Margriet; Vélez, Iván Dario; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Molina, Ricardo; Alvar, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis was first reported in Bhutan in 2006. We conducted studies of the parasite, possible vectors and reservoirs, and leishmanin skin test and risk factor surveys in three villages. Nineteen cases were reported from seven districts. Parasite typing yielded two novel microsatellite sequences, both related to Indian L. donovani. In one case village, 40 (18.5%) of 216 participants had positive leishmanin skin test results, compared with 3 (4.2%) of 72 in the other case village and 0 of 108 in the control village. Positive results were strongly associated with the village and increasing age. None of the tested dogs were infected. Eighteen sand flies were collected, 13 Phlebotomus species and 5 Sergentomyia species; polymerase chain reaction for leishmanial DNA was negative. This assessment suggests that endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission has occurred in diverse locations in Bhutan. Surveillance, case investigations, and further parasite, vector, and reservoir studies are needed. The potential protective impact of bed nets should be evaluated. PMID:23091191

  1. Endemic transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Yangzom, Thinley; Cruz, Israel; Bern, Caryn; Argaw, Daniel; den Boer, Margriet; Vélez, Iván Dario; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Molina, Ricardo; Alvar, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis was first reported in Bhutan in 2006. We conducted studies of the parasite, possible vectors and reservoirs, and leishmanin skin test and risk factor surveys in three villages. Nineteen cases were reported from seven districts. Parasite typing yielded two novel microsatellite sequences, both related to Indian L. donovani. In one case village, 40 (18.5%) of 216 participants had positive leishmanin skin test results, compared with 3 (4.2%) of 72 in the other case village and 0 of 108 in the control village. Positive results were strongly associated with the village and increasing age. None of the tested dogs were infected. Eighteen sand flies were collected, 13 Phlebotomus species and 5 Sergentomyia species; polymerase chain reaction for leishmanial DNA was negative. This assessment suggests that endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission has occurred in diverse locations in Bhutan. Surveillance, case investigations, and further parasite, vector, and reservoir studies are needed. The potential protective impact of bed nets should be evaluated. PMID:23091191

  2. Preventing Zoonotic Canine Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil: Pet Attachment and Adoption of Community Leishmania Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Kevin J.; Pontes, Nubia N.; Arruda, Paulo; O'Connor, Annette; Morais, Lorena; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Petersen, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi (L.i. chagasi syn. infantum) in northeastern Brazil, was responsible for 51,000 new VL cases from 1980 to 2003. Household presence of L. infantum-infected dogs is a major risk factor for human infection. Despite culling of dogs based on seropositivity, canine L. infantum seroprevalence remains near 20%, suggesting that dog culling is ineffective for preventing VL spread. We administered a cross-sectional survey to 224 households within 300 m of the homes of VL human patients diagnosed within the last year. The goal was to develop a model for voluntary preventative use based on characteristics and motivations of dog owners. We identified that owner knowledge deficiencies regarding canine transmission of L. infantum associated with increased risk of dog infection (odds ratio [OR] = 3.681, confidence interval [CI] = 1.223, 11.08). Higher owner education was associated with decreased levels of dog seropositivity (OR = 0.40, CI = 0.20, 0.81). Pet attachment (P = 0.036) and perception of risk/disease knowledge (P = 0.040) were significantly associated with willingness to voluntarily purchase canine VL prevention. These results highlight the importance of owner attachment to their pet in implementing reservoir-targeted zoonotic VL prevention. PMID:22987654

  3. Environmental risk mapping of canine leishmaniasis in France

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, a Trypanosomatid protozoan transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Leishmaniasis is endemic in southern France, but the influences of environmental and climatic factors on its maintenance and emergence remain poorly understood. From a retrospective database, including all the studies reporting prevalence or incidence of CanL in France between 1965 and 2007, we performed a spatial analysis in order to i) map the reported cases in France, and ii) produce an environment-based map of the areas at risk for CanL. We performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by a Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC) to assess if the locations of CanL could be grouped according to environmental variables related to climate, forest cover, and human and dog densities. For each group, the potential distribution of CanL in France was mapped using a species niche modelling approach (Maxent model). Results Results revealed the existence of two spatial groups of CanL cases. The first group is located in the Cévennes region (southern Massif Central), at altitudes of 200-1000 m above sea level, characterized by relatively low winter temperatures (1.9°C average), 1042 mm average annual rainfall and much forest cover. The second group is located on the Mediterranean coastal plain, characterized by higher temperatures, lower rainfall and less forest cover. These two groups may correspond to the environments favoured by the two sandfly vectors in France, Phlebotomus ariasi and Phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. Our niche modelling of these two eco-epidemiological patterns was based on environmental variables and led to the first risk map for CanL in France. Conclusion Results show how an ecological approach can help to improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of CanL in France. PMID:20377867

  4. Multicomponent Chimeric Antigen for Serodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Manuel; Requena, Jose M.; Quijada, Luis; Alonso, Carlos

    1998-01-01

    In this work, we describe the assembly of a synthetic gene coding for several antigenic determinants found in different Leishmania infantum antigens. Selected epitopes were derived from the ribosomal proteins LiP2a, LiP2b, and LiP0 and from the histone H2A. The resulting gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli either as a fusion protein (with the vector pMAL-c2) or alone (with the vector pQE). In both cases, high-level bacterial production of the recombinant protein was achieved and the products were found to be stable. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting experiments confirmed that the corresponding epitopes are present in the engineered protein. Finally, a serological evaluation of this multiple-epitope protein by Falcon assay screening test-ELISA revealed a sensitivity of 79 to 93% and a specificity of 96 to 100% in diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, indicating that this protein represents a valuable tool for serodiagnosis. PMID:9431920

  5. Clinical follow-up examination after treatment of canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Steuber, S; Greiner, M

    1998-12-01

    In 16 dogs, the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis could be detected by direct microscopic identification, by determination of the antibody titre or by PCR method (peripheral blood/bone marrow). On the basis of the clinical and laboratory diagnostic results 9 cases of the cutaneous type and 7 dogs of the combined cutaneous-visceral type (+ mono- or polyarthritis, hepatopathy and/or renal insufficiency as well as occular manifestation) have been classified. Therapy was: GLUCANTIME in 6 dogs, allopurinol in 3 dogs as single agent, combination-therapy GLUCANTIME and allopurinol in 7 dogs. During GLUCANTIME-treatment the following adverse reactions could be observed: general weakness, reduced food intake up to anorexia, vomiting and diarrhoea. Laboratory parameters showed sporadically leucopenia or pancreatitis. Adverse reactions during allopurinol therapy were: vomitus/diarrhoea or urine concrements. One dog with GLUCANTIME therapy, 2 dogs with allopurinol as well as 2 dogs with combination therapy are clinically symptom-free at the moment (peripheral blood and bone marrow: PCR negative). The remaining 11 patients showed a good to very good improvement of the clinical symptoms. However, since the peripheral blood respectively the bone marrow continue to be PCR positive, relapses have to be expected in these dogs. PMID:10622623

  6. First autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Monique Paiva; da Silva, Denise Amaro; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Velho, Artur Augusto Mendes; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and its main vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in non-endemic areas have been reported over the last few years throughout the country. The objective of this research note is to describe an autochthonous case of CVL that occurred in the municipality of Volta Redonda, state of Rio de Janeiro, an area where the disease is not endemic, alerting veterinarians and the scientific community to the expansion of this important zoonosis and advising veterinary practitioners on how to deal with a suspicion of CVL. Canine visceral leishmaniasis can be misdiagnosed within a broad spectrum of canine diseases based on clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, knowledge of its clinical manifestations, specific and sensitive laboratory diagnostic tests and parasitological procedures are of the utmost importance for rapid confirmation and notification of a case, thus contributing directly to the control of a focus. PMID:24142177

  7. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePlus

    Kala-azar; Cutaneous leishmaniasis; Visceral leishmaniasis; Old world leishmaniasis; New world leishmaniasis ... Leishmaniasis is caused by a tiny parasite called leishmania protozoa. Protozoa are one-celled organisms. There are ...

  8. Impact of canine control on the epidemiology of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, C B; dos Santos, W R; França-Silva, J C; da Costa, R T; Reis, A B; Palatnik, M; Mayrink, W; Genaro, O

    2001-11-01

    Brazil is the only country endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) that regularly conducts epidemiologic and prophylactic control programs that involve the treatment of human cases, insect vector control, and the removal of seropositive infected dogs. This report reviews 60 studies reporting data on the efficacy of these recommended control tools and concludes that in Brazil 1) eradication of the disease in Minas Gerais was achieved by the concomitant use of the three control methods, 2) although seropositivity by an immunofluorescent assay is not completely related to infectiousness, the removal of seropositive dogs leads to a significant reduction of canine and human incidence, 3) improvement of the sensitivity of the diagnostic tool used for canine control should optimize the efficacy of control, and 4) although difficult and expensive, the public health dog control campaigns performed in Brazil reduced the incidence of ZVL and should be maintained since treatment of dogs is an unrealistic intervention, both because of its prohibitive cost and relatively poor effectiveness. PMID:11716106

  9. Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Pace, David

    2014-11-01

    Leishmaniasis remains an important neglected tropical infection that affects children more than adults. Geographical variation exists in the distribution of the various Leishmania species. Although the majority of the disease burden is found in poor countries, leishmaniasis is also endemic in several countries within Southern Europe. Transmission is mediated by the sandfly and may follow an anthroponotic or zoonotic cycle that also varies by region. The expression of leishmaniasis depends on a complex interaction between the type of infecting species and the host immune response. Infection may be asymptomatic or may manifest as cutaneous disease that is pleiomorphic in presentation, muco-cutaneous disease or the visceral form that may be lethal if untreated. Molecular techniques aid diagnosis especially in cases where amastigotes are not visualised. The efficacy of treatment varies with the type of infecting species and resistance patterns. Preventive measures aimed at avoiding sandfly bites are effective in reducing acquisition of leishmaniasis and should be promoted for travellers visiting endemic regions. The persistent lack of a vaccine against human leishmaniasis is a result of the poor investment in this neglected parasitosis. PMID:25238669

  10. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Reemerging Focus of Intense Transmission in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Tanure, Aline; Gomes, Marcela Esteves; Apolinário, Estefânia Conceição; Bodevan, Emerson Cotta; de Araújo, Holbiano Saraiva; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa

    2013-01-01

    This study was developed in the urban area of Governador Valadares, a reemerging focus of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, presenting 86 human cases of VL from 2008 to 2011. The disease prevailed in males (73.2%) with most patients between 0 and 9 years (44.1%) and a lethality rate of 16.2%. A canine survey was carried out on 16,529 domestic dogs in 35 districts in the area and it showed that 30.2% of them (4,992 dogs) were positive for VL by serum assays. Prevalence ratios for canine VL varied between 13.6% and 53.4%. The clinical exam of 343 seropositive dogs showed that 49.9% of them were considered symptomatic, with larger prevalence of canine VL being in short-furred animals (90%). The entomological survey was performed in eight districts, where 2,539 phlebotomines were captured, preferentially in the peridomicile (84.5%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species (90%) suggesting its participation in the VL transmission in the area. The correlation between canine prevalence and L. longipalpis density was evaluated. PMID:24000322

  11. First surveys to investigate the presence of canine leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Róbert; Tánczos, Balázs; Bongiorno, Gioia; Maroli, Michele; Dereure, Jacques; Ready, Paul D

    2011-07-01

    Hungary is regarded as free of leishmaniasis because only a few imported cases have been reported. However, southern Hungary has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and so it was included in the EU FP6 EDEN project, which aimed to map the northern limits of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Europe. The numbers of traveling and imported dogs have increased in the last decade, raising concerns about the introduction of CanL caused by Leishmania infantum. Serum samples were collected from 725 dogs (22 localities, 6 counties) that had never traveled to endemic countries, as well as from other potential reservoir hosts (185 red foxes and 13 golden jackals). All sera were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, but they were sero-negative using the OIE cut-off of 1:80 serum dilution except for those of two dogs resident since birth in southern Hungary. These had not received a blood transfusion, but the mode of transmission is unclear because no sandfly vectors were caught locally. From 2006 to 2009, phlebotomine sandflies were sampled in the summer months at 47 localities of 8 counties. They were trapped with castor-oil-impregnated sticky-paper, light, and CO(2)-baited traps. Small numbers of two vectors of Leishmania infantum were found. Phlebotomus neglectus occurred in three villages near to Croatia and one in north Hungary at latitude 47 °N, and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi was trapped at two sites in a southeastern county close to the sites where it was first found in 1931-1932. Our report provides baseline data for future investigations into the northward spread of CanL into Hungary, which we conclude has yet to occur. PMID:21254904

  12. Restricted Outbreak of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis with High Microfocal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.; Gil, José F.; Quipildor, Marcelo; Cajal, Silvana P.; Pravia, Carlos; Juarez, Marisa; Villalpando, Carlos; Locatelli, Fabricio M.; Chanampa, Mariana; Castillo, Gabriela; Oreste, María F.; Hoyos, Carlos L.; Negri, Vanesa; Nasser, Julio R.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Salta, the northwestern province of Argentina. We describe an outbreak involving five recreational hunters whose exposure was limited to several hours in a residual patch of primary forest. All patients presented with typical cutaneous lesions after a mean incubation period of 59 days (range 15–78), and one developed simultaneous mucosal involvement. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of lesions confirmed Leishmania (V.) braziliensis as the etiologic agent in three cases. All patients were cured with anti-Leishmania treatment. Entomologic surveys in the transmission area revealed a predominance of Lutzomyia neivai. This outbreak report confirms a microfocal transmission pattern of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Americas and based on a well-determined exposure, allows the determination of incubation times for leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis. PMID:23339200

  13. Evaluation of canine and feline leishmaniasis by the association of blood culture, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in dogs and cats from Botucatu, São Paulo state, and Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, by the association of three diagnostic tests: blood culture in liver infusion tryptose medium, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction. Fifty blood samples of dogs and cats from the Center for Zoonosis Control in Campo Grande, an area endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis, were collected randomly, as well as canine and feline blood samples from the Municipal Kennel and Animal Protection Association in Botucatu, currently considered a transmission-free, non-endemic area. Results Of the 50 dog blood cultures from Botucatu, three (6%) were positive and of the 50 cats, two (4%) were positive. In Campo Grande, 29 dog blood cultures (58%) were positive and all (100%) cats negative by this test. Polymerase chain reaction detected Leishmania spp. in 100% of dog and cat samples from Botucatu but found all the cats from Campo Grande to be negative. On the other hand, 36 dogs from Campo Grande were positive (72%) by the same technique. Immunofluorescent antibody test in Botucatu found 100% of dogs and cats non-reactive, while in Campo Grande, it detected positivity in 32 dogs (64%) and 15 cats (30%). Conclusions The results show the importance of not only continuous epidemiological surveillance in areas not endemic for leishmaniasis, but also research for accurate diagnosis of this zoonosis. PMID:24565284

  14. An epidemic outbreak of canine cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Iván D; Carrillo, Lina M; López, Liliana; Rodríguez, Erwin; Robledo, Sara M

    2012-05-01

    The largest recorded outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia's history occurred during 2005-2009 in soldiers of the Colombian Army, with ~40,000 cases. This outbreak was caused by the influx of military personnel into the jungle with the mission of combat illicit crops and the guerrilla. The soldiers remain for long periods within the rainforest and are exposed to the bite of infected sand flies. During the military activities, soldiers work with dogs specially trained to detect landmines, and therefore, dogs are also exposed to the infected sand flies and show high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). This work describes an epidemic outbreak of canine CL caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis in Colombia, South America. The clinical features of the disease and the response to treatment with pentavalent antimonials observed in 72 guard dogs from the Colombian Army are described. A program for prevention and control of canine CL is also discussed. PMID:22556078

  15. Canine Antibodies against Salivary Recombinant Proteins of Phlebotomus perniciosus: A Longitudinal Study in an Endemic Focus of Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kostalova, Tatiana; Lestinova, Tereza; Sumova, Petra; Vlkova, Michaela; Rohousova, Iva; Berriatua, Eduardo; Oliva, Gaetano; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Scalone, Aldo; Gramiccia, Marina; Gradoni, Luigi; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Background Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania parasites. During blood feeding, sand flies deposit into the host skin immunogenic salivary proteins which elicit specific antibody responses. These anti-saliva antibodies enable an estimate of the host exposure to sand flies and, in leishmaniasis endemic areas, also the risk for Leishmania infections. However, the use of whole salivary gland homogenates as antigen has several limitations, and therefore, recombinant salivary proteins have been tested to replace them in antibody detection assays. In this study, we have used for the first time sand fly salivary recombinant proteins in a longitudinal field study on dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera from dogs naturally exposed to P. perniciosus bites over two consecutive transmission seasons in a site endemic for canine leishmaniasis (CanL) were tested at different time points by ELISA for the antibodies recognizing whole saliva, single salivary 43 kDa yellow-related recombinant protein (rSP03B), and a combination of two salivary recombinant proteins, 43 kDa yellow-related protein and 35.5 kDa apyrase (rSP01). Dogs were also tested for Leishmania infantum positivity by serology, culture, and PCR and the infection status was evaluated prospectively. We found a significant association between active CanL infection and the amount of anti-P. perniciosus saliva antibodies. Importantly, we detected a high correlation between IgG antibodies recognizing rSP03B protein and the whole salivary antigen. The kinetics of antibody response showed for both a whole saliva and rSP03B a similar pattern that was clearly related to the seasonal abundance of P. perniciosus. Conclusions These results suggest that P. perniciosus rSP03B protein is a valid alternative to whole saliva and could be used in large-scale serological studies. This novel method could be a practical and economically-sound tool to detect the host exposure to sand fly bites in CanL endemic areas. PMID:26111018

  16. Antigenicity of the Leishmania infantum histones H2B and H4 during canine viscerocutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, M; Requena, J M; Quijada, L; Perez, M J; Nieto, C G; Guzman, F; Patarroyo, M E; Alonso, C

    1999-01-01

    In this study we show that sera from dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum contain antibodies that specifically react against the parasite H2B and H4 histones. The Leishmania H2B and the amino-terminal region of the histone H4, expressed as fusion proteins, when confronted with sera from canine viscerocutaneous leishmaniasis (VCL) dogs, were recognized by 63% and 47%, respectively. No reactivity was detected when sera from dogs naturally infected with pathogens other than Leishmania were used. Using a collection of synthetic peptides covering the complete sequence of both proteins, we have determined that the main linear antigenic determinants are located in the amino-terminal domains of these histones. The humoral response against histones H2B and H4 induced during canine leishmaniasis was found to be specific for Leishmania histones, since no cross-reactivity of the VCL sera with mammal histones was observed. Also, a comparative study of the prevalence of antibodies among VCL sera against the four core histones of L. infantum was performed. Although a large heterogeneity of the humoral responses against these proteins was found, histones H2A and H3 seem to be more prevalent immunogens than histones H2B and H4 during canine natural leishmaniasis. The origin of the anti-histone humoral response and its possible implications in the pathogenesis of Leishmania infection are discussed. PMID:9933463

  17. Hair parasite load as a new biomarker for monitoring treatment response in canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Corpas-López, V; Merino-Espinosa, G; Acedo-Sánchez, C; Díaz-Sáez, V; Morillas-Márquez, F; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2016-06-15

    Canine leishmaniasis treatment focuses on the reduction of parasite load, the clinical improvement of the animal, and the avoidance of relapses, in a scenario where the definitive parasite clearance is not achievable. Therefore, monitoring is crucial during the treatment of this disease. Quantitative PCR has been shown as an ideal tool for the treatment monitoring when quantifying parasite load in target organs such as lymph node or bone marrow, tissues that are too invasive for regular evaluation. This study aims to prove the potential of hair parasite load in the treatment monitoring of canine leishmaniasis. Six dogs were treated with meglumine antimoniate and monitored up to four months after the end of the treatment. Parasite loads in bone marrow, blood, lymph node and hair were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Total IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 antibody titres were analysed by immunofluorescent assay and a clinical assessment was carried out. Treatment consisted of two 28-day courses of meglumine antimoniate (100mg/kg/day) separated by an one-month interval. Analyses were performed before (day 0), during (day 60) and after treatment (day 120), and at the end of a follow-up period (day 210, four months after the end of treatment). Hair parasite load turned out to be strongly correlated with bone marrow, lymph node and blood parasite loads and with the clinical score and the IgG1 antibody titre. The evolution of this biomarker reflects the evolution of the parasitological, immunological and clinical state of the dog, highlighting its potential as a non-invasive marker for the treatment monitoring in canine leishmaniasis. PMID:27198771

  18. Immunogenicity of the P-8 amastigote antigen in the experimental model of canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, E.; Ahmed, S.; Goldsmith-Pestana, K.; Nieto, J.; Osorio, Y.; Travi, B.; Moreno, J.; McMahon-Pratt, D.

    2007-01-01

    The P-8 proteoglycolipid complex (P-8 PGLC), an amastigote antigen of L. pifanoi, has been demonstrated to induce protection in mouse models, as well as to induce Tc1/Th1-like cellular responses in American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Because the immunization with P-8 PGLC in the murine model does not appear to be genetically restricted, we have studied the reactivity of the P-8 PGLC in L. infantum infected dogs. In this study, it is shown that PBMC from experimentally infected dogs (asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic) significantly proliferated in response to soluble leishmanial antigen (SLA) or the P-8 PGLC. Further, quantification of the gene expression induced by the stimulation with P-8 in asymptomatically infected dogs showed an up-regulation of IFN-γ and TNF-α, which were three to four-fold higher than that induced by soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA). While no measurable induction of IL-10 was observed, low levels of IL-4 mRNA were observed in response to both P-8 and SLA antigens. Thus, our studies establish that P-8 is recognized by infected canines and elicits a potentially curative/protective Th1-like immune response. The identification of Leishmania antigens that elicit appropriate immune responses across different host species (humans, canine) and disease manifestations (cutaneous or visceral) could be an advantage in generating a general vaccine for leishmaniasis. PMID:17178178

  19. Evaluation of three recombinant Leishmania infantum antigens in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Aliani Moura; Faria, Angélica Rosa; Rodrigues, Fernandes Tenório Gomes; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Magalhães, Rubens Daniel Miserani; Cunha, João Luís Reis; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; de Andrade, Hélida Monteiro

    2014-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected disease and is fatal if untreated. Dogs serve as reservoirs for Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) due to their susceptibility to infection and high skin parasitism. Therefore, VL control in Brazil involves the elimination of seropositive dogs, among other actions. However, the most frequently used serological tests have limitations regarding sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we have selected three Leishmania antigens (C1, C8 and C9) and have produced them as recombinant proteins using pET-28a-TEV vector and Escherichia coli BL-21 as expression system. When tested in ELISA with human samples, the C9 antigen was the one showing the most promising results, with 68% sensitivity and 78% specificity. When testing canine samples, the C1, C8 and C9 antigens showed a sensitivity range from 70% to 80% and specificity range from 60% to 90%. The C1 antigen presented higher sensitivity (80%) and the C8 antigen presented higher specificity (90%). Due to it, we decided to mix and test C1 and C8 antigens together, resulting in the C18 antigen. The mix also yielded high percentages of detected symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs however it did not improve the performance of the diagnostic. Comparison of our tests with the tests recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health revealed that our antigens' sensitivities and the percentage of detected asymptomatic dogs were much higher. Our results suggest that the C1, C8, C18 and C9 recombinant proteins are good antigens to diagnose canine visceral leishmaniasis and could potentially be used in screening tests. To diagnose human visceral leishmaniasis, the C9 antigen presented reasonable results, but more optimization must be performed for this antigen to provide better performance. PMID:24801885

  20. Canine transmissible venereal tumour: a review.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, B; Das, U; Das, A K

    2016-03-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a contagious venereal tumour of dogs, commonly observed in dogs that are in close contact with one another, or in stray and wild dogs that exhibit unrestrained sexual activity. CTVT represents a unique, naturally transmissible, contagious tumour, where the mutated tumour cell itself is the causative agent and perpetuates as a parasitic allograft in the host. Clinical history, signalment and cytological features are often obvious for establishing a diagnosis though biopsy and histological examination may be needed in atypical cases. Most cases are curable with three intravenous injections of vincristine sulphate at weekly intervals. The role of stray and wild dogs makes the disease difficult to control and necessitates sustained animal birth control in stray dogs along with prompt therapy of the affected dogs. This review captures the manifold developments in different areas embracing this fascinating tumour, including its biology, diagnosis and therapeutic alternatives. PMID:23981098

  1. An Integrated Approach Using Spatial Analysis to Study the Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in Area of Recent Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Júlia Alves; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Andrade-Filho, José Dilermando; de Sousa, Alessandra Mara; Morais, Mayron Henrique Gomes; Rocha, Ana Maria Sampaio; Machado-Coelho, George Luis Lins; Lima, Fernanda Pinheiro; Madureira, Ana Paula; Garcia, Tânia Cristina; Freitas, Christian Resende; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Margonari, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Some epidemiological aspects of leishmaniasis in the municipality of Formiga, Brazil, an important touristic site, were evaluated. Those included phlebotomine sand fly vectors, canine infection, and geoprocessing analysis for determining critical transmission areas. Sand flies (224 insects) belonging to ten different species were captured. The most captured species included Lutzomyia longipalpis (35.3%), Lutzomyia cortelezzii (33.5%), and Lutzomyia whitmani (18.3%). A significant correlation between sand fly densities and climatic conditions was detected. Serological diagnosis (DPP and ELISA) was performed in 570 dogs indicating a prevalence of 5.8%. After sequencing the main species circulating in the area were Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. Spatial analysis demonstrated that vegetation and hydrography may be related to sand fly distribution and infected dogs. The municipality of Formiga has proven leishmaniasis vectors and infected dogs indicating the circulation of the parasite in the city. Correlation of those data with environmental and human cases has identified the critical areas for control interventions (south, northeast, and northwest). In conclusion, there is current transmission of visceral and canine human cases and the city is on the risk for the appearance of cutaneous cases. PMID:26229961

  2. The prevention of canine leishmaniasis and its impact on public health.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2013-07-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne disease of great veterinary and medical significance. Prevention of CanL requires a combined approach including measures focused on dogs and the environment where the vectors perpetuate. Over past decades, considerable effort has been put towards developing novel and cost-effective strategies against CanL. Vaccination is considered among the most promising tools for controlling CanL, and synthetic pyrethroids are useful and cost-effective in reducing risk of L. infantum infection in dogs. The effectiveness of the use of vaccines plus repellents in preventing L. infantum infection and subsequent disease development should be assessed by means of large-scale, randomized controlled field trials because this combined strategy may become the next frontier in the control of CanL. PMID:23746747

  3. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Denise Amaro; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  4. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Silva, Denise Amaro da; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  5. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasitic disease spread by the bite of infected sand flies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis. ... prevent the disease is to protect yourself from sand fly bites: Stay indoors from dusk to dawn, ...

  6. Spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brasil, 1994-1997.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C D; Assunção, R M; Reis, I A; Proietti, F A

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present spatial analysis of the association between all incidents cases of human Visceral Leishmaniasis and seropositive dogs, from 1994 to 1997 in Belo Horizonte, a large Brazilian city. We geocoded 158 human cases and 11,048 seropositive dogs and compared canine prevalence rates with Human Bayesian Incidence rates in the same areas. We also used Knox's test to evaluate the hypothesis of space-time clustering of human cases in the period. Additionally, we used Kernel's maps for seropositive dogs distribution and located the human cases in the resulting smooth maps. We concluded that human and dog rates are correlated. Also, the Visceral Leishmaniasis in Belo Horizonte spread quickly, but apart from the rates' magnitude, it has kept the same spatial pattern through time. We believe it is possible to use this technique to choose areas to implement control measures against Visceral Leishmaniasis in a more efficient way. PMID:11679897

  7. Validity and Reliability of Enzyme Immunoassays Using Leishmania major or L. infantum Antigens for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Cardoso, Fernanda Alvarenga; Hiamamoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Brazuna, Júlia Cristina Macksoud; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2013-01-01

    Background American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle. The limited accuracy of diagnostic tests for canine leishmaniasis may contribute to the lack of impact of control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays employing L. major or L. infantum antigens and their reliability between three laboratories of different levels of complexity. Methods A validation study of ELISA techniques using L. major or L. infantum antigens was conducted. Direct visualization of the parasite in hematoxylin/eosin-stained histopathological sections, immunohistochemistry, and isolation of the parasite in culture.were used as gold standard. An animal that was positive in at least one of the tests was defined as infected with L. infantum. Serum samples collected from 1,425 dogs were analyzed. Samples were separated in three aliquots and tested in three different laboratories. Sensitivity, specificity and the area under de ROC curve were calculated and the reliability was evaluated between the participant laboratories. Results The sensitivity was 91.8% and 89.8% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The specificity was 83.75% and 82.7% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The area under de ROC curve was 0.920 and 0.898 for L. major and L. infantum, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficients between laboratories ranged from 0.890 to 0.948 when L. major was used as antigen, and from 0.818 to 0.879 when L. infantum was used. Interpretation ELISA tests using L. major or L. infantum antigens have similar accuracy and reliability. Our results do not support the substitution of the L. major antigen of the ELISA test currently used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. PMID:23922884

  8. Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Piscopo, T V; Mallia, A C

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiology, disease patterns, immunology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of leishmaniasis are described. Various issues relating to leishmaniasis are highlighted: the relative lack of importance given to this disease is compared with other infections, climate change and its possible effect on extension of endemicity of this infection, and new diagnostic tests that are helping better diagnosis, especially in resource‐poor areas. Other important aspects discussed include the potential for newer oral treatment to change the way this disease is managed; leishmania–HIV coinfection and groups at risk; and the development of an effective vaccine. PMID:17068275

  9. Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Piscopo, Tonio V

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiology, disease patterns, immunology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of leishmaniasis are described. Various issues relating to leishmaniasis are highlighted: the relative lack of importance given to this disease compared with other infections, climate change and its possible impact on extension of endemicity of this infection, and new diagnostic tests which are improving diagnosis, especially in resource poor areas. Other important aspects discussed include the potential for newer oral therapy to change the way this disease is managed; Leishmania–HIV coinfection and groups at risk; and development of an effective vaccine. PMID:17396274

  10. Abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis in urban households as risk factor of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Vianna, Elisa Neves; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; de Almeida, Andréa Sobral; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2016-01-01

    Urban occurrence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is linked to households with characteristics conducive to the presence of sand flies. This study proposes an ad hoc classification of households according to the environmental characteristics of receptivity to phlebotominae and an entomological study to validate the proposal. Here we describe the phlebotominae population found in intra- and peridomiciliary environments and analyse the spatiotemporal distribution of the VL vector Lutzomyia longipalpis of households receptive to VL. In the region, 153 households were classified into levels of receptivity to VL followed by entomological surveys in 40 of those properties. Kruskal-Wallis verified the relationship between the households’ classification and sand fly abundance and Kernel analysis evaluated L. longipalpis spatial distribution: of the 740 sand flies were captured, 91% were L. longipalpis; 82% were found peridomiciliary whilst the remaining 18% were found intradomiciliary. No statistically significant association was found between sandflies and households levels. L. longipalpis counts were concentrated in areas of high vulnerability and some specific households were responsible for the persistence of the infestation. L. longipalpis prevails over other sand fly species for urban VL transmission. The entomological study may help target the surveillance and vector control strategies to domiciles initiating and/or maintaining VL outbreaks. PMID:27223866

  11. Evidence for an impact on the incidence of canine leishmaniasis by the mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Maroli, M; Mizzon, V; Siragusa, C; D'Oorazi, A; Gradoni, L

    2001-12-01

    Dogs are the domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum Nicolle (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the agent of zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis. In southern Europe, where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is widespread due to L. infantum, killing seropositive dogs is considered unacceptable and drug treatment has low efficacy in preventing transmission. We made a field evaluation of the efficacy of deltamethrin dog collars in a CanL focus of southern Italy, Mount Vesuvius area of Campania region, where the vector is Phlebotomus perniciosus Newstead (Diptera: Psychodidae), by assessing their impact on the incidence of CanL in an intervention town, compared to that in dogs of control towns where no collars were fitted. During two consecutive transmission seasons, collars were fitted to 350 (1998) and 354 (1999) dogs from San Sebastiano al Vesuvio (70% of the canine population). Control dogs (371 and 264 in the 2 years, respectively) were from four towns of the same area. Before each transmission season, the CanL seroprevalence in the intervention and control towns was evaluated by cross-sectional surveys and found to be similar (about 15% in 1998 and 10% in 1999, respectively). After each transmission period, incidence rates of seroconversions were determined in adult dogs that were serologically negative before the season under evaluation, and in puppies. After the 1998 season, 2.7% of the dogs in the intervention town seroconverted compared to 5.4% in the control towns (50% protection, P = 0.15). After the 1999 season, 3.5% of collared dogs seroconverted compared to 25.8% of control dogs (86% protection, P < 0.001). The increase in seroconversion rates recorded in control dogs suggests an increase in the Leishmania force of infection in the canine reservoir during the 1999 sandfly season, as supported by the concomitant increase of human cases in control towns and in the whole Campania region. Our results suggest that the impact of mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars on the incidence of CanL may be negligible during low transmission seasons, or probably in low endemic foci, but can be very strong when the force of transmission is high. PMID:11776454

  12. Genetic Control of Canine Leishmaniasis: Genome-Wide Association Study and Genomic Selection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quilez, Javier; Martínez, Verónica; Woolliams, John A.; Sanchez, Armand; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Kennedy, Lorna J.; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Ollier, William E. R.; Roura, Xavier; Ferrer, Lluís; Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Background The current disease model for leishmaniasis suggests that only a proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease, while others are asymptomatically infected due to immune control of infection. The factors that determine whether individuals progress to clinical disease following Leishmania infection are unclear, although previous studies suggest a role for host genetics. Our hypothesis was that canine leishmaniasis is a complex disease with multiple loci responsible for the progression of the disease from Leishmania infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Genome-wide association and genomic selection approaches were applied to a population-based case-control dataset of 219 dogs from a single breed (Boxer) genotyped for ∼170,000 SNPs. Firstly, we aimed to identify individual disease loci; secondly, we quantified the genetic component of the observed phenotypic variance; and thirdly, we tested whether genome-wide SNP data could accurately predict the disease. Conclusions/Significance We estimated that a substantial proportion of the genome is affecting the trait and that its heritability could be as high as 60%. Using the genome-wide association approach, the strongest associations were on chromosomes 1, 4 and 20, although none of these were statistically significant at a genome-wide level and after correcting for genetic stratification and lifestyle. Amongst these associations, chromosome 4: 61.2–76.9 Mb maps to a locus that has previously been associated with host susceptibility to human and murine leishmaniasis, and genomic selection estimated markers in this region to have the greatest effect on the phenotype. We therefore propose these regions as candidates for replication studies. An important finding of this study was the significant predictive value from using the genomic information. We found that the phenotype could be predicted with an accuracy of ∼0.29 in new samples and that the affection status was correctly predicted in 60% of dogs, significantly higher than expected by chance, and with satisfactory sensitivity-specificity values (AUC = 0.63). PMID:22558142

  13. Evaluation of a Prototype Flow Cytometry Test for Serodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ker, Henrique Gama; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; das Dores Moreira, Nádia; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a critical challenge since conventional immunoserological tests still present some deficiencies. The current study evaluated a prototype flow cytometry serology test, using antigens and fluorescent antibodies that had been stored for 1 year at 4°C, on a broad range of serum samples. Noninfected control dogs and Leishmania infantum-infected dogs were tested, and the prototype test showed excellent performance in differentiating these groups with high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy (100% in all analyses). When the CVL group was evaluated according to the dogs' clinical status, the prototype test showed outstanding accuracy in all groups with positive serology (asymptomatic II, oligosymptomatic, and symptomatic). However, in dogs which had positive results by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) but negative results by conventional serology (asymptomatic I), serological reactivity was not observed. Additionally, sera from 40 dogs immunized with different vaccines (Leishmune, Leish-Tec, or LBSap) did not present serological reactivity in the prototype test. Eighty-eight dogs infected with other pathogens (Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Babesia canis) were used to determine cross-reactivity and specificity, and the prototype test performed well, particularly in dogs infected with B. canis and E. canis (100% and 93.3% specificities, respectively). In conclusion, our data reinforce the potential of the prototype test for use as a commercial kit and highlight its outstanding performance even after storage for 1 year at 4°C. Moreover, the prototype test efficiently provided accurate CVL serodiagnosis with an absence of false-positive results in vaccinated dogs and minor cross-reactivity against other canine pathogens. PMID:24108778

  14. A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Ferreira Rocha, Olguita G; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL. PMID:24766461

  15. Modelling canine leishmaniasis spread to non-endemic areas of Europe.

    PubMed

    Espejo, L A; Costard, S; Zagmutt, F J

    2015-07-01

    Expansion of sandflies and increasing pet travel have raised concerns about canine leishmaniasis (CanL) spread to new areas of Europe. This study aimed to estimate the probability of CanL introduction and persistence following movements of infected dogs. Stochastic modelling was used to estimate the probabilities of (1) CanL infection during travels or imports of infected dogs (P inf and P infCA, respectively), (2) CanL persistence in a dog network with sandflies after introduction of an infected dog (P per), and (3) persistence in a CanL-free region (P per region) for N dogs moving between endemic and free regions. Different mitigation measures (MMs) were assessed. P inf [7.8%, 95% predictive interval (PI) 2.6-16.4] and P per (72.0%, 95% PI 67.8-76.0) were reduced by use of repellent, vaccine, prophylactic medication, and insecticide, in decreasing order of effectiveness. Testing and exclusion of positive dogs was most effective in reducing P per region for a small N. The spread of CanL to CanL-free areas with sandflies is thus likely, but can be reduced by MMs. PMID:25345963

  16. A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Rocha, Olguita G Ferreira; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2014-08-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL. PMID:24766461

  17. Serological survey with PCR validation for canine visceral leishmaniasis in northern Palestine.

    PubMed

    Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Ereqat, Suheir; Azmi, Kifaya; Baneth, Gad; Jaffe, Charles L; Abdeen, Ziad

    2006-02-01

    Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the Mediterranean region. A seroprevalence study for CVL was conducted in northern Palestine. Domestic dogs (n = 148) were screened for antileishmanial antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ten dogs (6.8%) were seropositive. Promastigotes were isolated from one seropositive dog and identified as L. infantum by excreted factor (EF) serotyping, isozyme electrophoresis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition to the ELISA, the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-, modified ITS1 (mITS1)-, and kinetoplast DNA (kDNA)-PCRs were used to validate this technique as a diagnostic tool for CVL using blood; each assay was performed on 60 blood samples. kDNA-PCR (13/60 positives, 21.7%) was the most sensitive of the assays examined followed by mITS1-PCR (9/60, 15.0%), ELISA (5/60, 8.3%), and ITS1-PCR (3/60, 5%). However, ITS1-PCR and mITS1-PCR were also capable of identifying the parasite species and indicated they belong to L. infantum. In view of its higher sensitivity, kDNA-PCR is recommended for the routine diagnosis of CVL. PMID:16629333

  18. Improving Serodiagnosis of Human and Canine Leishmaniasis with Recombinant Leishmania braziliensis Cathepsin L-like Protein and a Synthetic Peptide Containing Its Linear B-cell Epitope

    PubMed Central

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Background The early and correct diagnosis of human leishmaniasis is essential for disease treatment. Another important step in the control of visceral leishmaniasis is the identification of infected dogs, which are the main domestic reservoir of L. infantum. Recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides based on Leishmania genes have emerged as valuable targets for serodiagnosis due to their increased sensitivity, specificity and potential for standardization. Cathepsin L-like genes are surface antigens that are secreted by amastigotes and have little similarity to host proteins, factors that enable this protein as a good target for serodiagnosis of the leishmaniasis. Methodology/Principal Findings We mapped a linear B-cell epitope within the Cathepsin L-like protein from L. braziliensis. A synthetic peptide containing the epitope and the recombinant protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of human tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis, as well as canine visceral leishmaniasis. Conclusions/Significance The recombinant protein performed best for human tegumentary and canine visceral leishmaniasis, with 96.30% and 89.33% accuracy, respectively. The synthetic peptide was the best to discriminate human visceral leishmaniasis, with 97.14% specificity, 94.55% sensitivity and 96.00% accuracy. Comparison with T. cruzi-infected humans and dogs suggests that the identified epitope is specific to Leishmania parasites, which minimizes the likelihood of cross-reactions. PMID:25569432

  19. PCR associated with molecular hybridization detects Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in healthy skin in canine tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Guilherme Marx; de Fatima Madeira, Maria; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Pacheco, Raquel S

    2015-02-01

    Tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) is a zoonotic disease that affects humans and domestic dogs. In Brazil, TL is considered endemic, and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the prevalent species causing this disease. There is debate about the role of dogs (Canis familiaris) as domestic reservoirs in the transmission cycle of TL. To date, classical parasitological techniques, including parasite isolation in culture media, have been able to detect parasites only from cutaneous lesions. In this study, we detected L. (V.) braziliensis DNA in intact skin fragments collected from 3 naturally infected dogs from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the use of PCR techniques associated with molecular hybridization. The detection of parasitic DNA in this anatomical site is an important finding vis-à-vis the importance of the domestic dogs in endemic areas of TL. PMID:25158080

  20. Emerging trends in the seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis in the Madrid region (central Spain).

    PubMed

    Gálvez, R; Miró, G; Descalzo, M A; Nieto, J; Dado, D; Martín, O; Cubero, E; Molina, R

    2010-05-11

    This report describes a cross-sectional serological survey of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) performed in 2006 and 2007 in the Madrid region (central Spain) where the disease is endemic. The work presented here is one of the several studies conducted in different Spanish regions under the Integrated Project of the European Commission entitled Emerging Diseases in a changing European eNvironment (EDEN). The aim of this project is to identify and catalogue European ecosystems and environmental conditions that determine the spatial and temporal distributions and dynamics of several pathogenic agents including Leishmania infantum (EDEN-LEI). The study area (Madrid Autonomous Region) was selected on the grounds of its wide altitude range. This area was surveyed from NE to SW across its mountain range (Sistema Central) and plateau area. One thousand and seventy-six dogs from 32 villages were examined for clinical signs of CanL, and serum samples were obtained to determine several haematological and biochemical variables. Leishmaniasis-specific antibodies were identified using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). 87 of the 1076 dogs were seropositive for the protozoan (IFAT: cut-off>or=1/80) indicating a seroprevalence of 8.1% (0-16.1% depending on the village). On the basis of a physical examination and the biochemical/haematological status of each dog, 32 of the 87 infected dogs were described as clinically healthy (37%). Seroprevalence showed a peak in young dogs (1-2 years) and a second larger peak among the older dogs (7-8 years). Factors correlated with a higher infection risk were age (OR=1.15 [95% CI: 1.07-1.22]), weight (OR=1.10 [95% CI: 1.04-1.16]), and living outdoors as opposed to in a home (OR=3.38 [95% CI: 1.42-8.05]). According to data from studies performed in 1992 in the same area, the seroprevalence of CanL has increased 1.54-fold [95% CI: 1.04-2.29]. Given that this increasing trend cannot be attributed to differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of the dog populations, it is proposed that environmental changes could have had an impact on vector and reservoir densities and their geographical distributions. Further studies designed to explain this trend should attempt to correlate sand fly densities and CanL seroprevalences with climate, land use and human changes. PMID:20031330

  1. PD-1 function in apoptosis of T lymphocytes in canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chiku, Vanessa Marim; Silva, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira; de Almeida, Breno Fernando Martins; Venturin, Gabriela Lovizutto; Leal, Aline Aparecida Correa; de Martini, Cleber Costa; de Rezende Eugênio, Flavia; Dos Santos, Paulo Sergio Patto; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix

    2016-08-01

    Dogs infected with Leishmania infantum have a reduced number of T lymphocytes. PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1) a new member of the B7-CD28 family that is expressed by immune cells, and its binding to PD-L1 (CD274) or PD-L2 (CD273) induces the deactivation or apoptosis of T cells. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of PD-1 and its ligands, as well as blocking in the induction of apoptosis in T lymphocytes, TNF-α, IL-4 and nitric oxide production by leucokocytes from PBMC and spleen and the parasite load in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Our results showed that the expression of PD1 and its ligands was increased in CD3(+) T cells and CD21(+) B lymphocytes within the peripheral blood and splenic mononuclear cells of dogs with VL. In peripheral blood monocytes, only PD-1 ligands exhibited increased expression; however, in spleen macrophages, increased expression of both PD-1 and its ligands was observed. Levels of apoptosis in peripheral blood and splenic T lymphocytes were higher in dogs with VL compared to healthy dogs. Blocking monoclonal antibodies to PD-1 and its ligands in the culture of mononuclear cells from the peripheral blood and spleen decreased the amount of CD3(+) T lymphocyte apoptosis. The concentration of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-4 increased in the culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with a blocking monoclonal antibody against PD-1. The TNF-α concentration increased in the culture supernatants of splenic cells following all treatments with antibodies blocking PD-1 and its ligands; however, the amount of IL-4 increased only in the presence of a PD-1 blocking agent. Treatment with a PD-1 blocking monoclonal antibody in the mononuclear peripheral blood of dogs with VL reduced the parasite burden while increased TNF-α. We conclude that in canine visceral leishmaniasis, PD-1 and its ligands are involved in the induction of T lymphocyte apoptosis and in regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α, and IL-4, as well as the parasitic load. PMID:27016050

  2. Evaluation of two recombinant Leishmania proteins identified by an immunoproteomic approach as tools for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral and human tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Martins, Vívian Tamietti; Garde, Esther; de Jesus Pereira, Nathália Cristina; Lopes, Eliane Gonçalves Paiva; Borges, Luiz Felipe Nunes Menezes; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira

    2016-01-15

    Serological diagnostic tests for canine and human leishmaniasis present problems related with their sensitivity and/or specificity. Recently, an immunoproteomic approach performed with Leishmania infantum proteins identified new parasite antigens. In the present study, the diagnostic properties of two of these proteins, cytochrome c oxidase and IgE-dependent histamine-releasing factor, were evaluated for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral (CVL) and human tegumentary (HTL) leishmaniasis. For the CVL diagnosis, sera samples from non-infected dogs living in an endemic or non-endemic area of leishmaniasis, sera from asymptomatic or symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) dogs, from Leish-Tec(®)-vaccinated dogs, and sera from animals experimentally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or Ehrlichia canis were used. For the HTL diagnosis, sera from non-infected subjects living in an endemic area of leishmaniasis, sera from active cutaneous or mucosal leishmaniasis patients, as well as those from T. cruzi-infected patients were employed. ELISA assays using the recombinant proteins showed both sensitivity and specificity values of 100% for the serodiagnosis of both forms of disease, with high positive and negative predictive values, showing better diagnostic properties than the parasite recombinant A2 protein or a soluble Leishmania antigen extract. In this context, the two new recombinant proteins could be considered to be used in the serodiagnosis of CVL and HTL. PMID:26790739

  3. Use of a Recombinant Cysteine Proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi for the Immunotherapy of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Josie Haydée Lima; Silva, Lucilene dos Santos; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Background A recombinant cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi (rLdccys1) was previously shown to induce protective immune responses against murine and canine visceral leishmaniasis. These findings encouraged us to use rLdccys1 in the immunotherapy of naturally infected dogs from Teresina, Piauí, a region of high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty naturally infected mongrel dogs displaying clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis were randomly divided in three groups: one group received three doses of rLdccys1 in combination with the adjuvant Propionibacterium acnes at one month interval between each dose; a second group received three doses of P. acnes alone; a third group received saline. The main findings were: 1) dogs that received rLdccys1 with P. acnes did not display increase of the following clinical signs: weight loss, alopecia, onychogryphosis, cachexia, anorexia, apathy, skin lesions, hyperkeratosis, ocular secretion, and enlarged lymph nodes; they also exhibited a significant reduction in the spleen parasite load in comparison to the control dogs; 2) rLdccys1-treated dogs exhibited a significant delayed type cutaneous hypersensitivity elicited by the recombinant antigen, as well as high IgG2 serum titers and low IgG1 serum titers; sera from rLdccys1-treated dogs also contained high IFN-γ and low IL-10 concentrations; 3) control dogs exhibited all of the clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis and had low serum IgG2 and IFN-γ levels and high concentrations of IgG1 and IL-10; 4) all of the dogs treated with rLdccys1 were alive 12 months after treatment, whereas dogs which received either saline or P. acnes alone died within 3 to 7 months. Conclusions/Significance These findings illustrate the potential use of rLdccys1 as an additional tool for the immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis and support further studies designed to improve the efficacy of this recombinant antigen for the treatment of this neglected disease. PMID:24625516

  4. Evaluating the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing for canine visceral leishmaniasis using latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Guedes, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio; Bordoni, Marcelo; Borja, Lairton Souza; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; da Silva Estrela Tuy, Pétala Gardênia; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Nascimento, Eliane Gomes; de Sá Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno; dos-Santos, Washington Luis Conrado; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2014-01-01

    Host tissues affected by Leishmania infantum have differing degrees of parasitism. Previously, the use of different biological tissues to detect L. infantum DNA in dogs has provided variable results. The present study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing (qPCR) in dogs from an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by determining which tissue type provided the highest rate of parasite DNA detection. Fifty-one symptomatic dogs were tested for CVL using serological, parasitological and molecular methods. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed for accuracy evaluation of these methods. qPCR detected parasite DNA in 100% of these animals from at least one of the following tissues: splenic and bone marrow aspirates, lymph node and skin fragments, blood and conjunctival swabs. Using latent variable as gold standard, the qPCR achieved a sensitivity of 95.8% (CI 90.4-100) in splenic aspirate; 79.2% (CI 68-90.3) in lymph nodes; 77.3% (CI 64.5-90.1) in skin; 75% (CI 63.1-86.9) in blood; 50% (CI 30-70) in bone marrow; 37.5% (CI 24.2-50.8) in left-eye; and 29.2% (CI 16.7-41.6) in right-eye conjunctival swabs. The accuracy of qPCR using splenic aspirates was further evaluated in a random larger sample (n = 800), collected from dogs during a prevalence study. The specificity achieved by qPCR was 76.7% (CI 73.7-79.6) for splenic aspirates obtained from the greater sample. The sensitivity accomplished by this technique was 95% (CI 93.5-96.5) that was higher than those obtained for the other diagnostic tests and was similar to that observed in the smaller sampling study. This confirms that the splenic aspirate is the most effective type of tissue for detecting L. infantum infection. Additionally, we demonstrated that LCA could be used to generate a suitable gold standard for comparative CVL testing. PMID:25076494

  5. A prototype of the direct agglutination test kit (DAT-Canis) for the serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Edward; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Oliveira, Diana; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Paz, Gustavo Fontes

    2016-05-15

    This report describes the stege I/II development of a new direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) using freeze-dried antigen produced Coomassie blue-stained Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes. In stage I, 16 canine serum samples, collected from eight dogs carrying CVL and eight healthy dogs, were assessed with the DAT using 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), kaolin or NAC plus urea (NAC+U) to improve the assay conditions. Stage II assessed the diagnostic accuracy with 100 serum samples collected from dogs with symptomatic CVL and clinically healthy dogs, comparing the four different sample diluents. The CVL-DAT prototype kit showed equivalent performances when 2-ME, NAC or NAC+U were used: 97.1% sensitivity (CI: 83-99.8%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and a 97% diagnostic accuracy (CI: 90.8-99.2). With kaolin, a 94.1% sensitivity (CI: 79-99%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and 96% diagnostic accuracy were observed (CI: 89.5-98.7), with no statistically significant differences among the four reagents (p=1.0). The NAC plus urea in sample diluent decreased non-specific agglutination, promoted a better defined sharp-edged blue spot and was thus chosen as a component for the new DAT prototype to diagnose canine VL, designated DAT-Canis. PMID:27084465

  6. Performance of a real time PCR for leishmaniasis diagnosis using a L. (L.) infantum hypothetical protein as target in canine samples.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Fabio Antonio; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia; Meira, Cristina da Silva; Motoie, Gabriela; Gava, Ricardo; Hiramoto, Roberto M; de Almeida, Marcos E; da Silva, Alexandre J; Cutolo, Andre Antonio; Menz, Ingrid

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis represents an important public health issue in different parts of the world, requiring that measures be put in place to control the spread of the disease worldwide. The canine leishmaniasis diagnosis is not easy based on clinical signs, since dogs may not develop the infection with recognizable signs. Thus, the laboratorial diagnosis is essential to ascertain the incidence and prevalence of canine leishmaniasis especially in areas with major control efforts. Although, the diagnosis can be performed by the use of different approaches, the molecular methods such as PCR have become an indispensable tool for leishmaniases diagnosis. A TaqMan assay for real-time PCR (Linj31-qPCR) was developed to determine the parasite occurrence in clinical cases of leishmaniasis. The assay targets an L. (L.) infantum hypothetical protein region. The specificity of the assay was verified by using Leishmania World Health Organization reference strains including parasites belonging to subgenus L. (Leishmania), subgenus L. (Viannia), other Leishmania species and Trypanosoma cruzi. The sensitivity was verified by using isolates of L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (L.) infantum. The usefulness of the assay for diagnosis was ascertained by testing 277 samples from dogs in regions endemic for visceral and/or cutaneous leishmaniasis and from regions in which leishmaniasis was not endemic in São Paulo State, Brazil. Diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was determined on these animals by conventional PCR and three serological tests. The dog samples were divided into four groups. I, dogs with CVL (n = 101); II, dogs with other diseases and without CVL (n = 97); III, dogs with American cutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 7), and, IV, dogs without CVL (n = 72) from areas where leishmaniasis was not endemic as control group. Results indicated that Linj31-qPCR was able to identify parasites belonging to subgenus L. (Leishmania) with no cross-amplification with other parasite subgenera. The Linj31-qPCR detected Leishmania parasites DNA in 98% of samples from Group I. In conclusion this methodology can be used as routine diagnostic tools to detect parasites from subgenus Leishmania. PMID:26297683

  7. Development of a Fluorescent Based Immunosensor for the Serodiagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis Combining Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Susana; Cardoso, Luís; Reed, Steven G.; Reis, Alexandre B.; Martins-Filho, Olindo A.; Silvestre, Ricardo; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    Background An accurate diagnosis is essential for the control of infectious diseases. In the search for effective and efficient tests, biosensors have increasingly been exploited for the development of new and highly sensitive diagnostic methods. Here, we describe a new fluorescent based immunosensor comprising magnetic polymer microspheres coated with recombinant antigens to improve the detection of specific antibodies generated during an infectious disease. As a challenging model, we used canine leishmaniasis due to the unsatisfactory sensitivity associated with the detection of infection in asymptomatic animals where the levels of pathogen-specific antibodies are scarce. Methodology Ni-NTA magnetic microspheres with 1,7 µm and 8,07 µm were coated with the Leishmania recombinant proteins LicTXNPx and rK39, respectively. A mixture of equal proportions of both recombinant protein-coated microspheres was used to recognize and specifically bind anti-rK39 and anti-LicTNXPx antibodies present in serum samples of infected dogs. The microspheres were recovered by magnetic separation and the percentage of fluorescent positive microspheres was quantified by flow cytometry. Principal Findings A clinical evaluation carried out with 129 dog serum samples using the antigen combination demonstrated a sensitivity of 98,8% with a specificity of 94,4%. rK39 antigen alone demonstrated a higher sensitivity for symptomatic dogs (96,9%), while LicTXNPx antigen showed a higher sensitivity for asymptomatic (94,4%). Conclusions Overall, our results demonstrated the potential of a magnetic microsphere associated flow cytometry methodology as a viable tool for highly sensitive laboratorial serodiagnosis of both clinical and subclinical forms of canine leishmaniasis. PMID:23991232

  8. Vectorborne Transmission of Leishmania infantum from Hounds, United States

    PubMed Central

    Schaut, Robert G.; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Esch, Kevin J.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by predominantly vectorborne Leishmania spp. In the United States, canine visceral leishmaniasis is common among hounds, and L. infantum vertical transmission among hounds has been confirmed. We found that L. infantum from hounds remains infective in sandflies, underscoring the risk for human exposure by vectorborne transmission. PMID:26583260

  9. Transmission electron microscope evidence of telocytes in canine dura mater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Lu, Shanshan; Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-01-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a novel type of interstitial cells present in a wide variety of organs and tissues (www.telocytes.com). Telocytes are identified morphologically by a small cell body and specific long prolongations (telopodes) alternating thin segments (podomers) with dilations (podoms). The presence of TCs in rat meninges has been identified in previous research. We here present further evidence that TCs existed in canine dura mater, closed to capillary and surrounded by a great deal of collagen fibres under transmission electron microscope. PMID:26781033

  10. Application of an Improved Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Method for Serological Diagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Santarém, Nuno; Silvestre, Ricardo; Cardoso, Luís; Schallig, Henk; Reed, Steven G.; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela

    2010-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is essential toward a more efficient control of this zoonosis, but it remains problematic due to the high incidence of asymptomatic infections. In this study, we present data on the development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based techniques for the detection of antibodies against the recombinant protein Leishmania infantum cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase (LicTXNPx) and a comparison of the results with those employing soluble Leishmania antigens from promastigote or amastigote forms and the homologue recombinant protein L. infantum mitochondrial TXNPx (LimTXNPx). Moreover, we offer an evaluation of the diagnostic potential of rK39 for CanL in the Portuguese canine population and propose an improvement to the existing ELISA-based serological techniques by combining the LicTXNPx and rK39 antigens as a Leishmania antigen mixture (LAM). The data demonstrated that ELISAs based on soluble promastigote or amastigote antigens had generally higher levels of sensitivity for detection of antibodies in symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs than for detection of those against isolated recombinant proteins. Nevertheless, the specificities were found to be similar for all target antigens used. Importantly, the LAM-ELISA methodology improved the overall sensitivity, maintaining a high overall level of specificity. In addition, it was demonstrated that the detection of anti-LAM IgG2 can increase the accuracy of the serological diagnosis. Overall, the obtained results showed that the strategy of combining two well-defined Leishmania antigens, LicTXNPx and rK39, proved to be a sensitive and specific improvement to current serological diagnosis of CanL, being a useful tool for the detection of both clinical and subclinical forms of canine Leishmania infection. PMID:20164286

  11. Urban Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Argentina: Spatial Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Gil, José F.; Nasser, Julio R.; Cajal, Silvana P.; Juarez, Marisa; Acosta, Norma; Cimino, Rubén O.; Diosque, Patricio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2010-01-01

    We used kernel density and scan statistics to examine the spatial distribution of cases of pediatric and adult American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an urban disease-endemic area in Salta Province, Argentina. Spatial analysis was used for the whole population and stratified by women > 14 years of age (n = 159), men > 14 years of age (n = 667), and children < 15 years of age (n = 213). Although kernel density for adults encompassed nearly the entire city, distribution in children was most prevalent in the peripheral areas of the city. Scan statistic analysis for adult males, adult females, and children found 11, 2, and 8 clusters, respectively. Clusters for children had the highest odds ratios (P < 0.05) and were located in proximity of plantations and secondary vegetation. The data from this study provide further evidence of the potential urban transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Argentina. PMID:20207869

  12. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Manuela; Cassini, Rudi; Drigo, Michele; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Pietrobelli, Mario; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie

    2014-11-01

    With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environmental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribution of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM) and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30) and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt prediction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level) characterised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveillance strategies. PMID:25545936

  13. Congenital Transmission of Experimental Leishmaniasis in a Hamster Model

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Yaneth; Rodriguez, Luz D.; Bonilla, Diana L.; Peniche, Alex G.; Henao, Hector; Saldarriaga, Omar; Travi, Bruno L.

