Canine leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi, in America) and is transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. Infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir of the parasite and play a key role in transmission to humans, in which the parasite produces visceral leishmaniasis. The increasing awareness that control of the human disease depends on effective
Jorge Alvar; Carmen Cañavate; Ricardo Molina; Javier Moreno; Javier Nieto
Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950
Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B
Increasing risk factors are making zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis a growing public health concern in many countries. Domestic dogs constitute the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania chagasi, and play a key role in the transmission to humans. New reagents and tools allow the detailed investigation of canine leishmaniasis, permitting the monitoring of the immunological status of dogs in both
Javier Moreno; Jorge Alvar
Background Different epidemiological studies previously indicated that canine leishmaniasis is present in the region of Thiès (Senegal). However, the risks to human health, the transmission cycle and particularly the implicated vectors are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To improve our knowledge on the population of phlebotomine sand flies and the potential vectors of canine leishmaniasis, sand flies were collected using sticky traps, light traps and indoor spraying method using pyrethroid insecticides in 16 villages of the rural community of Mont Rolland (Thiès region) between March and July 2005. The 3788 phlebotomine sand flies we collected (2044 males, 1744 females) were distributed among 9 species of which 2 belonged to the genus Phlebotomus: P. duboscqi (vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Senegal) and P. rodhaini. The other species belonged to the genus Sergentomyia: S. adleri, S. clydei, S. antennata, S. buxtoni, S. dubia, S. schwetzi and S. magna. The number of individuals and the species composition differed according to the type of trap, suggesting variable, species-related degrees of endophily or exophily. The two species of the genus Phlebotomus were markedly under-represented in comparison to the species of the genus Sergentomyia. This study also shows a heterogeneous spatial distribution within the rural community that could be explained by the different ecosystems and particularly the soil characteristics of this community. Finally, the presence of the S. dubia species appeared to be significantly associated with canine leishmaniasis seroprevalence in dogs. Conclusions/Significance Our data allow us to hypothesize that the species of the genus Sergentomyia and particularly the species S. dubia and S. schwetzi might be capable of transmitting canine leishmaniasis. These results challenge the dogma that leishmaniasis is exclusively transmitted by species of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World. This hypothesis should be more thoroughly evaluated.
Senghor, Massila W.; Faye, Malick N.; Faye, Babacar; Diarra, Karamoko; Elguero, Eric; Gaye, Oumar
Synopsis Canine Leishmaniasis is a fatal zoonotic visceralizing disease usually associated with tropical areas. The etiologic agent is an obligate intracellular protozoan, Leishmania infantum. In 1999, an outbreak of a canine leishmaniasis was reported in a Foxhound kennel in New York, and since that report, several other outbreaks have occurred across the United States in additional Foxhound kennels. Because of the high mortality and transmissibility associated with these outbreaks, it is essential that clinicians be aware of this disease to permit its rapid recognition and institution of control measures. Cases with a travel history may suggest imported disease, these are mainly observed from Southern Europe (south of France, Spain, Italy). Breeds from these and other endemic areas may be at higher risk of infection with Leishmania due to vertical transmission. The purpose of this report is to discuss the clinical signs, epidemiology, diagnosis, control and treatment of canine leishmaniasis with focus on the aspects of this disease within North America.
Petersen, Christine A.; Barr, Stephen C.
The Sicilian province of Catania is an active foci for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Mediterranean area. Approximately 10 to 15 cases of VL are diagnosed via hospital admissions each year in this community. Recently, an increase in VL case reporting by Sicilian physicians was noted, with 38 and 37 VL cases in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Before 1995, there were no reported VL cases among U.S. military personnel or their family members living in Sicily. However, since 1996, there have been four cases referred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center for diagnosis and treatment, all involving the children of personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. Exposure histories for all infected individuals excluded exposure to Leishmania parasites outside of Sicily. All patients lived in areas where vectoring sandflies are present. All had dogs as family pets. To evaluate the level of infection among dogs owned by Navy personnel and their families, U.S. Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit 7, in a collaborative study with the U.S. Army Veterinary Clinic, Naval Air Station Sigonella, and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, performed clinical evaluation and serological testing of 50 dogs residing with U.S. personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. The data indicate a high exposure rate to Leishmania (60% of the animals tested had elevated immunoglobulin M antibody levels) in the study population, suggesting that they were infected with Leishmania infantum. Distribution of seropositive dogs by sex was equal. Most of the dogs studied appeared to be in good health. However, inapparent infection of dogs, seen by Italian veterinarians, has been observed throughout all areas of Catania. Sandflies responsible for vectoring L. infantum were trapped in the same locations as the dogs sampled in this study. The level of subclinical infection was 75% among seropositive dogs. The overall level of canine infection observed was higher than expected. This study demonstrates an increased risk to military working dogs and companion dogs of U.S. personnel for infection with L. infantum during a 2- to 3-year tour in Sicily. PMID:10658425
Orndorff, G R; Cooper, B A; Smith, W; Ryan, J R
Background Visceral leishmaniasis belongs to the list of neglected tropical diseases and is considered a public health problem worldwide. Spatial correlation between the occurrence of the disease in humans and high rates of canine infection suggests that in the presence of the vector, canine visceral leishmaniasis is the key factor for triggering transmission to humans. Despite the control strategies implemented, such as the sacrifice of infected dogs being put down, the incidence of American visceral leishmaniasis remains high in many Latin American countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Mathematical models were developed to describe the transmission dynamics of canine leishmaniasis and its control by culling. Using these models, imperfect control scenarios were implemented to verify the possible factors which alter the effectiveness of controlling this disease in practice. Conclusions/Significance A long-term continuous program targeting both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs should be effective in controlling canine leishmaniasis in areas of low to moderate transmission (R0 up to 1.4). However, the indiscriminate sacrifice of asymptomatic dogs with positive diagnosis may jeopardize the effectiveness of the control program, if tests with low specificity are used, increasing the chance of generating outrage in the population, and leading to lower adherence to the program. Therefore, culling must be planned accurately and implemented responsibly and never as a mechanical measure in large scale. In areas with higher transmission, culling alone is not an effective control strategy.
Costa, Danielle N. C. C.; Codeco, Claudia T.; Silva, Moacyr A.; Werneck, Guilherme L.
The frequency of American visceral leishmaniasis affecting humans on Margarita Island, Venezuela, has increased in recent years, and infected dogs appear to constitute the principal source of infection. ELISA tests with Leishmania donovani promastigotes and rK39 antigen from L. chagasi in serum from 541 dogs were positive in 33.1% and 21.6% of the samples, respectively. A second blood sample taken from 50 animals after 8-10 months revealed an increase from 24% to 40% of ELISA positivity to both antigens, suggesting high susceptibility and transmission in the canine population. Among 42 serologically positive dogs, 33% of which showed clinical signs of disease, 79% were positive in polymerase chain reactions using primers specific for the L. donovani complex. Control measures including epidemiological hypersurveillance, the humane sacrifice of infected dogs, and rapid diagnosis and treatment of human cases have been initiated. PMID:11132371
Zerpa, O; Ulrich, M; Negrón, E; Rodríguez, N; Centeno, M; Rodríguez, V; Barrios, R M; Belizario, D; Reed, S; Convit, J
Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important public health concern. In the epidemiological context of human visceral leishmaniasis, dogs are considered the main reservoir of Leishmania parasites; therefore, dogs must be epidemiologically monitored constantly in endemic areas. Furthermore, dog to human transmission has been correlated with emerging urbanization and increasing rates of leishmaniasis infection worldwide. Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (L. chagasi) is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. In this work, a new L. (L.) infantum (L. chagasi) recombinant antigen, named ATP diphosphohydrolase (rLic-NTPDase-2), intended for use in the immunodiagnosis of CVL was produced and validated. The extracellular domain of ATP diphosphohydrolase was cloned and expressed in the pET21b-Escherichia coli expression system. Indirect ELISA assays were used to detect the purified rLic-NTPDase-2 antigen using a standard canine sera library. This library contained CVL-positive samples, leishmaniasis-negative samples and samples from Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs. The results show a high sensitivity of 100% (95% CI=92.60-100.0%) and a high specificity of 100% (95% CI=86.77-100.0%), with a high degree of confidence (k=1). These findings demonstrate the potential use of this recombinant protein in immune diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis and open the possibility of its application to other diagnostic approaches, such as immunochromatography fast lateral flow assays and human leishmaniasis diagnosis. PMID:23022017
de Souza, Ronny Francisco; Dos Santos, Yaro Luciolo; de Souza Vasconcellos, Raphael; Borges-Pereira, Lucas; Caldas, Ivo Santana; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel
Phlebotomine captures were performed during 2004 in Clorinda, Argentina. Clorinda is located across the branches of the Paraguay river in front of Asunción city, Paraguay. Reports of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción have been increasing since 1997, however neither leishmaniasis cases nor sand flies were ever recorded from Clorinda. Light traps were located in migration paths (bridges, port), and peridomestic environments of Clorinda and surrounding localities. Lutzomyia longipalpis was found in Clorinda and Puerto Pilcomayo, first report in a potential visceral leishmaniasis transmission area for Argentina. Active surveillance is required immediately in the localities involved and the surrounding area. PMID:16184223
Salomón, Oscar D; Orellano, Pablo W
