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1

Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

2012-01-01

2

The FML-vaccine (Leishmune) against canine visceral leishmaniasis: a transmission blocking vaccine.  

PubMed

Transmission blocking vaccines are one of the control strategies for vector-transmitted protozoan diseases. Antibodies raised in the vaccinated host prevent the development of the parasite in the insect vector, interrupting the epidemiological cycle. The FML antigen of Leishmania donovani in combination with saponin (FML-vaccine and Leishmune) induced 92-97% of protections against zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. We assayed the ability of FML to inhibit Leishmania donovani and Leishmania chagasi procyclic promastigote-binding to dissected Lutzomyia longipalpis midguts. We found a dose-dependent inhibition, more pronounced on L. donovani (80%) than on L. chagasi promastigotes (p<0.001). On the other hand, the Fab-IgG serum fraction of Leishmune vaccinated dogs (IgG2 predominant), also inhibited parasite binding in a dose-response (p<0.0001) with an equally potent effect against L. donovani or L. chagasi (p = 0.061). The transmission blocking properties of the Leishmune vaccine was also assessed by an in vivo membrane assay, with sand flies fed with 1.5 x 10(7) amastigotes, human blood and, vaccinated or normal control dog sera. Significantly higher values were found in rate of infection (p<0.025) and intensity of infection (number of parasites/insect) (p<0.05) of control sand flies, making a very reduced infection index (20.7%) in the vaccine group. Our results disclosed that the Leishmune vaccine is a TBV, and that the dog antibodies present in sera, even 12 months after vaccination, lead to a significant effective protection of 79.3%. PMID:16386824

Saraiva, Elvira M; de Figueiredo Barbosa, André; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; Borja-Cabrera, Gulnara Patrícia; Nico, Dirlei; Souza, Lucieri Olegário Pereira; de Oliveira Mendes-Aguiar, Carolina; de Souza, Edilma Paraguai; Fampa, Patrícia; Parra, Luciana Ellner; Menz, Ingrid; Dias, Jaime Galvão; de Oliveira, Sandra Maria; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz

2006-03-20

3

[Ecology of leishmaniasis in the south of France. 11. Canine leishmaniasis: successful experimental transmission from dog to dog by the bite of Phlebotomus ariasi Tonnoir, 1921 (author's transl)].  

PubMed

As part of a study of visceral leishmaniasis in the Cévennes in southern France, an infection was transmitted from dog to dog by the bite of a single sandfly, Phlebotomus ariasi Tonnoir, 1921. The role of this species as a vector, suspected from earlier studies, is, therefore, confirmed. Twenty female sandflies, which had engorged on a naturally infected dog 23 +/- 2 days previously were put with a healthy dog which, after an incubation period of 15 months, developed viscero-cutaneous leishmaniasis. In dissections of the sandflies immediately after contact with the experimental dog, it was found that only one had engorged. All of 17 sandflies dissected had midgut infections: 10 of these also had infections in the pharynx. The engorged specimen additionally had parasites in the proboscis, a condition thought by many workers to be necessary for the parasite to be transmitted by bite. PMID:533108

Rioux, J A; Killick-Kendrick, R; Leaney, A J; Young, C J; Turner, D P; Lanotte, G; Bailly, M

1979-01-01

4

Culling Dogs in Scenarios of Imperfect Control: Realistic Impact on the Prevalence of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis belongs to the list of neglected tropical diseases and is considered a public health problem worldwide. Spatial correlation between the occurrence of the disease in humans and high rates of canine infection suggests that in the presence of the vector, canine visceral leishmaniasis is the key factor for triggering transmission to humans. Despite the control strategies implemented, such as the sacrifice of infected dogs being put down, the incidence of American visceral leishmaniasis remains high in many Latin American countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Mathematical models were developed to describe the transmission dynamics of canine leishmaniasis and its control by culling. Using these models, imperfect control scenarios were implemented to verify the possible factors which alter the effectiveness of controlling this disease in practice. Conclusions/Significance A long-term continuous program targeting both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs should be effective in controlling canine leishmaniasis in areas of low to moderate transmission (R0 up to 1.4). However, the indiscriminate sacrifice of asymptomatic dogs with positive diagnosis may jeopardize the effectiveness of the control program, if tests with low specificity are used, increasing the chance of generating outrage in the population, and leading to lower adherence to the program. Therefore, culling must be planned accurately and implemented responsibly and never as a mechanical measure in large scale. In areas with higher transmission, culling alone is not an effective control strategy. PMID:23951375

Costa, Danielle N. C. C.; Codeco, Claudia T.; Silva, Moacyr A.; Werneck, Guilherme L.

2013-01-01

5

Rapid Immunochromatographic Test for Serodiagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

An rK39 immunochromatographic test and immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) for serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis were evaluated. The two tests showed correlation for all but one of the sera obtained from 68 dogs confirmed as leishmaniasis cases and 40 dogs (22 healthy dogs and 18 dogs with other diseases) from areas where the disease is not endemic. Specificity was 100% for both tests, while sensitivity was 97% for the rapid test and 99% for IFAT. PMID:15184465

Otranto, D.; Paradies, P.; Sasanelli, M.; Spinelli, R.; Brandonisio, O.

2004-01-01

6

Rapid immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

An rK39 immunochromatographic test and immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) for serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis were evaluated. The two tests showed correlation for all but one of the sera obtained from 68 dogs confirmed as leishmaniasis cases and 40 dogs (22 healthy dogs and 18 dogs with other diseases) from areas where the disease is not endemic. Specificity was 100% for both tests, while sensitivity was 97% for the rapid test and 99% for IFAT. PMID:15184465

Otranto, D; Paradies, P; Sasanelli, M; Spinelli, R; Brandonisio, O

2004-06-01

7

Canine leishmaniasis in the Gargano promontory (Apulia, South Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined 444 dogs by visiting farms and peripheral districts on the Gargano promontory (Province of Foggia, Apulia, South Italy). Clinical examination and immunofluorescence antibody test for leishmaniasis were performed. Bone marrow and lymph node samples obtained from 25 dogs with positive serological test were cultured on Tobie-Evans medium. The results obtained show both a higher seropositivity rate for canine

O. Brandonisio; G. Carelli; L. Ceci; B. Consenti; A. Fasanella; V. Puccini

1992-01-01

8

Recombinant Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase NTPDase-2 as a new antigen in canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis.  

PubMed

Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important public health concern. In the epidemiological context of human visceral leishmaniasis, dogs are considered the main reservoir of Leishmania parasites; therefore, dogs must be epidemiologically monitored constantly in endemic areas. Furthermore, dog to human transmission has been correlated with emerging urbanization and increasing rates of leishmaniasis infection worldwide. Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (L. chagasi) is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. In this work, a new L. (L.) infantum (L. chagasi) recombinant antigen, named ATP diphosphohydrolase (rLic-NTPDase-2), intended for use in the immunodiagnosis of CVL was produced and validated. The extracellular domain of ATP diphosphohydrolase was cloned and expressed in the pET21b-Escherichia coli expression system. Indirect ELISA assays were used to detect the purified rLic-NTPDase-2 antigen using a standard canine sera library. This library contained CVL-positive samples, leishmaniasis-negative samples and samples from Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs. The results show a high sensitivity of 100% (95% CI=92.60-100.0%) and a high specificity of 100% (95% CI=86.77-100.0%), with a high degree of confidence (k=1). These findings demonstrate the potential use of this recombinant protein in immune diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis and open the possibility of its application to other diagnostic approaches, such as immunochromatography fast lateral flow assays and human leishmaniasis diagnosis. PMID:23022017

de Souza, Ronny Francisco; Dos Santos, Yaro Luciolo; de Souza Vasconcellos, Raphael; Borges-Pereira, Lucas; Caldas, Ivo Santana; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel

2013-01-01

9

Canine visceral leishmaniasis: incidence and risk factors for infection in a cohort study in Brazil.  

PubMed

Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil is caused by Leishmania infantum parasites and is transmitted by sand flies of the Phlebotominae family. Dogs are the main urban reservoirs and represent the major source of contagion for the vectors. Studies have shown that most infected dogs are polymerase chain reaction-positive months before seroconversion. Herein, we describe a cohort study designed to identify the incidence of and risk factors for L. infantum infection as detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. To determine the risk factors for infection, we conducted a baseline canine survey (n=1443) from which dogs were selected for the cohort study (n=282) involving three evaluations over the course of a 26-month follow-up period. Serology, molecular tests, and a structured questionnaire were used. The risk factors for infection were identified by means of the Cox regression model. The overall infection incidence was 5.8 per 100 dog-months (95% confidence interval 5.1-6.5). Increased risk of infection was associated with the presence of previous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis in the domiciles (hazard ratio [HR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.8) and unplastered house walls (HR 3.6; 95% CI 1.6-8.1). These risk factors suggest that insecticide spraying in cracks and crevices in unplastered walls can reduce biting rates within and around homes. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control and Surveillance Program should adopt environmental management measures in homes with previous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, because these homes are more likely to maintain the transmission cycle. PMID:23941965

Coura-Vital, Wendel; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Braga, Samuel Leôncio; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Marques, Marcos José; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Carneiro, Mariângela

2013-11-01

10

Prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in Beichuan County, Sichuan, China and phylogenetic evidence for an undescribed Leishmania sp. in China based on 7SL RNA  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease, which is still endemic in the west and northwest area of China. Canines are the major reservoirs of Leishmania, the etiological agent of human visceral leishmaniasis. Phlebotomus chinensis is the main transmission vector of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). Methods In this study, rK39 dip-stick, ELISA and PCR methods were used to investigate the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Beichuan County, Sichuan Province, China. Results Among the 86 dogs which were included in the study, 13 dogs were positive using the dip-stick test (15.12%), while 8 dogs were positive using ELISA (9.30%) and 19 dogs were positive for PCR (22.03%). In total, 32 dogs were positive for one or more tests (37.21%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis based on the partial 7SL RNA fragment provided evidence that an undescribed Leishmania species, which is clearly a causative agent of CanL and human visceral leishmaniasis, does exist in China. This result is consistent with our previous study. Conclusions Our work confirmed that canine leishmaniasis is still prevalent in Beichuan County. Further control is urgently needed, as canine leishmaniasis is of great public health importance. The phylogenetic analysis based on 7SL RNA segment provides evidence for the existence of an undescribed Leishmania sp. in China. PMID:22515334

2012-01-01

11

A canine leishmaniasis pilot survey in an emerging focus of visceral leishmaniasis: Posadas (Misiones, Argentina)  

PubMed Central

Background An increasing number of reports are calling our attention to the worldwide spread of leishmaniasis. The urbanization of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been observed in different South American countries, due to changes in demographic and ecological factors. In May 2006, VL was detected for the first time in the city of Posadas (Misiones, Argentina). This event encouraged us to conduct a clinical and parasitological pilot survey on domestic dogs from Posadas to identify their potential role as reservoirs for the disease. Methods One hundred and ten dogs from the city of Posadas were included in the study. They were selected based on convenience and availability. All dogs underwent clinical examination. Symptomatology related to canine leishmaniasis was recorded, and peripheral blood and lymph node aspirates were collected. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using rK39-immunocromatographic tests and IFAT. Parasite detection was based on peripheral blood and lymph node aspirate PCR targeting the SSUrRNA gene. Molecular typing was addressed by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products obtained by SSUrRNA and ITS-1 PCR. Results According to clinical examination, 69.1% (76/110) of the dogs presented symptoms compatible with canine leishmaniasis. Serological analyses were positive for 43.6% (48/110) of the dogs and parasite DNA was detected in 47.3% (52/110). A total of 63 dogs (57.3%) were positive by serology and/or PCR. Molecular typing identified Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) as the causative agent. Conclusions This work confirms recent findings which revealed the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of L. infantum in this area of South America. This new VL focus could be well established, and further work is needed to ascertain its magnitude and to prevent further human VL cases. PMID:21122107

2010-01-01

12

Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease  

PubMed Central

We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

2013-01-01

13

Environmental risk mapping of canine leishmaniasis in France  

PubMed Central

Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, a Trypanosomatid protozoan transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Leishmaniasis is endemic in southern France, but the influences of environmental and climatic factors on its maintenance and emergence remain poorly understood. From a retrospective database, including all the studies reporting prevalence or incidence of CanL in France between 1965 and 2007, we performed a spatial analysis in order to i) map the reported cases in France, and ii) produce an environment-based map of the areas at risk for CanL. We performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by a Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC) to assess if the locations of CanL could be grouped according to environmental variables related to climate, forest cover, and human and dog densities. For each group, the potential distribution of CanL in France was mapped using a species niche modelling approach (Maxent model). Results Results revealed the existence of two spatial groups of CanL cases. The first group is located in the Cévennes region (southern Massif Central), at altitudes of 200-1000 m above sea level, characterized by relatively low winter temperatures (1.9°C average), 1042 mm average annual rainfall and much forest cover. The second group is located on the Mediterranean coastal plain, characterized by higher temperatures, lower rainfall and less forest cover. These two groups may correspond to the environments favoured by the two sandfly vectors in France, Phlebotomus ariasi and Phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. Our niche modelling of these two eco-epidemiological patterns was based on environmental variables and led to the first risk map for CanL in France. Conclusion Results show how an ecological approach can help to improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of CanL in France. PMID:20377867

2010-01-01

14

First autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and its main vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in non-endemic areas have been reported over the last few years throughout the country. The objective of this research note is to describe an autochthonous case of CVL that occurred in the municipality of Volta Redonda, state of Rio de Janeiro, an area where the disease is not endemic, alerting veterinarians and the scientific community to the expansion of this important zoonosis and advising veterinary practitioners on how to deal with a suspicion of CVL. Canine visceral leishmaniasis can be misdiagnosed within a broad spectrum of canine diseases based on clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, knowledge of its clinical manifestations, specific and sensitive laboratory diagnostic tests and parasitological procedures are of the utmost importance for rapid confirmation and notification of a case, thus contributing directly to the control of a focus. PMID:24142177

de Campos, Monique Paiva; da Silva, Denise Amaro; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Velho, Artur Augusto Mendes; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

2013-01-01

15

Endemic transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Bhutan.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis was first reported in Bhutan in 2006. We conducted studies of the parasite, possible vectors and reservoirs, and leishmanin skin test and risk factor surveys in three villages. Nineteen cases were reported from seven districts. Parasite typing yielded two novel microsatellite sequences, both related to Indian L. donovani. In one case village, 40 (18.5%) of 216 participants had positive leishmanin skin test results, compared with 3 (4.2%) of 72 in the other case village and 0 of 108 in the control village. Positive results were strongly associated with the village and increasing age. None of the tested dogs were infected. Eighteen sand flies were collected, 13 Phlebotomus species and 5 Sergentomyia species; polymerase chain reaction for leishmanial DNA was negative. This assessment suggests that endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission has occurred in diverse locations in Bhutan. Surveillance, case investigations, and further parasite, vector, and reservoir studies are needed. The potential protective impact of bed nets should be evaluated. PMID:23091191

Yangzom, Thinley; Cruz, Israel; Bern, Caryn; Argaw, Daniel; den Boer, Margriet; Vélez, Iván Dario; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Molina, Ricardo; Alvar, Jorge

2012-12-01

16

Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Reemerging Focus of Intense Transmission in Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

This study was developed in the urban area of Governador Valadares, a reemerging focus of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, presenting 86 human cases of VL from 2008 to 2011. The disease prevailed in males (73.2%) with most patients between 0 and 9 years (44.1%) and a lethality rate of 16.2%. A canine survey was carried out on 16,529 domestic dogs in 35 districts in the area and it showed that 30.2% of them (4,992?dogs) were positive for VL by serum assays. Prevalence ratios for canine VL varied between 13.6% and 53.4%. The clinical exam of 343 seropositive dogs showed that 49.9% of them were considered symptomatic, with larger prevalence of canine VL being in short-furred animals (90%). The entomological survey was performed in eight districts, where 2,539 phlebotomines were captured, preferentially in the peridomicile (84.5%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species (90%) suggesting its participation in the VL transmission in the area. The correlation between canine prevalence and L. longipalpis density was evaluated. PMID:24000322

Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Tanure, Aline; Gomes, Marcela Esteves; Apolinario, Estefania Conceicao; Bodevan, Emerson Cotta; de Araujo, Holbiano Saraiva; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa

2013-01-01

17

Experimental Infection of Dogs with Leishmania and Saliva as a Model to Study Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, transmitted by the bite of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Dogs are the main domestic reservoir of the parasite. The establishment of an experimental model that partially reproduces natural infection in dogs is very important to test vaccine candidates, mainly regarding those that use salivary proteins from the vector and new therapeutical approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings In this report, we describe an experimental infection in dogs, using intradermal injection of Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland homogenate (SGH) of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Thirty-five dogs were infected with 1×107 parasites combined with five pairs of Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary glands and followed for 450 days after infection and clinical, immunological and parasitological parameters were evaluated. Two hundred and ten days after infection we observed that 31,4% of dogs did not display detectable levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies but all presented different numbers of parasites in the lymph nodes. Animals with a positive xenodiagnosis had at least 3,35×105 parasites in their lymph nodes. An increase of IFN-? and IL-10 levels was detected during infection. Twenty two percent of dogs developed symptoms of CVL during infection. Conclusion The infection model described here shows some degree of similarity when compared with naturally infected dogs opening new perspectives for the study of CVL using an experimental model that employs the combination of parasites and sand fly saliva both present during natural transmission. PMID:23577121

Costa, Dirceu Joaquim; Carvalho, Rayssa M. de Araujo; Abbehusen, Melissa; Teixeira, Clarissa; Pitombo, Maiana; Trigo, Joelma; Nascimento, Flavia; Amorim, Lucilene; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lucia; do Socorro Pires Cruz, Maria; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Fukutani, Kyoshi; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Claudia

2013-01-01

18

Seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies.  

PubMed

Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections by both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi in dogs from Grenada, West Indies. We examined 70 dog sera using the qualitative immunochromatographic dipstick tests (ICTs) based on recombinant antigens specific for visceral leishmaniasis and AT. Antibodies to visceral Leishmania were not detected in Grenadian dogs by ICT. Using the canine dipsticks for AT, antibodies to T. cruzi were determined in 3 (4.3%) of the 70 dogs. Results from this study indicate that dogs in Grenada are exposed in low levels to T. cruzi , but not to visceral Leishmania spp. at all. PMID:19712013

Rosypal, Alexa C; Tripp, Shanesha; Kinlaw, Christopher; Sharma, R N; Stone, D; Dubey, J P

2010-02-01

19

High-Throughput Analysis of Synthetic Peptides for the Immunodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis. Approximately 20% of zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis worldwide is caused by Leishmania infantum, which is also known as Leishmania chagasi in Latin America, and disease incidence is increasing in urban and peri-urban areas of the tropics. In this form of disease, dogs are the main reservoirs. Diagnostic methods used to identify Leishmania infected animals are not able to detect all of the infected ones, which can compromise the effectiveness of disease control. Therefore, to contribute to the improvement of diagnostic methods for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), we aimed to identify and test novel antigens using high-throughput analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunodominant proteins from L. infantum were mapped in silico to predict B cell epitopes, and the 360 predicted peptides were synthesized on cellulose membranes. Immunoassays were used to select the most reactive peptides, which were then investigated with canine sera. Next, the 10 most reactive peptides were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis protocol and tested using ELISA. The sensitivity and specificity of these peptides were also compared to the EIE-LVC Bio-Manguinhos kit, which is recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for use in leishmaniasis control programs. The sensitivity and specificity of the selected synthesized peptides was as high as 88.70% and 95.00%, respectively, whereas the EIE-LVC kit had a sensitivity of 13.08% and 100.00% of specificity. Although the tests based on synthetic peptides were able to diagnose up to 94.80% of asymptomatic dogs with leishmaniasis, the EIE-LVC kit failed to detect the disease in any of the infected asymptomatic dogs. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that ELISA using synthetic peptides is a technique with great potential for diagnosing CVL; furthermore, the use of these peptides in other diagnostic methodologies, such as immunochromatographic tests, could be beneficial to CVL control programs. PMID:21931874

Faria, Angelica R.; Costa, Miriam M.; Giusta, Mario S.; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Penido, Marcus L. O.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.; Andrade, Helida M.

2011-01-01

20

Antibody responses induced by Leish-Tec®, an A2-based vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis, in a heterogeneous canine population.  

PubMed

Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widespread disease, and dogs are the main reservoirs for human parasite transmission. Hence, development of an effective vaccine that prevents disease and reduces the transmission of VL is required. As euthanasia of seropositive dogs is recommended in Brazil for VL epidemiological control, to include anti-VL canine vaccines as a mass control measure it is necessary to characterize the humoral responses induced by vaccination and if they interfere with the reactivity of vaccinated dogs in serological diagnostic tests. Leish-Tec(®) is an amastigote-specific A2 recombinant protein vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) that is commercially available in Brazil. Here, we tested the immunogenicity of Leish-Tec(®) in a heterogeneous dog population by measuring A2-specific antibody responses. Healthy dogs (n=140) of various breeds were allocated to two groups: one group received Leish-Tec(®) (n=70), and the other group received a placebo (n=70). Anti-A2 or anti-Leishmania promastigote antigen (LPA) antibody levels were measured by ELISA in serum samples collected before and after vaccination. An immunochromatographic test (DPP) based on the recombinant K28 antigen was also used for serodiagnosis of CVL. Vaccinated animals, except one, remained seronegative for anti-LPA total IgG and anti-K28 antibodies. Conversely, seropositivity for anti-A2 total IgG antibodies was found in 98% of animals after vaccination. This value decreased to 81.13% at 6 months before rising again (98%), after the vaccination boost. Anti-A2 IgG2 and IgG1 titers were also increased in vaccinated animals relative to control animals. These data indicate that Leish-Tec(®) is immunogenic for dogs of different genetic backgrounds and that humoral responses induced by vaccination can be detected by A2-ELISA, but do not interfere with the LPA-ELISA and DPP diagnostic tests for CVL. PMID:24863572

Testasicca, Miriam C de Souza; dos Santos, Mariana Silva; Machado, Leopoldo Marques; Serufo, Angela Vieira; Doro, Daniel; Avelar, Daniel; Tibúrcio, Ana Maria Leonardi; Abrantes, Christiane de Freitas; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Fernandes, Ana Paula

2014-08-29

21

The northward spread of leishmaniasis in Italy: evidence from retrospective and ongoing studies on the canine reservoir and phlebotomine vectors.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) incidence has been increased in Italy in humans and dogs since the 1990s, with new foci being detected within traditional boundaries of endemic transmission but also in northern regions previously regarded as non-endemic. To monitor the putative VL spreading, surveillance was implemented in northern continental Italy comprising: analysis of human cases recorded from 1990 through 2005; retrospective literature analysis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and phlebotomine sandfly records through 2002; prospective investigations in dogs from 2003 through 2005 and surveys on sandflies in 2003 and 2004. Two-hundred-thirty human cases (11% of Italian cases) were recorded. Their stratification by age and HIV status disclosed a sharp decrease of HIV/VL co-infections paralleled by concomitant increase of paediatric and HIV-negative adult patients during the study period. Four patients had no travel history. Seven leishmaniasis foci were retrospectively identified since 1990, whereas prospective investigations in dogs disclosed 47 autochthonous clinical cases and 106 autochthonous seropositives among 5442 dogs (2.1%) from 16 foci of six regions. Parasites were typed as Leishmania infantum MON-1. Four vector species were identified among 1696 Phlebotomus (Larroussius) collected specimens. Comparisons with historical data showed that P. perniciosus and P. neglectus have increased in density and expanded their geographic range in the study area. Northern continental Italy is now focally endemic for VL and a moderate risk for human disease does exist, although the intensity of transmission seems to be lower than in traditional settings of Mediterranean VL. PMID:18304273

Maroli, Michele; Rossi, Luca; Baldelli, Raffaella; Capelli, Gioia; Ferroglio, Ezio; Genchi, Claudio; Gramiccia, Marina; Mortarino, Michele; Pietrobelli, Mario; Gradoni, Luigi

2008-02-01

22

Assessment of serological tests for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

An immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA), an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) with different antigens (ELISA-Leishmania chagasi, ELISA-L. major-like, IFAT-L. chagasi and IFAT-L. major-like), and an immunochromatographic test were assessed for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Serum samples from 144 dogs from an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro were tested. The sensitivities of the serological tests were 93%, 100%, 73%, 60% and 93%, with specificities of 87%, 92%, 77%, 96% and 92% for the ELISA-L. major-like, ELISA-L. chagasi, IFAT-L. major-like, IFAT-L. chagasi and the immuno chromatographic test, respectively. ELISA-L. chagasi was the best test for the diagnosis of CVL, but the immunochromatographic test could be a useful alternative as it offers simple and rapid diagnosis without the need for a specialized laboratory. PMID:22789627

da Silva, Denise Amaro; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Abrantes, Tuanne Rotti; Filho, Carlos José de Lima Barbosa; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

2013-02-01

23

Canine visceral leishmaniasis and Chagas disease among dogs in Araguaína, Tocantins.  

PubMed

The present study analyzed serum samples from 111 male and female dogs of various ages from the municipality of Araguaína in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. Serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was initially performed at the Central Laboratory (Laboratório Central - LACEN) of Araguaína, resulting in 61 positive samples by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) (?1:40) and 50 non-reactive samples. The same samples were analyzed at the São Paulo Institute of Tropical Medicine (Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo - IMTSP) by an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA), resulting in 57 positive samples (51.35%) and 54 negative samples (48.64%). The Kappa coefficient of agreement between the tests was 0.74. The serum samples were also subjected to a diagnostic assay for Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypomastigote Excreted/Secreted Antigens -TESA-blot) that detected five suspect animals; three of those animals were positive for leishmaniasis by ELISA but negative by IIFA. These findings suggest that the canine population of Araguaína may be simultaneously infected with Leishmania chagasi and T. cruzi. The results obtained demonstrate the difficulty of using serology to detect CVL, thus emphasizing the necessity for a reference test to diagnose CVL, particularly in regions where the infection is endemic. PMID:23802237

Morais, Arielle Nunes; Sousa, Marlos Gonçalves; Meireles, Luciana Regina; Kesper, Norival; Umezawa, Eufrosina Setsu

2013-01-01

24

Specific Serodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Leishmania Species Ribosomal Protein Extracts?  

PubMed Central

In the present work, we have analyzed the antigenicity of Leishmania species ribosomal proteins (LRPs). To accomplish this, Leishmania infantum ribosomes were biochemically purified from promastigote cytosolic extracts, and their reactivities were analyzed by using the sera from dogs naturally infected with L. infantum. Since antibodies reacting against different ribosomal proteins were observed in all the serum samples obtained from dogs with symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis tested, we have analyzed the potential usefulness of the LRP extracts in the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in an area of Brazil where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic due to infection by Leishmania chagasi. A comparative ELISA with crude soluble Leishmania chagasi antigen (SLA) and L. infantum LRPs was performed. LRP- and SLA-based ELISAs gave similar sensitivities for the diagnosis of symptomatic CVL, but the LRP extract provided a very high sensitivity for the detection of oligosymptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. In addition, an LRP-based ELISA showed a higher specificity when the sera from dogs harboring other infections were included in the analysis. The LRP antigen displayed no cross-reactivity with sera from dogs that had any of the other diseases tested, notably, Chagas' disease. Our findings suggest that LRPs are a potential tool for the diagnosis of CVL and will be particularly useful for the diagnosis of asymptomatic CVL. PMID:19812259

Coelho, Eduardo A. F.; Ramírez, Laura; Costa, Mariana A. F.; Coelho, Vinicio T. S.; Martins, Vivian T.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Oliveira, Dulcilene M.; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Bonay, Pedro; Nieto, Carlos Gómez; Abánades, Daniel R.; Alonso, Carlos; Soto, Manuel

2009-01-01

25

Recombinant K39 dipstick immunochromatographic test: a new tool for the serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The spread of human leishmaniasis has prompted the scientific community to study dogs as reservoirs for Leishmania infantum. Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is widespread in the Mediterranean area with a prevalence of up to 50%. The first step toward controlling the disease is to monitor its distribution, mainly in stray dogs. The validity of a recombinant K39 (rK39) dipstick test, commercially available for the serodiagnosis of human leishmaniasis, was evaluated using sera from 165 dogs selected on the basis of positive or negative lymph node smears at parasitological examination. The results were compared with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (cutoff 1:80). Sera from a group of dogs with other diagnosed diseases but negative for leishmaniasis were also tested to evaluate any cross-reactivity. Various procedures were used for testing whole blood samples. The relative specificity of the rK39 dipstick and IFAT was 100% (97 of 97) and 98.97% (96 of 97), whereas the relative sensitivity was 97.06% (66 of 68) and 98.53% (67 of 68), respectively. The results of the dipstick and IFAT corresponded except for 2 sera (k = 0.987). This data confirm the usefulness of rK39 antigen for diagnosing CanL both in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. The rK39 dipstick proved to be a rapid, sensitive, and specific test that may be very useful in the field for large-scale screening and also in veterinary practice, requiring minimal equipment and operator expertise. PMID:15690948

Otranto, Domenico; Paradies, Paola; Sasanelli, Mariateresa; Leone, Nicola; de Caprariis, Donato; Chirico, Jan; Spinelli, Rosa; Capelli, Gioia; Brandonisio, Olga

2005-01-01

26

PARTICIPATION OF TICKS IN THE INFECTIOUS CYCLE OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS, IN TERESINA, PIAU?, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

In this study, we detected Leishmania spp. infection in R. sanguineus collected from dogs that were naturally infected with L. (L.) infantum. We examined 35 dogs of both sexes and unknown ages. The infected dogs were serologically positive by the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Quick Test-DPP (Dual Path Platform), as well as parasitological examination of a positive skin biopsy or sternal bone marrow aspiration. Ten negative dogs were included as controls. The ticks that infested these dogs were collected in pools of 10 adult females per animal. The PCR was performed with specific primers for Leishmania spp., which amplified a 720-bp fragment. Of the 35 analyzed samples, a product was observed in eight samples (8/35; 22.9%). We conclude that the presence of parasite DNA suggests that ticks participate in the zoonotic cycle of canine visceral leishmaniasis, in the city of Teresina, Piauí. PMID:25076429

Campos, Jose Henrique Furtado; Costa, Francisco Assis Lima

2014-01-01

27

Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal.  

PubMed

The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection. PMID:23827997

Maia, Carla; Dionísio, Lídia; Afonso, Maria Odete; Neto, Luís; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Campino, Lenea

2013-06-01

28

Leishmaniasis  

MedlinePLUS

... In the Americas, leishmaniasis can be found in Mexico and South America. Leishmaniasis has been reported in ... the condition include: Biopsy of the spleen and culture Bone marrow biopsy and culture Direct agglutination assay ...

29

Leishmaniasis  

MedlinePLUS

... of visceral leishmaniasis are in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan, and Brazil. Leishmaniasis is found in some parts of the following areas: Mexico, Central America, and South America—from northern Argentina to southern Texas (not ...

30

Improved Canine and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis Immunodiagnosis Using Combinations of Synthetic Peptides in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

PubMed Central

Background Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and the domestic dogs are the main urban parasite reservoir hosts. In Brazil, indirect fluorescence antibody tests (IFAT) and indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using promastigote extracts are widely used in epidemiological surveys. However, their sensitivity and specificity have often been compromised by the use of complex mixtures of antigens, which reduces their accuracy allowing the maintenance of infected animals that favors transmission to humans. In this context, the use of combinations of defined peptides appears favorable. Therefore, they were tested by combinations of five peptides derived from the previously described Leishmania diagnostic antigens A2, NH, LACK and K39. Methodology/Principal Findings Combinations of peptides derived A2, NH, LACK and K39 antigens were used in ELISA with sera from 44 human patients and 106 dogs. Improved sensitivities and specificities, close to 100%, were obtained for both sera of patients and dogs. Moreover, high sensitivity and specificity were observed even for canine sera presenting low IFAT anti-Leishmania antibody titers or from asymptomatic animals. Conclusions/Significance The use of combinations of B cell predicted synthetic peptides derived from antigens A2, NH, LACK and K39 may provide an alternative for improved sensitivities and specificities for immunodiagnostic assays of VL. PMID:22629475

Costa, Míriam Maria; Penido, Marcos; dos Santos, Mariana Silva; Doro, Daniel; de Freitas, Eloísa; Michalick, Marilene Susan Marques; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Fernandes, Ana Paula

2012-01-01

31

Validity and Reliability of Enzyme Immunoassays Using Leishmania major or L. infantum Antigens for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle. The limited accuracy of diagnostic tests for canine leishmaniasis may contribute to the lack of impact of control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays employing L. major or L. infantum antigens and their reliability between three laboratories of different levels of complexity. Methods A validation study of ELISA techniques using L. major or L. infantum antigens was conducted. Direct visualization of the parasite in hematoxylin/eosin-stained histopathological sections, immunohistochemistry, and isolation of the parasite in culture.were used as gold standard. An animal that was positive in at least one of the tests was defined as infected with L. infantum. Serum samples collected from 1,425 dogs were analyzed. Samples were separated in three aliquots and tested in three different laboratories. Sensitivity, specificity and the area under de ROC curve were calculated and the reliability was evaluated between the participant laboratories. Results The sensitivity was 91.8% and 89.8% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The specificity was 83.75% and 82.7% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The area under de ROC curve was 0.920 and 0.898 for L. major and L. infantum, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficients between laboratories ranged from 0.890 to 0.948 when L. major was used as antigen, and from 0.818 to 0.879 when L. infantum was used. Interpretation ELISA tests using L. major or L. infantum antigens have similar accuracy and reliability. Our results do not support the substitution of the L. major antigen of the ELISA test currently used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. PMID:23922884

de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Cardoso, Fernanda Alvarenga; Hiamamoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Brazuna, Júlia Cristina Macksoud; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

2013-01-01

32

Application of an Improved Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Method for Serological Diagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis ?  

PubMed Central

Accurate diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is essential toward a more efficient control of this zoonosis, but it remains problematic due to the high incidence of asymptomatic infections. In this study, we present data on the development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based techniques for the detection of antibodies against the recombinant protein Leishmania infantum cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase (LicTXNPx) and a comparison of the results with those employing soluble Leishmania antigens from promastigote or amastigote forms and the homologue recombinant protein L. infantum mitochondrial TXNPx (LimTXNPx). Moreover, we offer an evaluation of the diagnostic potential of rK39 for CanL in the Portuguese canine population and propose an improvement to the existing ELISA-based serological techniques by combining the LicTXNPx and rK39 antigens as a Leishmania antigen mixture (LAM). The data demonstrated that ELISAs based on soluble promastigote or amastigote antigens had generally higher levels of sensitivity for detection of antibodies in symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs than for detection of those against isolated recombinant proteins. Nevertheless, the specificities were found to be similar for all target antigens used. Importantly, the LAM-ELISA methodology improved the overall sensitivity, maintaining a high overall level of specificity. In addition, it was demonstrated that the detection of anti-LAM IgG2 can increase the accuracy of the serological diagnosis. Overall, the obtained results showed that the strategy of combining two well-defined Leishmania antigens, LicTXNPx and rK39, proved to be a sensitive and specific improvement to current serological diagnosis of CanL, being a useful tool for the detection of both clinical and subclinical forms of canine Leishmania infection. PMID:20164286

Santarem, Nuno; Silvestre, Ricardo; Cardoso, Luis; Schallig, Henk; Reed, Steven G.; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela

2010-01-01

33

Transmission Dynamics and Prospects for the Elimination of Canine Rabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies has been eliminated from domestic dog populations in Western Europe and North America, but continues to kill many thousands of people throughout Africa and Asia every year. A quantitative understanding of transmission dynamics in domestic dog populations provides critical information to assess whether global elimination of canine rabies is possible. We report extensive observations of individual rabid animals in

Katie Hampson; Jonathan Dushoff; Sarah Cleaveland; Daniel T Haydon; Magai Kaare; Craig Packer; Andy Dobson

2009-01-01

34

Leishmaniasis  

MedlinePLUS

... sand flies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis. The most common are cutaneous and visceral. The cutaneous type causes skin sores. The visceral type affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone ... and liver. Leishmaniasis is found in parts of about 88 countries. ...

35

Evaluation of serological cross-reactivity between canine visceral leishmaniasis and natural infection by Trypanosoma caninum.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate if the presence of Trypanosoma caninum can lead to a confuse diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), we investigated the serological status of dogs infected by T. caninum and assessed the serological cross-reactivity with CVL. A set of 117 serum samples from dogs infected by T. caninum, Leishmania chagasi and not infected dogs (n=39 in each group) was tested using commercial kits--indirect immunofluorescence (IFI-LVC), ELISA (EIE-LVC) and immunochromatographic test (DPP)--and in house tests with T. caninum (IIF-Tc and ELISA-Tc) and L. chagasi antigens (IIF-Lc and ELISA-Lc). IIF-Tc and ELISA-Tc presented sensitivity of 64.1% and 94.9% and specificity of 23.1% and 35.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the IFI-LVC, EIE-LVC and DPP tests was 100% and the specificity was 70.5%, 68% and 97.5% respectively. The concordance between the tests was considered as satisfactory. The specificities of IFI-LVC, EIE-LVC and DPP were higher when the group Tc was excluded, with significant values for IFI-LVC (?2=4.36, P-value=0.036), thus suggesting that the infection by T. caninum can confuse the diagnosis of CVL. PMID:22840335

Alves, A S; Mouta-Confort, E; Figueiredo, F B; Oliveira, R V C; Schubach, A O; Madeira, M F

2012-12-01

36

Cellular immunophenotypic profile in the splenic compartment during canine visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

To determine the role of the spleen in the pathogenesis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), we analyzed cellular immunophenotypic profiles of 52 dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum, clinically classified as follows: asymptomatic dogs-I (AD-I), seronegative/PCR+; asymptomatic dogs-II (AD-II), seropositive/PCR+; oligosymptomatic dogs (OD) and symptomatic dogs (SD). Seven non-infected dogs (CD) were included as a control group. AD-II presented higher levels of CD8+ T splenocytes and lower TCD4+/TCD8+ ratio in comparison with CD. OD and SD showed lower percentages of CD21+ as compared with AD-II. All seropositive dogs presented lower levels of CD45RA+ than CD. Regardless of the stimuli used, the proliferation index from splenocytes in vitro was inversely correlated with clinical status. After LSA stimulation, there was a higher percentage of specific CD8+ T in AD-II than CD and non-stimulated culture. In contrast, splenocytes from SD under in vitro LSA stimulation induced decreased MHC-II+ expression in comparison with all groups, and non-stimulated culture. In conclusion, the role of CD8+ T splenocytes seems to be important for an effective immunological response, a hallmark of asymptomatic CVL, whereas the pronounced loss of MHC-II expression upon LSA stimulation is a biomarker of symptomatic CVL. PMID:24365402

Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Nicolato, Roney de Carvalho; Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo de Assis

2014-02-15

37

Canine visceral leishmaniasis: performance of a rapid diagnostic test (Kalazar Detect) in dogs with and without signs of the disease.  

PubMed

Current visceral leishmaniasis (VL) control programs in Brazil include the infected dog elimination but, despite this strategy, the incidence of human VL is still increasing. One of the reasons is the long delay between sample collection, analysis, control implementation and the low sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Due to the high prevalence of asymptomatic dogs, the diagnosis of these animals is important considering their vector infection capacity. Hence, a rapid and accurate diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis is essential for an efficient surveillance program. In this study we evaluated the performance of rK39 antigen in an immunochromatographic format to detect symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs and compared the results with those using a crude antigen ELISA. The sensitivity of rK39 dipstick and ELISA were 83% vs. 95%, respectively, while the specificity was both 100%. Our results also demonstrated that the dipstick test was able to detect infected dogs presenting different clinical forms. PMID:18565485

Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Moreira, Márcio Antônio Batistela; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Raychaudhuri, Syamal; Dietze, Reynaldo

2008-08-01

38

Treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis by the vaccine Leish-111f+MPL-SE.  

PubMed

Immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) may provide an alternative to both marginally effective chemotherapy and undesired euthanasia of infected dogs and could have a great impact not only on animal welfare, but also on control of human disease. Therefore, we examined the potential immunotherapeutic efficacy of the subunit vaccine Leish-111f+MPL-SE, which has undergone rigorous preclinical testing and been demonstrated safe in human clinical trials. Two separate trials were performed in Salvador, Brazil, to evaluate the vaccine for therapeutic efficacy against CVL caused by natural infection: an Open Trial and a Blinded Trial. In the Open Trial 59 dogs with clinically active CVL were sequentially allocated to four groups: group 1 received Leish-111f+MPL-SE; group 2 was treated with Glucantime; group 3 received a combination of the vaccine and Glucantime; and group 4 was given no treatment. At the 6-month assessment, the 13 non-treated dogs had either died or showed no clinical improvement. In contrast, most dogs in groups 1-3 showed initial improvement (100%, 80%, and 92%, respectively). Upon evaluation for a mean of 36 months after therapy, the following cure rates were observed: 75% for group 1 dogs (exact 95% confidence interval [CI] 43-95%), 64% for group 2 dogs (exact 95% CI 31-89%), and 50% for group 3 dogs (exact 95% CI 19-81%). Therapeutic efficacy of the Leish-111f+MPL-SE vaccine was reconfirmed in a subsequent Blinded Trial. The vaccine was effective for mild cases of CVL and was compromised in dogs with severe disease. Although further studies are required to understand mechanisms of action, the Leish-111f+MPL-SE vaccine is a promising tool to control VL in both dogs and humans. PMID:20206667

Trigo, Joelma; Abbehusen, Melissa; Netto, Eduardo M; Nakatani, Maria; Pedral-Sampaio, Geraldo; de Jesus, Robson Silva; Goto, Yasuyuki; Guderian, Jeffrey; Howard, Randall F; Reed, Steven G

2010-04-26

39

Treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis by the vaccine Leish-111f+MPL-SE  

PubMed Central

Immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) may provide an alternative to both marginally effective chemotherapy and undesired euthanasia of infected dogs and could have a great impact not only on animal welfare, but also on control of human disease. Therefore, we examined the potential immunotherapeutic efficacy of the subunit vaccine Leish-111f + MPL-SE, which has undergone rigorous preclinical testing and been demonstrated safe in human clinical trials. Two separate trials were performed in Salvador, Brazil, to evaluate the vaccine for therapeutic efficacy against CVL caused by natural infection: an open trial and a blinded trial. In the open trial 59 dogs with clinically active CVL were sequentially allocated to four groups: group 1 received Leish-111f + MPL-SE; group 2 was treated with Glucantime; group 3 received a combination of the vaccine and Glucantime; and group 4 was given no treatment. At the 6-month assessment, the 13 non-treated dogs had either died or showed no clinical improvement. In contrast, most dogs in groups 1-3 showed initial improvement (100%, 80%, and 92% respectively). Upon evaluation for a mean of 36 months after therapy, the following cure rates were observed: 75% for group 1 dogs (exact 95% confidence interval [CI] 43-95%), 64% for group 2 dogs (exact 95% CI 31-89%), and 50% for group 3 dogs (exact 95% CI 19-81%). Therapeutic efficacy of the Leish-111f + MPL-SE vaccine was reconfirmed in a subsequent blinded trial. The vaccine was effective for mild cases of CVL and was compromised in dogs with severe disease. Although further studies are required to understand mechanisms of action, the Leish-111f + MPL-SE vaccine is a promising tool to control VL in both dogs and humans. PMID:20206667

Trigo, Joelma; Abbehusen, Melissa; Netto, Eduardo M.; Nakatani, Maria; Pedral-Sampaio, Geraldo; Silva de Jesus, Robson; Goto, Yasuyuki; Guderian, Jeffrey; Howard, Randall F.; Reed, Steven G.