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on transplacental transmission of Leishmania spp. We determined the frequency and impact of congenital infection caused by Leishmania panamensis or L. donovani in experimentally infected hamsters. A polymerase chain reaction showed that congenital transmission occurred in 25.8% (24 of 93) of offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters and 14.6% (11 of 75) offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters. Mortality during lactation was higher in offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters and offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters than controls, and lymphoproliferation to Leishmania was more frequent in offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters (17.4%, 11 of 63) than in offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters (8.5%, 3 of 35). After weaning, only offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters had lower weight gain (P < 0.001) and hematocrit levels (P = 0.0045) than controls. Challenge of offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters with L. panamensis showed no differences in lesion evolution, and offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters were more susceptible to L. donovani challenge than controls. Consequently, prenatal exposure of hamsters to L. donovani significantly increased the mortality risk and susceptibility to secondary homologous infection. PMID:22556079

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN A PREVIOUSLY UNAFFECTED AREA BY CONVENTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND CELL-BLOCK FIXATION.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Tuanne Rotti; Madeira, Maria de Ftima; Silva, Denise Amaro da; Peri, Carolina Dos Santos F S; V Mendes Jnior, Artur Augusto; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

    2016-01-01

    After the report of a second case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in So Bento da Lagoa, Itaipuau, in the municipality of Maric, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological survey was carried out, through active search, totaling 145 dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and rapid chromatographic immunoassay based on dual-path platform (DPP(r)) were used to perform the serological examinations. The parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous fragments was performed by parasitological culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the serological assessment, 21 dogs were seropositive by IFA, 17 by ELISA, and 11 by DPP(r), with sensitivity of 66.7%, 66.7% and 50%, and specificity of 87.2%, 90.2% and 94%, respectively for each technique. The immunohistochemistry of bone marrow using the cell-block technique presented the best results, with six positive dogs found, three of which tested negative by the other parasitological techniques. Leishmania sp. was isolated by parasitological culture in three dogs. The detection of autochthonous Leishmania infantum in Itaipuau, and the high prevalence of seropositive dogs confirm the circulation of this parasite in the study area and alert for the risk of expansion in the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26910449

  15. The fucose-mannose ligand-ELISA in the diagnosis and prognosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, G P; Da Silva, V O; Da Costa, R T; Reis, A B; Mayrink, W; Genaro, O; Palatnik-de-Sousa, C B

    1999-08-01

    The fucose-mannose ligand (FML)-ELISA assay showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% in diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) (kala-azar) in sera from naturally infected dogs from São Gonçalo do Amaranto, Rio Grande de Norte, Brazil. The overall prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania in the endemic area was 23% (79 of 343). Seroreactivity detected by a Leishmania chagasi immunofluorescent (IF) assay was much lower (2.9%) and similar to the percentage of dogs with kala-azar symptoms (2.6%). Twenty-one of 21 asymptomatic, FML-seropositive animals died of kala-azar in a period ranging from 0 to 6 months after diagnosis. The predictive value was 100% for the FML-ELISA, 43% for an L. mexicana ELISA, and 24% for the L. mexicana and L. chagasi IF assays, respectively. In experimentally infected dogs, all assays detected seropositivity between 90 and 120 days after infection. Since the current strategy for control of CVL is based on detection and destruction of infected dogs, the highly predictive, sensitive, and specific FML-ELISA represents a useful tool for field control of the disease. PMID:10463683

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN A PREVIOUSLY UNAFFECTED AREA BY CONVENTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND CELL-BLOCK FIXATION

    PubMed Central

    ABRANTES, Tuanne Rotti; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; da SILVA, Denise Amaro; PERIÉ, Carolina dos Santos F. S.; V. MENDES, Artur Augusto; MENEZES, Rodrigo Caldas; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2016-01-01

    After the report of a second case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in São Bento da Lagoa, Itaipuaçu, in the municipality of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological survey was carried out, through active search, totaling 145 dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and rapid chromatographic immunoassay based on dual-path platform (DPP(r)) were used to perform the serological examinations. The parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous fragments was performed by parasitological culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the serological assessment, 21 dogs were seropositive by IFA, 17 by ELISA, and 11 by DPP(r), with sensitivity of 66.7%, 66.7% and 50%, and specificity of 87.2%, 90.2% and 94%, respectively for each technique. The immunohistochemistry of bone marrow using the cell-block technique presented the best results, with six positive dogs found, three of which tested negative by the other parasitological techniques. Leishmania sp. was isolated by parasitological culture in three dogs. The detection of autochthonous Leishmania infantum in Itaipuaçu, and the high prevalence of seropositive dogs confirm the circulation of this parasite in the study area and alert for the risk of expansion in the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26910449

  17. A Novel Molecular Test to Diagnose Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis at the Point of Care.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Saldarriaga, Omar A; Tartaglino, Lilian; Gacek, Rosana; Temple, Elissa; Sparks, Hayley; Melby, Peter C; Travi, Bruno L

    2015-11-01

    Dogs are the principal reservoir hosts of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) but current serological methods are not sensitive enough to detect all subclinically infected animals, which is crucial to VL control programs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have greater sensitivity but require expensive equipment and trained personnel, impairing its implementation in endemic areas. We developed a diagnostic test that uses isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) to detect Leishmania infantum. This method was coupled with lateral flow (LF) reading with the naked eye to be adapted as a point-of-care test. The L. infantum RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity similar to real time-PCR, detecting DNA of 0.1 parasites spiked in dog blood, which was equivalent to 40 parasites/mL. There was no cross amplification with dog or human DNA or with Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis, or Trypanosoma cruzi. The test also amplified Leishmania donovani strains (N = 7). In a group of clinically normal dogs (N = 30), RPA-LF detected more subclinical infections than rK39 strip test, a standard serological method (50% versus 13.3% positivity, respectively; P = 0.005). Also, RPA-LF detected L. infantum in noninvasive mucosal samples of dogs with a sensitivity comparable to blood samples. This novel molecular test may have a positive impact in leishmaniasis control programs. PMID:26240156

  18. Public Knowledge about and Detection of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Urban Divinópolis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Margonari, Carina; Menezes, Júlia Alves; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Maia, Kamila Nunes; Éder de Oliveira, Michael; Luisa Fonseca, Amanda; Furtado de Sousa, Fabrizio; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Madureira, Ana Paula; Melo, Maria Norma; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Background. Leishmaniases are diseases with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations including cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) forms. Many factors may affect their occurrence and expansion including environmental, geographic, and social conditions. In the past two decades, Divinópolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, has exhibited the potential for a disease outbreak, with the appearance of CL, and VL cases (human and canine). Hence, this study was initiated to monitor public knowledge of the disease. Questionnaires were administered in four neighborhoods (Jardim Belvedere, Esplanada, Danilo Passos I and II) where most of the human and canine cases have been reported. The analyses demonstrated that public knowledge of the disease is sparse and fragmented. A strong perception of the dog as the main reservoir was observed. Five veterinary clinics were evaluated for the presence of canine VL using serological (RIFI and ELISA) and molecular (PCR-RFLP) techniques. This is the first study demonstrating the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in Divinópolis, suggesting a possible urbanization of VL. PMID:22991521

  19. Novel markers of inflammatory response and hepatic dysfunction in canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Tonin, Alexandre A; Calado, Andréa M C; Bottari, Nathieli B; Dalenogare, Diéssica; Thomé, Gustavo R; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Alves, Leucio C; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-02-01

    Dogs are the main host of Leishmania infantum, and the clinical presentation may range from asymptomatic to systemic manifestations. The immune mechanisms in infected, but clinically healthy dogs, prevails Th1 response mediated by cytokines. In this sense, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are considered as key enzymes in several physiological processes, including the modulation of inflammatory process. Considering the variable immune response against Leishmania and the known participation of ADA and BChE, the aim of this study was to assess the relation between these two enzymes with the inflammatory response as well as hepatic function in dogs naturally infected with L. infantum. For this purpose, the activity of ADA and BChE was assessed in sera of 24 dogs naturally infected with L. infantum, plus 17 healthy dogs. The naturally infected dogs had clinical signs compatible with leishmaniasis and sera activities of ADA (P<0.01) and BChE (P<0.05) decreased, when compared to the healthy group. The reduction of ADA activity probably represented an effect on inflammatory response, especially due to the decreased hydrolysis of extracellular adenosine, might in order to protect against tissue damage and, also, setting a down-regulation on pro-inflammatory cytokines. BChE enzyme had no effect on modulating the immune response in leishmaniasis, but it decreased, a fact may related to deficiency of synthesis in the liver. Therefore, ADA and BChE activities reduced probably in order to protect against extra tissue damage and due failure in synthesis, respectively. PMID:26454326

  20. Immunological comparison of DNA vaccination using two delivery systems against canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mehdi; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Saljoughian, Noushin; Doroud, Delaram; Jamshidi, Shahram; Mahdavi, Niousha; Shirian, Sadegh; Daneshbod, Yahya; Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2015-09-15

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal disease caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. Dogs are the primary reservoirs of this parasite, and vaccination of dogs could be an effective method to reduce its transfer to humans. In order to develop a vaccine against VL (apart from the choice of immunogenic candidate antigens), it is necessary to use an appropriate delivery system to promote a proper antigen-specific immune response. In this study, we compared two vaccine delivery systems, namely electroporation and cationic solid-lipid nanoparticle (cSLN) formulation, to administer a DNA vaccine containing the Leishmania donovani A2 antigen, and L. infantum cysteine proteinases of type I (CPA) and II (CPB) without its unusual C-terminal extension. The protective potencies of these two vaccine delivery systems were evaluated against L. infantum challenge in outbred dogs. Our results show that the administration of pcDNA-A2-CPA-CPB(-CTE)GFP vaccine as a prime-boost by either electroporation or cSLN formulation protects the dogs against L. infantum infection. Partial protection in vaccinated dogs is associated with significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of IgG2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α and with low levels of IgG1 and IL-10 as compared to the control group. Protection was also correlated with a low parasite burden and a strong delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. This study demonstrates that both electroporation and cSLN formulation can be used as efficient vaccine delivery systems against visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:26255093

  1. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis from the island. The presence of L. (N.) flaviscutellata in peridomestic areas is also an important finding, since the species is involved in the transmission of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. Health education practices directed to the local community and tourists are important control actions that can be taken in Ilha Grande to reduce the burden of leishmaniases. PMID:24499568

  2. Clinical Forms of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Naturally Leishmania infantum–Infected Dogs and Related Myelogram and Hemogram Changes

    PubMed Central

    Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Bouillet, Leoneide Erica Maduro; Lemos, Denise Silveira; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Hematological analysis has limited applications for disease diagnosis in Leishmania infantum–infected dogs, but it can be very important in evaluating the clinical forms of the disease and in understanding the evolution of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) pathogenesis. Recently, we demonstrated that alterations in leucopoiesis and erythropoiesis are related to clinical status and bone marrow parasite density in dogs naturally infected by L. infantum. To further characterize these alterations, we evaluated the association between the hematological parameters in bone marrow and peripheral blood alterations in groups of L. infantum–infected dogs: asymptomatic I (AD-I: serum negative/PCR+), asymptomatic II (AD-II: serum positive), oligosymptomatic (OD), and symptomatic (SD). Results were compared with those from noninfected dogs (NID). The SD group was found to present a decrease in erythropoietic lineage with concomitant reductions in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit parameters, resulting in anemia. The SD group also had increased neutrophils and precursors and decreased band eosinophils and eosinophils, leading to peripheral blood leucopenia. In the AD-II group, lymphocytosis occurred in both the peripheral blood and the bone marrow compartments. The SD group exhibited lymphocytosis in the bone marrow, with lymphopenia in the peripheral blood. In contrast, the AD-I group, showed no significant changes suggestive of CVL, presenting normal counts in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Our results showed for the first time that important changes in hematopoiesis and hematological parameters occur during ongoing CVL in naturally infected dogs, mainly in symptomatic disease. Taken together, our results based on myelogram and hemogram parameters enable better understanding of the pathogenesis of the anemia, lymphocytosis, and lymphopenia, as well as the leucopenia (eosinopenia and monocytopenia), that contribute to CVL prognosis. PMID:24376612

  3. Clinical forms of canine visceral Leishmaniasis in naturally Leishmania infantum-infected dogs and related myelogram and hemogram changes.

    PubMed

    Nicolato, Roney de Carvalho; de Abreu, Raquel Trópia; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Bouillet, Leoneide Erica Maduro; Lemos, Denise Silveira; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Hematological analysis has limited applications for disease diagnosis in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs, but it can be very important in evaluating the clinical forms of the disease and in understanding the evolution of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) pathogenesis. Recently, we demonstrated that alterations in leucopoiesis and erythropoiesis are related to clinical status and bone marrow parasite density in dogs naturally infected by L. infantum. To further characterize these alterations, we evaluated the association between the hematological parameters in bone marrow and peripheral blood alterations in groups of L. infantum-infected dogs: asymptomatic I (AD-I: serum negative/PCR+), asymptomatic II (AD-II: serum positive), oligosymptomatic (OD), and symptomatic (SD). Results were compared with those from noninfected dogs (NID). The SD group was found to present a decrease in erythropoietic lineage with concomitant reductions in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit parameters, resulting in anemia. The SD group also had increased neutrophils and precursors and decreased band eosinophils and eosinophils, leading to peripheral blood leucopenia. In the AD-II group, lymphocytosis occurred in both the peripheral blood and the bone marrow compartments. The SD group exhibited lymphocytosis in the bone marrow, with lymphopenia in the peripheral blood. In contrast, the AD-I group, showed no significant changes suggestive of CVL, presenting normal counts in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Our results showed for the first time that important changes in hematopoiesis and hematological parameters occur during ongoing CVL in naturally infected dogs, mainly in symptomatic disease. Taken together, our results based on myelogram and hemogram parameters enable better understanding of the pathogenesis of the anemia, lymphocytosis, and lymphopenia, as well as the leucopenia (eosinopenia and monocytopenia), that contribute to CVL prognosis. PMID:24376612

  4. Short-term exogenous glucocorticosteroidal effect on iron and copper status in canine leishmaniasis (Leishmania infantum)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Prednisolone was administered as an anti-inflammatory for 7 consecutive days in 11 dogs with leishmaniasis (CL group) and 5 clinically normal dogs (control group). After a 15-day wash-out phase, the same medication was given as an immunosuppressive for another 7-day period. In both animal groups and experimental periods an overall significant increase of serum iron and transferrin saturation was noted. Serum copper showed a significant increase during the anti-inflammatory period in the control group and a significant decrease during the immunosuppressive period in the CL group. No differences or changes of any kind regarding bone marrow hemosiderin were found between the 2 groups either before or after the end of both experimental periods. The only change noticed in the hematocrit values was a significant decrease in the control group after the end of the anti-inflammatory period. Based on these findings the use of prednisolone cannot be recommended and, if contemplated, should be carefully monitored, especially at an immunosuppressive dosage, because it may promote parasite replication through the induction of increased serum iron levels and hypocupremia. PMID:16479727

  5. [Canine visceral leishmaniasis in dog from Caldas Novas, Goiás].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Elisa M R; Linhares, Guido F C; Duarte, Sabrina C; Jayme, Valéria D S; Oliveira, Helton F; Oliveira, Vilma F

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to describe a visceral case of leishmaniasis in a dog from Caldas Novas, GO, region until then considered as a disease free area. The animal, attended in the Veterinarian Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás, presented loss of weight, alopecic area of irregular format at the nasal back, onicogrifosis, atrophy of the heads muscles and failure of the right popliteus lymphonode. For the laboratorial diagnosis, samples were collected by biopsy from the complete skin of the auricular region, by punsion from the popliteus lymphonode for preparation of Giemsa stained blades and 5 mL of the blood were also collected for serum diagnosis. The direct microscopy revealed, from the evaluation of the imprint obtained from the skin fragment and from the squash of the inhaled lymphonode, great amount of amastigoste forms of Leishmania in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Based on the clinical presentation, on the parasitologic and on the serology examination of the samples, we concluded the exams with the diagnosis of calazar disease. PMID:20059874

  6. Canine leishmaniasis: the key points for qPCR result interpretation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and follow up of CanL is difficult since the range of clinical signs is varied and seroprevalence is high in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: i) demonstrate the advantages of Leishmania qPCR to diagnose and control CanL and highlight its prognostic value and ii) propose guidelines for tissue selection and infection monitoring. Findings This study included 710 dogs living in an endemic area of leishmaniasis. Forty percent (285/710) exhibited clinical signs consistent with CanL. Infection was detected in 36.3% (258/710) of the dogs of which 4.5% (32/710) were detected by qPCR, 16.2% (115/710) detected by ELISA and 15.6% (111/710) tested positive for both tests. Only 17.9% (127/710) of the dogs were classified sick (affected) with CanL. All symptomatic dogs with medium or high ELISA titers were qPCR-positive in blood samples. All dogs with inconclusive or low ELISA results with high or medium qPCR parasitemia values developed the disease. Seventy one percent of asymptomatic ELISA-positive dogs confirmed by qPCR (medium to high parasitemia) developed the disease. Bone marrow or lymph node aspirate should be selected to ensure the absence of the parasite in asymptomatic dogs: 100-1,000 parasites/ml in bone marrow are detectable in blood, whereas lower parasite loads are usually negative. Almost 10% of negative samples in blood were positive in conjunctival swabs. Conclusions Because qPCR allows parasite quantification, it is an effective tool to confirm a diagnosis of CanL in (i) cases of inconclusive ELISA results, (ii) when the dog has not yet seroconverted, or (iii) for treatment monitoring. PMID:21489253

  7. Host preferences of phlebotomine sand flies at a hypoendemic focus of canine leishmaniasis in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno, G; Habluetzel, A; Khoury, C; Maroli, M

    2003-10-01

    A survey was carried out on phlebotomine sand flies and their feeding habits at a hypoendemic focus of Leishmania infantum in Macerata province, central Italy. During two consecutive years (2000-2001), 1465 sand fly specimens (42.5% of which were males) were collected from a variety of diurnal resting sites in the municipality of Camerino. The most prevalent species was Phlebotomus perniciosus (76.6%), followed by P. papatasi (10.4%), Sergentomyia minuta (9.1%), Phlebotomus perfiliewi (3.3%) and P. mascittii (0.5%). Among the 842 females collected, 578 (68.6%) were blood-fed. Based on the results of blood meal analyses, P. perniciosus fed on man, dogs, equines, sheep and birds; P. perfiliewi on dogs, equines, sheep and birds; P. papatasi on dogs, equines and birds. Two specimens of P. mascittii fed on equines. Forage ratios (FRs) and host selectivity indices gave different results for the large domestic animals. More than 95% of the specimens collected inside a stable, dog kennel, sheep pen and chicken house were found to have fed on the animals housed in the respective shelters. In addition, at one collecting site where almost all the hosts mentioned above were present simultaneously, both P. perniciosus and P. perfiliewi were found to have fed on all five species, indicating that host choice was probably related to its availability (i.e. number and size) rather than specific attractiveness. The feeding habits of the two Leishmania vectors may have implications for the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in urban and peri-urban areas, where sand fly females deprived of other vertebrate hosts (particularly the larger species) may begin to bite humans and dogs more frequently. PMID:14516922

  8. A new Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein and its non-described specific B cell conformational epitope applied in the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Lage, Daniela P; Martins, Vívian T; Duarte, Mariana C; Costa, Lourena E; Garde, Esther; Dimer, Laura M; Kursancew, Amanda C S; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Roatt, Bruno M; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo A; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A P; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2016-04-01

    The serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) presents problems related to its sensitivity and/or specificity. In the present study, a new Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein, LiHyD, was produced as a recombinant protein (rLiHyD) and evaluated in ELISA experiments for the CVL serodiagnosis. LiHyD was characterized as antigenic in a recent immunoproteomic search performed with Leishmania infantum proteins and the sera of dogs developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Aiming to compare the efficacy between whole proteins and synthetic peptides, two linear and one conformational B cell epitopes of LiHyD were synthesized and also evaluated as diagnostic markers. The four antigens were recognized by the sera of dogs suffering VL. On the contrary, low reactivity was observed when they were assayed with sera from non-infected healthy dogs living in endemic or non-endemic areas of leishmaniasis. In addition, no reactivity was found against them using sera from dogs experimentally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia canis, or Ehrlichia canis, or sera from animals vaccinated with the Leish-Tec® vaccine, a prophylactic preparation commercially available for CVL prevention in Brazil. As comparative diagnostic tools, a recombinant version of the amastigote-specific A2 protein and a soluble crude Leishmania extract were studied. Both antigens presented lower sensitivity and/or specificity values than the LiHyD-based products. The rLiHyD presented better results for the CVL serodiagnosis than its linear epitopes, although the peptide recreating the conformational epitope resulted also appropriate as a diagnostic marker of CVL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the use of a conformational epitope derived from a Leishmania protein for serodiagnosis of CVL. PMID:26782811

  9. Efficacy of combined therapy with liposome-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol in treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Sydnei M; Amorim, Izabela F G; Ribeiro, Raul R; Azevedo, Erly G; Demicheli, Cynthia; Melo, Maria N; Tafuri, Wagner L; Gontijo, Nelder F; Michalick, Marilene S M; Frézard, Frédéric

    2012-06-01

    An innovative liposomal formulation of meglumine antimoniate (LMA) was recently reported to promote both long-term parasite suppression and reduction of infectivity to sand flies in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. However, 5 months after treatment, parasites were still found in the bone marrow of all treated dogs. In order to improve treatment with LMA, the present study aimed to evaluate its efficacy in combination with allopurinol. Mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum were treated with six doses of LMA (6.5 mg Sb/kg of body weight/dose) given at 4-day intervals, plus allopurinol (20 mg/kg/24 h per os) for 140 days. Comparison was made with groups treated with LMA, allopurinol, empty liposomes plus allopurinol, empty liposomes, and saline. Dogs remained without treatment from day 140 to 200 after the start of treatment. The drug combination promoted both clinical improvement of dogs and significant reduction in the parasitic load in bone marrow and spleen on days 140 and 200 compared to these parameters in the pretreatment period. This is in contrast with the other protocols, which did not result in significant reduction of the bone marrow parasite load on day 200. Strikingly, the combined treatment, in contrast to the other regimens, induced negative quantitative PCR (qPCR) results in the liver of 100% of the dogs. Both xenodiagnosis and skin parasite determination by qPCR indicated that the drug combination was effective in blocking the transmission of skin parasites to sand flies. Based on all of the parasitological tests performed on day 200, 50% of the animals that received the combined treatment were considered cured. PMID:22411610

  10. Phlebotomine vector ecology in the domestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Cristina; Marín, Dairo; Góngora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, María C; Trujillo, Jorge E; Rueda, Norma K; Marín, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Pérez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E; Ocampo, Clara B

    2011-11-01

    Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction-Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral. PMID:22049038

  11. Phlebotomine Vector Ecology in the Domestic Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Cristina; Marín, Dairo; Góngora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, María C.; Trujillo, Jorge E.; Rueda, Norma K.; Marín, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Pérez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.

    2011-01-01

    Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral. PMID:22049038

  12. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania spp. in naturally infected Phlebotomus tobbi and Sergentomyia dentata in a focus of human and canine leishmaniasis in western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özbel, Yusuf; Karakuş, Mehmet; Arserim, Suha K; Kalkan, Şaban Orçun; Töz, Seray

    2016-03-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is reported from 38 provinces of Turkey and dogs are accepted as main reservoir hosts. Kuşadası town, belonging to Aydın province and located in western part of Turkey, is endemic for human and canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum MON1 and MON98. In this study, phlebotomine survey was conducted to determine the vector sand fly species and to identify sand fly blood meal sources. In August and September 2012, 1027 sand fly specimens were caught using CDC light traps. Eight Phlebotomus and two Sergentomyia species with the dominancy of Phlebotomus tobbi (61.34%) were detected. A total of 622 female sand flies (571 Phlebotomus; 51 Sergentomyia) were checked for Leishmania infection by direct dissection of the midgut. The half of the midgut content was inoculated into NNN culture for isolation of the parasite. Leishmania species-specific ITS1 real time PCR, conventional PCR assays of ITS1 and hsp70 genes and subsequent sequencing were performed from extracted DNAs. A region of cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene of vertebrates based PCR was used to determine the source of blood meal of sand flies. In microscopical examinations, two female specimens (0.32%) were found naturally infected with high number and different stages of promastigotes. No growth was observed in NNN culture but Leishmania DNA was obtained from both specimens. First positive specimen was identified as P. tobbi and L. infantum DNA was detected. Second specimen was Sergentomyia dentata, but Leishmania DNA could not be identified on species level. A total of 16 blood-fed female P. tobbi specimens were used for blood meal analysis and eight, three and one specimens were positive for human, dog and mouse, respectively. This is the first detection of Leishmania promastigotes using microscopical examination in P. tobbi and S. dentata in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in western part of Turkey. Our results indicate that, (i) P. tobbi is the principal vector species and (ii) human and dogs are main blood sources. The detection of Leishmania sp. in Sergentomyia species may be an evidence for natural cycle of Sauro-leishmania agents in the area. PMID:26747008

  13. Evaluation of Change in Canine Diagnosis Protocol Adopted by the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control Program in Brazil and a New Proposal for Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Coura-Vital, Wendel; Ker, Henrique Gama; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Leal, Gleisiane Gomes de Almeida; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Oliveira, Laser Antônio Machado; de Menezes Machado, Evandro Marques; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Carneiro, Mariângela; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The techniques used for diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Brazil ELISA and IFAT have been extensively questioned because of the accuracy of these tests. A recent change in the diagnosis protocol excluded IFAT and included the Dual-Path Platform (DPP). We evaluated the prevalence and incidence rates of Leishmania spp. before and after the change in the protocol. In addition, based on our results, we propose a new alternative that is less expensive for the screening and confirmation of CVL. Plasma samples were obtained from a serobank from dogs evaluated in a cross-sectional study (1,226 dogs) and in a cohort study of susceptible animals (n = 447), followed for 26 months. Serology testing was performed using ELISA, IFAT, and DPP. The incidence and prevalence of CVL were determined by using the protocol of the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control and Surveillance Program until 2012 (ELISA and IFAT using filter paper) and the protocol used after 2012 (DPP and ELISA using plasma). The prevalence was 6.2% and the incidence was 2.8 per 1,000 dog-months for the protocol used until 2012. For the new diagnosis protocol for CVL resulted in an incidence of 5.4 per 1,000 dog-months and a prevalence of 8.1%. Our results showed that the prevalence and incidence of infection were far greater than suggested by the previously used protocol and that the magnitude of infection in endemic areas has been underestimated. As tests are performed sequentially and euthanasia of dogs is carried out when the serological results are positive in both tests, the sequence does not affect the number of animals to be eliminated by the Control Program. Then we suggest to municipalities with a large demand of exams to use ELISA for screening and DPP for confirmation, since this allows easier performance and reduced cost. PMID:24608904

  14. Longitudinal analysis of serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune®.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Mary; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; de Araújo, Maria de Fátima Lereno; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Tolezano, José Eduardo; Vieira, Rafael F C; Biondo, Alexander W

    2013-11-01

    Development of vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) may provide a prophylactic barrier, but antibody response detected by standard diagnostic techniques may not separate vaccinated from naturally infected dogs. Moreover, anti-Leishmania antibody levels in vaccinated dogs may be detectable for months. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate an "in-house" ELISA with three serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of CVL in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®). A total of 18 mongrel dogs were submitted to a complete protocol of the vaccine, monitored and evaluated in 5 times (T0-T4) up to 180 days after T0. Twenty-one days after the first dose (T1), 50% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA and 5.5% by IFAT, while by the official ELISA and DPP(®) CVL rapid test all dogs tested negative. At time T2, 42 days after of the first dose, 100%, 83.3%, 11.1%, and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, IFAT, official ELISA kit and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Ninety days after the first dose (T3), 100%, 83.3%, 72.2% and 33.3% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, IFAT, and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Finally, at time T4, 88.8%, 33.3%, 11.1% and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, DPP(®) CVL rapid test and IFAT, respectively. In conclusion, dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®) cross-react by an "in-house" ELISA and by the three official Brazilian serological tests for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis up to six months after the first vaccine dose, and may be mistakenly diagnosed and removed. PMID:23920056

  15. Immunogenicity in dogs of three recombinant antigens (TSA, LeIF and LmSTI1) potential vaccine candidates for canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Vale, André Macedo; França da Silva, João Carlos; da Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Quetz, Josiane da Silva; Martins Filho, Olindo Assis; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Corrêa Oliveira, Rodrigo; Machado-Coelho, George Lins; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Bethony, Jeffrey Michael; Frank, Glen; Nascimento, Evaldo; Genaro, Odair; Mayrink, Wilson; Reed, Steven; Campos-Neto, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Control of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains a difficult and serious problem mostly because there is no reliable and effective vaccine available to prevent this disease. A mixture of three recombinant leishmanial antigens (TSA, LeIF and LmSTI1) encoded by three genes highly conserved in the Leishmania genus have been shown to induce excellent protection against infection in both murine and simian models of cutaneous leishmaniasis. A human clinical trial with these antigens is currently underway. Because of the high degree of conservation, these antigens might be useful vaccine candidates for VL as well. In the present study, using the dog model of the visceral disease, we evaluated the immunogenicity of these three antigens formulated with two different adjuvants, MPL-SE and AdjuPrime. The results were compared with a whole parasite vaccine formulated with BCG as the adjuvant. In order to investigate if sensitization with the recombinant antigens would result in recognition of the corresponding native parasite antigens upon infection, the animals were exposed for four weeks after the termination of the immunization protocol with the recombinant antigens to a low number of L. chagasi promastigotes, an etiological agent of VL. Immune response was evaluated by quantitative ELISA in the animal sera before and after exposure to the viable parasites. Both antigen specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody levels were measured. Immunization of dogs with the recombinant antigens formulated in either MPL-SE or AdjuPrime resulted in high antibody levels particularly to LmSTI1. In addition, this immunization although to low levels, resulted in the development of antibody response to the whole parasite lysate. Importantly, experimental exposure with low numbers of culture forms of L. chagasi promastigotes caused a clear boost in the immune response to both the recombinant antigens and the corresponding native molecules. The boost response was predominantly of the IgG2 isotype in animals primed with the recombinant antigens plus MPL-SE. In contrast, animals primed with the recombinant antigens formulated in AdjuPrime as well as animals vaccinated with crude antigen preparation responded with mixed IgG1/IgG2 isotypes. These results point to the possible use of this antigen cocktail formulated with the adjuvant MPL-SE in efficacy field trials against canine VL. PMID:16120256

  16. Evaluation of conjunctival swab sampling in the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis: A two-year follow-up study in Çukurova Plain, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Paşa, Serdar; Atasoy, Abidin; Arserim, Suha K; Ölgen, M Kirami; Ziya Alkan, M; Durrant, Caroline; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-12-15

    The diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs is a very important and problematic public health issue in Turkey. A longitudinal study was carried out on dogs in selected villages in the Çukurova Plain in Turkey, from July 2011 to June 2013, where cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) leishmaniasis is endemic. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of CanL and to evaluate the early diagnostic performance of the non-invasive conjunctival swab nested PCR (CS n-PCR) test in comparison with the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT). The consecutive blood and CS samples from a representative number of dogs (80-100 dogs/each survey) were collected in a cohort of 6 villages located in the area. Clinical symptoms, demographic and physical features about each dog were noted and lymph node aspiration samples were obtained from selected dogs with lymphadenopathy. In four surveys during the period, a total of 338 sets (blood and CS) of samples from 206 dogs were obtained, such that 83 dogs were sampled more than once. In the cross-sectional analysis, the CanL prevalence was found to be 27.18% (between 7.14% and 39.13%) by IFAT and 41.74% (between 29.03% and 46.66%) by CS n-PCR. The isolated strains were identified as Leishmania infantum MON-1 (n=9) and MON-98 (n=2) by MLEE analysis. Genetic studies targeting the Hsp70 and ITS1 regions performed on 11 dog isolates also showed two clear separate groups. According to IFAT results, 24 of the 83 dogs sampled more than once showed seroconversion (n=19) or a four-fold increase in Ab titers (n=5), while 17 were positive in the initial screening. Forty-two dogs stayed negative during the whole period. The natural Leishmania exposure rate was detected as 31.14% in the study area. CS n-PCR only detected Leishmania infection earlier than IFAT in 8 dogs. No statistical difference was found after the analysis of demographical and physical data. The results indicated that (i) circulation of the dog population is very common in settlements in the Çukurova Plain, but the disease prevalence is high and stable, (ii) the performance of CS n-PCR for detecting Leishmania-dog contact is higher than IFAT, (iii) and some of the parasites isolated from dogs have different zymodemes and/or genotypes from previous human and sand fly isolates; suggesting the probability of two different cycles of leishmaniasis in this particular area. This hypothesis should be supported by future studies targeting vectors and reservoirs. PMID:26415899

  17. Spatial Distribution of Sand Fly Vectors and Eco-Epidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Transmission in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Cristina; López, Marla; Fuya, Patricia; Lugo, Ligia; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; González, Camila

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmania is transmitted by Phlebotominae insects that maintain the enzootic cycle by circulating between sylvatic and domestic mammals; humans enter the cycles as accidental hosts due to the vector’s search for blood source. In Colombia, leishmaniasis is an endemic disease and 95% of all cases are cutaneous (CL), these cases have been reported in several regions of the country where the intervention of sylvatic areas by the introduction of agriculture seem to have an impact on the rearrangement of new transmission cycles. Our study aimed to update vector species distribution in the country and to analyze the relationship between vectors’ distribution, climate, land use and CL prevalence. Methods A database with geographic information was assembled, and ecological niche modeling was performed to explore the potential distribution of each of the 21 species of medical importance in Colombia, using thirteen bioclimatic variables, three topographic and three principal components derived from NDVI. Binary models for each species were obtained and related to both land use coverage, and a CL prevalence map with available epidemiological data. Finally, maps of species potential distribution were summed to define potential species richness in the country. Results In total, 673 single records were obtained with Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psychodopygus panamensis, Psathyromyia shannoni and Pintomyia evansi the species with the highest number of records. Eighteen species had significant models, considering the area under the curve and the jackknife results: L. gomezi and P. panamensis had the widest potential distribution. All sand fly species except for Nyssomyia antunesi are mainly distributed in regions with rates of prevalence between 0.33 to 101.35 cases per 100,000 inhabitants and 76% of collection data points fall into transformed ecosystems. Discussion Distribution ranges of sand flies with medical importance in Colombia correspond predominantly to disturbed areas, where the original land coverage is missing therefore increasing the domiciliation potential. We highlight the importance of the use of distribution maps as a tool for the development of strategies for prevention and control of diseases. PMID:26431546

  18. A case of ocular canine transmissible venereal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Milo, Jewel; Snead, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old, intact female mixed-breed dog was presented to St. George’s University Small Animal Clinic in Grenada for a third eyelid mass. The dog was diagnosed with a rare ocular transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and concurrent anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and dirofilariasis. Treatment with vincristine sulfate resulted in complete resolution of the TVT. PMID:24381345

  19. A case of ocular canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    PubMed

    Milo, Jewel; Snead, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old, intact female mixed-breed dog was presented to St. George's University Small Animal Clinic in Grenada for a third eyelid mass. The dog was diagnosed with a rare ocular transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and concurrent anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and dirofilariasis. Treatment with vincristine sulfate resulted in complete resolution of the TVT. PMID:24381345

  20. Evaluation of Live Recombinant Nonpathogenic Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinase and A2 Genes as a Candidate Vaccine against Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Mehdi; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Jamshidi, Shahram; Shirian, Sadegh; Mahdavi, Niousha; Hassankhani, Mehdi; Daneshbod, Yahya; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a major veterinary and public health problem caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) in many endemic countries. It is a severe chronic disease with generalized parasite spread to the reticuloendothelial system, such as spleen, liver and bone marrow and is often fatal when left untreated. Control of VL in dogs would dramatically decrease infection pressure of L. infantum for humans, since dogs are the main domestic reservoir. In the past decade, various subunits and DNA antigens have been identified as potential vaccine candidates in experimental animal models, but none has been approved for human use so far. In this study, we vaccinated outbreed dogs with a prime-boost regimen based on recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinase genes (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB-CTE) and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. infantum infectious challenge. We showed that vaccinated animals produced significantly higher levels of IgG2, but not IgG1, and also IFN-γ and TNF-α, but low IL-10 levels, before and after challenge as compared to control animals. Protection in dogs was also correlated with a strong DTH response and low parasite burden in the vaccinated group. Altogether, immunization with recombinant L. tarentolae A2-CPA-CPB-CTE was proven to be immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, hence representing a promising live vaccine candidate against CVL. PMID:26197085

  1. Molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis: a comparative study of three methods using skin and spleen from dogs with natural Leishmania infantum infection.

    PubMed

    Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Bouillet, Leoneide Érica Maduro; Ker, Henrique Gama; Fortes de Brito, Rory Cristiane; Resende, Daniela de Melo; Carneiro, Mariângela; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Marques, Marcos José; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-11-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its variations represent highly sensitive and specific methods for Leishmania DNA detection and subsequent canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis. The aim of this work was to compare three different molecular diagnosis techniques (conventional PCR [cPCR], seminested PCR [snPCR], and quantitative PCR [qPCR]) in samples of skin and spleen from 60 seropositive dogs by immunofluorescence antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Parasitological analysis was conducted by culture of bone marrow aspirate and optical microscopic assessment of ear skin and spleen samples stained with Giemsa, the standard tests for CVL diagnosis. The primers L150/L152 and LINR4/LIN17/LIN19 were used to amplify the conserved region of the Leishmania kDNA minicircle in the cPCR, and snPCR and qPCR were performed using the DNA polymerase gene (DNA pol α) primers from Leishmania infantum. The parasitological analysis revealed parasites in 61.7% of the samples. Sensitivities were 89.2%, 86.5%, and 97.3% in the skin and 81.1%, 94.6%, and 100.0% in spleen samples used for cPCR, snPCR, and qPCR, respectively. We demonstrated that the qPCR method was the best technique to detect L. infantum in both skin and spleen samples. However, we recommend the use of skin due to the high sensitivity and sampling being less invasive. PMID:23953760

  2. Evaluation of Live Recombinant Nonpathogenic Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinase and A2 Genes as a Candidate Vaccine against Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mehdi; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Jamshidi, Shahram; Shirian, Sadegh; Mahdavi, Niousha; Hassankhani, Mehdi; Daneshbod, Yahya; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a major veterinary and public health problem caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) in many endemic countries. It is a severe chronic disease with generalized parasite spread to the reticuloendothelial system, such as spleen, liver and bone marrow and is often fatal when left untreated. Control of VL in dogs would dramatically decrease infection pressure of L. infantum for humans, since dogs are the main domestic reservoir. In the past decade, various subunits and DNA antigens have been identified as potential vaccine candidates in experimental animal models, but none has been approved for human use so far. In this study, we vaccinated outbreed dogs with a prime-boost regimen based on recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinase genes (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB-CTE) and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. infantum infectious challenge. We showed that vaccinated animals produced significantly higher levels of IgG2, but not IgG1, and also IFN-γ and TNF-α, but low IL-10 levels, before and after challenge as compared to control animals. Protection in dogs was also correlated with a strong DTH response and low parasite burden in the vaccinated group. Altogether, immunization with recombinant L. tarentolae A2-CPA-CPB-CTE was proven to be immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, hence representing a promising live vaccine candidate against CVL. PMID:26197085

  3. Evaluation of an immunochemotherapeutic protocol constituted of N-methyl meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) and the recombinant Leish-110f + MPL-SE vaccine to treat canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Miret, Jorge; Nascimento, Evaldo; Sampaio, Weverton; França, João Carlos; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Vale, André; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Vieira, Edvá; da Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Mayrink, Wilson; Campos Neto, Antonio; Reed, Steven

    2008-03-17

    The evaluation of the efficacy of an immunochemotherapy protocol to treat symptomatic dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi was studied. This clinical trial had the purpose to test the combination of N-methyl meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime and the second generation recombinant vaccine Leish-110f plus the adjuvant MPL-SE to treat the canine leishmaniasis (CanL). Thirty symptomatic naturally infected mongrel dogs were divided into five groups. Animals received standard treatment with Glucantime or treatment with Glucantime Leish-110f + MPL-SEas immunochemotherapy protocol. Additional groups received Leish-110f + MPL-SE only, MPL-SE only, or placebo. Evaluation of haematological, biochemical (renal and hepatic function) and plasmatic proteins, immunological (humoral and cellular immune response) and the parasitological test revealed improvement of the clinical parameters and parasitological cure in dogs in both chemotherapy alone and immunochemotherapy cohorts. However, the immunotherapy and immunochemotherapy cohorts had reduced number of deaths, higher survival probability, and specific cellular reactivity to leishmanial antigens, in comparison with chemotherapy cohort only and control groups (adjuvant alone and placebo). These results support the notion of using well-characterized recombinant vaccine as an adjunct to improve the current chemotherapy of CanL. PMID:18328956

  4. Association of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (IRP2) with Leishmania Burden in Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Paulo Ricardo Porfrio; Martins, Daniella Regina Arantes; Monteiro, Glria Regina Gis; Queiroz, Paula Vivianne; Freire-Neto, Francisco Paulo; Queiroz, Jos Wilton; Morais Lima, dila Lorena; Jeronimo, Selma Maria Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania infantum infection in humans and dogs can evolve with a wide range of clinical presentations, varying from asymptomatic infections to visceral leishmaniasis. We hypothesized that the immune response elicited by L. infantum infection could modulate whether the host will remain asymptomatic or progress to disease. A total of 44 dogs naturally infected with L. infantum were studied. Leishmania burden was estimated in the blood and spleen by qPCR. The expression of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10 and Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (IRP2) were determined in the spleen by quantitative PCR. Sera cytokines were evaluated by ELISA. Dogs were grouped in quartiles according parasite burden. Increased expression of IFN-? and TNF-? was associated with reduced Leishmania burden, whereas increased IL-10 and IRP2 expressions were associated with higher Leishmania load. Increased plasma albumin and IFN-? expression explained 22.8% of the decrease in parasite burden in the spleen. These data confirm that lower IFN-? response and higher IL-10 correlated with increased parasite load and severity of the visceral leishmaniasis in dogs. The balance between the branches of immune response and the intracellular iron availability could determine, in part, the course of Leishmania infection. PMID:24146743

  5. Leishmaniasis Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monday-Friday Closed Holidays Contact CDC-INFO Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health ...

  6. Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a defined geographic focus of transmission.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J L; Diniega, B M; Small, J W; Miller, R N; Andujar, J M; Weina, P J; Lawyer, P G; Ballou, W R; Lovelace, J K

    1992-07-01

    An outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred in a unit of 608 Puerto Rican national guardsmen conducting jungle warfare training in the Panama Canal Area in July 1984. An epidemiologic investigation of reported nonhealing, ulcerating skin lesions was conducted among 540 (89%) unit members in November and December 1984. Fifteen (88%) of 17 individuals with chronic, ulcerating skin lesions were confirmed as cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis by culture or histopathology. Twelve cases yielded positive Leishmania cultures, identified as L. braziliensis panamensis by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Evaluation of different diagnostic techniques revealed that direct examination of tissues by Giemsa-stained histological examination was the most sensitive test (87% sensitivity), with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test being rather insensitive (67%). All but one of the confirmed cases operated in small units that trained and slept overnight at a mortar firing site for a period of three days, yielding a site-specific attack rate of 22% (14 of 64). This contrasted with a much lower attack rate of 0.2% (1 of 476), experienced by unit members who trained at other locations during the same time frame (P less than 0.001). The median incubation period calculated from day of arrival at the mortar firing site was 17 days (range 2-78) for the 15 confirmed cases. Available personal protection methods, such as the use of insect repellents, were not appropriately implemented by unit personnel and thus, were not found to effectively protect against Leishmania infection. This is the largest reported outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in military personnel associated with a single geographic focus of infection and contrasts with the usual sporadic disease experience in Panama. PMID:1636883

  7. Quantifying the Contribution of Hosts with Different Parasite Concentrations to the Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ezer; Warburg, Alon; Novikov, Ilya; Hailu, Asrat; Volf, Petr; Seblova, Veronika; Huppert, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background An important factor influencing the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases is the contribution of hosts with different parasitemia (no. of parasites per ml of blood) to the infected vector population. Today, estimation of this contribution is often impractical since it relies exclusively on limited-scale xenodiagnostic or artificial feeding experiments (i.e., measuring the proportion of vectors that become infected after feeding on infected blood/host). Methodology We developed a novel mechanistic model that facilitates the quantification of the contribution of hosts with different parasitemias to the infection of the vectors from data on the distribution of these parasitemias within the host population. We applied the model to an ample data set of Leishmania donovani carriers, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. Results Calculations facilitated by the model quantified the host parasitemias that are mostly responsible for the infection of vector, the sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis. Our findings indicate that a 3.2% of the most infected people were responsible for the infection of between 53% and 79% (mean – 62%) of the infected sand fly vector population. Significance Our modeling framework can easily be extended to facilitate the calculation of the contribution of other host groups (such as different host species, hosts with different ages) to the infected vector population. Identifying the hosts that contribute most towards infection of the vectors is crucial for understanding the transmission dynamics, and planning targeted intervention policy of visceral leishmaniasis as well as other vector borne infectious diseases (e.g., West Nile Fever). PMID:25356795

  8. The Genetic Structure of Leishmania infantum Populations in Brazil and Its Possible Association with the Transmission Cycle of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; dos Santos, Barbara Neves; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Ramos, Tereza Pompilio Bastos; Porrozzi, Renato; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Cupolillo, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, Mediterranean basin and West and Central Asia. Although the geographic structure of L. infantum populations from the Old World have been described, few studies have addressed the population structure of this parasite in the Neotropical region. We employed 14 microsatellites to analyze the population structure of the L. infantum strains isolated from humans and dogs from most of the Brazilian states endemic for VL and from Paraguay. The results indicate a low genetic diversity, high inbreeding estimates and a depletion of heterozygotes, which together indicate a predominantly clonal breeding system, but signs of sexual events are also present. Three populations were identified from the clustering analysis, and they were well supported by F statistics inferences and partially corroborated by distance-based. POP1 (111 strains) was observed in all but one endemic area. POP2 (31 strains) is also well-dispersed, but it was the predominant population in Mato Grosso (MT). POP3 (31 strains) was less dispersed, and it was observed primarily in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Strains originated from an outbreak of canine VL in Southern Brazil were grouped in POP1 with those from Paraguay, which corroborates the hypothesis of dispersal from Northeastern Argentina and Paraguay. The distribution of VL in MS seems to follow the west-east construction of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline from Corumbá municipality. This may have resulted in a strong association of POP3 and Lutzomyia cruzi, which is the main VL vector in Corumbá, and a dispersion of this population in this region that was shaped by human interference. This vector also occurs in MT and may influence the structure of POP2. This paper presents significant advances in the understanding of the population structure of L. infantum in Brazil and its association with eco-epidemiological aspects of VL. PMID:22606248

  9. One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming. PMID:21985335

  10. One Health: the global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Day, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming. PMID:21985335

  11. Mitochondrial genetic diversity, selection and recombination in a canine transmissible cancer.

    PubMed

    Strakova, Andrea; Ní Leathlobhair, Máire; Wang, Guo-Dong; Yin, Ting-Ting; Airikkala-Otter, Ilona; Allen, Janice L; Allum, Karen M; Bansse-Issa, Leontine; Bisson, Jocelyn L; Castillo Domracheva, Artemio; de Castro, Karina F; Corrigan, Anne M; Cran, Hugh R; Crawford, Jane T; Cutter, Stephen M; Delgadillo Keenan, Laura; Donelan, Edward M; Faramade, Ibikunle A; Flores Reynoso, Erika; Fotopoulou, Eleni; Fruean, Skye N; Gallardo-Arrieta, Fanny; Glebova, Olga; Häfelin Manrique, Rodrigo F; Henriques, Joaquim Jgp; Ignatenko, Natalia; Koenig, Debbie; Lanza-Perea, Marta; Lobetti, Remo; Lopez Quintana, Adriana M; Losfelt, Thibault; Marino, Gabriele; Martincorena, Inigo; Martínez Castañeda, Simón; Martínez-López, Mayra F; Meyer, Michael; Nakanwagi, Berna; De Nardi, Andrigo B; Neunzig, Winifred; Nixon, Sally J; Onsare, Marsden M; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Peleteiro, Maria C; Pye, Ruth J; Reece, John F; Rojas Gutierrez, Jose; Sadia, Haleema; Schmeling, Sheila K; Shamanova, Olga; Ssuna, Richard K; Steenland-Smit, Audrey E; Svitich, Alla; Thoya Ngoka, Ismail; Vițălaru, Bogdan A; de Vos, Anna P; de Vos, Johan P; Walkinton, Oliver; Wedge, David C; Wehrle-Martinez, Alvaro S; van der Wel, Mirjam G; Widdowson, Sophie Ae; Murchison, Elizabeth P

    2016-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a clonally transmissible cancer that originated approximately 11,000 years ago and affects dogs worldwide. Despite the clonal origin of the CTVT nuclear genome, CTVT mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) have been acquired by periodic capture from transient hosts. We sequenced 449 complete mtDNAs from a global population of CTVTs, and show that mtDNA horizontal transfer has occurred at least five times, delineating five tumour clades whose distributions track two millennia of dog global migration. Negative selection has operated to prevent accumulation of deleterious mutations in captured mtDNA, and recombination has caused occasional mtDNA re-assortment. These findings implicate functional mtDNA as a driver of CTVT global metastatic spread, further highlighting the important role of mtDNA in cancer evolution. PMID:27185408

  12. [Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Algeria. 7. Visceral leishmaniasis in the Grande Kabylie focus].

    PubMed

    Dedet, J P; Addadi, K; Lannuzel, B

    1977-01-01

    The authors present the results of a survey on visceral leishmaniasis in the Grande Kabylie region (Algeria). With a 2.6 human cases per 100,000 annual prevalence, and a 11.4 per cent incidence of canine leishmaniasis, the Grande Kabylie appears to be the most important focus of visceral leishmaniasis in North Africa. The endemicity ecological factors are discussed and a control program is proposed. PMID:580909

  13. Evaluation of a gp63–PCR Based Assay as a Molecular Diagnosis Tool in Canine Leishmaniasis in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Guerbouj, Souheila; Djilani, Fattouma; Bettaieb, Jihene; Lambson, Bronwen; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben Salah, Afif; Ben Ismail, Riadh; Guizani, Ikram

    2014-01-01

    A gp63PCR method was evaluated for the detection and characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) (L.) parasites in canine lymph node aspirates. This tool was tested and compared to other PCRs based on the amplification of 18S ribosomal genes, a L. infantum specific repetitive sequence and kinetoplastic DNA minicircles, and to classical parasitological (smear examination and/or culture) or serological (IFAT) techniques on a sample of 40 dogs, originating from different L. infantum endemic regions in Tunisia. Sensitivity and specificity of all the PCR assays were evaluated on parasitologically confirmed dogs within this sample (N = 18) and control dogs (N = 45) originating from non–endemic countries in northern Europe and Australia. The gp63 PCR had 83.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity, a performance comparable to the kinetoplast PCR assay and better than the other assays. These assays had comparable results when the gels were southern transferred and hybridized with a radioactive probe. As different infection rates were found according to the technique, concordance of the results was estimated by (κ) test. Best concordance values were between the gp63PCR and parasitological methods (74.6%, 95% confidence intervals CI: 58.8–95.4%) or serology IFAT technique (47.4%, 95% CI: 23.5–71.3%). However, taken together Gp63 and Rib assays covered most of the samples found positive making of them a good alternative for determination of infection rates. Potential of the gp63PCR-RFLP assay for analysis of parasite genetic diversity within samples was also evaluated using 5 restriction enzymes. RFLP analysis confirmed assignment of the parasites infecting the dogs to L. infantum species and illustrated occurrence of multiple variants in the different endemic foci. Gp63 PCR assay thus constitutes a useful tool in molecular diagnosis of L. infantum infections in dogs in Tunisia. PMID:25153833

  14. The Development and Clinical Evaluation of Second-Generation Leishmaniasis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Duthie, Malcolm S.; Raman, Vanitha S.; Piazza, Franco M.; Reed, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Leishmania parasites results in a range of clinical manifestations and outcomes. Control of Leishmania parasite transmission is extremely difficult due to the large number of vectors and potential reservoirs, and none of the current treatments are ideal. Vaccination could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. In this review, the current global situation with regard to leishmaniasis, the immunology of Leishmania infection and various efforts to identify second generation vaccine candidates are briefly discussed. The variety of clinical trials conducted using the only current second generation vaccine approved for clinical use, LEISH-F1 + MPL-SE, are described. Given that epidemiological evidence suggests that reducing the canine reservoir also positively impacts human incidence, efforts at providing a vaccine for leishmaniasis in dogs are highlighted. Finally, potential refinements and surrogate markers that could expedite the introduction of a vaccine that can limit the severity and incidence of leishmaniasis are discussed. PMID:22085553

  15. Comparison against 186 canid whole-genome sequences reveals survival strategies of an ancient clonally transmissible canine tumor.

    PubMed

    Decker, Brennan; Davis, Brian W; Rimbault, Maud; Long, Adrienne H; Karlins, Eric; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Reiman, Rebecca; Parker, Heidi G; Drögemüller, Cord; Corneveaux, Jason J; Chapman, Erica S; Trent, Jeffery M; Leeb, Tosso; Huentelman, Matthew J; Wayne, Robert K; Karyadi, Danielle M; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2015-11-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a parasitic cancer clone that has propagated for thousands of years via sexual transfer of malignant cells. Little is understood about the mechanisms that converted an ancient tumor into the world's oldest known continuously propagating somatic cell lineage. We created the largest existing catalog of canine genome-wide variation and compared it against two CTVT genome sequences, thereby separating alleles derived from the founder's genome from somatic mutations that must drive clonal transmissibility. We show that CTVT has undergone continuous adaptation to its transmissible allograft niche, with overlapping mutations at every step of immunosurveillance, particularly self-antigen presentation and apoptosis. We also identified chronologically early somatic mutations in oncogenesis- and immune-related genes that may represent key initiators of clonal transmissibility. Thus, we provide the first insights into the specific genomic aberrations that underlie CTVT's dogged perseverance in canids around the world. PMID:26232412

  16. Comparison against 186 canid whole-genome sequences reveals survival strategies of an ancient clonally transmissible canine tumor

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Brennan; Davis, Brian W.; Rimbault, Maud; Long, Adrienne H.; Karlins, Eric; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Reiman, Rebecca; Parker, Heidi G.; Drögemüller, Cord; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Chapman, Erica S.; Trent, Jeffery M.; Leeb, Tosso; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Wayne, Robert K.; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2015-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a parasitic cancer clone that has propagated for thousands of years via sexual transfer of malignant cells. Little is understood about the mechanisms that converted an ancient tumor into the world's oldest known continuously propagating somatic cell lineage. We created the largest existing catalog of canine genome-wide variation and compared it against two CTVT genome sequences, thereby separating alleles derived from the founder's genome from somatic mutations that must drive clonal transmissibility. We show that CTVT has undergone continuous adaptation to its transmissible allograft niche, with overlapping mutations at every step of immunosurveillance, particularly self-antigen presentation and apoptosis. We also identified chronologically early somatic mutations in oncogenesis- and immune-related genes that may represent key initiators of clonal transmissibility. Thus, we provide the first insights into the specific genomic aberrations that underlie CTVT's dogged perseverance in canids around the world. PMID:26232412

  17. Studies on the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in high-transmission areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Republic of Suriname

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the vectors of Leishmania parasites, the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in the Republic of Suriname and is mainly caused by Leishmania (Vianna) guyanensis, but L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (L.) amazonensis, and L. (V.) naiffi also infect humans. Transmission occurs predominantly in the forested hinterland of the country. Information regarding the potential vectors of leishmaniasis in Suriname is limited. This study aims to broaden the knowledge about vectors involved in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname. For this purpose, sand flies were characterized in various foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the country, the districts of Para, Brokopondo, and Sipaliwini. Methods Sand flies were collected in areas around mining plots and villages using CDC light traps in the period between February 2011 and March 2013. They were categorized by examination of the spermathecea (females) and the external genitalia (males). Results A total of 2,743 sand fly specimens belonging to 34 different species were captured, including four species (Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lu. ayrozai, Lu. damascenoi, and Lu. sordellii) that had never before been described for Suriname. Five percent of the catch comprised Lu. squamiventris sensu lato, one female of which was positive with L. (V.) braziliensis and was captured in a gold mining area in Brokopondo. Other sand fly species found positive for Leishmania parasites were Lu. trichopyga, Lu. ininii, and Lu. umbratilis, comprising 32, 8, and 4%, respectively, of the catch. These were captured at gold mining areas in Brokopondo and Sipaliwini, but the Leishmania parasites they had ingested could not be identified due to insufficient amounts of DNA. Conclusions The sand fly fauna in Suriname is highly diverse and comprises Lutzomyia species capable of transmitting Leishmania parasites. Four new Lutzomyia species have been found, and four species - Lu. squamiventris (s.l.), Lu. trichopyga, Lu. ininii, and Lu. umbratilis - have been found to harbor Leishmania parasites. The latter were among the most abundant species captured. These observations may contribute to the understanding of leishmaniasis transmission and the development of control programs in Suriname. PMID:24499490

  18. Modeling the Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Vectors (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Iran: A Potential Transmission in Disease Prone Areas.