Canine visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic disease caused by Leishmania infantum. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate the evidence of efficacy of interventions for treatment or prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and to propose recommendations for or against their use. Forty-seven articles describing clinical trials published between 1980 and 2004 fulfilled selection criteria. The evaluation of clinical trials provided good evidence for recommending the use of meglumine antimoniate at a minimum dosage of 100 mg kg(-1) daily for at least 3-4 weeks, combined with allopurinol in order to obtain a good clinical efficacy and a reduced relapse rate. The evaluation of the articles also provided fair evidence for recommending the use of pentamidine (4 mg kg(-1) twice weekly) and aminosidine (5 mg kg(-1) twice daily) for 3-4 weeks. There was insufficient evidence for recommending the use of allopurinol alone, amphotericin B, buparvaquone, ketoconazole, enrofloxacin, and the combinations of metronidazole with spiramicyn or metronidazole with enrofloxacin. Fair evidence against the use of aminosidine at high dosages (20-80 mg kg(-1) per day) was proposed due to its side effects. Evaluation of articles on repellent measures against sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis provided good evidence for recommending deltamethrin collars and fair evidence for recommending spot-on permethrin. PMID:16101793
Noli, Chiara; Auxilia, Silvia T
Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil is caused by Leishmania infantum parasites and is transmitted by sand flies of the Phlebotominae family. Dogs are the main urban reservoirs and represent the major source of contagion for the vectors. Studies have shown that most infected dogs are polymerase chain reaction-positive months before seroconversion. Herein, we describe a cohort study designed to identify the incidence of and risk factors for L. infantum infection as detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. To determine the risk factors for infection, we conducted a baseline canine survey (n=1443) from which dogs were selected for the cohort study (n=282) involving three evaluations over the course of a 26-month follow-up period. Serology, molecular tests, and a structured questionnaire were used. The risk factors for infection were identified by means of the Cox regression model. The overall infection incidence was 5.8 per 100 dog-months (95% confidence interval 5.1-6.5). Increased risk of infection was associated with the presence of previous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis in the domiciles (hazard ratio [HR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.8) and unplastered house walls (HR 3.6; 95% CI 1.6-8.1). These risk factors suggest that insecticide spraying in cracks and crevices in unplastered walls can reduce biting rates within and around homes. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control and Surveillance Program should adopt environmental management measures in homes with previous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, because these homes are more likely to maintain the transmission cycle. PMID:23941965
Coura-Vital, Wendel; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Braga, Samuel Leôncio; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Marques, Marcos José; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Carneiro, Mariângela
Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Current treatments for CCL are cumbersome and toxic because they are prolonged and involve multiple injections of antimonials. Radio-frequency induced heat (RFH) therapy has been found to be highly effective against CL in humans. Here, we examined the efficacy of topical RFH therapy in the treatment of CL in two pet dogs. We found that RFH therapy induced complete clinical cure and lesion healing within 45 days and both dogs have remained disease free for the last 16 months. This report is the first to demonstrate that a single topical application of RFH therapy is safe and effective in inducing long-term cure of CCL. PMID:22855755
Ahuja, Anil A; Bumb, Ram A; Mehta, Rajesh D; Prasad, Neha; Tanwar, Ram K; Satoskar, Abhay R
Abstract Hungary is traditionally regarded as a leishmaniasis-free country, and human or canine cases diagnosed locally have been recorded as imported. However, recent entomological surveys have verified the presence in Hungary of Phlebotomus neglectus and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi, which have been incriminated as competent vectors of Leishmania infantum elsewhere in Europe. Following the occurrence in October 2007 of an undisputable clinical case of L. infantum canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a 4-year-old female pug in a kennel of 20 dogs in Tolna province, an investigation was performed to assess the infection status in that canine population and to search for putative phlebotomine vectors. Another female pug became sick during the study period (May–November 2008) and L. infantum was confirmed as the causative agent. The other animals appeared clinically healthy; however, 4 additional dogs were found positive by indirect fluorescent antibody test (2 dogs), or by buffy-coat PCR (1 dog), or by both methods (1 dog). Hence the overall Leishmania infection prevalence in the kennel was 30% (6/20). All dogs were born in the same place and had been always kept outdoors. They had neither been abroad nor received a blood transfusion. No sand flies were collected with CDC Standard Miniature Light traps, Mosquito Magnet® X (MMX) dry ice-baited traps, or sticky traps placed either in or around the kennel and at nearby chicken yards during July and August of 2008 and 2009. Considering the dogs' historical background and the failure to trap any sand fly vectors in the kennel area, the origin of CanL in this site remains unexplained.
Tanczos, Balazs; Balogh, Nandor; Kiraly, Laszlo; Biksi, Imre; Szeredi, Levente; Gyurkovsky, Monika; Scalone, Aldo; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Gramiccia, Marina
Visceral leishmaniasis was first reported in Bhutan in 2006. We conducted studies of the parasite, possible vectors and reservoirs, and leishmanin skin test and risk factor surveys in three villages. Nineteen cases were reported from seven districts. Parasite typing yielded two novel microsatellite sequences, both related to Indian L. donovani. In one case village, 40 (18.5%) of 216 participants had positive leishmanin skin test results, compared with 3 (4.2%) of 72 in the other case village and 0 of 108 in the control village. Positive results were strongly associated with the village and increasing age. None of the tested dogs were infected. Eighteen sand flies were collected, 13 Phlebotomus species and 5 Sergentomyia species; polymerase chain reaction for leishmanial DNA was negative. This assessment suggests that endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission has occurred in diverse locations in Bhutan. Surveillance, case investigations, and further parasite, vector, and reservoir studies are needed. The potential protective impact of bed nets should be evaluated. PMID:23091191
Yangzom, Thinley; Cruz, Israel; Bern, Caryn; Argaw, Daniel; den Boer, Margriet; Vélez, Iván Dario; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Molina, Ricardo; Alvar, Jorge
Visceral leishmaniasis, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania donovani complex, is a vectorborne zoonotic infection that infects humans, dogs, and other mammals. In 2000, this infection was implicated as causing high rates of illness and death among foxhounds in a kennel in New York. A serosurvey of >12,000 foxhounds and other canids and 185 persons in 35 states and 4 Canadian provinces was performed to determine geographic extent, prevalence, host range, and modes of transmission within foxhounds, other dogs, and wild canids and to assess possible infections in humans. Foxhounds infected with Leishmania spp. were found in 18 states and 2 Canadian provinces. No evidence of infection was found in humans. The infection in North America appears to be widespread in foxhounds and limited to dog-to-dog mechanisms of transmission; however, if the organism becomes adapted for vector transmission by indigenous phlebotomines, the probability of human exposure will be greatly increased.
Duprey, Zandra H.; Steurer, Francis J.; Rooney, Jane A.; Kirchhoff, Louis V.; Jackson, Joan E.; Rowton, Edgar D.
Brazil is facing expansion and urbanization of American visceral leishmaniasis, with human and canine cases in several large-sized cities. This report describes an autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in a nonendemic area in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:20305979
Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Barbosa Filho, Carlos José de Lima; Schubach, Edvar Yuri Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Nascimento, Lílian Dias; Madeira, Maria de Fátima
In this work, we describe the assembly of a synthetic gene coding for several antigenic determinants found in different Leishmania infantum antigens. Selected epitopes were derived from the ribosomal proteins LiP2a, LiP2b, and LiP0 and from the histone H2A. The resulting gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli either as a fusion protein (with the vector pMAL-c2) or alone (with the vector pQE). In both cases, high-level bacterial production of the recombinant protein was achieved and the products were found to be stable. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting experiments confirmed that the corresponding epitopes are present in the engineered protein. Finally, a serological evaluation of this multiple-epitope protein by Falcon assay screening test-ELISA revealed a sensitivity of 79 to 93% and a specificity of 96 to 100% in diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, indicating that this protein represents a valuable tool for serodiagnosis. PMID:9431920
Soto, M; Requena, J M; Quijada, L; Alonso, C
We studied and compared the prevalence of Leishmania infection and the seroprevalence and the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in an area where canine leishmaniasis is endemic. One hundred dogs living on the island of Mallorca (Spain) were studied. In this study, we clinically examined each dog for the presence of symptoms compatible with leishmaniasis, determined the titer of anti-Leishmania antibodies,
LAIA SOLANO-GALLEGO; PERE MORELL; MARGARITA ARBOIX; JORDI ALBEROLA; LLUIS FERRER
This report addresses an atypical transmissible venereal tumour in an 8-year-old bitch that was pluriparous and seropositive for leishmaniasis. There were ascites and a serosanguineous discharge from the vulva, but no lesions on the external genital mucosa. An aspirate of the peritoneal fluid showed mononuclear round cells characteristic of transmissible venereal tumour (TVT). Exploratory laparotomy revealed light red, granulomatous structures in the peritoneum, omentum, spleen, liver and uterine horns. Cytological and histopathological tests confirmed the diagnosis of intra-abdominal TVT. Dissemination of the TVT to several organs inside the abdominal cavity probably resulted from immunosuppression caused by leishmaniasis, which favoured the presence and aggressiveness of TVT. PMID:23279537
Trevizan, J T; Carreira, J T; Souza, N C; Carvalho, I R; Gomes, P B C; Lima, V M F; Orlandi, C M B; Rozza, D B; Koivisto, M B
A Bayesian approach was used to assess the prevalence of Canine leishmaniasis and evaluate three serological diagnostic tests: indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), direct agglutination test, and particle gel immuno-assay (PaGIA) for Canine leishmaniasis (CL) in Algiers. Four hundred and sixty-two dogs were involved in this study and divided in four groups according to their functional type: stray dogs, farm
Amel Adel; Claude Saegerman; Niko Speybroeck; Nicolas Praet; Bjorn Victor; Redgi De Deken; Abdelkrim Soukehal; Dirk Berkvens
This study was developed in the urban area of Governador Valadares, a reemerging focus of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, presenting 86 human cases of VL from 2008 to 2011. The disease prevailed in males (73.2%) with most patients between 0 and 9 years (44.1%) and a lethality rate of 16.2%. A canine survey was carried out on 16,529 domestic dogs in 35 districts in the area and it showed that 30.2% of them (4,992?dogs) were positive for VL by serum assays. Prevalence ratios for canine VL varied between 13.6% and 53.4%. The clinical exam of 343 seropositive dogs showed that 49.9% of them were considered symptomatic, with larger prevalence of canine VL being in short-furred animals (90%). The entomological survey was performed in eight districts, where 2,539 phlebotomines were captured, preferentially in the peridomicile (84.5%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species (90%) suggesting its participation in the VL transmission in the area. The correlation between canine prevalence and L. longipalpis density was evaluated.
Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Tanure, Aline; Gomes, Marcela Esteves; Apolinario, Estefania Conceicao; Bodevan, Emerson Cotta; de Araujo, Holbiano Saraiva; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa
Visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic infectious disease that can cause to a severe, potentially life-threatening chronic condition in humans. Risk factors for infection in urban areas have been associated with poor living conditions, the presence of sand fly vectors and infected pets. This study aimed to describe sand fly and canine infection in the neighborhoods of human visceral leishmaniasis occurrence in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, central-western Brazil, reported between January 2005 and December 2006. A total of 1,909 sand flies were collected. They were predominantly males and the most frequent species were Lutzomyia cruzi (81.25%), Lutzomyia whitmani (13.88%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2.62%). The sand fly density was not significantly correlated with the variation of environmental factors. The prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in the neighborhoods studied was 26.82% and it was found that areas with high density of vectors coincided with areas of high prevalence of dogs and those with the highest rates of human cases. The study of vectors and other potential hosts are essential for a good understanding of visceral leishmaniasis and the related public health concerns, aiming at the prevention and control of leishmaniasis in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State. PMID:21961754
Mestre, Gustavo Leandro da Cruz; Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; Miyazaki, Rosina Djunko; Rodrigues, Jorge Senatore Vargas; de Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; Missawa, Nanci Akemi
Objective. To report recent data on the distribution of human and canine visceral leishma- niasis (VL) in Venezuela, and to highlight problems associated with effective control measures. Methods. We report the number of cases, incidence rate, age and sex distribution, and mor- tality rates for human VL (HVL) for the period of 1995 through 2000, based on National Reg- istry
Olga Zerpa; Marian Ulrich; Rafael Borges; Vestalia Rodríguez; Marta Centeno; Emilia Negrón; Doris Belizario; Jacinto Convit
Previous studies on Leishmania infantum and the canine immune response are derived mainly from short-term studies. To date, there have been no longitudinal studies that perform a serial analysis of the intensity of infection in conjunction with immunological parameters and clinical signs in Leishmania-infected dogs. For this purpose, six dogs were infected experimentally by the i.v. route and were monitored
Alhelí Rodríguez-Cortés; Ana Ojeda; Laura López-Fuertes; Marcos Timón; Laura Altet; Laia Solano-Gallego; Elisenda Sánchez-Robert; Olga Francino; Jordi Alberola
Brazil is the only country endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) that regularly conducts epidemiologic and prophylactic control programs that involve the treatment of human cases, insect vector control, and the removal of seropositive infected dogs. This report reviews 60 studies reporting data on the efficacy of these recommended control tools and concludes that in Brazil 1) eradication of the
CLARISA B. PALATNIK-DE-SOUSA; RENATA DOS SANTOS; JOAO CARLOS FRANCA-SILVA; ROBERTO TEODORO DA COSTA; ALEXANDRE BARBOSA REIS; MARCOS PALATNIK; WILSON MAYRINK; ODAIR GENARO
Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis caused by a protozoan Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). Here, we report a typical case of canine cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. infantum infection without any other systemic symptom in one dog in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A mongrel female dog was admitted in a veterinary clinic with reports of chronic wounds in the body. Physical examination revealed erosive lesions in the limbs, nasal ulcers, presence of ectoparasites and seborrheic dermatitis. Blood samples and fragments of healthy and injured skin were collected. The complete hemogram revealed aregenerative normocytic normochromic anemia and erythrocyte rouleaux, and biochemical analysis revealed normal renal and hepatic functions. Cytology of the muzzle and skin lesions suggested pyogranulomatous inflammatory process. The histopathology of a skin fragment was performed and revealed suspicion of protozoa accompanied by necrotizing dermatitis. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was accomplished by positive serology, isolation of Leishmania from the skin lesion, and also by molecular test (PCR targeting the conserved region of Leishmania kDNA). Culture was positive for damaged skin samples. PCR targeting a fragment of Leishmania hsp70 gene was performed employing DNA extracted from damaged skin. RFLP of the amplified hsp70 fragment identified the parasite as L. infantum, instead of Leishmania braziliensis, the main agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro. Characterization of isolated promastigotes by five different enzymatic systems confirmed the species identification of the etiological agent. Serology was positive by ELISA and rapid test. This case warns to the suspicion of viscerotropic Leishmania in cases of chronic skin lesions and brings the discussion of the mechanisms involved in the parasite tissue tropism. PMID:22583758
Cavalcanti, Amanda; Lobo, Rogério; Cupolillo, Elisa; Bustamante, Fábio; Porrozzi, Renato
Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne disease of great veterinary and medical significance. Prevention of CanL requires a combined approach including measures focused on dogs and the environment where the vectors perpetuate. Over past decades, considerable effort has been put towards developing novel and cost-effective strategies against CanL. Vaccination is considered among the most promising tools for controlling CanL, and synthetic pyrethroids are useful and cost-effective in reducing risk of L. infantum infection in dogs. The effectiveness of the use of vaccines plus repellents in preventing L. infantum infection and subsequent disease development should be assessed by means of large-scale, randomized controlled field trials because this combined strategy may become the next frontier in the control of CanL. PMID:23746747
Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe
Background The current disease model for leishmaniasis suggests that only a proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease, while others are asymptomatically infected due to immune control of infection. The factors that determine whether individuals progress to clinical disease following Leishmania infection are unclear, although previous studies suggest a role for host genetics. Our hypothesis was that canine leishmaniasis is a complex disease with multiple loci responsible for the progression of the disease from Leishmania infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Genome-wide association and genomic selection approaches were applied to a population-based case-control dataset of 219 dogs from a single breed (Boxer) genotyped for ?170,000 SNPs. Firstly, we aimed to identify individual disease loci; secondly, we quantified the genetic component of the observed phenotypic variance; and thirdly, we tested whether genome-wide SNP data could accurately predict the disease. Conclusions/Significance We estimated that a substantial proportion of the genome is affecting the trait and that its heritability could be as high as 60%. Using the genome-wide association approach, the strongest associations were on chromosomes 1, 4 and 20, although none of these were statistically significant at a genome-wide level and after correcting for genetic stratification and lifestyle. Amongst these associations, chromosome 4: 61.2–76.9 Mb maps to a locus that has previously been associated with host susceptibility to human and murine leishmaniasis, and genomic selection estimated markers in this region to have the greatest effect on the phenotype. We therefore propose these regions as candidates for replication studies. An important finding of this study was the significant predictive value from using the genomic information. We found that the phenotype could be predicted with an accuracy of ?0.29 in new samples and that the affection status was correctly predicted in 60% of dogs, significantly higher than expected by chance, and with satisfactory sensitivity-specificity values (AUC?=?0.63).
Quilez, Javier; Martinez, Veronica; Woolliams, John A.; Sanchez, Armand; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Kennedy, Lorna J.; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Ollier, William E. R.; Roura, Xavier; Ferrer, Lluis; Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga
Canine infections with Leishmania infantum are important as a cause of serious disease in the dog and as a reservoir for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Accurate diagnosis of canine infections is essential to the veterinary community and for VL surveillance programs. A standardized ELISA using a purified recombinant antigen (rK39) specific to VL was compared to the immunofluorescent antibody test
A Scalone; R De Luna; G Oliva; L Baldi; G Satta; G Vesco; W Mignone; C Turilli; R. R Mondesire; D Simpson; A. R Donoghue; G. R Frank; L Gradoni
In 1992, a dog naturally infected with Leishmania was found in a periurban area of Sabará, state of Minas Gerais, where human cutaneous leishmaniasis had been previously described. The parasite was classified as Leishmania, subgenus Viannia, which L. braziliensis, the main species of parasite present in the southeast Brazil, also belongs. In order to assess the importance of the dog in the transmission cycle of the disease, a canine survey was undertaken. Six hundred thirty-one dogs were examined and the prevalence of seropositive dogs for crude Leishmania amazonensis antigen was 3.2%. The presence of infected people and seropositive dogs either near or in the same house was observed. This fact suggests some transmission in the domiciliary environment, with the dogs being a risk factor for human infection in that periurban area. In the other hand, the low percentage of seropositive dogs points towards a secondary importance of these animals in the transmission of Leishmaniasis in that recent focus of the disease. PMID:8768580
Passos, V M; Andrade, A C; Silva, E S; Figueiredo, E M; Falcão, A L
Background American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle. The limited accuracy of diagnostic tests for canine leishmaniasis may contribute to the lack of impact of control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays employing L. major or L. infantum antigens and their reliability between three laboratories of different levels of complexity. Methods A validation study of ELISA techniques using L. major or L. infantum antigens was conducted. Direct visualization of the parasite in hematoxylin/eosin-stained histopathological sections, immunohistochemistry, and isolation of the parasite in culture.were used as gold standard. An animal that was positive in at least one of the tests was defined as infected with L. infantum. Serum samples collected from 1,425 dogs were analyzed. Samples were separated in three aliquots and tested in three different laboratories. Sensitivity, specificity and the area under de ROC curve were calculated and the reliability was evaluated between the participant laboratories. Results The sensitivity was 91.8% and 89.8% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The specificity was 83.75% and 82.7% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The area under de ROC curve was 0.920 and 0.898 for L. major and L. infantum, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficients between laboratories ranged from 0.890 to 0.948 when L. major was used as antigen, and from 0.818 to 0.879 when L. infantum was used. Interpretation ELISA tests using L. major or L. infantum antigens have similar accuracy and reliability. Our results do not support the substitution of the L. major antigen of the ELISA test currently used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.
de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Cardoso, Fernanda Alvarenga; Hiamamoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Brazuna, Julia Cristina Macksoud; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra
Accurate diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is essential toward a more efficient control of this zoonosis, but it remains problematic due to the high incidence of asymptomatic infections. In this study, we present data on the development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based techniques for the detection of antibodies against the recombinant protein Leishmania infantum cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase (LicTXNPx) and a comparison of the results with those employing soluble Leishmania antigens from promastigote or amastigote forms and the homologue recombinant protein L. infantum mitochondrial TXNPx (LimTXNPx). Moreover, we offer an evaluation of the diagnostic potential of rK39 for CanL in the Portuguese canine population and propose an improvement to the existing ELISA-based serological techniques by combining the LicTXNPx and rK39 antigens as a Leishmania antigen mixture (LAM). The data demonstrated that ELISAs based on soluble promastigote or amastigote antigens had generally higher levels of sensitivity for detection of antibodies in symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs than for detection of those against isolated recombinant proteins. Nevertheless, the specificities were found to be similar for all target antigens used. Importantly, the LAM-ELISA methodology improved the overall sensitivity, maintaining a high overall level of specificity. In addition, it was demonstrated that the detection of anti-LAM IgG2 can increase the accuracy of the serological diagnosis. Overall, the obtained results showed that the strategy of combining two well-defined Leishmania antigens, LicTXNPx and rK39, proved to be a sensitive and specific improvement to current serological diagnosis of CanL, being a useful tool for the detection of both clinical and subclinical forms of canine Leishmania infection.