2010-01-01

40

Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology, disease patterns, immunology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of leishmaniasis are described. Various issues relating to leishmaniasis are highlighted: the relative lack of importance given to this disease is compared with other infections, climate change and its possible effect on extension of endemicity of this infection, and new diagnostic tests that are helping better diagnosis, especially in resource?poor areas. Other important aspects discussed include the potential for newer oral treatment to change the way this disease is managed; leishmania–HIV coinfection and groups at risk; and the development of an effective vaccine. PMID:17068275

Piscopo, T V; Mallia, A C

2006-01-01

41

Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology, disease patterns, immunology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of leishmaniasis are described. Various issues relating to leishmaniasis are highlighted: the relative lack of importance given to this disease compared with other infections, climate change and its possible impact on extension of endemicity of this infection, and new diagnostic tests which are improving diagnosis, especially in resource poor areas. Other important aspects discussed include the potential for newer oral therapy to change the way this disease is managed; Leishmania–HIV coinfection and groups at risk; and development of an effective vaccine. PMID:17396274

Piscopo, Tonio V

2007-01-01

42

STUDIES ON CONTROL OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS: IMPACT OF DOG CONTROL ON CANINE AND HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN JACOBINA, BAHIA, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effect of removing leishmania-infected dogs on the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis, a controlled intervention study was performed in northeast Brazil. The attempted elimination of seropositive dogs resulted in an initial significant decrease in the annual incidence of seroconversion among dogs from 36% to 6% over the first two years. In the following two years, the incidence increased

DAVID A. ASHFORD; JOHN R. DAVID; MIRALBA FREIRE; ROBERTA DAVID; ITALO SHERLOCK

43

Immunotherapy Using Autoclaved L. major Antigens and M. vaccae with Meglumine Antimoniate, for the Treatment of Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate immunotherapy against canine visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania major antigen and heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae (SRL172) were used as stimulators of immune defense mechanisms and the results were compared with standard chemotherapy meglumine antimoniate. Methods Nineteen mongrel dogs aging 1-3 years old were used in this experiment. Infection was carried out in 15 out of 19 dogs using L. infantum, isolated from a naturally infected poly-symptomatic dog. Results All the cases showed positive serologic results by direct agglutination test during 30-60 days following inoculation. In the first group, which was under chemotherapy (GlucantimeR), one of the members showed recurrence of the disease despite rapid effect of the therapeutic protocol. Immunotherapy using SRL172 caused complete cleaning of the parasite in group 2, but the speed was less than Glucantime. Immunotherapy using L. major antigen combined with M. vaccae in group 3 and combine administration of immunotherapy and chemotherapy in group 4 both were with relapsing of one case in each group. Group 5 and 6 were consisted of positive and negative control dogs, respectively. Conclusion Immunotherapy seems to be an adjuvant in treatment of canine leishmaniasis but it needs more investigation for final confirmation. PMID:22347294

Jamshidi, Sh; Avizeh, R; Mohebali, M; Bokaie, S

2011-01-01

44

Leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is an uncommon infectious disease in the UK with a variety of clinical presentations. Physicians should remember to consider this diagnosis in patients with an appropriate travel history (including the Mediterranean basin) and seek help with diagnostics from a specialised parasitology laboratory. Treatment regimens may be unfamiliar to the general physician, and thus should also be discussed with an expert. PMID:22034715

Moore, Elinor M; Lockwood, Diana N

2011-10-01

45

Use of a Recombinant Cysteine Proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi for the Immunotherapy of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background A recombinant cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi (rLdccys1) was previously shown to induce protective immune responses against murine and canine visceral leishmaniasis. These findings encouraged us to use rLdccys1 in the immunotherapy of naturally infected dogs from Teresina, Piauí, a region of high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty naturally infected mongrel dogs displaying clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis were randomly divided in three groups: one group received three doses of rLdccys1 in combination with the adjuvant Propionibacterium acnes at one month interval between each dose; a second group received three doses of P. acnes alone; a third group received saline. The main findings were: 1) dogs that received rLdccys1 with P. acnes did not display increase of the following clinical signs: weight loss, alopecia, onychogryphosis, cachexia, anorexia, apathy, skin lesions, hyperkeratosis, ocular secretion, and enlarged lymph nodes; they also exhibited a significant reduction in the spleen parasite load in comparison to the control dogs; 2) rLdccys1-treated dogs exhibited a significant delayed type cutaneous hypersensitivity elicited by the recombinant antigen, as well as high IgG2 serum titers and low IgG1 serum titers; sera from rLdccys1-treated dogs also contained high IFN-? and low IL-10 concentrations; 3) control dogs exhibited all of the clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis and had low serum IgG2 and IFN-? levels and high concentrations of IgG1 and IL-10; 4) all of the dogs treated with rLdccys1 were alive 12 months after treatment, whereas dogs which received either saline or P. acnes alone died within 3 to 7 months. Conclusions/Significance These findings illustrate the potential use of rLdccys1 as an additional tool for the immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis and support further studies designed to improve the efficacy of this recombinant antigen for the treatment of this neglected disease. PMID:24625516

Ferreira, Josie Haydée Lima; Silva, Lucilene dos Santos; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia

2014-01-01

46

Canine leishmaniasis in Southern Italy: a role for nitric oxide released from activated macrophages in asymptomatic infection?  

PubMed Central

Background Human and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum is endemic in Italy, with a high percentage of infected asymptomatic animals. However, the immune response mechanisms underlying the clinical presentation of CanL have not been fully investigated. Among leishmanicidal molecules produced by activated macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) produced by an inducible NO synthase seems to play an important protective role, but no conclusive data are available. Therefore, NO released by cultured macrophages from dogs with natural Leishmania infection living in an endemic area for CanL was evaluated. Methods On the basis of one year's clinical and laboratory follow-up, 22 dogs infected by Leishmania infantum were identified and grouped as: asymptomatic dogs (n = 13) and dogs with symptoms of leishmaniasis (n = 9). Each animal was bled twice at 4-month intervals and macrophage and lymphocyte cultures were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Supernatants of L. infantum-infected macrophage cultures, with or without addition of autologous lymphocytes, were assayed for NO production by Griess reaction for nitrites. Results In the first months of the infection the levels of NO in supernatants of Leishmania-infected macrophages were higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic dogs, but they were significantly increased in the latter group eight months after the diagnosis of infection. Furthermore, NO release significantly decreased in the presence of autologous lymphocytes in both groups of animals. Conclusion These results suggest that NO may be involved in the long-term protection of dogs against natural Leishmania infection and in the clinical presentation of canine leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean area. PMID:18471289

Panaro, Maria A; Brandonisio, Olga; de Caprariis, Donato; Cavallo, Pasqua; Cianciulli, Antonia; Mitolo, Vincenzo; Otranto, Domenico

2008-01-01

47

Evaluation of rK39 Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis: Longitudinal Study and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need for sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for canine visceral leishmaniasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic dipstick RDTs using rK39 antigen for canine visceral leishmaniasis by (i) investigating the sensitivity of RDTs to detect infection, disease and infectiousness in a longitudinal cohort study of natural infection in Brazil, and (ii) using meta-analysis to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs from published studies. Methodology We used a rK39 RDT (Kalazar Detect Canine Rapid Test; Inbios) to test sera collected from 54 sentinel dogs exposed to natural infection in an endemic area of Brazil. Dogs were sampled bimonthly for up to 27 months, and rK39 results compared to those of crude antigen ELISA, PCR, clinical status and infectiousness to sandflies. We then searched MEDLINE and Web of Knowledge (1993–2011) for original studies evaluating the performance of rK39 RDTs in dogs. Meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity was performed using bivariate mixed effects models. Principal Findings The sensitivity of the rK39 RDT in Brazil to detect infection, disease and infectiousness was 46%, 77% and 78% respectively. Sensitivity increased with time since infection, antibody titre, parasite load, clinical score and infectiousness. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. The combined sensitivity of rK39 RDTs was 86.7% (95% CI: 76.9–92.8%) to detect clinical disease and 59.3% (37.9–77.6%) to detect infection. Combined specificity was 98.7% (89.5–99.9%). Both sensitivity and specificity varied considerably between studies. Conclusion The diagnostic performance of rK39 RDTs is reasonable for confirmation of infection in suspected clinical cases, but the sensitivity to detect infected dogs is too low for large-scale epidemiological studies and operational control programmes. PMID:23326615

Quinnell, Rupert J.; Carson, Connor; Reithinger, Richard; Garcez, Lourdes M.; Courtenay, Orin

2013-01-01

48

Evaluating the Accuracy of Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Latent Class Analysis  

PubMed Central

Host tissues affected by Leishmania infantum have differing degrees of parasitism. Previously, the use of different biological tissues to detect L. infantum DNA in dogs has provided variable results. The present study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing (qPCR) in dogs from an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by determining which tissue type provided the highest rate of parasite DNA detection. Fifty-one symptomatic dogs were tested for CVL using serological, parasitological and molecular methods. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed for accuracy evaluation of these methods. qPCR detected parasite DNA in 100% of these animals from at least one of the following tissues: splenic and bone marrow aspirates, lymph node and skin fragments, blood and conjunctival swabs. Using latent variable as gold standard, the qPCR achieved a sensitivity of 95.8% (CI 90.4–100) in splenic aspirate; 79.2% (CI 68–90.3) in lymph nodes; 77.3% (CI 64.5–90.1) in skin; 75% (CI 63.1–86.9) in blood; 50% (CI 30–70) in bone marrow; 37.5% (CI 24.2–50.8) in left-eye; and 29.2% (CI 16.7–41.6) in right-eye conjunctival swabs. The accuracy of qPCR using splenic aspirates was further evaluated in a random larger sample (n?=?800), collected from dogs during a prevalence study. The specificity achieved by qPCR was 76.7% (CI 73.7–79.6) for splenic aspirates obtained from the greater sample. The sensitivity accomplished by this technique was 95% (CI 93.5–96.5) that was higher than those obtained for the other diagnostic tests and was similar to that observed in the smaller sampling study. This confirms that the splenic aspirate is the most effective type of tissue for detecting L. infantum infection. Additionally, we demonstrated that LCA could be used to generate a suitable gold standard for comparative CVL testing. PMID:25076494

Solca, Manuela da Silva; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Guedes, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio; Bordoni, Marcelo; Borja, Lairton Souza; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; da Silva Estrela Tuy, Petala Gardenia; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Nascimento, Eliane Gomes; de Sa Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno; dos-Santos, Washington Luis Conrado; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothe; Veras, Patricia Sampaio Tavares

2014-01-01

49

Development of a Fluorescent Based Immunosensor for the Serodiagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis Combining Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometry  

PubMed Central

Background An accurate diagnosis is essential for the control of infectious diseases. In the search for effective and efficient tests, biosensors have increasingly been exploited for the development of new and highly sensitive diagnostic methods. Here, we describe a new fluorescent based immunosensor comprising magnetic polymer microspheres coated with recombinant antigens to improve the detection of specific antibodies generated during an infectious disease. As a challenging model, we used canine leishmaniasis due to the unsatisfactory sensitivity associated with the detection of infection in asymptomatic animals where the levels of pathogen-specific antibodies are scarce. Methodology Ni-NTA magnetic microspheres with 1,7 µm and 8,07 µm were coated with the Leishmania recombinant proteins LicTXNPx and rK39, respectively. A mixture of equal proportions of both recombinant protein-coated microspheres was used to recognize and specifically bind anti-rK39 and anti-LicTNXPx antibodies present in serum samples of infected dogs. The microspheres were recovered by magnetic separation and the percentage of fluorescent positive microspheres was quantified by flow cytometry. Principal Findings A clinical evaluation carried out with 129 dog serum samples using the antigen combination demonstrated a sensitivity of 98,8% with a specificity of 94,4%. rK39 antigen alone demonstrated a higher sensitivity for symptomatic dogs (96,9%), while LicTXNPx antigen showed a higher sensitivity for asymptomatic (94,4%). Conclusions Overall, our results demonstrated the potential of a magnetic microsphere associated flow cytometry methodology as a viable tool for highly sensitive laboratorial serodiagnosis of both clinical and subclinical forms of canine leishmaniasis. PMID:23991232

Sousa, Susana; Cardoso, Luis; Reed, Steven G.; Reis, Alexandre B.; Martins-Filho, Olindo A.; Silvestre, Ricardo; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela

2013-01-01

50

Higher Expression of CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CCL21, and CXCL8 Chemokines in the Skin Associated with Parasite Density in Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe immune response in the skin of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum is poorly understood, and limited studies have described the immunopathological profile with regard to distinct levels of tissue parasitism and the clinical progression of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL).Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA detailed analysis of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages) as well as the expression of chemokines

Daniel Menezes-Souza; Renata Guerra-Sá; Cláudia Martins Carneiro; Juliana Vitoriano-Souza; Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti; Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho; Denise Silveira-Lemos; Guilherme Corrêa Oliveira; Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira; Alexandre Barbosa Reis

2012-01-01

51

Incidence and Time Course of Leishmania infantum Infections Examined by Parasitological, Serologic, and Nested-PCR Techniques in a Cohort of Naõ ¨ve Dogs Exposed to Three Consecutive Transmission Seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most experience in the comparison of diagnostic tools for canine leishmaniasis comes from cross-sectional surveys of dogs of different ages and breeds and in cases with unknown onset and duration of leishmaniasis. A longitudinal study was performed on 43 beagle dogs exposed to three transmission seasons (2002 to 2004) of Mediterranean leishmaniasis and examined periodically over 32 months through bone

Gaetano Oliva; Aldo Scalone; Valentina Foglia Manzillo; Marina Gramiccia; Annalisa Pagano; Luigi Gradoni

52

Antibodies from dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis recognise two proteins from the saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, a major vector of Leishmania, exhibits pharmacological and immunomodulatory activities that may facilitate entry and establishment of parasites into the\\u000a vertebrate host. Salivary gland components of the sand fly are, therefore, potential candidates in the development of a vaccine\\u000a against human leishmaniasis. With the objective of identifying sand fly saliva proteins that

Diana Bahia; Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo; Ileana Rodríguez León; Jonas Perales; Marcos Horácio Pereira; Guilherme Oliveira; Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira; Alexandre Barbosa Reis

2007-01-01

53

Prevalence of Dermatological Presentations of Canine Leishmaniasis in a Nonendemic Area: A Retrospective Study of 100 Dogs  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study determined the prevalence of dermatological lesions associated with canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a nonendemic area in Italy. The medical records of 131 dogs with CanL were reviewed and, of these, 115/131 dogs (88%) had dermatological manifestations of which 100/131 dogs (76%) met the inclusion criteria. Sixty-two percent of dogs were male and 38% were female and the mean age was 6.4 years. Thirty-two percent of dogs were mixed breeds; the remainder represented a variety of pure breeds. In 79% of dogs dermatological signs occurred in association with systemic signs of CanL, whilst 21% of dogs had only dermatological manifestations. The most common dermatological manifestation was exfoliative dermatitis (74%), followed by ulcerative (18%) and nodular (11%) lesions. In 51% of dogs the lesions were localized mainly on the pinnae, head, and pressure points; in the remaining 49% lesions were generalized. The only statistically significant association was between Retriever breed and animals with only dermatological signs (P = 0.0034, OD 5.97, CI 0.996–37.933). In this study dermatological manifestations of CanL were very commonly reported, and their prevalence is similar to previous studies in endemic areas despite the fact that dogs living in nonendemic areas are not exposed to repeated infectious bites and continuous stimulation of the dermal immune system. PMID:24660088

Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Spada, Eva

2014-01-01

54

An investigation into alternative reservoirs of canine leishmaniasis on the endemic island of Mallorca (Spain).  

PubMed

The role of wild and free-roaming domestic carnivores as a reservoir of Leishmania infantum was investigated on the Mediterranean island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain), an endemic area for this disease. Serum, blood and/or spleen samples from 169 animals [48 dogs from a kennel, 86 wild-caught feral cats, 23 pine martens (Martes martes), 10 common genets (Genetta genetta) and two weasels (Mustela nivalis)] were analysed. Seroprevalence determined by Western blotting was 38% in dogs and 16% in feral cats, while the prevalence of infection determined by PCR was 44% in dogs, 26% in cats, 39% in pine martens and 10% in genets. This is the first report of infection by L. infantum in the pine marten or any other member of the Mustelidae family. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis found 33 different patterns in 23 dogs, 14 cats and three martens. Two patterns were shared by dogs and cats, two by different cats, and one by different dogs. Patterns were different to those previously reported in carnivores from peninsular Spain. No external lesions compatible with leishmaniasis were observed in any species other than the dogs. Although the dog is probably the primary reservoir of leishmaniasis in endemic areas, the prevalence and the absence of apparent signs of this disease within the island's abundant feral cat and pine marten populations could make these species potential primary or secondary hosts of L. infantum in Mallorca. PMID:21733133

Millán, J; Zanet, S; Gomis, M; Trisciuoglio, A; Negre, N; Ferroglio, E

2011-08-01

55

Subtractive Phage Display Selection from Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Identifies Novel Epitopes That Mimic Leishmania infantum Antigens with Potential Serodiagnosis Applications  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs. PMID:24256622

Costa, Lourena E.; Lima, Mayara I. S.; Chavez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Lage, Paula S.; Lopes, Eliane G. P.; Lage, Daniela P.; Ribeiro, Tatiana G.; Andrade, Pedro H. R.; de Magalhaes-Soares, Danielle F.; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Goulart, Luiz R.

2014-01-01

56

In vitro load transmission in the canine knee: The effect of medial meniscectomy and varus rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro load-transmission characteristics of the canine knee, paying particular attention to the positioning effect of the meniscus in the coronal plane. The intact joint was first loaded and then tested under two different loading conditions after a complete medial meniscectomy. The first set of test conditions attempted to simulate those

D. R. Anderson; A. P. Newman; A. U. Daniels

1993-01-01

57

[Prevalence of canine infection from endemic areas of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Paracambi District, Rio de Janeiro State, between 1992 and 1993].  

PubMed

In the district of Paracambi, State of Rio de Janeiro an epidemiological survey for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in canine population was carried out in endemic localities. A total of 179 dogs was registered and 138 (77.1%) examined for their clinical aspects, development of delayed hypersensitivity (DHS) with Imunoleish(R) antigen and serological responses by indirect immunofluorescent reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In 9 (6.5%) dogs with active cutaneous lesions or suspect scars, 66.7% were caused by Leishmania sp; 44.4% produced infection in hamsters and showed growth in culture media, which was considered to be compatible with the species of Leishmania braziliensis complex. The molecular characterization (isoenzyme and KDNA restriction profiles) defined two strains with similar profiles for L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The prevalence of canine infection estimated by the cutaneous test, IFR and ELISA was 10.1%, 16.7% and 27.8%, respectively. The presence of clinical / sub-clinical form of ATL in canine population associated with human infections suggested that the dog can act as source of infection as well as for dissemination of the disease. PMID:15821792

dos Santos, Ginelza Peres Lima; Sanavria, Argemiro; Marzochi, Mauro Célio de Almeida; dos Santos, Elizabeth Glória Oliveira Barbosa; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Pacheco, Raquel da Silva; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Espíndola, Cleber Barreto; de Souza, Marcos Barbosa; Ponte, Cesar Santos; da Conceição, Nilton Francisco; de Andrade, Moacir Vieira

2005-01-01

58

A multicentric evaluation of the recombinant Leishmania infantum antigen-based immunochromatographic assay for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health challenge in Brazil and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of the causative agent. The culling of animals to control VL in some countries makes the accurate diagnosis of canine VL (CVL) essential. Recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B were selected from a cDNA library of Leishmania infantum amastigotes due to their strong potential as candidates in diagnostic testing for CVL. The present multicentric study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of a prototype test using these antigens (DPP rLci1A/rLci2B) against 154 sera obtained from symptomatic dogs within three endemic areas of VL in Brazil. The specificity was evaluated using 40 serum samples from negative dogs and dogs infected with other pathogens. Sensitivity and specificity rates of DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype were compared to rates from other diagnostic tests currently in use by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, including DPP®LVC, EIE®LVC. Findings DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype offered similar performance to that offered by DPP®LVC rapid test, as follows: sensitivity of 87% (CI 81–91) and 88% (CI 82–93) and specificity of 100% (CI 91–100) and 97% (CI 87–100), respectively for DPP rLci1A/rLci2B and DPP®LVC. When results of these two tests were considered concomitantly, sensitivity increased to 93.5% (CI 89–96). Conclusions The recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B represent promising candidates for use in a multi-antigen rapid test for CVL. The inclusion of novel antigens to the DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype model could offer additionally enhanced sensitivity to detect animals infected by L. infantum. PMID:24684857

2014-01-01

59

Comparison between ELISA using total antigen and immunochromatography with antigen rK39 in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

In this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using crude total antigen (CTA-ELISA) and immunochromatography with antigen rK39 were compared in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Fifty-two total blood samples from symptomatic dogs obtained from a location endemic for leishmaniasis and 52 blood samples from healthy dogs from a nonendemic region were tested. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect DNA from Leishmania spp. in both groups. Symptomatic dogs with positive PCR were considered infected by Leishmania spp. and the PCR technique was chosen as a gold standard test. The sensitivity determined for CTA-ELISA was 100%, with specificity of 91.2%, while the immunochromatographic assay with the antigen rK39 showed sensitivity of 91.5%, with specificity of 94.7%. A strong correlation was verified between CTA-ELISA and immunochromatography with antigen rK39, with a kappa coefficient of agreement of 0.88. Analysis of the results suggested that both assays presented good sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing CVL; however, immunochromatography with the antigen rK39 may be more advantageous when a fast field test is required. PMID:20810216

de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Fattori, Karina Reinaldo; Michelin, Aparecida de Fátima; da Silveira Neto, Luiz; Vasconcelos, Rosemere de O

2010-10-29

60

A case of ocular canine transmissible venereal tumor  

PubMed Central

A 1-year-old, intact female mixed-breed dog was presented to St. George’s University Small Animal Clinic in Grenada for a third eyelid mass. The dog was diagnosed with a rare ocular transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and concurrent anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and dirofilariasis. Treatment with vincristine sulfate resulted in complete resolution of the TVT. PMID:24381345

Milo, Jewel; Snead, Elisabeth

2014-01-01

61

Characterization of Novel Leishmania infantum Recombinant Proteins Encoded by Genes from Five Families with Distinct Capacities for Serodiagnosis of Canine and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

To expand the available panel of recombinant proteins that can be useful for identifying Leishmania-infected dogs and for diagnosing human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), we selected recombinant antigens from L. infantum, cDNA, and genomic libraries by using pools of serum samples from infected dogs and humans. The selected DNA fragments encoded homologs of a cytoplasmic heat-shock protein 70, a kinesin, a polyubiquitin, and two novel hypothetical proteins. Histidine-tagged recombinant proteins were produced after subcloning these DNA fragments and evaluated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with panels of canine and human serum samples. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different recombinant proteins had different sensitivities (67.4–93.0% and 36.4–97.2%) and specificities (76.1–100% and 90.4–97.3%) when tested with serum samples from Leishmania-infected dogs and human patients with VL. Overall, no single recombinant antigen was sufficient to serodiagnosis all canine or human VL cases. PMID:22144438

Oliveira, Geraldo G. S.; Magalhaes, Franklin B.; Teixeira, Marcia C. A.; Pereira, Andrea M.; Pinheiro, Cristiane G. M.; Santos, Lenita R.; Nascimento, Marilia B.; Bedor, Cheila N. G.; Albuquerque, Alessandra L.; dos-Santos, Washington L. C.; Gomes, Yara M.; Moreira, Edson D.; Brito, Maria E. F.; Pontes de Carvalho, Lain C.; de Melo Neto, Osvaldo P.

2011-01-01

62

Phlebotomine Vector Ecology in the Domestic Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral. PMID:22049038

Ferro, Cristina; Marin, Dairo; Gongora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, Maria C.; Trujillo, Jorge E.; Rueda, Norma K.; Marin, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Perez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.

2011-01-01

63

Low CXCL13 Expression, Splenic Lymphoid Tissue Atrophy and Germinal Center Disruption in Severe Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visceral leishmaniasis is associated with atrophy and histological disorganization of splenic compartments. In this paper, we compared organized and disorganized splenic lymphoid tissue from dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum assessing the size of the white pulp compartments, the distribution of T, B and S100+ dendritic cells, using immunohistochemistry and morphometry and the expression of CCR7 and the cytokines, CXCL13,

Joselli S. Silva; Alan C. Andrade; Claudia C. Santana; Leina Q. Santos; Camila I. de Oliveira; Patrícia S. T. Veras; José Vassallo; Washington L. C. dos-Santos

2012-01-01

64

Evaluation of Change in Canine Diagnosis Protocol Adopted by the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control Program in Brazil and a New Proposal for Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

The techniques used for diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Brazil ELISA and IFAT have been extensively questioned because of the accuracy of these tests. A recent change in the diagnosis protocol excluded IFAT and included the Dual-Path Platform (DPP). We evaluated the prevalence and incidence rates of Leishmania spp. before and after the change in the protocol. In addition, based on our results, we propose a new alternative that is less expensive for the screening and confirmation of CVL. Plasma samples were obtained from a serobank from dogs evaluated in a cross-sectional study (1,226 dogs) and in a cohort study of susceptible animals (n?=?447), followed for 26 months. Serology testing was performed using ELISA, IFAT, and DPP. The incidence and prevalence of CVL were determined by using the protocol of the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control and Surveillance Program until 2012 (ELISA and IFAT using filter paper) and the protocol used after 2012 (DPP and ELISA using plasma). The prevalence was 6.2% and the incidence was 2.8 per 1,000 dog-months for the protocol used until 2012. For the new diagnosis protocol for CVL resulted in an incidence of 5.4 per 1,000 dog-months and a prevalence of 8.1%. Our results showed that the prevalence and incidence of infection were far greater than suggested by the previously used protocol and that the magnitude of infection in endemic areas has been underestimated. As tests are performed sequentially and euthanasia of dogs is carried out when the serological results are positive in both tests, the sequence does not affect the number of animals to be eliminated by the Control Program. Then we suggest to municipalities with a large demand of exams to use ELISA for screening and DPP for confirmation, since this allows easier performance and reduced cost. PMID:24608904

Coura-Vital, Wendel; Ker, Henrique Gama; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Leal, Gleisiane Gomes de Almeida; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Oliveira, Laser Antônio Machado; de Menezes Machado, Evandro Marques; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Carneiro, Mariângela; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

2014-01-01

65

Dog-DAT: a direct agglutination test using stabilized, freeze-dried antigen for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the use of an improved direct agglutination test (DAT) based on stable, freeze-dried antigen for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in canine serum samples. With a cut-off value of 1:640, the sensitivity of the DAT was shown to be 100% and the specificity of the test was 98.8%.

Linda Oskam; Rob J. Slappendel; Eef G. M. Beijer; Nel C. M. Kroon; Cor W. van Ingen; Seray Özensoy; Yusuf Özbel; Wiepko J. Terpstra

1996-01-01

66

Standardization of a rapid immunochromatographic test with the recombinant antigens K39 and K26 for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) remains problematic because there areno reliable commercially available tests. Most laboratories use domestically prepared tests such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). We evaluated rapid immunochromatographic (RICH) test kits for the diagnosis of CVL. The tests were assembled with either Leishmania chagasi recombinant antigens K39 or K26 and with either gold-labelled Staphylococcus aureus protein A or Streptococcus pyogenes protein G. Fifty sera from dogs with CVL, 14 sera from dogs with Chagas disease, and 50 sera from normal healthy dogs were tested. The results show that the RICH test using recombinant antigen K39 has a sensitivity of 96% and 100% specificity for the diagnosis of CVL. No significant differences were observed in the tests assembled with either protein A or protein G. The RICH tests using recombinant antigen K26 were equally specific but less sensitive than those using K39. However, the 2 antigens complemented each other and increased the overall sensitivity of the test. Because of its simplicity and performance the RICH test is a quick and reliable alternative for the diagnosis of CVL either in conventional laboratories or for remote areas where laboratories are not readily accessible for conventional assays. PMID:16117962

da Costa, Roberto Teodoro; França, João Carlos; Mayrink, Wilson; Nascimento, Evaldo; Genaro, Odair; Campos-Neto, Antonio

2003-01-01

67

First report of venereal and vertical transmission of canine leishmaniosis from naturally infected dogs in Germany  

PubMed Central

Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania (L.) infantum. It is endemic to several tropical and subtropical countries but also to the Mediterranean region. It is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies but occasional non-vector transmissions have been reported, including vertical and horizontal transmission. Findings The authors report a case of CanL in a female boxer dog from Dusseldorf, Germany, that had never been in an endemic region. A serum sample from the bitch was tested positive for antibodies against Leishmania (IFAT 1:2,000, ELISA 72). The bitch had whelped three litters, and one puppy from the third litter was also found to be seropositive for Leishmania antibodies (IFAT 1:4,000, ELISA 78). Conclusions Up to now, despite intensive searching, the occurrence of sandflies could not be proved in the bitch's region of origin. Thus, vertical and horizontal transmission are to be discussed as possible ways of infection. This may be the first report of venereal and vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally infected dogs in Germany. PMID:22463789

2012-01-01

68

Contact heterogeneity, rather than transmission efficiency, limits the emergence and spread of canine influenza virus.  

PubMed

Host-range shifts in influenza virus are a major risk factor for pandemics. A key question in the study of emerging zoonoses is how the evolution of transmission efficiency interacts with heterogeneity in contact patterns in the new host species, as this interplay influences disease dynamics and prospects for control. Here we use a synergistic mixture of models and data to tease apart the evolutionary and demographic processes controlling a host-range shift in equine H3N8-derived canine influenza virus (CIV). CIV has experienced 15 years of continuous transfer among dogs in the United States, but maintains a patchy distribution, characterized by sporadic short-lived outbreaks coupled with endemic hotspots in large animal shelters. We show that CIV has a high reproductive potential in these facilities (mean R0?=?3.9) and that these hotspots act as refugia from the sparsely connected majority of the dog population. Intriguingly, CIV has evolved a transmission efficiency that closely matches the minimum required to persist in these refugia, leaving it poised on the extinction/invasion threshold of the host contact network. Corresponding phylogenetic analyses show strong geographic clustering in three US regions, and that the effective reproductive number of the virus (Re) in the general dog population is close to 1.0. Our results highlight the critical role of host contact structure in CIV dynamics, and show how host contact networks could shape the evolution of pathogen transmission efficiency. Importantly, efficient control measures could eradicate the virus, in turn minimizing the risk of future sustained transmission among companion dogs that could represent a potential new axis to the human-animal interface for influenza. PMID:25340642

Dalziel, Benjamin D; Huang, Kai; Geoghegan, Jemma L; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dubovi, Edward J; Grenfell, Bryan T; Ellner, Stephen P; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

2014-10-01

69

Contact Heterogeneity, Rather Than Transmission Efficiency, Limits the Emergence and Spread of Canine Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

Host-range shifts in influenza virus are a major risk factor for pandemics. A key question in the study of emerging zoonoses is how the evolution of transmission efficiency interacts with heterogeneity in contact patterns in the new host species, as this interplay influences disease dynamics and prospects for control. Here we use a synergistic mixture of models and data to tease apart the evolutionary and demographic processes controlling a host-range shift in equine H3N8-derived canine influenza virus (CIV). CIV has experienced 15 years of continuous transfer among dogs in the United States, but maintains a patchy distribution, characterized by sporadic short-lived outbreaks coupled with endemic hotspots in large animal shelters. We show that CIV has a high reproductive potential in these facilities (mean R0?=?3.9) and that these hotspots act as refugia from the sparsely connected majority of the dog population. Intriguingly, CIV has evolved a transmission efficiency that closely matches the minimum required to persist in these refugia, leaving it poised on the extinction/invasion threshold of the host contact network. Corresponding phylogenetic analyses show strong geographic clustering in three US regions, and that the effective reproductive number of the virus (Re) in the general dog population is close to 1.0. Our results highlight the critical role of host contact structure in CIV dynamics, and show how host contact networks could shape the evolution of pathogen transmission efficiency. Importantly, efficient control measures could eradicate the virus, in turn minimizing the risk of future sustained transmission among companion dogs that could represent a potential new axis to the human-animal interface for influenza. PMID:25340642

Dalziel, Benjamin D.; Huang, Kai; Geoghegan, Jemma L.; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dubovi, Edward J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Ellner, Stephen P.; Holmes, Edward C.; Parrish, Colin R.

2014-01-01

70

Quantifying the Contribution of Hosts with Different Parasite Concentrations to the Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background An important factor influencing the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases is the contribution of hosts with different parasitemia (no. of parasites per ml of blood) to the infected vector population. Today, estimation of this contribution is often impractical since it relies exclusively on limited-scale xenodiagnostic or artificial feeding experiments (i.e., measuring the proportion of vectors that become infected after feeding on infected blood/host). Methodology We developed a novel mechanistic model that facilitates the quantification of the contribution of hosts with different parasitemias to the infection of the vectors from data on the distribution of these parasitemias within the host population. We applied the model to an ample data set of Leishmania donovani carriers, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. Results Calculations facilitated by the model quantified the host parasitemias that are mostly responsible for the infection of vector, the sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis. Our findings indicate that a 3.2% of the most infected people were responsible for the infection of between 53% and 79% (mean – 62%) of the infected sand fly vector population. Significance Our modeling framework can easily be extended to facilitate the calculation of the contribution of other host groups (such as different host species, hosts with different ages) to the infected vector population. Identifying the hosts that contribute most towards infection of the vectors is crucial for understanding the transmission dynamics, and planning targeted intervention policy of visceral leishmaniasis as well as other vector borne infectious diseases (e.g., West Nile Fever). PMID:25356795

Miller, Ezer; Warburg, Alon; Novikov, Ilya; Hailu, Asrat; Volf, Petr; Seblova, Veronika; Huppert, Amit

2014-01-01

71

Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a defined geographic focus of transmission.  

PubMed

An outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred in a unit of 608 Puerto Rican national guardsmen conducting jungle warfare training in the Panama Canal Area in July 1984. An epidemiologic investigation of reported nonhealing, ulcerating skin lesions was conducted among 540 (89%) unit members in November and December 1984. Fifteen (88%) of 17 individuals with chronic, ulcerating skin lesions were confirmed as cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis by culture or histopathology. Twelve cases yielded positive Leishmania cultures, identified as L. braziliensis panamensis by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Evaluation of different diagnostic techniques revealed that direct examination of tissues by Giemsa-stained histological examination was the most sensitive test (87% sensitivity), with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test being rather insensitive (67%). All but one of the confirmed cases operated in small units that trained and slept overnight at a mortar firing site for a period of three days, yielding a site-specific attack rate of 22% (14 of 64). This contrasted with a much lower attack rate of 0.2% (1 of 476), experienced by unit members who trained at other locations during the same time frame (P less than 0.001). The median incubation period calculated from day of arrival at the mortar firing site was 17 days (range 2-78) for the 15 confirmed cases. Available personal protection methods, such as the use of insect repellents, were not appropriately implemented by unit personnel and thus, were not found to effectively protect against Leishmania infection. This is the largest reported outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in military personnel associated with a single geographic focus of infection and contrasts with the usual sporadic disease experience in Panama. PMID:1636883

Sanchez, J L; Diniega, B M; Small, J W; Miller, R N; Andujar, J M; Weina, P J; Lawyer, P G; Ballou, W R; Lovelace, J K

1992-07-01

72

The Genetic Structure of Leishmania infantum Populations in Brazil and Its Possible Association with the Transmission Cycle of Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, Mediterranean basin and West and Central Asia. Although the geographic structure of L. infantum populations from the Old World have been described, few studies have addressed the population structure of this parasite in the Neotropical region. We employed 14 microsatellites to analyze the population structure of the L. infantum strains isolated from humans and dogs from most of the Brazilian states endemic for VL and from Paraguay. The results indicate a low genetic diversity, high inbreeding estimates and a depletion of heterozygotes, which together indicate a predominantly clonal breeding system, but signs of sexual events are also present. Three populations were identified from the clustering analysis, and they were well supported by F statistics inferences and partially corroborated by distance-based. POP1 (111 strains) was observed in all but one endemic area. POP2 (31 strains) is also well-dispersed, but it was the predominant population in Mato Grosso (MT). POP3 (31 strains) was less dispersed, and it was observed primarily in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Strains originated from an outbreak of canine VL in Southern Brazil were grouped in POP1 with those from Paraguay, which corroborates the hypothesis of dispersal from Northeastern Argentina and Paraguay. The distribution of VL in MS seems to follow the west-east construction of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline from Corumbá municipality. This may have resulted in a strong association of POP3 and Lutzomyia cruzi, which is the main VL vector in Corumbá, and a dispersion of this population in this region that was shaped by human interference. This vector also occurs in MT and may influence the structure of POP2. This paper presents significant advances in the understanding of the population structure of L. infantum in Brazil and its association with eco-epidemiological aspects of VL. PMID:22606248

Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; dos Santos, Barbara Neves; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Ramos, Tereza Pompilio Bastos; Porrozzi, Renato; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Cupolillo, Elisa

2012-01-01

73

The genetic structure of Leishmania infantum populations in Brazil and its possible association with the transmission cycle of visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, Mediterranean basin and West and Central Asia. Although the geographic structure of L. infantum populations from the Old World have been described, few studies have addressed the population structure of this parasite in the Neotropical region. We employed 14 microsatellites to analyze the population structure of the L. infantum strains isolated from humans and dogs from most of the Brazilian states endemic for VL and from Paraguay. The results indicate a low genetic diversity, high inbreeding estimates and a depletion of heterozygotes, which together indicate a predominantly clonal breeding system, but signs of sexual events are also present. Three populations were identified from the clustering analysis, and they were well supported by F statistics inferences and partially corroborated by distance-based. POP1 (111 strains) was observed in all but one endemic area. POP2 (31 strains) is also well-dispersed, but it was the predominant population in Mato Grosso (MT). POP3 (31 strains) was less dispersed, and it was observed primarily in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Strains originated from an outbreak of canine VL in Southern Brazil were grouped in POP1 with those from Paraguay, which corroborates the hypothesis of dispersal from Northeastern Argentina and Paraguay. The distribution of VL in MS seems to follow the west-east construction of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline from Corumbá municipality. This may have resulted in a strong association of POP3 and Lutzomyia cruzi, which is the main VL vector in Corumbá, and a dispersion of this population in this region that was shaped by human interference. This vector also occurs in MT and may influence the structure of POP2. This paper presents significant advances in the understanding of the population structure of L. infantum in Brazil and its association with eco-epidemiological aspects of VL. PMID:22606248

Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; dos Santos, Barbara Neves; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Ramos, Tereza Pompilio Bastos; Porrozzi, Renato; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Cupolillo, Elisa

2012-01-01

74

One Health: the global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming. PMID:21985335

Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Day, Michael J

2011-01-01

75

Studies on the sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from transmission areas of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in state of Acre, Brazil.  

PubMed

Studies were undertaken on the phlebotomines in the municipalities of Bujari, Xapuri and Rio Branco in the state of Acre. The abundance of species on the ground and in the tree canopy was estimated by Standardized Index of Species Abundance. Of the 52 species identified, Lutzomyia (N.) antunesi, Lutzomyia (N.) whitmani, Lutzomyia (P.) davisi, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia (N.) umbratilis, Lutzomyia (N.) flaviscutellata, Lutzomyia (T.) ubiqui-talis, Lutzomyia (P.) hirsuta hirsuta, Lutzomyia (P.) paraensis and Lutzomyia (P.) ayrozai are known to be vectors of Leishmania, the causative agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Lutzomyia (T.) auraensis, Lu. (N.) antunesi, Lu. (N.) whitmani and Lu. (P.) davisi accounted for 66.95% of the specimens collected. Lu. (N.) whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Lu. (N.) antunesi and Lu. (P.) davisi. Lu. (N.) antunesi was the most abundant species in the soil as well as in the canopy. Lu. (N.) umbratilis occurred in all three municipalities and was the fifth most abundant species in the Chico Mendes Municipal Park in Rio Branco. It was collected on both the ground level as well as in the canopy; however, it was more frequently collected in the tree canopy. The present study suggests the existence of three transmission cycles of Leishmania in Acre, including the transmission of Leishmania (V.) guyanensis by Lu. (N.) umbratilis south of the Amazon River. PMID:19148413

Azevedo, Alfredo C R; Costa, Simone M; Pinto, Maria C G; Souza, Janis L; Cruz, Henrique C; Vidal, Joaquim; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2008-12-01

76

[Sandflies (Diptera, psychodidae) in a secondary forest area in the Paco do Lumiar city, Maranhao, Brazil: a leishmaniasis transmission area].  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the wealth of species, relative abundance, seasonal fluctuation, and nocturnal activity of sandflies. The field survey was conducted in a "capoeira" (secondary forest) area in the county of Paço do Lumiar, Maranhão, where cutaneous and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis frequently occurs. Sandflies were captured by CDC-type light traps from 6:00 PM to 6:00 AM, once a month, from March 1997 to February 1998. A total of 489 specimens were collected (251 males and 238 females), distributed among 10 species: Lutzomyia antunesi (45.19%), Lutzomyia whitmani (29.4%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (7.56%), Lutzomyia sordelli (6.34%), Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (4.5%), Brumptomyia avellari (4.09%), Lutzomyia evandroi (1.85%), Lutzomyia umbratilis (0.61%), Lutzomyia corossoniensis (0.41%), and Lutzomyia trispinosa (0.41%). The sandflies were present year round, with higher abundance during the rainy season. They were present in all intervals studied, with the highest frequency between 12:00 PM and 1:00 AM (31%). PMID:10738174

Barros, V L; Rebêlo, J M; Silva, F S

2000-01-01

77

Proteomic analysis in canine leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to perform a proteomic analysis on serum of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania parasite. Sera from 24 dogs, n. 8 with high IFAT titre of anti-Leishmania antibodies (? 1:640), n. 8 with uncertain titre (= 1:40), and n. 8 with IFAT negative were used. Sera of each group were\\u000a pooled together to form three

D. Britti; M. Gaspari; G. Massimini; F. Casalinuovo; V. M. Morittu; G. Cuda

2010-01-01

78

The changing global distribution and prevalence of canine transmissible venereal tumour  

E-print Network

concurrent infectious diseases. Vincristine was widely reported to be the most effective therapy for CTVT. Conclusions: Our results provide a survey of the current global distribution of CTVT, confirming that CTVT is endemic in at least 90 countries worldwide... distribution patterns confirms that CTVT was and remains a very common canine infectious disease throughout the world. The global CTVT prevalence data reported in this studyare individual estimates of local CTVT prevalence and are thus subject to errors...

Strakova, A.; Murchison, E. P.

2014-09-03

79

An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.  

PubMed

Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (<90%) to the vaccine strain (Onderstepoort). Seropositivity of lions (Panthera leo) in the zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species. PMID:22214864

Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shiomoda, Hiroshi; Tamaru, Seiji; Shimojima, Masayuki; Goto, Megumi; Une, Yumi; Sato, Azusa; Ikebe, Yusuke; Maeda, Ken

2012-06-01

80

Visceral Leishmaniasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a chronic disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex, is characterized by irregular fever, enlargement of the spleen and liver, weight loss, pancytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia.

A. J. Magill, M. K. Klassen-Fischer, R. C. Neafie, W. M. Meyers

2011-01-01

81

Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Georgia  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet) and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi. The highest proportions of seropositive pet dogs were present in District #2 (28.1%, 82/292) and District #1 (26.9%, 24/89) in Tbilisi, compared to 17.3% (26/150) of pet dogs in Kutaisi. The percentage of seropositive stray dogs was also twice as high in Tbilisi (16.1%, n?=?670) than in Kutaisi (8%, n?=?50); only 2/58 wild animals screened were seropositive (2. 6%). A total of 873 Phlebotomine sand flies were collected, with 5 different species identified in Tbilisi and 3 species in Kutaisi; 2.3% of the females were positive for Leishmania parasites. The Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) was performed on 981 human subjects in VL foci in urban areas in Tbilisi and Kutaisi. A particularly high prevalence of LST positives was observed in Tbilisi District #1 (22.2%, 37.5% and 19.5% for ages 5–9, 15–24 and 25–59, respectively); lower prevalence was observed in Kutaisi (0%, 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively; P<0.05). This study shows that Tbilisi is an active focus for leishmaniasis and that the infection prevalence is very high in dogs and in humans. Although exposure is as yet not as high in Kutaisi, this is a new VL focus. The overall situation in the country is alarming and new control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24603768

Babuadze, Giorgi; Alvar, Jorge; Argaw, Daniel; de Koning, Harry P.; Iosava, Merab; Kekelidze, Merab; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tsereteli, David; Chakhunashvili, Giorgi; Mamatsashvili, Tamar; Beria, Nino; Kalandadze, Irine; Ejov, Mikhail; Imnadze, Paata

2014-01-01

82

Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Georgia.  