    PubMed

    Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Rassi, Yavar; Karimi, Ameneh; Charrahy, Zabihollah

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is now the main vector-borne disease in Iran. Two forms of the disease exist in the country, transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. Modeling distribution of the vector species is beneficial for preparedness and planning to interrupt the transmission cycle. Data on sand fly distribution during 1990-2013 were used to predict the niche suitability. MaxEnt algorithm model was used for prediction using bioclimatic and environmental variables (precipitation, temperature, altitude, slope, and aspect). Regularized training, area under the curve, and unregularized training gains were 0.916, 0.915, and 1.503, respectively, for Ph. papatasi. These values were calculated as 0.987, 0.923, and 1.588 for Ph. sergenti s.l. The jackknife test showed that the environmental variable with the highest gain when used in isolation has the mean temperature of the wettest quarter for both species, while slope decreases the gain the most when it is omitted from the model. Classification of probability of presence for two studied species was performed on five classes using equal intervals in ArcGIS. More than 60% probability of presence was considered as areas with high potential of CL transmission. These areas include arid and semiarid climates, mainly located in central part of the country. Mean of altitude, annual precipitation, and temperature in these areas were calculated 990 and 1,235 m, 273 and 226 mm, and 17.5 and 16.4°C for Ph. papatasi and Ph. sergenti s.l., respectively. These findings can be used in the prediction of CL transmission potential, as well as for planning the disease control interventions. PMID:26335462

  19. Leishmaniasis FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... count (thrombocytopenia). How common is leishmaniasis in the world? The number of new cases per year is ... million (400,000). In what parts of the world is leishmaniasis found? In the Old World (the ...

  20. Predictive factors for the regression of canine transmissible venereal tumor during vincristine therapy.

    PubMed

    Scarpelli, Karime C; Valladão, Maria L; Metze, Konradin

    2010-03-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a neoplasm transmitted by transplantation. Monochemotherapy with vincristine is considered to be effective, but treatment time until complete clinical remission may vary. The aim of this study was to determine which clinical data at diagnosis could predict the responsiveness of CTVT to vincristine chemotherapy. One hundred dogs with CTVT entered this prospective study. The animals were treated with vincristine sulfate (0.025 mg/kg) at weekly intervals until the tumor had macroscopically disappeared. The time to complete remission was recorded. A multivariate Cox regression model indicated that larger tumor mass, increased age and therapy during hot and rainy months were independent significant unfavorable predictive factors retarding remission, whereas sex, weight, status as owned dog or breed were of no predictive relevance. Further studies are necessary to investigate whether these results are due to changes in immunological response mechanisms in animals with a diminished immune surveillance, resulting in delays in tumor regression. PMID:19109042

  1. [Sandflies (Diptera, psychodidae) in a secondary forest area in the Paco do Lumiar city, Maranhao, Brazil: a leishmaniasis transmission area].

    PubMed

    Barros, V L; Rebêlo, J M; Silva, F S

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the wealth of species, relative abundance, seasonal fluctuation, and nocturnal activity of sandflies. The field survey was conducted in a "capoeira" (secondary forest) area in the county of Paço do Lumiar, Maranhão, where cutaneous and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis frequently occurs. Sandflies were captured by CDC-type light traps from 6:00 PM to 6:00 AM, once a month, from March 1997 to February 1998. A total of 489 specimens were collected (251 males and 238 females), distributed among 10 species: Lutzomyia antunesi (45.19%), Lutzomyia whitmani (29.4%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (7.56%), Lutzomyia sordelli (6.34%), Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (4.5%), Brumptomyia avellari (4.09%), Lutzomyia evandroi (1.85%), Lutzomyia umbratilis (0.61%), Lutzomyia corossoniensis (0.41%), and Lutzomyia trispinosa (0.41%). The sandflies were present year round, with higher abundance during the rainy season. They were present in all intervals studied, with the highest frequency between 12:00 PM and 1:00 AM (31%). PMID:10738174

  2. Health-seeking behaviour, diagnostics and transmission dynamics in the control of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Medley, Graham F; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Olliaro, Piero L; Adams, Emily R

    2015-12-01

    Countries in the Indian subcontinent have committed to reducing the incidence of kala-azar, a clinical manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis, to below 1 in 10,000 by 2020. We address the role of timing of use and accuracy of diagnostics in kala-azar control and elimination. We use empirical data on health-seeking behaviour and health-system performance from the Indian state of Bihar, Bangladesh and Nepal to parameterize a mathematical model. Diagnosis of cases is key to case management, control and surveillance. Treatment of cases prevents onward transmission, and we show that the differences in time to diagnosis in these three settings explain the observed differences in incidence. Shortening the time from health-care seeking to diagnosis is likely to lead to dramatic reductions in incidence in Bihar, bringing the incidence down to the levels seen in Bangladesh and Nepal. The results emphasize the importance of maintaining population and health-system awareness, particularly as transmission and disease incidence decline. We explore the possibility of diagnosing patients before the onset of clinical kala-azar (before 14 days fever), and show that this could have a marked impact on incidence, even for a moderately sensitive test. However, limited specificity (that results in false positives) is a major barrier to such a strategy. Diagnostic tests of high specificity used at an early stage of active infection, even if sensitivity is only moderate, could have a key role in the control of kala-azar, and prevent its resurgence when paired with the passive health-care system and tests of high sensitivity, such as the test for rK39 antibody response. PMID:26633763

  3. Understanding the transmission dynamics of Leishmania donovani to provide robust evidence for interventions to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Mary M; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Bern, Caryn; Boelaert, Marleen; den Boer, Margriet; Burza, Sakib; Chapman, Lloyd A C; Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Coleman, Michael; Courtenay, Orin; Croft, Simon; Das, Pradeep; Dilger, Erin; Foster, Geraldine; Garlapati, Rajesh; Haines, Lee; Harris, Angela; Hemingway, Janet; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Jervis, Sarah; Medley, Graham; Miles, Michael; Paine, Mark; Picado, Albert; Poché, Richard; Ready, Paul; Rogers, Matthew; Rowland, Mark; Sundar, Shyam; de Vlas, Sake J; Weetman, David

    2016-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected vector-borne disease. In India, it is transmitted to humans by Leishmania donovani-infected Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. In 2005, VL was targeted for elimination by the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh by 2015. The elimination strategy consists of rapid case detection, treatment of VL cases and vector control using indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, to achieve sustained elimination of VL, an appropriate post elimination surveillance programme should be designed, and crucial knowledge gaps in vector bionomics, human infection and transmission need to be addressed. This review examines the outstanding knowledge gaps, specifically in the context of Bihar State, India.The knowledge gaps in vector bionomics that will be of immediate benefit to current control operations include better estimates of human biting rates and natural infection rates of P. argentipes, with L. donovani, and how these vary spatially, temporally and in response to IRS. The relative importance of indoor and outdoor transmission, and how P. argentipes disperse, are also unknown. With respect to human transmission it is important to use a range of diagnostic tools to distinguish individuals in endemic communities into those who: 1) are to going to progress to clinical VL, 2) are immune/refractory to infection and 3) have had past exposure to sand flies.It is crucial to keep in mind that close to elimination, and post-elimination, VL cases will become infrequent, so it is vital to define what the surveillance programme should target and how it should be designed to prevent resurgence. Therefore, a better understanding of the transmission dynamics of VL, in particular of how rates of infection in humans and sand flies vary as functions of each other, is required to guide VL elimination efforts and ensure sustained elimination in the Indian subcontinent. By collecting contemporary entomological and human data in the same geographical locations, more precise epidemiological models can be produced. The suite of data collected can also be used to inform the national programme if supplementary vector control tools, in addition to IRS, are required to address the issues of people sleeping outside. PMID:26812963

  4. Contact heterogeneity, rather than transmission efficiency, limits the emergence and spread of canine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Benjamin D; Huang, Kai; Geoghegan, Jemma L; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dubovi, Edward J; Grenfell, Bryan T; Ellner, Stephen P; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

    2014-10-01

    Host-range shifts in influenza virus are a major risk factor for pandemics. A key question in the study of emerging zoonoses is how the evolution of transmission efficiency interacts with heterogeneity in contact patterns in the new host species, as this interplay influences disease dynamics and prospects for control. Here we use a synergistic mixture of models and data to tease apart the evolutionary and demographic processes controlling a host-range shift in equine H3N8-derived canine influenza virus (CIV). CIV has experienced 15 years of continuous transfer among dogs in the United States, but maintains a patchy distribution, characterized by sporadic short-lived outbreaks coupled with endemic hotspots in large animal shelters. We show that CIV has a high reproductive potential in these facilities (mean R(0) = 3.9) and that these hotspots act as refugia from the sparsely connected majority of the dog population. Intriguingly, CIV has evolved a transmission efficiency that closely matches the minimum required to persist in these refugia, leaving it poised on the extinction/invasion threshold of the host contact network. Corresponding phylogenetic analyses show strong geographic clustering in three US regions, and that the effective reproductive number of the virus (R(e)) in the general dog population is close to 1.0. Our results highlight the critical role of host contact structure in CIV dynamics, and show how host contact networks could shape the evolution of pathogen transmission efficiency. Importantly, efficient control measures could eradicate the virus, in turn minimizing the risk of future sustained transmission among companion dogs that could represent a potential new axis to the human-animal interface for influenza. PMID:25340642

  5. Immunologic progression of canine leishmaniosis following vertical transmission in United States dogs.

    PubMed

    Vida, Blake; Toepp, Angela; Schaut, Robert G; Esch, Kevin J; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Shimak, Raeann M; Petersen, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is caused by Leishmania infantum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, endemic in U.S. hunting dog populations. CanL has been found in dogs in 28 states and two Canadian provinces. Previous studies by our group, (Boggiatto et al., 2011), demonstrated that vertical transmission of Leishmania was the predominant means of transmission within U.S. dogs. Very little is known regarding how this alternative means of transmission, alters the long-term immunity and clinical presentation of leishmaniosis in dogs born to a positive bitch. This study follows the immunological progression of CanL in three pups after birth to an infected bitch. During the course of the study, these dogs were tested every six months over the course of six years. Both immunologic (IFN-γ, T cell proliferation, antibody production) and parasitological parameters (qPCR) of vertically-infected dogs were measured. Within the six years after birth to an L. infantum-infected, oligosymptomatic bitch, all dogs had at least one L. infantum PCR-positive test. Interestingly, despite living in the same location for their entire lives and being full siblings, these pups demonstrate three different disease progression patterns of L. infantum infection. One dog progressed to oligosymptomatic disease, maintaining a positive titer and had intermittent positive PCR results. One asymptomatic dog had positive serological titers and demonstrated a robust CD4(+) immune response to infection. The third dog had a negligible response to L. infantum antigen and was healthy. This work demonstrates the biologic variability associated with vertically-transmitted infection similar to the variety of presentations observed during vector-borne leishmaniosis. PMID:26827836

  6. Leishmaniasis in Sudan. Visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, E E; el-Hassan, A M

    2001-04-01

    From the early 1900s, visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala-azar) has been among the most important health problems in Sudan, particularly in the main endemic area in the eastern and central regions. Several major epidemics have occurred, the most recent--in Western Upper Nile province in southern Sudan, detected in 1988--claiming over 100,000 lives. The disease spread to other areas that were previously not known to be endemic for VL. A major upsurge in the number of cases was noted in the endemic area. These events triggered renewed interest in the disease. Epidemiological and entomological studies confirmed Phlebotomus orientalis as the vector in several parts of the country, typically associated with Acacia seyal and Balanites aegyptiaca vegetation. Infection rates with Leishmania were high, but subject to seasonal variation, as were the numbers of sand flies. Parasites isolated from humans and sand flies belonged to three zymodemes (MON-18, MON-30 and MON-82), which all belong to the L. donovani sensu lato cluster. Transmission dynamics have not been elucidated fully; heavy transmission in relatively scarcely populated areas such as Dinder national park suggested zoonotic transmission whereas the large numbers of patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in heavily affected villages may indicate a human reservoir and anthroponotic transmission. Clinical presentation in adults and in children did not differ significantly, except that children were more anaemic. Fever, weight loss, hepato-splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy were the most common findings. PKDL was much more common than expected (56% of patients with VL developed PKDL), but other post-VL manifestations were also found affecting the eyes (uveitis, conjunctivitis, blepharitis), nasal and/or oral mucosa. Evaluation of diagnostic methods showed that parasitological diagnosis should still be the mainstay in diagnosis, with sensitivities for lymph node, bone marrow and spleen aspirates of 58%, 70% and 96%, respectively. Simple, cheap serological tests are needed. The direct agglutination test (DAT) had a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 94%, positive predictive value of 78% and negative predictive value of 92%. As with other serological tests, the DAT cannot distinguish between active disease, subclinical infection or past infection. The introduction of freeze-dried antigen and control sera greatly improved the practicality and accuracy of the DAT in the field. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant K39 antigen had higher sensitivity than DAT (93%). The polymerase chain reaction using peripheral blood gave a sensitivity of 70-93% and was more sensitive than microscopy of lymph node or bone marrow aspirates in patients with suspected VL. The leishmanin skin test (LST) was typically negative during active VL and converted to positive in c. 80% of patients 6 months after treatment. Immunological studies showed that both Th1 and Th2 cell responses could be demonstrated in lymph nodes from VL patients as evidenced by the presence of messenger ribonucleic acid for interleukin (IL)-10, interferon gamma and IL-2. Treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from VL patients with IL-12 was found to drive the immune response toward a Th1 type response with the production of interferon gamma, indicating a potential therapeutic role for IL-12. VL responded well to treatment with sodium stibogluconate, which is still the first line drug at a dose of 20 mg/kg intravenously or intramuscularly per day for 15-30 d. Side effects and resistance were rare. Liposomal amphotericin B was effective, with few side effects. Control measures have not been implemented. Based on observations that VL does not occur in individuals who have a positive LST, probably because of previous cutaneous leishmaniasis, a vaccine containing heat-killed L. major promastigotes is currently undergoing a phase III trial. PMID:11370250

  7. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Giantsis, Ioannis A; Demir, Samiye; Bon, Marie Claude

    2016-06-01

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) along the outskirts of the city in areas of increased canine leishmania transmission. Six sand fly species (Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus tobbi, Phlebotomus simici, Plebotomus papatasi, Sergentomya minuta and Sergentomya dentata) were identified using both classical and molecular techniques. DNA barcodes were characterized for the first time for two (P. simici and S. dentata) of the six recorded species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the COI gene sequences confirmed the grouping of P. tobbi, P. perniciosus and P. perfiliewi (subgenus Larrousius) and the monophyly of P. simici (subgenus Adlerius). By far the most prevalent species was P. perfiliewi, followed by P. simici and P. tobbi. The largest populations of sand flies were collected from animal facilities, followed by residential areas and open agricultural fields. Peak activity of sand flies overall occurred mid-August to mid-September and then declined sharply in October. Blood meal analysis showed that P. perfiliewi and P. simici feed preferentially on humans (88% & 95%, respectively) but also feed on chickens and goats. When designing a control strategy to alleviate sand fly nuisance in the region of Thessaloniki the following conclusions can be reached from this study: a) August and September are high risk months due to increased sand fly activity levels, b) animal facilities within or adjacent to urban settlements are high risk areas and may act as a maintenance and amplification foci for the vector as well as the parasite, and c) the abundance, ubiquity and feeding behavior of P. perfiliewi and P. simici establishes them as potentially important vectors of Leishmania in the region. PMID:26965171

  8. In vitro load transmission in the canine knee: the effect of medial meniscectomy and varus rotation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D R; Newman, A P; Daniels, A U

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro load-transmission characteristics of the canine knee, paying particular attention to the positioning effect of the meniscus in the coronal plane. The intact joint was first loaded and then tested under two different loading conditions after a complete medial meniscectomy. The first set of test conditions attempted to simulate those used by previous investigators, by ignoring the spacer effect of the meniscus. The second set of tests were carried out following varus rotation of the joint (to account for the loss of the meniscal spacer) to assure initial contact in both tibiofemoral compartments at the start of test cycle. It is presumed that this varus realignment occurs during weight bearing following meniscectomy in vivo. As in previous studies, the joints experienced slightly larger displacements (although not statistically significant) and had lower stiffness values following medial meniscectomy than when intact. However, following varus realignment of the joint after meniscectomy, the displacement was markedly smaller (-35% to -49%; P < 0.01) and the structural stiffness was much greater (47-123%; P < 0.05) over the range of forces analyzed, compared with the intact joint. The ratio of dissipated to input energy was 42% for the intact joint, and increased following meniscectomy to 54% (P < 0.05) with realignment and 55% (P < 0.05) without realignment. Measured contact area decreased by 17% (P < 0.05) following meniscectomy alone, and by 12% (P < 0.05) following meniscectomy with realignment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8535997

  9. A simple immune complex dissociation ELISA for leishmaniasis: standardization of the assay in experimental models and preliminary results in canine and human samples.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Camila Aparecida; Partata, Anette Kelsei; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Meireles, Luciana Regina; Nascimento, Nanci do; de Andrade, Heitor Franco

    2013-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, is a chronic parasitic disease of humans and dogs. Confirmation of the protozoal agent in bone marrow, lymph node or spleen aspirate is diagnostic, while specific-IgG serology is used mainly for epidemiology despite the general presence of high levels of serum immunoglobulin. Anecdotal reports of false-negative serology in active disease cases are known and are ascribed to the formation of immune complexes. Because dissociation of immune complexes can be accomplished by acid treatment, we devised a simple, routine enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) for the dissociation of immune complexes in serum samples using acid treatment in wells adsorbed with Leishmania antigen (dELISA). Confirmatory acid dot-blot was also developed for antigen detection by anti-Leishmania rabbit antiserum. In experimental L. chagasi hamster models, immune complexes interfered with ELISA mostly in the 30 and 60 days postinfection, according to both dELISA and antigen dot-blot results. In larger samples from endemic areas, dELISA was positive in 10% of seronegative dog samples (7/70) and 3.5% in negative human samples (3/88), showing that dELISA could be used in the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Moreover, dELISA could be used as an alternative approach to screening asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis patients, instead of invasive confirmatory testing. PMID:23123344

  10. Natural transmission of Leishmania infantum through experimentally infected Phlebotomus perniciosus highlights the virulence of Leishmania parasites circulating in the human visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Martn-Martn, Ins; Jimnez, Maribel; Gonzlez, Estela; Eguiluz, Csar; Molina, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    A human leishmaniasis outbreak is occurring in the Madrid region, Spain, with the parasite and vector involved being Leishmania infantum and Phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the virulence of L. infantum isolates from the focus using a natural transmission model. Hamsters were infected by intraperitoneal inoculation (IP) or by bites of sand flies experimentally infected with L. infantum isolates obtained from P. perniciosus collected in the outbreak area (IPER/ES/2012/BOS1FL1 and IPER/ES/2012/POL2FL6) and a well characterized L. infantum strain JPCM5 (MCAN/ES/98/LLM-877). Hamster infections were monitored by clinical examination, serology, culture, parasite burden, Giemsa-stained imprints, PCR, histopathology and xenodiagnostic studies. Establishment of infection of L. infantum was achieved with the JPCM5 strain and outbreak isolates by both P. perniciosus infective bites or IP route. However, high virulence of BOS1FL1 and POL2FL6 isolates was highlighted by the clinical outcome of disease, high parasite detection in spleen and liver, high parasitic loads and positivity of Leishmania serology. Transmission by bite of POL2FL6 infected flies generated a slower progression of clinical disease than IP infection, but both groups were infective to P. perniciosus by xenodiagnosis at 2 months post-infection. Conversely, hamsters inoculated with JPCM5 were not infective to sand flies. Histopathology studies confirmed the wide spread of POL2FL6 parasites to several organs. A visceral leishmaniasis model that mimics the natural transmission in nature allowed us to highlight the high virulence of isolates that are circulating in the focus. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the outbreak epidemiology. PMID:26645907

  11. The changing global distribution and prevalence of canine transmissible venereal tumour

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a contagious cancer that is naturally transmitted between dogs by the allogeneic transfer of living cancer cells during coitus. CTVT first arose several thousand years ago and has been reported in dog populations worldwide; however, its precise distribution patterns and prevalence remain unclear. Results We analysed historical literature and obtained CTVT prevalence information from 645 veterinarians and animal health workers in 109 countries in order to estimate CTVT’s former and current global distribution and prevalence. This analysis confirmed that CTVT is endemic in at least 90 countries worldwide across all inhabited continents. CTVT is estimated to be present at a prevalence of one percent or more in dogs in at least 13 countries in South and Central America as well as in at least 11 countries in Africa and 8 countries in Asia. In the United States and Australia, CTVT was reported to be endemic only in remote indigenous communities. Comparison of current and historical reports of CTVT indicated that its prevalence has declined in Northern Europe, possibly due to changes in dog control laws during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Analysis of factors influencing CTVT prevalence showed that presence of free-roaming dogs was associated with increased CTVT prevalence, while dog spaying and neutering were associated with reduced CTVT prevalence. Our analysis indicated no gender bias for CTVT and we found no evidence that animals with CTVT frequently harbour concurrent infectious diseases. Vincristine was widely reported to be the most effective therapy for CTVT. Conclusions Our results provide a survey of the current global distribution of CTVT, confirming that CTVT is endemic in at least 90 countries worldwide. Additionally, our analysis highlights factors that continue to modify CTVT’s prevalence around the world and implicates free-roaming dogs as a reservoir for the disease. Our analysis also documents the disappearance of the disease from the United Kingdom during the twentieth century, which appears to have been an unintentional result of the introduction of dog control policies. PMID:25186078

  12. Canine Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. TRANSMISSION OF SEROLOGIC ABNORMALITIES BY CELL-FREE FILTRATES

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Robert M.; Andre-Schwartz, Janine; Harbis, Gerald S.; Hirsch, Martin S.; Black, Paul H.; Schwartz, Robert S.

    1973-01-01

    The presence of viruses was sought in a colony of dogs bred from parents with systemic lupus crythematosus (SLE). Cell-free filtrates prepared from the spleens of these animals were injected into newborn dogs, mice, and rats. The canine recipients developed antinuclear antibody (ANA) and positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell tests: ANA and, in some cases, antinative DNA antibodies were produced by the murine recipients: no abnormalities were detected in the rats. Serial passage of spleen cells or cell-free filtrates of spleen tissue in syngeneic mice reduced the time required for appearance of ANA from 9 to 4 mo. Some murine recipients of the canine filtrate developed malignant lymphomas. Murine leukemia viruses were identified in these tumors by electron microscopic, virologic, and serologic technics. These neoplasms, but not other tumors known to contain murine leukemia viruses, were associated with the production of ANA. Puppies inoculated with the canine filtrate-induced mouse lymphoma developed ANA and positive LE cell tests within 4 mo. The results were interpreted to indicate the presence in canine SLE of a virus capable of: (a) inducing the serologic abnormalities of SLE in normal dogs and mice: (b) activating latent murine leukemia viruses: and (c) spreading by both horizonal and vertical routes. Images PMID:4124208

  13. Canine distemper outbreak in raccoons suggests pathogen interspecies transmission amongst alien and native carnivores in urban areas from Germany.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Solís, Zaida; Förster, Christine; Aue, Angelika; Wittstatt, Ulrich; Wibbelt, Gudrun; König, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    From December 2012 to May 2013, an outbreak occurred among urban wild carnivores from Berlin. We collected 97 free-ranging raccoons from the city area. PCR assays, histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in 74 raccoons. Phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin gene fragments (1767 nucleotides) of CDV isolated from four raccoons showed close relation to CDV isolates from foxes from Germany and a domestic dog from Hungary; all belonging to the "Europe" lineage of CDV. These study results suggest an inter-species transmission of CDV as the origin for the outbreak among the raccoon population. Implications for domestic pets and suggested interspecies transmission between urban wildlife and raccoons are discussed. This is the first major outbreak of CDV amongst free-ranging raccoons in Europe. PMID:25258173

  14. American leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, P. C. C.

    1971-01-01

    The origin of leishmaniasis in the New World is discussed, and the numerous forms of the disease are briefly described. The epidemological pattern of American leishmaniasis is clearly that of a zoonosis in various stages of development. Nine geographical types of cutaneous leishmaniasis are recognized, and probably others exist also; the visceral disease is of the well known Mediterranean type and of a uniform type throughout the Americas. The prevalence of human infection in the different regions is discussed with particular reference to the animal reservoirs. Disturbances of the terrain for agricultural development, road construction, etc., lead to epidemics and there is some evidence that the disease is now spreading in Latin America. PMID:5316253

  15. Epidemiological aspects of vector, parasite, and domestic reservoir in areas of recent transmission and no reported human cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Fiuza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires; Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques; Regina-Silva, Shara; de Avelar, Daniel Moreira; Silva, Maiara Alves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; da Costa, Ailton Junior Antunes; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-08-01

    About 97% of the human cases of the American visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur in Brazil. In the last few years, the disease expanded to medium- and large-sized cities, in which surveillance and control actions have been intensified, in an effort to control VL spreading. Our two-year study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, the sixth most populous city in Brazil, which is endemic for VL. We focused in two particular districts of recent transmission of the disease, with no reported human cases and submitted to minor surveillance and control actions. Our aim was to draw an epidemiological profile of the local situation concerning Lutzomyia vector, Leishmania parasites, and the main domestic reservoirs (dogs). Lutzomyia longipalpis comprised 96.5% of the total phlebotomine sand flies captured and displayed an expressive minimal infection rate by Leishmania infantum (16.7%). Positive correlations were found between the population densities of L. longipalpis, rainfall and temperature. L. infantum was also detected in the cortelezzii complex and, for the first time, in Lutzomyia lloydi. Leishmania braziliensis, an etiological agent of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis, was also identified in L. longipalpis. Among the 1408 dogs serologically tested by standard enzyme-linked and fluorescence immune assays (ELISA/IFA) 3.6% were positive for VL. L. infantum DNA and Leishmania parasites were identified in 100% and 72.5% of the seropositive dogs, respectively. The co-positivity of other diagnostic tests for VL-Leishmania-nested PCR, imprint and myeloculture-was compared to the standard serology. Both symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs displayed an equal average number of positive diagnostic tests for VL. The districts studied display favorable conditions for the rapid spreading of human infection, in terms of L. longipalpis population density, and presence of L. infantum in both vector and main reservoir. PMID:25882769

  16. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Babuadze, Giorgi; Alvar, Jorge; Argaw, Daniel; de Koning, Harry P.; Iosava, Merab; Kekelidze, Merab; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tsereteli, David; Chakhunashvili, Giorgi; Mamatsashvili, Tamar; Beria, Nino; Kalandadze, Irine; Ejov, Mikhail; Imnadze, Paata

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet) and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi. The highest proportions of seropositive pet dogs were present in District #2 (28.1%, 82/292) and District #1 (26.9%, 24/89) in Tbilisi, compared to 17.3% (26/150) of pet dogs in Kutaisi. The percentage of seropositive stray dogs was also twice as high in Tbilisi (16.1%, n = 670) than in Kutaisi (8%, n = 50); only 2/58 wild animals screened were seropositive (2. 6%). A total of 873 Phlebotomine sand flies were collected, with 5 different species identified in Tbilisi and 3 species in Kutaisi; 2.3% of the females were positive for Leishmania parasites. The Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) was performed on 981 human subjects in VL foci in urban areas in Tbilisi and Kutaisi. A particularly high prevalence of LST positives was observed in Tbilisi District #1 (22.2%, 37.5% and 19.5% for ages 5–9, 15–24 and 25–59, respectively); lower prevalence was observed in Kutaisi (0%, 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively; P<0.05). This study shows that Tbilisi is an active focus for leishmaniasis and that the infection prevalence is very high in dogs and in humans. Although exposure is as yet not as high in Kutaisi, this is a new VL focus. The overall situation in the country is alarming and new control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24603768

  17. Knowledge of the Population about Visceral Leishmaniasis Transmission in Endemic Areas near the Banks of the Mossoró River in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Amorim, Camila Fernandes; Santos Albano Amóra, Sthenia; Aparecida Kazimoto, Thaís; de Lima Costa, Kalídia Felipe; Fernandes Silva, Luanna; de Sousa, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo; Barbosa Nogueira Freitas, Yannara; Dutra Alves, Nilza; Carneiro Feijó, Francisco Marlon

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an anthropozoonosis with high prevalence and incidence in the Northeastern region of Brazil. This study aimed to determine whether people living near the Mossoró River in the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, have knowledge of VL and to characterize the environmental properties of this region. Questionnaires were administered to 478 residents in three neighborhoods near the Mossoró River, addressing the population’s knowledge about VL and environmental characteristics. Most survey participants were female, with ages between 18 and 40 years, 53.8% had completed primary education, and 61.5% owned pet dogs (p < 0.05). The majority (95.9%) showed little knowledge about the characteristics inherent to sandflies, and 85.3% were unaware of the environments preferred by this vector (p < 0.05). Sewage from the homes of respondents was mainly dumped into the river (44.6%), and 76.6% of the respondents complained about the accumulation of garbage in the streets (p < 0.05). The association between education and knowledge about the transmission of VL and preferred vector locations was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The lack of knowledge in the population about VL and the residential environment indicates a risk of maintaining sand fly habitats and hence disease transmission. PMID:25809514

  18. Knowledge of the population about visceral leishmaniasis transmission in endemic areas near the banks of the Mossoró River in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Amorim, Camila Fernandes; Santos Albano Amóra, Sthenia; Kazimoto, Thaís Aparecida; de Lima Costa, Kalídia Felipe; Silva, Luanna Fernandes; de Sousa, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo; Freitas, Yannara Barbosa Nogueira; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Feijó, Francisco Marlon Carneiro

    2015-03-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an anthropozoonosis with high prevalence and incidence in the Northeastern region of Brazil. This study aimed to determine whether people living near the Mossoró River in the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, have knowledge of VL and to characterize the environmental properties of this region. Questionnaires were administered to 478 residents in three neighborhoods near the Mossoró River, addressing the population's knowledge about VL and environmental characteristics. Most survey participants were female, with ages between 18 and 40 years, 53.8% had completed primary education, and 61.5% owned pet dogs (p<0.05). The majority (95.9%) showed little knowledge about the characteristics inherent to sandflies, and 85.3% were unaware of the environments preferred by this vector (p<0.05). Sewage from the homes of respondents was mainly dumped into the river (44.6%), and 76.6% of the respondents complained about the accumulation of garbage in the streets (p<0.05). The association between education and knowledge about the transmission of VL and preferred vector locations was statistically significant (p<0.05). The lack of knowledge in the population about VL and the residential environment indicates a risk of maintaining sand fly habitats and hence disease transmission. PMID:25809514

  19. The Rapid Test Based on Leishmania infantum Chimeric rK28 Protein Improves the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis by Reducing the Detection of False-Positive Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Lairton Souza; Tuy, Pétala Gardênia da Silva Estrela; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) has spread to many urban centers worldwide. Dogs are considered the main reservoir of VL, because canine cases often precede the occurrence of human cases. Detection and euthanasia of serologically positive dogs is one of the primary VL control measures utilized in some countries, including Brazil. Using accurate diagnostic tests can minimize one undesirable consequence of this measure, culling false-positive dogs, and reduce the maintenance of false-negative dogs in endemic areas. In December 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health replaced the ELISA (EIE CVL) screening method and Indirect Immunofluorescence Test (IFI CVL) confirmatory method with a new protocol using the rapid DPP CVL screening test and EIE CVL confirmatory test. A study of diagnostic accuracy of these two protocols was done by comparing their performance using serum samples collected from a random sample of 780 dogs in an endemic area of VL. All samples were evaluated by culture and real time PCR; 766 out of the 780 dogs were tested using the previous protocol (IFI CVL + EIE CVL) and all 780 were tested using the current protocol (DPP CVL + EIE CVL). Performances of both diagnostic protocols were evaluated using a latent class variable as the gold standard. The current protocol had a higher specificity (0.98 vs. 0.95) and PPV (0.83 vs. 0.70) than the previous protocol, although sensitivity of these two protocols was similar (0.73). When tested using sera from asymptomatic animals, the current protocol had a much higher PPV (0.63 vs. 0.40) than the previous protocol (although the sensitivity of either protocol was the same, 0.71). Considering a range of theoretical CVL prevalences, the projected PPVs were higher for the current protocol than for the previous protocol for each theoretical prevalence value. The findings presented herein show that the current protocol performed better than previous protocol primarily by reducing false-positive results. PMID:26731098

  20. Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monday-Friday Closed Holidays Contact CDC-INFO Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health ...

  1. Clinical outcome and vertical transmission variability among canine Neospora caninum isolates in a pregnant mouse model of infection.

    PubMed

    Dellarupe, Andrea; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Jiménez-Ruiz, Elena; Schares, Gereon; Unzaga, Juan Manuel; Venturini, María Cecilia; Ortega-Mora, Luis M

    2014-03-01

    We compared the clinical outcome and vertical transmission of six canine Neospora caninum isolates using a pregnant BALB/c model. Four of the isolates were obtained from oocysts of naturally infected dogs (Nc-Ger2, Nc-Ger3, Nc-Ger6 and Nc-6Arg) and two were from diseased dogs with neurological signs (Nc-Bahia and Nc-Liv). The dams were inoculated with 2×106 tachyzoites of each isolate at day 7 of pregnancy. Morbidity, mortality and the antibody responses were evaluated in both the dams and the offspring, as was parasite transmission to the progeny. The mortality rates varied from 100% in Nc-Bahia and Nc-Liv-infected pups to 19% or less for those infected with the isolates from oocysts. The vertical transmission rates varied from 9 to 53% for N. caninum from oocysts, compared with 100% for the Nc-Liv and Nc-Bahia isolates. All dams showed specific IgG responses against tachyzoite and rNc-GRA7 antigens, confirming Neospora infection. The highest IgG levels were detected in mice inoculated with the Nc-Liv and Nc-Bahia isolates. These results demonstrate marked differences in virulence between the N. caninum isolates obtained from oocysts and neurologically affected dogs. This variability could help us to explain the differences in the outcome of the infection in definitive and intermediate hosts. PMID:24148606

  2. [Impact of canine demography on rabies transmission in N'djamena, Chad].

    PubMed

    Mindekem, R; Kayali, U; Yemadji, N; Ndoutamia, A G; Zinsstag, J

    2005-01-01

    A transversal study using the clustering technique was carried out in 600 households to estimate dog-population density in the city of N'Djamena and evaluate the knowledge of the inhabitants concerning the risk of rabies. Dog-population density as estimated by negative binomial modelling was 0.03 dogs per person. The dog population estimated taking into account the extrapolated human population for 2001 was at 23 575 dogs (95% confidence interval, 14579-37921 dogs). Three-fourths of inhabitants reported that they had heard of rabies. Most respondents knew some rabies symptoms such as frothing at the mouth, restlessness, and aggressivity. In case of dog-bite injury many respondents said that they would seek care in medical facilities, e.g., health-care centers, hospitals and veterinary clinics, but some said they would also use traditional remedies, witch-doctor services, and self-medication. More than half of the respondents believed that symptomatic rabies could be cured. Because of confinement and feeding needs stray dogs are common. The canine vaccination rate is low (19%) for various reasons including limited financial resources, absence of transportation, unavailability of vaccination facilities, ignorance and negligence. Since access to health care after exposure can be difficult, mass vaccination of dogs is the recommended strategy to control rabies in cities like N'Djamena. Cooperation of all those involved in rabies control is necessary to promote the education and awareness action necessary to promote canine vaccination and reporting of exposure cases to competent authorities. PMID:15903078

  3. Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries. PMID:24898032

  4. A single-centre, open-label, controlled, randomized clinical trial to assess the preventive efficacy of a domperidone-based treatment programme against clinical canine leishmaniasis in a high prevalence area.

    PubMed

    Sabat, David; Llins, Jorge; Homedes, Josep; Sust, Mariano; Ferrer, Llus

    2014-07-01

    The innate immune response acting immediately after initial infection with Leishmania parasites is known to play a relevant role in prevention against clinical progression of the disease. Domperidone is a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist that has shown to enhance the innate cell-mediated immune response. The aim of this study was to assess the preventive efficacy of a domperidone-based treatment programme against clinical canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a high prevalence area. The study was performed with 90 healthy, seronegative dogs of different sex, age, weight and breed from a single veterinary clinic located in Valencia (Spain). Dogs were randomly allocated into two groups. Dogs in one group (domperidone-treated group; n=44) were administered an oral suspension of domperidone at 0.5 mg/kg bw/day during 30 consecutive days, every 4 months. Dogs in the other group (negative control group; n=46) were left untreated. A 21-month follow-up period was implemented covering two seasonal phases of the sand fly vector. During this period all animals underwent periodic clinical examinations and blood samplings for anti-Leishmania serological testing. Dogs seropositive for Leishmania (IFAT antibody titre?1:80) plus at least one clinical sign consistent with CanL (indicative of active infection and incipient disease progression) were categorized as a 'prevention failure'. These dogs were withdrawn from the study after confirming the infection by direct observation of the parasite in smears of lymph nodes and/or bone marrow aspirates. The cumulative percentage of 'prevention failure' after 12 months was significantly lower in the domperidone-treated group than in the negative control group (7% versus 35%, p=0.003). Differences between groups persisted after 21 months (11% versus 48%, p<0.001). The prevention rate provided by domperidone was 80% during the first 12 months and 77% throughout the complete 21-month follow-up period, with odds ratios of 7.3 (p=0.001) and 7.15 (p<0.001), respectively, this indicating that the risk for domperidone-treated dogs to develop the clinical disease is quite 7 times lower than for dogs left untreated. The results of this study demonstrate that the implementation of a strategic domperidone-based treatment programme consisting in quarterly repeated 30-day treatments with domperidone effectively reduces the risk to develop clinical CanL in areas with high prevalence of the disease. PMID:24698328

  5. Lack of evidence for perinatal transmission of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis from a bitch to her offspring.

    PubMed

    Plier, Michelle L; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Hegarty, Barbara C; Kidd, Linda B

    2009-01-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis is an emerging infectious disease affecting dogs and humans in the United States and other regions of the world. Relatively few cases have been described in pregnant women, and perinatal transmission appears to occur infrequently in humans. Infection in pregnant dogs has not been reported. Diagnosis of infection during pregnancy poses therapeutic challenges, because doxycycline, the treatment of choice, is teratogenic. Also, infection during pregnancy may result in more severe disease. When infection is diagnosed after parturition, knowledge of the risk of perinatal transmission to offspring is important, because prophylactic therapy in neonates is also not without risk. In this report, we describe relatively severe clinical manifestations of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a postpartum bitch and a lack of perinatal transmission to her puppies. PMID:19723846

  6. The Effect of Removing Potentially Infectious Dogs on the Numbers of Canine Leishmania infantum Infections in an Endemic Area with High Transmission Rates

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Santos, Claudiney B.; Ferreira, Adelson L.; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effect of the rapid removal of potentially infectious dogs on the prevalence and incidence of canine infections, a prospective study was undertaken in an area endemic for Leishmania infantum. We used serological testing based on the rapid DPP rK28 fusion protein chromatographic immunoassay for this dog screening-and-culling intervention trial. The outcome was evaluated by measuring seropositivity and sero-conversion/-reversion rates for canine infection. Our estimates indicated that concomitant detection and elimination of seropositive dogs with active disease may affect the numbers of canine infections and disease burden temporarily, although it is insufficient as a measure to interrupt the zoonotic L. infantum transmission. However, most of the asymptomatic, seropositive dogs continuously exhibit low levels of antibodies and/or reverted, remaining seronegative thereafter. In the process of waiting for an effective vaccine, one option for canine reservoir control may be to identify these possibly genetically resistant animals and promote their expansion in the population. PMID:22665602

  7. Do open garbage dumps play a role in canine rabies transmission in Biyem-Assi health district in Cameroon?

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Tabue N.; Roland, Madgan E.; Françoise, Kenfack M. M.; Francis, Zeukeng; Livo, Esemu F.; Clovis, Seumen T. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. In Cameroon, efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies are often thwarted by the lack of community awareness. The community knowledge, as well as attitudes and perception on rabies, is therefore important for both prevention of human deaths and control in animals. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the level of community knowledge as well as the role of open garbage dumps (OGDs) in the epidemiology of human rabies. Overall 420 heads of household were interviewed in the Biyem-Assi health district of Yaoundé. OGDs were identified through a systematic check, and household wastes they contained were characterized. Results Although 66.9% of respondents have knowledge on stray dogs, only 35% of respondents knew the role of OGDs in the increase of stray dog population. Overall OGDs consisted of fermentable wastes. Nutrition places for stray dogs were wild garbage dumps (68.1%), markets (18.3%), and houses (13.6%). The feeding behavior of stray dogs correlated significantly with the human rabies transmission (χ 2=154.12, df=4, p<0.05). Conclusion Most participants knew that rabies could be transmitted by a dog bite as well as the measures to be taken in this type of situation. Increased knowledge of respondents on rabies showed OGDs and stray dogs as significant risk factors for canine rabies in Biyem-Assi health district. PMID:25595689

  8. An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shiomoda, Hiroshi; Tamaru, Seiji; Shimojima, Masayuki; Goto, Megumi; Une, Yumi; Sato, Azusa; Ikebe, Yusuke; Maeda, Ken

    2012-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (<90%) to the vaccine strain (Onderstepoort). Seropositivity of lions (Panthera leo) in the zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species. PMID:22214864

  9. Vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis: A review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Keerti; Jain, N K

    2015-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as Kala-Azar, is one of the most severely neglected tropical diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). The threat of this debilitating disease continues due to unavailability of promising drug therapy or human vaccine. An extensive research is undergoing to develop a promising vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. In this review we compiled the findings of recent research with a view to facilitate knowledge on experimental vaccinology for visceral leishmaniasis. Various killed or attenuated parasite based first generation vaccines, second generation vaccines based on antigenic protein or recombinant protein, and third generation vaccines derived from antigen-encoding DNA plasmids including heterologous prime-boost Leishmania vaccine have been examined for control and prevention of visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccines based on recombinant protein and antigen-encoding DNA plasmids have given promising results and few vaccines including Leishmune®, Leishtec, and CaniLeish® have been licensed for canine visceral leishmaniasis. A systematic investigation of these vaccine candidates can lead to development of promising vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis, most probably in the near future. PMID:25858230

  10. Safety and Efficacy of Antimicrobial Peptides against Naturally Acquired Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Alberola, J.; Rodríguez, A.; Francino, O.; Roura, X.; Rivas, L.; Andreu, D.

    2004-01-01

    Leishmaniases, which are important causes of morbidity and mortality in humans and dogs, are extremely difficult to treat. Antimicrobial peptides are rarely used as alternative treatments for naturally acquired parasitic diseases. Here we report that the acylated synthetic antimicrobial peptide Oct-CA(1-7)M(2-9) is safe and effective for treating naturally acquired canine leishmaniasis. PMID:14742227

  11. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ready, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-)tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control), surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL should be susceptible to elimination by rapid case detection and treatment combined with local vector control, and one of the most important interventions may well be socioeconomic development. PMID:24833919

  12. Ocular manifestations of canine transmissible venereal tumour: a retrospective study of 25 cases in Greece.

    PubMed

    Komnenou, A Th; Thomas, A L N; Kyriazis, A P; Poutahidis, T; Papazoglou, L G

    2015-05-16

    Transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) is a sexually transmitted neoplasm that frequently affects dogs of either sex, in tropical and subtropical regions. TVT primarily involves the external genitalia, although extragenital sites have also been reported. This study describes the ocular manifestations of TVT in 25 naturally infected dogs and their response to treatment. Seventeen male and eight female dogs were included in the study. TVT ocular lesions were either unilateral (21 dogs) or bilateral (four dogs). Ocular lesions as the single manifestation of TVT were seen in 22 animals. One dog presented external genitalia involvement while two others were found to have tumours in the oral and nasal mucosa. Variably sized multilobular tumour masses with irregular surface were noticed on the bulbar conjunctiva of the nictitating membrane in 17 dogs, on the conjunctiva of the upper eyelid in five dogs and on the conjunctiva of the lower eyelid and adjacent skin in three dogs. Deep ulcerative keratitis was observed in eight animals. TVT diagnosis was based on cytology and histopathology. The large eye masses were surgically excised. All dogs were treated with a single chemotherapeutic agent (vincristine). After four weeks of treatment, complete remission of the tumours was evident in all but one animal. Extragenital primary ophthalmic TVT can be completely eliminated by vincristine chemotherapy, while any further ocular damage is prevented with the combination of the above treatment and surgical excision. PMID:25888603

  13. The effect of medial meniscectomy and coronal plane angulation on in vitro load transmission in the canine stifle joint.

    PubMed

    Newman, A P; Anderson, D R; Daniels, A U; Jee, K W

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro load transmission characteristics of the canine stifle joint, paying particular attention to the positioning effect of the meniscus in the coronal plane. The intact joint was first loaded, and then tested under two different loading conditions after a complete medial meniscectomy. The first set of test conditions attempted to simulate those used by previous investigators, by ignoring the spacer effect of the meniscus and not repositioning the joint after its removal. The second set of tests was carried out after the joint was repositioned in the coronal plane to allow initial contact to occur in both tibiofemoral compartments. It is presumed that this occurs subsequent to a meniscectomy in vivo, following the application of any weight-bearing load. As with previous investigators, it was found that after meniscectomy the joints produced slightly larger displacements and lower stiffnesses than when intact (no significant differences from intact). However, repositioning the meniscectomized joint produced markedly smaller displacements (35-49%, p less than 0.01) and greater stiffnesses (47-123%, p less than 0.05) over the range of forces analyzed, compared with the intact joint. The ratio of dissipated to input energy was 42% for the intact joint, and rose following meniscectomy to 54% (p less than 0.05) with repositioning and 55% (p less than 0.05) without repositioning. Measured contact area decreased by 17% (p less than 0.05) following meniscectomy alone, and by 12% (p less than 0.05) following meniscectomy with repositioning. Since repositioning of the joint subsequent to meniscectomy (accounting for the loss of the meniscal spacer) resulted in an increase in structural stiffness, it was concluded that the medial meniscus decreases the structural stiffness of the intact stifle joint. In addition, the meniscus has a role in elastic energy storage and increasing contact area. This study is intended to serve as a baseline comparison for future in vivo studies on meniscectomy, meniscal repair, and meniscal replacement, in addition to more fully elucidating the mechanism of load transmission. A model is presented to explain both the decrease in stiffness after meniscectomy without repositioning and the increase in stiffness after meniscectomy with repositioning, employing linear springs of unequal length and different stiffnesses. After removal of the softer meniscal element and allowing joint approximation to occur, loading of the stiffer articular element results in an initially stiffer preparation. PMID:2918427

  14. Canine neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Prier, J. E.; Brodey, R. S.

    1963-01-01

    The authors review current knowledge of spontaneous neoplasms in the dog. The prevalence of certain types of canine tumour has been studied, and comparisons have been made with the occurrence of similar neoplasms in man. Where there are appropriate analogies between the two species, the dog with spontaneous tumours can be used for studies that are not practicable in man. Nutritional and morphological studies have been done on cells cultured from canine tumours. Some consistency has been demonstrated in the morphology of cultures of different tumours of the same type. Nutritional studies with the transmissible venereal sarcoma of the dog have shown the cells to be subject to a growth-repressing effect by SH-containing amino-acids. Attempts to transmit tumours to other dogs or other species have generally been unsuccessful. A transplantable tumour developed in a mouse injected with non-cellular material from a canine thyroid carcinoma, but it is not certain that the tumour was induced. Cell-culture studies have shown that some tumours yield a factor that is cytopathogenic for normal cells, but none has been shown capable of inducing neoplasms in vivo. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 6 PMID:14058226

  15. Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum in Salta, Argentina: Possible Reservoirs and Vectors.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Paola A; Marco, Jorge D; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Cardozo, Rubén M; Hoyos, Carlos L; Mora, María C; García Bustos, María F; López-Quiroga, Inés; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gentile, Alberto G; Barrio, Alejandra B; Korenaga, Masataka; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisha; Basombrío, Miguel A

    2015-08-01

    Cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) were not recorded until recently in the Chaco region of northwestern Argentina. Dogs were surveyed at the sites of infection of two HVL index cases in the Chaco region of Salta province. Canine cases (CanL) were diagnosed by two parasitological methods, two molecular methods targeting mini- and maxicircle DNA, and immunochromatographic dipstick. Among 77 dogs studied, 10 (13%) were found infected with Leishmania spp. In seven dogs and two humans, the infecting species was typed as Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. The same genotype was detected in the human and two of the CanL. Although several diagnostic methods displayed weak or moderate agreement, the concordance values for serology versus maxicircle PCR were very good (Kappa index = 0.84). Sandflies captured in the area were identified as Lutzomyia migonei and Lu. cortelezzii/Lu. sallesi (cortelezzii complex). The focal appearance of leishmaniasis in dogs and humans in a sylvatic region and its relatively low prevalence of infection suggests that L. (L.) infantum transmission to dogs and humans may, in this region, stem from sylvatic reservoirs. PMID:26055744

  16. Ethical and epidemiological dilemmas in the treatment of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Travi, Bruno L

    2014-01-01

    In the Americas there are between 4,500 and 6,800 annual cases of severe visceral leishmaniasis, and mortality is estimated to range between 7 and 10%. However, underreporting and subclinical infections mask the real epidemiological importance of visceral leishmaniasis. Control efforts, which have typically focused on insecticide spraying of sand fly vectors and dog culling, have yielded disparate results. Nevertheless, thousands of dogs are sacrificed each year in countries endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Additionally, current guidelines of leishmaniasis control programs have banned dog treatment with drugs of human use while therapy with other drugs resulted in high rates of relapses. Society requires that control programs take a more humanitarian approach aimed at limiting dog culling. There is an urgent need to promote responsible dog-ownership and support research on: a) novel veterinary therapies, b) low-cost molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and c) determination of dog infectivity threshold for proper reservoir management. PMID:24967853

  17. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal near-infrared optical tomography of canine prostate bearing transmissible venereal tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Piao, Daqing

    2009-02-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography is conducted on a tumor-bearing canine prostate with the assistance of trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The canine prostate tumor model is made possible by a unique round cell neoplasm of dogs, transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) that can be transferred from dog to dog regardless of histocompatibility. A characterized TVT cell line was homogenized and passed twice in subcutaneous tissue of NOD/SCID mice. Following the second passage, the tumor was recovered, homogenized and then inoculated by ultrasound guidance into the prostate gland of a healthy dog. The dog was then imaged with a combined trans-rectal NIR and TRUS imager using an integrated trans-rectal NIR/US applicator. The image was taken by NIR and US modalities concurrently, both in sagittal view. The trans-rectal NIR imager is a continuous-wave system that illuminates 7 source channels sequentially by a fiber switch to deliver sufficient light power to the relatively more absorbing prostate tissue and samples 7 detection channels simultaneously by a gated intensified high-resolution CCD camera. This work tests the feasibility of detecting prostate tumor by trans-rectal NIR optical tomography and the benefit of augmenting TRUS with trans-rectal NIR imaging.

  18. Canine Distemper

    MedlinePlus

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of health information. Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. ...

  19. Epidemiological study on leishmaniasis in an area of environmental tourism and ecotourism, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ana Rachel Oliveira de; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Rocca, Maria Elizabeth Gizi; Aquino, Ricardo Braga

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to carry out a serological survey of canine leishmaniasis and identify the phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The serological survey was conducted on a sample of 303 dogs, by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test. Phlebotomines were captured using automated light traps. The serological survey found that 30% of the dogs were seropositive, both from the center and from all districts of the town. A total of 2,772 specimens of phlebotomines were caught and the species most found was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%), which corroborated its role as the vector of for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the region. Phlebotomines of the species Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (the main vector for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Nyssomyia whitmani (the vector for Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis) were also caught. The findings indicate the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance, with attention towards diminishing the vector breeding sites and the transmission of these diseases in that region. PMID:19967228

  20. [Evidence for the transmission of the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis by the sandfly Phlebotomus (Adlerius) turanicus Artemiev, 1974 in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Lesnikova, E V; Sabitov, E A

    1995-01-01

    Four sandfly [correction of mosquito] species were identified in all foci of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Turkmenistan. There is evidence that three of them (Phlebotomus papatasi, P. caucasicus, P. andrejevi) cannot be carriers of VL agent in Turkmenistan. The carrier of Leishmania infantum in Turkmenistan is likely to be the zooanthropophilic sandfly [correction of mosquito] P. turanicus that prevails in the settlements and their vicinities in the desert foothill plains and in the burrows of foxes. The time of the carrier activity is May to September, and its peak size is observed in mid-July. In September, the promastigote infection of P. turanicus is as high as 47.5%. The carrier size may vary with years, the infection of children and dogs ceased with the reduction in the P. turanicus size. There are evidence for the distribution of the carrier in the populated locality, dwelling and natural biotopes. PMID:7476676

  1. PKDL--A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Roy, Surajit; Ghosh, Tamal Kanti; Guha, Subhasish K; Kundu, Pratip K; Bera, Dilip K; Basu, Nandita; Maji, Ardhendu K

    2015-01-01

    Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46%) for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6-12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period. PMID:26485704

  2. Entomological studies of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in relation to cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in Al Rabta, North West of Libya.

    PubMed

    Dokhan, Mostafa Ramahdan; Kenawy, Mohamed Amin; Doha, Said Abdallah; El-Hosary, Shabaan Said; Shaibi, Taher; Annajar, Badereddin Bashir

    2016-02-01

    Al Rabta in the North-West of Libya is a rural area where cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic for long time. Few reports are available on sand flies in this area which is an important focus of CL. Therefore, this study aimed at updating the species composition, and monthly fluctuation of sand flies in this area. Sand flies were biweekly collected by CDC light traps from June to November 2012 and April to November 2013 in two villages, Al Rabta East (RE) and Al Rabta West (RW). Nine species (6 Phlebotomus and 3 Sergentomyia) were reported in the two villages. A total of 5605 and 5446 flies were collected of which Phlebotomus represented 59.30 and 56.63% in RE and RW, respectively. Sergentomyia minuta and Phlebotomus papatasi were the abundant species. Generally, more males were collected than females for all species. The overall ratios (males: females) for most of species were not deviated from the expected 1:1 ratio (Chi-squared, P>0.05). Sand fly abundance (fly/trap) is directly related to the temperature and RH (P<0. 01) while it inversely related to wind velocity (P>0.05). Flies were active from April to November with increased activity from June to October. Prominent peaks were in September and June. The abundance of P. papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti, vectors of CL (August-October) coincided with the reported higher numbers of CL cases (August- November). The obtained results could be important for the successful planning and implementation of leishmaniasis control programs. PMID:26589378

  3. PKDL—A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Roy, Surajit; Ghosh, Tamal Kanti; Guha, Subhasish K.; Kundu, Pratip K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita; Maji, Ardhendu K.

    2015-01-01

    Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46%) for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6–12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period. PMID:26485704

  4. [Mediterranean leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum. Update on the utility of the IT-Leish and ID-Pagia leishmaniasis tests].