Santarem, Nuno; Silvestre, Ricardo; Cardoso, Luis; Schallig, Henk; Reed, Steven G.; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela
Canine visceral leishmaniasis poses important concerns for public health and veterinary medicine in many areas of the world. Resistance to it seems to be associated with cellular specific immune responses of the so-called Th1 type. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is one of the most potent inducers of Th1 type of immune responses to co-administered antigens. Herein, the cloning of canine IL-12, as
Lenita Ramires dos Santos; Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo; Yung-Fu Chang; John Olsen; Sean P. McDonough; Fred Quimby; Washington Luis Conrado dos Santos; Lain Carlos Pontes-de-Carvalho; Geraldo Gileno de Sá Oliveira
To assess the effect of removing leishmania-infected dogs on the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis, a controlled intervention study was performed in northeast Brazil. The attempted elimination of seropositive dogs resulted in an initial significant decrease in the annual incidence of seroconversion among dogs from 36% to 6% over the first two years. In the following two years, the incidence increased
DAVID A. ASHFORD; JOHN R. DAVID; MIRALBA FREIRE; ROBERTA DAVID; ITALO SHERLOCK
Background The Namangan Region in the Pap District, located in Eastern Uzbekistan is the main focus of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Uzbekistan. In total, 28 cases of human VL were registered during 2006-2008 in this region. A study on the epidemiology of VL in this area was carried out in 2007-2008 in the villages of Chodak, Oltinkan, Gulistan and Chorkesar located at elevations of 900-1200 above sea level. Results A total of 162 dogs were tested for Leishmania infection. Blood was drawn for serology and PCR. When clinical signs of the disease were present, aspirates from lymph nodes and the spleen were taken. Forty-two dogs (25.9%) had clinical signs suggestive of VL and 51 (31.5%) were sero-positive. ITS-1 PCR was performed for 135 dogs using blood and tissue samples and 40 (29.6%) of them were PCR-positive. Leishmanial parasites were cultured from lymph node or spleen aspirates from 10 dogs. Eight Leishmania strains isolated from dogs were typed by multi-locus microsatellite typing (MLMT) and by multilocus enzyme electrophoretic analysis (MLEE), using a 15 enzyme system. These analyses revealed that the strains belong to the most common zymodeme of L. infantum, i.e., MON-1, and form a unique group when compared to MON-1 strains from other geographical regions. Conclusions The data obtained through this study confirm the existence of an active focus of VL in the Namangan region of Uzbekistan. The fact that L. infantum was the causative agent of canine infection with typical clinical signs, and also of human infection affecting only infants, suggests that a zoonotic form of VL similar in epidemiology to Mediterranean VL is present in Uzbekistan.
Two immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) versions using whole promastigotes of Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) treated either with ?-mercaptoethanol (?-ME-ELISA) or trypsin (TRYP-ELISA) as antigens were developed for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). By comparison with the direct agglutination test (DAT; 100%, 31/31; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 86.3-100%), slightly lower sensitivity was demonstrated for the newly developed ?-ME-ELISA (93.5%, 29/31; 95% CI: 77.2-98.9%). Sensitivity was higher for ?-ME-ELISA compared with TRYP-ELISA (87.1%, 27/31; 95% CI: 69.2-95.8%) in serum samples from dogs with CVL. When tested with sera from 37 healthy dogs and from 45 dogs with clinical conditions other than CVL, a specificity of 97.6% (80/82; 95% CI: 90.1-99.6%) was estimated for ?-ME-ELISA as compared to 100% (82/82; 95% CI: 94.4-100%) and 95.1% (78/82; 95% CI: 87.3-98.4%) for DAT and TRYP-ELISA, respectively. Observed agreement was 94.0% (95% CI: 88.7-97.1%) between DAT and ?-ME-ELISA (? = 0.879; 95% CI: 0.803-0.956) and 87.4% (95% CI: 80.8-92.1%) between DAT and TRYP-ELISA (? = 0.743; 95% CI: 0.636-0.851). Current results advocate application of the new ?-ME-ELISA for diagnosis of CVL at the laboratory level and confirmation of results obtained with the DAT in field studies. PMID:23417077
Barral-Veloso, Laura; Semião-Santos, Saul J; de Andrade, Paulo P; de Melo, Marcia A; Martins, Luís; Marinho, Artur A; de Almeida, José A A; Cardoso, Luís; el Harith, Abdallah
American visceral leishmaniasis is a main public health matter in Brazil. Since dogs have been incriminated as the main urban reservoir of AVL agent Leishmania chagasi, a cohort study aimed at understanding the dynamics of the canine infection was carried out in Jequié—an endemic community in the Northeast of Brazil. The inhabited urban and periurban areas of Jequié were divided
M Paranhos-Silva; E. G Nascimento; M. C. B. F Melro; G. G. S Oliveira; W. L. C dos Santos; L. C Pontes-de-Carvalho; A. J Oliveira-dos-Santos
Canine visceral leishmaniasis poses important concerns for public health and veterinary medicine in many areas of the world. Resistance to it seems to be associated with cellular specific immune responses of the so-called Th1 type. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is one of the most potent inducers of Th1 type of immune responses to co-administered antigens. Herein, the cloning of canine IL-12, as a single-chain fusion protein (sccaIL-12), and its expression in biologically active form in COS-7 cells is reported. Supernatants from these cells stimulated the expression of comparable amounts of interferon gamma mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from dogs with natural visceral leishmaniasis. In addition, after stimulation with sccaIL-12, there was no difference between interferon gamma mRNA expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis and from normal healthy control animals. PMID:15127840
dos Santos, Lenita Ramires; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Chang, Yung-Fu; Olsen, John; McDonough, Sean P; Quimby, Fred; dos Santos, Washington Luis Conrado; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno de Sá
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, with the highest incidence observed in the municipalities along the Southern coast. A total of 169 human cases were reported from 1993 to 1995 in the municipality of Paraty, representing 15% of all case reports in the State of Rio de Janeiro during that period. From March to December, 1996, a survey was conducted in endemic american tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) areas (Praia Grande, Taquari, Várzea do Machado, and Graúna) in Paraty. 326 households with 215 pet dogs were surveyed. The initial study consisted of taking venous blood samples to perform RIFI and ELISA tests. The canine skin test was performed during the same visit and was positive in 8.8% of dogs. Of the 215 dogs, 5 presented lesions suspected of ATL; biopsies and the vacuum aspiration technique were performed on these cases. Correlating the study areas with the results obtained, some dogs presented sub-clinical infection, highly relevant to studies on canine ATL infection in the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:10502161
Barbosa, G M; Marzochi, M C; Massard, C L; Lima, G P; Confort, E M
Visceral leishmaniasis is associated with atrophy and histological disorganization of splenic compartments. In this paper, we compared organized and disorganized splenic lymphoid tissue from dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum assessing the size of the white pulp compartments, the distribution of T, B and S100+ dendritic cells, using immunohistochemistry and morphometry and the expression of CCR7 and the cytokines, CXCL13, lymphotoxin (LT)-?, LT-?, CCL19, CCL21, TNF-?, IL-10, IFN-? and TGF-?, using by real time RT-PCR. The lymphoid follicles and marginal zones were smaller (3.2 and 1.9 times, respectively; Mann-Whitney, P<0.02) in animals with disorganized splenic tissue in comparison to those with organized splenic lymphoid tissue. In spleens with disorganized lymphoid tissue, the numbers of T cells and S100+ dendritic cells were decreased in the follicles, and the numbers of B cells were reduced in both the follicles and marginal zones. CXCL13 mRNA expression was lower in animals with disorganized lymphoid tissue (0.5±0.4) compared to those with organized lymphoid tissue (2.7±2.9, both relative to 18S expression, P?=?0.01). These changes in the spleen were associated with higher frequency of severe disease (7/12) in the animals with disorganized than in animals with organized (2/13, Chi-square, P?=?0.01) splenic lymphoid tissue. The data presented herein suggest that natural infection with Leishmania infantum is associated with the impairment of follicular dendritic cells, CXCL13 expression, B cell migration and germinal center formation and associates these changes with severe clinical forms of visceral leishmaniasis. Furthermore the fact that this work uses dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum emphasizes the relevance of the data presented herein for the knowledge on the canine and human visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22242159
Silva, Joselli S; Andrade, Alan C; Santana, Claudia C; Santos, Leina Q; Oliveira, Camila I de; Veras, Patrícia S T; Vassallo, José; dos-Santos, Washington L C
Visceral leishmaniasis is associated with atrophy and histological disorganization of splenic compartments. In this paper, we compared organized and disorganized splenic lymphoid tissue from dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum assessing the size of the white pulp compartments, the distribution of T, B and S100+ dendritic cells, using immunohistochemistry and morphometry and the expression of CCR7 and the cytokines, CXCL13, lymphotoxin (LT)-?, LT-?, CCL19, CCL21, TNF-?, IL-10, IFN-? and TGF-?, using by real time RT-PCR. The lymphoid follicles and marginal zones were smaller (3.2 and 1.9 times, respectively; Mann-Whitney, P<0.02) in animals with disorganized splenic tissue in comparison to those with organized splenic lymphoid tissue. In spleens with disorganized lymphoid tissue, the numbers of T cells and S100+ dendritic cells were decreased in the follicles, and the numbers of B cells were reduced in both the follicles and marginal zones. CXCL13 mRNA expression was lower in animals with disorganized lymphoid tissue (0.5±0.4) compared to those with organized lymphoid tissue (2.7±2.9, both relative to 18S expression, P?=?0.01). These changes in the spleen were associated with higher frequency of severe disease (7/12) in the animals with disorganized than in animals with organized (2/13, Chi-square, P?=?0.01) splenic lymphoid tissue. The data presented herein suggest that natural infection with Leishmania infantum is associated with the impairment of follicular dendritic cells, CXCL13 expression, B cell migration and germinal center formation and associates these changes with severe clinical forms of visceral leishmaniasis. Furthermore the fact that this work uses dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum emphasizes the relevance of the data presented herein for the knowledge on the canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.