PubMed

This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet) and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi. The highest proportions of seropositive pet dogs were present in District #2 (28.1%, 82/292) and District #1 (26.9%, 24/89) in Tbilisi, compared to 17.3% (26/150) of pet dogs in Kutaisi. The percentage of seropositive stray dogs was also twice as high in Tbilisi (16.1%, n?=?670) than in Kutaisi (8%, n?=?50); only 2/58 wild animals screened were seropositive (2. 6%). A total of 873 Phlebotomine sand flies were collected, with 5 different species identified in Tbilisi and 3 species in Kutaisi; 2.3% of the females were positive for Leishmania parasites. The Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) was performed on 981 human subjects in VL foci in urban areas in Tbilisi and Kutaisi. A particularly high prevalence of LST positives was observed in Tbilisi District #1 (22.2%, 37.5% and 19.5% for ages 5-9, 15-24 and 25-59, respectively); lower prevalence was observed in Kutaisi (0%, 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively; P<0.05). This study shows that Tbilisi is an active focus for leishmaniasis and that the infection prevalence is very high in dogs and in humans. Although exposure is as yet not as high in Kutaisi, this is a new VL focus. The overall situation in the country is alarming and new control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24603768

Babuadze, Giorgi; Alvar, Jorge; Argaw, Daniel; de Koning, Harry P; Iosava, Merab; Kekelidze, Merab; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tsereteli, David; Chakhunashvili, Giorgi; Mamatsashvili, Tamar; Beria, Nino; Kalandadze, Irine; Ejov, Mikhail; Imnadze, Paata

2014-03-01

83

Control of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: recommendations from Brasileish  

PubMed Central

On 26 October 2012, veterinary medicine clinicians and researchers, members of Brasileish - Study Group about Animal Leishmaniasis - met at the Regional Council of Veterinary Medicine of Minas Gerais, in the city Belo Horizonte, in order to discuss many aspects of the situation of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Brazil. In the face of recent national and international scientific evidence, we, the members of Brasileish, have elaborated some recommendations for the management and control of CVL in Brazil. PMID:23311342

2013-01-01

84

American leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

The origin of leishmaniasis in the New World is discussed, and the numerous forms of the disease are briefly described. The epidemological pattern of American leishmaniasis is clearly that of a zoonosis in various stages of development. Nine geographical types of cutaneous leishmaniasis are recognized, and probably others exist also; the visceral disease is of the well known Mediterranean type and of a uniform type throughout the Americas. The prevalence of human infection in the different regions is discussed with particular reference to the animal reservoirs. Disturbances of the terrain for agricultural development, road construction, etc., lead to epidemics and there is some evidence that the disease is now spreading in Latin America. PMID:5316253

Garnham, P. C. C.

1971-01-01

85

A Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Efficacy Trial of the LiESP/QA-21 Vaccine in Naïve Dogs Exposed to Two Leishmania infantum Transmission Seasons.  

PubMed

Canine leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis caused by uncontrolled infection with Leishmania infantum, where an inappropriate immune response is not only responsible for permitting this intracellular parasite to multiply, but is also responsible for several of the pathological processes seen in this disease. Effective canine vaccines are therefore a highly desirable prevention tool. In this randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial, the efficacy of the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine (CaniLeish, Virbac, France) was assessed by exposing 90 naïve dogs to natural L. infantum infection during 2 consecutive transmission seasons, in two highly endemic areas of the Mediterranean basin. Regular PCR, culture, serological and clinical examinations were performed, and the infection/disease status of the dogs was classified at each examination. The vaccine was well-tolerated, and provided a significant reduction in the risk of progressing to uncontrolled active infection (p?=?0.025) or symptomatic disease (p?=?0.046), with an efficacy of 68.4% and a protection rate of 92.7%. The probability of becoming PCR positive was similar between groups, but the probability of returning to a PCR negative condition was higher in the vaccinated group (p?=?0.04). In conclusion, we confirmed the interest of using this vaccine as part of a comprehensive control program for canine leishmaniasis, and validated the use of a protocol based on regular in-depth assessments over time to assess the efficacy of a canine leishmaniasis vaccine. PMID:25299614

Oliva, Gaetano; Nieto, Javier; Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Cappiello, Silvia; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Di Muccio, Trentina; Scalone, Aldo; Moreno, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Carrillo, Eugenia; Butaud, Therese; Guegand, Laurie; Martin, Virginie; Cuisinier, Anne-Marie; McGahie, David; Gueguen, Sylvie; Cañavate, Carmen; Gradoni, Luigi

2014-10-01

86

A Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Efficacy Trial of the LiESP/QA-21 Vaccine in Na?ve Dogs Exposed to Two Leishmania infantum Transmission Seasons  

PubMed Central

Canine leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis caused by uncontrolled infection with Leishmania infantum, where an inappropriate immune response is not only responsible for permitting this intracellular parasite to multiply, but is also responsible for several of the pathological processes seen in this disease. Effective canine vaccines are therefore a highly desirable prevention tool. In this randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial, the efficacy of the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine (CaniLeish, Virbac, France) was assessed by exposing 90 naïve dogs to natural L. infantum infection during 2 consecutive transmission seasons, in two highly endemic areas of the Mediterranean basin. Regular PCR, culture, serological and clinical examinations were performed, and the infection/disease status of the dogs was classified at each examination. The vaccine was well-tolerated, and provided a significant reduction in the risk of progressing to uncontrolled active infection (p?=?0.025) or symptomatic disease (p?=?0.046), with an efficacy of 68.4% and a protection rate of 92.7%. The probability of becoming PCR positive was similar between groups, but the probability of returning to a PCR negative condition was higher in the vaccinated group (p?=?0.04). In conclusion, we confirmed the interest of using this vaccine as part of a comprehensive control program for canine leishmaniasis, and validated the use of a protocol based on regular in-depth assessments over time to assess the efficacy of a canine leishmaniasis vaccine. PMID:25299614

Oliva, Gaetano; Nieto, Javier; Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Cappiello, Silvia; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Di Muccio, Trentina; Scalone, Aldo; Moreno, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Carrillo, Eugenia; Butaud, Therese; Guegand, Laurie; Martin, Virginie; Cuisinier, Anne-Marie; McGahie, David; Gueguen, Sylvie; Canavate, Carmen; Gradoni, Luigi

2014-01-01

87

Transmission genetics of pancreatic acinar atrophy in the German Shepherd Dog and development of microsatellite DNA-based tools for canine forensics and linkage analysis  

E-print Network

analyses in the study of canine hereditary diseases. This was achieved through the development of 1) multiplexing strategies for the MSS-1, 2) a multiplex of microsatellite markers for use in canine forensics and parentage assays and 3) chromosome...

Clark, Leigh Anne

2004-09-30

88

In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled optical tomography of a transmissible venereal tumor model in the canine pelvic canal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography was performed concurrently with, albeit reconstructed without spatial a prior of, trans-rectal ultrasound (US) on transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) developed as a model in the canine pelvic canal. Studies were taken longitudinally at prior to, 14 days after, and 35 days after the TVT injection. As the tumor grew, the nodules became increasingly hyperabsorptive and moderately hyperscattering on NIR. The regions of strong NIR contrast, especially on absorption images, correlated well with those of US hypoechoic masses indicative of tumors. Combining the information of trans-rectal NIR and US detected the tumor more accurately than did the US alone at 14 days postinjection.

Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Piao, Daqing

2009-05-01

89

Babesiosis due to the canine Babesia microti -like small piroplasm in dogs - first report from Portugal and possible vertical transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis) is endemic in northern Portugal, but molecularly confirmed cases of infection with small\\u000a piroplasms have not been reported in the country. Three German shepherd dogs - a bitch and its 2-month old pup and an unrelated\\u000a male - clinically suspected of piroplasmosis were assessed for babesial infection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Parasitemia with small piroplasms was detected by microscopy in

Paula Brilhante Simões; Luís Cardoso; Manuela Araújo; Yael Yisaschar-Mekuzas; Gad Baneth

2011-01-01

90

Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-)tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control), surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL should be susceptible to elimination by rapid case detection and treatment combined with local vector control, and one of the most important interventions may well be socioeconomic development. PMID:24833919

Ready, Paul D

2014-01-01

91

Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-)tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control), surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL should be susceptible to elimination by rapid case detection and treatment combined with local vector control, and one of the most important interventions may well be socioeconomic development. PMID:24833919

Ready, Paul D

2014-01-01

92

Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review was to close the gap in the approach to pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) by providing up-to-date information to obstetricians about physiopathology, epidemiology, vertical transmission, drugs and treatment during pregnancy. BACKGROUND: Infection with Leishmania chagasi during pregnancy is rare and deserves special attention since little information is available regarding the occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis during gestational period and the real possibility of vertical transmission of this disease. Because specific areas in the world are endemic for the disease and considering the continuous growth of the population, cases of pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis are becoming more frequent. Unfortunately, textbooks on infectious diseases do not include this specific group of patients, and studies in the literature on aspects related to pregnancy and visceral leishmaniasis are scarce. CONCLUSIONS: Vertical transmission of leishmaniasis is possible and the institution of treatment is imperative in cases of pregnant women with kala-azar. Amphotericin B is strongly recommended as the first choice drug due to its fewer maternal-fetal adverse effects. PMID:15460194

Figueiró-Filho, Ernesto Antonio; Duarte, Geraldo; El-Beitune, Patrícia; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Maia, Tamara Lemos

2004-01-01

93

Reinfection studies of canine echinococcosis and role of dogs in transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan communities, Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities. PMID:23985352

Moss, J E; Chen, X; Li, T; Qiu, J; Wang, Q; Giraudoux, P; Ito, A; Torgerson, P R; Craig, P S

2013-11-01

94

Risk maps for the presence and absence of Phlebotomus perniciosus in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in southern Spain: implications for the control of the disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to construct risk maps for the presence of the dominant Leishmania infantum vector, P. perniciosus, and check its usefulness (a) to predict the risk of canine leishmaniasis and (b) to define effective leishmaniasis control measures. We obtained data for the presence/absence of P. perniciosus at 167 sampling sites in southern Spain, from which we also took a series of ecological and climate-related data. The probability of P. perniciosus presence was estimated as a function of these environmental variables and generated spatial risk maps. Altitude, land use and drainage hole features (with or without PVC piping) were retained as the only predictors for the distribution of this vector species. Drainage hole features in retaining walls, with or without PVC piping, produce significant variations in the probability of P. perniciosus presence, varying from 2·3 to 91·8% if PVC piping is absent and from 0·4 to 66·5% if all holes have PVC piping. It was concluded that the use of PVC piping in drainage holes could help to reduce leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:21854702

Barón, S D; Morillas-Márquez, F; Morales-Yuste, M; Díaz-Sáez, V; Irigaray, C; Martín-Sánchez, J

2011-09-01

95

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mali.  

PubMed

While not as common as in other parts of the world, cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic to countries in Africa, particularly in the north, central, east, and south. Sporadic case reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis in countries spanning West Africa have allowed scientists to propose an endemic belt in sub-Saharan Africa ranging from Senegal to Cameroon. While the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in West Africa is well established, there is a paucity of data regarding the parasite species, vector, and reservoir responsible for the disease in this part of the continent. This article focuses on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mali, West Africa. PMID:21095531

Paz, Carlos; Doumbia, Seydou; Keita, Somita; Sethi, Aisha

2011-01-01

96

Diagnosis of leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a clinically heterogeneous syndrome caused by intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. The clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis encompasses subclinical (not apparent), localized (skin lesion), and disseminated (cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral) infection. This spectrum of manifestations depends on the immune status of the host, on the parasite, and on immunoinflammatory responses. Visceral leishmaniasis causes high morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Reliable laboratory methods become mandatory for accurate diagnosis, especially in immunocompromised patients such as those infected with HIV. In this article, we review the current state of the diagnostic tools for leishmaniasis, especially  the serological test. PMID:25116660

Elmahallawy, Ehab Kotb; Sampedro Martinez, Antonio; Rodriguez-Granger, Javier; Hoyos-Mallecot, Yannick; Agil, Ahamd; Navarro Mari, Jose Mari; Gutierrez Fernandez, Jose

2014-08-01

97

Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Noninvasive Zoonotic Transmission of Staphylococcus intermedius from a Canine Pet to a Human  

PubMed Central

rRNA-based molecular phylogenetic techniques were used to identify the bacterial species present in the ear fluid from a female patient with otitis externa. We report the identification of Staphylococcus intermedius from the patient and a possible route of transmission. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms indicated that the dominant species present was S. intermedius. A pet dog owned by the patient also was tested and found to harbor S. intermedius. In humans, the disease is rare and considered a zoonosis. Previously, S. intermedius has been associated with dog bite wounds, catheter-related injuries, and surgery. This study represents the first reported case of a noninvasive infection with S. intermedius. PMID:10747154

Tanner, Michael A.; Everett, Christine L.; Youvan, Douglas C.

2000-01-01

98

Nocturnal activity rhythms of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia (Lutz & Neiva) and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani (Coutinho & Antunes) are important vectors of Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis, the etiological agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. In some areas, both species occur in sympatry, and their relative roles as vectors in these areas are not clear. We studied the nocturnal activity and biting rhythms of both species in Posse, a locality in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Our results show differences between the activity patterns of Lu. intermedia and Lu. whitmani that might be epidemiologically important. Although the activity profiles vary between seasons and microhabitats (peridomestic versus forest), the two species show marked differences in their tendencies to bite humans in the early morning (0400-0600 hours), with Lu. whitmani showing higher feeding rates than Lu. intermedia. PMID:16465739

Souza, Nataly A; Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2005-11-01

99

The sand fly fauna (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the region of Saquarema, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, is sporadic in many rural and suburban areas of Rio de Janeiro State. An investigation was carried out during 2008/9 in the Municipality of Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil, in order to identify the phlebotomine sand fly fauna. More than 2,100 sand flies were collected in peridomestic areas in two chicken coops using CDC light traps. Nine species of phlebotomine sand flies were identified: Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia (P.) pessoai, Pintomyia (P.) fischeri, Pintomyia (P.) bianchigalatiae, Migonemyia (M.) migonei, Lutzomyia (L.) longipalpis, Brumptomyia cunhai and Brumptomyia guimaraesi. Based on the results of this study together with related studies in other CL foci in Rio de Janeiro, both Nissomyia intermedia and Migonemyia migonei can be considered suspect vectors of the disease in the region. The potential risk of VL due to the presence of its proven vector L. longipalpis is discussed. PMID:21366786

Brazil, Reginaldo P; Pontes, Michelle C de Queiroz; Passos, Wagner Lança; Rodrigues, Andressa A Fuzari; Brazil, Beatriz Gomes

2011-03-01

100

Leishmaniasis and AIDS coinfection*  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection has been reported in Brazil since the initial description of AIDS in the country. We report an HIV-positive patient under antiretroviral treatment who presented with cutaneous leishmaniasis which was successfully treated with meglumine antimoniate. PMID:24474115

Hozannah, Adriana; Santos, Monica; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Talhari, Carolina

2013-01-01

101

Studies of canine leucocyte antigens: a significant advance in canine immunology.  

PubMed

The Canine Leucocyte Antigen Workshop (CLAW) was set up to produce and circulate monoclonal antibodies directed against cell surface molecules defining specific leucocyte cell types in the dog. The antibodies produced by the workshop have been used in studies of the canine immune system. While many similarities between the dog and other animals have been demonstrated, workshop studies have identified some anomalies in this species: CD4 antigen for example is expressed not only on helper/inducer T-lymphocytes but also at high density on canine neutrophils. Workshop antibodies have been used to investigate lymphocyte populations in the normal dog and in a range of diseases from lymphocytic neoplasms through conditions with an immune-mediated component such as Leishmaniasis to potentially autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and chronic superficial keratitis. PMID:9125354

Williams, D L

1997-01-01

102

Canine filariasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and laboratory studies were performed in order to assess the degree of canine dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) in the Baix Llobregat region, a fluvial area near Barcelona, Spain. A total of 188 dogs were sampled between May and August of 1994. Three main areas were chosen: the Western Delta, the Eastern Delta and the Northern zone. Simultaneously,

Carlos Aranda; Octavi Panyella; Roger Eritja; Joaquim Castellà

1998-01-01

103

Canine transmissible venereal tumor and seminoma: a cytohistopathology and chemotherapy study of tumors in the growth phase and during regression after chemotherapy.  

PubMed

In this study, 12 dogs affected by canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) and testicular seminoma tumor were studied retrospectively. The cytological sample was smeared onto a glass slide and either air-dried for May-Grünwald-stain, and masses were surgically removed. The tumors were grossly examined, and sections of 4-?m thick were obtained from each sample and stained with H&E. For chemotherapy, vincristine sulfate was administered weekly as an infusion over 3 min via the cephalic vein at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg after diluting with physiological saline to a total amount of 10 ml. If no remission was observed after 8 weeks, chemotherapy was continued with weekly doxorubicin infusion at a dose of 1 mg/kg. All the tumor samples were divided into four cytohistopathologic groups, namely: multilobular (six cases), papillary (two cases), pedunculated (two cases), and tubular (two cases of seminoma). The most frequently represented tumor type was multilobular (6/10, 60 %) followed by pedunculated (2/10, 20 %), papillary (2/10, 20 %), and tubular (two cases of seminoma, 100 %). Cytological smears from eight tumors in regression after chemotherapy were poorly cellular, and many cells were fragmented. In two progressive tumors, there was an average of 1,406 ± 972 CTVT 200 cells/?l or 96.71 % of total cells counted. Thus, tumor cells represented 96.71 % of total cells within the biopsy specimens and the leukocytes 4.29 % (leukocyte, tumor cell ratio=0.062 ± 0.031). In eight regressive tumors, there was an average of 1,245 ± 1,032 CTVT 200 cells/?l or 97.31 % of total cells counted. Thus, tumor cells represented 97.31 % of total cells and leukocytes 2.69 % (leukocyte, tumor cell ratio=0.071 ± 0.174). Our data suggested that combination treatment with vincristine and doxorubicin in the future could be an excellent therapeutic alternative for the treatment of TVT for probably reducing the resistance to vincristine, and also, treatment success could easily be followed by the cytological changes. PMID:24557542

Javanbakht, J; Pedram, B; Taheriyan, M R; Khadivar, F; Hosseini, S H; Abdi, F S; Hosseini, E; Moloudizargari, M; Aghajanshakeri, S H; Javaherypour, S; Shafiee, R; Emrani Bidi, R

2014-06-01

104

Epidemiological and Clinical Changes in American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in an Area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Transmission Over a 20-Year Period  

PubMed Central

The Health Post of Corte de Pedra is located in a region endemic for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the Brazilian state of Bahia, and it treats 500–1,300 patients annually. To describe temporal changes in the epidemiology of ATL, we reviewed a random sample of 10% of patient charts (N = 1,209) from 1988 to 2008. There was a twofold increase in the number of cases over the 20-year period, with fluctuations in 10-year cycles. Patients were most frequently male, between the ages of 10 and 30 years, and engaged in agricultural labor; 4.3% of patients had mucosal disease, and 2.4% of patients had disseminated disease. Over the study period, the number of disseminated cases increased threefold, the proportion of cases in younger patients and agricultural workers decreased, and the proportion of patients residing in coastal areas increased. ATL is on the rise in Bahia, with a 10-year periodicity and evolving changes in epidemiology and manifestations of disease. PMID:22403312

Jirmanus, Lara; Glesby, Marshall J.; Guimaraes, Luiz H.; Lago, Ednaldo; Rosa, Maria Elisa; Machado, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

2012-01-01

105

American canine hepatozoonosis.  

PubMed

American canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted infection of domestic dogs caused by a recently recognized species of apicomplexan parasite, Hepatozoon americanum. The known definitive host of the protozoan is the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Presently recognized intermediate hosts include the domestic dog and the coyote, Canis latrans. Laboratory-reared larval or nymphal A. maculatum can be infected readily by feeding to repletion on a parasitemic intermediate host; sporogony requires 35-40 days. Transmission of infection to the dog has been produced experimentally by oral administration of mature oocysts or oocyst-containing ticks. Canine disease follows experimental exposure in 4-6 weeks and is characterized by systemic illness, extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis, muscle and bone pain, and proliferation of periosteal bone. Histopathological findings include multifocal skeletal and cardiac myositis associated with escape of mature merozoites from within the host-cell environment. There is also rapid onset of periosteal activation and osteogenesis and, less frequently, glomerulopathy and amyloidosis. Sequential stages of development of H. americanum in both the dog and the tick have been elucidated. Gamonts potentially infectious to ticks have been observed in peripheral blood leukocytes of the dog in as few as 28 days after exposure to oocysts. Young coyotes experimentally exposed to a canine strain of H. americanum acquired disease indistinguishable from that of similarly exposed young dogs. PMID:12885206

Panciera, R J; Ewing, S A

2003-06-01

106

Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China  

PubMed Central

Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures. PMID:22839365

2012-01-01

107

Drug Resistance in Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

The treatment options of leishmaniasis are limited and far from satisfactory. For more than 60 years, treatment of leishmaniasis has centered around pentavalent antimonials (Sbv). Widespread misuse has led to the emergence of Sbv resistance in the hyperendemic areas of North Bihar. Other antileishmanials could also face the same fate, especially in the anthroponotic cycle. The HIV/ visceral leishmaniasis (VL) coinfected patients are another potential source for the emergence of drug resistance. At present no molecular markers of resistance are available and the only reliable method for monitoring resistance of isolates is the technically demanding in vitro amastigote-macrophage model. As the armametrium of drugs for leishmaniasis is limited, it is important that effective monitoring of drug use and response should be done to prevent the spread of resistance. Regimens of simultaneous or sequential combinations should be seriously considered to limit the emergence of resistance. PMID:20606973

Chakravarty, Jaya; Sundar, Shyam

2010-01-01

108

Leishmaniasis: Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control No vaccines or drugs to prevent infection are ... Subscribe to RSS Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333 ...

109

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide. It is also a particular problem in the rural areas of Pakistan. The disease occurs in varying presentations, from the self-limited and even self-healing cutaneous forms to fatal systemic disease. Lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis may occur anywhere on the body but the most likely sites are the exposed parts. The initial papule rapidly gives rise to an ulcer. Systemic leishmaniasis is rarer in Pakistan and invariably fatal if not treated promptly. It affects the internal body organs, particularly the spleen and the liver. Leishmaniasis is transmitted by an infected female sandfly. Cutaneous lesions are usually single and often self-healing, but a presentation with multiple ulcers resulting from multiple bites from the sandfly is not rare in Pakistan. The disease has a very long history and lesions like leishmaniasis have been described dating back to the ninth century (Balkan sore). Cutaneous leishmaniasis has been given various names in different civilizations such as "Delhi boil" in India, "Baghdad boil" in Iraq, and "saldana" in Afghanistan. The organism responsible for leishmaniasis was discovered 100 years ago but the disease has not been eradicated; rather it is on rise in many parts of the world. If control measures are not taken, it might emerge as a major health problem. Pakistan has a burden of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, the mucocutaneous form being almost nonexistent. The physicians need to know the diagnostic criteria as well as the treatment of the disease. Because of a scarcity of dermatologists in the rural areas, most of these cases present to general practitioners. Control of this disease is further complicated by an inadequate supply of appropriate drugs. PMID:15748545

Khan, Shiraz Jamal; Muneeb, Syed

2005-01-01

110

Geographic Clustering of Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil1  

PubMed Central

To determine whether disease outcomes and clades of Leishmania braziliensis genotypes are associated, we studied geographic clustering of clades and most severe disease outcomes for leishmaniasis during 1999–2003 in Corte de Pedra in northeastern Brazil. Highly significant differences were observed in distribution of mucosal leishmaniasis versus disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) (p<0.0001). Concordance was observed between distribution of these disease forms and clades of L. braziliensis genotypes shown to be associated with these disease forms. We also detected spread of DL over this region and an inverse correlation between frequency of recent DL diagnoses and distance to a previous DL case. These findings indicate that leishmaniasis outcomes are distributed differently within transmission foci and show that DL is rapidly spreading in northeastern Brazil. PMID:19523284

Guimaraes, Luiz H.; Machado, Paulo R.L.; Lessa, Marcus; Lessa, Helio A.; Lago, Ednaldo; Ritt, Guilherme; Goes-Neto, Aristoteles; Schriefer, Ana L.F.; Riley, Lee W.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

2009-01-01

111

Different optical spectral characteristics in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate observed by triple-band trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different optical spectral characteristics were observed in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate by triple-wavelength trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The NIR imager acquiring at 705nm, 785nm and 808nm was used to quantify both the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) and oxygen saturation (StO2) in the prostate. The TVT tumor in the canine prostate as a model of prostate cancer was induced in a 7-year old, 27 kg dog. A 2 mL suspension of 2.5x106 cells/mL of homogenized TVT cells recovered from an in vivo subcutaneously propagated TVT tumor in an NOD/SCID mouse were injected in the cranial aspect of the right lobe of the canine prostate. The left lobe of the prostate had a cystic lesion present before TVT inoculation. After the TVT homogenate injection, the prostate was monitored weekly over a 9-week period, using trans-rectal NIR and TRUS in grey-scale and Doppler. A TVT mass within the right lobe developed a necrotic center during the later stages of this study, as the mass presented with substantially increased [HbT] in the periphery, with an area of reduced StO2 less than the area of the mass itself shown on ultrasonography. Conversely, the cystic lesion presented with slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the lesion shown on ultrasound with oxygen-reduction inside and in the periphery of the lesion. There was no detectable change of blood flow on Doppler US in the periphery of the cystic lesion. The slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the cystic lesion was correlated with intra-lesional hemorrhage upon histopathologic examination.

Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Rock, Kendra; Ownby, Charlotte L.; Slobodov, Gennady; Bunting, Charles F.; Piao, Daqing

2011-03-01

112

An alternative immunohistochemical method for detecting Leishmania amastigotes in paraffin-embedded canine tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a zoonosis and a chronic systemic disease of the dog caused by a protozoan by the species Leishmania infantum in the Old World and Leishmania chagasi in the New World. Several methods are currently employed for the diagnosis of CVL including microscopic detection of the parasite in bone marrow and lymph node aspirates, demonstration of

Wagner Luiz Tafuri; Renato de Lima Santos; Rosa Maria Esteves Arantes; Ricardo Gonçalves; Maria Norma de Melo; Marilene Suzan Marques Michalick; Washington Luiz Tafuri

2004-01-01

113

The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in western China detected by PCR and serological tests  

PubMed Central

Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in western China, resulting in important public health problem. It is essential to evaluate the prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection for designing control policy. In the present study we report for the first time prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs living in Jiuzhaigou County (Sichuan Provence, China), which is not only an important endemic area of CanL but also a tourism scenic spot, detected by PCR, ELISA and dipstick test. The results could provide key information for designing control programs against canine and human leishmaniasis. In addition, the complete sequence of the Leishmania isolate from Sichuan Province has not been reported to date and we present the sequences of 116 base-pair (bp) fragment of the conserved region in the minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and the results of phylogenetic analyses based on the sequence of the amplified fragment. Results The proportion of dogs infected with Leishmania in Jiuzhaigou County was 36.79%, 9.43%, and 51.88% detected by ELISA, dipstick test, and PCR, respectively. The ELISA and PCR tests were more sensitive than dipstick test. The PCR method is the most sensitive way to detect dogs infected with Leishmania parasites. The total positive rate for infected dogs in the area was 59.43% by the three methods. The PCR products of 116-bp fragment amplified from the kDNA conserved region of dog blood samples and laboratory maintained L. infantum were DNA sequenced and the variation of the sequences was observed. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 116-bp fragment reveals that L. infantum is more genetically related to visceralizing species L. donovani than to the Leishmania species associated with cutaneous disease. Conclusions More than half of dogs living in the endemic Jiuzhaigou County were infected by L. infantum. Control measures, such as treatment or eradication of infected dogs, or prohibition of maintaining dogs, must be taken against these infected dogs due to their role in the transmission of the infection to vectors. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of conserved region in kDNA of Leishmania can effectively distinguish species of Leishmania. PMID:21554677

2011-01-01

114

Interaction between canine and human visceral leishmaniases in a holoendemic focus of Central Tunisia.  

PubMed

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic in the Mediterranean basin. In Tunisia, CVL is spatially associated with human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) affecting mostly children younger than 5 years old. In this study, seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs was assessed in highly endemic districts of the governorate of Kairouan where more than 50% of HVL cases in Tunisia were reported. An entomological investigation was also carried out in two endemic districts (Bouhajla and Haffouz) to assess sand fly fauna and infection status of sand flies with Leishmania. A total of 191 serum samples were collected from healthy dogs and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Overall seroprevalence for L. infantum was 26.7% being highest among dogs in the district of Bouhajla (52.7%) and the lowest in the district of Chbika (5.2%). In dogs, seroprevalence did not differ significantly based on gender or age, with dogs younger than 1 year showing a higher seroprevalence compared to older dogs. These findings suggest strong force of infection in naïve animals in holoendemic regions leading to emerging high incidence of HVL. Concomitant to the high CVL prevalence observed in the Bouhajla district, a significantly high cumulative HVL incidence also was observed in this district. Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus longicuspis were the most abundant sand fly species in Bouhajla and Haffouz districts. The rate of Leishmania-DNA infection in sand flies was 9.4%. This finding points to spatial correlation between the occurrence of disease in humans, a high rate of infection in dogs and a high abundance of P. pernicious and P. longicuspis. Thus, CVL is the main risk factor for transmission to humans and subsequently, it is an important parameter for controlling transmission to humans. PMID:25004438

Zoghlami, Z; Chouihi, E; Barhoumi, W; Dachraoui, K; Massoudi, N; Helel, K Ben; Habboul, Z; Hadhri, M H; Limam, S; Mhadhbi, M; Gharbi, M; Zhioua, E

2014-11-01

115

Leishmaniasis in immunosuppressed individuals.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a vector-born chronic infectious disease caused by a group of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Whereas most immunocompetent individuals will not develop disease after Leishmania infection, immunosuppression is a well-established risk factor for disease. The most severe form is visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is typically fatal if untreated. Whereas human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection (VL-HIV) was initially mainly reported from southern Europe, it is now emerging in other regions, including East Africa, India, and Brazil. VL has also been found in a wide range of non-HIV-related immunosuppressive states, mainly falling under the realm of transplantation medicine, rheumatology, haematology, and oncology. Clinical presentation can be atypical in immunosuppressed individuals, being easily misdiagnosed or mistaken as a flare-up of the underlying disease. The best diagnostic approach is the combination of parasitological and serological or molecular methods. Liposomal amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Treatment failure and relapse rates are particularly high in cases of HIV co-infection, despite initiation of antiretroviral treatment. Primary prophylaxis is not recommended, but secondary prophylaxis is recommended when the patient is immunosuppressed. Cutaneous leishmaniasis can have a number of particular features in individuals with immunosuppression, especially if severe, including parasite dissemination, clinical polymorphism with atypical and often more severe clinical forms, and even visceralization. Mucosal leishmaniasis is more common. Treatment of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis can be challenging, and systemic treatment is more often indicated. With globally increased travel and access to advanced medical care in developing countries, the leishmaniasis burden in immunosuppressed individuals will probably continue to rise, warranting increased awareness and enhanced surveillance systems. PMID:24450618

van Griensven, J; Carrillo, E; López-Vélez, R; Lynen, L; Moreno, J

2014-04-01

116

The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in Sichuan Province, southwestern China detected by real time PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in western China, and becoming an important public health concern. Infected dogs are the main reservoir for Leishmania infantum, and a potential sentinel for human VL in endemic areas. In the present study we investigated the prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs from Wenchuan, Heishui and Jiuzhaigou County in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which are important endemic areas of zoonotic VL, detected by real time PCR. The results will help to design control strategies against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs and humans. Results The overall prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs was 24.8% (78/314) in Sichuan Province, with the positive rate of 23.5% (23/98) in Wenchuan County, 28.2% (20/71) in Heishui County, and 24.1% (35/145) in Jiuzhaigou County, and no significant difference was observed among the three counties (P > 0.05). The dogs were further allocated to different groups based on sexes, ages and external clinical symptoms. The logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher prevalence was found in older and external symptomatic dogs, compared to that of younger and asymptomatic dogs (P < 0.05). Conclusions The results revealed that L. infantum infection in dogs is widespread in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which has a public health significance, due to its contribution to the transmission of the infection to humans by sandflies. It is necessary to take measures, including treatment or eradication of infected dogs, to control canine leishmaniasis, which could be helpful to reduce human VL in this area. PMID:21910882

2011-01-01

117

Visceral leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: eco-epidemiological aspects and control.  

PubMed

From 1977 (index case) to 2006, 87 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were confirmed in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in periurban areas on the continental and coastal slopes of the Pedra Branca massif and the continental slopes of the Gericinó massif. The majority (65.5%) of the patients were more than five years old, predominantly males (61.5%), but without any difference between the sexes below the age of 14 years. The overall fatality rate was 10.4%. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were detected. Leishmania chagasi was isolated from human and canine cases. The associations between the presence of phlebotomines and human and canine migrations, disorderly occupation involving degradation of environmental preservation areas and poor socioeconomic conditions may have created a favorable setting for the establishment and propagation of the disease. Close epidemiological surveillance associated with traditional control measures and others (active case researches, land clearing and health education), reduced the incidence of human cases from 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1981 to less than 0.01 per 100,000 since 1997. The canine infection rates decreased from 4.6% in 1984 to 1.6% in 2008. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected in some locations where human and canine cases occurred. In the years 2007 and 2008, no new human cases were reported, but there is a persistent and worrisome residual canine seroprevalence. PMID:19967242

Marzochi, Mauro Celio de Almeida; Fagundes, Aline; Andrade, Moacir Vieira de; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Marzochi, Keyla Belizia Feldman

2009-01-01

118

Wild, synanthropic and domestic hosts of Leishmania in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic, synanthropic and wild hosts of Leishmania spp. parasites were studied in an area endemic for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL), specifically in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Domestic dogs and small forest mammals are reservoir hosts for L. (Leishmania) infantum. However, the role that these animals play in the transmission cycle of the Leishmania spp. that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis is

Patrícia F. Quaresma; Felipe D. Rêgo; Helbert A. Botelho; Shara R. da Silva; Airton J. Moura; Rafael G. Teixeira Neto; Filipe M. Madeira; Maria Beatriz Carvalho; Adriano P. Paglia; Maria Norma Melo; Célia M. F. Ferreira Gontijo

2011-01-01

119

Canine rabies ecology in southern Africa.  

PubMed

Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio > or =1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in > or =1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids. PMID:16229759

Bingham, John

2005-09-01

120

Immunotherapy and Immunochemotherapy in Visceral Leishmaniasis: Promising Treatments for this Neglected Disease  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis has several clinical forms: self-healing or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; mucosal leishmaniasis; visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is fatal if left untreated. The epidemiology and clinical features of VL vary greatly due to the interaction of multiple factors including parasite strains, vectors, host genetics, and the environment. Human immunodeficiency virus infection augments the severity of VL increasing the risk of developing active disease by 100–2320 times. An effective vaccine for humans is not yet available. Resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in many regions, and the costs associated with drug identification and development, make commercial production for leishmaniasis, unattractive. The toxicity of currently drugs, their long treatment course, and limited efficacy are significant concerns. For cutaneous disease, many studies have shown promising results with immunotherapy/immunochemotherapy, aimed to modulate and activate the immune response to obtain a therapeutic cure. Nowadays, the focus of many groups centers on treating canine VL by using vaccines and immunomodulators with or without chemotherapy. In human disease, the use of cytokines like interferon-? associated with pentavalent antimonials demonstrated promising results in patients that did not respond to conventional treatment. In mice, immunomodulation based on monoclonal antibodies to remove endogenous immunosuppressive cytokines (interleukin-10) or block their receptors, antigen-pulsed syngeneic dendritic cells, or biological products like Pam3Cys (TLR ligand) has already been shown as a prospective treatment of the disease. This review addresses VL treatment, particularly immunotherapy and/or immunochemotherapy as an alternative to conventional drug treatment in experimental models, canine VL, and human disease. PMID:24982655

Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Ker, Henrique Gama; Moreira, Nadia das Dores; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

2014-01-01

121

Resurgence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001-2012.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. After a 15-year period of moderate illness rates, reported incidence increased from 0.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2001 to 4.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2012, and the disease emerged in areas where its presence had previously been minimal. We analyzed all cases reported to the national surveillance system and found that outbreak patterns revealed an expansion of Leishmania major infections over large areas in the southern part of the country and the occurrence of spatially focused L. tropica outbreaks in the northern part of the country. Outbreaks often followed new construction in populated areas. Further study of factors affecting the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed in Israel, as well as the development of effective methods to control the disease, an increase in awareness among health care professionals, and intensive public education regarding control measures in areas of known leishmaniasis foci. PMID:25271882

Gandacu, Dan; Glazer, Yael; Anis, Emilia; Karakis, Isabella; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul; Grotto, Itamar

2014-10-01

122

Resurgence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001-2012  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. After a 15-year period of moderate illness rates, reported incidence increased from 0.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2001 to 4.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2012, and the disease emerged in areas where its presence had previously been minimal. We analyzed all cases reported to the national surveillance system and found that outbreak patterns revealed an expansion of Leishmania major infections over large areas in the southern part of the country and the occurrence of spatially focused L. tropica outbreaks in the northern part of the country. Outbreaks often followed new construction in populated areas. Further study of factors affecting the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed in Israel, as well as the development of effective methods to control the disease, an increase in awareness among health care professionals, and intensive public education regarding control measures in areas of known leishmaniasis foci. PMID:25271882

Gandacu, Dan; Anis, Emilia; Karakis, Isabella; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul; Grotto, Itamar

2014-01-01

123

Drug Resistance in Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with visceral and cutaneous manifestations, and is caused by over 15 different species of the protozoan parasite genus Leishmania. There are significant differences in the sensitivity of these species both to the standard drugs, for example, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine, and those on clinical trial, for example, paromomycin. Over 60% of patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar State, India, do not respond to treatment with pentavalent antimonials. This is now considered to be due to acquired resistance. Although this class of drugs has been used for over 60 years for leishmaniasis treatment, it is only in the past 2 years that the mechanisms of action and resistance have been identified, related to drug metabolism, thiol metabolism, and drug efflux. With the introduction of new therapies, including miltefosine in 2002 and paromomycin in 2005-2006, it is essential that there be a strategy to prevent the emergence of resistance to new drugs; combination therapy, monitoring of therapy, and improved diagnostics could play an essential role in this strategy. PMID:16418526

Croft, Simon L.; Sundar, Shyam; Fairlamb, Alan H.

2006-01-01

124

Diagnosis and management of oral leishmaniasis--case series and literature review.  

PubMed

The worldwide prevalence of leishmaniasis is increasing because of ecologic changes and increased medical profession awareness. Furthermore, solitary cases have been recently reported in Western countries. The authors describe the epidemiology, mode of transmission, and diagnosis of leishmaniasis and present 4 oral cases treated with systemic, localized, or combined therapy. The authors suggest that clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for atypical, resistant, oral and perioral lesions in individuals with a history of traveling in certain geographic regions. After diagnosis, treatment should be determined jointly by experts from the fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery, oral medicine, and dermatology based on leishmaniasis species and clinical presentation. PMID:24480757

Nadler, Chen; Enk, Claes D; Leon, Gilead T; Samuni, Yuval; Maly, Alexander; Czerninski, Rakefet

2014-05-01

125

Characterization of canine neutrophil granules.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to isolate distinct populations of canine neutrophil granules and to compare them with neutrophil granules from other species. Size, shape, density, and content of canine neutrophil granules were determined. Neutrophils obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque sedimentation were homogenized, and granule populations were separated by isopycnic centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient (rho, 1.14 to 1.22 g/ml). The most dense granule population (rho, 1.197 g/ml) contained all of the myeloperoxidase, beta-glucuronidase, and elastase, more than half of the acid beta-glycerophosphatase, and most of the lysozyme. The population with intermediate density (rho, 1.179 g/ml) contained lactoferrin, vitamin B12-binding protein, and the remainder of the acid beta-glycerophosphatase and lysozyme. The least dense granule population did not contain a major peak of any of the enzymes or binding proteins tested but was distinguished by density and morphology. The size and shape of the granules were determined from scanning electron micrographs and assessment of shape was aided by transmission electron micrographs. By these methods three populations of canine neutrophil granules were characterized and named: myeloperoxidase granules, vitamin B12-binding protein granules, and low-density granules. Images PMID:6292095

O'Donnell, R T; Andersen, B R

1982-01-01

126

Spatial analysis for identification of priority areas for surveillance and control in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Brazil.  

PubMed

Spatial analysis of epidemiological data may be used to assist in the implementation of surveillance and control measures against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in endemic areas. This ecological study aimed to identify priority areas for surveillance and control of VL in São Luís, the capital of the state of Maranhão in northeast Brazil, a highly endemic area for the disease. We evaluated the spatial structure of the incidence rates of human VL and of the mean number of human and canine cases occurring between 2005 and 2007 in 355 neighborhoods (aggregated into 203 geographical analytical units) within the municipality. The presence of spatial autocorrelation was explored using global and local Moran's I statistics. A local indicator of spatial autocorrelation was used to generate maps for the identification of VL clusters. The global Moran's I index revealed a weak, but statistically significant spatial autocorrelation for human VL incidence rates (I=0.138). A total of 43 geographical analytical units, encompassing 121 neighborhoods, were identified as priority areas for implementing surveillance and control actions. For the purpose of defining an action plan for the delivery of these measures, those 16 geographical analytical units (encompassing 54 neighborhoods) identified as clusters with high incidence rates of human VL should receive the highest priority. An additional nine geographical analytical units (comprising 28 neighborhoods) showed non-significant clustering of high rates of human, and might be considered as the next priority for VL management. Finally, a further 18 geographical analytical units (covering 39 neighborhoods) had records of coexisting human and canine VL cases during the study period, and these should receive priority attention when resources become available. Spatial data analysis is a valuable tool for defining priority areas for VL surveillance in high transmission areas contributing to a more effective management of financial and technical resources, increasing the sustainability and efficiency of control efforts. PMID:24342506

Barbosa, David Soeiro; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Rangel, Maurício Eduardo Salgado; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

2014-03-01

127

Parasitic genotypes appear to differ in leishmaniasis patients compared with asymptomatic related carriers.  

PubMed

For numerous infectious diseases affecting humans, clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic forms to severe pathologies. The originality of this study was its focus on asymptomatic carriers of Leishmania infantum in southern France. The fundamental interest in these asymptomatic carriers is that they can be a reservoir of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. It remains to be established whether the parasitic genomes from asymptomatic carriers differ from those of patients. Multilocus microsatellite typing was used to investigate the genetic variation among 36 French strains of L. infantum. Nine Leishmania strains isolated from blood donors (asymptomatic carriers) were compared with 27 strains of L. infantum belonging to zymodemes, MON-1, -33 and -183. These strains were isolated from HIV positive or negative patients with visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, from canine leishmaniasis or from phlebotomine sandflies. Multilocus microsatellite typing data generated using 33 loci were analyzed by a Bayesian model-based clustering algorithm and construction of a phylogenetic tree based on genetic distances. Both analyses structured the MON-1 sample into two main clusters. Furthermore, genetic analysis demonstrated that these nine asymptomatic carrier strains are divided into two clusters grouped with the MON-1 strains. One cluster with seven strains is related to, but different from, human symptomatic strains from the Alpes-Maritimes region whereas the other cluster has the two remaining strains together with canine leishmaniasis strains as well as one strain from a visceral leishmaniasis patient. Genetic diversity among asymptomatic carrier was very weak since the nine Leishmania strains belong to only two genotypes. Genetic differentiations were evidenced between asymptomatic carrier strains and non-asymptomatic carrier strains and especially between asymptomatic carrier and HIV+ populations, although these findings require confirmation with a larger sample size. We believe that our data explore for the first time, the genetic diversity among L. infantum from asymptomatic human carriers and reveal a weak polymorphism compared with Leishmania parasites isolated from human patients. PMID:23380201

Hide, M; Marion, E; Pomares, C; Fisa, R; Marty, P; Bañuls, A L

2013-04-01

128

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in three Dutch military cohorts following jungle training in Belize.  