    PubMed

    Marty, P; Delaunay, P; Fissore, C; Le Fichoux, Y

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to update information about Mediterranean leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in man and about the canine reservoir. Special emphasis is placed on laboratory diagnosis tests for Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis (MVL) in humans. In addition two rapid diagnostic tests for human leishmaniasis are compared based on indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot. Findings show that the overall sensitivity of the two tests in immunocompetent and immunodepressed patients ranged from 54% to 97%, a specificity of 97%, with positive predictive value ranging from 75% to 97% and a negative predictive value of around 95%. For diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis, positivity of these tests in one case out of 2 underscores the predictive value of a positive test. PMID:17506280

  5. Vector and reservoir control for preventing leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    González, Urbà; Pinart, Mariona; Sinclair, David; Firooz, Alireza; Enk, Claes; Vélez, Ivan D; Esterhuizen, Tonya M; Tristan, Mario; Alvar, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is caused by the Leishmania parasite, and transmitted by infected phlebotomine sandflies. Of the two distinct clinical syndromes, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) affects the skin and mucous membranes, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects internal organs. Approaches to prevent transmission include vector control by reducing human contact with infected sandflies, and reservoir control, by reducing the number of infected animals. Objectives To assess the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions for cutaneous and for visceral leishmaniasis. Search methods We searched the following databases to 13 January 2015: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and WHOLIS, Web of Science, and RePORTER. We also searched trials registers for ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions in leishmaniasis-endemic regions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently searched for trials and extracted data from included RCTs. We resolved any disagreements by discussion with a third review author. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 14 RCTs that evaluated a range of interventions across different settings. The study methods were generally poorly described, and consequently all included trials were judged to be at high or unclear risk of selection and reporting bias. Only seven trials reported clinical outcome data which limits our ability to make broad generalizations to different epidemiological settings and cultures. Cutaneous leishmaniasis One four-arm RCT from Afghanistan compared indoor residual spraying (IRS), insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), and insecticide-treated bedsheets, with no intervention. Over 15 months follow-up, all three insecticide-based interventions had a lower incidence of CL than the control area (IRS: risk ratio (RR) 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 0.97, 2892 participants, moderate quality evidence; ITNs: RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.56, 2954 participants, low quality evidence; ITS: RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.57, 2784 participants, low quality evidence). No difference was detected between the three interventions (low quality evidence). One additional trial of ITNs from Iran was underpowered to show a difference. Insecticide treated curtains were compared with no intervention in one RCT from Venezuela, where there were no CL episodes in the intervention areas over 12 months follow-up compared to 142 in control areas (RR 0.00, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.49, one trial, 2938 participants, low quality evidence). Personal protection using insecticide treated clothing was evaluated by two RCTs in soldiers, but the trials were underpowered to reliably detect effects on the incidence of CL (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.20, two trials, 558 participants, low quality evidence). Visceral leishmaniasis In a single RCT of ITNs versus no intervention from India and Nepal, the incidence of VL was low in both groups and no difference was detected (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.15, one trial, 19,810 participants, moderate quality evidence). Two trials from Brazil evaluated the effects of culling infected dogs compared to no intervention or IRS. Although they report a reduction in seroconversion over 18 months follow-up, they did not measure or report effects on clinical disease. Authors' conclusions Using insecticides to reduce phlebotomine sandfly numbers may be effective at reducing the incidence of CL, but there is insufficient evidence from trials to know whether it is better to spray the internal walls of houses or to treat bednets, curtains, bedsheets or clothing. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Vector and reservoir control for preventing leishmaniasis This review summarises trials evaluating different measures to prevent leishmaniasis. After searching for relevant trials up to January 2015, we included 14 randomized controlled trials. What is vector and reservoir control and how might they prevent leishmaniasis? Leishmaniasis is a group of infectious diseases caused by Leishmania parasites, which are transmitted between humans and animals by the bite of infected phlebotomine sandflies. There are two main clinical diseases: cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), where parasites infect the skin, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), where they infect the internal organs. Leishmaniasis could be prevented by reducing human contact with infected phlebotomine sandflies (the vector), or by reducing the number of infected animals (the reservoir). What the research says? Cutaneous leishmaniasis Using insecticides to reduce the number of sandflies may be effective at reducing the number of new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (low quality evidence). However, there is not enough evidence to know whether it is better to use insecticides to spray the internal walls of houses, or use insecticide treated bednets, bedsheets, or curtains. Personal protection using insecticide treated clothing was also evaluated in two small trials in soldiers, but the trials were too small to know whether this was effective (low quality evidence). Visceral leishmaniasis Insecticide treated nets may not be effective at preventing visceral leishmaniasis but this has only been tested in a single trial from India and Nepal (low quality evidence). Although culling dogs is sometimes discussed as a potential way to reduce visceral leishmaniasis, this has not been tested in trials measuring clinical disease. PMID:26246011

  6. Geographic Clustering of Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil1

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Luiz H.; Machado, Paulo R.L.; Lessa, Marcus; Lessa, Hélio A.; Lago, Ednaldo; Ritt, Guilherme; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Schriefer, Ana L.F.; Riley, Lee W.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether disease outcomes and clades of Leishmania braziliensis genotypes are associated, we studied geographic clustering of clades and most severe disease outcomes for leishmaniasis during 1999–2003 in Corte de Pedra in northeastern Brazil. Highly significant differences were observed in distribution of mucosal leishmaniasis versus disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) (p<0.0001). Concordance was observed between distribution of these disease forms and clades of L. braziliensis genotypes shown to be associated with these disease forms. We also detected spread of DL over this region and an inverse correlation between frequency of recent DL diagnoses and distance to a previous DL case. These findings indicate that leishmaniasis outcomes are distributed differently within transmission foci and show that DL is rapidly spreading in northeastern Brazil. PMID:19523284

  7. Babesiosis due to the canine Babesia microti-like small piroplasm in dogs - first report from Portugal and possible vertical transmission

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis) is endemic in northern Portugal, but molecularly confirmed cases of infection with small piroplasms have not been reported in the country. Three German shepherd dogs - a bitch and its 2-month old pup and an unrelated male - clinically suspected of piroplasmosis were assessed for babesial infection. Results Parasitemia with small piroplasms was detected by microscopy in two dogs. All three dogs were positive by PCR and the Babesia microti-like small piroplasm (syn. Theileria annae) was identified by DNA sequencing. These are the first confirmed cases of babesiosis caused by the B. microti-like piroplasm both in dogs from Portugal and in dogs suspected of clinical piroplasmosis outside of Spain. Conclusions Although the bitch and the male had visited neighboring Galicia (northwestern Spain), where the disease is endemic, incursion of this piroplasm into northern Portugal is evident and infection of the non-traveled pup was due to either vertical transmission or autochthonous tick infection. PMID:21489238

  8. Vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajiv; Engwerda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that encompasses a range of clinical manifestations affecting people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that protection from disease can be achieved in most people. In addition, we know how the host immune system must respond to infection in order to control parasite growth. However, there is still no vaccine for use in humans. Here, we review our understanding of host immunity following Leishmania infection and also discuss recent advances in the development of vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis, highlighting a new promising approach that targets the parasite hemoglobin receptor. PMID:25505961

  9. Vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv; Engwerda, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that encompasses a range of clinical manifestations affecting people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that protection from disease can be achieved in most people. In addition, we know how the host immune system must respond to infection in order to control parasite growth. However, there is still no vaccine for use in humans. Here, we review our understanding of host immunity following Leishmania infection and also discuss recent advances in the development of vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis, highlighting a new promising approach that targets the parasite hemoglobin receptor. PMID:25505961

  10. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: Clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Handler, Marc Z; Patel, Parimal A; Kapila, Rajendra; Al-Qubati, Yasin; Schwartz, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries and territories, with 1.2 million new cases per year, making it a worldwide concern. The deadly visceral form is a leading cause of death from tropical parasitic infections, second only to malaria. Leishmaniasis appears to be increasing in many countries because of extended urbanization. The disease reservoir includes small mammals; parasite transmission occurs via bite of the female phlebotomine sandfly. Disease manifestations vary and largely depend upon the Leishmania species acquired. It may be first evident with a range of findings-from a localized cutaneous ulcer to diffuse painless dermal nodules-or, in the mucocutaneous form, ulceration of the oropharynx. In the potentially deadly visceral form, the internal organs and bone marrow are affected. PMID:26568335

  11. New Approaches on Leishmaniasis Treatment and Prevention: A Review of Recent Patents.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Juliana F; Figueiredo, Sonia M de; Monteiro, Fabricio M; Rocha-Silva, Fabiana; Gaciele-Melo, Cidiane; Coelho, Sabrina S C; Lyon, Sandra; Caligiorne, Rachel B

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered a neglected tropical disease having a worldwide distribution. The disease is caused by protozoa belonging to the genus Leishmania, being clinically divided into visceral leishmaniasis (VL), cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). Domestic dogs are the main parasite reservoir and effectively participate in the protozoa transmission. The human leishmaniasis treatment is based on a selection of therapeutic compounds, but the available drugs are toxic, presenting adverse side effects. The decision to treat or not to treat seropositive dogs is under discussion in some countries, because treatment is even more toxic to animals and, also, can generate drug resistant strains. Therefore, very few treatment choices have reached the clinic for this disease and there is an urgent need of new chemotherapy for both humans and animals. This study presents a review of new patents related to treatment and prevention of Leishmania infections. Some of these patents are related to new vaccine formulations for combating leishmaniasis. Likewise, the inventions related to the cream formulations for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis are very important, avoiding the side effects of drugs during the treatment. Furthermore, anti leishmaniasis products that are extracted from nature has increasingly been patented each year, demonstrating the importance of bioprospection studies to improve the armamentarium of anti leishmaniasis drugs. PMID:26392062

  12. Molecular epidemiology of imported cases of leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Tamalee; Barratt, Joel; Sandaradura, Indy; Lee, Rogan; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent's Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55). Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94%) with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans. PMID:25734905

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Imported Cases of Leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Tamalee; Barratt, Joel; Sandaradura, Indy; Lee, Rogan; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent’s Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55). Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94%) with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans. PMID:25734905

  14. Vincristine modulates the expression of Ki67 and apoptosis in naturally occurring canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT).

    PubMed

    Özalp, G R; Zik, B; Bastan, A; Peker, S; Özdemir-Salci, E S; Bastan, I; Darbaz, I; Salar, S; Karakas, K

    2012-07-01

    We investigated eight adult dogs that were brought to veterinary clinics with a history of transmissible venereal tumors (TVT). Our goal was to demonstrate the occurrence of apoptosis and the cessation of cell proliferation at every phase of scheduled chemotherapy for naturally occurring TVT. Tissue samples were collected immediately after weekly treatments with vincristine sulfate and processed for histological purposes. Sections 5 μm thick were stained by the TUNEL reaction for apoptosis and immunostained for Ki67 as a proliferation marker. We observed that after vincristine applications, tumor cell proliferation ceased and apoptosis increased. Ki67 HSCORE values were significantly lowered after the first and second treatments with the chemotherapeutic agent compared to controls, whereas TUNEL HSCORE values were significantly higher after two applications of vincristine compared to controls. Our results suggest that scheduled vincristine sulfate applications stabilize the induction of tumor regression by inducing apoptosis and preventing cell proliferation. PMID:22404564

  15. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats*

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last 5 years were searched in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS and Scielo, and we selected 10 papers about cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs and cats in the Americas. In Brazil, often the indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) have been applied. Other countries like United States and Mexico have been using antigenic fractions for antibodies detections by Western blot. ELISA and Western blot showed a higher sensitivity and efficacy in the detection of leishmaniasis. Analysis of sensibility and specificity of the methods was rarely used. Although confirmatory to leishmaniasis, direct methods for parasites detection and polymerase chain reaction showed low positivity in disease detection. We suggested that more than one method should be used for the detection of feline and canine leishmaniasis. Serological methods such as Western blot and enzyme immunoassay have a high efficacy in the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:26734869

  16. [Gender and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Velez, I D; Hendrickx, E; Robledo, S M; del Pilar Agudelo, S

    2001-01-01

    Leishmaniasis in Colombia has traditionally been seen as a health risk for adult males, as they become infected when they enter the vector's biotopes to tap natural resources. National health statistics seem to confirm this theory. However, during field studies, the Program for the Study and Control of Tropical Diseases (PECET) observed both equal proportions of men and women with active leishmaniasis and delayed hypersensitivity skin tests and equal proportions of males and females having had contact with the parasite from early childhood. Several factors that have not been analyzed in depth in Colombia thus far appear to distort the disease's epidemiological pattern in the country, and gender-linked differences in access to health care appear to exist. As a consequence, no relief is provided for this source of human suffering, and socioeconomic repercussions for households are significant. Preventive measures by the Colombian Ministry of Health (MOH) systematically underestimate the magnitude of intra- and peridomiciliary transmission, and female patients are excluded from active case detection. Further research should be devoted to this phenomenon. The MOH should be encouraged to improve leishmaniasis control programs, especially with regard to active case detection, training, and teaching, so that quicker diagnosis can be performed. Meanwhile, the MOH should retrain its health personnel. PMID:11241940

  17. Impact of climate variability in the occurrence of leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Rocio; Sandoval, Claudia M; Rodrguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Franco-Paredes, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that variation in the distribution of vectors associated to the transmission of Leishmania species may be related to climatic changes. However, the potential implications of these ecological changes in human health need to be further defined in various endemic populations where leishmaniasis carries a substantial burden of disease such as in Northeastern Colombia. Herein, we report the impact of El Nio Southern Oscillation climatic fluctuations during 1985-2002 in the occurrence of cases of leishmaniasis in two northeastern provinces of Colombia. During this period, we identified that during El Nio, cases of leishmaniasis increased, whereas during La Nia phases, leishmaniasis cases decreased. This preliminary data show how climatic changes influence the occurrence of leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia and contributes to the growing body of evidence that shows that the incidence of vector-borne diseases is associated with annual changes in weather conditions. PMID:16896132

  18. Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Latin America—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Gustavo A. S.; Boelaert, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    Background While three countries in South Asia decided to eliminate anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by 2015, its control in other regions seems fraught with difficulties. Is there a scope for more effective VL control in the Americas where transmission is zoonotic? We reviewed the evidence on VL control strategies in Latin America—diagnosis, treatment, veterinary interventions, vector control—with respect to entomological and clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings We searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE, LILACS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 1960 to November 2008 and references of selected articles. Intervention trials as well as observational studies that evaluated control strategies of VL in the Americas were included. While the use of rapid diagnostic tests for VL diagnosis seems well established, there is a striking lack of evidence from clinical trials for drug therapy and few well designed intervention studies for control of vectors or canine reservoirs. Conclusion Elimination of zoonotic VL in the Americas does not seem a realistic goal at this point given the lack of political commitment, gaps in scientific knowledge, and the weakness of case management and surveillance systems. Research priorities and current strategies should be reviewed with the aim of achieving better VL control. PMID:20098726

  19. Resurgence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gandacu, Dan; Anis, Emilia; Karakis, Isabella; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul; Grotto, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. After a 15-year period of moderate illness rates, reported incidence increased from 0.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2001 to 4.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2012, and the disease emerged in areas where its presence had previously been minimal. We analyzed all cases reported to the national surveillance system and found that outbreak patterns revealed an expansion of Leishmania major infections over large areas in the southern part of the country and the occurrence of spatially focused L. tropica outbreaks in the northern part of the country. Outbreaks often followed new construction in populated areas. Further study of factors affecting the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed in Israel, as well as the development of effective methods to control the disease, an increase in awareness among health care professionals, and intensive public education regarding control measures in areas of known leishmaniasis foci. PMID:25271882

  20. Canine transmissible venereal tumor and seminoma: a cytohistopathology and chemotherapy study of tumors in the growth phase and during regression after chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, J; Pedram, B; Taheriyan, M R; Khadivar, F; Hosseini, S H; Abdi, F S; Hosseini, E; Moloudizargari, M; Aghajanshakeri, S H; Javaherypour, S; Shafiee, R; Emrani Bidi, R

    2014-06-01

    In this study, 12 dogs affected by canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) and testicular seminoma tumor were studied retrospectively. The cytological sample was smeared onto a glass slide and either air-dried for May-Grünwald-stain, and masses were surgically removed. The tumors were grossly examined, and sections of 4-μm thick were obtained from each sample and stained with H&E. For chemotherapy, vincristine sulfate was administered weekly as an infusion over 3 min via the cephalic vein at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg after diluting with physiological saline to a total amount of 10 ml. If no remission was observed after 8 weeks, chemotherapy was continued with weekly doxorubicin infusion at a dose of 1 mg/kg. All the tumor samples were divided into four cytohistopathologic groups, namely: multilobular (six cases), papillary (two cases), pedunculated (two cases), and tubular (two cases of seminoma). The most frequently represented tumor type was multilobular (6/10, 60 %) followed by pedunculated (2/10, 20 %), papillary (2/10, 20 %), and tubular (two cases of seminoma, 100 %). Cytological smears from eight tumors in regression after chemotherapy were poorly cellular, and many cells were fragmented. In two progressive tumors, there was an average of 1,406 ± 972 CTVT 200 cells/μl or 96.71 % of total cells counted. Thus, tumor cells represented 96.71 % of total cells within the biopsy specimens and the leukocytes 4.29 % (leukocyte, tumor cell ratio=0.062 ± 0.031). In eight regressive tumors, there was an average of 1,245 ± 1,032 CTVT 200 cells/μl or 97.31 % of total cells counted. Thus, tumor cells represented 97.31 % of total cells and leukocytes 2.69 % (leukocyte, tumor cell ratio=0.071 ± 0.174). Our data suggested that combination treatment with vincristine and doxorubicin in the future could be an excellent therapeutic alternative for the treatment of TVT for probably reducing the resistance to vincristine, and also, treatment success could easily be followed by the cytological changes. PMID:24557542

  1. An investigation on vertical transmission of Leishmania infantum in experimentally infected dogs and assessment of offspring's infectiousness potential by xenodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ben Slimane, T; Chouihi, E; Ben Hadj Ahmed, S; Chelbi, I; Barhoumi, W; Cherni, S; Zoghlami, Z; Gharbi, M; Zhioua, E

    2014-12-15

    Dogs are the main reservoir host of Leishmania infantum, etiologic agent of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Transmission of L. infantum to humans and dogs is mainly through the bite of infected sand flies. In the Western Mediterranean basin, Phlebotomus perniciosus is the main vector of L. infantum. However, occasional vertical transmission of L. infantum has been reported. This study investigated L. infantum vertical transmission in offspring of experimentally infected dogs. Among 14 surviving puppies from three female beagle dogs that developed CVL following an experimental infection with L. infantum, one was tested positive by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test, by PCR and by xenodiagnosis with a high parasite burden in the spleen at 14 months old. None of the remaining puppies were tested positive for L. infantum. These findings strongly suggest that infected puppies following vertical transmission can sustain infection and contribute in infecting sand flies with L. infantum. Any strategy for controlling CVL should take into consideration the vertical transmission of L. infantum. PMID:25468025

  2. Immunotherapy and Immunochemotherapy in Visceral Leishmaniasis: Promising Treatments for this Neglected Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Ker, Henrique Gama; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has several clinical forms: self-healing or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; mucosal leishmaniasis; visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is fatal if left untreated. The epidemiology and clinical features of VL vary greatly due to the interaction of multiple factors including parasite strains, vectors, host genetics, and the environment. Human immunodeficiency virus infection augments the severity of VL increasing the risk of developing active disease by 100–2320 times. An effective vaccine for humans is not yet available. Resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in many regions, and the costs associated with drug identification and development, make commercial production for leishmaniasis, unattractive. The toxicity of currently drugs, their long treatment course, and limited efficacy are significant concerns. For cutaneous disease, many studies have shown promising results with immunotherapy/immunochemotherapy, aimed to modulate and activate the immune response to obtain a therapeutic cure. Nowadays, the focus of many groups centers on treating canine VL by using vaccines and immunomodulators with or without chemotherapy. In human disease, the use of cytokines like interferon-γ associated with pentavalent antimonials demonstrated promising results in patients that did not respond to conventional treatment. In mice, immunomodulation based on monoclonal antibodies to remove endogenous immunosuppressive cytokines (interleukin-10) or block their receptors, antigen-pulsed syngeneic dendritic cells, or biological products like Pam3Cys (TLR ligand) has already been shown as a prospective treatment of the disease. This review addresses VL treatment, particularly immunotherapy and/or immunochemotherapy as an alternative to conventional drug treatment in experimental models, canine VL, and human disease. PMID:24982655

  3. Visceral leishmaniasis: a forgotten epidemic.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, Eduard E

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar) is most endemic in Asia and Africa and commonly affects young children. It is usually caused by Leishmania donovani or Leishmania infantum that are transmitted by Phlebotomine sand flies. Transmission may be anthroponotic or zoonotic or both, depending on the endemic area. Clinical features include fever, hepatosplenomegaly, weight loss and pancytopenia. Younger age, malnutrition and immunosuppression (HIV infection, use of immunosuppressive drugs) are risk factors. Many infections remain asymptomatic. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of the Leishmania parasite in aspirates of lymph node, bone marrow or spleen. Serological tests such as rK39 strip test are widely used but the sensitivity varies. qPCR is useful to detect low numbers of parasites and to monitor treatment. Treatment is with AmBisome monotherapy in most areas but with drug combinations elsewhere. HIV co-infected patients are most difficult to treat and often relapse. Control efforts focus on case finding, availability of diagnostic tools, reservoir control and protection from sand flies (insecticides, bed nets). There is no human vaccine. PMID:26895806

  4. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures. PMID:22839365

  5. Visceral leishmaniasis with Roth spots.

    PubMed

    Meena, Jagdish; Juneja, Monica; Mishra, Devendra; Vats, Pallavi; Pawaria, Arti

    2014-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the bite of infected sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes. The protozoa is obliged intracellularly and causes a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes: VL ('kala azar'), cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (espundia). Kala azar is the most aggressive form and if untreated causes high mortality. Here, we describe a case of VL that presented to us with high-grade fever and found to have Roth spots that were resolved after 15 days of therapy. PMID:25988048

  6. Brazilian canine hepatozoonosis.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2011-01-01

    The genus Hepatozoon includes hundreds of species that infect birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals, in all continents with tropical and subtropical climates. Two species have been described in domestic dogs: H. canis, reported in Europe, Asia, Africa, South America and the United States; and H. americanum, which so far has only been diagnosed in the United States. In Brazil, the only species found infecting dogs is H. canis. The objective of this review was to detail some aspects of canine hepatozoonosis, caused by H. canis, and the main points of its biology, transmission, pathogenicity, symptoms, epidemiology and diagnostic methods, with emphasis on research developed in Brazil. PMID:21961746

  7. Leishmaniasis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ok, U Z; Balcioğlu, I C; Taylan Ozkan, A; Ozensoy, S; Ozbel, Y

    2002-10-01

    Leishmaniases are widespread in most countries in the Mediterranean basin, including Turkey. Two forms are observed in Turkey; Leishmania infantum is responsible from visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and L. tropica causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Phlebotomus sergenti, P. papatasi, P. major and P. syriacus are considered to be the probable vectors, and dogs are the main reservoir of L. infantum, while P. sergenti is the main suspected vector of L. tropica.VL is sporadically seen mainly in the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Central Anatolia Regions, but CL is endemic, especially in the Southeastern and Mediterranean Regions. Major touristic sites are free of both infections, and no infection is reported in any tourist. Mean number of annual VL and CL cases reported to Ministry of Health are 40 and 1,204, respectively, in the last four years. These data suggest that both VL and CL represent a public health problem in Turkey, but a decline is observed in the number of cases with both infections in recent years. PMID:12387909

  8. [Visceral leishmaniasis: an update].

    PubMed

    Faucher, B; Piarroux, R

    2011-09-01

    During the last decade, visceral leishmaniasis has been reconsidered in its epidemiology and strategies for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. This vectorial disease, responsible for more than 50,000 deaths each year across India, East Africa, South America, the Mediterranean area, Central Asia and China, is currently spreading over new territories. This formerly rural disease has even reached cities in South America. This spreading is caused by environmental changes due to global warming or human activity, and by the movement of workers and refugees. As a consequence, the burden of HIV/Leishmania coinfection is increasing in many developing countries even though effective antiretroviral therapy has led to a marked decrease in its incidence in Europe. The disease is now handled differently than it was 10 years ago: PCR has become the most accurate tool for diagnosis and follow-up in developed countries, and field diagnostic tools have been developed (antigenuria, rK39 dipstick). While resistance to antimoniate has appeared in India and Europe, new therapies have been evaluated such as miltefosine, the first oral therapy, or short treatment with liposomal amphotericin B. In France, liposomal amphotericin B has supplanted antimoniate meglumine because of better tolerance and shorter hospitalization duration. Protecting dogs through immunization or collars impregnated with deltamethrin proved effective to prevent zoonotic leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum. PMID:20850210

  9. Canine leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Sapierzyński, R

    2008-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) is an infectious disease of zoonotic potential, caused by protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. Common clinical manifestations of canine visceral leishmaniosis include decrease of appetite, progressive weight loss, exercise intolerance, peripheral lymph node and spleen enlargement, chronic renal and liver disease, muscle, atrophy, polyarthritis and others. Because the Polish literature in the field contains no information on leishmaniosis in animals the recognised case of this disease is presented. Homeless mongrel, intact female dog, 3 years of age was brought to a veterinary clinic because of apathy, and generalised dermatologic lesions to perform routine examination. Because therapeutic effect of primarily recognised scabies was unsatisfactory, the skin samples from ear margins, trunk and lesion of the area of the left gluteal region for histopatologic examination were taken. Due to suspicion of leishmaniosis, fine-needle aspiration biopsy of lymph nodes, skin lesions, ocular discharge and imprint samples from skin lesion were performed, and tissue collected were examined under optical microscopy for identification of Leishmania amastigotes. To confirm cytologic diagnosis, blood samples for serological tests (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay-ELISA; indirect immunofluorescence assay test-IFAT) were taken. Based on physical examination, histopatology, cytopathology and serology, canine visceral leishmaniosis was finally diagnosed. PMID:18683546

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in three Dutch military cohorts following jungle training in Belize.

    PubMed

    van Thiel, P P A M; Zeegelaar, J E; van Gool, T; Faber, W R; Kager, P A

    2011-05-01

    Skin lesions occur frequently in travelers to tropical countries. Military personnel acquire skin lesions regularly during jungle training as did Dutch troops who trained in the jungle of Belize in 1998, 2004 and 2009, in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively. Diagnostic investigations for cutaneous leishmaniasis included Giemsa stain, culture, PCR and NASBA and histopathology of biopsies. Treatment of leishmaniasis was with sodium stibogluconate, given intravenously or intralesionally, the latter with cryotherapy. In 1998 and 2004 cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania mexicana infection was diagnosed in 25 persons out of 99 (attack rate 25.2%) and 14 persons out of 80 (attack rate 17.5%) respectively. In 2009 cutaneous leishmaniasis was not acquired. Skin problems were common during and after jungle training. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was important in the first two cohorts but not observed in the third cohort. Factors that could have played a role in the absence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the third cohort include variability in transmission and availability of better preventive measures and adherence to these. Sodium stibogluconate treatment, intralesional or intravenous, was effective. PMID:21450527

  11. Indigenous microbiota and Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M E M; Carneiro, M B H; Dos Santos, L M; Vieira, L Q

    2016-01-01

    Animals are colonized by their indigenous microbiota from the early days of life. The estimated number of associated bacterial cells in humans is around of 10(14) per individual, most of them in the gut. Several studies have investigated the microbiota-host relationship, and the use of germfree animals has been an important tool in these studies. These animals, when infected with a pathogen, have shown to be sometimes more resistant and other times more susceptible than conventional animals. Leishmaniasis is a worldwide public health problem and presents a spectrum of clinical manifestations. However, very few studies have addressed the role of the indigenous microbiota on the outcome of this disease. In this review, we will highlight and discuss the data available on the ways by which the microbiota can influence the outcome of the disease in murine experimental models of cutaneous infection with Leishmania. PMID:26407073

  12. The Relationship between Leishmaniasis and AIDS: the Second 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Alvar, Jorge; Aparicio, Pilar; Aseffa, Abraham; Den Boer, Margriet; Cañavate, Carmen; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Gradoni, Luigi; Ter Horst, Rachel; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Moreno, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Summary: To date, most Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection cases reported to WHO come from Southern Europe. Up to the year 2001, nearly 2,000 cases of coinfection were identified, of which 90% were from Spain, Italy, France, and Portugal. However, these figures are misleading because they do not account for the large proportion of cases in many African and Asian countries that are missed due to a lack of diagnostic facilities and poor reporting systems. Most cases of coinfection in the Americas are reported in Brazil, where the incidence of leishmaniasis has spread in recent years due to overlap with major areas of HIV transmission. In some areas of Africa, the number of coinfection cases has increased dramatically due to social phenomena such as mass migration and wars. In northwest Ethiopia, up to 30% of all visceral leishmaniasis patients are also infected with HIV. In Asia, coinfections are increasingly being reported in India, which also has the highest global burden of leishmaniasis and a high rate of resistance to antimonial drugs. Based on the previous experience of 20 years of coinfection in Europe, this review focuses on the management of Leishmania-HIV-coinfected patients in low-income countries where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:18400800

  13. Leishmaniasis: Current Status of Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Handman, Emanuela

    2001-01-01

    Leishmaniae are obligatory intracellular protozoa in mononuclear phagocytes. They cause a spectrum of diseases, ranging in severity from spontaneously healing skin lesions to fatal visceral disease. Worldwide, there are 2 million new cases each year and 1/10 of the world's population is at risk of infection. To date, there are no vaccines against leishmaniasis and control measures rely on chemotherapy to alleviate disease and on vector control to reduce transmission. However, a major vaccine development program aimed initially at cutaneous leishmaniasis is under way. Studies in animal models and humans are evaluating the potential of genetically modified live attenuated vaccines, as well as a variety of recombinant antigens or the DNA encoding them. The program also focuses on new adjuvants, including cytokines, and delivery systems to target the T helper type 1 immune responses required for the elimination of this intracellular organism. The availability, in the near future, of the DNA sequences of the human and Leishmania genomes will extend the vaccine program. New vaccine candidates such as parasite virulence factors will be identified. Host susceptibility genes will be mapped to allow the vaccine to be targeted to the population most in need of protection. PMID:11292637

  14. Canine lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1988-12-27

    A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear selectively held stationary by a first brake, the first carrier is allowed to rotate in the same forward direction as the input shaft when the second clutch is engaged, but prevented from rotating in a reverse direction opposite to the forward direction by a first one-way clutch, the first carrier being selectively held stationary by a second brake; a second planetary gear set including a second sun gear connected to the input shaft, a second carrier connected to the first ring gear and also the the output shaft, and a second ring gear.

  16. Immunology of leishmaniasis*

    PubMed Central

    Heyneman, D.

    1971-01-01

    Knowledge of the immunological basis of the leishmaniases and of the host's response is fragmentary and largely pragmatic. This paper reviews certain conceptual and clinical aspects of the immunology of these diseases. Consideration is given to man's natural resistance and his ability to acquire resistance from natural infections and from vaccination. The age-distribution of infection in different populations is discussed in relation to the effects that interaction between the parasite and its intermediate host may have on its infection characteristics and virulence. Studies in the USSR of differences in virulence among 30 human strains and 39 rodent strains are reported. The rodent strains showed a broader range of virulence than did the human isolates. Serological tests for determining species relationships among the leishmaniae are generally nonspecific, but work concerned with the development of the antiserum—culture test is reviewed. Species identification and the recognition of new forms, perhaps with different infection characteristics, is, nevertheless, of the utmost importance in the prevention and treatment of the disease. The review concludes with a discussion of functional immunity and hypotheses of the immune process in leishmaniasis. PMID:5316252

  17. Mucocutaneous Leishmania tropica infection in a dog from a human cutaneous leishmaniasis focus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leishmania tropica is a causative agent of cutaneous leishmanaisis in the Middle East, North Africa and parts of southeastern Europe. Although transmission of L. tropica has been reported as anthroponotic, in Israel it was found to have a zoonotic pattern. Findings A one year old male Pekingese dog from Maale Adumim, a focus of L. tropica human cutaneous leishmaniasis near Jerusalem, was presented by its owner with a large proliferative red mucocutaneous lesion on the lip between the mouth and nose. Physical examination and a biochemistry panel were normal and a complete blood count showed mild leukocytosis with lymphocytosis and eosinophilia. A biopsy of the lesion was suggestive of the presence of Leishmania organisms. Serology for Leishmania sp. by ELISA was positive and an aspirate from the lesion showed a large number of Leishmania amastigotes. ITS1-HRM-PCR of the lesion was positive and sequencing indicated that infection was caused by L. tropica, which was also cultured from the lesion. Blood PCR was negative. The dog responded well to allopurinol treatment and its lesion shrunk considerably within one month of therapy and healed after two months. Conclusions Only a few cases of dog infection with L. tropica have been described to date. They were reported from Morocco and Iran and involved infection of visceral organs. This is the first report of focal mucocutaneous L. tropica infection in a dog and its response to anti-leishmanial treatment. Domestic and wild canines should be evaluated for being possible animal reservoirs for human L. tropica infection in endemic areas or merely accidental hosts. PMID:24661746

  18. New World leishmaniasis from Spain.

    PubMed

    Tomson, N; Symonds, R P; Moir, A A; Kendall, C H; Wiselka, M J

    2002-12-01

    A 69 year old man living in Spain contracted mucocutaneous leishmaniasis involving the nose. The infecting organism was Leishmania infantum, which only rarely causes the New World form of the disease. The source of infection was probably a neighbour's dog. The patient began treatment with liposomal amphotericin B but died of pneumonia two months later. PMID:12509697

  19. Canine rabies ecology in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bingham, John

    2005-09-01

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio > or =1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in > or =1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids. PMID:16229759

  20. Voice Disorders in Mucosal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Jéssica Rafael; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Terceiro, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira; de Sousa Torraca, Tania Salgado; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. Objective To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age) and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. Results 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81%) were male and five (19%) female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years). The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%), followed by dysphonia (38.5%), odynophagia (30.8%) and dysphagia (26.9%). 23 patients (84.6%) presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. Conclusion We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some resonance structures (larynx, pharynx and nasal and oral cavities) or even to compensation mechanisms caused by the presence of lesions in the upper airways and digestive tract. PMID:25055046

  1. Factors Associated with the Seroprevalence of Leishmaniasis in Dogs Living around Atlantic Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the control of visceral leishmaniasis in rural zones near forest fragments. PMID:25089629

  2. Canine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Wanke, M M

    2004-07-01

    This review discusses the prevalence, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical findings, diagnostic methods, therapy, management and public health considerations of Brucella canis infection in dogs. Canine brucellosis is a contagious infection produced by a gram-negative coccobacilus called Brucella canis. The main sources of infection are vaginal fluids of infected females and urine in males. Routes of entry are venereal, oronasal, conjunctivae mucosa and placenta. The most significant symptoms are late abortions in bitches, epididymitis in males and infertility in both sexes, as well as generalized lymphadenitis, discospondylitis and uveitis. Diagnosis is complex because serology can give false positive results and chronic cases can give negative results, needing to be complemented with bacteriological studies. No antibiotic treatment is 100% effective and the infection often recurs in animals apparently treated successfully. Infected animals must be removed from the kennels and no longer used for breeding. Preferably, males should be castrated and females spayed. Human contagion is not frequent, although it has been reported, and is easily treated. PMID:15271453

  3. One Health Approach Prospect for Integrated Control and Elimination of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis is an obligate intercellular protozoon that affects animals and human. It has zoonosis and/or anthroponosis transmission. Human and veterinary medicine, environmental science and wildlife conservation specialists have many commonalities in case of visceral leishmaniasis. Still the above disciplines respond against leishmaniasis in a separate way. The aim of this review is to indicate inter- and intra- sectoral collaboration for planning future control strategies. Methods: literatures written on visceral leishmaniasis and one health approach were systematically reviewed from the year 1969 to 2014 from Pub Med, Scopus, Medline and Google scholar sources. Result: Such a one health approach would enhance biomedical progress; improve medical and veterinary serves, entomological control and wildlife conservation for Visceral Leishmaniasis especially in endemic areas. Conclusion: Inter- and intra – sectoral collaboration in the leishmaniasis control is limited in Ethiopia. Therefore, incorporating one health approach or integrated inter- and intra – sectoral collaboration for visceral leishmaniasis control is an effective control strategy in endemic areas. PMID:27095962

  4. Calcified bodies in New World cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Patricia; Salinas, Cesar; Bravo, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    We report a case of a 9-year-old boy who presented with 2 lesions that were compatible clinically with cutaneous leishmaniasis of the New World. A skin biopsy showed tuberculoid granulomas with rounded calcified bodies. The diagnosis was supported by a positive leishmanin test and a positive polymerase chain reaction. The patient responded to specific treatment for leishmaniasis. These calcified bodies, described under different names in the literature (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies, Schaumann bodies, psammoma bodies, or conchoidal bodies), have been reported in an experimental leishmaniasis and, only once before, in a case of human leishmaniasis of the Old World. PMID:22042260

  5. CAPA-gene products in the haematophagous sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) - Vector for leishmaniasis disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sandflies (Phlebotominae, Nematocera, Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan-borne diseases in humans, and these insects depend on the regulation of water balance to cope with the sudden and enormous intake of blood over a very short time period. The sandfly ...

  6. New Insights Into the Transmissibility of Leishmania infantum From Dogs to Sand Flies: Experimental Vector-Transmission Reveals Persistent Parasite Depots at Bite Sites

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Hamide; Oliveira, Fabiano; Meneses, Claudio; Castrovinci, Philip; Gomes, Regis; Teixeira, Clarissa; Derenge, Candace A.; Orandle, Marlene; Gradoni, Luigi; Oliva, Gaetano; Fischer, Laurent; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2016-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a chronic fatal disease of dogs and a major source of human infection through propagation of parasites in vectors. Here, we infected 8 beagles through multiple experimental vector transmissions with Leishmania infantum–infected Lutzomyia longipalpis. CanL clinical signs varied, although live parasites were recovered from all dog spleens. Splenic parasite burdens correlated positively with Leishmania-specific interleukin 10 levels, negatively with Leishmania-specific interferon γ and interleukin 2 levels, and negatively with Leishmania skin test reactivity. A key finding was parasite persistence for 6 months in lesions observed at the bite sites in all dogs. These recrudesced following a second transmission performed at a distal site. Notably, sand flies efficiently acquired parasites after feeding on lesions at the primary bite site. In this study, controlled vector transmissions identify a potentially unappreciated role for skin at infectious bite sites in dogs with CanL, providing a new perspective regarding the mechanism of Leishmania transmissibility to vector sand flies. PMID:26768257

  7. New Insights Into the Transmissibility of Leishmania infantum From Dogs to Sand Flies: Experimental Vector-Transmission Reveals Persistent Parasite Depots at Bite Sites.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Hamide; Oliveira, Fabiano; Meneses, Claudio; Castrovinci, Philip; Gomes, Regis; Teixeira, Clarissa; Derenge, Candace A; Orandle, Marlene; Gradoni, Luigi; Oliva, Gaetano; Fischer, Laurent; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2016-06-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a chronic fatal disease of dogs and a major source of human infection through propagation of parasites in vectors. Here, we infected 8 beagles through multiple experimental vector transmissions with Leishmania infantum-infected Lutzomyia longipalpis. CanL clinical signs varied, although live parasites were recovered from all dog spleens. Splenic parasite burdens correlated positively with Leishmania-specific interleukin 10 levels, negatively with Leishmania-specific interferon γ and interleukin 2 levels, and negatively with Leishmania skin test reactivity. A key finding was parasite persistence for 6 months in lesions observed at the bite sites in all dogs. These recrudesced following a second transmission performed at a distal site. Notably, sand flies efficiently acquired parasites after feeding on lesions at the primary bite site. In this study, controlled vector transmissions identify a potentially unappreciated role for skin at infectious bite sites in dogs with CanL, providing a new perspective regarding the mechanism of Leishmania transmissibility to vector sand flies. PMID:26768257

  8. Childhood cutaneous leishmaniasis: report of 117 cases from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talaei, Rezvan; Shajari, Gholamreza; Vakili, Zarichehr; Taghaviardakani, Abbas

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), due to Leishmania major, is endemic in different parts of Iran and has long been recognized in most provinces of Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of childhood leishmaniasis in 3 areas at the southeast of Kashan. A descriptive study was carried out on all children referred to central laboratories during a 3-year period. Initial information including age, sex, sites of ulcer on the body, number of lesions, address, and the place of the disease was obtained. The study gathered 117 children, and the results showed a prevalence of 7.2% in patients with lesions among the population and 4.2% of people displayed lesion and scar. The ages of subjects were from 6 to 15 years (average 9.75 years). The boy: girl ratio was 1.2. All of our patients lived in an endemic area. The face was affected in 47.0% of cases. The encountered forms of leishmaniasis are as follows: papulonodular 27.4%, ulcer 60.7%, sporotrichoid 6%, impetiginous 2.5%, and erysipeloid 3.4%. Treatment with intramuscular meglumine antimoniate 20-30 mg/kg/day was done for 93 patients. Meglumine antimoniate treatment was tolerated with no side effects. All leishmaniasis lesions healed within an average period of 2-14 months. Hyperpigmented scars were formed in 25.6% of the patients, atrophic scars in 4.3%, and hypopigmented scars were in 3.4%, respectively. The findings of this study indicate increased prevalence of CL in the villages at the area of Kashan and Aran-Bidgol. The clinical finding patterns belonged to different endemic strains of L. major in Isfahan, which indicates the possible transmission of infection from Isfahan to this area. PMID:17170577

  9. Characterization of canine neutrophil granules.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, R T; Andersen, B R

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate distinct populations of canine neutrophil granules and to compare them with neutrophil granules from other species. Size, shape, density, and content of canine neutrophil granules were determined. Neutrophils obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque sedimentation were homogenized, and granule populations were separated by isopycnic centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient (rho, 1.14 to 1.22 g/ml). The most dense granule population (rho, 1.197 g/ml) contained all of the myeloperoxidase, beta-glucuronidase, and elastase, more than half of the acid beta-glycerophosphatase, and most of the lysozyme. The population with intermediate density (rho, 1.179 g/ml) contained lactoferrin, vitamin B12-binding protein, and the remainder of the acid beta-glycerophosphatase and lysozyme. The least dense granule population did not contain a major peak of any of the enzymes or binding proteins tested but was distinguished by density and morphology. The size and shape of the granules were determined from scanning electron micrographs and assessment of shape was aided by transmission electron micrographs. By these methods three populations of canine neutrophil granules were characterized and named: myeloperoxidase granules, vitamin B12-binding protein granules, and low-density granules. Images PMID:6292095

  10. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak in Mazar-e Sharif, northern Afghanistan: an epidemiological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Faulde, Michael; Schrader, Joachim; Heyl, Gerhard; Amirih, Mohammed; Hoerauf, Achim

    2008-07-01

    In 2005, 200 cases of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) were recorded among International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) troops stationed in the Mazar-e Sharif airport area. Within the local population, investigations revealed 3782 cases of ZCL, 174 cases of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), and 2 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the period from March 21, 2004 to March 20, 2005, and 4045 cases of ZCL, 198 cases of ACL, and no cases of VL from March 21, 2005 to March 20, 2006. The previously unknown transmission dynamics of ZCL, and differing seasonal distribution of ZCL and ACL, are here defined, thus permitting quantification and prediction of infection rates in deployed troops for the first time. At Mazar-e Sharif, Phlebotomus papatasi and Rhombomys opimus occurred in the highest densities yet observed, together with record-high Leishmania major infection rates. Data indicate the existence of high-density, anthropogenically induced ZCL in Afghanistan. PMID:17888728

  11. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission. PMID:25686382

  12. Recent advances in phlebotomine sand fly research related to leishmaniasis control.

    PubMed

    Bates, Paul A; Depaquit, Jerôme; Galati, Eunice A B; Kamhawi, Shaden; Maroli, Michele; McDowell, Mary Ann; Picado, Albert; Ready, Paul D; Salomón, O Daniel; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Traub-Csekö, Yara M; Warburg, Alon

    2015-01-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are the subject of much research because of the role of their females as the only proven natural vectors of Leishmania species, the parasitic protozoans that are the causative agents of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. Activity in this field was highlighted by the eighth International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sand flies (ISOPS) held in September 2014, which prompted this review focusing on vector control. Topics reviewed include: Taxonomy and phylogenetics, Vector competence, Genetics, genomics and transcriptomics, Eco-epidemiology, and Vector control. Research on sand flies as leishmaniasis vectors has revealed a diverse array of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission cycles, mostly in subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America, but also in Mediterranean Europe. The challenge is to progress beyond descriptive eco-epidemiology, in order to separate vectors of biomedical importance from the sand fly species that are competent vectors but lack the vectorial capacity to cause much human disease. Transmission modelling is required to identify the vectors that are a public health priority, the ones that must be controlled as part of the integrated control of leishmaniasis. Effective modelling of transmission will require the use of entomological indices more precise than those usually reported in the leishmaniasis literature. PMID:25885217

  13. Is the Dog a Possible Reservoir for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Suriname?

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Alida; Ramkalup, Prakash; Mans, Dennis; Schallig, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Suriname, with at least 200 cases per year. Little is known about the biology of CL in the country. The most important parasite species is Leishmania Viannia guyanensis, but possible vectors and reservoirs are hardly incriminated. In the present study, it was investigated whether the dog could possibly be a zoonotic reservoir for the disease in Suriname. Forty-seven dogs were examined for overt clinical signs of leishmaniasis, and blood samples were collected on filter paper for serology (direct agglutination test) and molecular biology (by polymerase chain reaction). Three dogs had clinical signs that could be compatible with canine cutaneous leishmaniosis: dermatitis (two) or nasal lesion (one). Two dogs were seropositive with DAT (titre > 1 : 1600), and three animals had a borderline titre (1 : 800). All other animals (n = 42) were DAT negative. PCR analysis found Leishmania DNA equivalent to 1 parasite per mL in only one dog at a first round of analysis, but this animal was negative after retesting. The clinical, serological, and molecular data show some preliminary lines of evidence that canine leishmaniosis is present in Suriname, but further studies are needed to incriminate the reservoir, including a possible sylvatic cycle. PMID:24194768

  14. The canine vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D R; Wiekamp, M D

    1984-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ was studied in mature dogs with the optical, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopes. The canine vomeronasal complex is structurally well developed. Large blood vessels are present deep to both the lateral, 'non-receptor' and medial, 'receptor' epithelia. In addition to the unmyelinated vomeronasal nerves in the lamina propria deep to the 'receptor' epithelium, numerous nerves containing both myelinated and unmyelinated fibres are present deep to the 'non-receptor' epithelium. The 'non-receptor' epithelium consists of basal cells, ciliated and non-ciliated columnar cells, and globular cells packed with mitochondria. Contained within the 'non-receptor' epithelium are leucocytes, plasma cells, and nerve endings. The 'receptor' epithelium consists of basal, sustentacular, and ciliated receptor cells. The microtubules in cilia of the receptor cells do not appear to have dynein arms or radial spokes. Images Figs. 1-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 PMID:6746408

  15. An Update on Pharmacotherapy for Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leishmaniasis broadly manifests as visceral leishmaniasis (VL), cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). The treatment of leishmaniasis is challenging and the armamentarium of drugs is small, duration of treatment is long, and most drugs are toxic. Areas covered A literature search on treatment of leishmaniasis was done on PubMed. Single dose of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) and multidrug therapy (L-AmB + miltefosine, L-AmB + paromomycin (PM), or miltefosine + PM) are the treatment of choice for VL in the Indian subcontinent. A 17-day combination therapy of pentavalent antimonials (Sbv) and paromomycin remains the treatment of choice for East African VL. L-AmB is the recommended regimen for VL in the Mediterranean region and South America. Treatment of CL should be decided by the severity of clinical lesions, etiological species and its potential to develop into mucosal leishmaniasis. Expert opinion There is an urgent need to implement a single dose L-AmB or combination therapy in the Indian subcontinent. Combination therapy with newer drugs needs to be tested in Africa. Due to the toxicity of systemic therapy, a trend towards local treatment for New World CL (NWCL) is preferred in patients without risk of mucosal disease. PMID:25346016

  16. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30–40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures. PMID:24626301

  17. Predicting Geographic Variation in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid H.; Davies, Clive R.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 6,000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are reported annually in Colombia, a greater than twofold increase since the 1980s. Such reports certainly underestimate true incidence, and their geographic distribution is likely biased by local health service effectiveness. We investigated how well freely available environmental data explain the distribution of cases among 1,079 municipalities. For each municipality, a unique predictive logistic regression model was derived from the association among remaining municipalities between elevation, land cover (preclassified maps derived from satellite images), or both, and the odds of at least one case being reported. Land cover had greater predictive power than elevation; using both datasets improved accuracy. Fitting separate models to different ecologic zones, reflecting transmission cycle diversity, enhanced the accuracy of predictions. We derived measures that can be directly related to disease control decisions and show how results can vary, depending on the threshold selected for predicting a disease-positive municipality. The results identify areas where disease is most likely to be underreported. PMID:15200848

  18. Animal reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niti; Mishra, Jyotsna; Singh, Ram; Singh, Sarman

    2013-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that has both zoonotic and anthroponotic etiologies. In India, VL is endemic, considered to be anthroponotic, and caused by Leishmania donovani . Anthroponotic diseases are maintained by transmission from human to human and to a lesser extent from human to animals. Serum samples from 1,220 animals from 7 human VL endemic districts of Bihar, India, were tested for antibodies to a recombinant kinetoplast antigen (rK39 antigen) present in amastigotes of visceralizing Leishmania species, i.e., L. donovani complex. Additionally, PCR was used to examine samples positive by rK39 antigen serology. Antibodies to rK39 indicative of VL were detected in 33 of 1,220 animals. Thirty-one of 867 goats (Capra hircus), 1 of 161 cattle (Bos indicus), and 1 of 54 wild rats (Rattus sp.) were positive by rK39 serology. None of 106 chickens (Gallus domesticus), 26 sheep (Ovis aries), 3 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus), or 3 dogs (Canis familiaris) was positive by rK39 serology. Leishmania donovani DNA was detected by PCR in 20 rK39 positive blood samples from goats and 1 sample from a cow. The present study indicates that goats are potential animal reservoirs of human VL in India. PMID:22765517

  19. Respiratory disease outbreak in a veterinary hospital associated with canine parainfluenza virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. Scott; Stull, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A cluster of canine parainfluenza virus infections was identified in a veterinary referral hospital. While hospital-associated outbreaks of canine parainfluenza virus infection have not been previously reported, veterinary hospitals possess some of the same risk factors that may be present in traditional high-risk sites such as kennels. Hospital-associated transmission of canine respiratory pathogens, therefore, must be considered. PMID:23814307

  20. Protective Immunity and Vaccination Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Mou, Zhirong; Liu, Dong; Uzonna, Jude

    2012-01-01

    Although a great deal of knowledge has been gained from studies on the immunobiology of leishmaniasis, there is still no universally acceptable, safe, and effective vaccine against the disease. This strongly suggests that we still do not completely understand the factors that control and/or regulate the development and sustenance of anti-Leishmania immunity, particularly those associated with secondary (memory) immunity. Such an understanding is critically important for designing safe, effective, and universally acceptable vaccine against the disease. Here we review the literature on the correlate of protective anti-Leishmania immunity and vaccination strategies against leishmaniasis with a bias emphasis on experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:22661975

  1. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: an increasing threat for travellers.

    PubMed

    Antinori, S; Gianelli, E; Calattini, S; Longhi, E; Gramiccia, M; Corbellino, M

    2005-05-01

    Analysis of the literature on cutaneous leishmaniasis in low-prevalence countries suggests an increase in imported cases that is attributable to the growing phenomenon of international tourism, migration and military operations in highly endemic regions. Cases of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis are often missed initially, but diagnosis can be made non-invasively by PCR using skin scrapings of lesions as starting material. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an emerging threat for travellers and should be considered in all patients presenting with slow-to-heal ulcers. PMID:15819858

  2. Advances in battle against leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    1998-10-01

    The UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) has been concerned with the production of vaccines and drugs against leishmaniasis for a number of years. Weapons against the responsible parasite are slowly being improved. Recent reports from vaccine trials in Ecuador, Iran, and India have yielded encouraging results. In Ecuador, more than 70% of vaccinated children in one study were protected from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The vaccine provided was given in 2 doses and consisted of whole killed Leishmania. In Iran, TDR supported the trial of a single dose vaccine in an area endemic for anthroponotic CL and with relatively low incidence, and another trial in an area endemic for zoonotic CL. The vaccines were comprised of whole killed L. major promastigotes together with BCG as adjuvant. 2 trials of vaccines given in single doses were supported by TDR. In a study in Bihar, India, aminosidine therapy yielded a 30-34% greater cure rate than did the standard regimen of pentostam. Aminosidine also had a low incidence of adverse reactions and was well tolerated. PMID:12294756

  3. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania infection in naturally infected sand flies in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unknown. Methods 2650 sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and identified morphologically. The identified sand flies were tested for Leishmania infection by nested PCR. The source of blood meal of 10 freshly engorged females: 6 Phlebotomus longicuspis and 4 Phlebotomus sergenti, was determined using the Cyt b sequence. Results The collected sand flies consisted of 10 species, seven of which belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and three to the genus Sergentomyia. The most abundant species was P. longicuspis, accounting for 72% of the total sand flies collected. In females of three P. longicuspis and four P. sergenti, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica DNA was detected, respectively. The source of blood meal of engorged females showed that all sand flies tested fed on humans. Conclusions We report for the first time the natural infection of P. longicuspis with L. infantum in Morocco. The high frequency of this species in this region, in addition to its anthropophilic character make P. longicuspis the putative vector of L. infantum in this cutaneous leishmaniasis focus where L. tropica is confirmed as the causative agent of the disease and P. sergenti as its vector. The presence of L. infantum, and its presumed vector in this area, makes this a site of high risk of visceral leishmaniasis, mostly because of the proximity of a focus of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:24990497

  4. Development of Vaccines against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Krystal J.; Kedzierski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease resulting in a global morbidity of 2,090 thousand Disability-Adjusted Life Years and a mortality rate of approximately 60,000 per year. Among the three clinical forms of leishmaniasis (cutaneous, mucosal, and visceral), visceral leishmaniasis (VL) accounts for the majority of mortality, as if left untreated VL is almost always fatal. Caused by infection with Leishmania donovani or L. infantum, VL represents a serious public health problem in endemic regions and is rapidly emerging as an opportunistic infection in HIV patients. To date, no vaccine exists for VL or any other form of leishmaniasis. In endemic areas, the majority of those infected do not develop clinical symptoms and past infection leads to robust immunity against reinfection. Thus the development of vaccine for Leishmania is a realistic public health goal, and this paper summarizes advances in vaccination strategies against VL. PMID:21912561

  5. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis and multidermatomic herpes zoster].

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Margarita; Jaramillo, Laura; Ortiz, Diana; Díaz, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    Standard treatment of leishmaniasis consists of n-metilglucamine, meglumine antimoniate, which can trigger side effects such as general malaise, renal and hepatic impairment, and cardiac arrhythmias. Infrequently, reactivations of varicella-zoster virus infections have been reported. This paper describes a patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis in treatment with meglumine and herpes zoster multiplex. After ruling out other possible causes of immunosuppression, an acyclovir therapy was initiated. PMID:24522317

  6. Leishmaniasis, an emerging infection in travelers.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2010-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection with a wide clinical spectrum, which ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. A review of the recent literature indicates a sharp increase in imported leishmaniasis cases in developed, non-endemic countries over the last decade, in association with increasing international tourism, military operations, and the influx of immigrants from endemic countries. South America is the main area for the acquisition of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and adventure travelers on long-term trips in highly-endemic forested areas are at particular risk. Popular Mediterranean destinations are emerging as the main areas of acquisition of visceral leishmaniasis for European travelers. Leishmaniasis should be considered in patients presenting with a compatible clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, even if this occurred several months or years ago. Appropriate counseling should be provided to adventure travelers, military personnel, researchers, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sandflies in endemic areas. PMID:20952234

  7. Leishmaniasis in travelers: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Pasquale; Seidita, Aurelio; Vitale, Giustina; Cascio, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection whose clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. Over the last decades, an increase in imported leishmaniasis cases in developed, non-endemic countries, have been pointed-out from a review of the international literature. Among the possible causes are increasing international tourism, influx of immigrants from endemic regions and military operations. The main area for the acquisition of cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially for adventure travelers on long-term trips in highly-endemic forested areas, is represented from South America, whereas popular Mediterranean destinations are emerging as the main areas to acquire visceral variant. Leishmaniasis should be considered in the diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with a compatible clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, even if this occurred several months or years before. Adventure travelers, researchers, military personnel, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sand flies in endemic areas, should receive counseling regarding leishmaniasis and appropriate protective measures. PMID:25287721

  8. Species Typing in Dermal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Dujardin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Leishmania is an infectious protozoan parasite related to African and American trypanosomes. All Leishmania species that are pathogenic to humans can cause dermal disease. When one is confronted with cutaneous leishmaniasis, identification of the causative species is relevant in both clinical and epidemiological studies, case management, and control. This review gives an overview of the currently existing and most used assays for species discrimination, with a critical appraisal of the limitations of each technique. The consensus taxonomy for the genus is outlined, including debatable species designations. Finally, a numerical literature analysis is presented that describes which methods are most used in various countries and regions in the world, and for which purposes. PMID:25672782

  9. [Visceral leishmaniasis in Argentina. Cases notification and distribution of vectors (2006-2012)].

    PubMed

    Gould, Ignacio T; Perner, Mónica S; Santini, María S; Saavedra, Silvina B; Bezzi, Gisella; Maglianese, Mariana I; Antman, Julián G; Gutiérrez, Jorge A; Salomón, Oscar D

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a notifiable disease in Argentina. Every new case diagnosed must be reported to the National Health Surveillance System. In the period 2006-2012, a total of 103 cases have been notified in four provinces: Entre Rios, Santa Fe, Misiones and Santiago del Estero. Misiones has the largest amount of cases: a total of 80, detected in 15 towns from May 2006 to July 2012. The highest incidence is observed in children (less than 15 years of age). In 2004 the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis was detected for the first time in Formosa Province. Cases of human and canine VL, as well as the presence of the canine vector were reported in 2006 in the province of Misiones, and in 2008-2009 in the province of Corrientes. In Santiago del Estero cases of human and canine VL (2008) were possibly associated with secondary vectors. In 2010 Lu longipalpis was found in Entre Rios, showing its dispersal to the south. Between January and April 2011 a systematic search of the VL vector was carried out in 13 towns, in Entre Ríos, Santa Fe and Santiago del Estero Provinces (275 traps/night). The colonization of the vector Lu longipalpis was proved in Chajarí town (Entre Rios), but not in Santiago del Estero Province, where Migonemyia migonei appears as a putative LV vector. PMID:23570757

  10. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

  11. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for

  12. Aging in the Canine Kidney.

    PubMed

    Cianciolo, R E; Benali, S L; Aresu, L

    2016-03-01

    Given the irreversible nature of nephron loss, aging of the kidney is of special interest to diagnostic and toxicologic pathologists. There are many similarities among histologic lesions in aged human and canine kidneys, including increased frequency of glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy. Unfortunately, there are few studies in which renal tissue from aged healthy dogs was adequately examined with advanced diagnostics-namely, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence-so age-associated changes in canine podocytes and glomerular basement membranes are poorly characterized. An age-associated decrease in the glomerular filtration rate in humans and dogs (specifically small breed dogs) has been documented. Although lesions in aged rats and mice differ somewhat from those of aged dogs and humans, the knowledge gained from rodent models is still vital to elucidating the pathogenesis of age-associated renal disease. Many novel molecules implicated in renal aging have been identified through genetically modified rodent models and transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of human kidneys. These molecules represent intriguing therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers. Likewise, influencing critical pathways of cellular aging, such as telomere shortening, cellular senescence, and autophagy, could improve renal function in the elderly. PMID:26508694

  13. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is found in nearly 88 countries, from rain forests in Central and South America to deserts in ... as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. The World Health Organization estimates there are 1.5 million ...