Silva, Joselli S.; Andrade, Alan C.; Santana, Claudia C.; Santos, Leina Q.; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Veras, Patricia S. T.; Vassallo, Jose; dos-Santos, Washington L. C.
We have previously reported the applicability of flow cytometry anti-fixed Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes IgG (FC-AFPA-IgG) as a novel serological device for laboratorial diagnosis of CVL. Herein, we validate throughout a blind study applied into a broader range of coded sera samples that FC-AFPA-IgG at serum dilution 1:8192 have an outstanding performance to discriminate the serological reactivity of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL, n=64) and Leishmune vaccines (VAC, n=62) and non-infected controls (NI, n=25). Moreover, we have evaluated the performance of indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the crude-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in parallel with FC-AFPA-IgG, to discriminate the seroreactivity of NI, CVL and VAC. Our data demonstrated that both ELISA and FC-AFPA-IgG showed similar performance to detect the seronegativity in 100% of NI, whereas FC-AFPA-IgG displayed better performance to exclude seropositivity in 100% of VAC. The high kappa agreement indexes observed suggested similar performance between these two serological testes when distinct clinical forms of CVL become a challenge. Furthermore, the FC-AFPA-IgG applied at sera dilution 1:8192 showed a remarkable performance to discriminate CVL from other co-endemic canine infections with high co-negativity in dogs infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania braziliensis (86% and 84%, respectively). In conclusion, the data presented here re-emphasize the applicability of FC-AFPA-IgG as an innovative methodology able to discriminate post-infection imunomediated seroreactivity from that triggered by prophylactic immunization with minor cross-reactivity with other relevant canine pathogens, which may contribute as a supplementary assay for the CVL immunodiagnosis. PMID:19046772
Andrade, Renata Aline; Silva Araújo, Márcio Sobreira; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Vianna, Leonardo Rocha; Mayrink, Wilson; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis
Incidence and Time Course of Leishmania infantum Infections Examined by Parasitological, Serologic, and Nested-PCR Techniques in a Cohort of Naõ ¨ve Dogs Exposed to Three Consecutive Transmission Seasons
Most experience in the comparison of diagnostic tools for canine leishmaniasis comes from cross-sectional surveys of dogs of different ages and breeds and in cases with unknown onset and duration of leishmaniasis. A longitudinal study was performed on 43 beagle dogs exposed to three transmission seasons (2002 to 2004) of Mediterranean leishmaniasis and examined periodically over 32 months through bone
Gaetano Oliva; Aldo Scalone; Valentina Foglia Manzillo; Marina Gramiccia; Annalisa Pagano; Luigi Gradoni
Rabies has been eliminated from domestic dog populations in Western Europe and North America, but continues to kill many thousands of people throughout Africa and Asia every year. A quantitative understanding of transmission dynamics in domestic dog populations provides critical information to assess whether global elimination of canine rabies is possible. We report extensive observations of individual rabid animals in Tanzania and generate a uniquely detailed analysis of transmission biology, which explains important epidemiological features, including the level of variation in epidemic trajectories. We found that the basic reproductive number for rabies, R0, is very low in our study area in rural Africa (approximately 1.2) and throughout its historic global range (<2). This finding provides strong support for the feasibility of controlling endemic canine rabies by vaccination, even near wildlife areas with large wild carnivore populations. However, we show that rapid turnover of domestic dog populations has been a major obstacle to successful control in developing countries, thus regular pulse vaccinations will be required to maintain population-level immunity between campaigns. Nonetheless our analyses suggest that with sustained, international commitment, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal. PMID:19278295
Hampson, Katie; Dushoff, Jonathan; Cleaveland, Sarah; Haydon, Daniel T; Kaare, Magai; Packer, Craig; Dobson, Andy
The efficacies of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), and of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for the identification of Leishmania species, have been assessed. Quantitative real-time PCR employing a SYBR Green dye-based system was standardised for the quantification of Leishmania kDNA minicircles. Skin, peripheral blood and bone marrow samples collected from
Patrícia Flávia Quaresma; Silvane Maria Fonseca Murta; Eduardo de Castro Ferreira; Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha-Lima; Ana Amélia Prates Xavier; Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo
BackgroundThe immune response in the skin of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum is poorly understood, and limited studies have described the immunopathological profile with regard to distinct levels of tissue parasitism and the clinical progression of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL).Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA detailed analysis of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages) as well as the expression of chemokines
Daniel Menezes-Souza; Renata Guerra-Sá; Cláudia Martins Carneiro; Juliana Vitoriano-Souza; Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti; Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho; Denise Silveira-Lemos; Guilherme Corrêa Oliveira; Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira; Alexandre Barbosa Reis
Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is found throughout the Mediterranean Region, including Turkey, where dogs are considered to be the main reservoir host for this parasite. In the district of Manisa, western Turkey, 37 human VL cases were reported from June 1993–August 1997. Twenty-four villages in this district were chosen for a survey of disease prevalence in
Y Ozbel; L Oskam; S Ozensoy; N Turgay; M. Z Alkan; C. L Jaffe; M. A Ozcel
Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of nasal, oral, and ear swabs for molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in an endemic urban area in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Sixty-two naturally infected and ten healthy dogs were enrolled in this study. Bone marrow aspirates, peripheral blood, skin biopsy, and conjunctival, nasal, oral, and ear swabs were collected. All samples, except blood, were submitted to conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) to detect and quantify Leishmania infantum DNA, respectively. All dogs were submitted to thorough clinical analysis and were included based on a combination of serological (ELISA immunoassay and immunofluorescent antibody test) and parasitological methods. The cPCR positivity obtained from nasal swab samples was 87% (54/62), equivalent to those from other samples (P>0.05). Positive results were obtained for 79% (22/28) in oral swabs and 43% (12/28) in ear swab samples. A significant difference was observed between these data (P?=?0.013), and the frequency of positive results from oral swab was equivalent to those from other samples (P>0.05). The use of ear swab samples for cPCR assays is promising because its result was equivalent to skin biopsy data (P>0.05). The qPCR data revealed that parasite loads in mucosal tissues were similar (P>0.05), but significantly lower than the parasite burden observed in bone marrow and skin samples (P<0.05). Conclusions Nasal and oral swab samples showed a high potential for the qualitative molecular diagnosis of CVL because their results were equivalent to those observed in samples collected invasively. Considering that mucosae swab collections are painless, noninvasive, fast and practical, the combination of these samples would be useful in massive screening of dogs. This work highlights the potential of practical approaches for molecular diagnosis of CVL and human leishmaniasis infections.
Ferreira, Sidney de Almeida; Almeida, Gregorio Guilherme; Silva, Soraia de Oliveira; Vogas, Gabriela Peixoto; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro; Melo, Maria Norma
Three groups of three, six, and 12 dogs with parasitologically proven clinical visceral leishmaniasis (Leishmania chagasi infection) were treated with intramuscular aminosidine sulfate at doses of 20 mg\\/kg\\/day for 15 days; 80 mg\\/kg\\/day for 20 days, and 40 mg\\/kg\\/day for 30 days, respectively. Follow-up was by parasitologic ex- amination of bone marrow and skin, serology using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody
J. A. VEXENAT; P. L. OLLIARO; J. A. FONSECA DE CASTRO; R. CAVALCANTE; J. H. FURTADO CAMPOS; J. P. TAVARES; M. A. MILES
The saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, a major vector of Leishmania, exhibits pharmacological and immunomodulatory activities that may facilitate entry and establishment of parasites into the\\u000a vertebrate host. Salivary gland components of the sand fly are, therefore, potential candidates in the development of a vaccine\\u000a against human leishmaniasis. With the objective of identifying sand fly saliva proteins that
Diana Bahia; Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo; Ileana Rodríguez León; Jonas Perales; Marcos Horácio Pereira; Guilherme Oliveira; Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira; Alexandre Barbosa Reis
The Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends the culling and euthanasia of dogs with a positive serological test for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). In the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro, the technique used for the diagnosis of CVL is the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), using blood samples eluted on filter paper (eluate). A dog survey was conducted over a period of one year in the region of Carapiá, in order to evaluate the diagnosis of CVL in this region. All animals underwent clinical examination, and blood samples (serum and eluate) were collected for analysis by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) and IFAT. A skin biopsy was obtained for parasitological examination (culture). A total of 305 animals were studied and Leishmania chagasi was isolated from nine animals. Sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 96.6% for ELISA, respectively, 100% and 65.5% for IFAT (cut-off at a 1:40 dilution), 100% and 83.4% for IFAT (cut-off at a 1:80 dilution), and 22.2% and 97.0% for eluate IFAT. In conclusion, ELISA was the best tool for the diagnosis of CVL among the serological techniques tested. The present results suggest the need for a better evaluation of filter paper IFAT as the only diagnostic method for CVL in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:21748226
Figueiredo, Fabiano B; Madeira, Maria F; Nascimento, Lílian D; Abrantes, Tuanne R; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Passos, Sonia Regina L; Schubach, Tânia Maria P
Background. Leishmaniases are diseases with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations including cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) forms. Many factors may affect their occurrence and expansion including environmental, geographic, and social conditions. In the past two decades, Divinópolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, has exhibited the potential for a disease outbreak, with the appearance of CL, and VL cases (human and canine). Hence, this study was initiated to monitor public knowledge of the disease. Questionnaires were administered in four neighborhoods (Jardim Belvedere, Esplanada, Danilo Passos I and II) where most of the human and canine cases have been reported. The analyses demonstrated that public knowledge of the disease is sparse and fragmented. A strong perception of the dog as the main reservoir was observed. Five veterinary clinics were evaluated for the presence of canine VL using serological (RIFI and ELISA) and molecular (PCR-RFLP) techniques. This is the first study demonstrating the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in Divinópolis, suggesting a possible urbanization of VL.