PubMed

Skin lesions occur frequently in travelers to tropical countries. Military personnel acquire skin lesions regularly during jungle training as did Dutch troops who trained in the jungle of Belize in 1998, 2004 and 2009, in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively. Diagnostic investigations for cutaneous leishmaniasis included Giemsa stain, culture, PCR and NASBA and histopathology of biopsies. Treatment of leishmaniasis was with sodium stibogluconate, given intravenously or intralesionally, the latter with cryotherapy. In 1998 and 2004 cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania mexicana infection was diagnosed in 25 persons out of 99 (attack rate 25.2%) and 14 persons out of 80 (attack rate 17.5%) respectively. In 2009 cutaneous leishmaniasis was not acquired. Skin problems were common during and after jungle training. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was important in the first two cohorts but not observed in the third cohort. Factors that could have played a role in the absence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the third cohort include variability in transmission and availability of better preventive measures and adherence to these. Sodium stibogluconate treatment, intralesional or intravenous, was effective. PMID:21450527

van Thiel, P P A M; Zeegelaar, J E; van Gool, T; Faber, W R; Kager, P A

2011-05-01

129

Recent developments in Leishmaniasis: Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outbreaks of cutaneous disease caused by Leishmania tropica in Afghan refugees, visceral disease in Sudanese refugees,\\u000a and cutaneous disease caused by Leishmania major in American forces in Iraq are examples of the large number of cases of leishmaniasis\\u000a that can result when naïve human populations intrude into regions where transmission is endemic. Injections of pentavalent\\u000a antimony for 20 to

Jonathan Berman

2005-01-01

130

The Relationship between Leishmaniasis and AIDS: the Second 10 Years  

PubMed Central

Summary: To date, most Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection cases reported to WHO come from Southern Europe. Up to the year 2001, nearly 2,000 cases of coinfection were identified, of which 90% were from Spain, Italy, France, and Portugal. However, these figures are misleading because they do not account for the large proportion of cases in many African and Asian countries that are missed due to a lack of diagnostic facilities and poor reporting systems. Most cases of coinfection in the Americas are reported in Brazil, where the incidence of leishmaniasis has spread in recent years due to overlap with major areas of HIV transmission. In some areas of Africa, the number of coinfection cases has increased dramatically due to social phenomena such as mass migration and wars. In northwest Ethiopia, up to 30% of all visceral leishmaniasis patients are also infected with HIV. In Asia, coinfections are increasingly being reported in India, which also has the highest global burden of leishmaniasis and a high rate of resistance to antimonial drugs. Based on the previous experience of 20 years of coinfection in Europe, this review focuses on the management of Leishmania-HIV-coinfected patients in low-income countries where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:18400800

Alvar, Jorge; Aparicio, Pilar; Aseffa, Abraham; Den Boer, Margriet; Canavate, Carmen; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Gradoni, Luigi; Ter Horst, Rachel; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Moreno, Javier

2008-01-01

131

Epidemiologic Aspects of an Emerging Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Tbilisi, Georgia  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last 15 years, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has emerged as a public health concern in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. Methodology/Principal Findings Seroepidemiological surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence and incidence of infection in children and dogs within the main focus of VL, and to identify risk factors associated with human infection. Of 4,250 children investigated, 7.3% were positive by direct agglutination test in a baseline survey; an apparent incidence rate of 6.0% was estimated by one year follow-up. None of the seropositive children progressed to VL during the survey. Increased seropositivity at one year was predicted by presence at baseline of clustered flying insects (OR?=?1.49; P?=?0.001), perceived satisfactory sanitation (OR?=?1.65; P<0.001), stray dogs (OR?=?1.33; P?=?0.023), and by persistent fever during the 6 months prior to baseline survey (OR?=?14.2; P<0.001). Overall, 18.2% (107/588) of domestic and 15.3% (110/718) of stray dogs were seropositive by the rk39 dipstick test. Clinical VL signs were found in 1.3% of domestic and 2.9% of stray, seropositive dogs. Parasites isolated from human and dog samples were identified by PCR and phylogenetic analysis of the Leishmania 70 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP70) gene as Leishmania infantum. Conclusions/Significance There is an active focus of L. infantum transmission in Tbilisi with a high prevalence of human and canine infections. PMID:22180796

Giorgobiani, Ekaterina; Chitadze, Nazibrola; Chanturya, Gvantsa; Grdzelidze, Marina; Jochim, Ryan C.; Machablishvili, Anna; Tushishvili, Tsiuri; Zedginidze, Yulia; Manjgaladze, Marina K.; Iashvili, Nino; Makharadze, Manana P.; Zakaraya, Tsiuri; Kikaleishvili, Konstantin; Markhvashvili, Ivan; Badashvili, Goderdzi; Daraselia, Teymuraz; Fay, Michael P.; Kamhawi, Shaden; Sacks, David

2011-01-01

132

Modified direct agglutination test for simplified serologic diagnosis of leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Human leishmaniasis is a severe health problem in many countries around the world. Hence, a cheap, reliable, and accurate diagnostic test is required to fight this disease. Perhaps the direct agglutination test (DAT) meets these criteria, but antigen elaboration involves many difficulties. We have developed a new antigen elaboration method, the EasyDAT method, that avoids the problems associated with the DAT. In this study, we compared the traditional DAT antigen method with our EasyDAT antigen method by using canine sera. The sensitivities (100%) and specificities (98.7%) were the same for both methods; we therefore concluded that the EasyDAT Leishmania antigen method simplifies serologic diagnosis, making this method easier and cheaper to use. PMID:12965935

Gómez-Ochoa, P; Castillo, J A; Lucientes, J; Gascón, M; Zarate, J J; Arbea, J I; Larraga, V; Rodriguez, C

2003-09-01

133

[Nasolaryngotracheal mucosal leishmaniasis in an adolescent].  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a growing public health problem and it produces a great social impact. Laryngeal leishmaniasis without obvious gateway is rare; especially in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of laryngeal leishmaniasis with tracheal involvement and stenosis on a previously healthy teenager without environmental or personal risk factors. PMID:24862817

Forero, Mario; Pérez, Alexandra; Barajas, Norma C; Leyva, Yenny A; Zamora, Carlos

2014-06-01

134

Key Facts about Canine Influenza (Dog Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... dogs, not of humans. What is a canine influenza virus? The â??canine influenza virusâ? is an influenza ... Where can I find more information on canine influenza virus? More information on canine influenza in pet dogs ...

135

Visceral leishmaniasis-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a traveler returning from a pilgrimage to the camino de santiago.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 73-year-old American traveler who presented with 3?weeks of fatigue, fevers, chills, and pancytopenia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with hemophagocytic lymphohystiocytosis (HLH) and bone marrow biopsy revealed amastigotes consistent with visceral leishmaniasis. The range of endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission now extends into northern Spain and travelers to this region should use personal protective measures against sand fly exposure. PMID:25145768

Watkins, Emily R; Shamasunder, Sriram; Cascino, Thomas; White, Kristie L; Katrak, Shereen; Bern, Caryn; Schwartz, Brian S

2014-11-01

136

Factors associated with the seroprevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs living around Atlantic Forest fragments.  

PubMed

Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the control of visceral leishmaniasis in rural zones near forest fragments. PMID:25089629

Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

2014-01-01

137

Rhinophymous leishmaniasis: A new variant.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is known for its wide clinical spectrum. The nose is one of the usual sites where the disease can present in many forms, such as psoriasiform plaques, furunculoid nodules, lupoid plaques, and erysipeloid or mucocutaneous types. We present a new morphology, i.e. rhinophyma-like plaque in an elderly male patient who presented with a large infiltrated plaque involving his nose and the adjoining area of his upper lip. It appeared to be rhinophyma of the nose but was diagnosed as cutaneous leishmaniasis after the demonstration of leishmania parasites in a skin smear preparation; he was treated satisfactorily with antimonials. PMID:19379654

Ul Bari, Arfan; Ejaz, Amer

2009-01-01

138

New World leishmaniasis from Spain.  

PubMed

A 69 year old man living in Spain contracted mucocutaneous leishmaniasis involving the nose. The infecting organism was Leishmania infantum, which only rarely causes the New World form of the disease. The source of infection was probably a neighbour's dog. The patient began treatment with liposomal amphotericin B but died of pneumonia two months later. PMID:12509697

Tomson, N; Symonds, R P; Moir, A A; Kendall, C H; Wiselka, M J

2002-12-01

139

Leishmaniasis: efflux pumps and chemoresistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance of parasitic protozoa such as Leishmania to therapeutic drugs continues to escalate in developing countries. Treatment programs for human leishmaniasis are still based on pentavalent antimonials but resistance to these compounds has been a persistent problem. In many instances, resistance of the parasite is due to over-expressed ABC efflux pumps. In Leishmania different classes of ABC transporters extrude antimonials,

Clara Leandro; Lenea Campino

2003-01-01

140

Possible implication of the genetic composition of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) populations in the epidemiology of the visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the principal vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Several studies have indicated that the Lu. longipalpis population structure is complex. It has been suggested that genetic divergence caused by genetic drift, selection, or both may affect the vectorial capacity of Lu. longipalpis. However, it remains unclear whether genetic differences among Lu. longipalpis populations are directly implicated in the transmission features of visceral leishmaniasis. We evaluated the genetic composition and the patterns of genetic differentiation among Lu. longipalpis populations collected from regions with different patterns of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis by analyzing the sequence variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Furthermore, we investigated the temporal distribution of haplotypes and compared our results with those obtained in a previous study. Our data indicate that there are differences in the haplotype composition and that there has been significant differentiation between the analyzed populations. Our results reveal that measures used to control visceral leishmaniasis might have influenced the genetic composition of the vector population. This finding raises important questions concerning the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis, because these differences in the genetic structures among populations of Lu. longipalpis may have implications with respect to their efficiency as vectors for visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:21936320

Rocha, Leonardo de Souza; Falqueto, Aloisio; Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Grimaldi, Gabriel Júnior; Cupolillo, Elisa

2011-09-01

141

The Canine Oral Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

2012-01-01

142

Treatment of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed Central

Up-to-date information is given on the epidemiological situation of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in nine Mediterranean countries, and on drug regimens adopted in the management of ZVL patients in each country. Results of experimental and clinical trials on the efficacy and tolerability of liposomal amphotericin B in laboratory animals and in patients with ZVL are presented, as well as conclusions and recommendations on drug regimens to be used in the treatment of ZVL. PMID:7743590

Gradoni, L.; Bryceson, A.; Desjeux, P.

1995-01-01

143

Portal hypertension with visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted this study to observe evidence of portal hypertension in children with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Eighty-eight\\u000a consecutive cases (50 male) of VL were subjected to ultrasonography. Those with evidence of portal hypertension also underwent\\u000a upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and liver biopsy. Eight patients had portal hypertension as evidenced by dilated caliber\\u000a of portal and splenic veins. Two patients had periportal,

Rajniti Prasad; Utpal Kant Singh; O. P. Mishra; B. P. Jaiswal; Sunil Muthusami

2010-01-01

144

A review of leishmaniasis in Dalmatia (Croatia) and results from recent surveys on phlebotomine sandflies in three southern counties.  

PubMed

Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a re-emerging disease in the Mediterranean area. A historical review on human and canine leishmaniasis in Croatia documents the presence of stable disease foci in coastal and insular territories of central and southern Dalmatia since the beginning of the 20th century. We report on a 3-year entomological investigation (2002-2004) aimed to study the current species composition and seasonality of phlebotomine sandflies in 10 localities of Dalmatia. Standard blacklight traps employed for sampling Culicoides midges in the frame of bluetongue disease surveillance were used for the first time in phlebotomine monitoring. A total of 2917 sandflies were collected and five species were identified, Phlebotomus tobbi, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus mascittii and Sergentomyia minuta. Among the species, which may act as Leishmania infantum vectors, P. tobbi and P. neglectus were the most abundant. PMID:16876101

Bosni?, Sanja; Gradoni, Luigi; Khoury, Cristina; Maroli, Michele

2006-08-01

145

A novel bocavirus in canine liver  

E-print Network

mammalian hosts, may reflect their ori- gins from different cross-species transmissions. The de- tection of CnBoV3 in liver tissue indicated that the virus had likely breached the mucosal barrier of the typical sites of bocavirus replication.... Binn LN, Lazar EC, Eddy GA, Kajima M: Recovery and characterization of a minute virus of canines. Infect Immun 1970, 1:503–508. 22. Segales J: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections: clinical signs, pathology and laboratory diagnosis. Virus Res...

Li, Linlin; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Estrada, Marko; Coffey, Lark L.; Naccache, Samia N.; Samayoa, Erik; Chiu, Charles; Qiu, Jianming; Wang, Chunlin; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric

2013-02-13

146

Canine intervertebral disc degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Due to advancements in veterinary care and veterinary\\u000adiets in the last four decades, dogs that are kept as companion animals\\u000ahave reached a life expectancy of 10 to 15 years. Together with\\u000aintensive breeding of chondrodystrophic and non-chondrodystrophic\\u000adogs canine intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) has become an\\u000aincreasingly important veterinary disorder.\\u000aMethods: IVDD occurs as a clinical entity

B. P. Meij; L. A. Smolders; N. Bergknut

2010-01-01

147

Canine Cyclic Neutropenia  

PubMed Central

Two normal collie dogs were given 1,200 R total body irradiation followed by successful marrow grafts from their grey collie littermates with cyclic hematopoiesis. During observation periods of 97 and 41 days after grafting, both previously normal recipients showed regular cyclic fluctuations of their granulocyte and reticulocyte counts similar to those observed in their donors. These findings suggest that canine cyclic neutropenia is due to a defect in the marrow stem cell. PMID:4591036

Weiden, Paul L.; Robinett, Barbra; Graham, Theodore C.; Adamson, John; Storb, Rainer

1974-01-01

148

Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania infection in naturally infected sand flies in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unknown. Methods 2650 sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and identified morphologically. The identified sand flies were tested for Leishmania infection by nested PCR. The source of blood meal of 10 freshly engorged females: 6 Phlebotomus longicuspis and 4 Phlebotomus sergenti, was determined using the Cyt b sequence. Results The collected sand flies consisted of 10 species, seven of which belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and three to the genus Sergentomyia. The most abundant species was P. longicuspis, accounting for 72% of the total sand flies collected. In females of three P. longicuspis and four P. sergenti, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica DNA was detected, respectively. The source of blood meal of engorged females showed that all sand flies tested fed on humans. Conclusions We report for the first time the natural infection of P. longicuspis with L. infantum in Morocco. The high frequency of this species in this region, in addition to its anthropophilic character make P. longicuspis the putative vector of L. infantum in this cutaneous leishmaniasis focus where L. tropica is confirmed as the causative agent of the disease and P. sergenti as its vector. The presence of L. infantum, and its presumed vector in this area, makes this a site of high risk of visceral leishmaniasis, mostly because of the proximity of a focus of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:24990497

2014-01-01

149

American canine hepatozoonosis.  

PubMed

American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:14557294

Ewing, S A; Panciera, R J

2003-10-01

150

[Visceral leishmaniasis in Argentina. Cases notification and distribution of vectors (2006-2012)].  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a notifiable disease in Argentina. Every new case diagnosed must be reported to the National Health Surveillance System. In the period 2006-2012, a total of 103 cases have been notified in four provinces: Entre Rios, Santa Fe, Misiones and Santiago del Estero. Misiones has the largest amount of cases: a total of 80, detected in 15 towns from May 2006 to July 2012. The highest incidence is observed in children (less than 15 years of age). In 2004 the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis was detected for the first time in Formosa Province. Cases of human and canine VL, as well as the presence of the canine vector were reported in 2006 in the province of Misiones, and in 2008-2009 in the province of Corrientes. In Santiago del Estero cases of human and canine VL (2008) were possibly associated with secondary vectors. In 2010 Lu longipalpis was found in Entre Rios, showing its dispersal to the south. Between January and April 2011 a systematic search of the VL vector was carried out in 13 towns, in Entre Ríos, Santa Fe and Santiago del Estero Provinces (275 traps/night). The colonization of the vector Lu longipalpis was proved in Chajarí town (Entre Rios), but not in Santiago del Estero Province, where Migonemyia migonei appears as a putative LV vector. PMID:23570757

Gould, Ignacio T; Perner, Mónica S; Santini, María S; Saavedra, Silvina B; Bezzi, Gisella; Maglianese, Mariana I; Antman, Julián G; Gutiérrez, Jorge A; Salomón, Oscar D

2013-01-01

151

Diagnostic dilemma of primary mucosal leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania protozoa. It is widely present in more than 88 countries worldwide, resulting in up to 80,000 deaths annually. Leishmaniasis occurs as visceral, cutaneous, or mucocutaneous variants. Mucosal involvement can occur secondarily to the cutaneous or visceral varieties. However, primary mucosal leishmaniasis (PML) occurs without any present or past cutaneous and or visceral disease. It is extremely rare, and its diagnosis may present a serious challenge. It may be difficult to differentiate it from granulomatous conditions like tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, leprosy, fungal infections, Wegener's granuloma, and neoplasms. Here, we present a case of PML in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23147884

Al-Qahtani, Mubarak S; Malik, Nadeem W; Jamil, Salim; Mekki, Taj E

2012-11-01

152

Transverse mode analysis of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy of canine hemangiosarcoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) uses the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic optical resonator to distinguish cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Based on their distinctive characteristic transmission spectra, canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been differentiated using the OFIS technique with high statistical significance (p<10- 6). 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity were achieved simultaneously. A cell lens model explains trends in the transverse mode pattern in the transmission spectra of HSA cells and allows extraction of cell focal length.

Wang, Weina; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kisker, David W.; Lear, Kevin L.

2010-02-01

153

Drug Resistance in Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis remains a public health problem worldwide. This illness was included by the World Health Organization in the list of neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination by 2015. The widespread emergence of resistance to pentavalent antimonials in India where half cases occur globally and the unavailability of a vaccine in clinical use constitute major obstacles in achieving this goal. The last decade new antileishmanials became available, including the oral agent miltefosine. However, in poor endemic countries their wide use was curtailed because of the high costs, and also due to concerns of toxicity and emergence of resistance. Various mechanisms of antileishmanial resistance were identified recently in field isolates. Their elucidation will boost the design of new drugs and the molecular surveillance of resistance. Combination regimens should be evaluated in large trials. Overall, the development of antileishmanials has been generally slow; new drugs are needed. In order to control visceral leishmaniasis worldwide, treatment advances should become affordable in the poorest countries, where they are needed most. PMID:19888437

Maltezou, Helena C.

2010-01-01

154

American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis: Effectiveness of an Immunohistochemical Protocol for the Detection of Leishmania in Skin  

PubMed Central

Background American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic in Latin America, where Brazil has over 27 thousand cases per year. The aim of the present study was to develop an immunohistochemical method (IHC) for ATL diagnosis. For this purpose, we used serum from a dog naturally infected with Leishmania (L) infantum (canine hyperimmune serum) as the primary antibody, followed by a detection system with a secondary biotinylated antibody. Methodology Skin samples were obtained from 73 patients in an endemic area of Caratinga, Minas Gerais (MG) State, Brazil all testing positive for ATL with the Montenegro skin test, microscopy, and PCR. Canine hyperimmune serum of a dog naturally infected with Leishmania (L.) infantum was employed as a primary antibody in an immunohistochemical diagnostic method using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase. To assess the specificity of this reaction, IHC assays employing two monoclonal antibodies were carried out. As the polymer-based technology is less time-consuming and labor intensive than the IHC labeled streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method, we compared the two methods for all samples. Results The IHC method detected ATL in 67 of the 73 cases (91.8%). Immunolabeled parasites were primarily detected inside macrophages either in the superficial or the deep dermis. Detection was facilitated by the high contrast staining of amastigotes (dark brown) against the light blue background. A lower detection rate (71.2%) was observed with the both of the monoclonal Leishmania antibodies compared to the canine hyperimmune serum. This may have been due to a non-specific background staining observed in all histological samples rendering positive detection more difficult. The higher efficacy of the canine hyperimmune serum in the IHC method was confirmed by the method using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase as well as that with the polymer-based technology (biotin-avidin-free system). Conclusions The data are encouraging with regard to validating IHC as a standard alternative method for ATL diagnosis. PMID:23704900

Alves, Cibele Fontes; Alves, Cintia Fontes; Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Souza, Carolina Carvalho; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Melo, Maria Norma; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Raso, Pedro; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

2013-01-01

155

A Review of Preventative Methods against Human Leishmaniasis Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmaniasis is an intracellular parasitic infection transmitted to humans via the sandfly. Approximately 350 million people are at risk of contracting the disease and an estimated 1.6 million new cases occur annually. Of the two main forms, visceral and cutaneous, the visceral form is fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. Aims This literature review aims to identify and evaluate the current evidence base for the use of various preventative methods against human leishmaniasis. Methods A literature search was performed of the relevant database repositories for primary research conforming to a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 84 controlled studies investigating 12 outcome measures were identified, implementing four broad categories of preventative interventions: animal reservoir control, vector population control, human reservoir control and a category for multiple concurrently implemented interventions. The primary studies investigated a heterogeneous mix of outcome measures using a range of different methods. Conclusions This review highlights an absence of research measuring human-specific outcomes (35% of the total) across all intervention categories. The apparent inability of study findings to be generalizable across different geographic locations, points towards gaps in knowledge regarding the biology of transmission of Leishmania in different settings. More research is needed which investigates human infection as the primary outcome measure as opposed to intermediate surrogate markers, with a focus on developing a human vaccine. PMID:23818997

Stockdale, Lisa; Newton, Robert

2013-01-01

156

Visceral leishmaniasis in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis, in Greece, represents a relatively rare, potentially fatal clinical entity. Here we describe a case of visceral leishmaniasis infection in a 65-year old Greek male with psoriatic arthritis treated with methotrexate, who presented with high grade fever, chills, splenomegaly, pancytopenia and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia. A diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis was finally established. Visceral leishmaniasis should be included in the differential diagnosis for infections in patients receiving methotrexate for rheumatic diseases, especially in endemic areas. PMID:25269966

Hadjipetrou, Athanasios; Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Gkogkou, Argyro; Palla, Katerina; Lagoudaki, Eirini; Milonaki, Theoharoula; Kastanakis, Serafim

2014-09-01

157

First case of autochthonous human visceral leishmaniasis in the urban center of Rio de Janeiro: case report.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement. PMID:24553614

Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes de; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

2014-01-01

158

[Uncommon clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis].  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most common dermatoses of the tropics. A major focus of this disease is the Syrian city of Aleppo, after which it was named in many textbooks ("Aleppo boil"). The first cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were reported from Aleppo particularly more than 100 years ago. Syria is one of the most affected countries worldwide. This disease used to be well documented until the onset of the war in Syria in 2012, which is also supported by the numbers of the World Health Organisation (WHO), and Aleppo used to be the most affected Syrian city. Since 2012, the documentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Syria is no longer possible. An outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis has been detected especially in the besieged regions due to missing prevention measures against the sandflies and a lack of medical care. A short summary of the epidemiologic situation in Syria as well as outstanding and uncommon clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Aleppo are presented. PMID:25115981

Hayani, K; Dandashli, A; Weisshaar, E

2014-10-01

159

Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

Dantas-Torres, Filipe

2008-01-01

160

The Biology and Control of Leishmaniasis Vectors  

PubMed Central

Vector control remains a key component of many anti-leishmaniasis programs and probably will remain so until an effective vaccine becomes available. Technologies similar to those used for control of adult mosquitoes, specifically interior residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets, are currently at the forefront as disease control measures. This article provides a review of literature on the biology and control of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the context of changing disease risks and the realities of modern vector control. The Literature Retrieval System of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Washington, DC, was the primary search engine used to review the literature. PMID:20606968

Claborn, David M

2010-01-01

161

Serosurvey of veterinary conference participants for evidence of zoonotic exposure to canine norovirus - study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Noroviruses have emerged as the leading cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Person-to-person contact and consumption of contaminated food are considered the most important ways of transmission of noroviruses however zoonotic transmission has been suggested. Recently, noroviruses have been found in dogs which, unlike bovine and swine noroviruses, may present a higher risk of zoonotic transfer, given to the often close contacts between humans and pet dogs in many societies across the world. The present paper describes a seroepidemiologic study aiming to provide information on the exposure level of humans to canine norovirus. Methods/Design A case–control study was designed to address the potential exposure to canine norovirus based on the presence of antibodies against canine norovirus. Sera from veterinarians (a population repeatedly in close contact with dogs) will be collected in an annual Veterinary Sciences Congress in Portugal. In addition, sera from general population will be obtained and used as controls for comparative purposes. All sera will be tested for the presence of canine norovirus antibodies using a virus-like particle-based enzyme immune assay. Risk factors for canine norovirus antibodies presence in veterinarians will be investigated through the delivery of an anonymized questionnaire to the participants. Discussion The present study aims to identify seropositive individuals to canine norovirus and to assess risk profiles among veterinary professionals with occupational exposure to dogs. To our knowledge this is the first study providing information on the potential zoonotic risk of canine norovirus, thus allowing the development of preventive measures and ascertaining potential risks for Public Health resulting from contact to dogs. PMID:23110789

2012-01-01

162

Balancing immunity and pathology in visceral leishmaniasis  

E-print Network

spectrum of diseases collectively known as leishmaniasis that are a significant health problem worldwide-flagellated replicative amastigote form of the parasite. The diseases caused by Leishmania parasites range from cutaneous year and over 90% of these cases occur in Brazil, Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sudan. However, owing

Cai, Long

163

Value of diagnostic techniques for cutaneous leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Traditional diagnostic tests, ie, smear, culture, and histopathology of a skin biopsy specimen, are not always conclusive in patients with a clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Objective: Our purpose was to find out if a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for Leishmania organisms might be more sensitive than the traditional diagnostic techniques, thereby decreasing the number of false-negative

William R. Faber; Linda Oskam; Tom van Gool; Nel C. M. Kroon; Kristine J. Knegt-Junk; Henk Hofwegen; Allard C. van der Wal; Piet A. Kager

2003-01-01

164

Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Bihar, India  

PubMed Central

To identify factors associated with incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), we surveyed 13,416 households in Bihar State, India. VL was associated with socioeconomic status, type of housing, and belonging to the Musahar caste. Annual coverage of indoor residual insecticide spraying was 12%. Increasing such spraying can greatly contribute to VL control. PMID:23017164

Singh, Shri Prakash; Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Gidwani, Kamlesh; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Menten, Joris; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

2012-01-01

165

Widespread atypical cutaneous Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (L.) Chagasi in Nicaragua.  

PubMed

Leishmania chagasi, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, has recently been associated with atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Central America; however, little comprehensive information about this disease is available. Clinical, epidemiologic, and parasitologic characteristics of 252 ACL cases and 44 VL cases in Nicaragua were analyzed. Visceral leishmaniasis is primarily associated with malnourished children less than five years of age, whereas ACL is found predominantly in children greater than five years of age and young adults. Genetically similar parasites are associated with both disease manifestations. The sand fly Lutzomyia evansi, in addition to Lu. longipalpis, may be involved in transmission of L. chagasi to humans. Our results indicate that ACL is more prevalent than previously thought, affecting up to 10% of a local population. The fact that the same parasite appears to cause both ACL and the potentially fatal visceral disease suggests that the host immune response is critical in determining the outcome of L. chagasi infection. The public health implications of the wide-spread presence of L. chagasi are discussed. PMID:10497975

Belli, A; García, D; Palacios, X; Rodriguez, B; Valle, S; Videa, E; Tinoco, E; Marín, F; Harris, E

1999-09-01

166

Caseating Granulomas in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Caseating granulomas are often associated with a mycobacterial infection (TB) and are thought to be exceedingly rare in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, no large series has accurately documented the incidence of caseating granulomas in CL. Methods A multiregional cohort consisting of 317 patients with CL [Syria (157), Pakistan (66), Lebanon (47), Saudi Arabia (43), Ethiopia (2) and Iran (2)] was reviewed. Clinical [age, sex, disease duration, lesion type and geographic and anatomic location] and microscopic data [presence of and type of granuloma, Ridley's parasitic index (PI) and pattern (RP)] were documented. Presence of microorganisms was evaluated using special stains (GMS, PAS, AFB and Gram) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for TB and CL. All cases included in this study were confirmed as CL by PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for molecular speciation and were negative for other organisms by all other studies performed. Categorical and continuous factors were compared for granuloma types using Chi-square, t-test or Mann-Whitney test as appropriate. Results Granulomas were identified in 195 (61.5%) cases of CL and these were divided to 49 caseating (25.2%), 9 suppurative (4.6%) and 137 tuberculoid without necrosis (70.2%). Caseating and tuberculoid granuloma groups were significantly different in terms of the geographical source, with more cases harboring caseating granulomas in Saudi Arabia (p<0.0001). Histologically, both groups were also different in the distribution of their RP (p<0.0001) with a doubling RP3 in caseating granulomas (31% vs. 15%) as opposed to doubling of RP5 in tuberculoid granuloma group (38% vs. 19%). Time needed to achieve healing (RP5) was notably shorter in tuberculoid vs. caseating group (4.0 vs. 6.2 months). Parasitic Index, CL species and other considered variables did not differ for the granuloma type groups. Conclusion In our multiregional large cohort, a notable 18.2% of all CL cases harbored caseating granulomas therefore; CL should be considered part of the differential diagnosis for cases with caseating granulomas in endemic regions, especially considering that the regions included in our cohort are also endemic for TB. Of note, cases of CL with caseating granulomas also showed a slower healing process, with no association with specific species, which may be due to worse host immune response in such cases or to a more aggressive leishmania strains. PMID:25340702

Aoun, Jessica; Habib, Robert; Charaffeddine, Khalil; Taraif, Suad; Loya, Asif; Khalifeh, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

167

Identification and Characterization of Canine Dendritic Cells Generated In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence suggests that host dendritic cells (DC) initiate and regulate graft-versus-host and graft-versus-tumor reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Even though decades of experimentation in the preclinical canine HCT model have substantially improved our understanding of the biology and safety of HCT in human patients, the in vivo phenotype of potent antigen-presenting cells in dogs is poorly defined. Therefore, peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained from dogs treated with recombinant human Flt3-ligand and phenotypically distinct cell populations, including putative DC, were purified by four-color flow-cytometry and tested for their stimulatory potential in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC). Cells characterized by surface expression of CD11c and HLA-DR, and absence of expression of CD14 and DM5, a marker of mature granulocytes, were found to be highly potent stimulators in allogeneic MLC. In contrast, all other immunophenotypically different cell populations tested had either weak or absent allostimulatory potential. Transmission electron microscopy of CD11c+/HLA-DR+/CD14?/DM5? cells revealed the morphology similar to that described for DC in humans and ex vivo-generated canine DC, including long cytoplasmic extensions, discrete lysosomes, and an abundant Golgi apparatus and endoplasmatic reticulum. In summary, CD11c+/HLA-DR+/CD14?/DM5? cells obtained from canine peripheral blood have functional and morphological characteristics similar to those of human myeloid DC. PMID:17950915

Mielcarek, Marco; Kucera, Kristin A.; Nash, Richard; Torok-Storb, Beverly; McKenna, Hilary J.

2008-01-01

168

Leishmaniasis and Climate Change—Case Study: Argentina  

PubMed Central

Vector-borne diseases closely associated with the environment, such as leishmaniases, have been a usual argument about the deleterious impact of climate change on public health. From the biological point of view interaction of different variables has different and even conflicting effects on the survival of vectors and the probability transmission of pathogens. The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. These studies showed that the changes in transmission due to change or increase in frequency and intensity of climatic instability were expressed through changes in the probability of vector-human reservoir effective contacts. These changes of contact in turn are modulated by both direct effects on the biology and ecology of the organisms involved, as by perceptions and changes in the behavior of the human communities at risk. Therefore, from the perspective of public health and state policy, and taking into account the current nonlinear increased velocity of climate change, we concluded that discussing the uncertainties of large-scale models will have lower impact than to develop-validate mitigation strategies to be operative at local level, and compatibles with sustainable development, conservation biodiversity, and respect for cultural diversity. PMID:22685477

Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Mastrángelo, Andrea Verónica; Fernández, María Soledad

2012-01-01

169

Novel diabetes mellitus treatment: mature canine insulin production by canine striated muscle through gene therapy.  

PubMed

Muscle-targeted gene therapy using insulin genes has the potential to provide an inexpensive, low maintenance alternative or adjunctive treatment method for canine diabetes mellitus. A canine skeletal muscle cell line was established through primary culture, as well as through transdifferentiation of canine fibroblasts after infection with a myo-differentiation gene containing adenovirus vector. A novel mutant furin-cleavable canine preproinsulin gene insert (cppI4) was designed and created through de novo gene synthesis. Various cell lines, including the generated canine muscle cell line, were transfected with nonviral plasmids containing cppI4. Insulin and desmin immunostaining were used to prove insulin production by muscle cells and specific canine insulin ELISA to prove mature insulin secretion into the medium. The canine myoblast cultures proved positive on desmin immunostaining. All cells tolerated transfection with cppI4-containing plasmid, and double immunostaining for insulin and desmin proved present in the canine cells. Canine insulin ELISA assessment of medium of cppI4-transfected murine myoblasts and canine myoblast and fibroblast mixture proved presence of mature fully processed canine insulin, 24 and 48 h after transfection. The present study provides proof of principle that canine muscle cells can be induced to produce and secrete canine insulin on transfection with nonviral plasmid DNA containing a novel mutant canine preproinsulin gene that produces furin-cleavable canine preproinsulin. This technology could be developed to provide an alternative canine diabetes mellitus treatment option or to provide a constant source for background insulin, as well as C-peptide, alongside current treatment options. PMID:22405830

Niessen, S J M; Fernandez-Fuente, M; Mahmoud, A; Campbell, S C; Aldibbiat, A; Huggins, C; Brown, A E; Holder, A; Piercy, R J; Catchpole, B; Shaw, J A M; Church, D B

2012-07-01

170

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mullaitivu, Sri Lanka: a missing endemic district in the leishmaniasis surveillance system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe the emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a district of Sri Lanka, documented at the national level as having zero incidence. We analyzed data from the Sri Lanka Army (SLA) to describe reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis for all armed forces personnel located in all 24 districts of Sri Lanka. These data are not included in the National Surveillance System. From January 2011 through February 2013, 314 armed forces personnel were confirmed as having leishmaniasis. Of these, 223 (81.4%) were working within the district of Mullaitivu at the time of investigation and another 21 (6.5%) reported that the lesion first appeared when they were working in Mullaitivu. The reported cumulative annual incidence of leishmaniasis among the army population was 7.5 per 10000, while in the general area of Mullaitivu the incidence was 234 per 10000. Leishmaniasis is emerging in epidemic proportions in Mullaitivu and is still not detected through the public health surveillance system. Urgent attention directed at disease surveillance and control activities is needed to control this emerging public health threat. PMID:24858902

Semage, S N; Pathirana, K P N; Agampodi, S B

2014-08-01

171

Persistent expression of canine factor IX in hemophilia B canines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously demonstrated that direct intramuscular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying the human FIX (hFIX) cDNA can safely be administered to hemophilic B canines and express human factor IX protein; however, the functional activity of the hFIX protein could not be assessed due to anti-human FIX antibody (inhibitor) formation. To test the therapeutic efficacy of rAAV in hemophilic

H Chao; R J Samulski; D A Bellinger; P E Monahan; T C Nichols; C E Walsh

1999-01-01

172

Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: Review of the Epidemiological and Clinical Features  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening vector-borne parasitic disease is distributed in some parts of the new world and old world. The disease is endemic in different parts of Iran. This review article has been focused on major topics of epidemiological aspects and clinical features of VL in Iran for the period of 2002 through 2012. For the detection of VL in humans as well as animal reservoir hosts, anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using direct agglutination test (DAT) as a validated serological test. Parasitological examinations were performed on suspected VL patients as well as canines and rodents. Different molecular methods were used for identification of species and genotype/ or strain of Leishmania spp. isolated from infected humans, animal reservoir hosts and vectors. Altogether, 1698 out of 36081 (4.7%) human serum samples collected from 5 distinct geographical zones showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers ? 1:3200 using DAT. The majority of VL cases in the endemic areas were found among children up to 12 years old. Almost 75% of DAT-positive cases (?1:3200) in endemic areas showed clinical signs and symptoms. Predominant signs and symptoms in 217 hospitalized patients with DAT positive (?1:3200) results included paleness (99.5%), fever (96.9%), splenomegaly (91.5%), hepatomegaly (53.6%) and lymphadenopathy (21.1%). Integrated VL surveillance system in primary care using DAT, could decrease mortality and morbidity of the disease in the VL endemic areas of the northwestern Iran. Out of 7204 serum samples collected from domestic dogs in various geographical locations of Iran, 879 (12.2%) were DAT sero-positive at titers ? 1:320. L. infantum as the principal causative agent of the disease was isolated from infected humans, domestic and wild canines and rodents. The principal animal reservoir hosts of the infection are domestic and wild canines. Ph. kandelakii, Ph. perfiliewi transcaucasicus, Ph. tobbi in northwestern Iran; Ph. major s.l. (=Ph. neglectus), Ph. keshishiani, and Ph. alexandri in southern parts of Iran were molecularly and/or parasitologically positive for L. infantum infections. The zoonotic form of VL (ZVL) caused by L. infantum occurs sporadically in all geographical zones of Iran but in northwestern and southern parts of the country the disease is endemic. DAT as an appropriate and potential tool has been used for sero-diagnosis and sero-epidemiological of VL among humans as well as domestic and wild canines. PMID:24454426

Mohebali, Mehdi

2013-01-01

173

[Miltefosine: a new remedy for leishmaniasis].  

PubMed

There is a need for a safe and effective oral treatment for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Miltefosine is the first oral drug that is efficacious against different forms ofleishmaniasis, however it is not equally effective against all Leishmania species. Miltefosine is an alkylphosphocholine, originally developed for the treatment of cancer. The mechanism of action is probably based on interference with the synthesis and degradation of parasitic membrane lipids. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics ofmiltefosine; an important characteristic is its long elimination half-life of seven days or longer. The most frequent adverse effects are of gastrointestinal origin. Miltefosine should not be used during pregnancy. Over thirty leishmaniasis patients have already been treated with miltefosine in the Netherlands. PMID:17194005

Dorlo, T P C; Eggelte, T A; Beijnen, J H; de Vries, P J

2006-12-01

174

A new molecular surveillance system for leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Presently, global efforts are being made to control and eradicate the deadliest tropical diseases through the improvement of adequate interventions. A critical point for programs to succeed is the prompt and accurate diagnosis in endemic regions. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are being massively deployed and used to improve diagnosis in tropical countries. In the present report, we evaluated the hypothesis of, after use for diagnosis, the reuse of the Leishmania RDT kit as a DNA source, which can be used downstream as a molecular surveillance and/or quality control tool. As a proof of principle, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect Leishmania spp. minicircle kinetoplast DNA from leishmaniasis RDT kits. Our results show that Leishmania spp. DNA can be extracted from used RDTs and may constitute an important, reliable, and affordable tool to assist in future leishmaniasis molecular surveillance methods. PMID:24752687

Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Acharya, Jyoti; Kato, Kentaro; Kaneko, Osamu; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo

2014-06-01

175

Drug resistance in leishmaniasis: Newer developments.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a vector borne protozoan disease and it remains a major public health problem world-wide. Lack of an effective vaccine and vector control program makes the chemotherapy as the primary tool for leishmaniasis. Antimonials were used as the first line of treatment for many years. Emergence of resistance against this drug has become a major concern. Literatures and studies published on anti-leishmanial drug resistance, newer drug discovery for leishmanial resistance etc., in PubMed, Medline and Google search and reviewed thoroughly. Various newer drugs have been identified but, are in limited use because of high cost, toxicity, resistance etc., Recently, many newer mechanisms of drug resistance have been identified which may boost in future designing and development of drugs. PMID:24754020

Mohapatra, Sarita

2014-01-01

176

Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major world health problem. Diagnosis is suspected on evocative clinical presentation in patients living in or coming from endemic areas. Several methods have been used. The smear is a simple investigation used in endemic regions. The culture enables to identify the specimen. PCR has a high sensitivity. Montenegro's reaction is used in the epidemiological study. Pentavalent antimony derivatives remain the mainstay of systemic treatment. Their efficiency is well established. Their toxicity should be researched. Other treatments can be utilized, such as miltefosine. Local therapy is used in uncomplicated lesions. Injections of the pentavalent antimony derivate, cryotherapy and paromomycin ointmentsis are important options and should be used more frequently in Old World leishmaniasis. PMID:23858338

Masmoudi, Abderrahmen; Hariz, Wala; Marrekchi, Slaheddine; Amouri, Mariem; Turki, Hamida

2013-06-30

177

Detection of Leishmania infantum and identification of blood meals in Phlebotomus perniciosus from a focus of human leishmaniasis in Madrid, Spain.  

PubMed

Since 2010, the number of cases of both human visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in southwestern Madrid region (Spain) and more specifically in the town of Fuenlabrada has increased. Direct xenodiagnosis of leishmaniasis proved that hares (Lepus granatensis) from this focus are able to infect with Leishmania infantum colonized Phlebotomus perniciosus. To a better understanding of this focus of leishmaniasis, we conducted an entomological survey using CDC light traps, at the end of the seasonal transmission period of 2011 before the beginning of control measures of the disease, to study the phlebotomine sand flies species involved. Detection of Leishmania DNA in the sand flies captured was studied by kDNA-PCR and cpb-PCR. In addition, blood fed and gravid female P. perniciosus were analysed by a PCR based in vertebrate cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. Taxonomic identification of captured sand flies (n = 174) as P. perniciosus (n = 171) and Sergentomyia minuta (n = 3) together with the analysis of blood feeding in ten sand flies that shows a high preference for hares (n = 6), followed by humans (n = 3), and cats (n = 1) confirm a strong association between P. perniciosus hares and humans in the focus. Moreover, 79 out of 135 (58.5 %) P. perniciosus were positive to L. infantum by PCR approaches. These data support the increase of human leishmaniasis cases in the area and the existence of an unusual sylvatic cycle alternative to the classical domestic one, where the dog is the main reservoir of L. infantum. PMID:23535889

Jiménez, Maribel; González, Estela; Iriso, Andrés; Marco, Elisa; Alegret, Ana; Fúster, Fernando; Molina, Ricardo

2013-07-01

178

Canine Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Dissemination and Tissue Tropism of Genetically Distinct Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Populations  

PubMed Central

Little is known regarding the internal dissemination of initial cutaneous lesions and tissue tropism of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis populations in naturally infected dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic polymorphisms of L. (V.) braziliensis populations in different anatomic sites of naturally infected dogs by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and low-stringency single specific primer-PCR (LSSP-PCR) techniques. The amplified products were analyzed by LSSP-PCR to investigate the genetic variability of the parasite populations present in different anatomical sites. Twenty-three out of the 52 samples gave PCR-positive results. The existence of L. (V.) braziliensis strains that remained restricted to cutaneous lesions and others showing characteristics of dissemination to internal organs and healthy skin was observed. LSSP-PCR and numerical analyses revealed that parasite populations that do not disseminate were genetically similar and belonged to a separate phenetic cluster. In contrast, populations that showed spreading to internal organs displayed a more polymorphic genetic profile. Despite the heterogeneity, L. (V.) braziliensis populations with identical genetic profiles were observed in popliteal and cervical lymph nodes of the same animal. Our results indicate that infection in dogs can be manifested by dissemination and tissue tropism of genetically distinct populations of L. (V.) braziliensis. PMID:23844317

de Oliveira, Guilherme Marx; Madeira, Maria de Fatima; Oliveira, Fernanda Santos; Pires, Marize Quinhones; Pacheco, Raquel da Silva

2013-01-01

179

Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

2014-01-01

180

Epitope mapping of the HSP83.1 protein of Leishmania braziliensis discloses novel targets for immunodiagnosis of tegumentary and visceral clinical forms of leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Gold standard serological diagnostic methods focus on antigens that elicit a strong humoral immune response that is specific to a certain pathogen. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify linear B-cell epitopes that are conserved among Leishmania species but are divergent from the host species Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris and from Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, to select potential targets for the immunodiagnosis of leishmaniasis. Using these criteria, we selected heat shock protein 83.1 of Leishmania braziliensis for this study. We predicted three linear B-cell epitopes in its sequence. These peptides and the recombinant heat shock protein 83.1 (rHSP83.1) were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) against serum samples from patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and from dogs infected with Leishmania infantum (canine VL [CVL]). Our data show that rHSP83.1 is a promising target in the diagnosis of TL. We also identified specific epitopes derived from HSP83.1 that can be used in the diagnosis of human TL (peptide 3), both human and canine VL (peptides 1 and 3), and all TL, VL, and CVL clinical manifestations (peptide 3). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves confirmed the superior performance of rHSP83.1 and peptides 1 and 3 compared to that of the soluble L. braziliensis antigen and the reference test kit for the diagnosis of CVL in Brazil (EIE-LVC kit; Bio-Manguinhos, Fiocruz). Our study thus provides proof-of-principle evidence of the feasibility of using bioinformatics to identify novel targets for the immunodiagnosis of parasitic diseases using proteins that are highly conserved throughout evolution. PMID:24807053

Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira

2014-07-01

181

Specific impedance of canine blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific impedance of canine erythrocytes suspended in plasma was measured in the frequency range from 5 kHz to 1 MHz\\u000a in samples from three animals in the hematocrit range from zero to packed cells at a temperature of 39°C; measurements were\\u000a made with a conductivity cell using four electrodes and a current density of 21 ?A\\/cm2. With the use

James J. Ackmann; Martin A. Seitz; Christopher A. Dawson; Lawrence L. Hause

1995-01-01

182

Canine osteosarcoma: an immunologic study  

E-print Network

metW ods but were incorporated into the indirect fluorescent antzlody assay. Prior to inoculatzon, radiographs of the forepaws of the puppzes showed typical bone development as did radiographs taken approximately 6 weeks post inoculate. on. At 6.../4 C/V 36 negative were those that did not exhibit any fluorescence and were essentially identical to tbe reactions obtaaned in assaying the various sera with normal canine muscle sub. . trates (cf. Fig- ure 1O, p. 43). The incidence...