  14. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Online Store Welcome Calendar of Events Find a Dermatology DO Osteopathic Medicine Disease Database Contributors Doctor Derm ... of Trustees Contact Us Ethics Foundation for Osteopathic Dermatology What is the FOD? Governance By-Laws Committees ...

  15. [Visceral leishmaniasis concurrent with splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Julhakyan, U L; Magomedova, A U; Dvirnyk, V N; Kravchenko, S K

    2016-01-01

    Splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (SMZBCL) is a rare non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma that presents with morphologically mature lymphoid cells corresponding in their immunological characteristics to secondary follicular marginal zone lymphocytes. It is clinically characterized by splenomegaly, moderate lymphocytosis, usually focal bone marrow lesion, sometimes moderate of monoclonal immunoglobulin in the serum (generally IgM or IgG) and/or urea, and a relatively benign course. Leishmaniasis is a transmissible natural focal infectious endemic disease that has a great diversity of clinical manifestations. The authors describe Russia's first case of SMZBCL concurrent with visceral leishmaniasis in a 52-year-old female patient admitted to a hematology hospital with weakness, splenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy. The simultaneous detection of lymphoma and leishmaniasis in the same biopsy specimen is extremely rare. Visceral leishmaniasis should be borne in mind as an opportunistic infection in patients with malignancies, particularly in immunocompromised persons who live or have stayed in the endemic areas. PMID:27030189

  16. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html. PMID:23484340

  17. A Review of Preventative Methods against Human Leishmaniasis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, Lisa; Newton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an intracellular parasitic infection transmitted to humans via the sandfly. Approximately 350 million people are at risk of contracting the disease and an estimated 1.6 million new cases occur annually. Of the two main forms, visceral and cutaneous, the visceral form is fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. Aims This literature review aims to identify and evaluate the current evidence base for the use of various preventative methods against human leishmaniasis. Methods A literature search was performed of the relevant database repositories for primary research conforming to a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 84 controlled studies investigating 12 outcome measures were identified, implementing four broad categories of preventative interventions: animal reservoir control, vector population control, human reservoir control and a category for multiple concurrently implemented interventions. The primary studies investigated a heterogeneous mix of outcome measures using a range of different methods. Conclusions This review highlights an absence of research measuring human-specific outcomes (35% of the total) across all intervention categories. The apparent inability of study findings to be generalizable across different geographic locations, points towards gaps in knowledge regarding the biology of transmission of Leishmania in different settings. More research is needed which investigates human infection as the primary outcome measure as opposed to intermediate surrogate markers, with a focus on developing a human vaccine. PMID:23818997

  18. Leishmaniasis in Sudan. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, E E; el-Hassan, A M

    2001-04-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is increasingly recognized in Sudan as a complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), occurring in c. 55% of patients after, or during treatment of, VL. The development of PKDL seems to be restricted to parasites of the Leishmania donovani sensu stricto cluster; no particular zymodeme has been found to be associated with it. In contrast to PKDL in India, PKDL in Sudan occurs within 0-6 months after treatment for VL. The rash may be macular, maculo-papular or nodular, and spreads from the perioral area to other parts of the body, depending on grade of severity. Young children are particularly at risk of developing more severe disease. In 16% of PKDL patients, parasites can be demonstrated by microscopy in lymph node or bone marrow aspirates and, with the aid of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in lymph nodes of 81% of patients, possibly indicating persistent visceralized infection. Diagnosis can be made by demonstration of parasites in skin smears or biopsies in 20-30% of cases; newer techniques, using PCR with skin smears, have higher sensitivity (83%). Monoclonal antibodies against L. donovani can detect parasites in 88% of biopsies. Serological tests are of limited value. The leishmanin skin test is positive in 50-60% of cases; there is an inverse relationship between the skin test result and severity of PKDL. In differential diagnosis, miliaria rubra is the most common problem; differentiation from leprosy is the most difficult. In biopsies, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis, follicular plugging and liquefaction degeneration of the basal layer may be found in the epidermis; in the dermis there are varying intensities of inflammation with scanty parasites and mainly lymphocytes; macrophages and epithelioid cells may also be found. In 20% of cases discrete granulomas may be found. After VL, the immune response shifts from a Th2-type to a mixed Th1/Th2-type. High levels of interleukin-10 in skin biopsies as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma in patients with VL predict the development of PKDL. Treatment is needed only for those who have severe and prolonged disease; sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/d for 2 months) is usually sufficient. (Liposomal) amphotericin B is effective, whereas ketoconazole, terbinafine and itraconazole are not. PMID:11370251

  19. North Indian state of Uttarakhand: a new hothouse of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sohaib; Chandra, Harish; Bhat, Nowneet Kumar; Dhar, Minakshi; Shirazi, Nadia; Verma, Sanjiv Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been reported in the last decade from the hilly state of Uttarakhand, India. We report 47 cases from the non-endemic Garhwal region of this state which, over the last 10 years, were treated successfully. We conclude that the transmission cycle of VL is established in this region. Effective vector control measures are warranted to prevent the disease becoming a health problem, albeit not a major one given its excellent response to drugs. PMID:26466848

  20. Molecular Characterization of Leishmania Species Isolated from Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M.; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Bin Shuaib, Naemah O. M.; Azazy, Ahmed A.; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics with a global yearly incidence of 1.5 million. Although CL is the most common form of leishmaniasis, which is responsible for 60% of DALYs lost due to tropical-cluster diseases prevalent in Yemen, available information is very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was conducted to determine the molecular characterization of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous lesions in Yemen. Dermal scrapes were collected and examined for Leishmania amastigotes using the Giemsa staining technique. Amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS-1) gene was carried out using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from Leishmania isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified Leishmania tropica from 16 isolates which were represented by two sequence types. Conclusions/Significance The predominance of the anthroponotic species (i.e. L. tropica) indicates the probability of anthroponotic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yemen. These findings will help public health authorities to build an effective control strategy taking into consideration person–to-person transmission as the main dynamic of transmission of CL. PMID:20862227

  1. Leishmaniasis, a global concern for travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Neghina, Raul; Neghina, Adriana M

    2010-08-01

    Leishmaniasis, a parasitic infection listed by the World Health Organization among the 6 most important tropical diseases, is endemic in approximately 88 countries worldwide, with a global estimate of 350 million individuals at risk. The present report aims to review the imported cases of leishmaniasis reported in retrospective studies or described as clusters or single interesting cases. It is apparent that some European countries considered as premier tourist attractions export leishmaniasis: Greece, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Croatia and Turkey. Travelling and exploring the New World countries, especially the Amazonian jungle and the archaeological ancient sites, is a continuous challenge, with a risk of acquiring various tropical infections. Imported leishmaniasis has occurred in individuals who have gone to work abroad in improper conditions, without being aware of the risk of severe vector-borne infections. Exported cases are carried by refugees and immigrants from endemic developing countries. Extended military operations are a further source of imported cases. In the new millennium, the import and export of leishmaniasis continue to be of major concern for public health services worldwide as a result of increased mobility. PMID:20438287

  2. Seroepidemiological Survey of Canine Leishmania Infections from Peripheral Areas in Natal, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle Ribeiro; Carlota, Francisco Canindé; de Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Human visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Natal, northeast of Brazil, where the domestic dog is an important parasite reservoir in the infectious cycle of Leishmania spp. In this study, was evaluated the antileishmanial IgG antibody and epidemiological factors related to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methods: Sera samples obtained by venipuncture of 1,426 dogs living in areas of human visceral leishmaniasis occurrence were tested for detection of IgG anti-leishmania antibodies with Immunofluorescence Antibody Assay (IFA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Chi-square (x2) and Odds Ratio (OR) were calculated. Differences were considered statistically significant at p≤0.05. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 10.30% (147/1,426); prevalence increased when the samples were found to be positive at least for one technique ([417/1,426] 29.3%). The high percentage of seroprevalence was observed in Nova República (15.35%), Nova Natal I (12.7%) and Lagoa Azul (11.4%) neighborhoods. In the Planalto, Soledade and Brasil Novo, the infection rates ranged from 7.5 at 8.06%. (p=0.00051). There was neither statistically significant difference between leishmanial infection nor clinical signs of disease (p=0.84; OR=1.0 [0.41; 2.3]), sex (p=0.78, OR=0.94 [0.66; 1.28]); and breed (p=0.92; OR=1.0 [0.65; 1.54]) were observed. Conclusion: The RESULTS suggest that CVL is widely distributed in Natal, may be increasingly urbanizing and will spread through neighborhoods but not endemic, resulting in a serious public health problem, emphasizing the need for epidemiological studies to a greater understanding of the distribution of canine leishmaniasis in these specific areas and contribute proactively to the public health policies. PMID:26668661

  3. American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis: Effectiveness of an Immunohistochemical Protocol for the Detection of Leishmania in Skin

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Cibele Fontes; Alves, Cintia Fontes; Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Souza, Carolina Carvalho; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Melo, Maria Norma; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Raso, Pedro; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Background American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic in Latin America, where Brazil has over 27 thousand cases per year. The aim of the present study was to develop an immunohistochemical method (IHC) for ATL diagnosis. For this purpose, we used serum from a dog naturally infected with Leishmania (L) infantum (canine hyperimmune serum) as the primary antibody, followed by a detection system with a secondary biotinylated antibody. Methodology Skin samples were obtained from 73 patients in an endemic area of Caratinga, Minas Gerais (MG) State, Brazil all testing positive for ATL with the Montenegro skin test, microscopy, and PCR. Canine hyperimmune serum of a dog naturally infected with Leishmania (L.) infantum was employed as a primary antibody in an immunohistochemical diagnostic method using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase. To assess the specificity of this reaction, IHC assays employing two monoclonal antibodies were carried out. As the polymer-based technology is less time-consuming and labor intensive than the IHC labeled streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method, we compared the two methods for all samples. Results The IHC method detected ATL in 67 of the 73 cases (91.8%). Immunolabeled parasites were primarily detected inside macrophages either in the superficial or the deep dermis. Detection was facilitated by the high contrast staining of amastigotes (dark brown) against the light blue background. A lower detection rate (71.2%) was observed with the both of the monoclonal Leishmania antibodies compared to the canine hyperimmune serum. This may have been due to a non-specific background staining observed in all histological samples rendering positive detection more difficult. The higher efficacy of the canine hyperimmune serum in the IHC method was confirmed by the method using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase as well as that with the polymer-based technology (biotin-avidin-free system). Conclusions The data are encouraging with regard to validating IHC as a standard alternative method for ATL diagnosis. PMID:23704900

  4. Immunity to visceral leishmaniasis: implications for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Khadem, Forough; Uzonna, Jude E

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania donovani, L. infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi), is a globally widespread disease with a burden of about 400,000 new infections reported annually. It is the most dangerous form of human leishmaniasis in terms of mortality and morbidity and is spreading to several nonendemic areas because of migration, global traveling and military conflicts. The emergence of Leishmania-HIV co-infection and increased prevalence of drug-resistant strains have worsened the impact of the disease. The traditional low-cost drugs are often toxic with several adverse effects, highlighting the need for development of new therapeutic and prophylactic strategies. Therefore, a detailed understanding of mechanisms of protective immunity is extremely important in order to develop new therapeutics in the form of vaccines or immunotherapies. This review gives an overview of visceral leishmaniasis, with particular emphasis on the innate and adaptive immune responses, vaccine and vaccination strategies and their potentials for immunotherapy against the disease. PMID:25156379

  5. Investigational Drugs for Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The armamentarium of antileishmanials is small. It is further being threatened by development of resistance and decreasing sensitivity to the available drugs. Development of newer drugs are sorely needed. Areas covered Literature search on investigational drugs for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was done on PubMed. Those candidates with at least in vitro and in vivo activity against leishmania species causing VL were reviewed. Among the investigational drugs the nitroimidazole compound fexinidazole is the one of the few drugs which has reached phase II trials. Although the (S)-PA-824 is in phase II trials for the treatment of tuberculosis its R enantiomer has shown good antileishmanial activity. Development of sitamaquin, which has completed phase II studies has been stopped for VL due to its low efficacy. Many novel delivery system and oral formulations of Amphotericin B which are cheap and less toxic are in investigational stages, and will go a long way in improving the treatment of VL. Expert opinion Very few new drugs have reached the clinical stage in the treatment of this neglected tropical disease. Thus, there is an urgent need for support from public private partnerships to ensure that drug candidates are promptly taken forward into development. PMID:25409760

  6. Ecological Niche Modeling for the Prediction of the Geographic Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Chalghaf, Bilel; Chlif, Sadok; Mayala, Benjamin; Ghawar, Wissem; Bettaieb, Jihène; Harrabi, Myriam; Benie, Goze Bertin; Michael, Edwin; Salah, Afif Ben

    2016-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a very complex disease involving multiple factors that limit its emergence and spatial distribution. Prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemics in Tunisia remains difficult because most of the epidemiological tools used so far are descriptive in nature and mainly focus on a time dimension. The purpose of this work is to predict the potential geographic distribution ofPhlebotomus papatasiand zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused byLeishmania majorin Tunisia using Grinnellian ecological niche modeling. We attempted to assess the importance of environmental factors influencing the potential distribution ofP. papatasiand cutaneous leishmaniasis caused byL. major Vectors were trapped in central Tunisia during the transmission season using CDC light traps (John W. Hock Co., Gainesville, FL). A global positioning system was used to record the geographical coordinates of vector occurrence points and households tested positive for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused byL. major Nine environmental layers were used as predictor variables to model theP. papatasigeographical distribution and five variables were used to model theL. majorpotential distribution. Ecological niche modeling was used to relate known species' occurrence points to values of environmental factors for these same points to predict the presence of the species in unsampled regions based on the value of the predictor variables. Rainfall and temperature contributed the most as predictors for sand flies and human case distributions. Ecological niche modeling anticipated the current distribution ofP. papatasiwith the highest suitability for species occurrence in the central and southeastern part of Tunisian. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that governorates of Gafsa, Sidi Bouzid, and Kairouan are at highest epidemic risk. PMID:26856914

  7. Ecological Niche Modeling for the Prediction of the Geographic Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Chalghaf, Bilel; Chlif, Sadok; Mayala, Benjamin; Ghawar, Wissem; Bettaieb, Jihène; Harrabi, Myriam; Benie, Goze Bertin; Michael, Edwin; Salah, Afif Ben

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a very complex disease involving multiple factors that limit its emergence and spatial distribution. Prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemics in Tunisia remains difficult because most of the epidemiological tools used so far are descriptive in nature and mainly focus on a time dimension. The purpose of this work is to predict the potential geographic distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in Tunisia using Grinnellian ecological niche modeling. We attempted to assess the importance of environmental factors influencing the potential distribution of P. papatasi and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Vectors were trapped in central Tunisia during the transmission season using CDC light traps (John W. Hock Co., Gainesville, FL). A global positioning system was used to record the geographical coordinates of vector occurrence points and households tested positive for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Nine environmental layers were used as predictor variables to model the P. papatasi geographical distribution and five variables were used to model the L. major potential distribution. Ecological niche modeling was used to relate known species' occurrence points to values of environmental factors for these same points to predict the presence of the species in unsampled regions based on the value of the predictor variables. Rainfall and temperature contributed the most as predictors for sand flies and human case distributions. Ecological niche modeling anticipated the current distribution of P. papatasi with the highest suitability for species occurrence in the central and southeastern part of Tunisian. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that governorates of Gafsa, Sidi Bouzid, and Kairouan are at highest epidemic risk. PMID:26856914

  8. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems and risk of American visceral leishmaniasis in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bavia, M E; Carneiro, D D Madureira Trabuco; Gurgel, H da Costa; Madureira Filho, C; Barbosa, M G Rodrigues

    2005-03-01

    The spatial distribution of American visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was studied within the context of the environmental characteristics of northwest Bahia State in Brazil during an epidemic year. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) were used to characterize the landscape epidemiology of VL in order to identify and map high risk areas and endemic zones in a northwestern Bahia study area. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was shown to be one of the most important risk factors in the area of study. Low NDVI values were related to high numbers of sand flies and high numbers of human and canine VL positive cases. Caatinga vegetation type was the dominant vegetation type in the endemic area. The use of RS and GIS allowed the identification of classes of VL risk that may be useful information to guide control program interventions. PMID:16044686

  9. Canine viral enteritis.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V; Carmichael, L E

    1983-08-01

    Canine viral enteritis should be suspected in dogs with an acute onset of vomiting and diarrhea, especially in puppies and where several animals are affected simultaneously. Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation, most often detection of viral particles in the stool. No diagnostic test is entirely specific or absolutely sensitive, however, and laboratory findings should be weighed accordingly. Immunization is the key to successful control. Effective vaccines for canine parvovirus are available. Maternal antibody suppresses response to vaccination in young pups and is the major problem in the control of infection. Vaccines against canine rotavirus and coronavirus are not available. The need for such vaccines and the feasibility of their effective use have not yet been clearly demonstrated. PMID:6316616

  10. Entomological and ecological studies in a new potential zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in Torres Novas municipality, Central Region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Branco, S; Alves-Pires, C; Maia, C; Cortes, S; Cristovão, J M S; Gonçalves, L; Campino, L; Afonso, M O

    2013-03-01

    In Portugal human and canine leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania infantum, and Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi are the proven vectors. Three main foci were identified in eighty's decade: Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro region, Lisbon region and Algarve region, but according to OnLeish observatory data, canine leishmaniasis cases have been reported from several other regions, for which sand fly species and their infection rates are unknown. This study is the first phlebotomine survey in Torres Novas municipality, Santarém District, Portugal. The main objectives were to identify the phlebotomine species, their bioecological aspects, Leishmania infection rate and the risk factors for the presence of phlebotomine species in the municipality. From June to November, 2010, 275 biotopes were surveyed with CDC light-traps. Captures covered the 17 parishes of the municipality and included domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic biotopes. Specimens were identified morphologically and females were used for molecular detection of Leishmania and bloodmeal identification. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to identify risk factors for phlebotomine presence. Nonparametric tests were used to compare densities of independent groups. A total of 1262 sand flies were captured and identified, and four species detected: P. perniciosus (73.69%), P. ariasi (8.16%), P. sergenti (6.58%) and Sergentomyia minuta (11.57%). In 71.4% localities at least one L. infantum proven vector species was present. Risk factors were identified as: high average temperatures and low relative humidities, sheltered locations and absence of strong wind, presence of pine trees as dominant vegetation, peridomestic biotopes, particularly sheep pens or proximity of sheep, poultry and house martin nests. L. infantum infection rate was 4% for P. ariasi and 0.48% for the total of Larroussius females. P. perniciosus females exhibited an opportunistic behavior, feeding in a wide variety of vertebrate hosts. The high abundance and distribution of proven vector species, together with a canine leishmaniasis seroprevalence of 7.93% in the District, and the capture of a gravid infective sand fly female, suggests that Torres Novas municipality is a potential zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in the country. PMID:23262215

  11. Comparison of PCR with stained slides of bone marrow and lymph nodes aspirates with suspect diagnosis for leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Santos, T R; Carreira, V S; Ferrari, H F; Moreira, M A B; Luvizotto, M C R

    2014-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, is a disseminated protozoan infection caused by Leishmania donovani complex. Traditionally the definite diagnosis is made by amastigote detection in the tissue. The aim this study was to evaluate the PCR technique in stained slides of bone marrow and lymph nodes aspirates with suspect diagnosis for leishmaniasis. Slides were selected totaling 62 suspect cases (33 bone marrow samples and 29 lymph node samples) and 17 positive cases (8 bone marrow and 9 lymph node). From 62 suspect cases, 39 (62.90%) were confirmed to be positive being 17 (n=29) lymph node aspirates and 22 (n=33) bone marrow. This finding is in agreement with the higher sensitivity of the PCR assay compared to direct microscopic observation. In conclusion, the findings of this study supports the use of PCR on archive cytological preparation stained slides for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, emphasizing the higher sensitivity of this technique when compared to direct microscopic examination and mostly the use of the suspect status for the cytology samples that presents the previously mentioned particularities with focus on detecting the oligosymptomatic or assymptomatic dogs in endemic areas functioning as potential reservoirs for this disease. PMID:25159534

  12. The Biology and Control of Leishmaniasis Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Claborn, David M

    2010-01-01

    Vector control remains a key component of many anti-leishmaniasis programs and probably will remain so until an effective vaccine becomes available. Technologies similar to those used for control of adult mosquitoes, specifically interior residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets, are currently at the forefront as disease control measures. This article provides a review of literature on the biology and control of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the context of changing disease risks and the realities of modern vector control. The Literature Retrieval System of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Washington, DC, was the primary search engine used to review the literature. PMID:20606968

  13. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  14. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  15. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  16. Efficacy of canine influenza virus (H3N8) vaccine to decrease severity of clinical disease after co-challenge with canine influenza virus and Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since first emerging into the North American canine population in 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) subtype H3N8 has shown horizontal transmission among dogs, with a high level of adaptation to this species. Severity of disease is variable, and co-infection by other respiratory pathogens is an impo...

  17. Leishmania tropica in rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) in a focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Jaffe, Charles L; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Warburg, Alon; King, Roni; Svobodova, Milena; Peleg, Ofer; Baneth, Gad

    2010-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania tropica, has recently emerged in urban and rural foci of central and northern Israel, and constitutes a major public health concern. Rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), the suspected natural reservoir, were trapped in the cutaneous leishmaniasis urban focus of Maale Adumim in central Israel and evaluated for L. tropica infection by real-time kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology. Real-time PCR on blood and computerized western blot serology analysis was positive for L. tropica in 58% and 80%, respectively, of the hyraxes tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 region indicated that similar genotypes were present in humans and hyraxes from the same habitat. The high rates of infection and exposure to L. tropica among hyraxes supports their involvement in the transmission cycle of this parasite, and their potential role as a reservoir for human disease. PMID:20439960

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TANURE, Aline; PEIXOTO, Jennifer Cunha; AFONSO, Margarete Martins dos Santos; DUARTE, Rosemere; PINHEIRO, Aimara da Costa; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:26422156

  19. Ocular Leishmaniasis Treated by Intralesional Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Nikandish, Malihe; Goyonlo, Vahid Mashayekhi; Taheri, Ahmad Reza; Kiafar, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases with varied clinical manifestations. Ocular involvement is an unusual presentation of leishmaniasis, and the eyelid is not a common site of cutaneous lesions, likely due to the mobility of the lids. Some case reports of conjunctival involvement are either a contiguous dissemination from lid margin or in the setting of disseminated leishmaniasis in an immunocompromised host. To our knowledge, isolated involvement of the bulbar conjunctiva has not been reported. We present the first case in the literature of a patient with an erythematous fibrovascular lesion in the interpalpebral zone that was clinically diagnosed as pterygium, but recurred at the site of surgical excision. After histopathologic diagnosis, the lesion was treated with intralesional injection of amphotericin B and improved completely within a few weeks. An accurate diagnosis of leishmaniasis in the eye may be challenging in many clinical settings. To our knowledge, an isolated pterygium.like lesion has not been reported in literature. In addition, intralesional injection of amphotericin B is a novel treatment method in this setting. PMID:26957858

  20. Recent updates and perspectives on leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Dianella

    2015-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector-borne tropical infection considered to be a disease of the poor. Concentrated in poverty-stricken countries within Southeast Asia, East Africa, and Latin America, it is also endemic in several Mediterranean countries. The management of the heterogeneous syndromes determined by parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania is particularly difficult in developed, non-endemic countries owing to the unfamiliarity of physicians with clinical symptoms, diagnostic possibilities, and available treatment options. Therefore, travelers and other people who may be exposed to sand flies in endemic areas should receive counseling regarding leishmaniasis and appropriate protective measures. Serological diagnosis is rarely used for cutaneous and mucocutaneous diseases, but it is the most commonly used technique for visceral leishmaniasis. The drugs used to treat this last disease are expensive and sometimes have toxic side effects. This review highlights the diagnostic, chemotherapeutic, and immunizing strategies to control leishmaniasis, though no human vaccine is commercially available currently owing to the complexity of the cellular immune response to this parasite. PMID:26142667

  1. [Biological diagnosis of leishmaniasis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Quilici, M; Dunan, S; Ranque, J

    1978-01-01

    Serochematological, immunological and direct parasitological methods used in the diagnosis of man, dog and wild host reservoirs of Leishmaniasis are described. From their own investigations of more than 5.000 cases, the authors compare the respective technical advantages and the specific indications of each method. PMID:732550

  2. Ecoepidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak, Israel.

    PubMed

    Singer, Shepherd Roee; Abramson, Nitsa; Shoob, Hanna; Zaken, Ora; Zentner, Gary; Stein-Zamir, Chen

    2008-09-01

    A total of 161 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica occurred in the Jerusalem district during 2004-2005; 127 (79%) cases were in a town just outside Jerusalem. Environmental models suggest that in the context of global warming, this outbreak has the potential to extend into Jerusalem. PMID:18760010

  3. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis--an import from Belize].

    PubMed

    Schnedl, Jakob; Auer, Herbert; Fischer, Marcellus; Tomaso, Herbert; Pustelnik, Tom; Mooseder, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis of the New World, in particular when caused by Leishmania (L.) braziliensis, harbours the risk of lymphogenic as well as hematogenic dissemination. This may result in mucocutaneous leishmaniasis causing severe destruction of orofacial structures. Dissemination may occur years after the disappearance of the skin lesions. In contrast, cutaneous leishmaniasis of the old world, is typically restricted to the site of inoculation. Therefore, a conservative diagnostic and therapeutic approach is usually sufficient. Infections acquired in the new world should be treated systemically, if infection with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis complex cannot be excluded. Here we report on three Austrian soldiers, who, weeks after having participated in an international jungle patrol course in Belize, presented themselves with multiple ulcers on the upper limbs. Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis was made based upon histological evaluation of biopsies taken from several ulcers revealing the presence of leishmanial bodies, and detection of amastigote leishmania in smears of material obtained from the ulcers. As species phenotyping could not be performed, infection with L. brasiliensis as well as progression into a mucocutaneous form were possible, demanding systemic therapy. Several treatment options including local cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen, paromomycin (Humatis Pulvis, Parke-Davis) 15% topically or oral fluconazole (Diflucan, Pfizer) 200 mg/d were applied, but showed no effect. Hence, a systemic therapy with intravenous pentamidine (Pentacarinat, Gerot), three times in total, 3-4 mg/kg body weight each, led to a complete regression of the lesions within four weeks. PMID:17987367

  4. Social and Economic Burden of Human Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2016-03-01

    Leishmaniasis continues to pose a major public health problem worldwide. With new epidemics occurring in endemic areas and the spread of the disease to previously free areas because of migration, tourism, and military activities, there is a great need for the development of an effective vaccine. Leishmaniasis is a disease of the poor, occurring mostly in remote rural villages with poor housing and little or no access to modern health-care facilities. In endemic areas, diagnosis of any form of leishmaniasis puts a huge financial strain on an already meagre financial resource at both the individual and community levels. Most often families need to sell their assets (land and livestock) or take loans from informal financial outfits with heavy interest rates to pay for the diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis. Here, we discuss the disease with special emphasis on its socioeconomic impact on the affected individual and community. In addition, we highlight the reasons why continued research aimed at developing an effective Leishmania vaccine is necessary. PMID:26787156

  5. Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sundar, S

    2001-11-01

    Throughout the world, pentavalent antimonial compounds (Sb(v)) have been the mainstay of antileishmanial therapy for more than 50 years. Sb(v) has been highly effective in the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL: kala-azar) at a low dose (10 mg/kg) for short durations (6-10 days). But in the early 1980s reports of its ineffectiveness emerged, and the dose of Sb(v) was eventually raised to 20 mg/kg for 30-40 days. This regimen cures most patients with VL except in India, where the proportion of patients unresponsive to Sb(v) has steadily increased. In hyperendemic districts of north Bihar, 50-65% patients fail treatment with Sb(v). Important reasons are rampant use of subtherapeutic doses, incomplete duration of treatment and substandard drugs. In vitro experiments have established emergence of Sb(v) resistant strains of Leishmania donovani, as isolates from unresponsive patients require 3-5 times more Sb(v) to reach similarly effectiveness against the parasite as in Sb(v) responders. Anthroponotic transmission in India has been an important factor in rapid increase in the Sb(v) refractoriness. Pentamidine was the first drug to be used and cured 99% of these refractory patients, but over time even with double the amount of initial doses, it cures only 69-78% patients now and its use has largely been abandoned in India. Despite several disadvantages, amphotericin B is the only drug available for use in these areas and should be used as first-line drug instead of Sb(v). The new oral antileishmanial drug miltefosine is likely to be the first-line drug in future. Unfortunately, development of newer antileishmanial drugs is rare; two promising drugs, aminosidine and sitamaquine, may be developed for use in the treatment of VL. Lipid associated amphotericin B has an excellent safety and efficacy profile, but remains out of reach for most patients because of its high cost. PMID:11703838

  6. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  7. Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Indian Subcontinent: Modelling Epidemiology and Control

    PubMed Central

    Picado, Albert; Ostyn, Bart; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman; Boelaert, Marleen; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Duerr, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Indian subcontinent, about 200 million people are at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In 2005, the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh started the first regional VL elimination program with the aim to reduce the annual incidence to less than 1 per 10,000 by 2015. A mathematical model was developed to support this elimination program with basic quantifications of transmission, disease and intervention parameters. This model was used to predict the effects of different intervention strategies. Methods and Findings Parameters on the natural history of Leishmania infection were estimated based on a literature review and expert opinion or drawn from a community intervention trial (the KALANET project). The transmission dynamic of Leishmania donovani is rather slow, mainly due to its long incubation period and the potentially long persistence of parasites in infected humans. Cellular immunity as measured by the Leishmanin skin test (LST) lasts on average for roughly one year, and re-infection occurs in intervals of about two years, with variation not specified. The model suggests that transmission of L. donovani is predominantly maintained by asymptomatically infected hosts. Only patients with symptomatic disease were eligible for treatment; thus, in contrast to vector control, the treatment of cases had almost no effect on the overall intensity of transmission. Conclusions Treatment of Kala-azar is necessary on the level of the individual patient but may have little effect on transmission of parasites. In contrast, vector control or exposure prophylaxis has the potential to efficiently reduce transmission of parasites. Based on these findings, control of VL should pay more attention to vector-related interventions. Cases of PKDL may appear after years and may initiate a new outbreak of disease; interventions should therefore be long enough, combined with an active case detection and include effective treatment. PMID:22140589

  8. Compartmentalized Immune Response in Leishmaniasis: Changing Patterns throughout the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Eugenia; Martorell, Susanna; Todolí, Felicitat; Martínez-Flórez, Alba; Urniza, Alicia; Moreno, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is characterized by loss of T-cell responsiveness and absence of Leishmania-specific IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, the expressions of IFN-γ and TNF-α are up-regulated in the tissues and plasma of VL patients. There is a paucity of information regarding the cytokine profile expressed by different target tissues in the same individual and the changes it undergoes throughout the course of infection. In this work we evaluated IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β mRNA expression using real-time RT-PCR in 5 target tissues at 6 months and 16 months post-infection (PI) in a canine experimental model which mimics many aspects of human VL. The spleen and liver of Leishmania infantum experimentally-infected dogs elicited a pro- and anti- inflammatory response and high parasite density at 6 and 16 months PI. The popliteal lymph node, however, showed an up-regulation of IFN-γ cytokin at commencement of the study and was at the chronic phase when the IL-10 and TGF-β expression appeared. In spite of skin parasite invasion, local cytokine response was absent at 6 months PI. Parasite growth and onset of clinical disease both correlated with dermal up-regulation of all the studied cytokines. Our VL model suggests that central target organs, such as the spleen and liver, present a mixed cytokine immune response early on infection. In contrast, an anti-inflammatory/regulatory immune response in peripheral tissues is activated in the later chronic-patent stages of the disease. PMID:27171409

  9. Caseating Granulomas in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Jessica; Habib, Robert; Charaffeddine, Khalil; Taraif, Suad; Loya, Asif; Khalifeh, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background Caseating granulomas are often associated with a mycobacterial infection (TB) and are thought to be exceedingly rare in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, no large series has accurately documented the incidence of caseating granulomas in CL. Methods A multiregional cohort consisting of 317 patients with CL [Syria (157), Pakistan (66), Lebanon (47), Saudi Arabia (43), Ethiopia (2) and Iran (2)] was reviewed. Clinical [age, sex, disease duration, lesion type and geographic and anatomic location] and microscopic data [presence of and type of granuloma, Ridley's parasitic index (PI) and pattern (RP)] were documented. Presence of microorganisms was evaluated using special stains (GMS, PAS, AFB and Gram) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for TB and CL. All cases included in this study were confirmed as CL by PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for molecular speciation and were negative for other organisms by all other studies performed. Categorical and continuous factors were compared for granuloma types using Chi-square, t-test or Mann-Whitney test as appropriate. Results Granulomas were identified in 195 (61.5%) cases of CL and these were divided to 49 caseating (25.2%), 9 suppurative (4.6%) and 137 tuberculoid without necrosis (70.2%). Caseating and tuberculoid granuloma groups were significantly different in terms of the geographical source, with more cases harboring caseating granulomas in Saudi Arabia (p<0.0001). Histologically, both groups were also different in the distribution of their RP (p<0.0001) with a doubling RP3 in caseating granulomas (31% vs. 15%) as opposed to doubling of RP5 in tuberculoid granuloma group (38% vs. 19%). Time needed to achieve healing (RP5) was notably shorter in tuberculoid vs. caseating group (4.0 vs. 6.2 months). Parasitic Index, CL species and other considered variables did not differ for the granuloma type groups. Conclusion In our multiregional large cohort, a notable 18.2% of all CL cases harbored caseating granulomas therefore; CL should be considered part of the differential diagnosis for cases with caseating granulomas in endemic regions, especially considering that the regions included in our cohort are also endemic for TB. Of note, cases of CL with caseating granulomas also showed a slower healing process, with no association with specific species, which may be due to worse host immune response in such cases or to a more aggressive leishmania strains. PMID:25340702

  10. [Comparative study of diagnostic methods for visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from Ilha Solteira, SP].

    PubMed

    de Assis, Juliana; de Queiroz, Nina Marí Gual Pimenta; da Silveira, Rita de Cássia Vieira; Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Oliveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Junior, Antonio Carlos Faconti de Noronha; Neves, Maria Francisca; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was a comparative study of diagnostic methods for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) using serological methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), histochemical (HE) and immunohistochemical (IMHC) tests using spleen, lymph node and liver canine tissues. In addition, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was done in blood and in tissues in order to compare and confirm no conclusive and negative diagnosis by the methods above. For this study, 34 dogs were divided according to clinical signs in asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polisymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs euthanized by Zoonotic Disease Control Center (CCZ) from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. The positivism indexes of ELISA, IMHC, IFAT and HE were 65.0, 62.0, 56.0 and 56.0%, respectively with the highest numbers of positive dogs in polisymptomatic (92.0%) followed by oligosymptomatic (57.0%) and asymptomatic dogs (12.5%). Furthermore, PCR confirmed the positive results and detected DNA in tissues from 100% of negative dogs and 89.0% suspects raising the animal positivism index up to 97.0%. In conclusion, PCR was the most sensitive and a valuable method for a definitive CVL diagnosis. PMID:20385055

  11. Bone marrow leishmaniasis: a review of situation in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important tropical vector-borne disease. This infection can be seen in tropical area and it is considered to be one of the most important vector-borne infections at present. The general situation of the leishmaniasis in Thailand is hereby reviewed. Although Thailand is a tropical country, the leishmaniasis is not endemic but sporadic. The imported cases are documented in some literatures. The serious form of leishmaniasis, the visceral leishmaniasis is also detectable in Thailand. Also, the author performed an in depth literature review of the reports of bone marrow leishmaniasis, a specific kind of visceral leishmaniasis, in Thailand in order to summarize the characteristics of this infection among Thai patients. According to this review, there have been at least 5 reports in the literature of 6 cases of bone marrow leishmaniasis in the Thai population, of which no case was lethal. Concerning the clinical manifestations, all except had prolonged fever with unknown origin. From physical examination, all had hepatosplenomegaly. The striking findings were active hemophagocytosis with increased proliferation of lymphoidplasma cell line in the bone marrow and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani was demonstrated. Considering the treatment, pantavalent antimony compound was used and the excellent improvement and complete recovery. Finally, the author also discussed on the importance of leishmaniasis in Thailand relating to the present globalization and good traveling system. PMID:22014727

  12. Canine vaccination--providing broader benefits for disease control.

    PubMed

    Cleaveland, Sarah; Kaare, Magai; Knobel, Darryn; Laurenson, M Karen

    2006-10-01

    This paper reviews the broader benefits of canine vaccination to human and animal health and welfare with an emphasis on the impacts of mass dog vaccination against rabies in countries of the less-developed world. Domestic dogs are the source of infection for the vast majority (>95%) of cases of human rabies worldwide, and dogs remain the principal reservoir throughout Africa and Asia. Canine vaccination against rabies has been shown to dramatically reduce the number of cases in dogs, the incidence of human animal-bite injuries (and hence the demand for costly post-exposure prophylaxis) and the likely number of human cases, primarily in children. Further benefits include the mitigation of the psychological consequences of rabies in a community, improved attitudes towards animals and animal welfare and reduced livestock losses from canine rabies. Mass vaccination has recently been used in the conservation management of wild carnivore populations threatened by transmission of rabies and canine distemper virus from domestic dog populations. Vaccination of wildlife hosts directly may also provide an option for mitigating infectious disease threats. The development of integrated control measures involving public health, veterinary, wildlife conservation and animal welfare agencies is needed to ensure that control of canine diseases becomes a reality in Africa and Asia. The tools and delivery systems are all available--all that is needed is the political will to free the world from the ongoing tragedy of these diseases. PMID:16701966

  13. Modular multiantigen T cell epitope-enriched DNA vaccine against human leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Das, Shantanabha; Freier, Anja; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Das, Sushmita; Oswald, Detlef; Losch, Florian O; Selka, Melanie; Sacerdoti-Sierra, Nina; Schönian, Gabriele; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Seifert, Karin; Schroff, Matthias; Juhls, Christiane; Jaffe, Charles L; Roy, Syamal; Das, Pradeep; Louzir, Hechmi; Croft, Simon L; Modabber, Farrokh; Walden, Peter

    2014-04-30

    The leishmaniases are protozoal diseases that severely affect large populations in tropical and subtropical regions. There are only limited treatment options and preventative measures. Vaccines will be important for prevention, control and elimination of leishmaniasis, and could reduce the transmission and burden of disease in endemic populations. We report the development of a DNA vaccine against leishmaniasis that induced T cell-based immunity and is a candidate for clinical trials. The vaccine antigens were selected as conserved in various Leishmania species, different endemic regions, and over time. They were tested with T cells from individuals cured of leishmaniasis, and shown to be immunogenic and to induce CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses in genetically diverse human populations of different endemic regions. The vaccine proved protective in a rodent model of infection. Thus, the immunogenicity of candidate vaccine antigens in human populations of endemic regions, as well as proof of principle for induction of specific immune responses and protection against Leishmania infection in mice, provides a viable strategy for T cell vaccine development. PMID:24786324

  14. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus... Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus... serum-constant virus neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine adenovirus. (i) The 20 dogs...

  15. Leishmaniasis and Climate Change—Case Study: Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Mastrángelo, Andrea Verónica; Fernández, María Soledad

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases closely associated with the environment, such as leishmaniases, have been a usual argument about the deleterious impact of climate change on public health. From the biological point of view interaction of different variables has different and even conflicting effects on the survival of vectors and the probability transmission of pathogens. The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. These studies showed that the changes in transmission due to change or increase in frequency and intensity of climatic instability were expressed through changes in the probability of vector-human reservoir effective contacts. These changes of contact in turn are modulated by both direct effects on the biology and ecology of the organisms involved, as by perceptions and changes in the behavior of the human communities at risk. Therefore, from the perspective of public health and state policy, and taking into account the current nonlinear increased velocity of climate change, we concluded that discussing the uncertainties of large-scale models will have lower impact than to develop-validate mitigation strategies to be operative at local level, and compatibles with sustainable development, conservation biodiversity, and respect for cultural diversity. PMID:22685477

  16. Domestic animals and epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Van der Auwera, Gert; Rijal, Suman; Picado, Albert; Speybroeck, Niko; Khanal, Basudha; De Doncker, Simonne; Das, Murari Lal; Ostyn, Bart; Davies, Clive; Coosemans, Marc; Berkvens, Dirk; Boelaert, Marleen; Dujardin, Jean Claude

    2010-02-01

    On the Indian subcontinent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is considered an anthroponosis. To determine possible reasons for its persistence during interepidemic periods, we mapped Leishmania infections among healthy persons and animals in an area of active VL transmission in Nepal. During 4 months (September 2007-February 2008), blood was collected from persons, goats, cows, and buffaloes in 1 village. Leishmania infections were determined by using PCR. We found infections among persons (6.1%), cows (5%), buffaloes (4%), and goats (16%). Data were georeferenced and entered into a geographic information system. The bivariate K-function results indicated spatial clustering of Leishmania spp.-positive persons and domestic animals. Classification tree analysis determined that among several possible risk factors for Leishmania infection among persons, proximity of Leishmania spp.-positive goats ranked first. Although our data do not necessarily mean that goats constitute a reservoir host of L. donovani, these observations indicate the need for further investigation of goats' possible role in VL transmission. PMID:20113552

  17. Multi-modal Analysis of Courtship Behaviour in the Old World Leishmaniasis Vector Phlebotomus argentipes

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Daniel P.; Yaman, Khatijah; Underhilll, Beryl A.; Mitchell, Fraser; Carter, Victoria; Hamilton, James G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes is arguably the most important vector of leishmaniasis worldwide. As there is no vaccine against the parasites that cause leishmaniasis, disease prevention focuses on control of the insect vector. Understanding reproductive behaviour will be essential to controlling populations of P. argentipes, and developing new strategies for reducing leishmaniasis transmission. Through statistical analysis of male-female interactions, this study provides a detailed description of P. argentipes courtship, and behaviours critical to mating success are highlighted. The potential for a role of cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship is also investigated, by comparing chemicals extracted from the surface of male and female flies. Principal Findings P. argentipes courtship shared many similarities with that of both Phlebotomus papatasi and the New World leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. Male wing-flapping while approaching the female during courtship predicted mating success, and touching between males and females was a common and frequent occurrence. Both sexes were able to reject a potential partner. Significant differences were found in the profile of chemicals extracted from the surface of males and females. Results of GC analysis indicate that female extracts contained a number of peaks with relatively short retention times not present in males. Extracts from males had higher peaks for chemicals with relatively long retention times. Conclusions The importance of male approach flapping suggests that production of audio signals through wing beating, or dispersal of sex pheromones, are important to mating in this species. Frequent touching as a means of communication, and the differences in the chemical profiles extracted from males and females, may also indicate a role for cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship. Comparing characteristics of successful and unsuccessful mates could aid in identifying the modality of signals involved in P. argentipes courtship, and their potential for use in developing new strategies for vector control. PMID:25474027

  18. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Sand Flies in Punjab, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Ayesha; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Qadir, Abdul; Sabir, Arshad Makhdoom

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis make the disease a public health concern in Punjab, Pakistan. The knowledge of how the population perceives the disease and its vector is essential in order to design an effective management strategy, but such studies are rare in Pakistan. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study was based on a cross-sectional self-administered survey comprising 250 household samples collected from five localities including Bhawalpur, Multan, Jhang, Faisalabad and Lahore. The results revealed that the respondents had a poor knowledge of the vector and disease. Few of the respondents were aware about the identification of sand flies, their breeding place, biting time, transmission of leishmaniasis and control measures. Skin infection and sandflies as the main disease symptom and vector of the disease, respectively, were known to some of the respondents. Some believed that summer was the main peak incidence of the disease and it could be transmitted from man to man via contact. However, most of the respondents believed that the disease could be cured. Admission to hospitals, cleanliness and use of bed nets were the treatment measures for the disease in suspected patients, whereas some thought that the use of bed nets could be helpful in preventing leishmaniasis infection. Conclusions/Significance Poor knowledge of the disease and its vector in the study population emphasize the need to initiate health education and awareness campaigns to minimize the risks of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future. PMID:26090870

  19. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  20. Transverse mode analysis of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy of canine hemangiosarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weina; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kisker, David W.; Lear, Kevin L.

    2010-02-01

    The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) uses the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic optical resonator to distinguish cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Based on their distinctive characteristic transmission spectra, canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been differentiated using the OFIS technique with high statistical significance (p<10- 6). 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity were achieved simultaneously. A cell lens model explains trends in the transverse mode pattern in the transmission spectra of HSA cells and allows extraction of cell focal length.

  1. First report of Warileya rotundipennis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Mabel; Ferro, Cristina; Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Rubiano, Luisa; Delgado, Marcela; Cossio, Alexandra; Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Ocampo, Clara; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis from sylvatic ecosystems into peri-urban and domestic settings has occurred as sand flies have adapted to anthropogenic environmental modifications. Assessment of the intradomiciliary presence of sand flies in households of the settlement “La Cabaña”, in the Department of Risaralda, Colombia, revealed an abundance of Warileya rotundipennis. This unexpected observation motivated further analyses to evaluate the participation of this species in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collections using CDC light traps were conducted during two consecutive nights in May and August 2011. The total of 667 sand flies collected were classified into five species: W. rotundipennis (n = 654; 98.05%), Nyssomyia trapidoi (n = 7; 1.04%); Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (n = 3; 0.44%); Lutzomyia lichyi (n = 2; 0.29%) and Psychodopygus panamensis (n = 1; 0.14%). The striking predominance of W. rotundipennis within households during both wet (May) and dry (August) seasons, anthropophilic behavior demonstrated by human blood in 95.23% (60/63) evaluable blood-engorged specimens, and natural infection (5/168–3%) with genetically similar parasites of the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus observed in a patient in this community, support the involvement of W. rotundipennis in the domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in “La Cabaña”. PMID:25917717

  2. Ongoing epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis among Syrian refugees, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar; Khalifeh, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%. PMID:25279543

  3. Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon1

    PubMed Central

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H.; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar

    2014-01-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%. PMID:25279543

  4. Animal Models for the Analysis of Immune Responses to Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, David L.; Melby, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    This unit focuses on the murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis and models of visceral leishmaniasis in mice and hamsters. Each basic protocol describes the methods used to inoculate parasites and to evaluate infections with regard to lesion progression and visceralization, and quantification of parasite load. PMID:18432753

  5. Leishmaniasis in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Jose A Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    Leishmaniasis represents a major public health problem in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are mainly seen in 14 of the 22 countries of the region. In several of these countries outbreaks have an apparent tendency to occur at around 10-year intervals. In 2008, some 100000 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were reported. Foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania major, occur in Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen. Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by L. tropica, occurs in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Yemen. Anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis, caused by L. donovani, occurs mainly in Sudan and Somalia. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, caused by L. infantum, occurs in most countries of the region. In order to address the problem of leishmaniasis in the EMR, WHO is supporting ministries of health through a strategic plan focusing on (a) training programme managers and health workers on diagnosis and case management; (b) establishing a harmonized regional surveillance system; (c) creating a regional network of experts; (d) promoting political commitment of national governments. PMID:20728317

  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in British troops following jungle training in Belize.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Mark S

    2011-09-01

    British military personnel account for 45% of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases seen in the UK and 103 cases from Belize were seen in 1998-2009. Systemic treatment of CL from Belize should not be considered essential in immunocompetent patients because mucosal leishmaniasis very rarely occurs. PMID:21856236

  7. [Lutzomyia whitmani periurbanization in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Maranho, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Leonardo, Francisco Santos; Reblo, Jos Manuel Macrio

    2004-01-01

    An entomological survey was performed in the periurban area of the municipality of Dom Pedro in the state of Maranho in 2000, in order to estimate the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis, due to the occurrence of one suspect death caused by kala azar. However, it was surprisingly verified that 82.4% (2,440 specimens) from the total of 2,961 sand flies captured in the peridomicile were Lutzomyia whitmani. This association has indicated a new pattern for cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission (urban), as has been observed with regard to kala azar in the northeast of Brazil. PMID:15330071

  8. Complexities of Assessing the Disease Burden Attributable to Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bern, Caryn; Maguire, James H.; Alvar, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Among parasitic diseases, morbidity and mortality caused by leishmaniasis are surpassed only by malaria and lymphatic filariasis. However, estimation of the leishmaniasis disease burden is challenging, due to clinical and epidemiological diversity, marked geographic clustering, and lack of reliable data on incidence, duration, and impact of the various disease syndromes. Non-health effects such as impoverishment, disfigurement, and stigma add to the burden, and introduce further complexities. Leishmaniasis occurs globally, but has disproportionate impact in the Horn of Africa, South Asia and Brazil (for visceral leishmaniasis), and Latin America, Central Asia, and southwestern Asia (for cutaneous leishmaniasis). Disease characteristics and challenges for control are reviewed for each of these foci. We recommend review of reliable secondary data sources and collection of baseline active survey data to improve current disease burden estimates, plus the improvement or establishment of effective surveillance systems to monitor the impact of control efforts. PMID:18958165

  9. Canine paroxysmal movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Urkasemsin, Ganokon; Olby, Natasha J

    2014-11-01

    Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders characterized by muscle hypertonicity that can produce involuntary movements. Signs emanate from the central nervous system; consciousness is not impaired, ictal electroencephalography is normal, and there are no autonomic signs, distinguishing them from seizure disorders. In humans they are classified into 3 groups, each responding to different therapies. A mutation in the gene for brevican (BCAN) has been identified as the cause of Episodic Falling in Cavalier King Charles spaniels. Further elucidation of the genetic causes will enhance our ability to identify and treat these canine diseases. PMID:25441627

  10. Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in Cape Verde archipelago. Results To provide information regarding the health status of the canine population in Vila do Maio, Maio Island, Cape Verde, 53 rectal swabs were collected from 53 stray dogs during 2010 and 93 rectal swabs and 88 blood samples were collected from 125 stray dogs in 2011. All rectal swabs (2010 n = 53; 2011 n = 93) were analysed for the presence of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus nucleic acids by quantitative PCR methods. Specific antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were also assessed (2011 n = 88). From the 2010 sampling, 43.3% (23/53) were positive for canine parvovirus DNA, 11.3% (6/53) for canine distemper virus RNA and 1.9% (1/53) for canine coronavirus RNA. In 2011, the prevalence values for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus were quite similar to those from the previous year, respectively 44.1% (41/93), and 1.1% (1/93), but canine distemper virus was not detected in any of the samples analysed (0%, 0/93). Antibodies against canine parvovirus were detected in 71.6% (63/88) blood samples and the seroprevalence found for canine distemper virus was 51.1% (45/88). Conclusions This study discloses the data obtained in a molecular and serological epidemiological surveillance carried out in urban populations of stray and domestic animals. Virus transmission and spreading occurs easily in large dog populations leading to high mortality rates particularly in unvaccinated susceptible animals. In addition, these animals can act as disease reservoirs for wild animal populations by occasional contact. Identification of susceptible wildlife of Maio Island is of upmost importance to evaluate the risk of pathogen spill over from domestic to wild animals in Cape Verde and to evaluate the associated threat to the wild susceptible species. PMID:24755118

  11. Electron microscopic study of canine Babesia gibsoni infection.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A; Styer, Eloise L; Frazier, Ken S

    2004-05-01

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne parasitic disease caused by the intraerythrocytic parasites, Babesia canis and Babesia gibsoni. A lethargic, weak, American Staffordshire Terrier (pit bull) dog, which had regenerative, normocytic, normochromic anemia, was shown by polymerase chain reaction analysis to be infected with B. gibsoni. Transmission electron microscopy of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-treated blood disclosed many well-preserved, intraerythrocytic babesia trophozoites. Four morphologic forms of babesia trophozoites are described (small spheres, small rods, irregular forms lacking pseudoinclusions, and large spheres having pseudoinclusions) and are compared with intraerythrocytic forms of B. canis and B. gibsoni described in other light and electron microscopic studies of in vivo and in vitro Babesia infections. This is the first detailed transmission electron microscopic study of canine B. gibsoni-infected red blood cells in North America. PMID:15152839

  12. Spatial distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in the Aydin Mountains and surroundings: the main focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozbel, Yusuf; Balcioğlu, I Cüneyt; Olgen, M Kirami; Simsek, Fatih M; Töz, Seray Özensoy; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Demir, Samiye; Alkan, M Ziya

    2011-03-01

    An entomological survey was conducted to determine the spatial distribution of phlebotomine fauna and understand the effect of environmental factors. The entomological survey was carried out during 2006-2007 in a study area in the rural area of Aydin province, near the Kusadasi town where VL, CL, and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) are endemic. In 2006 and 2007, 132 locations were sampled using sticky traps mainly on embankments. Detailed environmental and meteorological information was also collected for each location. The results of entomological studies indicated that the probable vectors are Phlebotomus tobbi and P. neglectus for VL and CanL, and P. similis for CL in this western leishmaniasis focus. The data revealed a correlation between their presence and spatial variables such as altitude, sampling site location, and humidity. The distribution areas of probable vector species in this study area allowed the identification of risk levels, which may provide useful information to guide the leishmaniasis research in endemic regions. PMID:21366787

  13. Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: Review of the Epidemiological and Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Mohebali, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening vector-borne parasitic disease is distributed in some parts of the new world and old world. The disease is endemic in different parts of Iran. This review article has been focused on major topics of epidemiological aspects and clinical features of VL in Iran for the period of 2002 through 2012. For the detection of VL in humans as well as animal reservoir hosts, anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using direct agglutination test (DAT) as a validated serological test. Parasitological examinations were performed on suspected VL patients as well as canines and rodents. Different molecular methods were used for identification of species and genotype/ or strain of Leishmania spp. isolated from infected humans, animal reservoir hosts and vectors. Altogether, 1698 out of 36081 (4.7%) human serum samples collected from 5 distinct geographical zones showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers ≥ 1:3200 using DAT. The majority of VL cases in the endemic areas were found among children up to 12 years old. Almost 75% of DAT-positive cases (≥1:3200) in endemic areas showed clinical signs and symptoms. Predominant signs and symptoms in 217 hospitalized patients with DAT positive (≥1:3200) results included paleness (99.5%), fever (96.9%), splenomegaly (91.5%), hepatomegaly (53.6%) and lymphadenopathy (21.1%). Integrated VL surveillance system in primary care using DAT, could decrease mortality and morbidity of the disease in the VL endemic areas of the northwestern Iran. Out of 7204 serum samples collected from domestic dogs in various geographical locations of Iran, 879 (12.2%) were DAT sero-positive at titers ≥ 1:320. L. infantum as the principal causative agent of the disease was isolated from infected humans, domestic and wild canines and rodents. The principal animal reservoir hosts of the infection are domestic and wild canines. Ph. kandelakii, Ph. perfiliewi transcaucasicus, Ph. tobbi in northwestern Iran; Ph. major s.l. (=Ph. neglectus), Ph. keshishiani, and Ph. alexandri in southern parts of Iran were molecularly and/or parasitologically positive for L. infantum infections. The zoonotic form of VL (ZVL) caused by L. infantum occurs sporadically in all geographical zones of Iran but in northwestern and southern parts of the country the disease is endemic. DAT as an appropriate and potential tool has been used for sero-diagnosis and sero-epidemiological of VL among humans as well as domestic and wild canines. PMID:24454426

  14. PD-1-mediated T cell exhaustion during visceral leishmaniasis impairs phagocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Kevin J.; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Martinez, Pedro A.; Jones, Douglas E.; Petersen, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    Control of Leishmania infantum infection is dependent upon Th1 CD4+ T cells to promote macrophage intracellular clearance of parasites. Deficient CD4+ T cell effector responses during clinical visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are associated with elevated production of IL-10. In the primary domestic reservoir of VL, dogs, we define occurrence of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell exhaustion as a significant stepwise loss of antigen-specific proliferation and IFNγ production, corresponding to increasing VL symptomatology. Exhaustion was associated with a fourfold increase in the population of T cells with surface expression of Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) between control and symptomatic populations. Importantly, exhausted populations of CD8+ T cells and to a lesser extent CD4+ T cells were present prior to onset of clinical VL. VL exhausted T cells did not undergo significant apoptosis ex vivo after antigen stimulation. Antibody block of PD-1 ligand, B7.H1, promoted return of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell function and dramatically increased reactive oxygen species production in co-cultured monocyte-derived phagocytes. As a result, these phagocytes had decreased parasite load. We demonstrate for the first time that pan-T cell, PD-1-mediated, exhaustion during VL influenced macrophage reactive oxygen intermediate production. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway improved the ability of phagocytes isolated from dogs presenting with clinical VL to clear intracellular parasites. T cell exhaustion during symptomatic canine leishmaniasis has implications for the response to vaccination and therapeutic strategies for control of Leishmania infantum in this important reservoir species. PMID:24154626

  15. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Vaccination: A Matter of Quality

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Paula Mello; Macedo, Amanda Beatriz Barreto

    2016-01-01

    There have been exhaustive efforts to develop an efficient vaccine against leishmaniasis. Factors like host and parasite genetic characteristics, virulence, epidemiological scenarios, and, mainly, diverse immune responses triggered by Leishmania species make the achievement of this aim a complex task. It is already clear that the induction of a Th1, pro-inflammatory response, is important in the protection against Leishmania infection. However, many questions must still be answered to fully understand Leishmania immunopathology, especially regarding Leishmania-specific Th1 response induction, regulation, and persistence. A large number of Leishmania antigens able to induce pro-inflammatory response have been selected so far, but none of them demonstrated efficiency in protection assays. A possible explanation is that CD4 T cells display marked heterogeneity at a single-cell level especially regarding the production of Th1-defining cytokines and multifunctionality. It has been established in the literature that Th1 cells undergo a differentiation process, which can generate cells with diverse phenotypes and survival capabilities. Despite that, only a few studies evaluate this heterogenic response and the amount of multifunctional CD4 T cells induced by Leishmania vaccine candidates, missing what can be a crucial point in defining a correlate of protection after vaccination. Moreover, most of the knowledge involving the development of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) vaccines comes from the mouse model of infection with Leishmania major, which cannot be fully applied to New World Leishmaniasis. For this reason, the immune response triggered by infection with New World Leishmania species, as well as vaccine candidates, need further studies. In this review, we will reinforce the importance of evaluating the quality of immune response against Leishmania, using a multiparametric analysis in order to understand better this complex host-parasite interaction, discussing the differences in the responses triggered by different New World Leishmania species, as well as the impact on the development of an effective vaccine against CL. PMID:27148270

  16. Immune Regulation during Chronic Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Faleiro, Rebecca J.; Kumar, Rajiv; Hafner, Louise M.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic parasitic disease associated with severe immune dysfunction. Treatment options are limited to relatively toxic drugs, and there is no vaccine for humans available. Hence, there is an urgent need to better understand immune responses following infection with Leishmania species by studying animal models of disease and clinical samples from patients. Here, we review recent discoveries in these areas and highlight shortcomings in our knowledge that need to be addressed if better treatment options are to be developed and effective vaccines designed. PMID:25010815

  17. Immune regulation during chronic visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, Rebecca J; Kumar, Rajiv; Hafner, Louise M; Engwerda, Christian R

    2014-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic parasitic disease associated with severe immune dysfunction. Treatment options are limited to relatively toxic drugs, and there is no vaccine for humans available. Hence, there is an urgent need to better understand immune responses following infection with Leishmania species by studying animal models of disease and clinical samples from patients. Here, we review recent discoveries in these areas and highlight shortcomings in our knowledge that need to be addressed if better treatment options are to be developed and effective vaccines designed. PMID:25010815

  18. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis following military deployment to Iraq].