Margonari, Carina; Menezes, Julia Alves; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Maia, Kamila Nunes; Eder de Oliveira, Michael; Luisa Fonseca, Amanda; Furtado de Sousa, Fabrizio; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Madureira, Ana Paula; Melo, Maria Norma; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro
Twelve pregnant female canines, naturally infected with Toxoplasma gondii, were reinfected with T. gondii: three (GI) received tachyzoites subcutaneously (1.0?×?107), three (GII) were orally inoculated with oocysts (1.5?×?104),\\u000a and six (GIII) were kept as a nonreinfected control group. All the reinfected female canines (GI and GII) miscarried or presented\\u000a fetal death, while only one GIII female presented a stillborn in
K. D. S. Bresciani; A. J. Costa; G. H. Toniollo; M. C. R. Luvizzoto; C. T. Kanamura; F. R. Moraes; S. H. V. Perri; S. M. Gennari
We developed a Leishmania infantum specific LAMP assay that was carried out using a set of, six primers targeting the cysteine protease B multi copy gene of L. infantum. Our result shows that we, successfully detect the L. infantum DNA and that amplification is specific as no cross reaction was seen, with L. major, L. tropica, L. turanica, L. aethiopica, L. tarentolae, L. gerbilii, Trypanosoma cruzi or, human genomic DNA. When compared to conventional cpb based PCR, the sensitivity of LAMP assay, was higher with a detection limit of 50fg/?l of genomic L. infantum parasite DNA. Accurate and rapid, diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is an important issue that allows early treatment and, prevents transmission. Our developed LAMP assay was used to evaluate occurrences of Leishmania infantum in seventy five (75) dogs from the field. Blood samples were used to perform LAMP assay, classical PCR, IFAT and microscopy that was used as gold standard. The IFAT in addition to, microscopy, are the basic techniques used for CanL diagnosis at the School of Veterinary Medicine, where we obtained our samples. Compared to molecular methods, the serology (IFAT) test shows the, best sensitivity (88.57%) with, however, a much lower specificity (52.5%) due to a relatively high, number of false-positive results (22 animals). The PCR assay shows a low sensitivity (37.14%) and, specificity around (82.5%). Our LAMP assay shows a suitable sensitivity (54%) and a good specificity, (80%), with however, positive (70%) and negative (66%) predictive values. Furthermore, the best, positive likelihood ratio (LR+) was obtained by LAMP assay (2.7). This technique presents the highest, kappa value (with a fair agreement of 0.34). Moreover, the relative stability of the reagents indicates, that LAMP may be a good alternative to a conventional PCR, especially under field conditions. Finally in, a brief cost evaluation, the LAMP assay compares favorably with other molecular diagnostic tests. This, is the first study that evaluates the L. infantum specific LAMP alongside other diagnostics tools for, CanL. Our results indicate a suitable sensitivity and specificity for the developed LAMP assay that could, has usefulness application on dogs and human L. infantum diagnosis. PMID:23972768
Chaouch, Melek; Mhadhbi, Moez; Adams, Emily R; Schoone, Gerard J; Limam, Sassi; Gharbi, Zyneb; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz; Guizani, Ikram; Benabderrazak, Souha
Development of vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) may provide a prophylactic barrier, but antibody response detected by standard diagnostic techniques may not separate vaccinated from naturally infected dogs. Moreover, anti-Leishmania antibody levels in vaccinated dogs may be detectable for months. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate an "in-house" ELISA with three serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of CVL in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®). A total of 18 mongrel dogs were submitted to a complete protocol of the vaccine, monitored and evaluated in 5 times (T0-T4) up to 180 days after T0. Twenty-one days after the first dose (T1), 50% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA and 5.5% by IFAT, while by the official ELISA and DPP(®) CVL rapid test all dogs tested negative. At time T2, 42 days after of the first dose, 100%, 83.3%, 11.1%, and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, IFAT, official ELISA kit and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Ninety days after the first dose (T3), 100%, 83.3%, 72.2% and 33.3% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, IFAT, and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Finally, at time T4, 88.8%, 33.3%, 11.1% and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, DPP(®) CVL rapid test and IFAT, respectively. In conclusion, dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®) cross-react by an "in-house" ELISA and by the three official Brazilian serological tests for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis up to six months after the first vaccine dose, and may be mistakenly diagnosed and removed. PMID:23920056
Marcondes, Mary; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; de Araújo, Maria de Fátima Lereno; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Tolezano, José Eduardo; Vieira, Rafael F C; Biondo, Alexander W
An innovative liposomal formulation of meglumine antimoniate (LMA) was recently reported to promote both long-term parasite suppression and reduction of infectivity to sand flies in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. However, 5 months after treatment, parasites were still found in the bone marrow of all treated dogs. In order to improve treatment with LMA, the present study aimed to evaluate its efficacy in combination with allopurinol. Mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum were treated with six doses of LMA (6.5 mg Sb/kg of body weight/dose) given at 4-day intervals, plus allopurinol (20 mg/kg/24 h per os) for 140 days. Comparison was made with groups treated with LMA, allopurinol, empty liposomes plus allopurinol, empty liposomes, and saline. Dogs remained without treatment from day 140 to 200 after the start of treatment. The drug combination promoted both clinical improvement of dogs and significant reduction in the parasitic load in bone marrow and spleen on days 140 and 200 compared to these parameters in the pretreatment period. This is in contrast with the other protocols, which did not result in significant reduction of the bone marrow parasite load on day 200. Strikingly, the combined treatment, in contrast to the other regimens, induced negative quantitative PCR (qPCR) results in the liver of 100% of the dogs. Both xenodiagnosis and skin parasite determination by qPCR indicated that the drug combination was effective in blocking the transmission of skin parasites to sand flies. Based on all of the parasitological tests performed on day 200, 50% of the animals that received the combined treatment were considered cured.
da Silva, Sydnei M.; Amorim, Izabela F. G.; Ribeiro, Raul R.; Azevedo, Erly G.; Demicheli, Cynthia; Melo, Maria N.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; Gontijo, Nelder F.; Michalick, Marilene S. M.
Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral.
Ferro, Cristina; Marin, Dairo; Gongora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, Maria C.; Trujillo, Jorge E.; Rueda, Norma K.; Marin, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Perez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.
Quantitative computerized Western blot analysis of antibody responses during experimental canine Leishmania infantum infection distinguished between immunodominant and nonimmunodominant protein bands. Six infected beagles, positive by both PCR and parasite culture, were monitored over 75 weeks postinfection and during a 12-week allopurinol treatment course. All dogs were symptomatic at the time of treatment. Of 12 antigenic bands examined, the immunodominant bands (12, 14, 24, 29, 48, and 68 kDa) showed significantly increased intensities (P < 0.01) and higher frequencies of recognition than the nonimmunodominant bands at all time points. Detection of the former bands at 6 weeks postinfection preceded seroconversion by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) both on crude Leishmania antigen or the recombinant proteins rK39 and HSP70. Reactivity with the 14-, 48-, and 68-kDa bands signified early infection, whereas increased reactivity with the 14-, 24-, and 29-kDa bands was associated with posttreatment parasite persistence and potential unfavorable prognosis. Total lane intensity (TLI) emerged as a sensitive marker for early infection and increased as early as 4 weeks postinfection. TLI had a significantly higher (P < 0.01) relative increase rate than crude Leishmania antigen or HSP70 or rK39 ELISA at all time points. These immunodominant antigens and TLI, as determined by quantitative Western blotting, will be valuable for early detection and treatment evaluation of canine leishmaniasis.
Talmi-Frank, D.; Strauss-Ayali, D.; Jaffe, C. L.; Baneth, G.
BackgroundPhlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects that can transmit Leishmania parasites. Hosts bitten by sand flies develop an immune response against sand fly salivary antigens. Specific anti-saliva IgG indicate the exposure to the vector and may also help to estimate the risk of Leishmania spp. transmission. In this study, we examined the canine antibody response against the saliva of Phlebotomus
Michaela Vlkova; Iva Rohousova; Jan Drahota; Dorothee Stanneck; Eva Maria Kruedewagen; Norbert Mencke; Domenico Otranto; Petr Volf
Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease whose diverse clinical manifestations are dependent both on the infecting species of Leishmania and the immune response of the host. Transmission of the disease occurs by the bite of a sand fly infected with Leishmania parasites. Infection may be restricted to the skin in cutaneous leishmaniasis, limited to the mucous membranes in mucosal leishmaniasis, or
Christine M. Choi; Ethan A. Lerner
We have previously reported the applicability of flow cytometry anti-fixed Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes IgG (FC-AFPA-IgG) as a novel serological device for laboratorial diagnosis of CVL. Herein, we validate throughout a blind study applied into a broader range of coded sera samples that FC-AFPA-IgG at serum dilution 1:8192 have an outstanding performance to discriminate the serological reactivity of canine visceral
Renata Aline Andrade; Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo; Alexandre Barbosa Reis; Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo; Leonardo Rocha Vianna; Wilson Mayrink; Olindo Assis Martins-Filho
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its variations represent highly sensitive and specific methods for Leishmania DNA detection and subsequent canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis. The aim of this work was to compare three different molecular diagnosis techniques (conventional PCR [cPCR], seminested PCR [snPCR], and quantitative PCR [qPCR]) in samples of skin and spleen from 60 seropositive dogs by immunofluorescence antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Parasitological analysis was conducted by culture of bone marrow aspirate and optical microscopic assessment of ear skin and spleen samples stained with Giemsa, the standard tests for CVL diagnosis. The primers L150/L152 and LINR4/LIN17/LIN19 were used to amplify the conserved region of the Leishmania kDNA minicircle in the cPCR, and snPCR and qPCR were performed using the DNA polymerase gene (DNA pol ?) primers from Leishmania infantum. The parasitological analysis revealed parasites in 61.7% of the samples. Sensitivities were 89.2%, 86.5%, and 97.3% in the skin and 81.1%, 94.6%, and 100.0% in spleen samples used for cPCR, snPCR, and qPCR, respectively. We demonstrated that the qPCR method was the best technique to detect L. infantum in both skin and spleen samples. However, we recommend the use of skin due to the high sensitivity and sampling being less invasive. PMID:23953760
Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Bouillet, Leoneide Érica Maduro; Ker, Henrique Gama; Fortes de Brito, Rory Cristiane; Resende, Daniela de Melo; Carneiro, Mariângela; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Marques, Marcos José; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa
Leishmania infantum infection in humans and dogs can evolve with a wide range of clinical presentations, varying from asymptomatic infections to visceral leishmaniasis. We hypothesized that the immune response elicited by L. infantum infection could modulate whether the host will remain asymptomatic or progress to disease. A total of 44 dogs naturally infected with L. infantum were studied. Leishmania burden was estimated in the blood and spleen by qPCR. The expression of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10 and Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (IRP2) were determined in the spleen by quantitative PCR. Sera cytokines were evaluated by ELISA. Dogs were grouped in quartiles according parasite burden. Increased expression of IFN-? and TNF-? was associated with reduced Leishmania burden, whereas increased IL-10 and IRP2 expressions were associated with higher Leishmania load. Increased plasma albumin and IFN-? expression explained 22.8% of the decrease in parasite burden in the spleen. These data confirm that lower IFN-? response and higher IL-10 correlated with increased parasite load and severity of the visceral leishmaniasis in dogs. The balance between the branches of immune response and the intracellular iron availability could determine, in part, the course of Leishmania infection.