Nairn, Catherine Kodosky

2012-06-07

183

Cost-effectiveness of canine vaccination to prevent human rabies in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The annual mortality rate of human rabies in rural Africa is 3.6 deaths per 100,000 individuals. Rabies can be prevented by prompt post-exposure prophylaxis, but this is costly and often inaccessible in rural Africa. As 99% of human exposures occur through rabid dogs, canine vaccination also prevents transmission of rabies to humans. Objective Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rabies control through annual canine vaccination campaigns in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Design We model transmission dynamics in dogs and wildlife and assess empirical uncertainty in the biological parameters to make probability-based evaluations of cost-effectiveness. Data Sources Epidemiological parameters from contact tracing study and literature; cost data from ongoing vaccination campaigns Target Population Two districts of rural Tanzania, Ngorongoro and Serengeti Time Horizon Ten years Perspective Health policymaker Interventions Vaccination coverage ranging from 0 to 95% in increments of 5% Outcome Measures Life-years for health outcomes and 2010 USD for economic outcomes Results of Base-Case Analysis Annual canine vaccination campaigns are very cost-effective in both districts compared with no canine vaccination. In Serengeti, annual campaigns up to 70% coverage are cost-saving. Results of Sensitivity Analysis Across a wide range of parameter assumptions and levels of societal willingness-to-pay for life-years, the optimal vaccination coverage for Serengeti is 70%. In Ngorongoro, though optimal coverage depends on willingness-to-pay, vaccination campaigns are always cost-effective and life-saving, and therefore preferred. Limitations Canine vaccination is very cost-effective in both districts, but there is greater uncertainty regarding the optimal coverage in Ngorongoro. Conclusions Annual canine rabies vaccination campaigns confer extraordinary value and dramatically reduce the health burden of rabies. Primary Funding Source US National Institutes of Health (U01 GM087719) PMID:24592494

Fitzpatrick, Meagan C; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Mzimbiri, Imam; Lankester, Felix; Lembo, Tiziana; Meyers, Lauren A.; Paltiel, A David; Galvani, Alison P

2014-01-01

184

Localised Leishmaniasis of Oral Mucosa: Report of an Unusual Clinicopathological Entity  

PubMed Central

The term leishmaniasis comprises of a group of diseases caused by different species of a protozoan called Leishmania. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Exclusive involvement of the mucosa is very rare. We present a case of mucosal leishmaniasis located in the oral cavity. The only manifestation of leishmaniasis disease in the described case was the appearance of an oral lesion. Treatment was provided in the form of antimoniates (oral miltefosine and systemic sodium stibogluconate). A review of literature is made on the subject. PMID:25343050

Passi, Deepak; Sharma, Sarang; Dutta, Shubharanjan; Gupta, Chandan

2014-01-01

185

[Landscape-epidemiological zoning of Turkmenistan by leishmaniasis].  

PubMed

Based on the long-term (1961-1992) study of the parasitic systems of zoonotic cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in the context of a landscape, the authors made an epidemiological regional and typological zoning of Turkmenistan. Regional zoning identified 13 districts by zoonotic cutanenous leishmaniasis and 6 districts by visceral leishmaniasis. While typologically zoning according to the human hazard ofzoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, the authors divided the landscapes of Turkmenistan into 5 groups: hyperendemic; mesoendemic; hypoendemic; enzootic by cutaneous leishmaniasis, but not dangerous to man; nonenzootic by cutaneous leishmaniasis and not dangerous to man. While typologically zoning with respect with visceral leishmaniasis, the authors divided them into 4 groups: epidemically hazardous landscapes of sandy deserts and semisavanna low-mountain of South-Eastern Turkmenistan; epidemically hazardous landscapes of foothills, low-mountains, and middle mountains of Kopetdag; epidemiologically potentially dangerous landscapes of the piedmont plain of Kopetdag and the valley of the Murgab river; nonenzootic landscapes in terms of visceral leishmaniasis, and those not dangerous to man. PMID:18365471

Ponirovski?, E N; Darchenkova, N N

2008-01-01

186

Complexities of Assessing the Disease Burden Attributable to Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among parasitic diseases, morbidity and mortality caused by leishmaniasis are surpassed only by malaria and lymphatic filariasis. However, estimation of the leishmaniasis disease burden is challenging, due to clinical and epidemiological diversity, marked geographic clustering, and lack of reliable data on incidence, duration, and impact of the various disease syndromes. Non-health effects such as impoverishment, disfigurement, and stigma add to

Caryn Bern; James H. Maguire; Jorge Alvar

2008-01-01

187

Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon1.  

PubMed

In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%. PMID:25279543

Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar; Khalifeh, Ibrahim

2014-10-01

188

Cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani.  

PubMed

We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani, which was successfully treated with oral miltefosine. Given the increased prevalence of travelling, patients presenting with lymph-node enlargement should have leishmaniasis included in the differential diagnosis even in the absence of typical ulceration. PMID:19077092

Faber, W R; Wonders, J; Jensema, A J; Chocholova, E; Kager, P A

2009-07-01

189

Rare variants of cutaneous leishmaniasis presenting as eczematous lesions  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis may present with clinical presentation such as zosteriform, sporotrichoid and erysipeloid. The eczema variant has rarely been reported. We report a 27- year- old patient with atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling eczema on the hand of a man in Yazd province in the central of Iran.

Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein

2014-01-01

190

Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon1  

PubMed Central

In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%. PMID:25279543

Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H.; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar

2014-01-01

191

[Consolidation of international guidelines for the management of canine populations in urban areas and proposal of performance indicators].  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to propose a generic program for the management of urban canine populations with suggestion of performance indicators. The following international guidelines on canine population management were revised and consolidated: World Health Organization, World Organisation for Animal Health, World Society for the Protection of Animals, International Companion Animal Management Coalition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Management programs should cover: situation diagnosis, including estimates of population size; social participation with involvement of various sectors in the planning and execution of strategies; educational actions to promote humane values, animal welfare, community health, and responsible ownership (through purchase or adoption); environmental and waste management to eliminate sources of food and shelter; registration and identification of animals; animal health care, reproductive control; prevention and control of zoonoses; control of animal commerce; management of animal behavior and adequate solutions for abandoned animals; and laws regulating responsible ownership, prevention of abandonment and zoonoses. To monitor these actions, four groups of indicators are suggested: animal population indicators, human/animal interaction indicators, public service indicators, and zoonosis indicators. The management of stray canine populations requires political, sanitary, ethologic, ecologic, and humanitarian strategies that are socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable. Such measures must also include the control of zoonoses such as rabies and leishmaniasis, considering the concept of "one health," which benefits both the animals and people in the community. PMID:23099875

Garcia, Rita de Cassia Maria; Calderón, Néstor; Ferreira, Fernando

2012-08-01

192

Leishmaniasis sand fly vector density reduction is less marked in destitute housing after insecticide thermal fogging  

PubMed Central

Background Insecticide thermal fogging (ITF) is a tool to control vector borne diseases. Insecticide application success for vector control has been associated with housing materials and architecture. Vector abundance is correlated with weather changes. Nevertheless, housing quality and weather impacts on vector abundance have been unaccounted for in most New World insecticide control trials for leishmaniasis vectors. Methods We conducted a 15 month insecticide control trial that included two deltamethrin [6 mg a.i.m-2] based ITF interventions in 12 of 24 monitored houses at Trinidad de Las Minas, a hyperendemic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission village in western Panamá. During the study we followed sand fly (SF) abundance, keeping track of rainfall and quantified housing quality using an index based on architecture and construction materials. Results We found a 50 to 80% reduction in SF density in the fogged houses when compared with control houses, while controlling for seasonal changes in SF abundance associated with rainfall. We found heterogeneities in the reductions, as abundance changed according to SF species: Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dysponeta and Lu. triramula reduced in density between 40% and 90% after ITF. In contrast, Lu. trapidoi density increased 5% after ITF. Differences in the impact of ITF were associated with housing quality, the most destitute houses, i.e., those with features that ease insect entrance, had a disproportionally larger SF abundance, in some cases with increased domiciliary SF density following the ITF. Conclusion Our results suggest the potential of insecticide application to control SF density and leishmaniasis transmission could depend on housing quality beyond insecticide efficiency. PMID:23742709

2013-01-01

193

BIOTECHNOLOGY IN CANINE REPRODUCTION: AN UPDATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine biotechnology studies are far less developed than in other species. Canine reproduction and gametes have unique characteristics compared to other mammals which makes adaptation of knowledge from other species difficults. Culture media for oocytes with or without serum, hormonal or protein supplementation, and oviductal cells have been used for in vitro maturation. Age and phase of the estrous cycle

C Gobello; Y Corrada

194

Rubble Search with Canine Augmentation Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been working to augment trained search and rescue canines with technological components to allow them to be monitored and controlled from greater distances in rubble caused by a disaster. Such rubble often precludes close interaction between a dog and its handler. In this paper we report the results of a set of trials involving augmented canines searching for

Alex Ferworn; Alireza Sadeghian; Kevin Barnum; Devin Ostrom; Hossein Rahnama; Isaac Woungang

2007-01-01

195

Reptiles and their importance in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Promastigote flagellates have been isolated from various species of lizard and from some other reptiles. It is known that sandflies readily feed upon lizards and it has been thought that reptiles could be a reservoir for mammalian leishmaniasis. A feature of reptilian infections is the extreme scarcity of parasites in blood smears and in tissue impression smears but isolations may readily be made in culture media. The intradermal inoculation of promastigote cultures from lizards into mammals and man induces a positive leishmanial response and gives rise to long-lasting dermal knots from which living parasites can be recovered for periods of several months. Associations between promastigotes and lizards in parts of the USSR, particularly in the Turkmenian SSR, and experimental work in the USSR on the transmission of promastigote strains to a variety of mammals, including gerbils, mice, monkeys, and man, are reviewed. The author accepts the generally held view that although promastigote flagellates of reptiles are important in an evolutionary context, having probably given rise to the mammalian leishmanias, present-day strains must be considered nonpathogenic for mammals. PMID:5316256

Belova, E. M.

1971-01-01

196

Impact of ASHA Training on Active Case Detection of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, India  

PubMed Central

Background One of the major challenges for management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is early diagnosis of cases to improve treatment outcome and reduce transmission. We have therefore investigated active case detection of VL with the help of accredited social health activists (ASHA). ASHAs are women who live in the community and receive performance-based incentives for overseeing maternal and other health-related issues in their village. Methods and Principal Finding Through conducting interviews with 400 randomly selected ASHAs from four primary health care centers (PHCs), it was observed that their level of knowledge about visceral leishmaniasis (VL) regarding transmission, diagnosis, and treatment was limited. The baseline data indicated that less than 10% of VL cases seeking treatment at the PHCs were referred by ASHAs. To increase the knowledge and the referral rate of VL cases by ASHAs, training sessions were carried out during the monthly ASHA meetings at their respective PHCs. Following a single training session, the referral rate increased from less than 10% to over 27% and the overall knowledge about VL substantially improved. It was not possible, however, to demonstrate that ASHA training reduced the time that individuals had fever before treatment at the PHC. Conclusions Training ASHAs to identify VL cases in villages for early diagnosis and treatment at the local PHC is feasible and should be undertaken routinely to improve knowledge about VL. PMID:24853122

Das, Vidya Nand Ravi; Pandey, Ravindra Nath; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Varsha; Kumar, Vijay; Matlashewski, Greg; Das, Pradeep

2014-01-01

197

Tegumentary leishmaniasis outbreak in Bella Vista City, Corrientes, Argentina during 2003.  

PubMed

Bella Vista City, Corrientes, Argentina, reported an epidemic outbreak of tegumentary leishmaniasis during 2003. The mean age of the 31 cases was 25.0 +/- 13.7 years old, with a sex ratio male:female 1.8, and without mucosal involvement. They clustered in two contiguous neighbourhoods, 96% in the periurban border and 4% in the peripheral outskirts. The transmission peak was estimated to have occurred during April 2003. Four species (3608 sand flies) were captured in nine sites: Lutzomyia neivai (90.1%), Lu. pessoai (8.9%), Lu. migonei (0.8 %), and Brumptomyia avellari (0.2 %). The outskirts/rural capture ratio of Lu. neivai was up to 3, and the outskirts/periurban up to 200. Therefore, the 'urban' transmission in this southernmost known focus is still an ecotone-border associated risk. The changes in human distribution or activities, patches of the secondary vegetation, periurban streams, rainfall of the previous year, and river period floods could all contribute to 'urban' outbreaks in the region. Tegumentary leishmaniasis risk should be assessed for any project that involves changes in land use throughout an endemic area. PMID:17160285

Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Ramos, Karina; Orellano, Pablo Wenceslao; Sanguesa, Gustavo; Fernández, Gustavo; Sinagra, Angel; Rapasciolli, Guillermo

2006-11-01

198

Immune Regulation during Chronic Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic parasitic disease associated with severe immune dysfunction. Treatment options are limited to relatively toxic drugs, and there is no vaccine for humans available. Hence, there is an urgent need to better understand immune responses following infection with Leishmania species by studying animal models of disease and clinical samples from patients. Here, we review recent discoveries in these areas and highlight shortcomings in our knowledge that need to be addressed if better treatment options are to be developed and effective vaccines designed. PMID:25010815

Faleiro, Rebecca J.; Kumar, Rajiv; Hafner, Louise M.; Engwerda, Christian R.

2014-01-01

199

Microspatial Distributional Patterns of Vectors of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution and population trends through time of Lutzomyia species in a long-term focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in an Atlantic Forest area, northeastern Brazil. Sand fly populations of different ecological niches were monitored spatiotemporally in 2009. To summarize vegetation characteristics and phenology, we calculated the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index from Landsat images. Using niche modeling approaches, we assessed suites of environmental factors to identify areas of transmission risk. Although 12 species were detected, L. whitmani was the most abundant and broadly distributed across the area, particularly in peridomiciliary locations, and associated negatively with denser vegetation areas. On the other hand, L. complexa, L. sordelli, and L. tupynambai were found almost exclusively in forested areas (P < 0.05), and associated positively with denser vegetation. Lutzomyia species' occurrences are related to specific environmental combinations (with contrast among species) in the region. PMID:22315619

Donalisio, Maria Rita; Peterson, A. Townsend; Costa, Pietra Lemos; da Silva, Fernando Jose; Valenca, Helio Franca; Shaw, Jeffrey J.; Brandao Filho, Sinval P.

2012-01-01

200

Transmission INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

Transmission INTRODUCTION An electrical power system requires constant, second by second, balancing of supply, demand, and transmission capability. Transmission system operators are primarily responsible for maintaining this delicate balance. Transmission system operations are organized into "control areas," whose

201

Visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: an evolving disease.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

2014-09-01

202

Eosinophils and mast cells in leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Leishmania spp. are parasitic protozoa endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and the causative agent of leishmaniasis, a collection of syndromes whose clinical manifestations vary according to host and pathogen factors. Leishmania spp. are inoculated into the mammalian host by the bite of an infected sand fly, whereupon they are taken up by phagocytosis, convert into the replicative amastigote stage within macrophages, reproduce, spread to new macrophages and cause disease manifestations. A curative response against leishmaniasis depends in the classical activation of macrophages and the IL-12-dependent onset of an adaptive type 1 response characterized by the production of IFN-?. Emerging evidence suggests that neutrophils, dendritic cells and other immune cells can serve as either temporary or stable hosts for Leishmania spp. Furthermore, it is becoming apparent that the initial interactions of the parasite with resident or early recruited immune cells can shape both the macrophage response and the type of adaptive immune response being induced. In this review, we compile a growing number of studies demonstrating how the earliest interactions of Leishmania spp. with eosinophils and mast cells influence the macrophage response to infection and the development of the adaptive immune response, hence, determining the ultimate outcome of infection. PMID:24838146

Rodríguez, Nilda E; Wilson, Mary E

2014-08-01

203

Leishmaniasis in the Middle East: Incidence and Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide, with several countries reporting cases of leishmaniasis resulting in loss of human life or a lifelong stigma because of bodily scars. The Middle East is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, with countries like Syria reporting very high incidence of the disease. Despite several countries establishing national control programs for containing the sandfly vector and treatment of infection, the disease continues to spread. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. These factors contribute to the spread and proliferation of the causative species Leishmania and its sandfly host. This review discusses the current epidemiological scenario in Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, emphasizing the number of cases reported, vector species, Leishmania species, and treatment available. The data is primarily from WHO reports for each country and current and old literature. PMID:25275483

Salam, Nasir; Al-Shaqha, Waleed Mohammed; Azzi, Arezki

2014-01-01

204

Mucosal Leishmaniasis: An Underestimated Presentation of a Neglected Disease  

PubMed Central

We present a review of current knowledge about mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). Although involvement of mucous membranes is classically admitted in New World leishmaniasis, particularly occurring in infection by Leishmania (L.) braziliensis species complex, ML is also a possible presentation of Old World leishmaniasis, in either L. donovani or L. major species complex infections. Thus, ML has to be considered not only as a Latin American disease but as an Old and New World disease. We describe ML epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinics, diagnosis, and therapy. Considering both its highly disfiguring lesions and its possible lethal outcome, ML should not be underestimated by physicians. Moreover, leishmaniasis is expected to increase its burden in many countries as sandfly vector distribution is widespreading towards non-endemic areas. Finally, the lack of clear understanding of ML pathogenesis and the absence of effective human vaccines strongly claim for more research. PMID:23853773

Cocuzza, Salvatore; Cosentino, Stefano; Serra, Agostino; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

205

Zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed with the help of dermoscopy  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is usually easy to recognize; however, several atypical features exist, which may pose a diagnostic challenge. Here we report a 55-year-old female patient, who presented with an itchy and painful eruption localized in a dermatomal distribution along the right upper chest. Although the clinical appearance of the lesions suggested the diagnosis of herpes zoster, dermoscopic evaluation revealed erythema, hyperkeratosis, burst star whitish appearance and hairpin vessels, compatible with the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Indeed, leishmania amastigotes were detected by smear from the lesions. Zosteriform presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis, as exemplified by our patient, is especially rare. In our case dermoscopy has proven to be an accessible and easy tool to diagnose such atypical presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and dermatologists in endemic areas should be familiar with its typical dermoscopic features. PMID:25126460

Ramot, Yuval; Nanova, Krassimira; Alper-Pinus, Ruslana; Zlotogorski, Abraham

2014-01-01

206

Temporal patterns of human and canine Giardia infection in the United States: 2003-2009.  

PubMed

Giardia protozoa have been suspected to be of zoonotic transmission, including transmission from companion animals such as pet dogs to humans. Patterns of infection have been previously described for dogs and humans, but such investigations have used different time periods and locations for these two species. Our objective was to describe and compare the overall trend and seasonality of Giardia species infection among dogs and humans in the United States from 2003 through 2009 in an ecological study using public health surveillance data and medical records of pet dogs visiting a large nationwide private veterinary hospital. Canine data were obtained from all dogs visiting Banfield hospitals in the United States with fecal test results for Giardia species, from January 2003 through December 2009. Incidence data of human cases from the same time period were obtained from the CDC. Descriptive time plots, a seasonal trend decomposition (STL) procedure, and seasonal autoregressive moving-average (SARIMA) models were used to assess the temporal characteristics of Giardia infection in the two species. Canine incidence showed a gradual decline from 2003 to 2009 with no significant/distinct regular seasonal component. By contrast, human incidence showed a stable annual rate with a significant regular seasonal cycle, peaking in August and September. Different temporal patterns in human and canine Giardia cases observed in this study suggest that the epidemiological disease processes underlying both series might be different, and Giardia transmission between humans and their companion dogs seems uncommon. PMID:24309130

Mohamed, Ahmed S; Levine, Michael; Camp, Joseph W; Lund, Elisabeth; Yoder, Jonathan S; Glickman, Larry T; Moore, George E

2014-02-01

207

Therapeutic options for old world cutaneous leishmaniasis and new world cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Estimated worldwide incidence of tegumentary leishmaniasis (cutaneous leishmaniasis [CL] and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis [MCL]) is over 1.5 million cases per year in 82 countries, with 90 % of cases occurring in Afghanistan, Brazil, Iran, Peru, Saudi Arabia and Syria. Current treatments of CL are poorly justified and have sub-optimal effectiveness. Treatment can be based on topical or systemic regimens. These different options must be based on Leishmania species, geographic regions, and clinical presentations. In certain cases of Old World CL (OWCL), lesions can spontaneously heal without any need for therapeutic intervention. Local therapies (thermotherapy, cryotherapy, paromomycin ointment, local infiltration with antimonials) are good options with less systemic toxicity, reserving systemic treatments (azole drugs, miltefosine, antimonials, amphotericin B formulations) mainly for complex cases. The majority of New World CL (NWCL) types require systemic treatment (mainly with pentavalent antimonials), either to speed the healing or to prevent dissemination to oral-nasal mucosa as MCL (NWMCL). These types of lesions are potentially serious and always require systemic-based regimens, mainly antimonials and pentamidine; however, the associated immunotherapy is promising. This paper is an exhaustive review of the published literature on the treatment of OWCL, NWCL and NWMCL, and provides treatment recommendations stratified according to their level of evidence regarding the species of Leishmania implicated and the geographical location of the infection. PMID:24170665

Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio

2013-11-01

208

Leishmaniasis acquired in the Iraqi Theater of Operations: lessons learned.  

PubMed

Between August 2002 and February 2004, the Department of Defense identified 522 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in military personnel. This commentary examines reasons why there were so many cases of leishmaniasis during this conflict as compared with Operation Desert Storm. Lessons learned can be applied to reduce the risk to US personnel during future conflicts. Among the factors to be considered are environment, exposure, vector control, and the failure to deliver insect repellent to deployed US personnel. PMID:15551719

Elston, Dirk M; Miller, Scott D

2004-10-01

209

Visceral leishmaniasis in a soldier returning from Operation Enduring Freedom.  

PubMed

This report presents a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a soldier returning from Operation Enduring Freedom. During the United States' last major military conflict, Operation Desert Storm, the diagnosis of multiple cases of visceral leishmaniasis led to policy changes, including a temporary ban on troop blood donation. This case demonstrates the applicability of recently developed Leishmania polymerase chain reaction and serological assays when conventional methods of diagnosis, such as tissue microscopy and culture, fail. PMID:15495722

Halsey, Eric S; Bryce, L Michelle; Wortmann, Glenn W; Weina, Peter J; Ryan, Jeffrey R; DeWitt, Caroline C

2004-09-01

210

Bone Marrow Negative Visceral Leishmaniasis in an Adolescent Male  

PubMed Central

Visceral Leishmaniasis or Kala Azar is endemic in certain regions of India. In endemic areas, the constellation of fever, progressive weight loss, weakness, pronounced splenomegaly, anemia, leukopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia is highly suggestive of visceral leishmaniasis. Demonstration of the parasite in liver, splenic or bone marrow aspirates is confirmatory. We present a case in which Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies were demonstrated on splenic aspirate. We were unable to demonstrate LD bodies on bone marrow aspiration. PMID:23682278

Jetley, S; Rana, S; Khan, S; Zeeba, JS; Hassan, MJ; Kapoor, P

2013-01-01

211

Congenitally transmitted visceral leishmaniasis: report of two Brazilian human cases.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis is a relevant public health problem worldwide. Most of the reported cases in Latin America are from Brazil. Herein we report two human cases of congenitally transmitted visceral leishmaniasis in two patients who developed symptoms during pregnancy. The diagnosis was made by visual examination of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates of the mothers and by detecting parasite kDNA in bone marrow samples of the newborn children using polymerase chain reaction. PMID:23453409

Mescouto-Borges, Myrlena Regina Machado; Maués, Érika; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Pranchevicius, Maria Cristina da Silva; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

2013-01-01

212

An association of leishmaniasis and dyserythropoiesis in children.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis results in hematological problems such as cytopenias and coagulopathies. This disorder also has morphological effects on the bone marrow. Dyserythropoiesis is one of the most prominent seen with changes like multilobed nuclear cells and the appearance of bridges between nuclei and cytoplasms. Approximately half of the children with leishmaniasis showed dyserythropoietic findings in bone marrow aspirate slides. Because this in endemic regions, physicians of these countries must be alert to correctly diagnose disease and discriminate from other dyserythropoietic disorders. PMID:24554815

Temiz, Fatih; Gürbüz, Berrak Bilginer; Leblebisatan, Göksel; Ozkan, Aziz; Canöz, Perihan Yasemen; Harmanogullari, Sezer; Gezer, Harun; Tümgör, Gökhan; Turgut, Mehmet

2014-03-01

213

Polymorphism in Tumor Necrosis Factor Genes Associated with Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent studies have shown that mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), a severe and debilitating form of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis infection, is accompanied by high circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-oL. Analysis of TNF polymorphisms in Venezuelan ACL patients and endemic unaffected controls demonstrates a high relative risk (RR) of 7.5 (P <0.001) of MCL disease

Maira Cabrera; Marie-Anne Shaw; Claire Sharpies; Hazel Williams; Marianella Castes; Jacinto Convit; Jenefer M. Blackwell

214

Report of the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) consortium meeting, New Delhi, India, 27-29 June 2012  

PubMed Central

Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a neglected complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)?a deadly, infectious disease that claims approximately 20,000 to 40,000 lives every year. PKDL is thought to be a reservoir for transmission of VL, thus, adequate control of PKDL plays a key role in the ongoing effort to eliminate VL. Over the past few years, several expert meetings have recommended that a greater focus on PKDL was needed, especially in South Asia. This report summarizes the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Consortium Meeting held in New Delhi, India, 27–29 June 2012. The PKDL Consortium is committed to promote and facilitate activities that lead to better understanding of all aspects of PKDL that are needed for improved clinical management and to achieve control of PKDL and VL. Fifty clinicians, scientists, policy makers, and advocates came together to discuss issues relating to PKDL epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and control. Colleagues who were unable to attend participated during drafting of the consortium meeting report. PMID:23819611

2013-01-01

215

Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra  

PubMed Central

As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andrea Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

2008-01-01

216

Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths  

PubMed Central

Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

2014-01-01

217

Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.  

PubMed

Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

2014-01-01

218

Visceral leishmaniasis in immunosuppressed Caucasian patient  

PubMed Central

A 64-year-old man was admitted with fever, weight loss, fatigue and night sweats. He was known to have rheumatoid arthritis and had been taking methotrexate for 1 year. He had worked in Saudi Arabia until 1994 and had been living in Spain for 6 months every year. Clinical examination showed an enlarged spleen. Routine investigations showed pancytopaenia. Serial blood cultures were negative. CT scan confirmed splenomegaly and was otherwise unremarkable. Bone marrow biopsy revealed Leishmania amastigote consistent with a diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. After discussing with the hospital for tropical diseases (HTD), he was started on liposomal amphotericin B. Following two infusions of amphotericin B, he started improving as his fever, night sweats and weakness had settled. He was then discharged and followed up in HTD clinic 4 weeks later where he was found to be consistently improving. PMID:22605859

TOQEER, Muhammad; Rahman, Nadeem; Whitehead, Mark W; Lockwood, Diana

2012-01-01

219

Bacterial superinfection in Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is a polymorphic disease. It is generally accepted that bacterial superinfection may play a role in the clinical appearance of the lesions and may delay or prevent the healing process. However, the pattern of bacterial pathogens involved has rarely been investigated. Material/Methods The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species contaminating the suspected ZCL and their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. Microscopic examination of stained smears and cultures were used to differentiate ZCL from non-ZCL lesions in a rural area north of Isfahan, Iran from July to December 2009. Bacteria were isolated from the lesions and identified and antibiotic susceptibility was determined by standard microbiological techniques. Results The results show that 602 (68%) of 855 patients were positive for ZCL, of which 83.4% with volcano-shape, 8.8% psoriasiform, 6.6% popular form and 1.2% with other atypical forms of ZCL. The bacteria were isolated from 66.8% of ZCL (70% of volcano-shape, 60% of psoriasiform and 25% of popular form) and 64.7% of non-ZCL lesions. The most common species were Staphylococcus aureus (41.7%) and S. epidermidis (28%) followed by Bacillus sp. Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., Enterobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Cefazolin and Clindamycin were the most effective antibiotics. Conclusions Bacterial superinfection appears to be very common in ZCL, but its prevalence is not different from that of non-ZCL lesions and it has little effect on the clinical appearance of anthroponotic cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL). Local lesion care and management of bacterial superinfection must be considered in the treatment of ZCL. PMID:22936185

Doudi, Monir; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Narimani, Manizheh

2012-01-01

220

Oral Manifestations in the American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis – MCL) including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing. Objectives Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities. Methods A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test) and non parametric (Mann-Whitney) tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant. Results The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9%) have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites. Conclusion Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL. PMID:25386857

da Costa, Daniel Cesar Silva; Palmeiro, Mariana Reuter; Moreira, João Soares; Martins, Ana Cristina da Costa; da Silva, Aline Fagundes; de Fátima Madeira, Maria; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Confort, Eliame Mouta; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; da Conceição Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

2014-01-01

221

Dilated Canine Hearts: A Specimen For Teaching Cardiac Anatomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an alternate mechanism for teaching cardiovascular anatomy using dilated canine hearts. The article describes the methodology and academic benefits of using canine hearts in an anatomy laboratory.

Dr. Lee Anne Cope (Winthrop University)

2008-09-01

222

Serologic survey for canine coronavirus in wolves from Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolves (Canis lupus) were captured in three areas of Interior Alaska (USA). Four hundred twenty-five sera were tested for evidence of exposure to canine coronavirus by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody procedure. Serum antibody prevalence averaged 70% (167/ 240) during the spring collection period and 25% (46/185) during the autumn collection period. Prevalence was 0% (0/42) in the autumn pup cohort (age 4-5 mo), and 60% (58/97) in the spring pup cohort (age 9-10 mo). Prevalence was lowest in the Eastern Interior study area. A statistical model indicates that prevalence increased slightly each year in all three study areas. These results indicate that transmission occurs primarily during the winter months, antibody decay is quite rapid, and reexposure during the summer is rare.

Zarnke, R.L.; Evermann, J.; Ver Hoef, J.M.; McNay, M.E.; Boertje, R.D.; Gardner, C.L.; Adams, L.G.; Dale, B.W.; Burch, J.

2001-01-01

223

Cross-Sectional Study to Assess Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Region in Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Sri Lanka reports significantly more cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases than visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, both of which are caused by Leishmania donovani MON-37. A cross-sectional study conducted in an area with a high prevalence of CL prevalent included 954 participants of an estimated population of 61,674 to estimate the number of CL cases, ascertain whether there is a pool of asymptomatic VL cases, and identify risk factors for transmission. A total of 31 cases of CL were identified, of whom 21 were previously diagnosed and 10 were new cases. Using rK39 rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies against Leishmania spp., we found that only one person was seropositive but did not have clinical symptoms of CL or VL, which indicated low transmission of VL in this area. ?2 test, independent sample t-test, and multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and spatial distribution of environmental risk factors showed that living near paddy fields is associated with increased risk for transmission of CL (P ? 0.01). PMID:23918217

Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Munasinghe, Asoka; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sivanantharajah, Sundaramoorthy; Seneviratne, Kamal; Bandara, Samantha; Athauda, Indira; Navaratne, Chaturi; Silva, Ositha; Wackwella, Hasini; Matlashewski, Greg; Wickremasinghe, Renu

2013-01-01

224

Animal Health Diagnostic Center -Emerging Issues Canine Influenza Virus  

E-print Network

Inhibition and PCR Tests Performed at Cornell on Canine Samples Location HI Negative* HI Positive* PCRAnimal Health Diagnostic Center - Emerging Issues Canine Influenza Virus Detection - Sampling - Statistics Printable version of this page Test Summary for Canine Influenza Virus in Dogs Hemagglutination

Keinan, Alon

225

MEETING REPORT Open Access Key factors influencing canine heartworm,  

E-print Network

is on one of these data sets, i.e., the data rela- tive to canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infectionMEETING REPORT Open Access Key factors influencing canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis workshop, are discussed. Keywords: Canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, Mosquito vectors, Spatial

Kaufman, Phillip E.

226

Early Explorations of CAT: Canine Amusement and Training  

E-print Network

applications have a history of blended science and humor, despite the real potential for improving the canine. By using a serious games approach, this project motivates the human to spend time with their canine a prototype focused on calm, healthy and enjoyable games for both canine and human. Formative results

LaViola Jr., Joseph J.

227

8. Transmission 52 8. Transmission  

E-print Network

8. Transmission 52 ___________________________________________________________________________ 8. Transmission 8.1 Introduction The classical approach for calculations of structure-borne sound and vibration transmission is based on the assumption of a source performing rigid body motions. A multi- point coupling

Berlin,Technische Universität

228

Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction  

PubMed Central

Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historical field data for wildlife, with important implications for disease control in dog populations. Here, we examine historical and more recent field data, in the context of host ecology and epidemic theory, to understand better the role of density in rabies transmission and the reasons why culling fails to control rabies. We conclude that the relationship between host density, disease incidence and other factors is complex and may differ between species. This highlights the difficulties of interpreting field data and the constraints of extrapolations between species, particularly in terms of control policies. We also propose that the complex interactions between dogs and people may render culling of free-roaming dogs ineffective irrespective of the relationship between host density and disease incidence. We conclude that vaccination is the most effective means to control rabies in all species. PMID:23004351

Morters, Michelle K; Restif, Olivier; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Wood, James L N; Conlan, Andrew J K

2013-01-01

229

Transmigration of mandibular canine - case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. Results The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation. PMID:24520309

Gruszka, Katarzyna; Rozylo, T. Katarzyna; Rozylo-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Denkiewicz, Katarzyna; Maslowska, Klaudia

2014-01-01

230

Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.  

PubMed

To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage. PMID:24906525

Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

2014-10-01

231

Regulation of PKC Mediated Signaling by Calcium during Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Calcium is an ubiquitous cellular signaling molecule that controls a variety of cellular processes and is strictly maintained in the cellular compartments by the coordination of various Ca2+ pumps and channels. Two such fundamental calcium pumps are plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) which play a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis. This intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is often disturbed by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study we have dileneated the involvement of PMCA4 and SERCA3 during leishmaniasis. We have observed that during leishmaniasis, intracellular Ca2+ concentration was up-regulated and was further controlled by both PMCA4 and SERCA3. Inhibition of these two Ca2+-ATPases resulted in decreased parasite burden within the host macrophages due to enhanced intracellular Ca2+. Contrastingly, on the other hand, activation of PMCA4 was found to enhance the parasite burden. Our findings also highlighted the importance of Ca2+ in the modulation of cytokine balance during leishmaniasis. These results thus cumulatively suggests that these two Ca2+-ATPases play prominent roles during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25329062

Roy, Nivedita; Chakraborty, Supriya; Paul Chowdhury, Bidisha; Banerjee, Sayantan; Halder, Kuntal; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Subrata; Sen, Parimal C.

2014-01-01

232

Prevalence of asymmetric molar and canine relationship.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of occlusal asymmetries in the molar and canine regions in a large population-based sample of adolescent Kuwaitis. Using a stratified cluster sampling method, 1299 Kuwaiti adolescents (674 boys mean age 13.3 years and 625 girls mean age 13.2 years), representing approximately 6.7 per cent of that age stratum in the population, were examined clinically for sagittal molar and canine relationships, with a view to recording half and full-step asymmetries. In this sample, 1244 subjects were examined clinically, while for the remaining 55, pre-treatment study models were assessed. All subjects were in the early permanent dentition stage. Descriptive statistical analyses were used to determine the proportion of different molar and canine asymmetries. Antero-posterior asymmetries were found to be a distinctive and common feature of the dental arches, with half-step outweighing full-step asymmetries both in the anterior and posterior regions. The total prevalence of an asymmetric molar or canine relationship was 29.7 and 41.4 per cent, respectively, with more than 95 per cent falling in the mild category. Patient gender did not influence the prevalence or magnitude of asymmetry. The results showed a clinically significant prevalence of asymmetric molar and canine relationships, which were mainly in the category of half-step asymmetry. Class II half and full-step asymmetries were more prevalent than Class III asymmetries in the molar and canine regions. PMID:21742643

Behbehani, Faraj; Roy, Rino; Al-Jame, Badreia

2012-12-01

233

Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Amongst the various calcified structures in the human body, teeth have gained lot of popularity in estimating the sex of an individual as they are highly resistant to destruction and decomposition. Using permanent mandibular canines many researchers have predicted a high level of accuracy in identifying the sex correctly. The purpose of our study was to gauge the effectiveness of mandibular canines in discerning sex. Materials & Methods: Fifty dental casts each of males and females were utilized for the study. Mesio-distal dimension and inter-canine distance of mandibular right and left canine was recorded using digital vernier caliper and mandibular canine index was calculated. Results: The mean value of mesio-distal dimensions of right and left mandibular canine was slightly greater in males compared to females. The mandibular canine index was equal in both sexes. Inter-canine distance was marginally higher in males compared to females. Despite of higher values in males none of the parameters were statistically significant. Conclusion: The results herein bolster contemporary studies that mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines and mandibular canine index do not reflect sexual dimorphism and that its application should be discontinued in sex prediction among Indian populations. How to cite this article: Hosmani J V, Nayak R S, Kotrashetti V S, Pradeep S, Babji D. Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):1-7. PMID:24155571

Hosmani, Jagadish V; Nayak, Ramakant S; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; S, Pradeep; Babji, Deepa

2013-01-01

234

Canine hematopoietic tumors: diagnosis, treatment and complications  

SciTech Connect

Canine hematopoietic tumors constitute a group of neoplasms that are frequently encountered in veterinary practice. Although common, they are also a diagnostically confusing group of tumors due to continued revision of their definition and classification. The confusion that arises from these changes presents the clinician with a perpetual challenge of diagnosis and therapy. Therapy of canine hematopoietic tumors has traditionally evolved from treatment of human patients with similar diseases, and in turn, these neoplasms have served as models for evaluating newer therapies for possible application in human patients. Methods of treatment have included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hyperthermia. 9 tabs.

Weller, R.E.

1986-02-01

235

Canine olfactory detection of malignant melanoma.  

PubMed

Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369

Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J

2013-01-01

236

Canine heartworms in coyotes in Illinois.  

PubMed

Canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease affects wild canids and may be a factor impacting the health and population dynamics of coyotes (Canis latrans). Coyotes may serve also as a potential reservoir for transmission of these parasites to domestic dogs. We investigated 920 coyotes harvested by hunters and trappers throughout Illinois (USA) from 1995-1997. The objectives of the study were to: 1) survey the regional prevalence and intensity of heartworms in coyotes in Illinois, 2) determine whether heartworm intensity correlates with physical condition, particularly body weight and winter fat levels, and 3) evaluate the relationship between heartworm infections and the reproductive success of females. Prevalence of heartworms statewide was 16.0%. Prevalence was significantly higher in males (17.7%) than in females (14.1%; P = 0.04) and was higher in the older age-classes (P < 0.0001). The regional prevalence of heartworms increased from northern to southern Illinois. Intensity ranged from 1 to 111 with a mean of 8.7 (SD = 13.2) worms. Intensities did not differ significantly between sexes (P = 0.53) or among age-classes (P = 0.84). Most infected coyotes had low intensity infections, 78.2% carried < 12 heartworms, 11.6% had 12-24 worms, and 10.2% were infected with > 24 worms. Body weights were not correlated with the presence of heartworms, nor were levels of kidney fat and marrow fat. However, reproductive success was lower in infected females. The percent of yearling females that bred was lower among infected females, as was the number of offspring produced by adults > or = 3.5 yr old. Our study demonstrates that heavy infections adversely affect fur quality and reduce fecundity of some females, but these effects are small and few coyotes (4.1%) had enough worms to trigger them. Coyote populations have increased in Illinois during the past 20 yr, but prevalence and intensity of heartworm disease appears to have changed little in that period. We conclude that heartworm disease is only a minor factor influencing coyote population dynamics in Illinois. PMID:14567221

Nelson, Thomas A; Gregory, David G; Laursen, Jeffrey R

2003-07-01

237

Bibliometric analysis of leishmaniasis research in Medline (1945-2010)  

PubMed Central

Background Publications are often used as a measure of success of research work. Leishmaniasis is considered endemic in 98 countries, most of which are developing. This article describes a bibliometric review of the literature on leishmaniasis research indexed in PubMed during a 66-year period. Methods Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. The search strategy was Leishmania [MeSH] or leishmaniasis [MeSH] from 1 January 1945 until 31 December 2010. Neither language nor document type restrictions were employed. Results A total of 20,780 references were retrieved. The number of publications increased steadily over time, with 3,380 publications from 1945-1980 to 8,267 from 2001-2010. Leishmaniasis documents were published in 1,846 scientific journals, and Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (4.9%) was the top one. The USA was the predominant country by considering the first author’s institutional address (16.8%), followed by Brazil (14.9%), and then India (9.0%), however Brazil leads the scientific output in 2001-2010 period (18.5%), followed by the USA (13.5%) and India (10%). The production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalised by population (Israel and Switzerland), by gross domestic product (Nepal and Tunisia), and by gross national income per capita (India and Ethiopia). For geographical area, Europe led (31.7%), followed by Latin America (24.5%). Conclusions We have found an increase in the number of publications in the field of leishmaniasis. The USA and Brazil led scientific production on leishmaniasis research. PMID:23497410

2013-01-01

238

9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis...Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only...

2012-01-01

239

9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.  

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis...Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only...

2014-01-01

240

9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis...Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only...

2011-01-01

241

9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis...Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only...

2013-01-01

242

9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis...Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only...

2010-01-01

243

[Visceral leishmaniasis in Central Asia and Kazakhstan].  

PubMed

At present sporadic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are encountered mainly in the natural foci. The natural foci of VL are situated mainly in valleys and foothills. In southern areas of the Turkmen SSR the majority of cases were registered in small settlements situated near wells in interbarkhan lowerings. The reservoir of pathogen here may be Vulpes vulpes and dogs and the most likely vector is Phlebotomus turanicus. In Kazakhstan cases of VL are encountered in the thickets of the Syr-Darya floodlands in Kzyl-Orda Province, where the natural reservoir of the pathogen are Canis aureus L. and Vulpes corsac, and the vector is P. smirnovi. Synanthropic foci in Dzhambul and Chimkent, where dogs were most likely the source of the infection and P. longiductus was the vector, are at present inactive. The maps have been plotted where landscape dissemination of mosquitoes (VL vectors) is compared to places of habitation of Canis aureus L. and VL incidence in humans at peaks of the disease endemia. Medical personnel should be on the look-out for VL on the whole territory with VL natural foci. PMID:2146471

Dergacheva, T I; Darchenkova, N N

1990-01-01

244

Rational approaches for drug designing against leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis has been ignored for many years mainly because it plagues remote and poor areas. However, recently, it has drawn attention of several investigators, and active research is going on for antileishmanial drug discovery. The current available drugs have high failure rates and significant side effects. Recently, liposomal preparations of amphotericin B are available and have proved to be a better drug, but they are very expensive. Miltefosine is one of the few orally administered drugs that are effective against Leishmania. However, it has exhibited teratogenicity, hence, should not be administered to pregnant women. Thus, the search for novel and improved antileishmanial drugs continue. A rational approach to design and develop new antileishmanials can be to identify several metabolic and biochemical differences between host and parasite that can be exploited as drug target. Moreover, many natural products also have significant antileishmanial activity and are yet to be exploited. In the current review, we aim to bring together various drug targets of Leishmania, recent development in the field, future prospects, and hope in the area. PMID:19756413

Shukla, Anil Kumar; Singh, Bishal Kumar; Patra, Sanjukta; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

2010-04-01

245

Complete Genome Sequences of H3N2 Canine Influenza Virus with the Matrix Gene from the Pandemic A/H1N1 Virus.  

PubMed

We analyzed the complete genome sequence containing the 3' and 5' noncoding regions (NCRs) of H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) with the matrix gene from the pandemic A/H1N1 virus, which will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of variant CIV. PMID:25278543

Hong, Minki; Na, Woonsung; Yeom, Minju; Park, Nanuri; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Song, Daesub

2014-01-01

246

Complete Genome Sequences of H3N2 Canine Influenza Virus with the Matrix Gene from the Pandemic A/H1N1 Virus  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the complete genome sequence containing the 3? and 5? noncoding regions (NCRs) of H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) with the matrix gene from the pandemic A/H1N1 virus, which will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of variant CIV. PMID:25278543

Hong, Minki; Na, Woonsung; Yeom, Minju; Park, Nanuri; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Kang, Bo-Kyu

2014-01-01

247

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Nepal: Leishmania major as a cause.  