    PubMed

    Croft, A M; Lestringant, G G; Baker, B C

    2006-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic disease of the tropics and subtropics, transmitted by bites of infected female phlebotonine sandflies. Although CL lesions are normally self-healing they may be disfiguring or potentially disabling, and in field conditions may become secondarily infected; clinical intervention is appropriate in these circumstances. We describe two soldiers normally stationed in British Forces Germany who following deployment to Iraq presented with Leishmania tropica infection. The primary prevention of CL is discussed, together with the epidemiology of the disease, and its treatment under deployed conditions. Old World CL rarely requires aggressive antimonial terapy. Antiiosis with or without curettage is a simple, safe and effective field treatment. PMID:16775945

  19. Epitope mapping of the HSP83.1 protein of Leishmania braziliensis discloses novel targets for immunodiagnosis of tegumentary and visceral clinical forms of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira

    2014-07-01

    Gold standard serological diagnostic methods focus on antigens that elicit a strong humoral immune response that is specific to a certain pathogen. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify linear B-cell epitopes that are conserved among Leishmania species but are divergent from the host species Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris and from Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, to select potential targets for the immunodiagnosis of leishmaniasis. Using these criteria, we selected heat shock protein 83.1 of Leishmania braziliensis for this study. We predicted three linear B-cell epitopes in its sequence. These peptides and the recombinant heat shock protein 83.1 (rHSP83.1) were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) against serum samples from patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and from dogs infected with Leishmania infantum (canine VL [CVL]). Our data show that rHSP83.1 is a promising target in the diagnosis of TL. We also identified specific epitopes derived from HSP83.1 that can be used in the diagnosis of human TL (peptide 3), both human and canine VL (peptides 1 and 3), and all TL, VL, and CVL clinical manifestations (peptide 3). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves confirmed the superior performance of rHSP83.1 and peptides 1 and 3 compared to that of the soluble L. braziliensis antigen and the reference test kit for the diagnosis of CVL in Brazil (EIE-LVC kit; Bio-Manguinhos, Fiocruz). Our study thus provides proof-of-principle evidence of the feasibility of using bioinformatics to identify novel targets for the immunodiagnosis of parasitic diseases using proteins that are highly conserved throughout evolution. PMID:24807053

  20. Human cutaneous leishmaniasis in two communities in eastern Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Faris, R; Feinsod, F M; Morsy, T A; el Misiry, A; Gabal, M S; el Said, S; Saah, A J

    1988-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) (L. major) has been documented in soldiers of the Multinational Force in the Sinai as well as in visitors to the area. However, little is known about the prevalence of this disease in the local populations. We identified 2 villages in northeastern Sinai near the infected camps of the Multinational Force and, in a population-based study, measured the prevalence of CL. Populations studied included residents in 2 towns as well as a Bedouin family living on the village periphery. Leishmanial parasites were identified from smears taken from cutaneous lesions. Three of 90 residents in 1 village and 3 of 8 Bedouins had CL. None of 43 residents examined in the second town had CL. Two of 6 individuals had multiple lesions, and at least 1 had recurring ulcers. Five of the 6 affected individuals were males and the 6 represented all age groups. The 6 infected individuals came from 3 families. Infected individuals had traveled outside of the village more frequently than uninfected individuals, suggesting that transmission was more common outside of residential areas. PMID:3356233

  1. Promoting canine health at Crufts.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The Canine Health Schemes, run by BVA in partnership with the Kennel Club, were promoted at this year's Crufts, which was held at the NEC, Birmingham, last month. Tim Keen, BVA marketing manager, reports. PMID:27034308

  2. A travel misadventure--visceral leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Delacour, H; Roche, C; Roche, B; Morand, C; Koeck, J L

    2010-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the world's most neglected diseases. Over 90% of the 500,000 annual new cases occur in only five countries: India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sudan and North-Eastern Brazil, but the disease remains endemic in Southern Europe. We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent serviceman after a seven-day stay in the Marseilles region of South-Eastern France. This case is intended to alert clinicians to the possibility of visceral leishmaniasis in patients who develop a febrile illness after returning from travel in Southern European countries. PMID:20919619

  3. Molecular detection of canine parvovirus in flies (Diptera) at open and closed canine facilities in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Clarence; Isdell, Allen E; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma S; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sanchez, Susan

    2014-06-01

    More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV. Molecular diagnostic methods were used in this cross-sectional study to detect the presence of CPV in flies trapped at thirty-eight canine facilities. The flies involved were identified as belonging to the house fly (Mucidae), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae) and blow/bottle fly (Calliphoridae) families. A primary surveillance location (PSL) was established at a canine facility in south-central South Carolina, USA, to identify fly-virus interaction within the canine facility environment. Flies trapped at this location were pooled monthly and assayed for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These insects were found to be positive for CPV every month from February through the end of November 2011. Fly vector behavior and seasonality were documented and potential environmental risk factors were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean numbers of each of the three fly families captured, and after determining fly CPV status (positive or negative), it was determined whether there were significant relationships between numbers of flies captured, seasonal numbers of CPV cases, temperature and rainfall. Flies were also sampled at thirty-seven additional canine facility surveillance locations (ASL) and at four non-canine animal industry locations serving as negative field controls. Canine facility risk factors were identified and evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted on the number of CPV cases reported within the past year to determine the correlation of fly CPV status (positive or negative) for each facility, facility design (open or closed), mean number of dogs present monthly and number of flies captured. Significant differences occurred between fly CPV positive vs. negative sites with regard to their CPV case numbers, fly numbers captured, and number of dogs present. At the ASL, a statistically significant relationship was found between PCR-determined fly CPV status (positive or negative) and facility design (open vs. closed). Open-facility designs were likely to have more CPV outbreaks and more likely to have flies testing positive for CPV DNA. PMID:24679715

  4. Coarse-resolution Ecology of Etiological Agent, Vector, and Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Abdallah M.; Annajar, Badereddin B.; Dokhan, Mostafa Ramadhan; Boussaa, Samia; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis ranks among the tropical diseases least known and most neglected in Libya. World Health Organization reports recognized associations of Phlebotomus papatasi, Psammomys obesus, and Meriones spp., with transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL; caused by Leishmania major) across Libya. Here, we map risk of ZCL infection based on occurrence records of L. major, P. papatasi, and four potential animal reservoirs (Meriones libycus, Meriones shawi, Psammomys obesus, and Gerbillus gerbillus). Ecological niche models identified limited risk areas for ZCL across the northern coast of the country; most species associated with ZCL transmission were confined to this same region, but some had ranges extending to central Libya. All ENM predictions were significant based on partial ROC tests. As a further evaluation of L. major ENM predictions, we compared predictions with 98 additional independent records provided by the Libyan National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC); all of these records fell inside the belt predicted as suitable for ZCL. We tested ecological niche similarity among vector, parasite, and reservoir species and could not reject any null hypotheses of niche similarity. Finally, we tested among possible combinations of vector and reservoir that could predict all recent human ZCL cases reported by NCDC; only three combinations could anticipate the distribution of human cases across the country. PMID:26863317

  5. Coarse-resolution Ecology of Etiological Agent, Vector, and Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya.

    PubMed

    Samy, Abdallah M; Annajar, Badereddin B; Dokhan, Mostafa Ramadhan; Boussaa, Samia; Peterson, A Townsend

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis ranks among the tropical diseases least known and most neglected in Libya. World Health Organization reports recognized associations of Phlebotomus papatasi, Psammomys obesus, and Meriones spp., with transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL; caused by Leishmania major) across Libya. Here, we map risk of ZCL infection based on occurrence records of L. major, P. papatasi, and four potential animal reservoirs (Meriones libycus, Meriones shawi, Psammomys obesus, and Gerbillus gerbillus). Ecological niche models identified limited risk areas for ZCL across the northern coast of the country; most species associated with ZCL transmission were confined to this same region, but some had ranges extending to central Libya. All ENM predictions were significant based on partial ROC tests. As a further evaluation of L. major ENM predictions, we compared predictions with 98 additional independent records provided by the Libyan National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC); all of these records fell inside the belt predicted as suitable for ZCL. We tested ecological niche similarity among vector, parasite, and reservoir species and could not reject any null hypotheses of niche similarity. Finally, we tested among possible combinations of vector and reservoir that could predict all recent human ZCL cases reported by NCDC; only three combinations could anticipate the distribution of human cases across the country. PMID:26863317

  6. Serum iron status among visceral leishmaniasis patients.

    PubMed

    Paul, U K; Chakraborty, P K; Hoque, M R; Jafrin, W; Sarkar, S; Akhter, S; Roy, A S

    2014-10-01

    This case control cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh in cooperation with the Department of Microbiology, Medicine units of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital and Fulbaria & Muktagacha Upazilla Health Complexes, Mymensingh during the period of July 2006 - June 2007. The aim of the study was to explore the status of serum iron among visceral leishmaniasis patients in Bangladesh as a means to monitor the possibility of management of these patients. A total of 120 people of different age groups were included in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups - Group I (Control) consisting of 60 apparently healthy persons matched by age, sex and socioeconomic status with the cases and Group II (Case) consisting of 60 "ICT for Kala-azar" positive VL patients. Serum iron was estimated by colorimetric method with ferrozine from each sample. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS windows package. Among the groups, mean±SD (Standard Deviation) of Group I and Group II serum iron were 100.67±20.83 and 76.76±8.64μgm/dl respectively. By comparing Group I with Group II highly significant difference were found in case of serum iron (P<0.001). It is evident from the study that serum iron level significantly decreases among visceral leishmaniasis patients in Bangladesh. PMID:25481581

  7. Visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: an evolving disease.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  8. Natural Products: Insights into Leishmaniasis Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Igor A.; Mazotto, Ana Maria; Cardoso, Verônica; Alves, Renan L.; Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade; Pinheiro, Anderson S.; Vermelho, Alane B.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that affects several populations worldwide, against which there are no vaccines available and the chemotherapy is highly toxic. Depending on the species causing the infection, the disease is characterized by commitment of tissues, including the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs. Despite the relevance of host inflammatory mediators on parasite burden control, Leishmania and host immune cells interaction may generate an exacerbated proinflammatory response that plays an important role in the development of leishmaniasis clinical manifestations. Plant-derived natural products have been recognized as bioactive agents with several properties, including anti-protozoal and anti-inflammatory activities. The present review focuses on the antileishmanial activity of plant-derived natural products that are able to modulate the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. The capability of crude extracts and some isolated substances in promoting an anti-inflammatory response during Leishmania infection may be used as part of an effective strategy to fight the disease. PMID:26538837

  9. Eosinophils and mast cells in leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Nilda E; Wilson, Mary E

    2014-08-01

    Leishmania spp. are parasitic protozoa endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and the causative agent of leishmaniasis, a collection of syndromes whose clinical manifestations vary according to host and pathogen factors. Leishmania spp. are inoculated into the mammalian host by the bite of an infected sand fly, whereupon they are taken up by phagocytosis, convert into the replicative amastigote stage within macrophages, reproduce, spread to new macrophages and cause disease manifestations. A curative response against leishmaniasis depends in the classical activation of macrophages and the IL-12-dependent onset of an adaptive type 1 response characterized by the production of IFN-γ. Emerging evidence suggests that neutrophils, dendritic cells and other immune cells can serve as either temporary or stable hosts for Leishmania spp. Furthermore, it is becoming apparent that the initial interactions of the parasite with resident or early recruited immune cells can shape both the macrophage response and the type of adaptive immune response being induced. In this review, we compile a growing number of studies demonstrating how the earliest interactions of Leishmania spp. with eosinophils and mast cells influence the macrophage response to infection and the development of the adaptive immune response, hence, determining the ultimate outcome of infection. PMID:24838146

  10. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando José

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail) are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106) of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease. PMID:24553602

  11. Animal models for the study of leishmaniasis immunology.

    PubMed

    Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando José

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail) are being infected, and different numbers ("low" 1 × 10(2) and "high" 1 × 10(6)) of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease. PMID:24553602

  12. Eco-epidemiological survey of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Ribeira Valley River, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Luz, Ennio; Telles, Flávio Queiroz; Pandey, Ashok; Biseto, Alceu; Dinaiski, Marlene; Sbalqueiro, Ives; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2005-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic since last century in Adrianópolis Municipality, Ribeira Valley and is a serious public health. A study carried out during 1993-2003 on epidemiological surveys conducted in rural communities showed 339 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) detected from four municipalities (Adrianópolis, Cerro Azul, Doutor Ulysses and Rio Branco do Sul). A larger prevalence of cutaneous lesions was observed in rural workers (36%), women with domestic activities (18%), and younger students (31%). Multiple lesions were noticed in 53% of patients, but only one case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was reported. Twenty stocks were isolated from patients with characteristics lesions and were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and Random Amplified DNA (RAPD). In Phlebotominae survey, five species were obtained. Lutzomyia intermedia sl. represented 97.5% in peridomiciliar area and 100% in domicile. A canine serological survey made (Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody Test, IFAT and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, ELISA) in six rural county of Adrianópolis Municipality during 1998-1999 showed that 15.1% (24/159) of dogs were sera reactive. No lesions were observed in dogs and no parasite was isolated from lymph node aspirates and biopsies. In wild reservoirs study, only seven animals (Cricetidae, Desmodus sp. and edentates) were captured, but no parasites were found in culture from deep organs. The paper presents results of our 10 years study on cutaneous leishmaniasis survey in the Ribeira River Valley, East Region of Paraná State, Brazil. Environment changes in this region are also discussed. PMID:15652328

  13. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  14. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  15. Mucosal Leishmaniasis: An Underestimated Presentation of a Neglected Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cocuzza, Salvatore; Cosentino, Stefano; Serra, Agostino; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We present a review of current knowledge about mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). Although involvement of mucous membranes is classically admitted in New World leishmaniasis, particularly occurring in infection by Leishmania (L.) braziliensis species complex, ML is also a possible presentation of Old World leishmaniasis, in either L. donovani or L. major species complex infections. Thus, ML has to be considered not only as a Latin American disease but as an Old and New World disease. We describe ML epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinics, diagnosis, and therapy. Considering both its highly disfiguring lesions and its possible lethal outcome, ML should not be underestimated by physicians. Moreover, leishmaniasis is expected to increase its burden in many countries as sandfly vector distribution is widespreading towards non-endemic areas. Finally, the lack of clear understanding of ML pathogenesis and the absence of effective human vaccines strongly claim for more research. PMID:23853773

  16. Using humans to make a human leishmaniasis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kamhawi, Shaden; Oliveira, Fabiano; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2014-04-30

    The cellular immune response to peptide pools from conserved Leishmania antigens in leishmaniasis-immune individuals identified epitopes for a human DNA vaccine (Das et al., this issue). PMID:24786322

  17. Mucosal leishmaniasis: an underestimated presentation of a neglected disease.

    PubMed

    Strazzulla, Alessio; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Postorino, Maria Concetta; Cosentino, Stefano; Serra, Agostino; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We present a review of current knowledge about mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). Although involvement of mucous membranes is classically admitted in New World leishmaniasis, particularly occurring in infection by Leishmania (L.) braziliensis species complex, ML is also a possible presentation of Old World leishmaniasis, in either L. donovani or L. major species complex infections. Thus, ML has to be considered not only as a Latin American disease but as an Old and New World disease. We describe ML epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinics, diagnosis, and therapy. Considering both its highly disfiguring lesions and its possible lethal outcome, ML should not be underestimated by physicians. Moreover, leishmaniasis is expected to increase its burden in many countries as sandfly vector distribution is widespreading towards non-endemic areas. Finally, the lack of clear understanding of ML pathogenesis and the absence of effective human vaccines strongly claim for more research. PMID:23853773

  18. [Visceral leishmaniasis without splenomegaly. A pediatric case report].

    PubMed

    Leblanc, C; Nouar, D; Izri, A; Brun, S; Marty, P; Gaudelus, J; De Pontual, L

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric visceral leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania infantum, a dog parasite transmitted to humans by the bite of the female phlebotomine sand fly. The well-known clinical triad is fever, pallor, and splenomegaly. A secondary macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) can complicate this infection, which is lethal when not treated. When MAS is observed without any explanation, a visceral leishmaniasis is highly recommended. We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a 21-month-old child complicated by a macrophage activation syndrome without splenomegaly. No immunodeficiency was diagnosed that could explain this unusual clinical condition. To our knowledge, this is the first case of visceral leishmaniasis without splenomegaly reported to date. PMID:26776600

  19. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Royal Marines from Oruzgan, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Matheson, A; Williams, R; Bailey, M S

    2012-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania protozoa and occurs as a spectrum of clinical syndromes ranging from various forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) to mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). CL in Afghanistan is either zoonotic (ZCL) due to L. major or anthroponotic (ACL) due to L. tropica and there has been a prolonged epidemic of ACL in eastern Afghanistan since 1987. However, there have been remarkably few reports of CL due to L. tropica amongst foreign troops serving in Afghanistan since 2001. We describe two such cases in Royal Marines deployed to Oruzgan Province in Afghanistan from 2008-9. These patients illustrate important issues regarding the clinical features, referral, diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of CL amongst foreign troops in Afghanistan. This disease has the potential to cause significant disruption to military personnel and units and so requires efficient management in order to maintain operational effectiveness. PMID:23472570

  20. Leishmaniasis in the Middle East: Incidence and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Nasir; Al-Shaqha, Waleed Mohammed; Azzi, Arezki

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide, with several countries reporting cases of leishmaniasis resulting in loss of human life or a lifelong stigma because of bodily scars. The Middle East is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, with countries like Syria reporting very high incidence of the disease. Despite several countries establishing national control programs for containing the sandfly vector and treatment of infection, the disease continues to spread. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. These factors contribute to the spread and proliferation of the causative species Leishmania and its sandfly host. This review discusses the current epidemiological scenario in Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, emphasizing the number of cases reported, vector species, Leishmania species, and treatment available. The data is primarily from WHO reports for each country and current and old literature. PMID:25275483

  1. Microspatial Distributional Patterns of Vectors of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Donalisio, Maria Rita; Peterson, A. Townsend; Costa, Pietra Lemos; da Silva, Fernando José; Valença, Hélio França; Shaw, Jeffrey J.; Brandão Filho, Sinval P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution and population trends through time of Lutzomyia species in a long-term focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in an Atlantic Forest area, northeastern Brazil. Sand fly populations of different ecological niches were monitored spatiotemporally in 2009. To summarize vegetation characteristics and phenology, we calculated the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index from Landsat images. Using niche modeling approaches, we assessed suites of environmental factors to identify areas of transmission risk. Although 12 species were detected, L. whitmani was the most abundant and broadly distributed across the area, particularly in peridomiciliary locations, and associated negatively with denser vegetation areas. On the other hand, L. complexa, L. sordelli, and L. tupynambai were found almost exclusively in forested areas (P < 0.05), and associated positively with denser vegetation. Lutzomyia species' occurrences are related to specific environmental combinations (with contrast among species) in the region. PMID:22315619

  2. Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Everton Falcão de; Silva, Elaine Araújo e; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Gamarra, Roberto Macedo; Ribeiro, Alisson André; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de

    2012-05-01

    The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies. PMID:22510836

  3. First case of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis.

    PubMed

    Liautaud, Bernard; Vignier, Nicolas; Miossec, Charline; Plumelle, Yves; Kone, Moumini; Delta, Delphine; Ravel, Christophe; Cabi, Andr; Desbois, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis in the Caribbean, which until now, was known only to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease presented with fatigue, anemia, and hepatosplenomegaly in a 61-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who was receiving antiretroviral therapy. Diagnosis was made by bone marrow biopsy. VL is life-threatening, and its emergence in the Caribbean is of concern. PMID:25404076

  4. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: an emerging infectious disease in travelers.

    PubMed

    Ergen, Elizabeth Noble; King, Allison Hutsell; Tuli, Malika

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniasis describes any of 3 diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, the most common of which is cutaneous leishmaniasis. The majority of cutaneous cases occur in Central and South America, the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East, and Central Asia. Most cases diagnosed among nonmilitary personnel in the United States are acquired in Mexico and Central America. Here, we present the case of an American tourist who developed localized cutaneous leishmaniasis 2 weeks after returning from Costa Rica. After undergoing several unsuccessful rounds of empiric antibiotic treatment for a presumed Staphylococcus aureus skin infection, the patient was referred to our dermatology clinic where cutaneous leishmaniasis was diagnosed by tissue biopsy. This case highlights the importance of cutaneous leishmaniasis as an emerging infectious disease that may be misdiagnosed due to its rarity and varied clinical presentation as well as the limited use of tissue biopsy in general practice. We also provide relevant background information on cutaneous leishmaniasis, a rhyming poem, and an illustration in order to promote greater awareness of this disease and assist clinicians with its diagnosis. PMID:26682298

  5. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans. PMID:19426440

  6. BRAF Mutations in Canine Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kennedy, Katherine; Shapiro, Susan G.; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations of the BRAF gene lead to constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Although many human cancers carry the mutated BRAF gene, this mutation has not yet been characterized in canine cancers. As human and canine cancers share molecular abnormalities, we hypothesized that BRAF gene mutations also exist in canine cancers. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced the exon 15 of BRAF, mutation hot spot of the gene, in 667 canine primary tumors and 38 control tissues. Sequencing analysis revealed that a single nucleotide T to A transversion at nucleotide 1349 occurred in 64 primary tumors (9.6%), with particularly high frequency in prostatic carcinoma (20/25, 80%) and urothelial carcinoma (30/45, 67%). This mutation results in the amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for valine at codon 450 (V450E) of canine BRAF, corresponding to the most common BRAF mutation in human cancer, V600E. The evolutional conservation of the BRAF V600E mutation highlights the importance of MAPK pathway activation in neoplasia and may offer opportunity for molecular diagnostics and targeted therapeutics for dogs bearing BRAF-mutated cancers. PMID:26053201

  7. Visceral leishmaniasis in zoo and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Souza, Tayse Domingues; Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2014-03-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an emerging zoonosis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Although the domestic dog is the main vertebrate host, many zoo and wild mammal species have been diagnosed with L. infantum infection, especially in endemic areas. There are many available diagnostic approaches, including serological, parasitological and molecular tests. Among wild animals, carnivores and primates are more often clinically affected, with some species, such as the bush dog (Speothos venaticus) being especially susceptible to development of clinical signs. There are also reports and research articles of VL in felids, rodents, and marsupials. This work aims to review the occurrence of VL in zoo and wildlife and raise awareness of its importance in the field of conservational veterinary medicine. PMID:24439771

  8. Efficacy of miltefosine for Bolivian cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Soto, Jaime; Rea, Jaime; Balderrama, Margarita; Toledo, Julia; Soto, Paula; Valda, Luis; Berman, Jonathan D

    2008-02-01

    Oral miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg/d for 28 days) was compared with intramuscular antimony (20 mg/kg/d for 20 days) in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Palos Blancos, Bolivia. The cure rates with 6 months of follow-up were statistically similar: 36 of 41 evaluable miltefosine patients (88%) versus 15 of 16 (94%) evaluable antimony patients. However, antimony cured more rapidly, because, by 1 month after therapy, 31 of 44 miltefosine patients (70%) compared with 16 of 16 antimony patients (100%) had achieved cure. The two conclusions from this work are that oral miltefosine can be used for cutaneous disease in this part of Bolivia and that miltefosine was more effective for L. braziliensis in this region than for L. braziliensis in Guatemala. Chemotherapy needs to be evaluated in each endemic region, even if the "same" species of Leishmania causes disease in these locales. PMID:18256415

  9. Oral Manifestations in the American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Daniel Cesar Silva; Palmeiro, Mariana Reuter; Moreira, João Soares; Martins, Ana Cristina da Costa; da Silva, Aline Fagundes; de Fátima Madeira, Maria; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Confort, Eliame Mouta; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; da Conceição Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis – MCL) including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing. Objectives Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities. Methods A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test) and non parametric (Mann-Whitney) tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant. Results The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9%) have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites. Conclusion Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL. PMID:25386857

  10. Decreased presence of Langerhans cells is a critical determinant for Indian Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shibabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Debanjan; Braun, Claudia; Barbhuiya, Joyashree N; Das, Nilay K; Chatterjee, Uttara; von Stebut, Esther; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2015-03-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is the dermal sequel of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and occurs after apparent cure or alongside with VL. It is confined to South Asia (India, Nepal and Bangladesh) and East Africa (mainly Sudan), the incidence being 5-10% and 50-60% respectively. In South Asia, as the transmission of VL is anthroponotic, PKDL patients are the proposed disease reservoir, thus assuming epidemiological significance, its eradication being linked to the control of leishmaniasis. In the absence of an animal model and its low incidence, factors contributing towards the immunopathogenesis of PKDL remain an open-ended, yet pertinent question. This study delineated the lesional immunopathology in terms of granuloma formation, Langerhans cells, tissue macrophages along with mRNA expression of IL-12p40 and IL-10. Our study in Indian PKDL for the first time identified that the number of CD1a(+) /CD207(+) Langerhans cells are decreased and CD68(+) macrophages are increased along with the absence of an epitheloid granuloma. Importantly, this decrease in Langerhans cells was associated with decreased mRNA expression of IL-12p40 and increased IL-10. This was reverted with treatment allowing for elimination of parasites and disease resolution along with an increase in Langerhans cells and decrease in macrophages. Thus, in Indian PKDL, absence of a granuloma formation along with a decrease in Langerhans cells collectively caused immune inactivation essential for parasite persistence and disease sustenance. PMID:25580856

  11. Environmental risk factors for the incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in a sub-Andean zone of Colombia (Chaparral, Tolima).

    PubMed

    Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Ferro, Cristina; Cadena, Horacio; Marín, Dairo; Holford, Theodore R; Munstermann, Leonard E; Ocampo, Clara B

    2010-02-01

    Environmental risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis were investigated for the largest outbreak recorded in Colombia. The outbreak began in 2003 in Chaparral, and in the following five years produced 2,313 cases in a population of 56,228. Candidate predictor variables were land use, elevation, and climatic variables such as mean temperature and precipitation. Spatial analysis showed that incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was higher in townships with mean temperatures in the middle of the county's range. Incidence was independently associated with higher coverage with forest or shrubs (2.6% greater for each additional percent coverage, 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.5-4.9%), and lower population density (22% lower for each additional 100 persons/km(2), 95% CI = 7-41%). The extent of forest or shrub coverage did not show major changes over time. These findings confirmed the roles of climate and land use in leishmaniasis transmission. However, environmental variables were not sufficient to explain the spatial variation in incidence. PMID:20134000

  12. Environmental Risk Factors for the Incidence of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Sub-Andean Zone of Colombia (Chaparral, Tolima)

    PubMed Central

    Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Ferro, Cristina; Cadena, Horacio; Marín, Dairo; Holford, Theodore R.; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis were investigated for the largest outbreak recorded in Colombia. The outbreak began in 2003 in Chaparral, and in the following five years produced 2,313 cases in a population of 56,228. Candidate predictor variables were land use, elevation, and climatic variables such as mean temperature and precipitation. Spatial analysis showed that incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was higher in townships with mean temperatures in the middle of the county's range. Incidence was independently associated with higher coverage with forest or shrubs (2.6% greater for each additional percent coverage, 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.5–4.9%), and lower population density (22% lower for each additional 100 persons/km2, 95% CI = 7–41%). The extent of forest or shrub coverage did not show major changes over time. These findings confirmed the roles of climate and land use in leishmaniasis transmission. However, environmental variables were not sufficient to explain the spatial variation in incidence. PMID:20134000

  13. Report of the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) consortium meeting, New Delhi, India, 27–29 June 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a neglected complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)―a deadly, infectious disease that claims approximately 20,000 to 40,000 lives every year. PKDL is thought to be a reservoir for transmission of VL, thus, adequate control of PKDL plays a key role in the ongoing effort to eliminate VL. Over the past few years, several expert meetings have recommended that a greater focus on PKDL was needed, especially in South Asia. This report summarizes the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Consortium Meeting held in New Delhi, India, 27–29 June 2012. The PKDL Consortium is committed to promote and facilitate activities that lead to better understanding of all aspects of PKDL that are needed for improved clinical management and to achieve control of PKDL and VL. Fifty clinicians, scientists, policy makers, and advocates came together to discuss issues relating to PKDL epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and control. Colleagues who were unable to attend participated during drafting of the consortium meeting report. PMID:23819611

  14. Leishmania chagasi in Opossums (Didelphis albiventris) in an Urban Area Endemic for Visceral Leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Humberg, Roberta M. P.; Oshiro, Elisa T.; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires e; Ribolla, Paulo E. M.; Alonso, Diego P.; Ferreira, Alda M. T.; Bonamigo, Raquel A.; Tasso, Norton; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of Leishmania infantum chagasi in Didelphis albiventris opossums at a wild animal rehabilitation center in the city of Campo Grande, Brazil. A total of 54 opossums were tested for L. i. chagasi infection in peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. The samples were analyzed by direct examination, culturing in a specific medium, and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Leishmania i. chagasi DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism in 11 (20.37%) animals. A total of 81.81% of positive opossums were captured in areas of known visceral leishmaniasis transmission. These results suggest a role for D. albiventris in the urban transmission of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22802435

  15. Uveitis secondary to leishmaniasis immune reconstitution syndrome in a HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Davies, Olubanke; Allen, Felicity; Gruener, Anna M; Simons, Rebecca; Graham, Elizabeth M; Larbalestier, Nick

    2016-06-01

    We describe the case of a HIV-positive patient treated for visceral leishmaniasis who developed uveitis as part of a leishmaniasis immune reconstitution syndrome. Visceral leishmaniasis is increasingly found in HIV-positive adults. Its ophthalmic manifestations can range from relatively minor to complicated anterior uveitis, leading to secondary glaucoma and loss of vision. Clinicians caring for people living with HIV should be alert to the complications of leishmaniasis that can occur before and during treatment. PMID:26002317

  16. [Leishmaniasis: knowledge and practice in populations of the Pacific coast of Colombia].

    PubMed

    Isaza, D M; Restrepo, B N; Arboleda, M; Casas, E; Hinestroza, H; Yurgaqui, T

    1999-09-01

    In 1997 a descriptive study with a qualitative emphasis was carried out in order to document, by gender, the knowledge and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis among inhabitants 14 years and older in seven communities of Colombia's Pacific coastal department of Chocó. Since the control activities carried out by the Chocó Sectional Health Services had not had the desired results, the residents of the region were at high risk of contracting leishmaniasis, which they called bejuco (liana) and yateví. Qualitative data were collected by directly involving each community in discussion workshops and by interviewing knowledgeable informants. Using these materials as a foundation, the researchers prepared a survey with 10 closed-ended questions, which they administered to all persons over 14 years of age in each randomly chosen home visited. The results indicate that 94% of the population knew that leishmaniasis appeared as a skin disease; those not knowing that were more often women than men. With respect to the mode of transmission, 35% of the respondents connected the disease to the bite of an insect, but they did not what the etiologic agent was and thought that the bite was inflicted by a worm that lives in the mountains. In the communities studied, the residents used a great variety of treatments to cure the disease. The treatments were based on plants, chemical substances, burning the lesions with a piece of heated metal, and, to a lesser degree, drugs. Despite being responsible for taking care of sick persons in the household, women were not acquainted with the traditional treatments used in the community. This gender difference in treatment knowledge was statistically significant, the only such statistically significant gender difference found in the research. Of the people surveyed, 45% did not know how to prevent the disease. This was more often true for women; 102 of the 155 respondents saying they did not know how to prevent the disease were women. This research emphasizes the importance of studying the knowledge and practices of local inhabitants before designing and organizing educational programs to control leishmaniasis. PMID:10517095

  17. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:26608724

  18. Transforming growth factor-beta in human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Barral, A.; Teixeira, M.; Reis, P.; Vinhas, V.; Costa, J.; Lessa, H.; Bittencourt, A. L.; Reed, S.; Carvalho, E. M.; Barral-Netto, M.

    1995-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has several downregulatory functions on the immune system: inhibition of interleukin-2 receptor induction, decrease of interferon-gamma-induced class II antigen expression, inhibition of macrophage activation, as well as cytotoxic and lymphokine-activated killer cell generation. TGF-beta has also been recognized as an important immunoregulator in murine leishmaniasis, for which it increases susceptibility to disease. In the present study we evaluate the involvement of TGF-beta in human leishmaniasis in vitro and in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Human macrophages produce active TGF-beta after infection by Leishmania amazonensis (480 +/- 44.7 pg/ml; mean +/- SEM), L. donovani chagasi (295 +/- 7.6 pg/ml), or L. braziliensis (196 +/- 15.7 pg/ml). When TGF-beta was added to cultures of human macrophages infected with L. braziliensis it led to an increase of approximately 50% in parasite numbers as compared with untreated cultures. Exogenous TGF-beta added to macrophage cultures was able to reverse the effect of interferon-gamma in controlling Leishmania growth. Even at 100 IU/ml interferon-gamma the presence of TGF-beta increases the number of intracellular parasites. On the other hand, TNF-alpha at high concentration (100 IU/ml) totally blunts the suppressive effect of TGF-beta. Immunostaining for TGF-beta was observed in the dermis, produced by fibroblasts and occasionally by inflammatory cells in the biopsies from human leishmaniasis lesions, being present in most of the biopsies taken from patients with early cutaneous leishmaniasis (less than 2 months of ulcer development) and in cases of active mucosal leishmaniasis. Taken together these observations suggest an important role for TGF-beta in human leishmaniasis, with its production by infected macrophages being probably related to parasite establishment in the early stages of the disease. Images Figure 4 PMID:7573370

  19. Ebola virus mediated infectivity is restricted in canine and feline cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Ziying; Bart, Stephen M; Ruthel, Gordon; Vande Burgt, Nathan H; Haines, Kathleen M; Volk, Susan W; Vite, Charles H; Freedman, Bruce D; Bates, Paul; Harty, Ronald N

    2016-01-15

    Ebolaviruses and marburgviruses belong to the Filoviridae family and often cause severe, fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. The magnitude of the 2014 outbreak in West Africa and the unprecedented emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the United States underscore the urgency to better understand the dynamics of Ebola virus infection, transmission and spread. To date, the susceptibility and possible role of domestic animals and pets in the transmission cycle and spread of EVD remains unclear. We utilized infectious VSV recombinants and lentivirus pseudotypes expressing the EBOV surface glycoprotein (GP) to assess the permissiveness of canine and feline cells to EBOV GP-mediated entry. We observed a general restriction in EBOV-mediated infection of primary canine and feline cells. To address the entry mechanism, we used cells deficient in NPC1, a host protein implicated in EBOV entry, and a pharmacological blockade of cholesterol transport, to show that an NPC1-dependent mechanism of EBOV entry is conserved in canine and feline cells. These data demonstrate that cells of canine and feline origin are susceptible to EBOV GP mediated infection; however, infectivity of these cells is reduced significantly compared to controls. Moreover, these data provide new insights into the mechanism of EBOV GP mediated entry into cells of canine and feline origin. PMID:26711035

  20. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013

    PubMed Central

    ARAUJO, Andreina de Carvalho; GONÇALVES, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; DANTAS-TORRES, Filipe; FERREIRA, Fernando; HORTA, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%). Most of the patients were males (59.4%). Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%), with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases. PMID:27074323

  1. [Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in five villages of Dogon country, Mali].

    PubMed

    Kone, A K; Delaunay, P; Djimdé, A A; Thera, M A; Giudice, P D; Coulibaly, D; Traoré, K; Goita, S M; Abathina, A; Izri, A; Marty, P; Doumbo, O K

    2012-02-01

    The epidemiology of the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with Leishmania major is poorly documented in Mali. Following reports of CL in the tourist areas of the Dogon country (Bandiagara Escarpment), a joint French and Malian bio-clinical team conducted a field study from 16 to 27 January, 2010. The population of 5 villages has been examined by a dermato-infectiologist and cases were selected by visual inspection of skin lesions. Smears and biopsies (from the lesions) and venous blood were obtained from suspected cases of CL. Diagnosis was performed by light microscopy, in vitro cultures, serology and molecular biology. Fifty patients with skin lesions have been examined. Twenty-one have been suspected as CL. At least one sample was obtained from 18 patients. The lesions were predominantly old, more or less scarring and secondary infected. A skin smear was performed for 15 patients, a skin biopsy for 14 patients: smears and cultures were all negative. The PCR (Leishmania spp.) made on 14 biopsies was positive for 12 patients (86%). The low amount of amplified DNA obtained did not allow the sequencing and identification of the species of Leishmania. Western blot (WB) serology was positive in 11 cases out of 12 (92%). This investigation showed the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bandiagara. A further investigation is required during transmission period (September-October) to confirm the presence of Leishmania major epidemic in Dogon country. PMID:22246557

  2. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Paraguayan Communities, Patients, and Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Ruoti, Mónica; Oddone, Rolando; Lampert, Nathalie; Orué, Elizabeth; Miles, Michael A.; Alexander, Neal; Rehman, Andrea M.; Njord, Rebecca; Shu, Stephanie; Brice, Susannah; Krentel, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) due to Leishmania (V.) braziliensis are endemic in Paraguay. We performed a series of knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys simultaneously with individuals in endemic communities in San Pedro department (n = 463), health professionals (n = 25), and patients (n = 25). Results showed that communities were exposed to high risk factors for transmission of L. braziliensis. In logistic regression analysis, age was the only factor independently associated with having seen a CL/MCL lesion (P = 0.002). The pervasive attitude in communities was that CL was not a problem. Treatment seeking was often delayed, partly due to secondary costs, and inappropriate remedies were applied. Several important cost-effective measures are indicated that may improve control of CL. Community awareness could be enhanced through existing community structures. Free supply of specific drugs should continue but ancillary support could be considered. Health professionals require routine and standardised provision of diagnosis and treatment algorithms for CL and MCL. During treatment, all patients could be given simple information to increase awareness in the community. PMID:23690792

  3. An analysis of reported cases of leishmaniasis in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region, 1986-2012.

    PubMed

    Olalla, Hector R; Velez, Lenin N; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Caceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Zambrano, Flavio C; Romero-Álvarez, Daniel A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-06-01

    An analysis of reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed using the data registered in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region during 27 years from 1986 to 2012. The cases/subjects with both the suspected CL lesions and the amastigote-positive results were recruited for the analysis. The yearly occurrence of cases showed a markedly higher number during the six years, 1988 and 1993. After 1994 when the insecticide spraying campaign using helicopter in 1993-1994, the number dropped remarkably. Then, the yearly occurrence gradually fluctuated from 101 cases in 1996 to 11 in 2009, maintaining a low number of cases after the campaign. The monthly occurrence of cases showed a markedly high number during March and August, suggesting a correlation to the rainy season (months) in the areas. A statistical significance was found between the monthly average number of the CL case and the average precipitation (p=0.01474). It was suggested that the time of transmission of CL would depend on the rainy seasons at each endemic area of Ecuador, which has a diverse climatic feature depending on the geographic regions. Such information at given leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador would be important for the future planning of the disease control. Molecular analysis and characterization of clinical samples revealed the presence of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. PMID:25796313

  4. Predicted Distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis Vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae; Phlebotominae) in Iran: A Niche Model Study.

    PubMed

    Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Rassi, Y; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M R; Haghdoost, A A; Akhavan, A A; Charrahy, Z; Karimi, A

    2015-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important vector-borne disease in Iran. Till now, Leishmania infantum has been detected from five species of sand flies in the country including Phlebotomus kandelakii, Phlebotomus major s.l., Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus alexandri and Phlebotomus tobbi. Also, Phlebotomuskeshishiani was found to be infected with Leishmania parasites. This study aimed at predicting the probable niches and distribution of vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. Data on spatial distribution studies of sand flies were obtained from Iranian database on sand flies. Sample points were included in data from faunistic studies on sand flies conducted during 1995-2013. MaxEnt software was used to predict the appropriate ecological niches for given species, using climatic and topographical data. Distribution maps were prepared and classified in ArcGIS to find main ecological niches of the vectors and hot spots for VL transmission in Iran. Phlebotomus kandelakii, Ph.major s.l. and Ph.alexandri seem to have played a more important role in VL transmission in Iran, so this study focuses on them. Representations of MaxEnt model for probability of distribution of the studied sand flies showed high contribution of climatological and topographical variables to predict the potential distribution of three vector species. Isothermality was found to be an environmental variable with the highest gain when used in isolation for Ph.kandelakii and Ph.major s.l., while for Ph.alexandri, the most effective variable was precipitation of the coldest quarter. The results of this study present the first prediction on distribution of sand fly vectors of VL in Iran. The predicted distributions were matched with the disease-endemic areas in the country, while it was found that there were some unaffected areas with the potential transmission. More comprehensive studies are recommended on the ecology and vector competence of VL vectors in the country. PMID:26032232

  5. Canine lymphoma: a review.

    PubMed

    Zandvliet, M

    2016-06-01

    Canine lymphoma (cL) is a common type of neoplasia in dogs with an estimated incidence rate of 20-100 cases per 100,000 dogs and is in many respects comparable to non-Hodgkin lymphoma in humans. Although the exact cause is unknown, environmental factors and genetic susceptibility are thought to play an important role. cL is not a single disease, and a wide variation in clinical presentations and histological subtypes is recognized. Despite this potential variation, most dogs present with generalized lymphadenopathy (multicentric form) and intermediate to high-grade lymphoma, more commonly of B-cell origin. The most common paraneoplastic sign is hypercalcemia that is associated with the T-cell immunophenotype. Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice and a doxorubicin-based multidrug protocol is currently the standard of care. A complete remission is obtained for most dogs and lasts for a median period of 7-10 months, resulting in a median survival of 10-14 months. Many prognostic factors have been reported, but stage, immunophenotype, tumor grade, and response to chemotherapy appear of particular importance. Failure to respond to chemotherapy suggests drug resistance, which can be partly attributed to the expression of drug transporters of the ABC-transporter superfamily, including P-gp and BCRP. Ultimately, most lymphomas will become drug resistant and the development of treatments aimed at reversing drug resistance or alternative treatment modalities (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) are of major importance. This review aims to summarize the relevant data on cL, as well as to provide an update of the recent literature. PMID:26953614

  6. What's eating you? Canine scabies.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, Richard F; Elston, Dirk M

    2003-08-01

    Infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var canis, the causative strain of canine scabies, can produce a pruritic rash in humans. The rash generally manifests within 24 to 96 hours of contact with the affected pet. Scrapings are generally negative, and the correct diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. PMID:12953932

  7. Review of the Risks of Some Canine Zoonoses from Free-Roaming Dogs in the Post-Disaster Setting of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Garde, Elena; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Free-roaming dogs are seldom considered an important public health risk following natural disasters in developing regions. With the high number of recognized canine zoonoses and evidence of increased transmission of some significant diseases this is a risk that may be being overlooked. Communities with free-roaming dogs and endemic canine zoonoses of importance should be developing appropriate community preparedness and response plans to mitigate the occurrence of increased transmission following disasters. Abstract In the absence of humane and sustainable control strategies for free-roaming dogs (FRD) and the lack of effective disaster preparedness planning in developing regions of the world, the occurrence of canine zoonoses is a potentially important yet unrecognized issue. The existence of large populations of FRDs in Latin America predisposes communities to a host of public health problems that are all potentially exacerbated following disasters due to social and environmental disturbances. There are hundreds of recognized canine zoonoses but a paucity of recommendations for the mitigation of the risk of emergence following disasters. Although some of the symptoms of diseases most commonly reported in human populations following disasters resemble a host of canine zoonoses, there is little mention in key public health documents of FRDs posing any significant risk. We highlight five neglected canine zoonoses of importance in Latin America, and offer recommendations for pre- and post-disaster preparedness and planning to assist in mitigation of the transmission of canine zoonoses arising from FRDs following disasters.

  8. Regulation of PKC Mediated Signaling by Calcium during Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Nivedita; Chakraborty, Supriya; Paul Chowdhury, Bidisha; Banerjee, Sayantan; Halder, Kuntal; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Subrata; Sen, Parimal C.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is an ubiquitous cellular signaling molecule that controls a variety of cellular processes and is strictly maintained in the cellular compartments by the coordination of various Ca2+ pumps and channels. Two such fundamental calcium pumps are plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) which play a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis. This intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is often disturbed by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study we have dileneated the involvement of PMCA4 and SERCA3 during leishmaniasis. We have observed that during leishmaniasis, intracellular Ca2+ concentration was up-regulated and was further controlled by both PMCA4 and SERCA3. Inhibition of these two Ca2+-ATPases resulted in decreased parasite burden within the host macrophages due to enhanced intracellular Ca2+. Contrastingly, on the other hand, activation of PMCA4 was found to enhance the parasite burden. Our findings also highlighted the importance of Ca2+ in the modulation of cytokine balance during leishmaniasis. These results thus cumulatively suggests that these two Ca2+-ATPases play prominent roles during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25329062

  9. Glomerulonephritis and cryoglobulinemia: first manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Milagros; Mon, Carmen; Herrero, Juan Carlos; Oliet, Aniana; Rodríguez, Isabel; Ortega, Olimpia; Gallar, Paloma; Hinostroza, Julie; Cobo, Gabriela; del Alamo, Manuel; Jiménez, Juana; Torres, Rafael; Digiogia, Cristina; San Martin, Juan; Vigil, Ana I; Blanco, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania Infantum is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean area. Since 2009, Europe's largest outbreak of Leishmaniasis has been reported in the region of Madrid (Spain). Renal involvement is an unusual complication. Different forms of renal disease have been described: interstitial, glomerular, and vascular damage. Direct invasion of renal parenchyma by the parasite has been described as a mechanism of kidney damage, especially in the immunocompromised. Immune complex deposition and T cells adhesion molecules activation have demonstrated that a pathogenic role in glomerulonephritis related to visceral leishmaniasis. The association between mixed cryoglobulinemia and visceral leishmaniasis has been previously reported in six patients. Renal involvement is only described in one of them. From July 2009 to October 2012, 4 patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and mixed cryoglobulinemia with negative serology for hepatitis B and C were diagnosed in our hospital. Serology of Leishmania in serum bank samples was performed; it was positive in 3 patients. Leishmania parasite was confirmed by other tests. We present 3 patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis as first clinical manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25600859

  10. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: Differential diagnosis, diagnosis, histopathology, and management.

    PubMed

    Handler, Marc Z; Patel, Parimal A; Kapila, Rajendra; Al-Qubati, Yasin; Schwartz, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of leishmaniasis can be challenging because it mimics both infectious and malignant conditions. A misdiagnosis may lead to an unfavorable outcome. Using culture, histologic, and/or polymerase chain reaction study results, a diagnosis of leishmaniasis can be established and treatment initiated. Appropriate management requires an accurate diagnosis, which often includes identification of the specific etiologic species. Different endemic areas have varying sensitivities to the same medication, even within individual species. Species identification may be of practical value, because infections with select species have a substantial risk of visceral involvement. In addition, HIV and otherwise immunocompromised patients with leishmaniasis have a propensity for diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. For most New World Leishmania species, parenteral antimonial drugs remain the first line of therapy, while Old World species are easily treated with physical modalities. Historically, live organism vaccination has been used and is effective in preventing leishmaniasis, but results in an inoculation scar and an incubation period that may last for years. A more effective method of vaccination would be welcome. PMID:26568336

  11. Permissive and protective roles for neutrophils in leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, E D; Liang, Y; Shelite, T R; Walker, D H; Melby, P C; Soong, L

    2015-11-01

    Leishmania parasites are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease that causes substantial morbidity and considerable mortality in many developing areas of the world. Recent estimates suggest that roughly 10 million people suffer from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), and approximately 76,000 are afflicted with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is universally fatal without treatment. Efforts to develop therapeutics and vaccines have been greatly hampered by an incomplete understanding of the parasite's biology and a lack of clear protective correlates that must be met in order to achieve immunity. Although parasites grow and divide preferentially in macrophages, a number of other cell types interact with and internalize Leishmania parasites, including monocytes, dendritic cells and neutrophils. Neutrophils appear to be especially important shortly after parasites are introduced into the skin, and may serve a dual protective and permissive role during the establishment of infection. Curiously, neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection appears to continue into the chronic phase of disease, which may persist for many years. The immunological impact of these cells during chronic leishmaniasis is unclear at this time. In this review we discuss the ways in which neutrophils have been observed to prevent and promote the establishment of infection, examine the role of anti-neutrophil antibodies in mouse models of leishmaniasis and consider recent findings that neutrophils may play a previously unrecognized role in influencing chronic parasite persistence. PMID:26126690

  12. [The impact of climate change on leishmaniasis in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Chrystian Soares; Coelho, Alexandre Bragança; Féres, José Gustavo; Souza, Elvanio Costa de; Cunha, Dênis Antônio da

    2016-01-01

    This paper sought to assess how climate change will affect the proliferation of leishmaniasis in Brazil in three time frames: 2010-2039, 2040-2079 and 2080-2100, and with two climate change scenarios. The relation of temperature, precipitation and the number of hospital admissions due to leishmaniasis was estimated and projections were made using these results. Results show that precipitation has a strong relation with leishmaniasis incidence and projections show that by the end of the twenty-first century there will be a 15% growth in the annual number of hospital admissions due to leishmaniasis in Brazil, compared to the base scenario (1992-2002). In regional terms, projections indicate growth in every region, with the exception of the Mid-West. The highest relative growth will be in the South of the country, while the highest increase in absolute terms will be observed in the Northeast region. In general, the incidence of leishmaniasis will grow in Brazil due to climate change. PMID:26816183

  13. Visceral leishmaniasis in a renal transplant recipient treated with allopurinol.

    PubMed

    Harzallah, Kais; Belhadj, Raoudha; Jemli, Boutheina; Haloues, Mondher; Berraies, Naoufel; Gargouri, Saadia; Hmida, Jalel; Battikh, Riadh; Manaa, Jamel

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infection caused by a protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania and transmitted by the Phlebotomus sandfly. We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a 49-year-old male renal transplant recipient, a resident of the western part of Tunisia, which is an endemic zone for the disease. Just before and after the transplantation, the patient resided in Tunis, which is non-endemic for leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis occurred eight years after renal transplantation, and the clinical picture was characterized by fever and pancytopenia. Leishmaniae were detected by bone marrow aspiration. Pentavalent antimonal was used for 28 days and was substituted by allopurinol (20 mg/kg per day). One year after the infection, the patient remains totally asymptomatic. Our report suggests that visceral leishmaniasis may complicate the clinical course of organ transplantation and can be fatal, particularly when untreated. Relapses may occur after completion of the apparently effective treatment. Allopurinol could be a solution to avoid these relapses. PMID:20061702

  14. Role of the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus)in the Epidemiology of Urban Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lopes de Carvalho, Renata; McCallum, Hamish; Pereira, Marcos Horácio

    2002-01-01

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is a serious public health problem in several Brazilian cities. Although the proximity of chicken houses is often cited as a risk factor in studies of urban ZVL, the role chickens play in the epidemiology of the disease has not been defined. Chickens attract both male and female sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis), but are unable to sustain Leishmania infections, and their presence may exert a zooprophylactic effect. We discuss environmental, physiologic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors related to chicken raising that could influence Le. infantum transmission in Brazilian cities and evaluate whether this practice significantly affects the risk of acquiring ZVL. PMID:12498667

  15. Ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G T; Dean, C

    2001-07-01

    Many behavioral and ecological factors influence the degree of expression of canine dimorphism for different reasons. Regardless of its socioecological importance, we know virtually nothing about the processes responsible for the development of canine dimorphism. Our aim here is to describe the developmental process(es) regulating canine dimorphism in extant hominoids, using histological markers of tooth growth. Teeth preserve a permanent record of their ontogeny in the form of short- and long-period incremental markings in both enamel and dentine. We selected 52 histological sections of sexed hominoid canine teeth from a total sample of 115, from which we calculated the time and rate of cuspal enamel formation and the rate at which ameloblasts differentiate along the future enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to the end of crown formation. Thus, we were able to reconstruct longitudinal growth curves for height attainment in male and female hominoid canines. Male hominoids consistently take longer to form canine crowns than do females (although not significantly so for our sample of Homo). Male orangutans and gorillas occasionally take up to twice as long as females to complete enamel formation. The mean ranges of female canine crown formation times are similar in Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo. Interspecific differences between female Pan canine crown heights and those of Gorilla and Pongo, which are taller, result from differences in rates of growth. Differences in canine crown heights between male Pan and the taller, more dimorphic male Gorilla and Pongo canines result both from differences in total time taken to form enamel and from faster rates of growth in Gorilla and Pongo. Although modern human canines do not emerge as significantly dimorphic in this study, it is well-known that sexual dimorphism in canine crown height exists. Larger samples of sexed modern human canines are therefore needed to identify clearly what underlies this. PMID:11424078

  16. Cross-Sectional Study to Assess Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Region in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Munasinghe, Asoka; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sivanantharajah, Sundaramoorthy; Seneviratne, Kamal; Bandara, Samantha; Athauda, Indira; Navaratne, Chaturi; Silva, Ositha; Wackwella, Hasini; Matlashewski, Greg; Wickremasinghe, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lanka reports significantly more cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases than visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, both of which are caused by Leishmania donovani MON-37. A cross-sectional study conducted in an area with a high prevalence of CL prevalent included 954 participants of an estimated population of 61,674 to estimate the number of CL cases, ascertain whether there is a pool of asymptomatic VL cases, and identify risk factors for transmission. A total of 31 cases of CL were identified, of whom 21 were previously diagnosed and 10 were new cases. Using rK39 rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies against Leishmania spp., we found that only one person was seropositive but did not have clinical symptoms of CL or VL, which indicated low transmission of VL in this area. χ2 test, independent sample t-test, and multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and spatial distribution of environmental risk factors showed that living near paddy fields is associated with increased risk for transmission of CL (P ≤ 0.01). PMID:23918217

  17. Comparative study of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in two strains of inbred mice.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, H; Arredondo, B; González, M

    1978-01-01

    Two Leishmania strains, AZV (isolated from a typical case of American cutaneous leishmaniasis) and AMP (from a case of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis), were studied in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. After infection with 10(4) amastigotes of either strain, C57BL/6 mice developed self-resolving lesions lasting 20 to 23 weeks and showed both delayed hypersensitivity response to leishmanial antigen and specific agglutinating antibodies. On the other hand, BALB/c mice infected with 10(4) AZV or AMP amastigotes developed chronic, large, ulcerated lesions and showed impaired cellular and humoral responses to the parasite. When BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice received 10(2) AMP amastigotes, patterns of infection were similar to those observed after inoculation of 10(4) amastigotes. In vitro studies revealed that spleen cells from AZV- or AMP-infected C57BL/6 mice showed an increased DNA-synthetic response to leishmanial antigen, concanavalin A, and phytohemagglutinin. Spleen cells from AZV- or AMP-infected BALB/c mice showed an increased response to concanavalin A and diminished responses to leishmanial antigen, phytohemagglutinin, and lipopolysaccharide. PMID:730354

  18. Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Dunbar, Mike R; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel; Droge, Egil; Sakuya, Nicholas M; Matandiko, Wigganson; McRobb, Rachel; Hanlon, Cathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies. We provide the first comprehensive disease exposure data for these species in these ecosystems. Twenty-one lions, 20 hyenas, 13 wild dogs, and 38 domestic dogs were sampled across both regions from 2009 to 2011. Laboratory results show 10.5% of domestic dogs, 5.0% of hyenas, and 7.7% of wild dogs sampled were positive for CDV exposure. All lions were negative. Exposure to CPV was 10.0% and 4.8% for hyenas and lions, respectively. All wild dogs were negative, and domestic dogs were not tested due to insufficient serum samples. All species sampled were negative for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies except lions. Forty percent of lions tested positive for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Because these lions appeared clinically healthy, this finding is consistent with seroconversion following exposure to rabies antigen. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first ever documentation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies consistent with rabies exposure that did not lead to clinical disease in free-ranging African lions from this region. With ever-increasing human pressure on these ecosystems, understanding disease transmission dynamics is essential for proper management and conservation of these carnivore species. PMID:23805791

  19. Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: Report of 27 Cases.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Iván D; Jiménez, Alejandra; Vásquez, Daniel; Robledo, Sara M

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) is a poorly described disease that is frequently misdiagnosed as other clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) such as diffuse CL or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Twenty-seven cases of DL diagnosed between 1997 and 2015 are described. A higher prevalence was observed in men (mean age 32 years). The number of lesions per patient ranged from 12 to 294, distributed mainly in the upper extremities, face and trunk. The lesions were mostly plaques or nodules. Seven patients had nasal mucous damage, 74% of the patients were of mixed race, 92% lived in northwestern Colombia, and Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis was identified as the causative agent in 58% of cases. Eighteen patients recovered with pentavalent antimonial. The importance of distinguishing DL from those other clinical presentations is based on the fact that disseminated, diffuse and post-kala-azar CL are very different in etiology, clinical manifestations and response to treatment and prognosis. PMID:26557074

  20. Novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Keerti; Jain, Narendra K

    2013-12-01

    Leishmaniasis reveals itself in two forms, cutaneous and visceral, but the later exerts serious complications and may lead to death, if untreated. The availability of limited number of antileishmanial chemotherapeutic agents, the high cost of treatment, growing incidences of resistance to first line drugs as well as severe toxicities associated with the drugs complicate the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. To overcome these problems, critical investigation of new therapeutic strategies with potential antileishmanial activity and good tolerability are essential. In this review we explore the different facets of novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with a purpose to summarize all the possible treatment tactics, which will help scientists working in this arena to implement their research in a systematic manner. PMID:23973338

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis: Revisiting current treatments and approaches for future discoveries.

    PubMed

    No, Joo Hwan

    2016-03-01

    The current treatments for visceral leishmaniasis are old and toxic with limited routes of administration. The emergence of drug-resistant Leishmania threatens the efficacy of the existing reservoir of antileishmanials, leading to an urgent need to develop new treatments. It is particularly important to review and understand how the current treatments act against Leishmania in order to identify valid drug targets or essential pathways for next-generation antileishmanials. It is equally important to adapt newly emerging biotechnologies to facilitate the current research on the development of novel antileishmanials in an efficient fashion. This review covers the basic background of the current visceral leishmaniasis treatments with an emphasis on the modes of action. It briefly discusses the role of the immune system in aiding the chemotherapy of leishmaniasis, describes potential new antileishmanial drug targets and pathways, and introduces recent progress on the utilization of high-throughput phenotypic screening assays to identify novel antileishmanial compounds. PMID:26748356

  2. Tuberous sclerosis with visceral leishmaniasis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis, a tropical infectious disease, is a major public health problem in India. Tuberous sclerosis, a congenital neuro-ectodermosis, is an uncommon disease which requires life long treatment. Case presentation A 15-year-old Indian patient, presented to the outpatient department of our institute with a high-grade fever for two months, splenomegaly and a history of generalized tonic-clonic convulsions since childhood. The clinical and laboratory findings suggested visceral leishmaniasis with tuberous sclerosis. The patient was treated with miltefosine and antiepileptics. Conclusion The patient responded well and in a follow up six months after presentation, she was found free of visceral leishmaniasis and seizures. Diagnosis and treatment of this rare combination of diseases is difficult.

  3. Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: Report of 27 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Iván D.; Jiménez, Alejandra; Vásquez, Daniel; Robledo, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) is a poorly described disease that is frequently misdiagnosed as other clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) such as diffuse CL or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Twenty-seven cases of DL diagnosed between 1997 and 2015 are described. A higher prevalence was observed in men (mean age 32 years). The number of lesions per patient ranged from 12 to 294, distributed mainly in the upper extremities, face and trunk. The lesions were mostly plaques or nodules. Seven patients had nasal mucous damage, 74% of the patients were of mixed race, 92% lived in northwestern Colombia, and Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis was identified as the causative agent in 58% of cases. Eighteen patients recovered with pentavalent antimonial. The importance of distinguishing DL from those other clinical presentations is based on the fact that disseminated, diffuse and post-kala-azar CL are very different in etiology, clinical manifestations and response to treatment and prognosis. PMID:26557074

  4. Rural campaign to diagnose and treat mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Bolivia.

    PubMed Central

    Dedet, J. P.; Melogno, R.; Cardenas, F.; Valda, L.; David, C.; Fernandez, V.; Torrez, M. E.; Dimier-David, L.; Lyevre, P.; Villareal, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is endemic in the tropical Amazonian lowlands of Bolivia, an area that regularly receives influxes of migratory populations. In these new agricultural development areas, a campaign to diagnose and treat the disease was carried out between 1989 and 1992, in order to provide direct access to MCL treatment in the endemic areas at a standard equivalent to that offered in the urban centres in Bolivia. The campaign led to the creation of decentralized local centres for diagnosis and treatment of the disease. A campaign to inform the population about leishmaniasis was also undertaken and courses were run to educate medical and paramedical personnel. As a result of the campaign, 3285 cases of leishmaniasis were diagnosed, including 2152 cutaneous and 326 mucosal forms. Also, a total of 1888 cases were treated, 1677 of which cutaneous and 211, mucosal. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7614666

  5. Leishmaniasis and its relevance to UK Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Preedy, H C; Bailey, M S

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania protozoa, transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sandflies. It causes a spectrum of clinical syndromes, of which the most common are cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical presentation is highly variable and is dependent on multiple factors, such as Leishmania species and patient characteristics (including immune competence). The relationship between these variables is poorly understood, and there is no single, evidence-based treatment for the disease. Currently management focuses on identification of the species, but this requires specialist tests which are often unavailable, particularly on military operations. Leishmaniasis is of particular relevance to military medical personnel as it is endemic in many tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, including Belize, Iraq and Afghanistan where UK Armed Forces may be deployed. It can present a potentially serious threat to military personnel deployed in endemic areas due to the possibility of long-term sequelae of infection. PMID:25895401

  6. Outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Israel.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Raymond L; Eisenberger, Carol L; Svobodova, Milena; Baneth, Gad; Sztern, Julia; Carvalho, Jorge; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; El Fari, Mustafa; Shalom, Uri; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Pratlong, Francine; Schonian, Gabriele; Schnur, Lionel F; Jaffe, Charles L; Warburg, Alon

    2003-10-01

    This study describes a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania tropica, in the Galilee region of northern Israel. Thirty-three cases from 4 villages (northern part) and from the city of Tiberias (southern part) have been clinically diagnosed since 1996. Parasites from 13 patients and from 6 sand flies were characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, 2 immunological methods, and 3 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Isolates from the northern part were antigenically similar to Leishmania major and were different from other L. tropica isolates, including those from the southern part of the focus. They belonged to a newly reported zymodeme and were separable from all known Israeli L. tropica isolates, by use of 2 different PCR-based methods. Five (5.2%) of 97 Phlebotomus (Adlerius) arabicus and 2 (1.2%) of 162 Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti females from the northern part of the focus were found to be infected with L. tropica. Three of 29 hyraxes (Procavia capensis) were positive for Leishmania ribosomal DNA. Thus, the northern part of this emerging focus of CL in Israel is distinct from all known L. tropica foci. P. arabicus is the main vector, and it transmits parasites that are different from other L. tropica isolates, with respect to antigenic, molecular, and biochemical parameters. PMID:14513429

  7. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis masquerading as Wegener granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Brahn, Ernest; Pegues, David A; Yao, Qingping; Craft, Noah

    2010-04-01

    A 43-year-old Brazilian female presented in 2001 with nasal stuffiness and sinusitis. A biopsy was consistent with limited Wegener's granulomatosis although antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were negative. Her nasal inflammation progressed despite trials of prednisone, methotrexate, and azathioprine. A septal perforation developed and a repeat biopsy showed granulomatous inflammation. In 2006 the patient was referred to Division of Rheumatology, University of California, Los Angeles. The nose was grossly erythematous and a magnetic resonance imaging revealed nasal destruction and sinusitis. Palatine biopsies showed chronic inflammation. Cyclophosphamide at 150 mg/d resulted in markedly improved mucocutaneous lesions. The patient developed a leg and arm rash in 2007. A skin biopsy was positive for Leishmania braziliensis. The cyclophosphamide was discontinued and amphotericin B was initiated with transient benefit. Remission was achieved with pentavalent antimony. Despite multiple nasopharyngeal biopsies, for a 6-year span, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis masqueraded as Wegener's granulomatosis. Cyclophosphamide not only resulted in clinical improvement, due to reduced inflammatory response, but also allowed widespread cutaneous dissemination. PMID:20375822

  8. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. PMID:23999330

  9. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksa, U S; Ihalamulla, R L; Udagedera, C; Karunaweera, N D

    2007-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an established disease in Sri Lanka. The majority of cases have been reported from the North-Central Province, with the southern parts of the country considered less affected. However, during 2004, when the services of a dermatologist were available, a considerable number of patients were referred from the Southern Province, which formed the basis for this study. The clinical pattern, detailed geographical distribution within the Southern Province and periodicity of the cases were studied over a period of 12 months. Of the 113 patients diagnosed, the highest number was within the 10-19 years age group. Most patients were from densely populated rural areas around Matara, a large town within this province. There was a notable increase in the number of cases presenting during February-March and August-September, which are periods following monsoonal rains. Exposed areas of the skin were commonly affected, with the majority of patients having single lesions. Females and males were equally affected. This is in contrast to our previous findings in the North-Central Province where the majority of patients were male soldiers with multiple lesions. PMID:17499826

  10. Peridomiciliary Breeding Sites of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Vivaldo Pim; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Biral dos Santos, Claudiney; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in areas modified by humans indicates that phlebotomine sand fly vectors breed close to human habitations. Potential peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomines were sampled in an area of transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil. Three concentric circles rounding houses and domestic animal shelters, with radii of 20, 40, and 60 m, defined the area to be monitored using adult emergence traps. Of the 67 phlebotomines collected, Lutzomyia intermedia comprised 71.6%; Lutzomyia schreiberi, 20.9%; and Lutzomyia migonei, 4.5%. The predominance of L. intermedia, the main species suspected of transmitting L. (V.) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil, indicates its participation in the domiciliary transmission of ACL, providing evidence that the domiciliary ACL transmission cycle might be maintained by phlebotomines that breed close to human habitations. This finding might also help in planning measures that would make the peridomiciliary environment less favorable for phlebotomine breeding sites. PMID:23091196

  11. [Consolidation of international guidelines for the management of canine populations in urban areas and proposal of performance indicators].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Rita de Cassia Maria; Calderón, Néstor; Ferreira, Fernando

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a generic program for the management of urban canine populations with suggestion of performance indicators. The following international guidelines on canine population management were revised and consolidated: World Health Organization, World Organisation for Animal Health, World Society for the Protection of Animals, International Companion Animal Management Coalition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Management programs should cover: situation diagnosis, including estimates of population size; social participation with involvement of various sectors in the planning and execution of strategies; educational actions to promote humane values, animal welfare, community health, and responsible ownership (through purchase or adoption); environmental and waste management to eliminate sources of food and shelter; registration and identification of animals; animal health care, reproductive control; prevention and control of zoonoses; control of animal commerce; management of animal behavior and adequate solutions for abandoned animals; and laws regulating responsible ownership, prevention of abandonment and zoonoses. To monitor these actions, four groups of indicators are suggested: animal population indicators, human/animal interaction indicators, public service indicators, and zoonosis indicators. The management of stray canine populations requires political, sanitary, ethologic, ecologic, and humanitarian strategies that are socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable. Such measures must also include the control of zoonoses such as rabies and leishmaniasis, considering the concept of "one health," which benefits both the animals and people in the community. PMID:23099875

  12. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Ferguson-Mignan, Thomas F. N.; Cobb, Malcolm; Mongan, Nigel P.; Rutland, Catrin S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed. PMID:26266250

  13. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis resembling borderline-tuberculoid leprosy: a new clinical presentation?

    PubMed

    Dassoni, Federica; Abebe, Zerihun; Naafs, Bernard; Morrone, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Both cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis are endemic in Northern Ethiopia. The different clinical presentations depend on the responsible organism and the host's immune response. Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis is the type most frequently seen. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis is relatively rare and usually associated with mucous membrane involvement. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis presents with multiple lesions, can be difficult to diagnose and responds less favourably to treatment. We report here 2 patients with unusual presentations of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis presenting with large hypopigmented skin lesions mimicking borderline-tuberculoid leprosy. To our knowledge this presentation has not been described before and may present difficulties in making a definite diagnosis in regions where both leprosy and cutaneous leishmaniasis are endemic. Lepromatous leprosy and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are regularly confused, particularly when no skin smears for acid-fast bacillus or Leishman-Donovan bodies are performed. PMID:22434112

  14. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a new host cell in latent leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Melahat; Elcicek, Serhat; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Baydar, Serap Yesilkir; Findikli, Necati; Oztel, Olga N

    2011-09-01

    Some protozoan infections such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Plasmodium can be transmitted through stem cell transplantations. To our knowledge, so far, there is no study about transmission of Leishmania parasites in stem cell transplantation and interactions between parasites and stem cells in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between different species of Leishmania parasites and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). ADMSCs have been isolated, cultured, characterized, and infected with different species of Leishmania parasites (L. donovani, L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum). Infectivity was examined by Giemsa staining, microculture, and polymerase chain reaction methods. As a result, infectivity of ADMSCs by Leishmania parasites has been determined for the first time in this study. According to our findings, it is very important that donors are screened for Leishmania parasites before stem cell transplantations in regions where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:21896818

  15. Survey of wild mammal hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis parasites in panamá and costa rica.

    PubMed

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D; Adler, Gregory H; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-03-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America. PMID:25859156

  16. Survey of Wild Mammal Hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Parasites in Panamá and Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E.; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A.; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D.; Adler, Gregory H.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America. PMID:25859156

  17. Bibliometric analysis of leishmaniasis research in Medline (1945-2010)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Publications are often used as a measure of success of research work. Leishmaniasis is considered endemic in 98 countries, most of which are developing. This article describes a bibliometric review of the literature on leishmaniasis research indexed in PubMed during a 66-year period. Methods Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. The search strategy was Leishmania [MeSH] or leishmaniasis [MeSH] from 1 January 1945 until 31 December 2010. Neither language nor document type restrictions were employed. Results A total of 20,780 references were retrieved. The number of publications increased steadily over time, with 3,380 publications from 1945-1980 to 8,267 from 2001-2010. Leishmaniasis documents were published in 1,846 scientific journals, and Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (4.9%) was the top one. The USA was the predominant country by considering the first author’s institutional address (16.8%), followed by Brazil (14.9%), and then India (9.0%), however Brazil leads the scientific output in 2001-2010 period (18.5%), followed by the USA (13.5%) and India (10%). The production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalised by population (Israel and Switzerland), by gross domestic product (Nepal and Tunisia), and by gross national income per capita (India and Ethiopia). For geographical area, Europe led (31.7%), followed by Latin America (24.5%). Conclusions We have found an increase in the number of publications in the field of leishmaniasis. The USA and Brazil led scientific production on leishmaniasis research. PMID:23497410

  18. Possibilities and challenges for developing a successful vaccine for leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Saumya; Shankar, Prem; Mishra, Jyotsna; Singh, Sarman

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by different species of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. It is a major health problem yet neglected tropical diseases, with approximately 350 million people worldwide at risk and more than 1.5 million infections occurring each year. Leishmaniasis has different clinical manifestations, including visceral (VL or kala-azar), cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (MCL), diffuse cutaneous (DCL) and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Currently, the only mean to treat and control leishmaniasis is by rational medications and vector control. However, the number of available drugs is limited and even these are either exorbitantly priced, have toxic side effects or prove ineffective due to the emergence of resistant strains. On the other hand, the vector control methods are not so efficient. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing a safe, effective, and affordable vaccine for the prevention of leishmaniasis. Although in recent years a large body of researchers has concentrated their efforts on this issue, yet only three vaccine candidates have gone for clinical trial, until date. These are: (i) killed vaccine in Brazil for human immunotherapy; (ii) live attenuated vaccine for humans in Uzbekistan; and (iii) second-generation vaccine for dog prophylaxis in Brazil. Nevertheless, there are at least half a dozen vaccine candidates in the pipeline. One can expect that, in the near future, the understanding of the whole genome of Leishmania spp. will expand the vaccine discovery and strategies that may provide novel vaccines. The present review focuses on the development and the status of various vaccines and potential vaccine candidates against leishmaniasis. PMID:27175732

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of parallel or serial serological testing for detection of canine Leishmania infection.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Mauro Maciel de; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-03-01

    In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused byLeishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26910354

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of parallel or serial serological testing for detection of canine Leishmania infection

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused byLeishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26910354

  1. Characterisation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Matara district, southern Sri Lanka: evidence for case clustering.

    PubMed

    Kariyawasam, K K G D U L; Edirisuriya, C S; Senerath, U; Hensmen, D; Siriwardana, H V Y D; Karunaweera, N D

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by Phlebotomus spp. sand flies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by Leishmania donovani. Transmission patterns are different in Southern and Northern Sri Lanka. Current study examined the prevalence, risk factors and distribution of CL in Matara District, Southern Sri Lanka. Total of 2260 individuals from four District Secretariat divisions (DSDs) were screened by house to house surveys using an interviewer administered questionnaire. The study population had an age range of 1-90 years (median  =  43  ±  17.31), low monthly income ( < 20 000 LKR, 52.8%) and a male to female ratio of 1 : 2. Thirty eight patients were diagnosed by light microscopy, culture and/or PCR with a disease prevalence of 1.68%. Spatial mapping provided evidence for significant case clustering, which tended to be more prominent with proximity to forest areas. The risk factors identified were un-plastered brick walls, absence or low usage of protective measures against insect bites, low income and excessive time (>4 hours/day) spent outdoors. However, exposure of limbs while outdoors, unawareness about the disease, type of occupation, common water source as the mode of water supply and presence of animal shelters within 200 m were not associated with the risk of acquiring the disease. Peri-domestic transmission is likely to contribute to the observed case clustering with all age groups at risk of acquiring the infection. Human behavioural habits coinciding with that of the vector, sand fly are likely to enable host-vector contact promoting its spread. Appropriate vector control measures, improvement of housing conditions, public education regarding preventive measures are required to contain the spread of disease. PMID:26345305

  2. Expression of EBV-encoded oncogenes and EBV-like virions in multiple canine tumors.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hung-Chuan; Chow, Kuan-Chih; Fan, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Chiou, Shiow-Her; Chiang, Shu-Fen; Chiou, Che-Hao; Wu, Guo-Hua; Yang, Hsiu-Ching; Ho, Shu-Peng; Chen, Yuh-Kun; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Sun, H Sunny

    2013-04-12

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human oncovirus. Previous studies by us and others have indicated that pet dogs frequently encounter EBV or EBV-related viral infection. In this study, we explored whether EBV is involved in canine malignancies in dogs. EBV-specific BamHI W sequence was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 10 of 12 canine tumor specimens, including 8 of 10 oral tumors. Using reverse transcription-PCR, gene expressions of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP 1) and BamHI H rightward reading frame 1 (BHRF1) were identified in 8 and 7 of 12 specimens, respectively. A novel LMP1 variant, T0905, was predominant in 5 canine tumor specimens and found to exist in EBV positive human BC-2 cells. Another LMP1 variant, T0902, was similar to human tumor variant JB7. The BHRF1 sequence identified from these canine tumors was identical to that of the B95-8 viral strain. LMP1 protein and EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) were detected by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization, respectively, in several tumors, particularly in tumor nests of oral amelanotic melanomas. Furthermore, EBV-like virions adopting a herpesvirus egress pathway were detected in a canthal fibroblastic osteosarcoma and an oral amelanotic melanoma. In conclusion, we report the expressions of BHRF1 transcript (a viral anti-apoptotic protein), LMP1 (a viral oncoprotein) transcript and protein, EBER (a viral oncogenic RNA), and EBV-like virions in multiple canine tumors. The identity of BHRF1 and the resemblance of LMP1 variants between canine and human tumors indicate either a close evolutionary relationship between canine and human EBV, or the possibility of zoonotic transmission. PMID:23380461

  3. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage. PMID:26280526

  4. 2006 AAHA canine vaccine guidelines.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michael A; Carmichael, Leland E; Childers, Henry; Cotter, Susan; Davidson, Autumn; Ford, Richard; Hurley, Kate F; Roth, James A; Schultz, Ronald D; Thacker, Eileen; Welborn, Link

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, AAHA's Canine Vaccine Task Force met to reexamine and revise guidelines on the use of vaccines in dogs. The results of the Task Force's work are summarized and tabulated in this article and are published in their entirety on the AAHA website (www.aahanet.org). The 2006 AAHA Canine Vaccine Guidelines contain information on new technological developments in vaccines, an introduction to conditionally licensed vaccines, and detailed recommendations on the use of available vaccines. Perhaps the most noteworthy addition to the guidelines is a separate set of recommendations created for shelter facilities. Vaccines are classified as core (universally recommended), noncore (optional), or not recommended. The Task Force recognizes that vaccination decisions must always be made on an individual basis, based on risk and lifestyle factors. PMID:16527908

  5. Cost-effectiveness of canine vaccination to prevent human rabies in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Meagan C; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Mzimbiri, Imam; Lankester, Felix; Lembo, Tiziana; Meyers, Lauren A.; Paltiel, A David; Galvani, Alison P

    2014-01-01

    Background The annual mortality rate of human rabies in rural Africa is 3.6 deaths per 100,000 individuals. Rabies can be prevented by prompt post-exposure prophylaxis, but this is costly and often inaccessible in rural Africa. As 99% of human exposures occur through rabid dogs, canine vaccination also prevents transmission of rabies to humans. Objective Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rabies control through annual canine vaccination campaigns in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Design We model transmission dynamics in dogs and wildlife and assess empirical uncertainty in the biological parameters to make probability-based evaluations of cost-effectiveness. Data Sources Epidemiological parameters from contact tracing study and literature; cost data from ongoing vaccination campaigns Target Population Two districts of rural Tanzania, Ngorongoro and Serengeti Time Horizon Ten years Perspective Health policymaker Interventions Vaccination coverage ranging from 0 to 95% in increments of 5% Outcome Measures Life-years for health outcomes and 2010 USD for economic outcomes Results of Base-Case Analysis Annual canine vaccination campaigns are very cost-effective in both districts compared with no canine vaccination. In Serengeti, annual campaigns up to 70% coverage are cost-saving. Results of Sensitivity Analysis Across a wide range of parameter assumptions and levels of societal willingness-to-pay for life-years, the optimal vaccination coverage for Serengeti is 70%. In Ngorongoro, though optimal coverage depends on willingness-to-pay, vaccination campaigns are always cost-effective and life-saving, and therefore preferred. Limitations Canine vaccination is very cost-effective in both districts, but there is greater uncertainty regarding the optimal coverage in Ngorongoro. Conclusions Annual canine rabies vaccination campaigns confer extraordinary value and dramatically reduce the health burden of rabies. Primary Funding Source US National Institutes of Health (U01 GM087719) PMID:24592494

  6. Canine histiocytic neoplasia: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Amanda K.; Mauldin, Glenna E.

    2007-01-01

    Canine histiocytic neoplasms include cutaneous histiocytoma, as well as localized and disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. These tumors have variable biologic behavior, although the malignant disorders often have a poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry plays an essential role in differentiating histiocytic tumors from other neoplasias that may have similar histological appearances. This allows a definitive diagnosis to be established and provides a more accurate prediction of prognosis. This article reviews the biologic behavior, diagnosis, and treatment of histiocytic tumors in the dog. PMID:17987966

  7. Canine Blastomycosis in Southern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Harasen, Greg L.G.; Randall, James W.

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of canine blastomycosis in southern Saskatchewan is examined and three clinical cases are described. Nineteen cases of the disease have been diagnosed in southern Saskatchewan since April of 1981. Eight cases were diagnosed during a six month period from August 1985 to February 1986 in dogs residing in a small central area of Regina. The geographical and chronological clustering of cases suggests a local source of exposure to Blastomyces dermatitidis, not previously considered to be endemic to Saskatchewan. PMID:17422705

  8. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Guyana, South America.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, S C; Tiwari, T; Chadee, D D; Validum, L; Alexander, H; Nazeer, R; Rawlins, S R

    2001-04-01

    The 185 patients who presented at the dermatology clinic of Georgetown Public Hospital, Guyana, between 1992 and 1998, with skin ulcers indicative of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) were retrospectively reviewed. The laboratory-confirmed cases of ACL were identified and the corresponding data were analysed for risk factors such as age, gender, areas of residence and of possible exposure to the causative agent (Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis), ethnic origin, longevity of the ulcers, and treatment regimes prior to the definitive diagnosis. Eighty-one (43%) of the 185 subjects were confirmed to be infected with Le. b. guyanensis. Although 53 (66%) of the cases lived in or close to the capital city, Georgetown, most of the cases had travelled to (and probably been infected in) region X in the interior of Guyana (32%) or regions VII (23%), VIII (23%), IX (11%), VI (5%), I (3%) or III (3%), usually because they were involved in the mining (41%) or lumber (21%) industries, the army or hunting. Almost all (95%) of the cases were male and most (58%) were aged 20-39 years. In general, the cases had had their skin lesions for many days before presenting for treatment: 46% for 1-5 weeks and 3% for > 6 months. Prior to presentation at the clinic, many of the cases had attempted to cure themselves, using local herbal remedies (37%), antibiotics and antifungal remedies (39%), other creams (5%), household chemicals (9%) or miscellaneous remedies such as lead salts (especially lead sulphate) and battery acid, all without success. Recommendations are made for an epidemiological study of active ACL among forest workers, eco-tourists and residents of high-risk areas. Diagnostic centres need to be sited in the regions most at-risk, particularly in or near environments in which the main vectors - sandflies such as Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lu. anduzei and Lu. whitmani - are known to be prevalent. PMID:11339884

  9. Comments on potential efficacy of monthly administrations of spot-on moxidectin 2.5%/imidacloprid 10% in the simultaneous prevention of major canine filarioses.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Alessio; Daugschies, Arwid; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Information on the efficacy of pharmaceutical protocols for the prevention of the major canine filarioses (i.e., Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum) under natural conditions is scant. Chemoprophylaxis for canine filarioses under field conditions deserves to be studied more fully and information about vector biology, ecology, and seasonality has to be well appreciated to correctly set control protocols. It is advisable that researchers planning field trials to assess the efficacy of any product for the prevention of canine vector-borne diseases should consider different eco-epidemiological aspects of diseases, including their dynamics of transmission, which are driven by complex interactions between animals, pathogens, and vectors. PMID:24096604

  10. Liposomal amphotericin B as a treatment for human leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Balasegaram, Manica; Ritmeijer, Koert; Lima, Maria Angeles; Burza, Sakib; Ortiz Genovese, Gemma; Milani, Barbara; Gaspani, Sara; Potet, Julien; Chappuis, François

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Between 700,000 and 1.2 million cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and between 200,000 and 400,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is fatal if left untreated, occur annually worldwide. Liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB), alone or in combination with other drugs, has been extensively studied as VL treatment, but data on routine field use are limited, and several challenges to patients' access to this life-saving drug remain. Areas covered: This article provides a review of clinical studies on LAMB for VL and other forms of leishmaniasis. The current development of generic versions of LAMB and related challenges are also discussed. Expert opinion: LAMB proved to be highly efficacious and safe in over 8000 VL patients treated by MÉdecins Sans Frontières in South Asia, and its use was feasible even at primary healthcare level. Despite requiring higher doses, LAMB is the drug of choice to treat vulnerable groups (e.g., pregnant or HIV positive) and relapsing VL patients in East Africa. LAMB should be included in national VL guidelines and registered in all VL endemic countries. Its cost should be further reduced and regulatory pathways to prove bioequivalence for generic LAMB products should be implemented. PMID:23167833

  11. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  12. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  13. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  14. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species.

    PubMed

    Dutari, Larissa C; Loaiza, Jose R

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  15. Canine Rabies: A Looming Threat to Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Cáceres, Sigfrido

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary This review is guided by three questions: What is canine rabies? Why is it a looming threat to public health? Why should we care about canine rabies being a public health threat? It seeks to answer these questions and notes that canine rabies is viral zoonosis with dogs being the major vectors. The disease is a looming threat to public health because rabid dogs bite humans, resulting in thousands of deaths every year. We should care about this evolving situation because, in general, rabies is a neglected disease for which there are vaccines, preventive measures, post-exposure prophylaxis, and control protocols. Abstract Rabies is an acute, fatal viral disease that infects domestic and wild animals and is transmissible to humans. Worldwide, rabies kills over 55,000 people every year. The domestic dog plays a pivotal role in rabies transmission. Domestic dogs are not only part of our daily lives but also of our immediate surroundings, and this is reflected in the rise in pet dog ownership in developed and developing countries. This is important given that more frequent exposures and interactions at the animal-human interface increases the likelihood of contracting zoonotic diseases of companion animals. Despite existing vaccines and post-exposure prophylactic treatment, rabies remains a neglected disease that is poorly controlled throughout much of the developing world, particularly Africa and Asia, where most human rabies deaths occur. It is believed that with sustained international commitments, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal. PMID:26486619

  16. Complete genome sequence of an avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus isolated from dogs in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Jun; Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Hong, Minki; Na, Woonseong; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Poo, Haryoung; Park, Bong-Kyun; Song, Dae-Sub

    2012-09-01

    An avian-origin Korean H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) strain, designated A/canine/Korea/01/2007 (H3N2), was isolated from nasal swabs of pet dogs exhibiting severe respiratory syndrome in 2007. In the present study, we report the first complete genome sequence containing 3' and 5' noncoding regions (NCRs) of H3N2 CIV, which will provide important insights into the molecular basis of pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of CIV. PMID:22879618

  17. The suspensory apparatus of the canine lens.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, R

    1983-01-01

    The suspensory apparatus of the canine lens was studied in gross specimens stained with periodic acid and Schiff's reagent, and by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Two distinct groupings of zonular fibres were discernible: those passing along the crests of the ciliary processes and inserting at the lens anterior to the equator, and those arising from the walls of the ciliary processes and inserting posteriorly at the lens. In addition, zonular fibres were found to arise from single plicae and from processes of intermediate size located between the main ciliary processes. The vitreous body was firmly attached to the pars plana, over which zonular fibres passed in a meridional direction, and also to the lens capsule adjacent to the posterior zonular insertions. The mode of insertion of the zonular fibres at the lens and over the unpigmented ciliary epithelium is described. Zonular fibrils averaged approximately 13 nm in diameter, with a periodicity of 17 nm and were morphologically similar to those of other species. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6833122

  18. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Maria Antonietta; Matheson, Carney; Iachetta, Lucia; Llagostera, Agustín; Appenzeller, Otto

    2009-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. Methodology We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area–likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. Conclusions We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today. PMID:19746163

  19. Evaluation of SPECT quantification of radiopharmaceutical distribution in canine myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianying; Jaszczak, R.L.; Greer, K.L.

    1995-02-01

    This study evaluates the quantitative accuracy of SPECT for in vivo distributions of {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals using fanbeam (FB) and parallel-beam (PB) collimators and compares uniform and nouniform attenuation correction methods in terms of quantitative accuracy. SPECT quantification of canine myocardial radioactivity was performed followed by well counter measurements of extracted myocardial tissue samples. Transmission scans using a line source and an FB collimator were performed to generate nonuniform attenuation maps of the canine thorax. Emission scans with two energy windows were acquired. Images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm, with a dual-window scatter subtraction combined with either no attenuation compensation or single iteration Chang attenuation compensation based on a uniform attenuation map {mu}=0.152 cm{sup -1} or the nonuniform transmission map. The measured mean counts from the SPECT images were converted using the well counter. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared with well counter values, the in vivo distributions of {sup 99m}Tc were most accurately determined in FB and PB SPECT reconstructions with nonuniform attenuation compensation, under-estimated without attenuation compensation and overestimated with uniform attenuation compensation. 37 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Epidemiological Changes in Leishmaniasis in Spain According to Hospitalization-Based Records, 1997–2011: Raising Awareness towards Leishmaniasis in Non-HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, B. Carolina; Granados, Marisol; San Martín, Juan Victor; Aparicio, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    In Spain, Leishmania infantum is endemic, human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occurring both in the Peninsula, as well as in the Balearic Islands. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis patients and the changes in the disease evolution after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in 1997. In this descriptive study, we used Spanish Centralized Hospital Discharge Database for the hospitalized leishmaniasis cases between 1997 and 2011. We included in the analysis only the records having leishmaniasis as the first registered diagnosis and calculated the hospitalization rates. Disease trend was described taking into account the HIV status. Adjusted odds-ratio was used to estimate the association between clinical and socio-demographic factors and HIV co-infection. Of the total 8010 Leishmaniasis hospitalizations records, 3442 had leishmaniasis as first diagnosis; 2545/3442 (75.6%) were males and 2240/3442 (65.1%) aged between 14-65 years. Regarding disease forms, 2844/3442 (82.6%) of hospitalizations were due to visceral leishmaniasis (VL), while 118/3442 (3.4%) hospitalizations were cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Overall, 1737/2844 of VL (61.1%) were HIV negatives. An overall increasing trend was observed for the records with leishmaniasis as first diagnosis (p=0.113). Non-HIV leishmaniasis increased during this time period (p=0.021) while leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection hospitalization revealed a slight descending trend (p=0.717). Leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection was significantly associated with male sex (aOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.25-2.04), 16-64 years age group (aOR=17.4; 95%CI: 2.1-143.3), visceral leishmaniasis aOR=6.1 (95%CI: 3.27-11.28) and solid neoplasms 4.5 (95% CI: 1.65-12.04). The absence of HIV co-infection was associated with lymph/hematopoietic neoplasms (aOR=0.3; 95%CI:0.14-0.57), other immunodeficiency (aOR=0.04; 95% CI:0.01-0.32) and transplant (aOR=0.01; 95%CI:0.00-0.07). Our findings suggest a significant increase of hospitalization in the absence of HIV co-infection, with a predomination of VL. We consider that clinicians in Spain should be aware of leishmaniasis not only in the HIV population but also in non HIV patients, especially for those having immunosuppression as an associate condition. PMID:25756785

  1. Hendra virus ecology and transmission.

    PubMed

    Field, Hume E

    2016-02-01

    Hendra virus causes acute and highly fatal infection in horses and humans. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, with age and species being risk factors for infection. Urine is the primary route of excretion in flying-foxes, with viral RNA more frequently detected in Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus than other species. Infection prevalence in flying-foxes can vary between and within years, with a winter peak of excretion occurring in some regions. Vertical transmission and recrudescing infection has been reported in flying-foxes, but horizontal transmission is evidently the primary mode of transmission. The most parsimonious mode of flying-fox to horse transmission is equine contact (oro-nasal, conjunctival) with infected flying-fox urine, either directly, or via urine-contaminated pasture or surfaces. Horse to horse transmission is inefficient, requiring direct contact with infected body fluids. Flying-fox to human transmission has not been recorded; all human cases have been associated with close and direct contact with infected horses. Canine cases (subclinical) have also been limited to equine case properties. Notwithstanding the recent availability of an effective vaccine for horses, a comprehensive understanding of Hendra virus ecology and transmission is essential to limit inter-species transmission. PMID:26978066

  2. Low Quality Evidence of Epidemiological Observational Studies on Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mário; Marlow, Mariel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. Methods/Principal Findings For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n = 59), case-control (8.5%, n = 24), and cohort (6.0%, n = 17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n = 181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n = 24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n = 112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n = 38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n = 178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n = 659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. Conclusions/Significance A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the last two years, an emphasis on observational research which employs comparison groups and representative samples is urgently needed. PMID:25197965

  3. Wave transmission characteristics and anisotropy of canine carotid arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moritz, W. E.; Anliker, M.

    1974-01-01

    A method was developed to generate and record three types of small amplitude waves (pressure, torsion and axial) in the exposed carotid artery of anesthetized dogs. The pressure waves were studied with the aid of miniature pressure transducers; electro-optical tracking units monitored the axial and circumferential surface displacements. Results from 6 dogs are presented in the form of the phase velocities and attenuation of three types of waves. The data demonstrate incompatibility with an isotropic elastic model for the mechanical behavior of the artery. The measured damping appears to be primarily due to the viscoelastic properties of the vessel wall material.

  4. Interest in paromomycin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease, and it is classified as one of the most important tropical fly-borne infections. This disease can cause two types of clinical manifestations: cutaneous forms and visceral forms. Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also called kala-azar, is a very serious infection that can be fatal. The management of visceral leishmaniasis requires informed diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Continuous research and development regarding the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis had led to many improvements. Paromomycin is a relatively new antibiotic drug that has been used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis for several years. This article reviews and discusses the use of paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis therapy. PMID:22802694

  5. Genome-Wide Scan for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Mixed-Breed Dogs Identifies Candidate Genes Involved in T Helper Cells and Macrophage Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Ribeiro, Érica S.; Quintal, Amanda P. N.; Sangalli, Juliano R.; Gazola, Valquiria R.; Paula, Henrique B.; Trinconi, Cristiana M.; Lima, Valéria M. F.; Perri, Silvia H. V.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Garcia, José F.; Nunes, Cáris M.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs from a highly endemic area in Brazil using 149,648 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers genotyped in 20 cases and 28 controls. Using a mixed model approach, we found two candidate loci on canine autosomes 1 and 2. The positional association on chromosome 2 mapped to a predicted DNAse sensitive site in CD14+ monocytes that serve as a cis-regulatory element for the expression of interleukin alpha receptors 2 (IL2RA) and 15 (IL15RA). Both interleukins were previously found to lead to protective T helper 1 cell (Th1) response against Leishmania spp. in humans and mice. The associated marker on chromosome 1 was located between two predicted transcription factor binding sites regulating the expression of the transducin-like enhancer of split 1 gene (TLE1), an important player in Notch signaling. This pathway is critical for macrophage activity and CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th1 and T helper 2. Together, these findings suggest that the human and mouse model for protective response against Leishmania spp., which involves Th1 and macrophage modulation by interleukins 2, 15, gamma interferon and Notch signaling, may also hold for the canine model. PMID:26348501

  6. First Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Wild Adult Male and Female Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative targets for vector control via RNA interference (RNAi). PMID:23554910

  7. Predictors of Visceral Leishmaniasis Relapse in HIV-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cota, Gláucia F.; de Sousa, Marcos R.; Rabello, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a common complication in AIDS patients living in Leishmania-endemic areas. Although antiretroviral therapy has changed the clinical course of HIV infection and its associated illnesses, the prevention of VL relapses remains a challenge for the care of HIV and Leishmania co-infected patients. This work is a systematic review of previous studies that have described predictors of VL relapse in HIV-infected patients. Review Methods We searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE, LILACS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies were selected if they included HIV-infected individuals with a VL diagnosis and patient follow-up after the leishmaniasis treatment with an analysis of the clearly defined outcome of prediction of relapse. Results Eighteen out 178 studies satisfied the specified inclusion criteria. Most patients were males between 30 and 40 years of age, and HIV transmission was primarily via intravenous drug use. Previous VL episodes were identified as risk factors for relapse in 3 studies. Two studies found that baseline CD4+ T cell count above 100 cells/mL was associated with a decreased relapse rate. The observation of an increase in CD4+ T cells at patient follow-up was associated with protection from relapse in 5 of 7 studies. Meta-analysis of all studies assessing secondary prophylaxis showed significant reduction of VL relapse rate following prophylaxis. None of the five observational studies evaluating the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy use found a reduction in the risk of VL relapse upon patient follow-up. Conclusion Some predictors of VL relapse could be identified: a) the absence of an increase in CD4+ cells at follow-up; b) lack of secondary prophylaxis; and c) previous history of VL relapse. CD4+ counts below 100 cells/mL at the time of primary VL diagnosis may also be a predictive factor for VL relapse. PMID:21666786

  8. Ecology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Cláudio Roberto Valente; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; da Costa, Simone Miranda; Costa, Wagner Alexandre; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2002-12-01

    A study of the sand fly fauna was carried out in the endemic area ofAmerican cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the Municipality of Mesquita, State of Rio de Janeiro, in an area where dwellings (with humans and dogs infected by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis) have been recently visited by sloths. Weekly captures were made during two consecutive years in two different sites (1 m and 600 m above sea level) and in three different habitats in each site (domestic, extra-domestic and sylvatic) using CDC light traps and Shannon traps. The following species were identified: Brumptomyia (Brumptomyia) guimaraesi, B. (B.) nitzulescui, Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis, L. migonei, L. serrana, L. (Psathyromyia) lutziana, L. barrettoi, L. (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. (N.) whitmani, L. (Mycropygomyia) schireiberi, L. quinquefer, L. sallesi, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai, L. pascalei, L. (Pintomyia) bianchigalatiae and L. lanei. The collection of B. guimaraesi and B. nitzulescui species indicates the proximity of the study area to the sylvatic habitat. Two important suspected vectors of ACL were found: L. intermedia and L. migonei. L. longipalpis, a proven vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), was also found in this area. L. intermedia, the predominant sand fly species, was collected by both methods of capture and in the three different sites. It was observed biting man inside houses, but it was less anthropophilic in the sylvatic habitat. Our observations suggest that altitude does not influence the dispersion of L. intermedia population in the Municipality of Mesquita. The data indicate that L. intermedia remains as a putative vector of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis in this locality. An hypothesis of a sylvatic transmission cycle in the area and its correlation with the domestic cycle are discussed in the present paper. PMID:12546456

  9. Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis: IgM and Polyclonal B-Cell Activation Lead to Disease Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Eszter; Jayakumar, Asha; Wing Cho, Ka; Goldsmith-Pestana, Karen; Dondji, Blaise; Lambris, John D.; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2010-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the draining lymph node (DLN) is the initial site for colonization and establishment of infection after intradermal transmission by the sand fly vector; however, little is known about the developing immune response within this site. Using an intradermal infection model, which allows for parasite visceralization, we have examined the ongoing immune responses in the DLN of BALB/c mice infected with L. infantum. Although not unexpected, at early times post-infection there is a marked B cell expansion in the DLN, which persists throughout infection. However, the characteristics of this response were of interest; as early as day 7 post-infection, polyclonal antibodies (TNP, OVA, chromatin) were observed and the levels appeared comparable to the specific anti-leishmania response. Although B-cell-deficient JHD BALB/c mice are relatively resistant to infection, neither B-cell-derived IL-10 nor B-cell antigen presentation appear to be primarily responsible for the elevated parasitemia. However, passive transfer and reconstitution of JHD BALB/c with secretory immunoglobulins, (IgM or IgG; specific or non-specific immune complexes) results in increased susceptibility to L. infantum infection. Further, JHD BALB/c mice transgenetically reconstituted to secrete IgM demonstrated exacerbated disease in comparison to wild type BALB/c mice as early as 2 days post-infection. Evidence suggests that complement activation (generation of C5a) and signaling via the C5aR (CD88) is related to the disease exacerbation caused by IgM rather than cytokine levels (IL-10 or IFN-γ). Overall these studies indicate that polyclonal B cell activation, which is known to be associated with human visceral leishmaniasis, is an early and intrinsic characteristic of disease and may represent a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20213734

  10. Amphiphilic Antimony(V) Complexes for Oral Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Flaviana R.; Ferreira, Weverson A.; Campos, Mariana A.; Ramos, Guilherme S.; Kato, Kelly C.; Almeida, Gregório G.; Corrêa, José D.; Melo, Maria N.; Demicheli, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    The need for daily parenteral administration is an important limitation in the clinical use of pentavalent antimonial drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, amphiphilic antimony(V) complexes were prepared from alkylmethylglucamides (L8 and L10, with carbon chain lengths of 8 and 10, respectively), and their potential for the oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was evaluated. Complexes of Sb and ligand at 1:3 (SbL8 and SbL10) were obtained from the reaction of antimony(V) with L8 and L10, as evidenced by elemental and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses. Fluorescence probing of hydrophobic environment and negative-staining transmission electron microscopy showed that SbL8 forms kinetically stabilized nanoassemblies in water. Pharmacokinetic studies with mice in which the compound was administered by the oral route at 200 mg of Sb/kg of body weight indicated that the SbL8 complex promoted greater and more sustained Sb levels in serum and liver than the levels obtained for the conventional antimonial drug meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime [Glu]). The efficacy of SbL8 and SbL10 administered by the oral route was evaluated in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania infantum after a daily dose of 200 mg of Sb/kg for 20 days. Both complexes promoted significant reduction in the liver and spleen parasite burdens in relation to those in the saline-treated control group. The extent of parasite suppression (>99.96%) was similar to that achieved after Glu given intraperitoneally at 80 mg of Sb/kg/day. As expected, there was no significant reduction in the parasitic load in the group treated orally with Glu at 200 mg of Sb/(kg day). In conclusion, amphiphilic antimony(V) complexes emerge as an innovative and promising strategy for the oral treatment of VL. PMID:23796930

  11. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:23293164

  12. Genetics of Canine Primary Glaucomas.

    PubMed

    Komromy, Andrs M; Petersen-Jones, Simon M

    2015-11-01

    Primary glaucomas are a leading cause of incurable vision loss in dogs. Based on their specific breed predilection, a genetic cause is suspected to be responsible, and affected dogs should be excluded from breeding. Despite the high prevalence of primary glaucomas in dogs, their genetics have been studied in only a small number of breeds. The identification of canine glaucoma disease genes, and the development of genetic tests, will help to avoid the breeding of affected dogs in the future and will allow for earlier diagnosis and potentially more effective therapy. PMID:26277300

  13. The evolutionary ecology of transmissible cancers.

    PubMed

    Ujvari, Beata; Gatenby, Robert A; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Transmissible tumours, while rare, present a fascinating opportunity to examine the evolutionary dynamics of cancer as both an infectious agent and an exotic, invasive species. Only three naturally-occurring transmissible cancers have been observed so far in the wild: Tasmanian devil facial tumour diseases, canine transmissible venereal tumour, and clam leukaemia. Here, we define four conditions that are necessary and sufficient for direct passage of cancer cells between either vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. Successful transmission requires environment and behaviours that facilitate transfer of tumour cells between hosts including: tumour tissue properties that promote shedding of large numbers of malignant cells, tumour cell plasticity that permits their survival during transmission and growth in a new host, and a 'permissible' host or host tissue. This rare confluence of multiple host- and tumour cell-traits both explains the rarity of tumour cell transmission and provides novel insights into the dynamics that both promote and constrain their growth. PMID:26861618

  14. Seasonal Dynamics of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species Proven Vectors of Mediterranean Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Alten, Bulent; Maia, Carla; Afonso, Maria Odete; Campino, Lenea; Jiménez, Maribel; González, Estela; Molina, Ricardo; Bañuls, Anne Laure; Prudhomme, Jorian; Vergnes, Baptiste; Toty, Celine; Cassan, Cécile; Rahola, Nil; Thierry, Magali; Sereno, Denis; Bongiorno, Gioia; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Antoniou, Maria; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Mazeris, Apostolos; Karakus, Mehmet; Ozbel, Yusuf; Arserim, Suha K.; Erisoz Kasap, Ozge; Gunay, Filiz; Oguz, Gizem; Kaynas, Sinan; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tskhvaradze, Lamzira; Gramiccia, Marina; Volf, Petr; Gradoni, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent geographical expansion of phlebotomine vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean subregion has been attributed to ongoing climate changes. At these latitudes, the activity of sand flies is typically seasonal; because seasonal phenomena are also sensitive to general variations in climate, current phenological data sets can provide a baseline for continuing investigations on sand fly population dynamics that may impact on future scenarios of leishmaniasis transmission. With this aim, in 2011–2013 a consortium of partners from eight Mediterranean countries carried out entomological investigations in sites where L. infantum transmission was recently reported. Methods/Principal Findings A common protocol for sand fly collection included monthly captures by CDC light traps, complemented by sticky traps in most of the sites. Collections were replicated for more than one season in order to reduce the effects of local weather events. In each site, the trapping effort was left unchanged throughout the survey to legitimate inter-seasonal comparisons. Data from 99,000 collected specimens were analyzed, resulting in the description of seasonal dynamics of 56,000 sand flies belonging to L. infantum vector species throughout a wide geographical area, namely P. perniciosus (Portugal, Spain and Italy), P. ariasi (France), P. neglectus (Greece), P. tobbi (Cyprus and Turkey), P. balcanicus and P. kandelakii (Georgia). Time of sand fly appearance/disappearance in collections differed between sites, and seasonal densities showed variations in each site. Significant correlations were found between latitude/mean annual temperature of sites and i) the first month of sand fly appearance, that ranged from early April to the first half of June; ii) the type of density trend, varying from a single peak in July/August to multiple peaks increasing in magnitude from May through September. A 3-modal trend, recorded for P. tobbi in Cyprus, represents a novel finding for a L. infantum vector. Adults ended the activity starting from mid September through November, without significant correlation with latitude/mean annual temperature of sites. The period of potential exposure to L.infantum in the Mediterranean subregion, as inferred by adult densities calculated from 3 years, 37 sites and 6 competent vector species, was associated to a regular bell-shaped density curve having a wide peak center encompassing the July-September period, and falling between early May to late October for more than 99% of values. Apparently no risk for leishmaniasis transmission took place from December through March in the years considered. We found a common pattern of nocturnal females activity, whose density peaked between 11 pm and 2 am. Conclusions Despite annual variations, multiple collections performed over consecutive years provided homogeneous patterns of the potential behavior of leishmaniasis vectors in selected sites, which we propose may represent sentinel areas for future monitoring. In the investigated years, higher potential risk for L. infantum transmission in the Mediterranean was identified in the June-October period (97% relative vector density), however such risk was not equally distributed throughout the region, since density waves of adults occurred earlier and were more frequent in southern territories. PMID:26900688

  15. Identification of a canine adenovirus (infectious canine hepatitis virus) inhibitor in dog liver extracts as arginase.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, L E

    1972-09-01

    Extracts of canine liver inhibited growth of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) virus, a canine adenovirus. Purified extracts from mammalian, but not avian, liver tissue contained the inhibitor, and evidence is presented that the inhibitory factor is the enzyme arginase (arginine ureohydrolase). This study further emphasized the need for arginine in adenovirus growth and may explain some of the difficulties in isolating small amounts of ICH virus from suspensions of liver. PMID:4344396

  16. [Recent advances in transmissible tumors].

    PubMed

    Tingting, Yin; Lu, Wang; Guodong, Wang

    2015-11-01

    Transmissible tumors are a class of tumor that can be transmitted between individuals through living cells. So far, four types of transmissible tumors including canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT),Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (DFTD), soft-shell clams leukemia (SSCL), and hamsters reticulum cell sarcoma (HRCS)have been discovered and identified. In the last decades, these transmissible tumors have been proved to be transmitted through living cells by cytological, histological and genetic studies. CTVT, the oldest mammalian somatic cell line, and DFTD originated from Schwann cell have been reported to avoid immunological recognition by down-regulating MHC expression, while a high copy number of Steamer retrotransposon is commonly exist in SSCL. In recent years, the whole-genome sequencing of CTVT and DFTD have been completed which facilitates studies on the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, transmission and evolution of transmissible tumors at the whole-genome level. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in transmissible tumors and discuss the research focus in next decade. PMID:26582522

  17. Evidence for canine rehabilitation and physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Millis, Darryl L; Ciuperca, Ionut Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews some important studies regarding canine physical rehabilitation. Bones, cartilage, muscles, ligaments, and tendons undergo atrophy if loading is decreased. Knowledge of the changes that occur with immobilization and the time course of events helps in the development of a rehabilitation program to improve tissue integrity. Outcome assessment instruments are clinically useful indicators of patient progress and the success of rehabilitation programs. A number of physical modalities are used in canine rehabilitation, although there are relatively few canine-specific studies. Rehabilitation has specific benefits in the treatment of various orthopedic and neurologic conditions. PMID:25432679

  18. Seroconversion of puppies to canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus: a comparison of two combination vaccines.

    PubMed

    Coyne, M J

    2000-01-01

    Sixty puppies were randomly assigned to receive one of two commercially available combination vaccines, and responses to the canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus components of the vaccines were determined by measuring serum antibody titers. The percentage of puppies that seroconverted to canine parvovirus was significantly higher and the mean time for seroconversion was significantly shorter for puppies that received one of the vaccines than for puppies that received the other vaccine. Percentages of puppies that seroconverted to canine distemper virus were not significantly different. PMID:10730624

  19. Patients' associations and the control of leishmaniasis in Peru.

    PubMed Central

    Guthmann, J. P.; Calmet, J.; Rosales, E.; Cruz, M.; Chang, J.; Dedet, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is an important health problem in Peru, particularly in the mountainous Cuzco Region, where 25% of all new cases reported in 1989 were located. Cases have increased considerably since the beginning of the 1980s, when large-scale seasonal migration to endemic zones occurred, particularly the forest area of Madre de Dios, following the discovery of new gold deposits there, and the deterioration in the economic situation in Peru. Following the lack of official response from the Peruvian government, hundreds of people suffering from leishmaniasis in the Cuzco area formed self-help associations with the objective of obtaining the drugs needed to treat their disease. The major achievement of this spontaneous movement, which was supported by several public and private institutions, was to encourage sick people, particularly patients with mucosal lesions, to emerge from isolation. As a result, the prevalence and incidence of the disease have now considerably decreased in the region. PMID:9141749

  20. Lessons from other diseases: granulomatous inflammation in leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Paul M; Beattie, Lynette

    2016-03-01

    The Leishmania granuloma shares some, though not all, properties with that formed following mycobacterial infection. As a simplified, noncaseating granuloma composed of relatively few and largely mononuclear cell populations, it provides a tractable model system to investigate intra-granuloma cellular dynamics, immune regulation, and antimicrobial resistance. Here, the occurrence of granulomatous pathology across the spectrum of leishmaniasis, in humans and animal reservoir hosts, is first described. However, this review focuses on the process of hepatic granuloma formation as studied in rodent models of visceral leishmaniasis, starting from the initial infection of Kupffer cells to the involution of the granuloma after pathogen clearance. It describes how the application of intravital imaging and the use of computational modeling have changed some of our thoughts on granuloma function, and illustrates how host-directed therapies have been used to manipulate granuloma form and function for therapeutic benefit. Where appropriate, lessons that may be equally applicable across the spectrum of granulomatous diseases are highlighted. PMID:26678994

  1. Leishmaniasis Worldwide and Global Estimates of Its Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Iván D.; Bern, Caryn; Herrero, Mercé; Desjeux, Philippe; Cano, Jorge; Jannin, Jean

    2012-01-01

    As part of a World Health Organization-led effort to update the empirical evidence base for the leishmaniases, national experts provided leishmaniasis case data for the last 5 years and information regarding treatment and control in their respective countries and a comprehensive literature review was conducted covering publications on leishmaniasis in 98 countries and three territories (see ‘Leishmaniasis Country Profiles Text S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S11, S12, S13, S14, S15, S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S22, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27, S28, S29, S30, S31, S32, S33, S34, S35, S36, S37, S38, S39, S40, S41, S42, S43, S44, S45, S46, S47, S48, S49, S50, S51, S52, S53, S54, S55, S56, S57, S58, S59, S60, S61, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S67, S68, S69, S70, S71, S72, S73, S74, S75, S76, S77, S78, S79, S80, S81, S82, S83, S84, S85, S86, S87, S88, S89, S90, S91, S92, S93, S94, S95, S96, S97, S98, S99, S100, S101’). Additional information was collated during meetings conducted at WHO regional level between 2007 and 2011. Two questionnaires regarding epidemiology and drug access were completed by experts and national program managers. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence ranges were estimated by country and epidemiological region based on reported incidence, underreporting rates if available, and the judgment of national and international experts. Based on these estimates, approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cases and 0.7 to 1.2 million VL and CL cases, respectively, occur each year. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is more widely distributed, with about one-third of cases occurring in each of three epidemiological regions, the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, and western Asia from the Middle East to Central Asia. The ten countries with the highest estimated case counts, Afghanistan, Algeria, Colombia, Brazil, Iran, Syria, Ethiopia, North Sudan, Costa Rica and Peru, together account for 70 to 75% of global estimated CL incidence. Mortality data were extremely sparse and generally represent hospital-based deaths only. Using an overall case-fatality rate of 10%, we reach a tentative estimate of 20,000 to 40,000 leishmaniasis deaths per year. Although the information is very poor in a number of countries, this is the first in-depth exercise to better estimate the real impact of leishmaniasis. These data should help to define control strategies and reinforce leishmaniasis advocacy. PMID:22693548

  2. [Leishmaniasis and rheumatoid nodulosis in a patient with HIV infection].

    PubMed

    García-Río, I; Daudén, E; Ballestero-Díez, M; Fraga, J; García-Díez, A

    2010-03-01

    We describe the case of a 44-year-old homosexual man diagnosed with HIV infection and visceral leishmaniasis. He presented nodules on the dorsum of the hands. Histological study of one of the nodules revealed necrobiotic palisading granulomas with abundant Leishmania amastigotes within the histiocytes and in the adjacent extracellular space. Tissue and peripheral blood cultures were positive for Leishmania infantum, zymodeme MON-24. A biopsy of healthy skin did not reveal the presence of Leishmania. A diagnosis of rheumatoid nodulosis with Leishmania was made and treatment was started with intravenous liposomal amphotericin, leading to slight improvement. We believe that the presence of the parasite within the nodules was the result of its dissemination during visceral leishmaniasis in an immunocompromised patient with HIV infection, and that the Leishmania did not have an etiological role in the appearance of the nodules. We present the first case of the association between Leishmania and rheumatoid nodulosis. PMID:20223159

  3. Leishmania infantum AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, Ludiele Souza; FRANÇA, Adriana de Oliveira; FERREIRA, Eduardo de Castro; HANS, Günther; HIGA, Minoru German; GONTIJO, Célia Maria Ferreira; PEREIRA, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; DORVAL, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of theLeishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. PMID:27007566

  4. A Rare Case of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Presenting as Rhinophyma

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Bose, Kousik

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis(CL) is referred to a group of diseases because of the varied clinical presentation, ranging from small cutaneous nodule to wide spread mucosal destruction. The nose is rarely involved by CL in even in endemic region. In this report we describe a rare rhinophymatous presentation of CL from a non-endemic region which was diagnosed by fine needle sampling and treated with Miltefosine. PMID:26351477

  5. [Visceral leishmaniasis and pregnancy in renal transplanted patient: case report].