PubMed

Nepal is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis; however, recently a solitary report of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was recorded. The present report describes a CL case in a Nepalese woman, initially referred as a case of basal cell carcinoma. Histopathological examination, culture and PCR analysis of lesions revealed it to be a case of CL. Molecular methods, including kDNA PCR, ITS-1 PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis, revealed the species as Leishmania major. The patient was cured with sodium stibogluconate. This report suggests that the extent to which L. major causes CL in the Indian subcontinent needs to be monitored. PMID:18177679

Kumar, Rajesh; Ansari, Nasim Akhtar; Avninder, Singh; Ramesh, V; Salotra, Poonam

2008-02-01

248

American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species  

PubMed Central

We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

2014-01-01

249

Shingles Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... on Shingles Immunization Action Coalition Chickenpox Q&As Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Español: ... Prevention & Treatment Related Pages Preventing Varicella Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Related Links Medline Plus NIH ...

250

AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

251

Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H3N2) to Dogs  

PubMed Central

In South Korea, where avian influenza virus subtypes H3N2, H5N1, H6N1, and H9N2 circulate or have been detected, 3 genetically similar canine influenza virus (H3N2) strains of avian origin (A/canine/Korea/01/2007, A/canine/Korea/02/2007, and A/canine/Korea/03/2007) were isolated from dogs exhibiting severe respiratory disease. To determine whether the novel canine influenza virus of avian origin was transmitted among dogs, we experimentally infected beagles with this influenza virus (H3N2) isolate. The beagles shed virus through nasal excretion, seroconverted, and became ill with severe necrotizing tracheobronchitis and bronchioalveolitis with accompanying clinical signs (e.g., high fever). Consistent with histologic observation of lung lesions, large amounts of avian influenza virus binding receptor (SA? 2,3-gal) were identified in canine tracheal, bronchial, and bronchiolar epithelial cells, which suggests potential for direct transmission of avian influenza virus (H3N2) from poultry to dogs. Our data provide evidence that dogs may play a role in interspecies transmission and spread of influenza virus. PMID:18439355

Song, Daesub; Kang, Bokyu; Lee, Chulseung; Jung, Kwonil; Ha, Gunwoo; Kang, Dongseok; Park, Seongjun; Park, Bongkyun

2008-01-01

252

Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China  

PubMed Central

Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain. PMID:21801646

Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang

2011-01-01

253

Immune-mediated canine and feline keratitis.  

PubMed

Although the normal cornea is devoid of vasculature and lymphatics, there are still several immune-mediated corneal conditions that can occur in dogs and cats. An overview of corneal immunology is presented. Diseases of dogs, including chronic superficial keratitis, superficial punctate keratitis, and canine adenovirus endotheliitis, as well as feline diseases, including eosinophilic keratitis and herpesvirus-related conditions, are discussed. PMID:18299007

Andrew, Stacy E

2008-03-01

254

DELINEATING TOXIC AREAS BY CANINE OLFACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A research project was undertaken to learn how the highly acute olfactory sensitivity of the canine could be applied with advantage to environmental problems. The objectives were to determine how dogs could be trained to detect hazardous and toxic pollutants in the environment an...

255

Canine filarial infections in north Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the current status of Dirofilaria immitis infection and to determine whether there were other canine filarial infections in north Taiwan, postmortem examination was conducted in 180 stray dogs more than 12 months old. Blood and serum samples were examined using a modified Knott's test and an antigen-detecting enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, respectively. Filarial infection was found in

Lian-Chen Wang

1997-01-01

256

A novel bocavirus in canine liver  

PubMed Central

Background Bocaviruses are classified as a genus within the Parvoviridae family of single-stranded DNA viruses and are pathogenic in some mammalian species. Two species have been previously reported in dogs, minute virus of canines (MVC), associated with neonatal diseases and fertility disorders; and Canine bocavirus (CBoV), associated with respiratory disease. Findings In this study using deep sequencing of enriched viral particles from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, necrotizing vasculitis, granulomatous lymphadenitis and anuric renal failure, we identified and characterized a novel bocavirus we named Canine bocavirus 3 (CnBoV3). The three major ORFs of CnBoV3 (NS1, NP1 and VP1) shared less than 60% aa identity with those of other bocaviruses qualifying it as a novel species based on ICTV criteria. Inverse PCR showed the presence of concatemerized or circular forms of the genome in liver. Conclusions We genetically characterized a bocavirus in a dog liver that is highly distinct from prior canine bocaviruses found in respiratory and fecal samples. Its role in this animal’s complex disease remains to be determined. PMID:23402347

2013-01-01

257

Case study in canine intestinal lymphangiectasia  

PubMed Central

Abstract A 9.52 kg, 9-year-old, spayed female beagle was presented with the chief complaint of abdominal distention of 1 week’s duration. A presumptive diagnosis of canine intestinal lymphangectasia was arrived at by exclusion of other causes for the patient’s ascites. The patient was successfully treated with dietary modification and immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:16422069

2005-01-01

258

Challenges and new discoveries in the treatment of leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by a hemoflagellate, Leishmania spp. The parasite is transmitted by the bite of an infected female phlebotomine sandfly. The disease is prevalent throughout the world and in at least 88 countries. Human leishmanial infections may manifest in any of the four most common forms. Depending on the causative species, it can manifest as cutaneous

Sarman Singh; Ramu Sivakumar

2004-01-01

259

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in expatriates in northern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a protozoal disease transmitted by sandflies. It is endemic across the desert of the Middle East to Afghanistan and Africa. This paper reviews the findings in 148 expatriates with cutaneous leishmaniasis seen in Arar, northern Saudi Arabia, during a five year period. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was seen in all age groups. Farm workers, labourers and military personnel stationed in the region during the Gulf war were most affected. There was a seasonal variation with maximum incidence between November and January. The lesions were commonly multiple, the number of lesions per patient ranged from one to twelve. 18% of the lesions were located on the face, 34% on the upper extremity, 42% on the lower extremity and six per cent on other sites. The average duration of the lesions before diagnosis was two months. The most common complications were secondary bacterial skin infection (pyoderma and cellulitis) and residual scarring. The response to sodium stibogluconate was good. There has been a gradual reduction in the number of cases from a peak of 64 in 1991 to twelve in 1995. As compared to studies in the indigenous population, cutaneous leishmaniasis tends to be more frequent and server in expatriates from non endemic areas. There is a need for increased awareness of this disorder, especially in the home countries of these expatriates. PMID:9299828

Kubeyinje, E P; Belagavi, C S; Jamil, Y A

1997-04-01

260

Evaluation of PCR for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of Leishmania PCR was performed with bone marrow, lymph node, and blood samples from 492 patients, 60 positive controls, and 90 negative controls. Results were compared with microscopy results for Giemsa-stained smears. PCR and microscopy of lymph node and bone marrow aspirates from patients with microscopically confirmed visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were equally sensitive. However, in patients clinically suspected

OMRAN F. OSMAN; LINDA OSKAM; ED E. ZIJLSTRA; NEL C. M. KROON; GERARD J. SCHOONE; EL-TAHIR A. G. KHALIL; AHMED M. EL-HASSAN; PIET A. KAGER

1997-01-01

261

Modified Direct Agglutination Test for Simplified Serologic Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human leishmaniasis is a severe health problem in many countries around the world. Hence, a cheap, reliable, and accurate diagnostic test is required to fight this disease. Perhaps the direct agglutination test (DAT) meets these criteria, but antigen elaboration involves many difficulties. We have developed a new antigen elaboration method, the EasyDAT method, that avoids the problems associated with the

P. Gomez-Ochoa; J. A. Castillo; J. Lucientes; M. Gascon; J. J. Zarate; J. I. Arbea; V. Larraga; C. Rodriguez

2003-01-01

262

Liposomal amphotericin B as a treatment for human leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Between 700,000 and 1.2 million cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and between 200,000 and 400,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is fatal if left untreated, occur annually worldwide. Liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB), alone or in combination with other drugs, has been extensively studied as VL treatment, but data on routine field use are limited, and several challenges to patients' access to this life-saving drug remain. Areas covered: This article provides a review of clinical studies on LAMB for VL and other forms of leishmaniasis. The current development of generic versions of LAMB and related challenges are also discussed. Expert opinion: LAMB proved to be highly efficacious and safe in over 8000 VL patients treated by MÉdecins Sans Frontières in South Asia, and its use was feasible even at primary healthcare level. Despite requiring higher doses, LAMB is the drug of choice to treat vulnerable groups (e.g., pregnant or HIV positive) and relapsing VL patients in East Africa. LAMB should be included in national VL guidelines and registered in all VL endemic countries. Its cost should be further reduced and regulatory pathways to prove bioequivalence for generic LAMB products should be implemented. PMID:23167833

Balasegaram, Manica; Ritmeijer, Koert; Lima, Maria Angeles; Burza, Sakib; Ortiz Genovese, Gemma; Milani, Barbara; Gaspani, Sara; Potet, Julien; Chappuis, Francois

2012-01-01

263

Genogroup IV and VI Canine Noroviruses Interact with Histo-Blood Group Antigens  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (HuNV) are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. HuNV attaches to cell surface carbohydrate structures known as histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) prior to internalization, and HBGA polymorphism among human populations is closely linked to susceptibility to HuNV. Noroviruses are divided into 6 genogroups, with human strains grouped into genogroups I (GI), II, and IV. Canine norovirus (CNV) is a recently discovered pathogen in dogs, with strains classified into genogroups IV and VI. Whereas it is known that GI to GIII noroviruses bind to HBGAs and GV noroviruses recognize terminal sialic acid residues, the attachment factors for GIV and GVI noroviruses have not been reported. This study sought to determine the carbohydrate binding specificity of CNV and to compare it to the binding specificities of noroviruses from other genogroups. A panel of synthetic oligosaccharides were used to assess the binding specificity of CNV virus-like particles (VLPs) and identified ?1,2-fucose as a key attachment factor. CNV VLP binding to canine saliva and tissue samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunohistochemistry confirmed that ?1,2-fucose-containing H and A antigens of the HBGA family were recognized by CNV. Phenotyping studies demonstrated expression of these antigens in a population of dogs. The virus-ligand interaction was further characterized using blockade studies, cell lines expressing HBGAs, and enzymatic removal of candidate carbohydrates from tissue sections. Recognition of HBGAs by CNV provides new insights into the evolution of noroviruses and raises concerns regarding the potential for zoonotic transmission of CNV to humans. IMPORTANCE Infections with human norovirus cause acute gastroenteritis in millions of people each year worldwide. Noroviruses can also affect nonhuman species and are divided into 6 different groups based on their capsid sequences. Human noroviruses in genogroups I and II interact with histo-blood group antigen carbohydrates, bovine noroviruses (genogroup III) interact with alpha-galactosidase (?-Gal) carbohydrates, and murine norovirus (genogroup V) recognizes sialic acids. The canine-specific strains of norovirus are grouped into genogroups IV and VI, and this study is the first to characterize which carbohydrate structures they can recognize. Using canine norovirus virus-like particles, this work shows that representative genogroup IV and VI viruses can interact with histo-blood group antigens. The binding specificity of canine noroviruses is therefore very similar to that of the human norovirus strains classified into genogroups I and II. This raises interesting questions about the evolution of noroviruses and suggests it may be possible for canine norovirus to infect humans. PMID:25008923

Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques

2014-01-01

264

Low Quality Evidence of Epidemiological Observational Studies on Leishmaniasis in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. Methods/Principal Findings For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n?=?59), case-control (8.5%, n?=?24), and cohort (6.0%, n?=?17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n?=?181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n?=?24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n?=?112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n?=?38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n?=?178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n?=?659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. Conclusions/Significance A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the last two years, an emphasis on observational research which employs comparison groups and representative samples is urgently needed.

Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mario; Marlow, Mariel A.

2014-01-01

265

Thermotherapy. An alternative for the treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

PubMed Central

Background Pentavalent antimonials (Sb5) and miltefosine are the first-line drugs for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia; however, toxicity and treatment duration negatively impact compliance and cost, justifying an active search for better therapeutic options. We compared the efficacy and safety of thermotherapy and meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. Method An open randomized Phase III clinical trial was performed in five military health centres. located in northwestern, central and southern Colombia. Volunteers with parasitological positive diagnosis (Giemsa-stained smears) of cutaneous leishmaniasis were included. A single thermotherapy session involving the application of 50°C at the center and active edge of each lesion. Meglumine antimoniate was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 20?mg Sb5/kg weight/day for 20?days. Results Both groups were comparable. The efficacy of thermotherapy was 64% (86/134 patients) by protocol and 58% (86/149) by intention-to-treat. For the meglumine antimoniate group, efficacy by protocol was 85% (103/121 patients) and 72% (103/143) by intention-to-treat, The efficacy between the treatments was statistically significant (p 0.01 and <0.001) for analysis by intention to treat and by protocol, respectively. There was no difference between the therapeutic response with either treatment regardless of the Leishmania species responsible for infection. The side effects of meglumine antimoniate included myalgia, arthralgia, headache and fever. Regarding thermotherapy, the only side effect was pain at the lesion area four days after the initiation of treatment. Conclusion Although the efficacy rate of meglumine antimoniate was greater than that of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, the side effects were also greater. Those factors, added to the increased costs, the treatment adherence problems and the progressive lack of therapeutic response, make us consider thermotherapy as a first line treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Registered ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00471705 PMID:22594858

2012-01-01

266

Behavioral aspects of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in urban area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The study of some of the behavioral aspects of the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi Cunha & Chagas in the Americas, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), such as dispersion, population size, and vector survival rates, is important for the elucidation of the mechanisms of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. These parameters were studied by means of capture-mark-release-recapture experiments in an urban area of Campo Grande municipality, an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, situated in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Six capture-mark-release-recapture experiments were undertaken between November 2009 and November 2010 and once in January 2012 with a view to assessing the population size and survival rate of Lu. longipalpis. The insects were released in a peridomicile surrounded by 13 residences. The recaptures were undertaken with automatic light traps for four consecutive weeks after release in the surrounding area. In total, 3,354 sand flies were captured, marked, and released. The overall recapture rate during the capture-mark-release-recapture experiments was 4.23%, of which 92.45% were recaptured at the release site, indicating limited dispersal. The greatest distance recorded from the release site was 165 m for males and 241 m for females. The male daily survival rate, calculated on the basis of regressions from the numbers of marked recaptured insects during the 15 successive days after release was 0.897. The estimated male population size measured by the Lincoln Index was 10,947.127. Though Lu. longipalpis presented a limited dispersion the physical barriers typical of urban environments did not prevent the sand flies from flying long distances. PMID:23540114

De Oliveira, E F; Silva, E A; Casaril, A E; Fernandes, C E S; Paranhos Filho, A C; Gamarra, R M; Ribeiro, A A; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G

2013-03-01

267

Amphiphilic Antimony(V) Complexes for Oral Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

The need for daily parenteral administration is an important limitation in the clinical use of pentavalent antimonial drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, amphiphilic antimony(V) complexes were prepared from alkylmethylglucamides (L8 and L10, with carbon chain lengths of 8 and 10, respectively), and their potential for the oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was evaluated. Complexes of Sb and ligand at 1:3 (SbL8 and SbL10) were obtained from the reaction of antimony(V) with L8 and L10, as evidenced by elemental and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses. Fluorescence probing of hydrophobic environment and negative-staining transmission electron microscopy showed that SbL8 forms kinetically stabilized nanoassemblies in water. Pharmacokinetic studies with mice in which the compound was administered by the oral route at 200 mg of Sb/kg of body weight indicated that the SbL8 complex promoted greater and more sustained Sb levels in serum and liver than the levels obtained for the conventional antimonial drug meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime [Glu]). The efficacy of SbL8 and SbL10 administered by the oral route was evaluated in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania infantum after a daily dose of 200 mg of Sb/kg for 20 days. Both complexes promoted significant reduction in the liver and spleen parasite burdens in relation to those in the saline-treated control group. The extent of parasite suppression (>99.96%) was similar to that achieved after Glu given intraperitoneally at 80 mg of Sb/kg/day. As expected, there was no significant reduction in the parasitic load in the group treated orally with Glu at 200 mg of Sb/(kg day). In conclusion, amphiphilic antimony(V) complexes emerge as an innovative and promising strategy for the oral treatment of VL. PMID:23796930

Fernandes, Flaviana R.; Ferreira, Weverson A.; Campos, Mariana A.; Ramos, Guilherme S.; Kato, Kelly C.; Almeida, Gregorio G.; Correa, Jose D.; Melo, Maria N.; Demicheli, Cynthia

2013-01-01

268

Clinical signs, seasonal occurrence and causative agents of canine babesiosis in France: results of a multiregional study.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis) is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genera Babesia and Theileria. In dogs, infection by these parasites usually induces a haemolytic syndrome that can be fatal when complicated. Canine babesiosis prevalence is high in France, with Babesia canis thought to be the main etiological agent of the disease. This article presents the results of a multiregional prospective longitudinal survey on canine babesiosis conducted in France from October 2006 to December 2007. A total of 836 cases were reported by veterinarians using a multiple choice questionnaire and blood samples from 70 dogs were analyzed using PCR-RFLP to identify species responsible for canine babesiosis cases across the country. The main clinical signs reported were lethargy (98%), anorexia (98%) and hyperthermia ? 39 °C (80%) followed by pale mucous membranes (54%), modification of urine aspect (45%) and splenomegaly (33%). The dog population at risk was mainly represented by young dogs living in rural areas. Twenty-five out of the 70 blood samples (36%) tested by diagnostic PCR were found to contain Babesia/Theileria genus-specific DNA and all had profiles similar to that of Babesia canis genomic DNA after restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. The survey results provide a reference for further molecular studies to assess the species and vectors involved in the transmission of the disease in France and across the Mediterranean basin. PMID:23685063

René-Martellet, M; Chêne, J; Chabanne, L; Chalvet-Monfray, K; Bourdoiseau, G

2013-10-18

269

An imported case of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani in Japan.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a major world health problem, and 12 million people are estimated to be infected in 88 countries. There have been few reports of leishmaniasis in Japan and all were of foreign origin; therefore diagnosis is difficult for Japanese physicians. There are 21 different pathogenic Leishmania species, and identification is obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we report an imported case of leishmaniasis by Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani infection from Sri Lanka. L. (L.) donovani usually causes visceral leishmaniasis, but in this case, the patient manifested cutaneous leishmaniasis. The identification of Leishmania species by PCR and investigation of the patient's background such as nationality and disease endemicity are important for diagnosis and treatment. This is the first report of cutaneous leishmaniasis by L. (L.) donovani in Japan. PMID:25228325

Ito, Kotaro; Takahara, Masakazu; Ito, Makoto; Oshiro, Minoru; Takahashi, Kenzo; Uezato, Hiroshi; Imafuku, Shinichi

2014-10-01

270

Health education and social representation: an experience with the control of tegumentary leishmaniasis in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was developed in an endemic area of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with the objective of analyzing a health education process based on the social representations theory. The educational model was developed in two phases with 34 local residents. In the first phase, social representations of leishmaniasis were identified and analyzed. The second phase was based on the interaction between social representations and scientific knowledge. The results showed that social representations were structured in a central core by the terms "wound" and "mosquito" and in the peripheral system by the terms "mountains", "standing water", and "injection" related respectively to place, transmission, and treatment of the disease. We concluded that tegumentary leishmaniasis is viewed as a wound caused by a mosquito, portrayed by metaphors. The results of the second phase showed that social representations are systems that favor adherence to scientific knowledge, at times more rigidly in the central core, other times more flexibly when linked to the peripheral systems. PMID:17091167

dos Reis, Dener Carlos; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Silva, Carolina Angélica de Brito; Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia

2006-11-01

271

Development of a label-free immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance technique for the detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies in canine serum.  

PubMed

In this work, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor was developed using an 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) modified gold SPR sensor chip for the detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies. The soluble antigens of L. infantum were securely immobilized on an SPR gold disk by an 11-MUA self-assembled monolayer. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) techniques were employed in the characterization of the antigen immobilization. After the immunosensor construction, canine serum positive for visceral leishmaniasis was added to its surface and showed significant variation in the SPR angle, indicating excellent sensitivity of the technique for antigen-antibody interaction detection. Moreover, the addition of negative serum was accompanied by a smaller response, demonstrating that the immunosensor shows good specificity against anti-L. infantum antibodies. Therefore, this work demonstrates the successful development of an SPR sensor for anti-L. infantum antibodies detection in short time, showing a great perspective as a sensing system of visceral leishmaniasis in endemic regions. PMID:23500472

Souto, Dênio E P; Silva, Jussara V; Martins, Helen R; Reis, Alexandre B; Luz, Rita C S; Kubota, Lauro T; Damos, Flávio S

2013-08-15

272

A case of severe visceral leishmaniasis resulting from travel to Greece  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis is rare in the developed world, particularly in immunocompetent hosts. It must be considered, however, in patients who are unwell, febrile and unresponsive to conventional antibiotics with a history of travel to areas where leishmaniasis is endemic. A case of more severe clinical manifestations than have been previously reported in Australia is presented here. The recent introduction of PCR technology for the detection of Leishmania in Australia has improved the diagnosis and management of leishmaniasis. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B proved to be very effective in this severe case of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:21886664

Hamilton, Alexander; Kelleher, Anthony; Marriott, Debbie

2009-01-01

273

Canine babesiosis in Europe: how many diseases?  

PubMed

Babesiosis, recognized since ancient times as an important disease of livestock and more recently as an emerging disease in dogs worldwide, is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Babesia and is transmitted by ticks. The pathophysiology of canine babesiosis has been extensively studied but many questions remain unanswered, especially regarding the diversity of disease manifestations in different European countries. Continued investigation of the similarities and differences in host-parasite interplay in canine babesiosis in different European countries should lead to a better understanding of the disease process, potentially leading to better prediction of disease outcome and the development of new treatment modalities. From the European point of view it is important to conduct these studies on Babesia canis. PMID:22265755

Matijatko, Vesna; Torti, Marin; Schetters, Theo P

2012-03-01

274

Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia migonei in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The main vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, the absence of L. longipalpis in a region of autochthonous VL demonstrates the participation of other species in the transmission of the parasite. Studies conducted in La Banda, Argentina, and São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco State, Brazil, have correlated the absence of L. longipalpis and the presence of L. migonei with autochthonous cases of VL. In São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, there was evidence for the natural infection of L. migonei with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the ecology of the sand flies L. longipalpis and L. migonei in Fortaleza, an endemic area for VL. Insect capture was conducted at 22 sampling points distributed across four regions of Fortaleza. In total, 32,403 sand flies were captured; of these, 18,166 (56%) were identified as L. longipalpis and 14,237 (44%) as L. migonei. There were significant density differences found between the vectors at each sampling site (indoors and outdoors) (p <0.0001). These findings confirm that L. migonei and L. longipalpis are distributed throughout Fortaleza, where they have adapted to an indoor environment, and suggest that L. migonei may share the role as a vector with L. longipalpis in the transmission of VL in Fortaleza. PMID:25271451

Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque; Santos, Fabricio Kassio Moura; Sousa, Lindemberg Caranha de; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

2014-09-01

275

Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by

Filipe Dantas-Torres

2008-01-01

276

Functional characterization of canine interferon-lambda.  

PubMed

In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-? (CaIFN-?, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-? is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-?1 (SwIFN-?), Bat IFN-?1 (BaIFN-?), and human IFN-?1 (HuIFN-?1). CaIFN-? was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to further investigate the biological activity in vitro. The recombinant CaIFN-? (rCaIFN-?) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively. In addition, we also found that rCaIFN-? exhibits a significant antiproliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CaIFN-? activated the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the expression of CaIFN-? induced by virus and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induced by rCaIFN-? in the MDCK cells, we measured the relative mRNA level of CaIFN-? and ISGs (ISG15, Mx1, and 2'5'-OAS) by quantitative real-time PCR and found that the mRNA level of CaIFN-? and the ISGs significantly increased after treating the MDCK cells with viruses and rCaIFN-? protein, respectively. Finally, to evaluate the binding activity of rCaIFN-? to its receptor, we expressed the extracellular domain of the canine IFN-? receptor 1 (CaIFN-?R1-EC) and determined the binding activity via ELISA. Our results demonstrated that rCaIFN-? bound tightly to recombinant CaIFN-?R1-EC (rCaIFN-?R1-EC). PMID:24950142

Fan, Wenhui; Xu, Lei; Ren, Liqian; Qu, Hongren; Li, Jing; Liang, Jingjing; Liu, Wenjun; Yang, Limin; Luo, Tingrong

2014-11-01

277

Canine Cryptococcosis Associated with Prolonged Corticosteroid Therapy  

PubMed Central

A case of cryptococcosis in a five and one half year old female Irish Setter has been described. The source of the infection was not determined. This is the first documented case of canine cryptococcosis in Alberta. A review of the records of the Alberta Veterinary Services Division for the years 1961-1980 indicates this is the only laboratory case of cryptococcosis encountered in that period. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422156

Macdonald, D. W.; Stretch, H. C.

1982-01-01

278

Transmission eigenvalues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission eigenvalue problem. The need to answer these questions became important after a series of papers by Cakoni et al [5], and Cakoni et al [6] suggesting that these transmission eigenvalues could be used to obtain qualitative information about the material properties of the scattering object from far-field data. The first answer to the existence of transmission eigenvalues in the general case was given in 2008 when Päivärinta and Sylvester showed the existence of transmission eigenvalues for the index of refraction sufficiently large [7] followed in 2010 by the paper of Cakoni et al who removed the size restriction on the index of refraction [8]. More importantly, in the latter it was shown that transmission eigenvalues yielded qualitative information on the material properties of the scattering object and Cakoni et al established in [9] that transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the Tikhonov regularized solution of the far-field equation. Since the appearance of these papers there has been an explosion of interest in the transmission eigenvalue problem (we refer the reader to our recent survey paper [10] for a detailed account of the developments in this field up to 2012) and the papers in this special issue are representative of the myriad directions that this research has taken. Indeed, we are happy to see that many open theoretical and numerical questions raised in [10] have been answered (totally or partially) in the contributions of this special issue: the existence of transmission eigenvalues with minimal assumptions on the contrast, the numerical evaluation of transmission eigenvalues, the inverse spectral problem, applications to non-destructive testing, etc. In addition to these topics, many other new investigations and research directions have been proposed as we shall see in the brief content summary below. A number of papers in this special issue are concerned with the question of existence of transmission eigenvalues and the structure of the associated transmission eigenfunctions. The three papers by respectively Robbiano [11], Blasten and P

Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

2013-10-01

279

Electrospray Encapsulation of Toll-Like Receptor Agonist Resiquimod in Polymer Microparticles for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the intracellular protozoan, Leishmania. A current treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis involves the delivery of imidazoquinolines via a topical cream. However, there are no parenteral formulations of imidazoquinoline...

A. D. Duong, A. R. Satoskar, G. Gupta, K. J. Peine, S. Sharma

2013-01-01

280

Increasing incidence of canine leptospirosis in Switzerland.  

PubMed

A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

2014-07-01

281

Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

2014-01-01

282

Concomitant Infection with Leishmania donovani and L. major in Single Ulcers of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients from Sudan  

PubMed Central

In Sudan human leishmaniasis occurs in different clinical forms, that is, visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Clinical samples from 69 Sudanese patients with different clinical manifestations were subjected to a PCR targeting the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene for Leishmania species identification. Mixed infections were suspected due to multiple overlapping peaks presented in some sequences of the COII amplicons. Cloning these amplicons and alignment of sequences from randomly selected clones confirmed the presence of two different Leishmania species, L. donovani and L. major, in three out of five CL patients. Findings were further confirmed by cloning the ITS gene. Regarding other samples no significant genetic variations were found in patients with VL (62 patients), PKDL (one patient), or ML (one patient). The sequences clustered in a single homogeneous group within L. donovani genetic group, with the exception of one sequence clustering with L. infantum genetic group. Findings of this study open discussion on the synergetic/antagonistic interaction between divergent Leishmania species both in mammalian and vector hosts, their clinical implications with respect to parasite fitness and response to treatment, and the route of transmission with respect to vector distribution and or adaptation. PMID:24744788

Babiker, A. M.; Ravagnan, S.; Fusaro, A.; Hassan, M. M.; Bakheit, S. M.; Mukhtar, M. M.; Cattoli, G.; Capelli, G.

2014-01-01

283

Leishmania Major Infection Among Psammomys Obesus and Meriones Shawi: Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sidi Bouzid (Central Tunisia)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A study was undertaken between November 2008 and March 2010, in the focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Central Tunisia, to evaluate the role of Psammomys obesus (n=472) and Meriones shawi (n=167) as reservoir hosts for Leishmania major infection. Prevalence of L. major infection was 7% versus 5% for culture (p=not signifiant [NS]), 19% versus 16% for direct examination of smears (p=NS), and 20% versus 33% (p=NS) for Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test among P. obesus and M. shawi, respectively. The peak of this infection was in winter and autumn and increased steadily with age for the both species of rodents. The clinical examination showed that depilation, hyper-pigmentation, ignition, and severe edema of the higher edge of the ears were the most frequent signs observed in the study sample (all signs combined: 47% for P. obesus versus 43% for M. shawi; p=NS). However, the lesions were bilateral and seem to be more destructive among M. shawi compared with P. obesus. Asymptomatic infection was ?40% for both rodents. This study demonstrated that M. shawi plays an important role in the transmission and the emergence of Leishmania major cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia. PMID:21919726

Toumi, Amine; Snoussi, Mohamed-Ali; Chlif, Sadok; Zaatour, Amor; Boukthir, Aicha; Bel Haj Hamida, Nabil; Chemkhi, Jomaa; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben-Salah, Afif

2011-01-01

284

[American integumentary leishmaniasis associated with AIDS in Argentina].  

PubMed

Migration of HIV infected individuals from cities to small towns and rural areas spreads AIDS among non urban population, superimposing HIV with other endemic or epidemic infections as parasitoses. This situation is a big challenge to public health because in most cases the association between these infections worsens both prognoses. We present here the first case in Argentina of AIDS associated to a mucocutaneous form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. The patient was from Orán, an area where in the middle eighties, an epidemic outbreak took place. By now more than 2000 cases have been parasitologically confirmed in our Institute and the causing species were identified as Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amasonensis. Considering the existence of co-infection of HIV and Leishmania, it is recommended that in patients from endemic areas with records of cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers, even healed, leishmaniasis must be investigated, among other diseases. PMID:15034957

Romero, Héctor D; Taranto, Néstor J; Malchiodi, Emilio L

2004-01-01

285

Shigella Bacteremia in a Patient with Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Bacteremia due to Shigella is rare. A 26-year-old HIV-negative male presented with a persistent high-grade fever of two months duration to the Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Center of University of Gondar Hospital. He was anorexic and had lost significant weight (from 76 to 57?kg in 4 months, BMI = 17.2?kg/m2). He also complained of headache, chills, and rigor. In the last one year, he was experiencing a few episodes of acute bloody diarrhea, the last episode being two months ago. Microscopy from splenic aspiration showed Leishman-Donovan bodies with parasite load of +3. The blood culture showed Shigella species, but the stool was culture negative. The isolate was sensitive to most tested antibiotic discs, sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, tetracycline, and norfloxacilin, except ampicillin. Therefore, requesting blood culture for identifying unexpected type of organisms causing infections in patients with underlying diseases like visceral leishmaniasis should be encouraged. PMID:24829834

Mohammed, Rezika; Takele, Yegnasew; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Tiruneh, Moges; Diro, Ermias

2013-01-01

286

Leishmaniasis Worldwide and Global Estimates of Its Incidence  

PubMed Central

As part of a World Health Organization-led effort to update the empirical evidence base for the leishmaniases, national experts provided leishmaniasis case data for the last 5 years and information regarding treatment and control in their respective countries and a comprehensive literature review was conducted covering publications on leishmaniasis in 98 countries and three territories (see ‘Leishmaniasis Country Profiles Text S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S11, S12, S13, S14, S15, S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S22, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27, S28, S29, S30, S31, S32, S33, S34, S35, S36, S37, S38, S39, S40, S41, S42, S43, S44, S45, S46, S47, S48, S49, S50, S51, S52, S53, S54, S55, S56, S57, S58, S59, S60, S61, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S67, S68, S69, S70, S71, S72, S73, S74, S75, S76, S77, S78, S79, S80, S81, S82, S83, S84, S85, S86, S87, S88, S89, S90, S91, S92, S93, S94, S95, S96, S97, S98, S99, S100, S101’). Additional information was collated during meetings conducted at WHO regional level between 2007 and 2011. Two questionnaires regarding epidemiology and drug access were completed by experts and national program managers. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence ranges were estimated by country and epidemiological region based on reported incidence, underreporting rates if available, and the judgment of national and international experts. Based on these estimates, approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cases and 0.7 to 1.2 million VL and CL cases, respectively, occur each year. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is more widely distributed, with about one-third of cases occurring in each of three epidemiological regions, the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, and western Asia from the Middle East to Central Asia. The ten countries with the highest estimated case counts, Afghanistan, Algeria, Colombia, Brazil, Iran, Syria, Ethiopia, North Sudan, Costa Rica and Peru, together account for 70 to 75% of global estimated CL incidence. Mortality data were extremely sparse and generally represent hospital-based deaths only. Using an overall case-fatality rate of 10%, we reach a tentative estimate of 20,000 to 40,000 leishmaniasis deaths per year. Although the information is very poor in a number of countries, this is the first in-depth exercise to better estimate the real impact of leishmaniasis. These data should help to define control strategies and reinforce leishmaniasis advocacy. PMID:22693548

Velez, Ivan D.; Bern, Caryn; Herrero, Merce; Desjeux, Philippe; Cano, Jorge; Jannin, Jean

2012-01-01

287

[Attempted control of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis through treatment of diseased dogs].  

PubMed

An attempt was made to control cutaneous leishmaniasis in the municipality of Santa Leopoldina, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, by treating infected dogs. Another area in the municipality of Afonso Cláudio, which is ecologically similar, served as the control area, and dogs were left untreated there. In an initial survey, 34/141 inhabitants of the first area had positive leishmanin tests and 8/26 dogs had cutaneous leishmaniasis, while in the second area 37/127 individuals had positive leishmanin tests and 7/44 dogs were infected. After treatment of the sick dogs in the first area the populations of both areas were periodically examined for new infections. More new human infections were observed in the control area, but the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:14676931

Sessa, P A; Falqueto, A; Varejão, J B

1994-12-01

288

The External Aerodynamics of Canine Olfaction Gary S. Settles*  

E-print Network

The External Aerodynamics of Canine Olfaction Gary S. Settles* , Douglas A. Kester** , Lori J Literature on the External Aerodynamics of Olfaction B. Precedent Literature on Aerodynamic Sampling Technology III. Canine Olfaction Experiments IV. The Design of an Aerodynamic Sniffer A. Background B

Settles, Gary S.

289

[Replantation and fixation of luxated canine teeth in the dog].  

PubMed

The alveolus of a (usually maxillary) canine tooth in a dog may fracture during fighting or in a car accident. The trauma loosens the tooth with resultant avulsion. Ten patients are reviewed, nine with maxillary and one with mandibular canine tooth avulsion, and a method for fixation and replantation is described. PMID:8048036

Staudacher, G; Staudacher, M

1994-06-01

290

Entire Genomic Sequence of Novel Canine Papillomavirus Type 13  

PubMed Central

Papillomaviruses are associated with benign and malignant neoplasias of the skin and mucous membranes. The sequence of a novel canine papillomavirus was determined from DNA detected in the oral cavity of a dog. The sequence of the novel virus canine papillomavirus type 13 (CPV13) shares the highest levels of similarity with the Tau papillomaviruses CPV2 and CPV7. PMID:22923791

Ackermann, Mathias; Favrot, Claude; Tobler, Kurt

2012-01-01

291

Vaccine-induced canine distemper in a lesser panda.  

PubMed

A fatal disease occurred in a lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) 2 weeks after vaccination with modified live distemper vaccine. The disease clinically resembled canine distemper. Pathologically there was giant cell pneumonia, with canine distemper viral inclusion bodies in pulmonary and digestive tract epithelium. Viral isolates were indicative of an attenuated strain rather than virulent types. PMID:988010

Bush, M; Montali, R J; Brownstein, D; James, A E; Appel, M J

1976-11-01

292

Canine Distemper Virus Strains Circulating among North American Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes multisystemic disease in dogs. We received seven samples from dogs with CD from the United States during 2007. CDV isolates from these samples formed large, multinucleated syncytia in a Vero cell line expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Based on the hemagglutinin gene sequences, the CDV isolates from

Sanjay Kapil; Robin W. Allison; Larry Johnston; Brandy L. Murray; Steven Holland; Jim Meinkoth; Bill Johnson

2008-01-01

293

Improvement of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study on canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was to evaluate the effects of fusion strength, type of activation, culture media and site of transfer on developmental potential of SCNT embryos. We also examined the potential of enucleated bovine oocytes to serve as cytoplast recipients of canine somatic cells. Firstly, we evaluated the morphological characteristics

G. Jang; H. J. Oh; M. K. Kim; Y. H. Fibrianto; M. S. Hossein; H. J. Kim; J. J. Kim; S. G. Hong; J. E. Park; S. K. Kang; B. C. Lee

2008-01-01

294

Characterization of Leishmania isolates from Nepalese patients with visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Nepal, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in 13 districts of the central and eastern regions. A total of 166 bone-marrow\\u000a aspirates were obtained from patients with suspected VL. Ninety-seven were identified as positive by microscopy, and 29 of\\u000a those were successfully isolated and cultured. We characterized these isolates by molecular analysis and by their ability\\u000a to infect mice. PCR-restriction

Kishor Pandey; Testuo Yanagi; Basu Dev Pandey; Arun Kumar Mallik; Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand; Hiroji Kanbara

2007-01-01

295

PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO CANINE PARVOVIRUS AND DISTEMPER VIRUS IN WOLVES IN THE CANADIAN  

E-print Network

dogs (Canis famil- iaris) and alternate hosts such as coyotes (Canis latrans) and red foxes (Vulpes wolves (Canis lupus) from 2000 to 2008 for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper on wolf populations. Key words: Banff National Park, canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, Canis

Hebblewhite, Mark

296

Live Vaccination Tactics: Possible Approaches for Controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Vaccination with durable immunity is the main goal and fundamental to control leishmaniasis. To stimulate the immune response, small numbers of parasites are necessary to be presented in the mammalian host. Similar to natural course of infection, strategy using live vaccine is more attractive when compared to other approaches. Live vaccines present the whole spectrum of antigens to the host immune system in the absence of any adjuvant. Leishmanization was the first effort for live vaccination and currently used in a few countries against cutaneous leishmaniasis, in spite of their obstacle and safety. Then, live attenuated vaccines developed with similar promotion of creating long-term immunity in the host with lower side effect. Different examples of attenuated strains are generated through long-term in vitro culturing, culturing under drug pressure, temperature sensitivity, and chemical mutagenesis, but none is safe enough and their revision to virulent form is possible. Attenuation through genetic manipulation and disruption of virulence factors or essential enzymes for intracellular survival are among other approaches that are intensively under study. Other designs to develop live vaccines for visceral form of leishmaniasis are utilization of live avirulent microorganisms such as Lactococcus lactis, Salmonella enterica, and Leishmania tarentolae called as vectored vaccine. Apparently, these vaccines are intrinsically safer and can harbor the candidate antigens in their genome through different genetic manipulation and create more potential to control Leishmania parasite as an intracellular pathogen. PMID:24744757

Saljoughian, Noushin; Taheri, Tahareh; Rafati, Sima

2014-01-01

297

Therapeutic Enhancement of Protective Immunity during Experimental Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmaniasis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Available therapies are problematic due to toxicity, treatment duration and emerging drug resistance. Mouse models of leishmaniasis have demonstrated that disease outcome depends critically on the balance between effector and regulatory CD4+ T cell responses, something mirrored in descriptive studies of human disease. Recombinant IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (rIL-2/DTx), a drug that is FDA-approved for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma, has been reported to deplete regulatory CD4+ T cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the potential efficacy of rIL-2/DTx as adjunctive therapy for experimental infection with Leishmania major. Treatment with rIL-2/DTx suppressed lesional regulatory T cell numbers and was associated with significantly increased antigen-specific IFN-? production, enhanced lesion resolution and decreased parasite burden. Combined administration of rIL-2/DTx and sodium stibogluconate had additive biological and therapeutic effects, allowing for reduced duration or dose of sodium stibogluconate therapy. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that pharmacological suppression of immune counterregulation using a commercially available drug originally developed for cancer therapy may have practical therapeutic utility in leishmaniasis. Rational reinvestigation of the efficacy of drugs approved for other indications in experimental models of neglected tropical diseases has promise in providing new candidates to the drug discovery pipeline. PMID:21909452

Divanovic, Senad; Trompette, Aurelien; Ashworth, Jamie I.; Rao, Marepalli B.; Karp, Christopher L.

2011-01-01

298

Immunoregulation in human American leishmaniasis: balancing pathology and protection.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis covers a broad spectrum of diseases with distinct, and sometimes overlapping, characteristics. The common thread in all forms of leishmaniasis is the infection by the parasite Leishmania belonging to the genus Leishmania. Upon infection of humans, there can be at least three outcomes, (i) control of Leishmania by the host immune response resulting in asymptomatic disease, (ii) patent infection and development of a relatively mild form of leishmaniasis and (iii) patent infection and development of severe clinical forms. The factors that determine the outcome of an initial inoculation with Leishmania are many, with the species of Leishmania representing one of the strongest predictive factors for the development of a given clinical form of disease. This is seen with L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis, infection leading mostly to tegumentary forms of disease, and L. infantum with the potential to induce visceral disease. However, it is also clear that the host immune response is a key factor in disease progression, not only responsible for control of Leishmania, but also playing an important role in disease progression and pathology. This duality between protective and pathogenic immune responses in individuals infected with Leishmania in the Americas is the focus of this review. PMID:24471648

Gollob, K J; Viana, A G; Dutra, W O

2014-08-01

299

Live vaccination tactics: possible approaches for controlling visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Vaccination with durable immunity is the main goal and fundamental to control leishmaniasis. To stimulate the immune response, small numbers of parasites are necessary to be presented in the mammalian host. Similar to natural course of infection, strategy using live vaccine is more attractive when compared to other approaches. Live vaccines present the whole spectrum of antigens to the host immune system in the absence of any adjuvant. Leishmanization was the first effort for live vaccination and currently used in a few countries against cutaneous leishmaniasis, in spite of their obstacle and safety. Then, live attenuated vaccines developed with similar promotion of creating long-term immunity in the host with lower side effect. Different examples of attenuated strains are generated through long-term in vitro culturing, culturing under drug pressure, temperature sensitivity, and chemical mutagenesis, but none is safe enough and their revision to virulent form is possible. Attenuation through genetic manipulation and disruption of virulence factors or essential enzymes for intracellular survival are among other approaches that are intensively under study. Other designs to develop live vaccines for visceral form of leishmaniasis are utilization of live avirulent microorganisms such as Lactococcus lactis, Salmonella enterica, and Leishmania tarentolae called as vectored vaccine. Apparently, these vaccines are intrinsically safer and can harbor the candidate antigens in their genome through different genetic manipulation and create more potential to control Leishmania parasite as an intracellular pathogen. PMID:24744757

Saljoughian, Noushin; Taheri, Tahareh; Rafati, Sima

2014-01-01

300

The Aerodynamics and Transport Phenomena of Canine Olfaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the canine nasal airway, developed from a 3-D reconstruction of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, is used to study the aerodynamics of canine olfaction. Simulation results reveal that a unique olfactory airflow pattern exists within the canine nasal cavity during sniffing that is critical for efficient olfaction. The physics of olfactory mass transport are next considered via a reduced-order numerical model of multi-phase odorant transport in mucus-lined olfactory airways. Calculations show that this novel olfactory airflow pattern provides a crucial residence time for odorant absorption in the sensory region and promotes spatiotemporal fractionation of odorant mixtures along the olfactory epithelium. Consequently, the aerodynamics and transport phenomena of canine olfaction are highly-optimized for odorant transfer and olfactory discrimination, which may largely explain the high olfactory acuity of the canine.

Craven, Brent; Settles, Gary; Paterson, Eric

2008-11-01

301

Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this novel approach significantly decreases the computational effort when compared to conventional approaches, as it requires only local information of the sets of coordinates involved. Numerical simulations and experimental examples are presented and discussed, to illustrate the proposed developments.

Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

2014-10-01

302

Transmission Communication  

E-print Network

ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Digital Communication System . Purpose: communicate Communication System (continue) . A pair of transmitter (coder, modulator) and receiver (demodulator, decoder) is called transceiver . Information theory provides us basic communication theory for communication system

Chen, Sheng

303

Can Saffron (Crocus sativus) be effective in the treatment of leishmaniasis?  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of some sandfly species. It is endemic in 88 countries throughout the world. Pentavalent antimonials are the standard therapy for leismaniasis. Saffron (crocus sativus) belongs to the iridaceae family. This paper will outline the benefits and challenges of repurposing saffron for treating leishmaniasis. PMID:24552229

Bagherani, Nooshin

2013-10-01

304

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Cuban immigrants to Texas who traveled through the Darién Jungle, Panama.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is rarely seen in the United States. Four Cuban immigrants traveled along the same route at different times from Cuba to Ecuador, then northward, including through the Darién Jungle in Panama. These patients had chronic ulcerative non-healing skin lesions and were given a diagnosis of leishmaniasis. PMID:24865687

Barry, Meagan A; Koshelev, Misha V; Sun, Grace S; Grekin, Sarah J; Stager, Charles E; Diwan, A Hafeez; Wasko, Carina A; Murray, Kristy O; Woc-Colburn, Laila

2014-08-01

305

Model-Based Investigations of Different Vector-Related Intervention Strategies to Eliminate Visceral Leishmaniasis on the Indian Subcontinent  

PubMed Central

The elimination of infectious diseases requires reducing transmission below a certain threshold. The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Initiative in Southeast Asia aims to reduce the annual VL incidence rate below 1 case per 10,000 inhabitants in endemic areas by 2015 via a combination of case management and vector control. Using a previously developed VL transmission model, we investigated transmission thresholds dependent on measures reducing the sand fly density either by killing sand flies (e.g., indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets) or by destroying breeding sites (e.g., environmental management). Model simulations suggest that elimination of VL is possible if the sand fly density can be reduced by 67% through killing sand flies, or if the number of breeding sites can be reduced by more than 79% through measures of environmental management. These results were compared to data from two recent cluster randomised controlled trials conducted in India, Nepal and Bangladesh showing a 72% reduction in sand fly density after indoor residual spraying, a 44% and 25% reduction through the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and a 42% reduction after environmental management. Based on model predictions, we identified the parameters within the transmission cycle of VL that predominantly determine the prospects of intervention success. We suggest further research to refine model-based predictions into the elimination of VL. PMID:24762676

Picado, Albert; Ostyn, Bart; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman; Boelaert, Marleen; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Eichner, Martin

2014-01-01

306

Model-based investigations of different vector-related intervention strategies to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent.  

PubMed

The elimination of infectious diseases requires reducing transmission below a certain threshold. The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Initiative in Southeast Asia aims to reduce the annual VL incidence rate below 1 case per 10,000 inhabitants in endemic areas by 2015 via a combination of case management and vector control. Using a previously developed VL transmission model, we investigated transmission thresholds dependent on measures reducing the sand fly density either by killing sand flies (e.g., indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets) or by destroying breeding sites (e.g., environmental management). Model simulations suggest that elimination of VL is possible if the sand fly density can be reduced by 67% through killing sand flies, or if the number of breeding sites can be reduced by more than 79% through measures of environmental management. These results were compared to data from two recent cluster randomised controlled trials conducted in India, Nepal and Bangladesh showing a 72% reduction in sand fly density after indoor residual spraying, a 44% and 25% reduction through the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and a 42% reduction after environmental management. Based on model predictions, we identified the parameters within the transmission cycle of VL that predominantly determine the prospects of intervention success. We suggest further research to refine model-based predictions into the elimination of VL. PMID:24762676

Stauch, Anette; Duerr, Hans-Peter; Picado, Albert; Ostyn, Bart; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman; Boelaert, Marleen; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Eichner, Martin

2014-04-01

307

Prevalence and zoonotic potential of canine hookworms in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Canine hookworm infection is endemic in Southeast Asian countries with a prevalence ranging from 70% to 100%, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. However, there are limited data available on the prevalence of canine hookworms in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hookworm and Ancylostoma species among dogs in Malaysia. Methods Faecal samples were collected from 221 dogs living in urban areas, rural areas and animal shelters in Selangor. Faecal samples were processed using the formal-ether concentration technique followed by wet mount preparation and iodine staining for the detection of hookworm eggs. Samples positive for hookworm eggs were examined using PCR, targeting ITS2 and 28?s rRNA region, and subsequently sequenced in both directions. The sequences were phylogenetically analysed using MrBayes for Bayesian Inference. Results The overall prevalence of hookworm among dogs was 48% (95%CI; 41.41–54.95). Rural stray dogs had the highest prevalence 71.4% (95%CI; 61.13–81.49) followed by urban stray dogs, recording 48% (95%CI; 34.15–61.85) and lastly dogs in shelters with 28.7% (95%CI; 19.56–37.84). Logistic regression identified rural stray dogs as a high risk group (OR?=?4.55, 95%; 2.50–8.31) and keeping dogs in shelters as a protective factor (OR?=?0.24, 95%; 0.14–0.43). Molecular methods identified both Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum with A. ceylanicum being predominant among urban stray dogs. Rural dogs had a higher prevalence of A. caninum than A. ceylanicum, while both species showed equal distribution among dogs in shelters. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. ceylanicum isolated from dogs in one group with A. ceylanicum human isolates. Conclusion This study indicates that dogs have the potential to act as reservoir hosts of human hookworm infection in Malaysia. This finding necessitates the inclusion of dogs in any interventions to combat hookworm in the country. PMID:22564445

2012-01-01

308

Historical experience in the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis in the plain region of Eastern and Central China  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) (kala-azar) was most seriously prevalent in the plain regions of eight provinces/municipalities in the eastern and central parts of China. In the early 1950s, the number of counties/cities endemic for VL and the number of cases in the plain regions accounted for 60% and 80%, respectively, of the total numbers in the entire country. By implementing comprehensive control measures, including treatment of patients for eliminating the source of infection and spraying insecticide in endemic villages to kill sandflies, VL transmission has been brought under control in this region by the early 1960s, and no new infected cases have been found since 1983, achieving the goal of eliminating VL. PMID:24650707

2014-01-01

309

Proven and putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil: aspects of their biology and vectorial competence.  

PubMed

The aim of the present review is to give relevant information on aspects of the biology and ecology, including the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia sand fly species suggested as vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. The disease, due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, has been registered in most municipalities in all the Brazilian states and its transmission is associated with more than one sand fly species in each geographical region. A variety of Leishmania species can be found in the Amazon basin, where different epidemiological chains have been detected with the participation of different phlebotomine vectors. Finally, a discussion is presented on some sand fly species found naturally infected by Leishmania, but for which there is as yet no evidence regarding their epidemiological importance. PMID:20027458

Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Lainson, Ralph

2009-11-01

310

[Milestones and major results of studies on leishmaniasis and sand fly fevers in Turkmenistan].  

PubMed

Among the countries endemic for tropical diseases, Turkmenistan along with Uzbekistan has a special role to play in having basic scientific knowledge of leishmaniasis. This article summarizes the principal scientific findings in the course of the 20th century in respect of leishmaniasis and sand fly fevers. The most important results of studies on cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are cited. The role of different researchers in the epidemiology, epizootology, natural focality of these diseases, their clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are described in detail. The paper gives information obtained by the latest studies on the etiology of leishmaniasis. The most important publications on this topic are assessed. Particular emphasis is laid on the results of the Anti-Leishmaniasis Expedition carried out by the researchers of the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine to the Tedjen oasis of Turkmenistan. PMID:21395041

Ponirovski?, E N; Kondrashin, A V; Erokhin, P I; Annacharyeva, D

2010-01-01

311

Atypical presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a renal transplant recipient successfully treated with allopurinol and fluconazole.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic infection acquired through the bite of a female sandfly, which introduces the amastigotes of Leishmania into the bloodstream. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is rare after solid organ transplantation. Its diagnosis is difficult in immunosuppressed patients. We report a case of isolated cutaneous leishmaniasis in a renal transplant patient resident in an endemic area. The patient was successfully treated with allopurinol and fluconazole and has remained relapse-free for 44 months. The diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis must be considered in immunosuppressed patients living in endemic areas. Our report shows that cutaneous leishmaniasis may complicate the clinical course of kidney transplant recipients and its presentation can be atypical. Conventional treatment with pen.tavalent antimonial agents can cause many side effects; of particular concern in renal transplant pa.tients are pancreatitis and nephrotoxicity. These latter may be avoided by using a combination of allopurinol and fluconazole. PMID:22750767

Yaich, Soumaya; Charfeddine, Khaled; Masmoudi, Abderrahmen; Masmoudi, Mondher; Zaghdhane, Sawssen; Turki, Hamida; Hachicha, Jamil

2013-01-01

312

Cytokines in canine inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

Canine inflammatory bowel disease is a group of chronic enteropathies characterized by persistent or recurring gastric symptoms with an unknown etiology which are related to histopathological changes in the mucosa of the small and large bowel in the form of cellular infiltration in the mucosal lamina propria. Recent years have witnessed a growing number of investigations into the role of the immune system and, in particular, cytokines in the development of IBD. In this article, the expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-1, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, IL-18, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) was compared in canine patients with IBD based on clinical presentation, breed, lamina propria cell infiltrate and histopathological grade. Only selected studies confirmed higher mRNA expression levels of cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12p40, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta in dogs with IBD in comparison with healthy subjects. GSD were strongly represented in most study populations. Dogs with LPE were characterized by elevated levels of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta. The present studies of canine patients with LPC revealed the mRNA expression of cytokines IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta. In the reviewed studies, the progression of IBD was not accompanied by changes in the mRNA express- PMID:23691593

Ko?odziejska-Sawerska, A; Rychlik, A; Depta, A; Wdowiak, M; Nowicki, M; Kander, M

2013-01-01

313

Survey of domestic cattle for anti-Leishmania antibodies and Leishmania DNA in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by an intracellular parasite Leishmania donovani in the Indian subcontinent, is considered to be anthroponotic. The role of domestic animals in its transmission is still unclear. Although cattle are the preferred blood host for Phlebotomus argentipes, the sandfly vector of VL in the Indian subcontinent, very little information is available for their role in the disease transmission. In this study, we examined domestic cattle for serological and molecular evidence of Leishmania infection in a VL-endemic area in Bangladesh. Blood samples from 138 domestic cattle were collected from houses with active or recently-treated VL and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis patients. The presence of anti-leishmanial antibodies in serum was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then with direct agglutination tests (DAT). Nested PCR (Ln PCR) was performed to amplify the ssu-rRNA gene using the DNA extracted from Buffy coat. Recently-developed molecular assay loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was also performed for further sensitive detection of parasite DNA. Results In this study, 9.4% (n = 13) of the cattle were found to be positive by ELISA. Of the 13 ELISA-positive cattle, only four (30.8%) were positive in DAT. Parasite DNA was not detected in either of the molecular assays (Ln PCR and LAMP). Conclusions The study confirmed the presence of antibodies against Leishmania parasite in cattle. However, the absence of Leishmania DNA in the cattle indicates clearly that the cattle do not play a role as reservoir host. Similar study needs to be undertaken in the Indian subcontinent to determine the role of other domestic animals on which sandflies feed. PMID:21651757

2011-01-01

314

Canine tooth in hand - A rare entity  

PubMed Central

The hand plays an important role in day to day activities and is more prone for accidental injuries. Injuries to the hand are frequently associated with foreign body penetration. Many a times the foreign body is not detected at the initial visit and can later present with other complications. We present a case of canine tooth presenting as a retained foreign body in the hand following a dog bite. The article stresses the importance of looking for foreign bodies in penetrating hand injuries, even in wounds that seem to be minor in nature.

Ranganatha, B.T.; Pawan Kumar, K.M.

2014-01-01

315

The Genetics of Canine Skull Shape Variation  

PubMed Central

A dog’s craniofacial diversity is the result of continual human intervention in natural selection, a process that began tens of thousands of years ago. To date, we know little of the genetic underpinnings and developmental mechanisms that make dog skulls so morphologically plastic. In this Perspectives, we discuss the origins of dog skull shapes in terms of history and biology and highlight recent advances in understanding the genetics of canine skull shapes. Of particular interest are those molecular genetic changes that are associated with the development of distinct breeds. PMID:23396475

Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

2013-01-01

316

Frequent cross-species transmission of parvoviruses among diverse carnivore hosts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. A phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus (“FPV-like”) or canine parvovirus (“CPV-like”). Cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, relatively little evidence for onward transmission in nondomestic species.

Allison, Andrew B.; Kohler, Dennis J.; Fox, Karen A.; Brown, Justin D.; Gerhold, Richard W.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Parrish, Colin R.; Holmes, Edward C.

2013-01-01

317

Mapping B-cell epitopes for the peroxidoxin of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and its potential for the clinical diagnosis of tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The search toward the establishment of novel serological tests for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and proper differential diagnosis may represent one alternative to the invasive parasitological methods currently used to identify infected individuals. In the present work, we investigated the potential use of recombinant peroxidoxin (rPeroxidoxin) of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis as a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of human tegumentary (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Linear B-cell epitope mapping was performed to identify polymorphic epitopes when comparing orthologous sequences present in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent for Chagas disease (CD), and the Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris hosts. The serological assay (ELISA) demonstrated that TL, VL and CVL individuals showed high levels of antibodies against rPeroxidoxin, allowing identification of infected ones with considerable sensitivity and great ability to discriminate (specificity) between non-infected and CD individuals (98.46% and 100%; 98.18% and 95.71%; 95.79% and 100%, respectively). An rPeroxidoxin ELISA also showed a greater ability to discriminate between vaccinated and infected animals, which is an important requirement for the public campaign control of CVL. A depletion ELISA assay using soluble peptides of this B-cell epitope confirmed the recognition of these sites only by Leishmania-infected individuals. Moreover, this work identifies two antigenic polymorphic linear B-cell epitopes of L. braziliensis. Specific recognition of TL and VL patients was confirmed by significantly decreased IgG reactivity against rPeroxidoxin after depletion of peptide-1- and peptide-2-specific antibodies (peptide 1: reduced by 32%, 42% and 5% for CL, ML and VL, respectively; peptide-2: reduced by 24%, 22% and 13% for CL, ML and VL, respectively) and only peptide-2 for CVL (reduced 9%). Overall, rPeroxidoxin may be a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of TL, VL or CVL, as it has a higher agreement with parasitological assays and is better than other reference tests that use soluble Leishmania antigens for diagnosing CVL in Brazil (EIE-LVC, Bio-manguinhos, FIOCRUZ). PMID:24921246

Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Santos, Thaís Teodoro de Oliveira; Silva, Ana Luíza Teixeira; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; de Carvalho, Silvio Fernando Guimarães; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

2014-01-01

318

Prion transmission  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases range from being highly infectious, for example scrapie and CWD, which show facile transmission between susceptible individuals, to showing negligible horizontal transmission, such as BSE and CJD, which are spread via food or iatrogenically, respectively. Scrapie and CWD display considerable in vivo dissemination, with PrPSc and infectivity being found in a range of peripheral tissues. This in vivo dissemination appears to facilitate the recently reported excretion of prion through multiple routes such as from skin, feces, urine, milk, nasal secretions, saliva and placenta. Furthermore, excreted scrapie and CWD agent is detected within environmental samples such as water and on the surfaces of inanimate objects. The cycle of “uptake of prion from the environment—widespread in vivo prion dissemination—prion excretion—prion persistence in the environment” is likely to explain the facile transmission and maintenance of these diseases within wild and farmed populations over many years. PMID:20948292

Maddison, Ben C

2010-01-01

319

Canine tooth dimorphism: An adjunct for establishing sex identity  

PubMed Central

Background: Teeth are an excellent material for genetic, odontological and forensic investigations and research purpose. From all the teeth, the mandibular canines are found to exhibit sexual dimorphism. However, very few studies have been published on maxillary canine's measurements. Aims: 1. To find out utility of maxillary and mandibular canine width as a tool for sex determination in Central Indian population. 2. To find out the average size of canines in males and females of Central Indian population. 3. To compare the findings with National and International studies Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in 100 cases in the age group of 17-21 years. Mesiodistal width of right and left mandibular and maxillary canines were measured on the casts with digital calliper and subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done to assess sex difference using Students “t” test (paired). Results and Conclusions: It was seen that a definite statistically significant sexual dimorphism exists when mandibular and maxillary canine measurements were compared. Thus, it can be suggested that canine width measurements can be used as an adjunct for sex identification purpose in Central Indian Population. PMID:23741147

Yuwanati, Madhavi; Karia, Ashok; Yuwanati, Monal

2012-01-01

320

Rapid maxillary canine retraction by dental distraction: A clinical study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to perform rapid maxillary canine retraction through distraction of the periodontal ligament and investigate the rate and amount of canine retraction, amount of anchor loss, the nature of tooth movement achieved, and radiographic changes in the periodontal ligament region during and after canine distraction. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 10 distractions ranging in age from 14 years to 25 years who needed canine retraction and first premolar extraction in the maxillary arch. Ten canine distractions were carried out with custom-made, tooth-borne intra-oral distraction device. Results: The results indicate that the periodontal ligament can be distracted just like the mid-palatal suture in rapid palatal expansion and the maxillary canines are retracted rapidly into the first premolar extraction space at the rate of about 2.53 mm/week. Conclusion: Though this study indicates that the periodontal ligament can be distracted to elicit rapid tooth movement, the long-term effects of canine distraction are not well known and need close monitoring.

Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Chitharanjan, Arun; Kailasam, Vignesh

2014-01-01

321

Rotorcraft transmissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlighted here is that portion of the Lewis Research Center's helicopter propulsion systems program that deals with drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase life, reliability, and maintainability, to reduce weight, noise, and vibration, and to maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development, followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

Coy, John J.

1990-01-01

322

Risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis and asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infection in India and Nepal.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in the role of asymptomatic infection in transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). We studied the individual, household and environmental factors associated with asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infected individuals and VL. 7,538 individuals living in VL endemic villages in India and Nepal were divided into three mutually exclusive groups based on their VL history and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) results in yearly serosurveys over a two-year period. The groups were (1) VL cases, (2) asymptomatically infected individuals (seroconverters) and (3) seronegative individuals. VL cases and seroconverters were compared to seronegative individuals in mixed logistic regression models. The risk of seroconversion and disease was significantly increased in individuals aged 14 to 24 years old and by the presence of other DAT-positive, asymptomatically infected individuals and VL cases in the house. The risk of seroconversion was higher in Indian than in Nepalese villages and it increased significantly with age, but not so for VL. This study demonstrates that, when risk factors for leishmanial infection and VL disease are evaluated in the same population, epidemiological determinants for asymptomatic infection and VL are largely similar. PMID:24498159

Picado, Albert; Ostyn, Bart; Singh, Shri Prakash; Uranw, Surendra; Hasker, Epco; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Boelaert, Marleen; Chappuis, François

2014-01-01

323

Ecology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sinai: linking parasites, vectors and hosts.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected clinical form of public health importance that is quite prevalent in the northern and eastern parts of Egypt. A comprehensive study over seven years (January 2005-December 2011) was conducted to track CL transmission with respect to both sandfly vectors and animal reservoirs. The study identified six sandfly species collected from different districts in North Sinai: Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus kazeruni, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus alexandri, Sergentomyia antennata and Sergentomyia clydei. Leishmania (-)-like flagellates were identified in 15 P. papatasi individuals (0.5% of 3,008 dissected females). Rodent populations were sampled in the same districts where sandflies were collected and eight species were identified: Rattus norvegicus (n = 39), Rattus rattus frugivorous (n = 13), Rattus rattus alexandrinus (n = 4), Gerbillus pyramidum floweri (n = 38), Gerbillus andersoni (n = 28), Mus musculus (n = 5), Meriones sacramenti (n = 22) and Meriones crassus (n = 10). Thirty-two rodents were found to be positive for Leishmania infection (20.12% of 159 examined rodents). Only Leishmania major was isolated and identified in 100% of the parasite samples. The diversity of both the vector and rodent populations was examined using diversity indices and clustering approaches. PMID:24821060

Samy, Abdallah Mohammed; Doha, Said Abdallah; Kenawy, Mohamed Amin

2014-06-01

324

Seroconversion of sentinel chickens as a biomarker for monitoring exposure to visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmania infantum chagasi causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL); it is transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis that injects saliva and parasites into the host's skin during a blood meal. Chickens represent an important blood source for sand flies and their presence in the endemic area is often cited as a risk factor for VL transmission. However, the role of chickens in VL epidemiology has not been well defined. Here, we tested if chicken antibodies against Lu. longipalpis salivary gland sonicate (SGS) could be used as markers of exposure to sand fly bites. All naturally exposed chickens in a VL endemic area in Brazil developed anti-SGS IgY antibodies. Interestingly, Lu. longipalpis recombinant salivary proteins rLJM17 and rLJM11 were also able to detect anti-SGS IgY antibodies. Taken together, these results show that chickens can be used to monitor the presence of Lu. longipalpis in the peri-domiciliary area in VL endemic regions, when used as sentinel animals. PMID:23912591

Soares, Barbara Ribeiro; Souza, Ana Paula Almeida; Prates, Deboraci Brito; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Barral, Aldina

2013-01-01

325

Lutzomyia longipalpis behavior and control at an urban visceral leishmaniasis focus in Argentina.  

PubMed

During the earlier stages of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in Posadas City, Misiones, both the night activity and attraction to humans of Lutzomyia longipalpis were assessed, in order to provide preliminary recommendations. The impact of peridomestic deltamethrin spraying performed by local officials was also evaluated. Although Lu. longipalpis were found in traps located over a dog the entire night, 90% of the females were captured from 20.30h to 1.30h, and only landed on a human when he was at a distance of 1.5 m from the dog. Peridomestic spraying of deltamethrin (25 mg/m²) reduced the sand fly capture up to seven days post-intervention without dispersion in the border of the sprayed areas. These results support the recommendations about time-space focus of the protection measures: first half of the night, in the backyard, with pets and domestic animals kept at least 5 m from humans. The deltamethrin as it was used did not seem very effective in this scenario; neither did the eventual use of bed nets, at least in adults, due to the place/hour of sand fly higher activity. This study strengthens the need for a multidisciplinary approach to develop prevention strategies based both on biological and anthropological studies. PMID:21748225

Santini, Maria Soledad; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Acardi, Soraya Alejandra; Sandoval, Enrique Adolfo; Tartaglino, Lilian

2010-01-01

326

Risk Factors for Visceral Leishmaniasis and Asymptomatic Leishmania donovani Infection in India and Nepal  

PubMed Central

There is increasing interest in the role of asymptomatic infection in transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). We studied the individual, household and environmental factors associated with asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infected individuals and VL. 7,538 individuals living in VL endemic villages in India and Nepal were divided into three mutually exclusive groups based on their VL history and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) results in yearly serosurveys over a two-year period. The groups were (1) VL cases, (2) asymptomatically infected individuals (seroconverters) and (3) seronegative individuals. VL cases and seroconverters were compared to seronegative individuals in mixed logistic regression models. The risk of seroconversion and disease was significantly increased in individuals aged 14 to 24 years old and by the presence of other DAT-positive, asymptomatically infected individuals and VL cases in the house. The risk of seroconversion was higher in Indian than in Nepalese villages and it increased significantly with age, but not so for VL. This study demonstrates that, when risk factors for leishmanial infection and VL disease are evaluated in the same population, epidemiological determinants for asymptomatic infection and VL are largely similar. PMID:24498159

Picado, Albert; Ostyn, Bart; Singh, Shri Prakash; Uranw, Surendra; Hasker, Epco; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Boelaert, Marleen; Chappuis, François

2014-01-01

327

Possible determination of the vector and reservoir of leishmaniasis in the Dominican Republic.  

PubMed

Two species of sand flies were collected by various methods from sites in the Dominican Republic. Lutzomyia cayennensis hispaniolae was the more common of the two. It was found in wooded habitats from sea level to an elevation of 442 m. This species was observed feeding on lizards (Anolis sp.) in the wild. In the laboratory, it fed only on lizards and only under lighted conditions. The other species, Lu. christophei was only found in the vicinity of seven leishmaniasis case sites. It readily fed on or probed rodents and humans. Although no naturally infected sand flies were collected, in the laboratory Lu. christophei was readily capable of transmitting the Dominican Leishmania parasite to uninfected BALB/c mice. We collected 167 specimens of three species of rodents and three Herpestes auropunctatus (mongoose) from the vicinity of two case sites. All four species are non-endemics introduced in post-Columbian times. Although we were unable to isolate parasites from any of these specimens, four of 44 Rattus rattus from one case site were seropositive for antibodies against Leishmania by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. This represents the first report of transmission of the Dominican Leishmania parasite by a sympatric species of sand fly and suggests that commensal rodents may play a role in the epidemiologic cycle. PMID:1558267

Johnson, R N; Young, D G; Butler, J F; Bogaert-Diaz, H

1992-03-01

328

Ecology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sinai: linking parasites, vectors and hosts  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected clinical form of public health importance that is quite prevalent in the northern and eastern parts of Egypt. A comprehensive study over seven years (January 2005-December 2011) was conducted to track CL transmission with respect to both sandfly vectors and animal reservoirs. The study identified six sandfly species collected from different districts in North Sinai: Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus kazeruni, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus alexandri, Sergentomyia antennata and Sergentomyia clydei. Leishmania (-)-like flagellates were identified in 15 P. papatasi individuals (0.5% of 3,008 dissected females). Rodent populations were sampled in the same districts where sandflies were collected and eight species were identified: Rattus norvegicus (n = 39), Rattus rattus frugivorous (n = 13), Rattus rattus alexandrinus (n = 4), Gerbillus pyramidum floweri (n = 38), Gerbillus andersoni (n = 28), Mus musculus (n = 5), Meriones sacramenti (n = 22) and Meriones crassus (n = 10). Thirty-two rodents were found to be positive for Leishmania infection (20.12% of 159 examined rodents). Only Leishmania major was isolated and identified in 100% of the parasite samples. The diversity of both the vector and rodent populations was examined using diversity indices and clustering approaches. PMID:24821060

Samy, Abdallah Mohammed; Doha, Said Abdallah; Kenawy, Mohamed Amin

2014-01-01

329

Immunology and pathogenesis of canine demodicosis.  

PubMed

Demodex mites colonized the hair follicles and sebaceous glands of mammals millions of years ago and have remained relatively unchanged in this protected ecologic niche since then. The host immune system detects and tolerates their presence. Toll-like receptor-2 of keratinocytes has been demonstrated to recognize mite chitin and to elicit an innate immune response. The subsequent acquired immune response is poorly understood at present, but there is experimental and clinical evidence that this is the main mechanism in the control of mite proliferation. A transgenic mouse model (STAT(-/-) /CD28(-/-) ) has demonstrated that the immune response is complex, probably involving both cellular and humoral mechanisms and requiring the role of co-stimulatory molecules (CD28). It is known that a genetic predisposition for developing canine juvenile generalized demodicosis exists; however, the primary defect leading to the disease remains unknown. Once the mite proliferation is advanced, dogs show a phenotype that is similar to the T-cell exhaustion characterized by low interleukin-2 production and high interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-? production by lymphocytes, as described in other viral and parasitic diseases. Acaricidal treatment (macrocyclic lactones) decreases the antigenic load and reverses T-cell exhaustion, leading to a clinical cure. Although in recent years there have been significant advances in the management and understanding of this important and complex canine disease, more research in areas such as the aetiology of the genetic predisposition and the immune control of the mite populations is clearly needed. PMID:24910252

Ferrer, Lluis; Ravera, Ivan; Silbermayr, Katja

2014-10-01

330

Calcium secretion in canine tracheal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Calcium (Ca) affects many cellular functions of the respiratory tract mucosa and might alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. To evaluate Ca homeostasis in a respiratory epithelium we investigated transport of Ca by the canine tracheal mucosa. Mucosal tissues were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and bathed with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. Unidirectional fluxes of 45Ca were determined in tissues that were matched by conductance and short-circuit current (SCC). Under short-circuit conditions there was a significant net Ca secretion of 1.82 +/- 0.36 neq . cm-2 . h-1 (mean +/- SE). Under open-circuit conditions, where the spontaneous transepithelial potential difference could attract Ca toward the lumen, net Ca secretion increased significantly to 4.40 +/- 1.14 compared with 1.54 +/- 1.17 neq . cm-2 . h-1 when the preparation was short-circuited. Addition of a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (2 mM in the mucosal bath), decreased tissue conductance and SCC and slightly decreased the unidirectional movement of Ca from submucosa to lumen. Submucosal epinephrine (10 microM) significantly enhanced Ca secretion by 2.0 +/- 0.63 neq . cm-2 . h-1. Submucosal ouabain (0.1 mM) failed to inhibit Ca secretion. The data suggest that canine tracheal mucosa secretes Ca; this secretory process is augmented by epinephrine or by the presence of a transepithelial potential difference as found under in vivo conditions.

Al-Bazzaz, F.J.; Jayaram, T.

1985-10-01

331

Transmission Information  

E-print Network

Transmission Half of the unit: . Information Theory . MODEM (modulator and demodulator) Professor Sheng Chen Some improved 2G, HSCSD: high­speed circuit switched data, GPRS: general packet radio service, EDGE source demodu . Input/output are considered digital (analogue sampled/quantised) . CODEC, MODEM, channel

Chen, Sheng

332

An Individual-Based Model of Transmission of Resistant Bacteria in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital  

PubMed Central

Veterinary nosocomial infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria cause increased morbidity, higher cost and length of treatment and increased zoonotic risk because of the difficulty in treating them. In this study, an individual-based model was developed to investigate the effects of movements of canine patients among ten areas (transmission points) within a veterinary teaching hospital, and the effects of these movements on transmission of antibiotic susceptible and resistant pathogens. The model simulates contamination of transmission points, healthcare workers, and patients as well as the effects of decontamination of transmission points, disinfection of healthcare workers, and antibiotic treatments of canine patients. The model was parameterized using data obtained from hospital records, information obtained by interviews with hospital staff, and the published literature. The model suggested that transmission resulting from contact with healthcare workers was common, and that certain transmission points (housing wards, diagnostics room, and the intensive care unit) presented higher risk for transmission than others (lobby and surgery). Sensitivity analyses using a range of parameter values demonstrated that the risk of acquisition of colonization by resistant pathogens decreased with shorter patient hospital stays (P<0.0001), more frequent decontamination of transmission points and disinfection of healthcare workers (P<0.0001) and better compliance of healthcare workers with hygiene practices (P<0.0001). More frequent decontamination of heavily trafficked transmission points was especially effective at reducing transmission of the model pathogen. PMID:24893006

Suthar, Neeraj; Roy, Sandip; Call, Douglas R.; Besser, Thomas E.; Davis, Margaret A.

2014-01-01

333

Molecular Identification and Polymorphism Determination of Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniasis Agents Isolated from Human and Animal Hosts in Iran  

PubMed Central

Amplification of internal transcript spacer 1 of ribosomal RNA (ITS1-RNA) gene followed by RFLP analysis and sequencing was used to identify the causing agents of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (CL and VL) in humans and animal reservoir hosts from various geographical areas in Iran. We also used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) to obtain polymorphisms among isolates of Leishmania spp. Totally, 362 suspected human and animal cases including 173 CL, 49 VL, 60 rodents, and 80 domestic dogs were examined for Leishmania infection. From 112 culture-positive samples prepared from CL cases, 75 (67%) were infected with L. major and 37 (33%) with L. tropica. Of the 60 rodents examined, 25 (41.6%) harbored the Leishmania infection; 21 were infected with L. major and 4 with L. turanica. From 49 suspected VL, 29 were positive by direct agglutination test (DAT), whereas microscopy detected parasite in bone marrow of 25 and culture in 28 of the patients. Two VL patients were infected with L. tropica and 26 with L. infantum. Of the 80 domestic dogs, 56 showed anti-Leishmania antibodies with DAT. Of these, 55 were positive by both microscopy and culture. Molecular identity, obtained only for 47 samples, revealed L. infantum in 43 and L. tropica in 4 dogs. The polymorphisms among L. tropica and L. major isolates were 3.6% and 7.3%; the rate among human and canine VL isolates was 2.8% and 9.8%, respectively. Our results showed that at least four different Leishmania species with various polymorphisms circulate among humans and animal hosts in Iran. PMID:24286085

Mohebali, Mehdi; Mamishi, Setareh; Vasigheh, Farzaneh; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Teimouri, Aref; Edrissian, Gholam Hossein; Zarei, Zabiholah

2013-01-01

334

Naturally Leishmania infantum-infected dogs display an overall impairment of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression during visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Dogs are the primary reservoir for Leishmania parasites. The immune response induced by Leishmania infantum infection in these animals has not been completely elucidated, and few studies have investigated the relationship between the expression levels of chemokines and chemokine receptors and the clinical status of dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). The aim of this study was to correlate the clinical status of naturally L. infantum-infected dogs (from rural areas of Mossoró city, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil) with the expression levels of chemokines (ccl1, ccl2, ccl3, ccl4, ccl5, ccl17, ccl20, ccl24, ccl26, cxcl9, cxcl10) and chemokine receptors (cxcr3, ccr3, ccr4, ccr5, ccr6, ccr8) in the liver and spleen determined using real-time PCR. Twenty-one dogs were clinically evaluated and classified as asymptomatic (n=11) or symptomatic (n=10). Splenomegaly, weight loss and onychogryphosis were the most pronounced symptoms. In the liver, the mRNA expression levels of ccl1, ccl17, ccl26, ccr3, ccr4, ccr5, ccr6, and ccr8 were lower in symptomatic animals than in asymptomatic animals. Compared with uninfected animals, symptomatic dogs had lower expression levels of almost all molecules analyzed. Moreover, high clinical scores were negatively correlated with ccr5 and ccr6 expression and positively correlated with cxcl10 expression. We conclude that the impairment of the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors results in deficient leukocyte migration and hampers the immune response, leading to the development of disease. PMID:23545087

Nascimento, Manuela S L; Albuquerque, Talyta D R; Do-Valle-Matta, Maria A; Caldas, Ivo S; Diniz, Lívia F; Talvani, André; Bahia, Maria T; Andrade, Cléber M; Galvão, Lúcia M C; Câmara, Antônia C J; Guedes, Paulo M M

2013-06-15

335

American tegumentary leishmaniasis: correlations among immunological, histopathological and clinical parameters*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND American tegumentary leishmaniasis has an annual incidence of 1 to 1.5 million cases. In some cases, the patient's immune response can eliminate the parasite, and the lesion spontaneously resolves. However, when this does not occur, patients develop the disseminated form of the disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. METHODS A retrospective study of the medical records of 47 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data were collected, and semi-quantitative histopathological analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (p <0.05). RESULTS Mean patient age was 40.5 years. A total of 29.7% individuals were female and 70.2% were male, and 40.4% of the patients were farmers. The ulcerative form was found in 53.2% of patients, of whom 59.6% had lesions in the limbs. The average time to diagnosis was 22.3 months. The following positive correlations were significant: age and duration of the disease, Montenegro reaction, degree of granulomatous transformation and epithelioid cell count; duration of disease, Montenegro reaction and number of lymphocytes; epithelial hyperplasia and edema, hemorrhaging, and epithelial aggression; number of plasmocytes and number of parasites. The main negative correlations found were as follows: age and serology; time and parasite load; epithelial hyperplasia and degree of granulomatous transformation. CONCLUSION The long duration of the disease could be explained by the fact that lesions were relatively asymptomatic, and therefore ignored by patients with low literacy levels. Individuals may have simply waited for spontaneous healing, which proved to be dependent on the activation of hypersensitivity mechanisms. PMID:24626648

Martins, Ana Luiza Grizzo Peres; Barreto, Jaison Antonio; Lauris, Jose Roberto Pereira; Martins, Ana Claudia Grizzo Peres

2014-01-01

336

New World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Treated with Intralesional Injection of Pentavalent Antimony  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a skin infection caused by the Leishmania species, an intracellular protozoan parasite that is transmitted by various species of female sandflies. According to the geographic distribution and vectors, leishmaniasis is classified as Old World or New World cutaneous leishmaniasis. In Korea, 24 cases of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis have been reported, but New World cutaneous leishmaniasis has not been reported as yet. A 37-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of a painful and erythematous nodule with two satellite papules on the left postauricular area and a papule on the left arm after traveling to the Amazon region in Brazil. After we performed skin biopsies of the lesions, diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis was made by the histopathological findings. After intralesional injection of sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam®, GlaxoSmithKline) twice a week for 4 weeks, the lesions improved with scarring. Herein, we discuss this case of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis that was successfully treated with intralesional injection of sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam®) in Korea. PMID:23467266

Shin, Ji Yeon; Lee, Young Bok; Cho, Baik Kee

2013-01-01

337

Evaluation of canine and ovine oviducts for maturation of canine oocytes from antral follicles  

E-print Network

oocytes treated with TCM199 plus 1000ng/ml recombinant bovine somatotrophin (45). Most of the oocytes utilized for in vitro maturation experiments come from dogs undergoing ovario-hysterectomy. Because the ovaries come from an external source, spay... antral follicles starts with the removal of the ovaries from the canine reproductive tract following ovario- hysterectomy at a spay clinic. In this experiment reproductive tracts were collected only from bitches that had a bloody discharge and a...

Epple-Farmer, Jessica A

2012-06-07

338

Information Transmission Media  

E-print Network

Outline Information Transmission Media Multiplexing PSTN Local Loops Switching Physical Layer Transmission Media Multiplexing PSTN Local Loops Switching 1 Outline 2 Information Bandwidth Capacity Modulation 3 Transmission Media Guided Transmission Wireless Transmission 4 Multiplexing FDM WDM TDM CDMA 5

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

339

Information Transmission Media  

E-print Network

Outline Information Transmission Media Modulation and Multiplexing Local Loops Physical Layer Transmission Media Modulation and Multiplexing Local Loops 1 Outline 2 Information Bandwidth Capacity 3 Transmission Media Guided Transmission Wireless (Unguided) Transmission 4 Modulation and Multiplexing

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

340

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Sand Fly Fluctuations Are Associated with El Ni?o in Panam?  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical vector-borne disease. Sand fly vectors (SF) and Leishmania spp parasites are sensitive to changes in weather conditions, rendering disease transmission susceptible to changes in local and global scale climatic patterns. Nevertheless, it is unclear how SF abundance is impacted by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and how these changes might relate to changes in CL transmission. Methodology and Findings We studied association patterns between monthly time series, from January 2000 to December 2010, of: CL cases, rainfall and temperature from Panamá, and an ENSO index. We employed autoregressive models and cross wavelet coherence, to quantify the seasonal and interannual impact of local climate and ENSO on CL dynamics. We employed Poisson Rate Generalized Linear Mixed Models to study SF abundance patterns across ENSO phases, seasons and eco-epidemiological settings, employing records from 640 night-trap sampling collections spanning 2000–2011. We found that ENSO, rainfall and temperature were associated with CL cycles at interannual scales, while seasonal patterns were mainly associated with rainfall and temperature. Sand fly (SF) vector abundance, on average, decreased during the hot and cold ENSO phases, when compared with the normal ENSO phase, yet variability in vector abundance was largest during the cold ENSO phase. Our results showed a three month lagged association between SF vector abundance and CL cases. Conclusion Association patterns of CL with ENSO and local climatic factors in Panamá indicate that interannual CL cycles might be driven by ENSO, while the CL seasonality was mainly associated with temperature and rainfall variability. CL cases and SF abundance were associated in a fashion suggesting that sudden extraordinary changes in vector abundance might increase the potential for CL epidemic outbreaks, given that CL epidemics occur during the cold ENSO phase, a time when SF abundance shows its highest fluctuations. PMID:25275503

Chaves, Luis Fernando; Calzada, Jose E.; Valderrama, Anayansi; Saldana, Azael

2014-01-01

341

Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

1997-01-01

342

Periodontal ligament distraction: A simplified approach for rapid canine retraction  

PubMed Central

Distraction osteogenesis is a method of inducing new bone formation by applying mechanical strains on preexisting bone. The process of osteogenesis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement is similar to the osteogenesis in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. A new concept of “distracting the periodontal ligament” is proposed to elicit rapid canine retraction in two weeks. At the time of first premolar extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket along the buccal and lingual sides and extending obliquely toward the socket base. Then, a tooth-borne, custom-made, intraoral distraction device was placed to distract the canine distally into the extraction space. It was activated 0.5 mm/day, immediately after the extraction. Canine was distracted 6.5 mm into the extraction space within two weeks. PMID:22628978

Prabhat, K. C.; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Gupta, N. D.; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Goyal, Lata

2012-01-01

343

9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza...Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids....

2010-01-01

344

9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza...Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids....

2011-01-01

345

9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza...Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids....

2012-01-01

346

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

... false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus...

2014-01-01

347

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus...

2011-01-01

348

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus...

2013-01-01

349

9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza...Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids....

2013-01-01

350

9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.  

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza...Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids....

2014-01-01

351

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus...

2012-01-01

352

Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt  

E-print Network

: Leishmania. and L. major existed in northern and central Sinai, and in the northwest of Egypt. Suitable environments for L. major and L. tropica were identified in the northern and central Sinai, Suez Canal, central Egypt, and in narrow zones...

Samy, Abdallah Mohammed; Campbell, Lindsay P.; Peterson, A. Townsend

2014-01-01

353

Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) and urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.  

PubMed

The article discusses habits related to the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, along with evidence confirming the importance of this sand fly species in the epidemiological chain of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. A new epidemiological profile for visceral leishmaniasis is also postulated, associated with domestic environments and the role of Lu. longipalpis in this process, its sylvatic origin, and its capacity to adapt to a wide range of habitats. Another sand fly species, Lu. cruzi, is mentioned as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in some municipalities in Central Brazil, based on studies in endemic areas of the country. PMID:19082287

Rangel, Elizabeth F; Vilela, Maurício L

2008-12-01

354

Transmission Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Transmission Lines, is the fourteenth chapter in Volume II â Alternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Circuits and the speed of light; Finite-length transmission lines; and Waveguides. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-03

355

Rotorcraft transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this presentation outlines that portion of the program that applies to the drive train and its various mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

Coy, John J.

1987-01-01

356

Seroprevalence of canine heartworm disease in Kerman, southeastern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine dirofilariosis is presumed to be enzootic in different parts of Iran but no study has been done regarding the prevalence\\u000a of canine dirofilariosis in southeastern Iran. In this study, the presence of Dirofilaria immitis circulating antigen was detected using a commercial immunochromatogeraphy kit in the sera of 100 owned dogs, which were referred\\u000a to Kerman Veterinary Hospital during a

Baharak Akhtardanesh; Mohammad Hossein Radfar; Darioush Voosough; Nasim Darijani

357

Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills ( Mandrillus sphinx)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data

Steven R. Leigh; Joanna M. Setchell; Marie Charpentier; Leslie A. Knapp; E. Jean Wickings

2008-01-01

358

Effects of Ethyl Alcohol on Canine Jejunal Circular Smooth Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl alcohol has many symptomatic effects onthe gastrointestinal tract. Our aim was to determine theeffects of ethyl alcohol on circular smooth musclecontractility of the canine small bowel. Mechanical and intracellular electrical recordings weremade in vitro from the circular muscle of full-thicknessstrips of muscularis externa from canine jejunum. Ethylalcohol (20-120 mM) dose-dependently decreased spontaneous contractile amplitude,hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential, anddecreased

Gang Lu; Michael G. Sarr; Joseph H. Szurszewski

1997-01-01

359

Canine adenovirus type 1 infection of a Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

A 10-year-old female Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra) died after prolonged anorexia and weight loss in the Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Seoul, Republic of Korea. On necropsy, the liver was found to be swollen and friable with 1 lobe enlarged and necrotic. The other organs showed no significant alterations except for mild atrophy of the right kidney. Microscopically, there was multifocal hepatic necrosis. The hepatocytes around the necrotic areas were swollen and contained large basophilic intranuclear inclusions. Periportal infiltration by plasma cells and lymphocytes was also evident. Transmission electron microscopy revealed characteristic hexagonal virus particles sized approximately 70 nm in diameter in the nuclei of the hepatocytes, which were consistent with an adenovirus. Polymerase chain reaction of the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver sections was used to determine whether the virus was either the canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), or some other viral agent. The results of these tests showed that the virus was CAV-1. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a CAV-1 infection in an otter. PMID:17606519

Park, N Y; Lee, M C; Kurkure, N V; Cho, H S

2007-07-01

360

Notes from the field: wildlife rabies on an island free from canine rabies for 52 years--Taiwan, 2013.  

PubMed

Dog-to-dog transmission of rabies in Taiwan was eliminated in 1961; the island was considered canine rabies-free for 52 years. On July 16, 2013, three ferret-badgers (Melogale moschata) tested positive for rabies by fluorescent antibody testing at the Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture of Taiwan. This was the first time wild animals other than bats were tested. During 1999-2012, a total of 6,841 clinically healthy dogs and five apparently normal cats from shelters were tested and found negative for rabies. During 2009-2012, a total of 322 bats were tested and found negative for rabies. PMID:24572614

Wu, Hsiu; Chang, Su-San; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Wallace, Ryan M; Recuenco, Sergio E; Doty, Jeffrey B; Vora, Neil M; Chang, Feng-Yee

2014-02-28

361

Five markers useful for the distinction of canine mammary malignancy  

PubMed Central

Background Spontaneous canine mammary tumors constitute a serious clinical problem. There are significant differences in survival between cases with different tumor grades. Unfortunately, the distinction between various grades is not clear. A major problem in evaluating canine mammary cancer is identifying those, that are “truly” malignant. That is why the aim of our study was to find the new markers of canine malignancy, which could help to diagnose the most malignant tumors. Results Analysis of gene expression profiles of canine mammary carcinoma of various grade of malignancy followed by the boosted tree analysis distinguished a `gene set`. The expression of this gene set (sehrl, zfp37, mipep, relaxin, and magi3) differs significantly in the most malignant tumors at mRNA level as well as at protein level. Despite this `gene set` is very interesting as an additional tool to estimate canine mammary malignancy, it should be validated using higher number of samples. Conclusions The proposed gene set can constitute a `malignancy marker` that could help to distinguish the most malignant canine mammary carcinomas. These genes are also interesting as targets for further investigations and therapy. So far, only two of them were linked with the cancer development. PMID:23844591

2013-01-01

362

Consultative meeting to develop a strategy for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Institute Pasteur, Paris. 13-15 June, 2006  

PubMed Central

Background A meeting was organized by Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) and the Institute Pasteur (IP), Paris, to review the treatment for all forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and to propose a strategy for the development of new efficacious and affordable treatments. Method The global burden of CL was discussed with respect to financial impact; relation to poverty; the stigma of CL lesions and scars (particularly in young women); lack of effective, affordable, easily implemented tools and political will and resources to implement available control tools; and lack of input from pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to develop new drugs and vaccines. Results According to the experts from different endemic countries present, the financial and social burdens of CL are high, but we have limited quantitative data. The analysis of published trials indicates that the quality of most trials is poor and requires both improvement and standardization. The available drugs are inadequate. Criteria by which different CL types could be prioritized as target disease were set. These criteria included: severity of the disease; lack of response to available drugs; overall incidence and prevalence of the disease; sequelae of the disease, (including recidivans and mucosal leishmaniasis); the impact of treatment of individuals on control of transmission and lack of other major parties involved in drug development. Based on these, the anthroponotic CL and its sequel "recidivans" caused by L. tropica and CL caused by L. braziliensis and its sequel, mucosal leishmaniasis were considered to be the target diseases. The mechanism for controlling Leishmania infection to reach a stable self healing process is a balanced immune response. Immune stimulation during chemotherapy can enhance cure. There is no adequately effective vaccine, but some encouraging results have been obtained with whole killed Leishmania parasites or imiquimod (an immuno-modulator) plus antimonials. Further studies are needed. One safety/immunogenicity clinical trial is currently ongoing with a Second Generation Vaccine (SGV). Conclusions and recommendations There is an urgent need for new treatments for all CL types. CL should be considered as a neglected disease and organizations, such as DNDi, should include it in their list of target diseases. It was agreed that immuno-chemotherapy (with "therapeutic" vaccines or immunomodulators) has a strong potential to make an impact as a new therapy of CL with the view of shortening/reducing duration and dose of drug treatment and preventing resistance. There is also a need for safe, affordable and efficacious new chemotherapeutics. The quality of clinical trials needs to be enhanced and standardized. Short and long-term objectives and activities were defined as a part of meeting recommendations. PMID:17456237

Modabber, Farrokh; Buffet, Pierre A; Torreele, Els; Milon, Genevieve; Croft, Simon L

2007-01-01

363

Direct agglutination test for early diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

In a prospective study, 80 cases of fever with hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and leucopaenia coming from the hyperendemic zones for visceral leishmaniasis of North-Bihar, India were screened and subjected to bone marrow or splenic puncture for demonstration of Leishman-donovan bodies (LDB) and DIRECT AGGLUTINATION TEST (DAT) with antigen prepared by Harith et al. 59 cases were confirmed for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) by demonstration of LDB in which DAT was also positive in different titres ranging from 1:1600 onwards. Out of 21 cases in which the bone marrow was negative for parasite, DAT was positive in 10 cases. 8 Out of 10 cases responded to WHO regimen of treatment with sodium stibogluconate (SSG). Remaining two cases who did not respond to this therapy became positive for parasites on subsequent splenic aspirate. They were treated with pentamidine isethionate and were cured. 11 out of 80 cases showing a titre of 1:400 or lower in DAT, 6 proved to be cases of enteric fever and 5 of malaria. Thus DAT using Harith's antigen was found to be 100% sensitive and specific in detection of early cases of Indian VL. PMID:9251370

Jha, T K; Thakur, C P; Singh, I J; Singh, T K; Jha, S

1996-09-01

364

Novel low-cost thermotherapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru.  

PubMed

Thermotherapy is an accepted alternative therapy for new-world cutaneous leishmaniasis, but current heat-delivery modalities are too costly to be made widely available to endemic populations. We adapted a low-cost heat pack named the HECT-CL device that delivers safe, reliable, and renewable conduction heat. 25 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis completed treatment with the device at an initial temperature of 52°C ± 2°C for 3 minutes to each lesion, repeated daily for 7 days, and were followed up for 6 months by direct observation. The overall definitive clinical cure rate was 60%. Concurrently, 13 patients meeting minimally significant exclusion criteria received identical compassionate use treatment with a cumulative definitive cure rate of 68.4%, 75% for those who had experienced CL relapse after prior antimonial treatment. Therapy was well tolerated. Reversible second-degree burns occurred in two patients and no bacterial super-infections were observed. HECT-CL is a promising treatment and deserves further study to verify its safety and efficacy as adjuvant and mono- therapy. PMID:23658851

Valencia, Braulio M; Miller, David; Witzig, Richard S; Boggild, Andrea K; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

2013-01-01

365

Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria: an update.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, is endemic in Algeria. This report describes a retrospective epidemiological study conducted on human VL to document the epidemiological profile at national level. All human VL cases notified by the National Institute of Public Health between 1998 and 2008 were investigated. In parallel all VL cases admitted to the university hospitals of Algiers were surveyed to estimate the underreporting ratio. Fifteen hundred and sixty-two human VL cases were reported in Algeria between 1998-2008 with an average annual reported incidence rate of 0.45 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, of which 81.42% were in the age range of 0-4 years. Cases were detected year-round, with a peak notification in May and June. One hundred and seventy patients were admitted to the university hospitals in Algiers in the same period, of which less than one in ten had been officially notified. Splenomegaly, fever, pallor and pancytopenia were the main clinical and laboratory features. Meglumine antimoniate was the first-line therapy for paediatric VL whereas the conventional amphotericin B was used for adult patients. Visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria shows the epidemiological profile of a paediatric disease with a decrease of the annual reported incidence rate. However, vigilance is required because of huge underreporting and an apparent propagation towards the south. PMID:24949958

Adel, Amel; Boughoufalah, Amel; Saegerman, Claude; De Deken, Redgi; Bouchene, Zahida; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Berkvens, Dirk; Boelaert, Marleen

2014-01-01

366

A case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed by serology.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old Japanese Bolivian male had been suffering from a right leg ulcer after an insect bite during his residence in Bolivia. The ulcer healed after herbal medicine treatment. Ten years later, the patient had symptoms of nasal obstruction, nasal bleeding, and pharyngodynia, which were accompanied by a destructive ulcer with surrounding erythema involving the right nostril apex and columella. Papillary, irregular mucosal lesions were seen on the soft palate. Giemsa staining and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using biopsy specimens of the papillary mucosal lesions on the soft palate failed to identify Leishmania parasites. However, the IgG antibody test was positive for Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani, and the dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) using five Leishmania antigens L. (L.) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, and L. (V.) panamensis was positive. Combined, the findings suggested mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B was started but was soon terminated because of palpitation, epigastralgia and facial flushing. It is sometimes difficult to identify the parasites in lesions of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and serological tests are useful for such occasions. PMID:25041360

Okumura, Yoko; Yamauchi, Asako; Nagano, Isao; Itoh, Makoto; Hagiwara, Keisuke; Takahashi, Kenzo; Uezato, Hiroshi; Maeda, Manabu; Seishima, Mariko

2014-08-01

367

Complementary exams in the diagnosis of american tegumentary leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis is a difficult but essential task when considering the high toxicity profile of the drugs available. Since the discovery of its etiologic agent, numerous diagnostic tests have been developed. None of the tests available today can be considered as the gold standard, since they do not add enough accuracy for the disease detection. Good epidemiological and clinical knowledge of the disease are fundamental precepts of the dermatology practice and precede the rational use of existing diagnostic tests. In this article we aim, through extensive literature review, to recall fundamental concepts of any diagnostic test. Subsequently, based on this information, we will weave important comments about the characteristics of existing diagnostic tests, including immunological tests such as Montenegro's skin test, serology and detection of parasites by direct examination, culture or histopathology. Finally we will discuss the new technologies and options for the diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The molecular biology technique is considered a promising tool, promoting the rapid identification of the species involved. We also aim to educate dermatologists about a disease with high morbidity and assist in its difficult recognition. PMID:25184908

Gomes, Ciro Martins; de Paula, Natália Aparecida; Morais, Orlando Oliveira de; Soares, Killarney Ataíde; Roselino, Ana Maria; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

2014-09-01

368

Canine Hip Dysplasia is Predictable by Genotyping  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective To establish a predictive method using whole genome genotyping for early intervention in canine hip dysplasia (CHD) risk management, for the prevention of the progression of secondary osteoarthritis (OA), and for selective breeding. Design Two sets of dogs (6 breeds) were genotyped with dense SNPs covering the entire canine genome. The first set contained 359 dogs upon which a predictive formula for genomic breeding value (GBV) was derived by using their estimated breeding value (EBV) of the Norberg angle (a measure of CHD) and their genotypes. To investigate how well the formula would work for an individual dog with genotype only (without using EBV or phenotype), a cross validation was performed by masking the EBV of one dog at a time. The genomic data and the EBV of the remaining dogs were used to predict the GBV for the single dog that was left out. The second set of dogs included 38 new Labrador retriever dogs, which had no pedigree relationship to the dogs in the first set. Results The cross validation showed a strong correlation (r>0.7) between the EBV and the GBV. The independent validation showed a strong correlation (r=0.5) between GBV for the Norberg angle and the observed Norberg angle (no EBV was available for the new 38 dogs). Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive value of the genomic data were all above 70%. Conclusions Prediction of CHD from genomic data is feasible, and can be applied for risk management of CHD and early selection for genetic improvement to reduce the prevalence of CHD in breeding programs. The prediction can be implemented before maturity, at which age current radiographic screening programs are traditionally applied, and as soon as DNA is available. PMID:21215318

Guo, Gang; Zhou, Zhengkui; Wang, Yachun; Zhao, Keyan; Zhu, Lan; Lust, George; Hunter, Linda; Friedenberg, Steven; Li, Junya; Zhang, Yuan; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Paul; Sandler, Jody; Krotscheck, Ursula; Todhunter, Rory; Zhang, Zhiwu

2011-01-01

369

Larval Breeding Sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Urban Areas in Southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. Methodology/Principal finding In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. Conclusion The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. PMID:24069494

Casanova, Cláudio; Andrighetti, Maria T. M.; Sampaio, Susy M. P.; Marcoris, Maria L. G.; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Prado, Ângelo P.

2013-01-01

370

Hygiene status associated with different types of bonded, orthodontic canine-to-canine retainers. A clinical trial.  

PubMed

The present study was performed to test whether bonded, orthodontic canine-to-canine retainers made of spiral wire tended to accumulate more plaque than retainers made of plain wire, and whether the presence of such retainers caused any damage to the teeth involved. 44 patients were classified in eight strata according to age, gender and gingival status. From each stratum, the patients were randomly divided into 4 groups, each of which received either retainers made of thick plain wire bonded only to the canines, thick twisted wired bonded only to the canines, thin twisted wire bonded to each tooth or removable retainers. Accumulation of plaque and calculus along the gingival margin and gingival inflammation were scored in lingual areas from canine to canine at time of fixed appliance removal and again 4 months after retainer insertion. In addition, accumulation of plaque and calculus and development of caries along the retainer wires were scored after 4 months. The results revealed no differences between the groups for any of the variables. No differences in accumulation of plaque was found between baseline and follow-up examinations. Gingival bleeding was scored less frequently after 4 months in retention than at time of debonding. PMID:3469225

Artun, J; Spadafora, A T; Shapiro, P A; McNeill, R W; Chapko, M K

1987-02-01

371

Visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in a Spanish patient in Argentina: What is the origin of the infection? Case report  

PubMed Central

Background The question "Where have you been?" is a common one asked by doctors in Northern Europe and America when faced with clinical symptoms not typical of their country. This question must also arise in the clinics of developing countries in which non-autochthonous cases such as the one described here can appear. Important outbreaks of Leishmania infantum have been recorded in the last decade in several Latin American countries but its presence has not yet been recorded in Argentina. We report the first case of visceral leishmaniasis owing to L. infantum in this country. Case presentation A 71-year-old Spanish woman who has been living in Mendoza, Argentina, during the last 40 years presented with a history of high fever and shivering, anemia, leukopenia and splenomegaly over two years. Argentinian doctors did not suspect visceral leishmaniasis even when the histological analysis revealed the presence of "intracytoplasmatic spheroid particles compatible with fungal or parasitic infection". After a serious deterioration in her health, she was taken to Spain where she was evaluated and visceral leishmaniasis was established. Specific identification of the parasite was done by PCR-ELISA, isoenzyme electrophoresis and RAPD-PCR. Conclusion We would like to point out that: i) cases such as the one described here, which appear in non-endemic areas, can pass unnoticed by the clinical physician. ii) in countries in which these introduced cases reside, in-depth parasitological studies are required into vectors and possible reservoirs to rule out the rare case of local infection and, once infection has taken place, to ensure that this does not spread by anthroponotic transmission or a competent reservoir. PMID:15225352

Martin-Sanchez, Joaquina; Navarro-Mari, Jose M; Pasquau-Liano, Juan; Salomon, Oscar D; Morillas-Marquez, Francisco

2004-01-01

372

Simultaneous Occurrence of Ocular, Disseminated Mucocutaneous, and Multivisceral Involvement of Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is a tropical infection caused by the protozoan, belonging to the group of Leishmania which causes Old World and New World disease. These are typically divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral, viscerotropic, and disseminated disease. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the presence of visceral disease is a rarity. Isolated case reports have documented this occurrence, in the immunocompromised setting, and few otherwise. The concurrent presence of visceral leishmaniasis (bone marrow involvement) with solitary cutaneous and ocular disease and also solitary cutaneous and visceral disease (bone marrow involvement) has been reported before. Here, we present an immunocompetent patient who was diagnosed to have visceral leishmaniasis (liver and bone marrow involvement) along with simultaneous disseminated mucocutaneous and ocular involvement, a combination that has never been reported before. PMID:24707415

Kalal, Chetan Ramesh; Kumar, K. N. Chandan; Bihari, Chhagan; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

2014-01-01

373

Association between an Emerging Disseminated form of Leishmaniasis and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Strain Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis causes three main types of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL), localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), and disseminated leishmaniasis (DL). All forms are observed among individuals of Corte de Pedra, Brazil. We previously used random amplified markers to identify a multiclonal population among L. (V.) braziliensis isolates from ATL patients, defining parasite clades associated with different clinical syndromes. Herein we compared sequences of random amplified markers to identify genotypes of L. (V.) braziliensis recovered from lesions of CL, ML, and DL patients. Six polymorphic genomic loci were sequenced from 35 parasite isolates. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions-deletions (indels) at each locus allowed us to segregate the L. (V.) braziliensis population according to haplotypes. Several SNPs, indels, and haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk of DL. Molecular genotyping may provide markers to identify L. (V.) braziliensis strains likely to cause this emerging, hard-to-treat form of ATL. PMID:23035200

Queiroz, Adriano; Sousa, Rosana; Heine, Claudia; Cardoso, Manuela; Guimaraes, Luiz Henrique; Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Riley, Lee W.; Wilson, Mary E.

2012-01-01

374

American cutaneous leishmaniasis: use of a skin test as a predictor of relapse after treatment.  

PubMed Central

While relapses following clinical cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis are frequent, no test has been described until now to predict such relapses. A cohort of 318 American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was followed up for two years after treatment with meglumine antimoniate, during which time 32 relapses occurred, 30 in the first year and two in the second (accumulated risk: 10.5%). No association was found between these relapses and the parasite-specific antibody response before and after treatment, or between the relapses and stratification by sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. However when Leishmania was used as antigen, patients with a negative skin test at the time of diagnosis presented a 3.4-fold higher risk (hazard risk = 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.0) of American cutaneous leishmaniasis relapse, compared with patients with a positive response. This result shows that the skin test can be a predictor of American cutaneous leishmaniasis relapse after treatment. PMID:10994280

Passos, V. M.; Barreto, S. M.; Romanha, A. J.; Krettli, A. U.; Volpini, A. C.; Lima e Costa, M. F.

2000-01-01

375

SOD1 Plasma Level as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Failure in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

We show that increased plasma superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) levels are statistically significant predictors of the failure of pentavalent antimony treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis. In Leishmania amazonensis–infected patients, host SOD1 levels can be used to discriminate between localized and drug-resistant diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. Using in situ transcriptomics (nCounter), we demonstrate a significant positive correlation between host SOD1 and interferon ?/? messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, as well as interkingdom correlation between host SOD1 and parasite SOD2/4 mRNA levels. In human macrophages, in vitro treatment with SOD1 increases the parasite burden and induces a diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis–like morphology. Thus, SOD1 is a clinically relevant biomarker and a therapeutic target in both localized and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:24511100

Khouri, Ricardo; Santos, Gilvaneia Silva; Soares, George; Costa, Jackson M.; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Van Weyenbergh, Johan

2014-01-01

376

First Cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi Infection in Surinam  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Surinam is generally caused by infection by Leishmania guyanensis. We report three cases of infection with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi, a Leishmania species not described from Surinam before. Treatment with pentamidine proved to be effective. PMID:20348504

van Thiel, Pieter-Paul A. M.; van Gool, Tom; Kager, Piet A.; Bart, Aldert

2010-01-01

377

First cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi infection in Surinam.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Surinam is generally caused by infection by Leishmania guyanensis. We report three cases of infection with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi, a Leishmania species not described from Surinam before. Treatment with pentamidine proved to be effective. PMID:20348504

van Thiel, Pieter-Paul A M; Gool, Tom van; Kager, Piet A; Bart, Aldert

2010-04-01

378

STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN Prepared in Support of the 2005 Summary and Recommendations ............................................................. 1 Transmission Transmission System Problems............................................................................. 4

379

STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN Prepared in Support of the 2005 ............................................................. 1 Transmission Planning and Permitting.............................................................................................. 2 Transmission System Problems

380

Evaluation of Nephroprotective and Immunomodulatory Activities of Antioxidants in Combination with Cisplatin against Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMost available drugs against visceral leishmaniasis are toxic, and growing limitations in available chemotherapeutic strategies due to emerging resistant strains and lack of an effective vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis deepens the crisis. Antineoplastic drugs like miltefosine have in the past been effective against the parasitic infections. An antineoplastic drug, cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP), is recognized as a DNA-damaging drug which

Meenakshi Sharma; Rakesh Sehgal; Sukhbir Kaur

2012-01-01

381

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Combination Therapies for Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Indian Subcontinent  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVisceral leishmaniasis is a systemic parasitic disease that is fatal unless treated. We assessed the cost and cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent. In particular we examined whether combination therapies are a cost-effective alternative compared to monotherapies.Methods and FindingsWe assessed the cost-effectiveness of all possible mono- and combination therapies for the treatment

Filip Meheus; Manica Balasegaram; Piero Olliaro; Shyam Sundar; Suman Rijal; Marleen Boelaert

2010-01-01

382

First Case of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Suriname  

PubMed Central

The main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Suriname is Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. This case report presents a patient infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, a species never reported before in Suriname. This finding has clinical implications, because L. braziliensis has a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a more extensive and destructive form of CL that requires different treatment. Clinicians should be aware that chronic cutaneous ulcers in patients from the Guyana region could be caused by L. braziliensis. PMID:22556081

Hu, Ricardo V. P. F.; Kent, Alida D.; Adams, Emily R.; van der Veer, Charlotte; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; Mans, Dennis R. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Fat, Rudy F. M. Lai A.

2012-01-01

383

The role of splenectomy in HIV-infected patients with relapsing visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in HIV-infected patients is characterized by having a protracted course and frequent relapses, despite the use of adequate anti-leishmanial drugs and effective anti-retroviral therapy. A small subset of patients with significant splenomegaly develops severe cytopaenias and chronic leishmania infection. The use of elective splenectomy is effective for restoring the haematological parameters and reduces the need for blood transfusions but it does not avoid relapsing visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:17156583

Troya, J; Casquero, A; Muñiz, G; Fernández-Guerrero, M L; Górgolas, M

2007-05-01

384

A case of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in India.  

PubMed

Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a rare disease. This is a solitary case report from Orissa, India. We describe a case of PKDL in a 55-year-old male who presented with multiple nodular lesions over face, trunk, and extremities. The patient had been to an endemic area of kala-azar and had a previous history of leishmaniasis. Fine needle aspiration cytology samples from skin nodules revealed Leishmania amastigotes. PMID:20877504

Tripathy, Kalpalata; Misra, Aparijita; Mallik, Rabinarayn; Misra, Debiprasad; Rout, Niranjan; Rath, Jayshree

2010-09-01

385

Development and in vitro characterization of canine CD40-Ig  

PubMed Central

We recently reported that blockade of the CD40–CD154 ligand interaction with the cross-reacting mouse anti-human CD154 antibody, 5c8, together with donor-specific transfusion led to enhanced but not completely successful engraftment in a canine model of DLA-identical marrow transplantation after 100cGy total body irradiation (TBI). In order to improve transplantation outcomes, we sought to develop a canine-specific reagent. To that end, we fused the extracellular domain of the canine CD40 with a mouse IgG2a Fc tail and tested the immunosuppressive effectiveness of the fusion protein in mixed leukocyte reactions. The extracellular domain of canine CD40 was fused with the Fc portion of mouse IgG2a in a pcDNA3.1+ vector. Dhfr-deficient CHO cells were co-transfected with the CD40-Ig vector and a dhfr-containing vector. Stable, high producing clones were selected under increasing methotrexate concentrations. The fusion protein was purified, tested in mixed leukocyte reactions, and its immunosuppressive effect compared to that of the anti-CD154 antibody 5c8. The transfected cell line produced a CD40-Ig dimer whose identity was confirmed by mass spectroscopy. The purified canine CD40-Ig blocked mixed leukocyte reactions at a concentration of 1nM, which was more than 10 times effective than the anti-CD154 antibody. Canine CD40-Ig is more immunosuppressive than the anti-human CD154 antibody 5c8 in canine mixed leukocyte reactions and may be more effective in vivo in a model of marrow transplantation. PMID:18387675

Jochum, Christoph; Beste, Mechthild; Stone, Diane; Graves, Scott S.; Storb, Rainer

2008-01-01

386

Canine detection of free-ranging brown treesnakes on Guam  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated canine teams (dogs and their handlers) on Guam as a potential tool for finding invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) in the wild. Canine teams searched a 40 ?? 40 m forested area for a snake that had consumed a dead mouse containing a radio-transmitter. To avoid tainting the target or target area with human scent, no snake was handled or closely approached prior to searches. Trials were conducted during the morning when these nocturnal snakes were usually hidden in refugia. A radiotracker knew the snake's location, but dog handlers and search navigators did not. Of 85 trials conducted over four months, the two canine teams had an average success rate of 35% of correctly defining an area ??? 5 ?? 5 m that contained the transmittered snake; the team with more experience prior to the trials had a success rate of 44% compared with 26% for the less experienced team. Canine teams also found 11 shed skins from wild snakes. Although dogs alerted outside the vicinity of transmittered snakes, only one wild, non-transmittered snake was found during the trials, possibly reflecting the difficulty humans have in locating non-transmittered brown treesnakes in refugia. We evaluated success at finding snakes as a function of canine team, number of prior trials (i.e. experience gained during the trials), recent canine success at finding a target snake, various environmental conditions, snake perch height, and snake characteristics (snout-vent length and sex). Success rate increased over the course of the trials. Canine team success also increased with increasing average humidity and decreased with increasing average wind speed. Our results suggest dogs could be useful at detecting brown treesnakes in refugia, particularly when compared to daytime visual searches by humans, but techniques are needed to help humans find and extract snakes once a dog has alerted. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

Savidge, J.A.; Stanford, J.W.; Reed, R.N.; Haddock, G.R.; Adams, A.A.Y.

2011-01-01

387

Serotonin transporter protein overexpression and association to Th17 and T regulatory cells in lupoid leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The immunopathogenesis of chronic non-healing Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis is challenging. There is a bidirectional communication between the nervous and immune systems, serotonin being an important mediator in this respect. Our aim was to study the role of the serotonin transporter protein (SERT) and its relation to T cell-related immune responses in lupoid leishmaniasis. Paraffin-embedded skin biopsies of 12 cases of lupoid and 12 cases of usual types of cutaneous leishmaniasis were investigated using immunohistochemistry regarding expression of SERT, Th1, Th2, Th17 and T regulatory cell (Treg) markers. SERT as well as Tregs and interleukin (IL)-17 positive cells were more prevalent while IL-5 (Th2) and interferon (IFN)-? (Th1) expressing cells were less numerous in the lupoid tissue compared to those from the usual type of leishmaniasis. The majority of the SERT(+) cells were also tryptase(+) (mast cells). There was a positive correlation between a higher number of SERT(+) and IL-17(+) cells in the lupoid type, while lower numbers of SERT(+) cells were significantly related to lower percentages of CD25(+) cells in the usual type of leishmaniasis. These results might indicate a role for SERT, Th17 and Tregs in the pathogenesis of lupoid leishmaniasis. PMID:23989888

Mashayekhi Goyonlo, Vahid; Elnour, Husameldin; Nordlind, Klas

2014-03-01

388

Recombinant Antigens from Phlebotomus perniciosus Saliva as Markers of Canine Exposure to Visceral Leishmaniases Vector  

PubMed Central

Background Phlebotomus perniciosus is the main vector in the western Mediterranean area of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of canine and human visceral leishmaniases. Infected dogs serve as a reservoir of the disease, and therefore measuring the exposure of dogs to sand fly bites is important for estimating the risk of L. infantum transmission. In bitten hosts, sand fly saliva elicits a specific antibody response that reflects the intensity of sand fly exposure. As screening of specific anti-saliva antibodies is limited by the availability of salivary gland homogenates, utilization of recombinant salivary proteins is a promising alternative. In this manuscript we show for the first time the use of recombinant salivary proteins as a functional tool for detecting P. perniciosus bites in dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings The reactivity of six bacterially-expressed recombinant salivary proteins of P. perniciosus, yellow-related protein rSP03B, apyrases rSP01B and rSP01, antigen 5-related rSP07, ParSP25-like protein rSP08 and D7-related protein rSP04, were tested with sera of mice and dogs experimentally bitten by this sand fly using immunoblots and ELISA. In the immunoblots, both mice and canine sera gave positive reactions with yellow-related protein, both apyrases and ParSP25-like protein. A similar reaction for recombinant salivary proteins was observed by ELISA, with the reactivity of yellow-related protein and apyrases significantly correlated with the antibody response of mice and dogs against the whole salivary gland homogenate. Conclusions/Significance Three recombinant salivary antigens of P. perniciosus, yellow-related protein rSP03B and the apyrases rSP01B and rSP01, were identified as the best candidates for evaluating the exposure of mice and dogs to P. perniciosus bites. Utilization of these proteins, or their combination, would be beneficial for screening canine sera in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniases for vector exposure and for estimating the risk of L. infantum transmission in dogs. PMID:24392167

Sumova, Petra; Rohousova, Iva; Jimenez, Maribel; Molina, Ricardo; Volf, Petr

2014-01-01

389

Studies on the feeding habits of Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae), vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil.  

PubMed

The precipitin test was applied to identify the blood meal sources of Lutzomyia intermedia, collected in two distinct habitats: inside houses and in the peridomicile, in Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, a transmission area of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. The following antisera were tested: human, avian, equine, rodent, and opossum. From a total of 370 females analyzed, 128 specimens from the domicile and 59 from the peridomicile reacted with specific antisera. The anthropophily of L. intermedia was confirmed in both habitats; likewise, the feeding of this sand fly species on domestic animals, observed in previous entomological surveys, was confirmed by the strong reactivity with avian, canine, and equine antisera. However, feeding on rodents, mammals frequently found inside and around houses, represents further evidence related to the vector competence of L. intermedia, since synanthropic and sylvatic rodents have been considered a putative reservoir of L. (V.) braziliensis. PMID:16410867

Afonso, Margarete Martins Dos Santos; Gomes, Almério Castro; Meneses, Cláudio Roberto Valente; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

2005-01-01

390

Analysis of p53 mutational events and MDM2 amplification in canine soft-tissue sarcomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine cancer is of major significance in terms of animal health and welfare and soft tissue sarcomas are an important group of tumours accounting for approximately 15% of all canine tumours presented. Abnormal p53 protein expression and gene mutations have been identified in a number of different canine tumour types. However, mdm2 gene amplification has only been investigated in a

L. Nasir; G. R. Rutteman; S. W. J. Reid; Ch. Schulze; D. J. Argyle

2001-01-01

391

Orthodontic tooth movement after extraction of previously autotransplanted maxillary canines and ridge augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case report is detailed in which autotransplanted maxillary canines were removed and the spaces closed. Substantial surrounding bone loss was associated with the upper right canine, and a bone graft was needed to reestablish normal dentoalveolar ridge morphology. Bone was taken from the maxillary tuberosity and placed in the canine extraction site, fixed with a bone screw, and covered

Anthony R. Collett; Basil Fletcher

2000-01-01

392

The isolation and molecular characterization of Leishmania spp. from patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis in northwest Argentina.  

PubMed

American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a group of zoonotic diseases caused by kinetoplastid flagellates of the genus Leishmania. A total of 66 patients diagnosed as positive ATL cases from northwest Argentina were included in this study. Leishmania stocks were isolated in vitro and analyzed over promastigote cultures sown on FTA through nested PCR and sequence of cytochrome b (cyt b). The molecular analysis resulted in the incrimination of L. (Viannia) braziliensis as the predominant species in the studied area, identifying two genotypes of L. (V.) braziliensis, 24 cases of Ab-1 cyt b and 41 cases of Ab-2 cyt b. One L. (V.) guyanensis strain was obtained from a traveler from the Brazilian Amazon. The prevalence of different genotypes was in agreement with previous studies, suggesting the necessity for new systems to study the genetic diversity in more detail. Most of the cases typified in this study were registered in the area of Zenta Valley (Orán, Hipólito Yrigoyen, and Pichanal cities), pointing a link between genotype and geographical origin of the sample. Sex and age distribution of the patients indicate that the transmission was predominantly associated with rural areas or rural activities, although the results might not exclude the possibility of peri-urban transmission. This work represents, so far, the largest isolation and molecular characterization of ATL cases in Argentina. PMID:24291551

Locatelli, Fabricio M; Cajal, S Pamela; Barroso, Paola A; Lauthier, Juan J; Mora, María C; Juarez, Marisa; Kato, Hirotomo; Nasser, Julio R; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Korenaga, Masataka; Marco, Jorge D

2014-03-01

393

Cutaneous leishmaniasis: knowledge, attitude and practices of the inhabitants of the Kani forest tribal settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for control/prevention of CL is to create awareness among the community and ensure optimal utilization of interventions. First step in this direction would be to carry out a situation analysis on prevailing knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of inhabitants. A study among 103 respondents from 10 Kani tribal settlements showed that though 39.8% of respondents recognized pictures of CL shown to them, but did not have any lay perceptions. There was absolutely no awareness on vector, transmission, risk factors and control measures. The role of sandflies in CL causation was not known to the residents and this prevented them from using any personal protection and adhering to control measures which in turn pose risk of spread of infection within settlements and to newer areas. CL has emerged as a challenging infection in this area and an urgent need for designing appropriate preventive measures and health education strategies is addressed in this article. PMID:25325998

Nandha, B; Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P

2014-12-01

394

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius exfoliative toxin EXI selectively digests canine desmoglein 1 and causes subcorneal clefts in canine epidermis.  

PubMed

Staphylococcal exfoliative toxins are known to digest desmoglein (Dsg) 1, a desmosomal cell-cell adhesion molecule, thus causing intraepidermal splitting in human bullous impetigo, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome and swine exudative epidermitis. Recently, a novel exfoliative toxin gene (exi), whose sequence shares significant homology with previously identified exfoliative toxins, was isolated from Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Little is known about the pathogenic involvement of this toxin in canine pustular diseases such as impetigo. The aim of this study was to determine whether EXI, the product of the exi gene, digests canine Dsg1 and causes intraepidermal splitting in canine skin. An exi gene was isolated from chromosomal DNA of an S.?pseudintermedius strain obtained from a pustule of a dog with impetigo, and was used to produce a recombinant EXI by Escherichia coli expression. When purified recombinant EXI was injected intradermally into normal dogs, it caused the development of vesicles or erosions with superficial epidermal splitting. In addition, the EXI abolished immunofluorescence for Dsg1, but not for Dsg3, at the injection sites. Moreover, the EXI directly degraded baculovirus-secreted recombinant extracellular domains of canine Dsg1, but not that of canine Dsg3, in vitro. The EXI also degraded mouse Dsg1? and swine Dsg1, but not human Dsg1, mouse Dsg1? and Dsg1?. Conversely, recombinant SIET, previously designated as S.?intermedius exfoliative toxin, did not cause intraepidermal splitting or degradation of any Dsgs. These findings indicate that EXI has a proteolytic activity that digests canine Dsg1, and this characteristic might be involved in the pathogenesis of intraepidermal splitting in canine impetigo. PMID:21410798

Iyori, Keita; Futagawa-Saito, Keiko; Hisatsune, Junzo; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Sekiguchi, Maiko; Ide, Kaori; Son, Won-Geun; Olivry, Thierry; Sugai, Motoyuki; Fukuyasu, Tsuguaki; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Nishifuji, Koji

2011-08-01

395

Purification and partial characterization of canine S100A12.  

PubMed

Canine S100A12 (cS100A12) is a calcium-binding protein of the S100 superfamily of EF-hand proteins, and its expression is restricted to neutrophils and monocytes. Interaction of S100A12 with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been suggested to play a central role in inflammation. Moreover, S100A12 has been shown to represent a sensitive and specific marker for gastrointestinal inflammation in humans. Only human, porcine, bovine, and rabbit S100A12 have been purified to date, and an immunoassay for the quantification of S100A12 is available only for humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the purification of S100A12 and to partially characterize this protein in the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) as a prelude to the development of an immunologic method for its detection and quantification in canine serum and fecal specimens. Leukocytes were isolated from canine whole blood by dextran sedimentation, and canine S100A12 was extracted from the cytosol fraction of these cells. Further purification of cS100A12 comprised of ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and strong cation- and anion-exchange column chromatography. Canine S100A12 was successfully purified from canine whole blood. The relative molecular mass of the protein was estimated at 10,379.5 and isoelectric focusing revealed an isoelectric point of 6.0. The approximate specific absorbance of cS100A12 at 280 nm was determined to be 1.78 for a 1 mg/ml solution. The N-terminal AA sequence of the first 15 residues of cS100A12 was Thr-Lys-Leu-Glu-Asp-His-X-Glu-Gly-Ile-Val-Asp-Val-Phe-His, and revealed 100% identity with the predicted protein sequence available through the canine genome project. Sequence homology for the 14 N-terminal residues identified for cS100A12 with those of feline, bovine, porcine, and human S100A12 was 78.6%. We conclude that canine S100A12 can be successfully purified from canine whole blood using the described methods. PMID:20727380

Heilmann, Romy M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

2010-12-01

396

Evaluation of the antiviral activity of chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite against feline calicivirus, human influenza virus, measles virus, canine distemper virus, human herpesvirus, human adenovirus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus.  

PubMed

We evaluated the antiviral activity of a chlorine dioxide gas solution (CD) and sodium hypochlorite (SH) against feline calicivirus, human influenza virus, measles virus, canine distemper virus, human herpesvirus, human adenovirus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus. CD at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ppm produced potent antiviral activity, inactivating >or= 99.9% of the viruses with a 15 sec treatment for sensitization. The antiviral activity of CD was approximately 10 times higher than that of SH. PMID:20616431

Sanekata, Takeshi; Fukuda, Toshiaki; Miura, Takanori; Morino, Hirofumi; Lee, Cheolsung; Maeda, Ken; Araki, Kazuko; Otake, Toru; Kawahata, Takuya; Shibata, Takashi

2010-06-01

397

Previously uncharacterized Mycoplasma isolates from an investigation of canine pneumonia.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas recovered from the respiratory tract and genitourinary system of dogs, with and without respiratory infection, have been characterized by biological and immunological methods. Some of the isolates were indentified as being similar to the three species of canine mycoplasmas described earlier under the designation Mycoplasma spumans, M. canis, and M. maculosum. Other mycoplasmas placed in three groups (A, C, and D) were found to be clearly distinct from the three classified species. Group A strains fermented glucose but not mannose and were serologically distinct from other canine mycoplasmas recovered in this study. These strains were subsequently found to be biologically and serologically related to a previously reported, but unclassified, canine mycoplasma. Group D strains differed in some biological properties but were serologically related. These were found to be nonfermenting mycoplasmas representing isolations from the throat and bladder of dogs. They were serologically distinct from other canine mycoplasmas and were apparently unrelated to other known mycoplasma serotypes. Group C mycoplasmas were recovered only from the lungs of dogs. Within the group, they differ in some immunological properties but appear to be serologically distinct from other canine strains. They can also be separated from other dog strains in their ability to ferment glucose and mannose. Group B strains were found to have biological properties similar to M. canis strains but seemed to be only partially related to this serotype when examined in several serological techniques. It is suggested that these strains might represent antigenic variants of M. canis. PMID:16557682

Armstrong, D; Tully, J G; Yu, B; Morton, V; Friedman, M H; Steger, L

1970-01-01

398

Endodontic treatment of a mandibular canine with two roots.  

PubMed

Lower canine is a tooth with a robust, long root and very good implantation, making it a valuable abutment tooth for any type of prosthetic treatment. In order to treat it conservatively and to prevent its loss from the dental arch it is necessary to accomplish a correct and complete endodontic treatment, which involves knowledge of all its morphological variation. The mandibular canine usually presents one root with a single large canal centrally located. The possible anatomical variations are the existence of a single root with two canals and of two different roots, each having a canal. The incidence of lower canines with two roots is usually low, as described in various studies, but their presence in everyday practice shows that the clinician must consider them if he wants to prevent dental endodontic treatment failure. This article presents a relatively rare case of a patient whose right mandibular canine has two roots and two canals. Although the frequency of mandibular canines with two roots is very low, we must not forget that we can deal with such cases, which can obviously occur even in patients in our country, as the ones described in foreign specialty literature. PMID:21892540

Andrei, Oana Cella; M?rg?rit, Ruxandra; Gheorghiu, Irina Maria

2011-01-01

399

American tegumentary leishmaniasis - a case of therapeutic challenge.  

PubMed

American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) is a chronic, non-contagious, infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The timely and proper treatment is of great importance to prevent the disease from progressing to destructive and severe forms. Treatment for ATL recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health is similar for the whole country, regardless of the species of Leishmania. It is known that the response to treatment may vary with the strain of the parasite, the immune status of the patient and clinical form. We report the case of a healthy patient, coming from Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil, who presented resistance to treatment with N-methyl-glutamine and liposomal amphotericin B, only being healed after using pentamidine. PMID:25387505

Couto, Daíne Vargas; Hans Filho, Gunter; Medeiros, Marcelo Zanolli; Vicari, Carolina Faria Santos; Barbosa, Aline Blanco; Takita, Luiz Carlos

2014-12-01

400

American tegumentary leishmaniasis - a case of therapeutic challenge*  

PubMed Central

American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) is a chronic, non-contagious, infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The timely and proper treatment is of great importance to prevent the disease from progressing to destructive and severe forms. Treatment for ATL recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health is similar for the whole country, regardless of the species of Leishmania. It is known that the response to treatment may vary with the strain of the parasite, the immune status of the patient and clinical form. We report the case of a healthy patient, coming from Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil, who presented resistance to treatment with N-methyl-glutamine and liposomal amphotericin B, only being healed after using pentamidine. PMID:25387505

Couto, Daine Vargas; Hans Filho, Gunter; Medeiros, Marcelo Zanolli; Vicari, Carolina Faria Santos; Barbosa, Aline Blanco; Takita, Luiz Carlos

2014-01-01

401

Natural history of a visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in highland Ethiopia.  

PubMed

In May 2005, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was recognized for the first time in Libo Kemken, Ethiopia, a highland region where only few cases had been reported before. We analyzed records of VL patients treated from May 25, 2005 to December 13, 2007 by the only VL treatment center in the area, maintained by Médecins Sans Frontières-Ethiopia, Operational Center Barcelona-Athens. The median age was 18 years; 77.6% were male. The overall case fatality rate was 4%, but adults 45 years or older were five times as likely to die as 5-29 year olds. Other factors associated with increased mortality included HIV infection, edema, severe malnutrition, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and vomiting. The VL epidemic expanded rapidly over a several-year period, culminating in an epidemic peak in the last third of 2005, spread over two districts, and transformed into a sustained endemic situation by 2007. PMID:19706898

Herrero, Mercè; Orfanos, Giannos; Argaw, Daniel; Mulugeta, Abate; Aparicio, Pilar; Parreño, Fernando; Bernal, Oscar; Rubens, Daniel; Pedraza, Jaime; Lima, Maria Angeles; Flevaud, Laurence; Palma, Pedro Pablo; Bashaye, Seife; Alvar, Jorge; Bern, Caryn

2009-09-01

402

A cluster of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with human smuggling.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is rarely seen in the United States, and the social and geographic context of the infection can be a key to its diagnosis and management. Four Somali and one Ethiopian, in U.S. Border Patrol custody, came to the United States by the same human trafficking route: Djibouti to Dubai to Moscow to Havana to Quito; and then by ground by Columbia/Panama to the United States-Mexico border where they were detained. Although traveling at different times, all five patients simultaneously presented to our institution with chronic ulcerative skin lesions at different sites and stages of evolution. Culture of biopsy specimens grew Leishmania panamensis. Soon thereafter, three individuals from East Africa traveling the identical route presented with L. panamensis CL to physicians in Tacoma, WA. We document here the association of a human trafficking route and new world CL. Clinicians and public health officials should be aware of this emerging infectious disease risk. PMID:21633017

Cannella, Anthony P; Nguyen, Bichchau M; Piggott, Caroline D; Lee, Robert A; Vinetz, Joseph M; Mehta, Sanjay R

2011-06-01

403

An improved microculture method for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the performance of three diagnostic methods for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Patients who came to the Health Center Laboratory of Gonbad-e-Qabus in Golestan Province, Iran, were enrolled in the study. Skin scraping smear, improved microculture (IMC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed. A total of 303 subjects were recruited, among whom 273 subjects fulfilled the criteria for CL. Sensitivity and specificity were 88.8 % (95 % CI = 84.2-92.2 %) and 100.0 % for smears, 98.4 % (95 % CI = 96.1-99.1 %) and 100.0 % for IMC, both of them 100.0 % for PCR. Although, PCR was relatively more sensitive than the IMC, the high correlation (agreement = 96 %, Kappa = 0.82) between IMC and PCR along with the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, adequate sensitivity and as a needle free method, offers the IMC as a valuable alternative diagnostic method for PCR in diagnosis of CL. PMID:25320480

Pagheh, Abdolsattar; Fakhar, Mahdi; Mesgarian, Fatemeh; Gholami, Shirzad; Ahmadpour, Ehsan

2014-12-01

404

Development and application of 'simple' diagnostic tools for visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis is difficult. Due to the limitations of direct methods to detect parasites, indirect immunological methods are widely employed. The simple affordable and sensitive/specific direct agglutination test (DAT) is perhaps the most important diagnostic tool under field conditions. A significant improvement of this test is the use of a freeze-dried antigen, which is heat-stable and has a long shelf-live even under harsh conditions. The performance of this antigen in DAT has been evaluated using samples collected in East Africa. The results of these studies are presented. The detection of Leishmania infection in HIV-co-infected patients is difficult. The combination of DAT-PCR may be useful for the detection of parasite infection in these patients. Finally, we present data to show that the DAT based on the freeze-dried antigen can also be used for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs. PMID:11770114

Schallig, H D; Schoone, G J; Kroon, C C; Hailu, A; Chappuis, F; Veeken, H

2001-11-01