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaqueline de Almeida; Arajo, Ivan de Melo; Pavanetti, Luiz Carlos; Okamoto, Liene Shigaki; Dias, Mnica

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and potentially fatal disease caused by different Leishmania species, Leishmania chagasi prevailing in Brazil. Main symptoms include fever, malaise, anorexia, weight loss and abdominal enlargement with typically occurring hepatosplenomegaly Currently, VL is considered an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts, including solid organ transplanted patients. The present study reports a case of VL associated to pregnancy after renal transplantation. PMID:26154649

  6. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Saudi-Arabia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Andre, L J; Gandolfi, R

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen cases of dermal leishmaniasis have been observed in the personnel of a french company operating in a deserted area of north Saudi-Arabia. All patients were stationed there for more than six months and had good accomodation. The host reservoir of virus of this small epidemy is not dog but must be looked for in wild rodents, the multiplication of which seems related to the growing dispersed dumping of town refuse on wide suburban areas. PMID:732555

  7. Cutaneous leishmaniasis with atypical clinical manifestations: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Neitzke-Abreu, Herintha Coeto; Venazzi, Mateus Sabaini; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Zanzarini, Paulo Donizeti; da Silva Fernandes, Andréa Claudia Bekner; Aristides, Sandra Mara Alessi; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana

    2014-01-01

    This case report alerts to the existence of atypical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). A woman with nodular cutaneous lesions over a neck with papules and pustules located deep in the hypodermis that formed plaques with subcutaneous induration and satellite papules was confirmed to have CL. After confirmation, the patient was treated with remission of the lesions, scarring and thickening of the skin. PMID:26955529

  8. Immunoregulation in Human American Leishmaniasis: Balancing Pathology and Protection

    PubMed Central

    Gollob, Kenneth J.; Viana, Agostinho G.; Dutra, Walderez O.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Leishmaniasis covers a broad spectrum of diseases with distinct, and sometimes overlapping, characteristics. The common thread in all forms of leishmaniasis is the infection by the parasite Leishmania belonging to the genus Leishmania. Upon infection of humans there can be at least three outcomes, 1) control of Leishmania by the host immune response resulting in asymptomatic disease, 2) patent infection and development of a relatively mild form of leishmaniasis, and 3) patent infection and development of severe clinical forms. The factors that determine the outcome of an initial inoculation with Leishmania are many, with the species of Leishmania representing one of the strongest predictive factors for the development of a given clinical form of disease. This is seen with L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis, infection leading mostly to tegumentary forms of disease, and L. infantum with the potential to induce visceral disease. However, it is also clear that the host immune response is a key factor in disease progression, not only responsible for control of Leishmania, but also playing an important role in disease progression and pathology. This duality between protective and pathogenic immune responses in individuals infected with Leishmania in the Americas is the focus of this review. PMID:24471648

  9. Systematic review of biomarkers to monitor therapeutic response in leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kip, Anke E; Balasegaram, Manica; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; de Vries, Peter J; Dorlo, Thomas P C

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the development of new drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. This has spurred the need for pharmacodynamic markers to monitor and compare therapies specifically for visceral leishmaniasis, in which the primary recrudescence of parasites is a particularly long-term event that remains difficult to predict. We performed a systematic review of studies evaluating biomarkers in human patients with visceral, cutaneous, and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, which yielded a total of 170 studies in which 53 potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers were identified. In conclusion, the large majority of these biomarkers constituted universal indirect markers of activation and subsequent waning of cellular immunity and therefore lacked specificity. Macrophage-related markers demonstrate favorable sensitivity and times to normalcy, but more evidence is required to establish a link between these markers and clinical outcome. Most promising are the markers directly related to the parasite burden, but future effort should be focused on optimization of molecular or antigenic targets to increase the sensitivity of these markers. In general, future research should focus on the longitudinal evaluation of the pharmacodynamic biomarkers during treatment, with an emphasis on the correlation of studied biomarkers and clinical parameters. PMID:25367913

  10. Live Vaccination Tactics: Possible Approaches for Controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Saljoughian, Noushin; Taheri, Tahareh; Rafati, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with durable immunity is the main goal and fundamental to control leishmaniasis. To stimulate the immune response, small numbers of parasites are necessary to be presented in the mammalian host. Similar to natural course of infection, strategy using live vaccine is more attractive when compared to other approaches. Live vaccines present the whole spectrum of antigens to the host immune system in the absence of any adjuvant. Leishmanization was the first effort for live vaccination and currently used in a few countries against cutaneous leishmaniasis, in spite of their obstacle and safety. Then, live attenuated vaccines developed with similar promotion of creating long-term immunity in the host with lower side effect. Different examples of attenuated strains are generated through long-term in vitro culturing, culturing under drug pressure, temperature sensitivity, and chemical mutagenesis, but none is safe enough and their revision to virulent form is possible. Attenuation through genetic manipulation and disruption of virulence factors or essential enzymes for intracellular survival are among other approaches that are intensively under study. Other designs to develop live vaccines for visceral form of leishmaniasis are utilization of live avirulent microorganisms such as Lactococcus lactis, Salmonella enterica, and Leishmania tarentolae called as vectored vaccine. Apparently, these vaccines are intrinsically safer and can harbor the candidate antigens in their genome through different genetic manipulation and create more potential to control Leishmania parasite as an intracellular pathogen. PMID:24744757

  11. Leishmaniasis--an unusual cause of splenomegaly in Romania.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Teodora; Luca, A; Crăcană, Irina; Merticariu, Amalia; Dănăilă, C

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by protozoans classified as Leishmania species. Romania is not considered an endemic country and there are only few reports of sporadic cases in the last 100 years. However, studies suggest that the disease is spreading north. We present the case of a 44 year old female that presented with asthenia, perspirations, vertigo, weight loss and menometrorhagias in small to medium quantity. Clinical exam revealed the presence of splenomegaly and her blood tests indicated she had pancitopenia; differential diagnosis included myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders, infections that evolve with spleen enlargement, autoimmune-related splenomegaly and hepatic--all tests were negative. She refused the bone marrow aspiration. Three months later, her condition worsened and the menometrorragias became more severe. Bone marrow aspiration revealed the presence of numerous intra and extracellular Leishmania spp. amastigotes. A detailed anamnesis showed that she had worked for six months in Italy as a care-giver nine months ago. She was transferred to Bucharest where she received optimal treatment. However, due to the continuous bleeding, the evolution was unfavourable. This is an alarm sign for physicians that should take into account the fact that, due to population migration and global warming, tropical infectious diseases are becoming more and more common. The signs and symptoms, as well as the treatment in leishmaniasis are reviewed, as well as a brief history of leishmaniasis in Romania. PMID:24741784

  12. Systematic Review of Biomarkers To Monitor Therapeutic Response in Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kip, Anke E.; Balasegaram, Manica; Beijnen, Jos H.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the development of new drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. This has spurred the need for pharmacodynamic markers to monitor and compare therapies specifically for visceral leishmaniasis, in which the primary recrudescence of parasites is a particularly long-term event that remains difficult to predict. We performed a systematic review of studies evaluating biomarkers in human patients with visceral, cutaneous, and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, which yielded a total of 170 studies in which 53 potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers were identified. In conclusion, the large majority of these biomarkers constituted universal indirect markers of activation and subsequent waning of cellular immunity and therefore lacked specificity. Macrophage-related markers demonstrate favorable sensitivity and times to normalcy, but more evidence is required to establish a link between these markers and clinical outcome. Most promising are the markers directly related to the parasite burden, but future effort should be focused on optimization of molecular or antigenic targets to increase the sensitivity of these markers. In general, future research should focus on the longitudinal evaluation of the pharmacodynamic biomarkers during treatment, with an emphasis on the correlation of studied biomarkers and clinical parameters. PMID:25367913

  13. [Macrophage activation syndrome and autoimmunity due to visceral leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Higel, L; Froehlich, C; Pages, M-P; Dupont, D; Collardeau-Frachon, S; Dijoud, F; Cochat, P; Belot, A

    2015-04-01

    Hemophagocytic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by an excessive immune response, mediated by activated cytotoxic T cells and macrophages. Among hemophagocytic syndromes, genetic and secondary forms can be distinguished. We report on the case of a male newborn who presented with macrophage activation syndrome associated with lymphoproliferation with favorable outcome under prednisone and cyclosporin. Hemopathy, infection, or genetic lymphohistiocytosis were initially ruled out. Severe autoimmunity was suspected because of positive antinuclear antibodies and Farr test associated with anemia and a positive Coombs test as well as cytolytic hepatitis with anti-liver, kidney microsome (LKM) antibodies. Treatment was therefore intensified by adding mycophenolate mofetil. This led to an unexpected deterioration of general health and lab exam results with recurrence of fever and inflammation. The initial investigations were revisited and completed by a liver biopsy, which revealed the presence of numerous leishmania parasites at the amastigote stage, enabling the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. The patient's condition dramatically improved under liposomal amphotericin B treatment. Our observation shows that visceral leishmaniasis can present as lupus-like syndrome with lymphoproliferation. Moreover, the lack of leishmania on marrow aspiration cannot rule out the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Detection of leishmania by serological or molecular tests is mandatory in case of hepatosplenomegaly with hemophagocytic syndrome together with autoantibodies, in order to avoid useless and life-threatening exposure to immunosuppressive treatments. PMID:25617995

  14. [Detection of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Hatay and surrounding areas].

    PubMed

    Culha, Gülnaz; Akçali, Cenk

    2006-01-01

    Leishmaniasis; is a disease that is transmitted by infected sand flies when they suck the blood of mammals. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which is given such names as the Antep boil in Turkey, is mostly seen on the skin and sometimes on the mucosa and heals with a recessed scar. Between June 2003 and October 2005, 55 patients with skin lesions presented at the parasitology laboratory of the Mustafa Kemal University Medical Faculty for the detection of CL. Microscopic examination showed Leishmania amastigotes in 40 patients who were given a diagnosis of CL. Thirteen patients were men (32.5%) and 27, women (67.5%). The most frequent age range was 0-20 (57.0%). The lesions were mostly found on the face in 27 (67.5%) patients and on the hands and feet in 13 (32.5%). Fourteen patients (35.0%) had 2 or more lesions. The duration of the lesions was from a minimum of 1 month to a maximum of 3 years. The patients were mostly from Iskenderun/Kirikhan, Iskenderun/Arsus Serinyol, Altinözü, Samandağ Antakya, Harbiye and they were farmers. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was more often detected during the May-June period. Some patients came to our laboratory from regions that had not reported CL before. Therefore, we think that CL has been increasing in Hatay and its surroundings. PMID:17309024

  15. HIV/AIDS-associated visceral leishmaniasis in patients from an endemic area in Central-west Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alexandrino-de-Oliveira, Priscilla; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Da-Costa, Francisco das Chagas Brando; Pereira, Gracy Regina Oliveira Leite; da Cunha, Rivaldo Venncio; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria

    2010-08-01

    An increase in morbidity associated with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients has been described in Africa and the Mediterranean. Despite the high endemicity of VL and HIV-1/AIDS in Brazil, this association has not been thoroughly investigated. Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of VL-HIV-1/AIDS cases from Central-west [Mato Grosso do Sul (MS)] Brazil. Medical records of 23 VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients were reviewed. Patients were predominantly adult males (87%) and 34.8% of the patients were intravenous drug users (IVDU). Leishmaniasis was the first opportunistic infection in 60% of the HIV-1 patients. Fever occurred in all patients, although splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were absent in 21.7% of the cases. CD4+ T-cell counts were below 200 cells/mm(3) in 80% of the cases and the counts did not increase after clinical remission despite antiretroviral therapy. The first drug chosen to treat the cases was antimonial, but the therapeutic regimen was altered to amphotericin B in 12 of 17 cases due to side effects. Relapses were reported in 56.5% of the patients. IVDU may constitute an important risk factor for the transmission of both diseases in MS. VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients in MS share similar clinical characteristics as those from other endemic regions worldwide. Thus, these findings are critical for improving the surveillance of VL-HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:20835619

  16. Temporal patterns of human and canine Giardia infection in the United States: 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed S; Levine, Michael; Camp, Joseph W; Lund, Elisabeth; Yoder, Jonathan S; Glickman, Larry T; Moore, George E

    2014-02-01

    Giardia protozoa have been suspected to be of zoonotic transmission, including transmission from companion animals such as pet dogs to humans. Patterns of infection have been previously described for dogs and humans, but such investigations have used different time periods and locations for these two species. Our objective was to describe and compare the overall trend and seasonality of Giardia species infection among dogs and humans in the United States from 2003 through 2009 in an ecological study using public health surveillance data and medical records of pet dogs visiting a large nationwide private veterinary hospital. Canine data were obtained from all dogs visiting Banfield hospitals in the United States with fecal test results for Giardia species, from January 2003 through December 2009. Incidence data of human cases from the same time period were obtained from the CDC. Descriptive time plots, a seasonal trend decomposition (STL) procedure, and seasonal autoregressive moving-average (SARIMA) models were used to assess the temporal characteristics of Giardia infection in the two species. Canine incidence showed a gradual decline from 2003 to 2009 with no significant/distinct regular seasonal component. By contrast, human incidence showed a stable annual rate with a significant regular seasonal cycle, peaking in August and September. Different temporal patterns in human and canine Giardia cases observed in this study suggest that the epidemiological disease processes underlying both series might be different, and Giardia transmission between humans and their companion dogs seems uncommon. PMID:24309130

  17. Etiology of maxillary canine impaction: a review.

    PubMed

    Becker, Adrian; Chaushu, Stella

    2015-10-01

    This article is a review that enumerates the causes of impaction of the maxillary permanent canines, including hard tissue obstructions, soft tissue lesions, and anomalies of neighboring teeth, and discusses the much-argued relationship between environmental and genetic factors. These phenomena have been shown in many investigations to accompany the diagnosis of canine impaction and have been presented as unrelated anomalous features, each of which is etiologically construed as genetic, including the aberrant canine itself. While in general the influence of genetics pervades the wider picture, a guidance theory proposes an alternative etiologic line of reasoning and interpretation of these studies, in which the same genetically determined anomalous features provide an abnormal milieu in which the canine is reared and from which it is guided in its misdirected and often abortive path of eruption. PMID:26432311

  18. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing. PMID:25632689

  19. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  20. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra.

    PubMed

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-07-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39-56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  1. Recent evolution of equine influenza and the origin of canine influenza.

    PubMed

    Collins, Patrick J; Vachieri, Sebastien G; Haire, Lesley F; Ogrodowicz, Roksana W; Martin, Stephen R; Walker, Philip A; Xiong, Xiaoli; Gamblin, Steven J; Skehel, John J

    2014-07-29

    In 2004 an hemagglutinin 3 neuraminidase 8 (H3N8) equine influenza virus was transmitted from horses to dogs in Florida and subsequently spread throughout the United States and to Europe. To understand the molecular basis of changes in the antigenicity of H3 hemagglutinins (HAs) that have occurred during virus evolution in horses, and to investigate the role of HA in the equine to canine cross-species transfer, we used X-ray crystallography to determine the structures of the HAs from two antigenically distinct equine viruses and from a canine virus. Structurally all three are very similar with the majority of amino acid sequence differences between the two equine HAs located on the virus membrane-distal molecular surface. HAs of canine viruses are distinct in containing a Trp-222 → Leu substitution in the receptor binding site that influences specificity for receptor analogs. In the fusion subdomain of canine and recent equine virus HAs a unique difference is observed by comparison with all other HAs examined to date. Analyses of site-specific mutant HAs indicate that a single amino acid substitution, Thr-30 → Ser, influences interactions between N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the subdomain that are important in the structural changes required for membrane fusion activity. Both structural modifications may have facilitated the transmission of H3N8 influenza from horses to dogs. PMID:25024224

  2. Visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous symptoms in a patient treated with infliximab followed by fatal consequences.

    PubMed

    Juzlova, Katerina; Votrubova, Jana; Kacerovska, Denisa; Lukas, Milan; Bortlik, Martin; Rohacova, Hana; Nohynkova, Eva; Vojackova, Nadezda; Fialova, Jorga; Hercogova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by parasitic flagellates of the genus Leishmania. The authors present a case of 44-year-old man with Crohn's disease treated successfully with infliximab. This case report shows rare visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous symptoms in an immunocompromised patient. Skin manifestations may occur before or after the visceral infection and they are often diverse. PMID:24903470

  3. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  4. Canine hyperthermia with cerebral protection.

    PubMed

    Carithers, R W; Seagrave, R C

    1976-04-01

    Extreme whole-body hyperthermia was achieved without lasting side effects in canines by elevating body core temperature to 42 degrees C, using a warm water bath. Cold water irrigation of the nasal alar fold permitted an additional core temperature elevation of 0.5-1.0 degrees C above brain temperature for periods up to 1.5 h. The brain-core temperature differential was maintained by a physiological arteriovenous heat exchanger located at the base of the brain. The maximum tolerable core temperature for the 21 nonirrigated dogs was 42 degrees C for 60-90 min, whereas that for the 28 irrigated dogs was 42.5-43 degrees C for similar time intervals. A mathematical model of the total heat transfer system described the observed dynamic temperature responses. It was the solution of a differential equation which fit the normalized experimental data points and predicted reasonable values for known and unknown experimental parameters. PMID:931877

  5. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation. PMID:25698302

  6. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  7. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding. PMID:23477413

  8. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... intravenously with a virulent canine hepatitis virus furnished or approved by the Animal and Plant Health...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and...

  9. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... intravenously with a virulent canine hepatitis virus furnished or approved by the Animal and Plant Health...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and...

  10. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... intravenously with a virulent canine hepatitis virus furnished or approved by the Animal and Plant Health...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and...

  11. Toxicological analysis and effectiveness of oral Kalanchoe pinnata on a human case of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Torres-Santos, E C; Da Silva, S A G; Costa, S S; Santos, A P P T; Almeida, A P; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    2003-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is an extremely difficult disease to treat. Previously, it was shown that oral Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) leaf extract is strongly effective against murine leishmaniasis. Here, it is shown that the serum levels of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), urea and alkaline phosphatase were unchanged in mice orally treated with supraoptimal Kp doses for 30 days, indicating the absence of chronic toxicity to the liver, heart or kidney. Additionally, evidence is presented that human leishmaniasis may also be controlled with oral Kp. A 36-year-old man with an active cutaneous leishmaniasis was orally treated with 30 g wet weight of Kp leaves/day for 14 days. During the Kp treatment, the lesion stopped growing and slightly decreased. No adverse reactions or toxicity was observed. This study reports for the first time that Kalanchoe pinnata contains substances potentially active and safe for the oral treatment of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:12916081

  12. Mucosal relapse of visceral leishmaniasis in a child treated with anti-TNFα.

    PubMed

    Jeziorski, E; Dereure, J; Mac Bullen, G; Blanchet, C; Ludwig, C; Costes, V; Rodière, M

    2015-04-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an enzootic parasitosis present across the Mediterranean Basin. Some consider it an opportunistic parasite. We report the case of a girl treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) for juvenile idiopathic arthritis who had previously presented with visceral leishmaniasis. Two and a half years later, she presented a tumour-like mass in the nasal mucous membrane caused by Leishmania parasites. Leishmania infantum is classically responsible for visceral leishmaniasis, but pure mucocutaneous leishmaniasis has also been described. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of a recurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in the mucocutaneous form. The occurrence of atypical forms and presentations in those on anti-TNF therapy should be considered. PMID:25572168

  13. Comparison of small mammal prevalence of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in five foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Van Wynsberghe, N R; Canto-Lara, S B; Sosa-Bibiano, E I; Rivero-Cárdenas, N A; Andrade-Narváez, F J

    2009-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, 95% of the human cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana with an incidence rate of 5.08 per 100,000 inhabitants. Transmission is limited to the winter months (November to March). One study on wild rodents has incriminated Ototylomys phyllotis and Peromyscus yucatanicus as primary reservoirs of L. (L.) mexicana in the focus of La Libertad, Campeche. In the present study, the prevalence of both infection and disease caused by L. (L.) mexicana in small terrestrial mammals were documented during five transmission seasons (1994-2004) in five foci of Leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche. Foci separated by only 100 km, with similar relative abundances of small mammals, were found to differ significantly in their prevalence of both symptoms and infection. Transmission rates and reservoir species seemed to change in space as well as in time which limited the implementation of effective control measures of the disease even in a small endemic area such as the south of the Yucatan Peninsula. PMID:19390737

  14. Effects of vaccines on the canine immune system.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, T R; Jensen, J L; Rubino, M J; Yang, W C; Schultz, R D

    1989-01-01

    The effects of several commercially available polyvalent canine vaccines on the immune system of the dog were examined. The results demonstrated that the polyvalent vaccines used in this study significantly suppressed the absolute lymphocyte count and that most of the polyvalent vaccines significantly suppressed lymphocyte response to mitogen, but had no effect on natural effector cell activity, neutrophil chemiluminescence, nor antibody response to canine distemper virus. The individual vaccine components from the polyvalent vaccines when inoculated alone did not significantly suppress the lymphocyte response to mitogen. However, when canine distemper virus was combined with canine adenovirus type 1 or canine adenovirus type 2, significant suppression in lymphocyte responsiveness to mitogen occurred. The results indicate that interactions between canine distemper virus and canine adenovirus type 1 or canine adenovirus type 2 are responsible for the polyvalent vaccine induced suppression of lymphocyte responsiveness. PMID:2540897

  15. Avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus circulating in farmed dogs in Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Li, Hua-Tao; Zhao, Fu-Rong; Chen, Ji-Dang; Xie, Jie-Xiong; Chen, Zhong-Ming; Huang, Zhen; Hu, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Min-Ze; Tan, Li-Kai; Zhang, Gui-Hong; Li, Shou-Jun

    2013-03-01

    Since 2006, more and more cases of the infectious H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) in pet dogs have been reported in southern China. However, little is known about the prevalence situation of H3N2 CIV infections in farmed dogs in China. This is the first systematic epidemiological surveillance of CIV in different dog populations in southern China. Two virus strains A/Canine/Guangdong/1/2011(H3N2) and A/canine/Guangdong/5/2011(H3N2) were isolated from canine nasal swabs collected at one dog farm in Guangzhou and the other farm in Shenzhen. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of eight gene segments of these viruses revealed that they were most similar to the newly isolated canine H3N2 viruses in dogs and cats from Korea and China, which originated from avian strain. This indicates that H3N2 CIV may be a common pathogen for pet and farmed dog populations in southern China at present. Serological surveillance has shown that the infection rate of this avian-origin canine influenza in farmed dogs and in pet dogs were 12.22% and 5.3%, respectively; as determined by the ELISA. The data also suggested that transmission occurred, most probably by close contact, between H3N2 CIV infected dogs in different dog populations in recently years. As H3N2 outbreaks among dogs continue in the Guangdong province (located very close to Hong Kong), the areas where is densely populated and with frequent animal trade, there is a continued risk for pets H3N2 CIV infections and for mutations or genetic reassortment leading to new virus strains with increased transmissibility among dogs. Further in-depth study is required as the H3N2 CIV has been established in different dog populations and posed potential threat to public health. PMID:23261544

  16. Avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus circulating in farmed dogs in Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Chen, Ye; Zhao, Fu-Rong; Chen, Ji-Dang; Xie, Jie-Xiong; Chen, Zhong-Ming; Huang, Zhen; Hu, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Min-Ze; Tan, Li-Kai; Zhang, Gui-Hong; Li, Shou-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Since 2006, more and more cases of the infectious H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) in pet dogs have been reported in Southern China. However, little is known about the prevalence situation of H3N2 CIV infections in farmed dogs in China. This is the first systematic epidemiological surveillance of CIV in different dog populations in Southern China. Two virus strains A/Canine/Guangdong/1/2011(H3N2) and A/canine/Guangdong/5/2011(H3N2) were isolated from canine nasal swabs collected at one dog farm in Guangzhou and the other farm in Shenzhen. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of eight gene segments of these viruses revealed that they were most similar to the newly isolated canine H3N2 viruses in dogs and cats from Korea and China, which originated from avian strain. This indicates that H3N2 CIV may be a common pathogen for pet and farmed dog populations in Southern China at present. Serological surveillance has shown that the infection rate of this avian-origin canine influenza in farmed dogs and in pet dogs were 12.22% and 5.3%, respectively; as determined by the ELISA. The data also suggested that transmission occurred, most probably by close contact, between H3N2 CIV infected dogs in different dog populations in recently years. As H3N2 outbreaks among dogs continue in the Guangdong Province (located very close to Hong Kong), the areas where is densely populated and with frequent animal trade, there is a continued risk for pet H3N2 CIV infections and for mutations or genetic reassortment leading to new virus strains with increased transmissibility among dogs. Further in-depth study is required as the H3N2 CIV has been established in different dog populations and posed potential threat to public health. PMID:24298574

  17. Serologic survey for canine coronavirus in wolves from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarnke, R.L.; Evermann, J.; Ver Hoef, J.M.; McNay, M.E.; Boertje, R.D.; Gardner, C.L.; Adams, L.G.; Dale, B.W.; Burch, J.

    2001-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) were captured in three areas of Interior Alaska (USA). Four hundred twenty-five sera were tested for evidence of exposure to canine coronavirus by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody procedure. Serum antibody prevalence averaged 70% (167/ 240) during the spring collection period and 25% (46/185) during the autumn collection period. Prevalence was 0% (0/42) in the autumn pup cohort (age 4-5 mo), and 60% (58/97) in the spring pup cohort (age 9-10 mo). Prevalence was lowest in the Eastern Interior study area. A statistical model indicates that prevalence increased slightly each year in all three study areas. These results indicate that transmission occurs primarily during the winter months, antibody decay is quite rapid, and reexposure during the summer is rare.

  18. [American tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in military training area of Zona da Mata in Pernambuco].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Maria S; Brito, Maria E F; Silva, Salomão Thomaz da; Lima, Bruna S; Almeida, Ericka L; Albuquerque, Elisângela L; Marinho Júnior, José F; Ishikawa, Edna; Cupolillo, Elisa; Brandão-Filho, Sinval P

    2005-01-01

    The aim of work was to study the epidemiology of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in a military training unit situated in Zona da Mata region of Pernambuco State. Between 2002 and 2003 twenty-three cases were notified by clinical exam, detection and/or isolation of parasite and Montenegro skin test. Seven stocks of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were obtained from patients, identified by a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies and isoenzymatic electrophoresis profiles. An epidemiologic survey on prevalence of infection was carried out by Montenegro skin test in the population that underwent training activities during the same period, out of which 25.3% were identified as positive. These results in association with previous data from this area, shows the maintenance of a primary transmission cycle and the occurrence of periodical outbreaks after training activities in local areas of remnant Atlantic rain forest. PMID:15895173

  19. Model-Based Investigations of Different Vector-Related Intervention Strategies to Eliminate Visceral Leishmaniasis on the Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Picado, Albert; Ostyn, Bart; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman; Boelaert, Marleen; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Eichner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The elimination of infectious diseases requires reducing transmission below a certain threshold. The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Initiative in Southeast Asia aims to reduce the annual VL incidence rate below 1 case per 10,000 inhabitants in endemic areas by 2015 via a combination of case management and vector control. Using a previously developed VL transmission model, we investigated transmission thresholds dependent on measures reducing the sand fly density either by killing sand flies (e.g., indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets) or by destroying breeding sites (e.g., environmental management). Model simulations suggest that elimination of VL is possible if the sand fly density can be reduced by 67% through killing sand flies, or if the number of breeding sites can be reduced by more than 79% through measures of environmental management. These results were compared to data from two recent cluster randomised controlled trials conducted in India, Nepal and Bangladesh showing a 72% reduction in sand fly density after indoor residual spraying, a 44% and 25% reduction through the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and a 42% reduction after environmental management. Based on model predictions, we identified the parameters within the transmission cycle of VL that predominantly determine the prospects of intervention success. We suggest further research to refine model-based predictions into the elimination of VL. PMID:24762676

  20. [A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in a non-endemic province (Ankara) of Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dinçer, Didem; Arca, Ercan; Koç, Erol; Topal, Yusuf; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Celebi, Bekir

    2012-07-01

    Southeastern Anatolia and the Mediterranean regions of Turkey are known as endemic areas for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). In this report, a 64 years-old male patient with CL caused by Leishmania infantum has been presented. The patient who was inhabiting in Ankara (Central Anatolia region, Turkey) complained from a lesion on his right ring finger for the last six months. He has a cat and has been engaged with gardening. Overall, he was healthy with the exception of hypertension and glucose intolerance. The patient had not left Ankara since the last seven months, however, he had previously been to the Aegean coast during his summer holiday. The examination of the 4th phalanx of his right hand revealed the presence of a 3 x 3 cm erythematous, slightly swollen lesion, at the center of which 1.5 x 1.5 cm ulcerative area covered with a hemorrhagic crust, was detected. Neither axillary or cervical lymphadenopathy, nor hepatosplenomegaly could be observed. The routine examinations, including complete blood count, serum biochemistry, chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasonography were within normal limits. Giemsa stained smears prepared from aspiration of the lesion revealed amastigote-like organisms and leishmania promastigotes were grown in NNN media. PCR amplification of the specimen indicated the presence of a positive DNA band of 420 bp specific for Leishmania spp. The serum sample of the patient revealed positivity for leishmaniasis by the rapid rK39 test and immunofluorescence antibody (IFAT) test. The organism was identified as L.infantum by PCR-RFLP applied to the cultivated organism. The examination of his cat's serum for leishmaniasis by IFAT and PCR, were negative. The exact way of transmission had not been confirmed for the patient. However, when long incubation period of CL was considered, the transmission might probably occurred during his summer stay in the Aegean coast. This case was presented to withdraw attention to a delayed diagnosis of CL which developed in a non-endemic area and which was due to L.infantum instead of the more common L.tropica species. PMID:22951664

  1. Application of Flumethrin Pour-On on Reservoir Dogs and Its Efficacy against Sand Flies in Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Meshkinshahr, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jalilnavaz, Mohammad Reza; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Zarei, Zabihollah; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Bakhshi, Hassan; Rassi, Yaver

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important parasitic zoonotic diseases in the world. Domestic dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of VL in endemic foci of Iran. Various methods, including vaccination, treatment of dogs, detection and removal of infected dogs have different results around the world. General policy on control of canine visceral leishmaniasis is protection of them from sand fly bites. The aim of this study was evaluation of pour-on application of flumethrin on dogs against blood-feeding and mortality of field-caught sand flies. Methods: Once every 20 days from May untill September 2013, the treated and control dogs were exposed with field caught sandflies for 2 hours under bed net traps. After the exposure time, both alive and dead sand flies were transferred in netted cups to the laboratory. The mortality rate of them was assessed after 24 hours. The blood-fed or unfed conditions were determined 2 hours after exposure to the dogs under stereomicroscope. Results: The blood feeding index was varied from 12.0 to 25.0 % and 53.0 to 58.0 % for treated and control dogs respectively (P< 0.0001). The blood feeding inhibition was 75.0–87.0 % and 41.0–46.0 % for the control and treated dogs (P< 0.0001), respectively.The total mortality rate was 94.0–100 % and 19.0–58.0 % respectively for the treated and control groups (P< 0.001). Conclustion: Application of pour-on flumethrin on dogs caused 90–100 % mortality until 2.5 month and inhibited the blood-feeding of sand flies. PMID:27047974

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Miltefosine in Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients▿

    PubMed Central

    Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; van Thiel, Pieter P. A. M.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; Keizer, Ron J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Beijnen, Jos H.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in leishmaniasis patients are, to a great extent, unknown. We examined and characterized the pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in a group of patients with Old World (Leishmania major) cutaneous leishmaniasis. Miltefosine plasma concentrations were determined in samples taken during and up to 5 months after the end of treatment from 31 Dutch military personnel who contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis in Afghanistan and were treated with 150 mg miltefosine/day for 28 days. Samples were analyzed with a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 4 ng/ml. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed with nonlinear mixed-effect modeling, using NONMEM. The pharmacokinetics of miltefosine could best be described by an open two-compartment disposition model, with a first elimination half-life of 7.05 days and a terminal elimination half-life of 30.9 days. The median concentration in the last week of treatment (days 22 to 28) was 30,800 ng/ml. The maximum duration of follow-up was 202 days after the start of treatment. All analyzed samples contained a concentration above the LLOQ. Miltefosine is eliminated from the body much slower than previously thought and is therefore still detectable in human plasma samples taken 5 to 6 months after the end of treatment. The presence of subtherapeutic miltefosine concentrations in the blood beyond 5 months after treatment might contribute to the selection of resistant parasites, and moreover, the measures for preventing the teratogenic risks of miltefosine treatment should be reconsidered. PMID:18519729

  3. Visceral Leishmaniasis as a Possible Reason for Pancytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Koster, Kira-Lee; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Troeger, Anja; Meisel, Roland; Borkhardt, Arndt; Oommen, Prasad Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by different species of the protozoa, Leishmania, and frequently found in South-Western Asia, Eastern Africa, Brazil, and Mediterranean countries. Leishmania are transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies. After weeks to months, unspecific symptoms may occur, accompanied by more specific findings like pancytopenia and organomegaly. We report two children with pancytopenia and hepato-/splenomegaly: a 1-year-old boy was first diagnosed with an Adenovirus-infection, accompanied by fever, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly who had spent his summer vacation in Spain and a 3-year-old boy of Macedonian origin who was first diagnosed with a Parvovirus B19-infection again accompanied by splenomegaly and pancytopenia. In both children, leukemia was excluded by an initial bone marrow puncture. As fever was still persistent weeks after the children’s first hospital stay, both children received antibiotics empirically without sustainable effect. While different autoantibodies were present in both children, an immunosuppressive therapy was initiated in the younger boy without therapeutic success. A second bone marrow puncture was performed and Leishmania were finally detected morphologically and proven serologically. After weight-adjusted treatment with liposomal Amphotericin B for 10 days, both children recovered completely without relapse. Aim of this report is to broaden the spectrum of differential diagnoses in children with pancytopenia, splenomegaly, and fever to visceral leishmaniasis particularly when travel history is positive for the Mediterranean area. The infection may mimic more common diseases, such as leukemia, viral infections, or autoimmune diseases, because polyclonal B cell activation and other mechanisms may lead to multiple positive serologic tests. Both cases illustrate typical pitfalls and shall encourage taking Leishmaniasis into diagnostic consideration. PMID:26176005

  4. Pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis patients.

    PubMed

    Dorlo, Thomas P C; van Thiel, Pieter P A M; Huitema, Alwin D R; Keizer, Ron J; de Vries, Henry J C; Beijnen, Jos H; de Vries, Peter J

    2008-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in leishmaniasis patients are, to a great extent, unknown. We examined and characterized the pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in a group of patients with Old World (Leishmania major) cutaneous leishmaniasis. Miltefosine plasma concentrations were determined in samples taken during and up to 5 months after the end of treatment from 31 Dutch military personnel who contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis in Afghanistan and were treated with 150 mg miltefosine/day for 28 days. Samples were analyzed with a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 4 ng/ml. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed with nonlinear mixed-effect modeling, using NONMEM. The pharmacokinetics of miltefosine could best be described by an open two-compartment disposition model, with a first elimination half-life of 7.05 days and a terminal elimination half-life of 30.9 days. The median concentration in the last week of treatment (days 22 to 28) was 30,800 ng/ml. The maximum duration of follow-up was 202 days after the start of treatment. All analyzed samples contained a concentration above the LLOQ. Miltefosine is eliminated from the body much slower than previously thought and is therefore still detectable in human plasma samples taken 5 to 6 months after the end of treatment. The presence of subtherapeutic miltefosine concentrations in the blood beyond 5 months after treatment might contribute to the selection of resistant parasites, and moreover, the measures for preventing the teratogenic risks of miltefosine treatment should be reconsidered. PMID:18519729

  5. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-01-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age. PMID:22379198

  6. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage. PMID:24906525

  7. Visceral leishmaniasis: consequences to women in a Bangladeshi community.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Bern, Caryn; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Costa, Cristiane; Chowdhury, Rajib; Ali, Mustakim; Amann, Josef; Haque, Rashidul; Breiman, Robert; Maguire, James H

    2004-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar (KA) affects the rural poor, causing significant morbidity and mortality. We examined the epidemiological and social impact of KA in an affected village in Bangladesh. A population-based survey of the village residents showed a case fatality rate of 14.7% among females and 5.3% among males. Before initiation of the study, female patients were ill longer than males before they received treatment. Future work needs to focus on understanding the implications of KA on women and to develop sustainable strategies for appropriate and timely access to treatment. PMID:15186651

  8. Nano-Synthetic Devices in Leishmaniasis: A Bioinformatics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Milsee; Kosey, Dipali; Singh, Shailza

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an investigative and constructive means of understanding the complexities of biology. Substantial progress in the fields has resulted in the creation of synthetic gene circuits, which when uploaded into the appropriate nanoliposomal vehicle, can be used for a tunable response in a cell. These tunable elements can be applied to treat diseased condition for a transition to a healthy state. Though in its nascent stage of development synthetic biology is beginning to use its constructs to bring engineering approaches into biomedicine for treatment of infectious disease leishmaniasis. PMID:26150819

  9. [Intestinal leishmaniasis and Sézary syndrome: endoscopic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Masedo González, Angeles; Barbero Allende, José María; Pérez-Carreras, Mercedes; Garrido, María; Lizasoain, Manuel; Solís Herruzo, José Antonio

    2006-11-01

    Sézary syndrome is a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of cutaneous origin that provokes severe cellular immunosuppression leading to greater susceptibility to opportunistic infections. We present the case of a male patient with a diagnosis of Sézary syndrome complicated by visceral leishmaniasis and Mycobacterium avium complex coinfection, with intestinal involvement of both pathogens -an exceptional finding in the absence of HIV infection. The diagnosis was confirmed by bone marrow biopsy and oral endoscopy with intestinal biopsy. Because of the severity of the infection and the failure of conventional treatment, miltefosine, a new antiparasitic agent still under investigation, was administered with favorable response. However the patient developed fatal pneumonia. PMID:17129549

  10. Natural product based leads to fight against leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nisha; Mishra, Bhuwan B; Bajpai, Surabhi; Singh, Rakesh K; Tiwari, Vinod K

    2014-01-01

    The growing incidence of parasitic resistance against generic pentavalent antimonials, specifically for visceral disease in Indian subcontinent, is a serious issue in Leishmania control. Notwithstanding the two treatment alternatives, that is amphotericin B and miltefosine are being effectively used but their high cost and therapeutic complications limit their use in endemic areas. In the absence of a vaccine candidate, identification, and characterization of novel drugs and targets is a major requirement of leishmanial research. This review describes current drug regimens, putative drug targets, numerous natural products that have shown promising antileishmanial activity alongwith some key issues and strategies for future research to control leishmaniasis worldwide. PMID:24355247

  11. Atypical post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis with "muzzle area" swelling.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sandeep; Bal, Arvinder Singh; Baveja, Sukriti; Sood, Aradhana; Rathi, Khushi Ram; Patil, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with recurrent swelling of the muzzle area of the face with history of low-grade intermittent fever of 3 year duration managed variously with antibiotics, systemic steroids, and antituberculous therapy. Skin biopsy revealed a granulomatous infiltration negative for acid-fast bacilli and leishmania donovan bodies. Immunochromatography test for rK 39 antigen and polymerase chain reaction for leishmania was positive. He was diagnosed as a case of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis, managed with injection sodium stibogluconate and followed-up thereafter. PMID:25657406

  12. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in dogs: is high seroprevalence indicative of a reservoir role?

    PubMed

    Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; González, Kadir; Rigg, Chystrie; Pineda, Vanessa; Santamaría, Ana María; Rodríguez, Indra; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Laurenti, Marcia D; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-08-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complex disease with a rich diversity of animal host species. This diversity imposes a challenge, since understanding ACL transmission requires the adequate identification of reservoir hosts, those species able to be a source of additional infections. In this study we present results from an ACL cross-sectional serological survey of 51 dogs (Canis familiaris), where we used diagnostic tests that measure dog's exposure to Leishmania spp. parasites. We did our research in Panamá, at a village that has undergone significant ecosystem level transformations. We found an ACL seroprevalence of 47% among dogs, and their exposure was positively associated with dog age and abundance of sand fly vectors in the houses of dog owners. Using mathematical models, which were fitted to data on the proportion of positive tests as function of dog age, we estimated a basic reproductive number (R 0 ± s.e.) of 1·22 ± 0·09 that indicates the disease is endemically established in the dogs. Nevertheless, this information by itself is insufficient to incriminate dogs as ACL reservoirs, given the inability to find parasites (or their DNA) in seropositive dogs and previously reported failures to experimentally infect vectors feeding on dogs with ACL parasites. PMID:25990429

  13. Current challenges in treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis in India: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Om Prakash; Singh, Bhawana; Chakravarty, Jaya; Sundar, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious parasitic disease causing considerable mortality and major disability in the Indian subcontinent. It is most neglected tropical disease, particularly in terms of new drug development for the lack of financial returns. An elimination campaign has been running in India since 2005 that aim to reduce the incidence of VL to below 1 per 10,000 people at sub-district level. One of the major components in this endeavor is reducing transmission through early case detection followed by complete treatment. Substantial progress has been made during the recent years in the area of VL treatment, and the VL elimination initiatives have already saved many lives by deploying them effectively in the endemic areas. However, many challenges remain to be overcome including availability of drugs, cost of treatment (drugs and hospitalization), efficacy, adverse effects, and growing parasite resistance. Therefore, better emphasis on implementation research is urgently needed to determine how best to deliver existing interventions with available anti-leishmanial drugs. It is essential that the new treatment options become truly accessible, not simply available in endemic areas so that they may promote healing and save lives. In this review, we highlight the recent advancement and challenges in current treatment options for VL in disease endemic area, and discuss the possible strategies to improve the therapeutic outcome. PMID:26951132

  14. Ecology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sinai: linking parasites, vectors and hosts

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Abdallah Mohammed; Doha, Said Abdallah; Kenawy, Mohamed Amin

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected clinical form of public health importance that is quite prevalent in the northern and eastern parts of Egypt. A comprehensive study over seven years (January 2005-December 2011) was conducted to track CL transmission with respect to both sandfly vectors and animal reservoirs. The study identified six sandfly species collected from different districts in North Sinai: Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus kazeruni, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus alexandri, Sergentomyia antennata and Sergentomyia clydei. Leishmania (-)-like flagellates were identified in 15 P. papatasi individuals (0.5% of 3,008 dissected females). Rodent populations were sampled in the same districts where sandflies were collected and eight species were identified: Rattus norvegicus (n = 39), Rattus rattus frugivorous (n = 13), Rattus rattus alexandrinus (n = 4), Gerbillus pyramidum floweri (n = 38), Gerbillus andersoni (n = 28), Mus musculus (n = 5), Meriones sacramenti (n = 22) and Meriones crassus (n = 10). Thirty-two rodents were found to be positive for Leishmania infection (20.12% of 159 examined rodents). Only Leishmania major was isolated and identified in 100% of the parasite samples. The diversity of both the vector and rodent populations was examined using diversity indices and clustering approaches. PMID:24821060

  15. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in red kangaroos: isolation and characterisation of the causative organisms.

    PubMed

    Rose, K; Curtis, J; Baldwin, T; Mathis, A; Kumar, B; Sakthianandeswaren, A; Spurck, T; Low Choy, J; Handman, E

    2004-05-01

    This is the first report of cutaneous leishmaniasis in kangaroos where infection was acquired within Australia. The diagnosis is based on the clinical criteria used for humans, the lesion histopathology, the detection and isolation of parasites from the lesions, and the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes using the polymerase chain reaction. Despite a clear indication that the parasites belong to the genus Leishmania, no assignation to a known Leishmania species could be made using these or other less conserved genetic loci such as the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon repeat. As is the case in humans, some but not all animals harbouring lesions had antibodies to the isolated parasites or to several other Leishmania species. The isolated parasites displayed two well characterised Leishmania glycoconjugates, the lipophosphoglycan and proteophosphoglycan. They were infectious for mouse macrophages in vitro and established long-term infection at 33 degrees C but not at 37 degrees C. Our findings raise the possibility of transmission to humans, which may be unrecognised and suggest the possibility that imported species of Leishmania could become endemic in Australia. PMID:15111087

  16. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) transmitting visceral leishmaniasis and their geographical distribution in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Guan, Li-Ren; Zhou, Zheng-Bin; Jin, Chang-Fa; Fu, Qing; Chai, Jun-Jie

    2016-01-01

    After the existence of phlebotomine sand flies was first reported in China in 1910, the distribution of different species and their role in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been extensively studied. Up until 2008, four species have been verified as vectors of VL, namely, Phlebotomus chinensis (Ph. sichuanensis), Ph. longiductus (Ph. chinensis longiductus), Ph. wui (Ph. major wui), and Ph. alexandri. The sand fly species vary greatly depending on the natural environments in the different geographic areas where they are endemic. Ph. chinensis is euryecious and adaptable to different ecologies, and is thus distributed widely in the plain, mountainous, and Loess Plateau regions north of the Yangtze River. Ph. longiductus is mainly distributed in ancient oasis areas south of Mt. Tianshan in the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region. Ph. wui is the predominant species in deserts with Populus diversifolia and Tamarix vegetation in Xinjiang and the western part of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Finally, Ph. alexandri is steroecious and found only in stony desert areas, such as at the foot of the mountains in Xinjiang and the western Hexi Corridor, in Gansu province. This review summarized the relationship between the geographic distribution pattern of the four sand fly species and their geographical landscape in order to foster research on disease distribution and sand fly control planning. Furthermore, some problems that remained to be solved about vectors of VL in China were discussed. PMID:26906187

  17. Sustained Presence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Urban Manaus, the Largest Human Settlement in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bencio, Ednelza; Cordeiro, Mayara; Monteiro, Hannah; Saboia Moura, Marco Antnio; Oliveira, Cintia; Nunes Gadelha, Ellen Pricilla; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Talhari, Carolina; de Lima Ferreira, Luiz Carlos; Mira, Marcelo Tvora; Lima Machado, Paulo Roberto; Talhari, Sinsio; Schriefer, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon is responsible for approximately 40% of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. Herein the sustained presence of ATL in Manaus, the largest settlement in the Amazon, was investigated. Records of notification of historic cases, and data from cases prospectively enrolled in the Tropical Medicine Foundation of the Amazonas State were used. Geographic coordinates of prospective patients' living sites were used to detect inner-city clusters of ATL. Infecting Leishmania species was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Among prospectively enrolled subjects, 94.8% were infected with Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, 76.7% were male, 30.2% were 0-20 years old, and 69.8% had an urban residence. Historic cases showed a profile similar to that of prospectively enrolled subjects. Several clusters of ATL, widely distributed within the city of Manaus, could be detected. In conclusion, there was a high frequency of disease in young age groups and cases clustered in urban neighborhoods. It cannot be determined from these data whether transmission of these cases occurred within or outside the city of Manaus. PMID:26483119

  18. Lutzomyia longipalpis behavior and control at an urban visceral leishmaniasis focus in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Santini, Maria Soledad; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Acardi, Soraya Alejandra; Sandoval, Enrique Adolfo; Tartaglino, Lilian

    2010-01-01

    During the earlier stages of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in Posadas City, Misiones, both the night activity and attraction to humans of Lutzomyia longipalpis were assessed, in order to provide preliminary recommendations. The impact of peridomestic deltamethrin spraying performed by local officials was also evaluated. Although Lu. longipalpis were found in traps located over a dog the entire night, 90% of the females were captured from 20.30h to 1.30h, and only landed on a human when he was at a distance of 1.5 m from the dog. Peridomestic spraying of deltamethrin (25 mg/m²) reduced the sand fly capture up to seven days post-intervention without dispersion in the border of the sprayed areas. These results support the recommendations about time-space focus of the protection measures: first half of the night, in the backyard, with pets and domestic animals kept at least 5 m from humans. The deltamethrin as it was used did not seem very effective in this scenario; neither did the eventual use of bed nets, at least in adults, due to the place/hour of sand fly higher activity. This study strengthens the need for a multidisciplinary approach to develop prevention strategies based both on biological and anthropological studies. PMID:21748225

  19. Evaluation of the level of knowledge about visceral leishmaniasis in endemic areas of Maranhao, brazil

    PubMed

    Gama; Barbosa; Pires; Cunha; Freitas; Ribeiro; Costa

    1998-04-01

    A prospective study was performed to identify knowledge concerning visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in endemic areas of Maranhao, amongst the rural population of the Codo township and in a peripheral urban area (an old settlement, Maracana, on the outskirts of the city of Sao Luis, and Vila Nova/Bom Viver, Paco do Lumiar township). A total of 283 persons were interviewed, including 53 from Maracana, 103 from Vila Nova/Bom Viver, and 127 from Codo. The sites presented favorable conditions for the development and maintenance of VL. Some 93.8% of those interviewed had heard of kala-azar. In Maracana, 50.9% referred to sandflies as responsible for the transmission of VL, while 87.2% knew that dogs are the main link in the epidemiological cycle of the disease. Some 77.8% of those interviewed did not know how to control the disease. As regards manifestations of the disease, they largely associated it with fever, anemia, weight loss, and an enlarged abdomen. Only five individuals knew that Glucantimeis used to treat VL. We conclude that knowledge is poor with regard to all aspects of VL in both the rural and peripheral urban area. PMID:9658223

  20. Strategic evaluation of vaccine candidate antigens for the prevention of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Duthie, Malcolm S; Favila, Michelle; Hofmeyer, Kimberley A; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Reed, Steven J; Laurance, John D; Picone, Alessandro; Guderian, Jeffrey; Bailor, H Remy; Vallur, Aarthy C; Liang, Hong; Mohamath, Raodoh; Vergara, Julie; Howard, Randall F; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G

    2016-05-27

    Infection with Leishmania parasites results in a range of clinical manifestations and outcomes, the most severe of which is visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Vaccination will likely provide the most effective long-term control strategy, as the large number of vectors and potential infectious reservoirs renders sustained interruption of Leishmania parasite transmission extremely difficult. Selection of the best vaccine is complicated because, although several vaccine antigen candidates have been proposed, they have emerged following production in different platforms. To consolidate the information that has been generated into a single vaccine platform, we expressed seven candidates as recombinant proteins in E. coli. After verifying that each recombinant protein could be recognized by VL patients, we evaluated their protective efficacy against experimental L. donovani infection of mice. Administration in formulation with the Th1-potentiating adjuvant GLA-SE indicated that each antigen could elicit antigen-specific Th1 responses that were protective. Considering the ability to reduce parasite burden along with additional factors such as sequence identity across Leishmania species, we then generated a chimeric fusion protein comprising a combination of the 8E, p21 and SMT proteins. This E. coli -expressed fusion protein was also demonstrated to protect against L. donovani infection. These data indicate a novel recombinant vaccine antigen with the potential for use in VL control programs. PMID:27142329

  1. First Molecular Characterization of Leishmania Species Causing Visceral Leishmaniasis among Children in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Eryani, Samira M; Lim, Yvonne A L; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a debilitating, often fatal disease caused by Leishmania donovani complex; however, it is a neglected tropical disease. L. donovani complex comprises two closely related species, L. donovani that is mostly anthroponotic and L. infantum that is zoonotic. Differentiation between these two species is critical due to the differences in their epidemiology and pathology. However, they cannot be differentiated morphologically, and their speciation using isoenzyme-based methods poses a difficult task and may be unreliable. Molecular characterization is now the most reliable method to differentiate between them and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. The present study aims to characterize Leishmania species isolated from bone marrows of Yemeni pediatric patients using sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) gene. Out of 41 isolates from Giemsa-stained bone marrow smears, 25 isolates were successfully amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequenced in both directions. Phylogenetic analysis using neighbor joining method placed all study isolates in one cluster with L. donovani complex (99% bootstrap). The analysis of ITS1 for microsatellite repeat numbers identified L. infantum in 11 isolates and L. donovani in 14 isolates. These data suggest the possibility of both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission of VL-causing Leishmania species in Yemen. Exploring the possible animal reservoir hosts is therefore needed for effective control to be achieved. PMID:26966902

  2. First Molecular Characterization of Leishmania Species Causing Visceral Leishmaniasis among Children in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M.; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Eryani, Samira M.; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a debilitating, often fatal disease caused by Leishmania donovani complex; however, it is a neglected tropical disease. L. donovani complex comprises two closely related species, L. donovani that is mostly anthroponotic and L. infantum that is zoonotic. Differentiation between these two species is critical due to the differences in their epidemiology and pathology. However, they cannot be differentiated morphologically, and their speciation using isoenzyme-based methods poses a difficult task and may be unreliable. Molecular characterization is now the most reliable method to differentiate between them and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. The present study aims to characterize Leishmania species isolated from bone marrows of Yemeni pediatric patients using sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) gene. Out of 41 isolates from Giemsa-stained bone marrow smears, 25 isolates were successfully amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequenced in both directions. Phylogenetic analysis using neighbor joining method placed all study isolates in one cluster with L. donovani complex (99% bootstrap). The analysis of ITS1 for microsatellite repeat numbers identified L. infantum in 11 isolates and L. donovani in 14 isolates. These data suggest the possibility of both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission of VL-causing Leishmania species in Yemen. Exploring the possible animal reservoir hosts is therefore needed for effective control to be achieved. PMID:26966902

  3. Vector incrimination of sand flies in the most important visceral leishmaniasis focus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Ravasan, Naseh Maleki; Javadian, Ezat-Aldin; Mohebali, Mehdi; Hajjaran, Homa; Zare, Zabiholah; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Rassi, Yavar

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence, host preference, and rate of Leishmania spp. infection of sand fly species are important parameters for incrimination of parasite vectors. We applied polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to detect Leishmania spp. parasites and blood meals within individual sand flies in the most important visceral leishmaniasis (VL) focus in northwestern Iran. Leishmania spp. minicircles (kinetoplast DNA) were found in 14 (0.9%) of 1,569 female specimens. Sequence analysis of 650 basepairs of an internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA gene identified L. infantum/L. donovani in 12 specimens and L. adleri-like parasites in 2 specimens. Nine (64.3%) of 14 of the Leishmania spp.-positive sand flies were Phlebotomus perfeliewi transcaucasicus. Blood meal identification of host DNA within sand flies by PCR-based and ELISA methods showed that 30% and 28%, respectively, were positive for human blood. Results of this study showed that P. perfeliewi transcaucasicus is the most prevalent, infected, and anthropophagic sand fly and plays a major role in VL transmission in the region studied. PMID:19815868

  4. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-visceral leishmaniasis-co-infection.

    PubMed

    Naufal Spir, Patrícia Rodrigues; Zampieri D'Andrea, Lourdes Aparecida; Fonseca, Elivelton Silva; Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel

    2016-04-01

    In Brazil, the rates of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased from 20% to 1-2% in some regions. However, the country contains 90% of individuals infected with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Latin America, and the west region of São Paulo state faces an alarming expansion of the disease. We describe the epidemiological aspects of the expanding infection of VL and a case report of an HIV-VL-co-infected child from the west region of São Paulo state. The patient was an AIDS-C3 with low levels of CD4, high viral load, severe diarrhea, oral and perineal candidiasis, severe thrombocytopenia, and protein-caloric malnourishment. She evolved with sepsis, renal and cardiac failure. An rK rapid diagnosis test, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and bone marrow aspirate were performed for VL. Her symptoms improved significantly after liposomal amphotericin B administration. From the 45 municipalities that compose the Regional Health Department of Presidente Prudente, Lutzomyia longipalpis vectors were found in 58% of them. VL infected dogs were found in 33% of those municipalities, infected dogs and humans were found in 29%, 20% are starting and 33% of the municipalities are preparing VL investigation. It is likely, in this patient, that VL advanced the clinical progression of the HIV disease and the development of AIDS severity. Supported by favorable conditions, the region becomes a new frontier of VL in Brazil. PMID:23834783

  5. Efficacy of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing Leishmania Antigen against Leishmania Challenge in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Misako; Takenaka, Akiko; Doki, Miho; Goto, Yasuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Endo, Yasuyuki; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Sugai, Akihiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination confers long-term protection against CDV reinfection. To investigate the utility of CDV as a polyvalent vaccine vector for Leishmania, we generated recombinant CDVs, based on an avirulent Yanaka strain, that expressed Leishmania antigens: LACK, TSA, or LmSTI1 (rCDV–LACK, rCDV–TSA, and rCDV–LmSTI1, respectively). Dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK were protected against challenge with lethal doses of virulent CDV, in the same way as the parental Yanaka strain. To evaluate the protective effects of the recombinant CDVs against cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, dogs were immunized with one recombinant CDV or a cocktail of three recombinant CDVs, before intradermal challenge (in the ears) with infective-stage promastigotes of Leishmania major. Unvaccinated dogs showed increased nodules with ulcer formation after 3 weeks, whereas dogs immunized with rCDV–LACK showed markedly smaller nodules without ulceration. Although the rCDV–TSA- and rCDV–LmSTI1-immunized dogs showed little protection against L. major, the cocktail of three recombinant CDVs more effectively suppressed the progression of nodule formation than immunization with rCDV–LACK alone. These results indicate that recombinant CDV is suitable for use as a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine for protection against both CDV and L. major infections in dogs. PMID:26162094

  6. Efficacy of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing Leishmania Antigen against Leishmania Challenge in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Miura, Ryuichi; Kooriyama, Takanori; Yoneda, Misako; Takenaka, Akiko; Doki, Miho; Goto, Yasuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Endo, Yasuyuki; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Sugai, Akihiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination confers long-term protection against CDV reinfection. To investigate the utility of CDV as a polyvalent vaccine vector for Leishmania, we generated recombinant CDVs, based on an avirulent Yanaka strain, that expressed Leishmania antigens: LACK, TSA, or LmSTI1 (rCDV-LACK, rCDV-TSA, and rCDV-LmSTI1, respectively). Dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK were protected against challenge with lethal doses of virulent CDV, in the same way as the parental Yanaka strain. To evaluate the protective effects of the recombinant CDVs against cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, dogs were immunized with one recombinant CDV or a cocktail of