do Nascimento, Paulo Ricardo Porfirio; Martins, Daniella Regina Arantes; Monteiro, Gloria Regina Gois; Queiroz, Paula Vivianne; Freire-Neto, Francisco Paulo; Queiroz, Jose Wilton; Morais Lima, Adila Lorena; Jeronimo, Selma Maria Bezerra
Leishmania infantum infection in humans and dogs can evolve with a wide range of clinical presentations, varying from asymptomatic infections to visceral leishmaniasis. We hypothesized that the immune response elicited by L. infantum infection could modulate whether the host will remain asymptomatic or progress to disease. A total of 44 dogs naturally infected with L. infantum were studied. Leishmania burden was estimated in the blood and spleen by qPCR. The expression of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10 and Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (IRP2) were determined in the spleen by quantitative PCR. Sera cytokines were evaluated by ELISA. Dogs were grouped in quartiles according parasite burden. Increased expression of IFN-? and TNF-? was associated with reduced Leishmania burden, whereas increased IL-10 and IRP2 expressions were associated with higher Leishmania load. Increased plasma albumin and IFN-? expression explained 22.8% of the decrease in parasite burden in the spleen. These data confirm that lower IFN-? response and higher IL-10 correlated with increased parasite load and severity of the visceral leishmaniasis in dogs. The balance between the branches of immune response and the intracellular iron availability could determine, in part, the course of Leishmania infection. PMID:24146743
do Nascimento, Paulo Ricardo Porfírio; Martins, Daniella Regina Arantes; Monteiro, Glória Regina Góis; Queiroz, Paula Vivianne; Freire-Neto, Francisco Paulo; Queiroz, José Wilton; Morais Lima, Adila Lorena; Jeronimo, Selma Maria Bezerra
Dogs have been shown to harbor 53 salmonellae serotypes. Multiple simultaneous infections with 2 to 4 serotypes have been observed. The prevalence of canine salmonellosis may be a high as 27 per cent. Salmonella typhimurium and S. anatum are the most common etiologic agents. Dogs commonly experience a sub-clinical course of salmonellosis. Some investigators state that the dog may serve as a source of human infections. A few reports in the literature have documented this fact. The transmissions of S. enteritidis from dog to child is described in this article.
Morse, E V; Duncan, M A; Estep, D A; Riggs, W A; Blackburn, B O
The NRAMP1 gene (Slc11a1) encodes an ion transporter protein involved in the control of intraphagosomal replication of parasites and in macrophage activation. It has been described in mice as the determinant of natural resistance or susceptibility to infection with antigenically unrelated pathogens, including Leishmania. Our aims were to sequence and map the canine Slc11a1 gene and to identify mutations that
Laura Altet; Olga Francino; Laia Solano-Gallego; Corinne Renier; Armand Sanchez
Background The immune response in the skin of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum is poorly understood, and limited studies have described the immunopathological profile with regard to distinct levels of tissue parasitism and the clinical progression of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methodology/Principal Findings A detailed analysis of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages) as well as the expression of chemokines (CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CCL13, CCL17, CCL21, CCL24, and CXCL8) was carried out in dermis skin samples from 35 dogs that were naturally infected with L. infantum. The analysis was based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the context of skin parasitism and the clinical status of CVL. We demonstrated increased inflammatory infiltrate composed mainly of mononuclear cells in the skin of animals with severe forms of CVL and high parasite density. Analysis of the inflammatory cell profile of the skin revealed an increase in the number of macrophages and reductions in lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells that correlated with clinical progression of the disease. Additionally, enhanced parasite density was correlated with an increase in macrophages and decreases in eosinophils and mast cells. The chemokine mRNA expression demonstrated that enhanced parasite density was positively correlated with the expression of CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CCL21, and CXCL8. In contrast, there was a negative correlation between parasite density and CCL24 expression. Conclusions/Significance These findings represent an advance in the knowledge about skin inflammatory infiltrates in CVL and the systemic consequences. Additionally, the findings may contribute to the design of new and more efficient prophylactic tools and immunological therapies against CVL.
Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Guerra-Sa, Renata; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Oliveira, Guilherme Correa; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa
Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, Mediterranean basin and West and Central Asia. Although the geographic structure of L. infantum populations from the Old World have been described, few studies have addressed the population structure of this parasite in the Neotropical region. We employed 14 microsatellites to analyze the population structure of the L. infantum strains isolated from humans and dogs from most of the Brazilian states endemic for VL and from Paraguay. The results indicate a low genetic diversity, high inbreeding estimates and a depletion of heterozygotes, which together indicate a predominantly clonal breeding system, but signs of sexual events are also present. Three populations were identified from the clustering analysis, and they were well supported by F statistics inferences and partially corroborated by distance-based. POP1 (111 strains) was observed in all but one endemic area. POP2 (31 strains) is also well-dispersed, but it was the predominant population in Mato Grosso (MT). POP3 (31 strains) was less dispersed, and it was observed primarily in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Strains originated from an outbreak of canine VL in Southern Brazil were grouped in POP1 with those from Paraguay, which corroborates the hypothesis of dispersal from Northeastern Argentina and Paraguay. The distribution of VL in MS seems to follow the west-east construction of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline from Corumbá municipality. This may have resulted in a strong association of POP3 and Lutzomyia cruzi, which is the main VL vector in Corumbá, and a dispersion of this population in this region that was shaped by human interference. This vector also occurs in MT and may influence the structure of POP2. This paper presents significant advances in the understanding of the population structure of L. infantum in Brazil and its association with eco-epidemiological aspects of VL. PMID:22606248
Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; dos Santos, Barbara Neves; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Ramos, Tereza Pompilio Bastos; Porrozzi, Renato; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Cupolillo, Elisa
Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, Mediterranean basin and West and Central Asia. Although the geographic structure of L. infantum populations from the Old World have been described, few studies have addressed the population structure of this parasite in the Neotropical region. We employed 14 microsatellites to analyze the population structure of the L. infantum strains isolated from humans and dogs from most of the Brazilian states endemic for VL and from Paraguay. The results indicate a low genetic diversity, high inbreeding estimates and a depletion of heterozygotes, which together indicate a predominantly clonal breeding system, but signs of sexual events are also present. Three populations were identified from the clustering analysis, and they were well supported by F statistics inferences and partially corroborated by distance-based. POP1 (111 strains) was observed in all but one endemic area. POP2 (31 strains) is also well-dispersed, but it was the predominant population in Mato Grosso (MT). POP3 (31 strains) was less dispersed, and it was observed primarily in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Strains originated from an outbreak of canine VL in Southern Brazil were grouped in POP1 with those from Paraguay, which corroborates the hypothesis of dispersal from Northeastern Argentina and Paraguay. The distribution of VL in MS seems to follow the west-east construction of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline from Corumbá municipality. This may have resulted in a strong association of POP3 and Lutzomyia cruzi, which is the main VL vector in Corumbá, and a dispersion of this population in this region that was shaped by human interference. This vector also occurs in MT and may influence the structure of POP2. This paper presents significant advances in the understanding of the population structure of L. infantum in Brazil and its association with eco-epidemiological aspects of VL.
Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; dos Santos, Barbara Neves; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Ramos, Tereza Pompilio Bastos; Porrozzi, Renato; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Cupolillo, Elisa
Vaccine development is informed by a knowledge of genetic variation among antigen alleles, especially the distribution of positive and balancing selection in populations and species. A combined approach using population genetic and phylogenetic methods to detect selective signatures can therefore be informative for identifying vaccine candidates. Parasitic Leishmania species cause the disease leishmaniasis in humans and mammalian reservoir hosts after inoculation by female phlebotomine sandflies. Like other arthropod vectors of disease agents, sandflies use salivary peptides to counteract host haemostatic and immunomodulatory responses during bloodfeeding, and these peptides are vaccine candidates because they can protect against Leishmania infection. We detected no contemporary adaptive selection on one salivary peptide, apyrase, in 20 populations of Phlebotomus ariasi, a European vector of Leishmania infantum. Maximum likelihood branch models on a gene phylogeny showed apyrase to be a single copy in P. ariasi but an ancient duplication event associated with temporary positive selection was observed in its sister group, which contains most Mediterranean vectors of L. infantum. The absence of contemporary adaptive selection on the apyrase of P. ariasi may result from this sandfly's opportunistic feeding behaviour. Our study illustrates how the molecular population genetics of arthropods can help investigate the potential of salivary peptides for disease control and for understanding geographical variation in vector competence.
Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Ready, Paul D
'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming. PMID:21985335
Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Day, Michael J
In the past 4 years, incidences of endemic or epidemic respiratory diseases associated with canine influenza H3N2 virus in Asian dogs have been reported in countries such as South Korea and China. Canine species were considered to be the new natural hosts for this virus. However, at the beginning of 2010, influenza-like respiratory signs, such as dyspnoea, were also observed among cats as well as in dogs in an animal shelter located in Seoul, South Korea. The affected cats showed 100?% morbidity and 40?% mortality. We were able to isolate a virus from a lung specimen of a dead cat, which had suffered from the respiratory disease, in embryonated-chicken eggs. The eight viral genes isolated were almost identical to those of the canine influenza H3N2 virus, suggesting interspecies transmission of canine influenza H3N2 virus to the cat. Moreover, three domestic cats infected with intranasal canine/Korea/GCVP01/07 (H3N2) all showed elevated rectal temperatures, nasal virus shedding and severe pulmonary lesions, such as suppurative bronchopneumonia. Our study shows, for the first time, that cats are susceptible to canine influenza H3N2 infection, suggesting that cats may play an intermediate host role in transmitting the H3N2 virus among feline and canine species, which could lead to the endemic establishment of the virus in companion animals. Such a scenario raises a public health concern, as the possibility of the emergence of new recombinant feline or canine influenza viruses in companion animals with the potential to act as a zoonotic infection cannot be excluded. PMID:21715595
Song, D S; An, D J; Moon, H J; Yeom, M J; Jeong, H Y; Jeong, W S; Park, S J; Kim, H K; Han, S Y; Oh, J S; Park, B K; Kim, J K; Poo, H; Webster, R G; Jung, K; Kang, B K
Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised. PMID:23369878
Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto
Studies were undertaken on the phlebotomines in the municipalities of Bujari, Xapuri and Rio Branco in the state of Acre. The abundance of species on the ground and in the tree canopy was estimated by Standardized Index of Species Abundance. Of the 52 species identified, Lutzomyia (N.) antunesi, Lutzomyia (N.) whitmani, Lutzomyia (P.) davisi, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia (N.) umbratilis, Lutzomyia (N.) flaviscutellata, Lutzomyia (T.) ubiqui-talis, Lutzomyia (P.) hirsuta hirsuta, Lutzomyia (P.) paraensis and Lutzomyia (P.) ayrozai are known to be vectors of Leishmania, the causative agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Lutzomyia (T.) auraensis, Lu. (N.) antunesi, Lu. (N.) whitmani and Lu. (P.) davisi accounted for 66.95% of the specimens collected. Lu. (N.) whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Lu. (N.) antunesi and Lu. (P.) davisi. Lu. (N.) antunesi was the most abundant species in the soil as well as in the canopy. Lu. (N.) umbratilis occurred in all three municipalities and was the fifth most abundant species in the Chico Mendes Municipal Park in Rio Branco. It was collected on both the ground level as well as in the canopy; however, it was more frequently collected in the tree canopy. The present study suggests the existence of three transmission cycles of Leishmania in Acre, including the transmission of Leishmania (V.) guyanensis by Lu. (N.) umbratilis south of the Amazon River. PMID:19148413
Azevedo, Alfredo C R; Costa, Simone M; Pinto, Maria C G; Souza, Janis L; Cruz, Henrique C; Vidal, Joaquim; Rangel, Elizabeth F
The group of diseases known as the leishmaniases are caused by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leish- mania (39). Natural transmission of leishmania is carried out by a certain species of sandfly of the genus Phlebotomus (Old World) or Lutzomyia (New World). These are present in three different forms: (i) visceral leishmaniasis (VL), (ii) cutaneous leishmaniasis, and (iii) mucocutaneous
Shyam Sundar; M. Rai
Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a predominantly rural disease, common in the low lands of eastern Nepal. Since 1997 VL cases have also been reported among residents of the city of Dharan. Our main research objective was to find out whether there had been local transmission of VL inside the city. Methods We conducted an outbreak investigation including a case–control study; cases were all urban residents treated for VL between 2000 and 2008 at BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, a university hospital in the city. For each case, we selected four random controls, with no history of previous VL; frequency-matched for age. Cases and controls were subjected to a structured interview on the main exposures of interest and potential confounders; a binominal multilevel model was used to analyze the data. We also collected entomological data from all neighborhoods of the city. Results We enrolled 115 VL patients and 448 controls. Cases were strongly clustered, 70% residing in 3 out of 19 neighborhoods. We found a strong association with socio-economic status, the poorest being most at risk. Housing was a risk factor independent from socio-economic status, most at risk were those living in thatched houses without windows. ‘Sleeping upstairs’ and ‘sleeping on a bed’ were strongly protective, OR of 0.08 and 0.25 respectively; proximity to a case was a strong risk factor (OR 3.79). Sand flies were captured in all neighborhoods; in collections from several neighborhoods presence of L. donovani could be demonstrated by PCR. Conclusion The evidence found in this study is consistent with transmission of anthroponotic VL within the city. The vector P. argentipes and the parasite L. donovani have both been identified inside the town. These findings are highly relevant for policy makers; in VL endemic areas appropriate surveillance and disease control measures must be adopted not only in rural areas but in urban areas as well.
Background Chemokines play multiple roles in the development and progression in a variety of tumors. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 (CXCL7) has been found associated with pro-inflammatory responses, but its role in cancer growth remains unclear. Our previous study showed that R phase tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) produced large amounts of interleukin (IL)-6 which antagonized transforming growth factor (TGF)-? derived from CTVT to diminish the immune-suppressive microenvironment. Now we intend to determine the expression pattern of CXCL7 and the role of IL-6/TGF-? in CXCL7 induction during spontaneous progressive (P) and regressive (R) phases in canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT). Results We have demonstrated that CXCL7 expressed at high level in P phase and down-regulated in R phase by western blot and real-time PCR. This suggested that CXCL7 expression was negatively correlated with the tumor growth. Co-culturing TILs with CTVT cells was found to reduce CXCL7 expression, while adding IL-6 blocking antibody reversed it. Moreover, in P phase CTVT, while IL-1? and TGF-? had no obvious effect on CXCL7 expression, IL-6 was found significantly to reduce CXCL7 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression results of CXCL7 receptor, CXCR2, further confirmed the effects of IL-6 concentration on the CXCL7 expression. Conclusion CXCL7 overexpression might be associated with the progressive growth of CTVT. The results shown here also suggest the role of CXCL7 in cancer development and the potential as the anti-cancer therapeutic target.
Leishmania infantum leishmaniasis is endemic in south-east of France. The main goal of our study was to evaluate the real prevalence of asymptomatic carriage in dogs by means of real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and serology. We included prospectively 140 military dogs wearing deltamethrine-impregnated collars. Parasitaemia levels were then measured by means of quantitative real time PCR targeting kinetoplast DNA
Olivier Aoun; Charles Mary; Cédric Roqueplo; Jean-Lou Marié; Olivier Terrier; Aurélie Levieuge; Bernard Davoust
RNA-RNA hybridization assays and complete genome sequence analyses have shown that feline rotavirus (FRV) and canine rotavirus (CRV) strains display at least two distinct genotype constellations (genogroups), represented by the FRV strain RVA/Cat-tc/AUS/Cat97/1984/G3P and the human rotavirus (HRV) strain RVA/Human-tc/JPN/AU-1/1982/G3P3, respectively. G3P and G3P strains have been detected sporadically in humans. The complete genomes of two CRV strains (RVA/Dog-tc/ITA/RV198-95/1995/G3P and RVA/Dog-tc/ITA/RV52-96/1996/G3P) and an unusual HRV strain (RVA/Human-tc/ITA/PA260-97/1997/G3P) were determined to further elucidate the complex relationships among FRV, CRV and HRV strains. The CRV strains RV198-95 and RV52-96 were shown to possess a Cat97-like genotype constellation. However, 3 and 5 genes of RV198-95 and RV52-96, respectively, were found in distinct subclusters of the same genotypes, suggesting the occurrence of reassortment events among strains belonging to this FRV/CRV/HRV genogroup. Detailed phylogenetic analyses of the HRV strain PA260-97 showed that (i) 8 genome segments (VP3, VP4, VP6, VP7 and NSP2-5) clustered closely with RV198-95 and/or RV52-96; (ii) 2 genome segments (VP1 and VP2) were more closely related to HRV AU-1; and (iii) 1 genome segment (NSP1) was distantly related to any other established NSP1 genotypes and was ratified as a new NSP1 genotype, A15. These findings suggest that the human strain PA260-97 has a history of zoonotic transmission and is likely a reassortant among FRV/CRV strains from the Cat97 and AU-1-like genogroups. In addition, a potential third BA222-05-like genogroup of FRV and HRV strains should be recognized, consisting of rotavirus strains with a stable genetic genotype constellation of genes also partially related to bovine rotavirus (BRV) and bovine-like rotaviruses. The detailed phylogenetic analysis indicated that three major genotype constellations exist among FRV, CRV and feline/canine-like HRV strains, and that reassortment and interspecies transmission events contribute significantly to their wide genetic diversity. PMID:21609783
Matthijnssens, Jelle; De Grazia, Simona; Piessens, Jan; Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Giammanco, Giovanni M; Bányai, Krisztián; Buonavoglia, Canio; Ciarlet, Max; Martella, Vito; Van Ranst, Marc
Quantitative computerized Western blot analysis of antibody responses during experimental canine Leish- mania infantum infection distinguished between immunodominant and nonimmunodominant protein bands. Six infected beagles, positive by both PCR and parasite culture, were monitored over 75 weeks postinfection and during a 12-week allopurinol treatment course. All dogs were symptomatic at the time of treatment. Of 12 antigenic bands examined, the
D. Talmi-Frank; D. Strauss-Ayali; C. L. Jaffe; G. Baneth
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been naturally transmitted in periurban areas due to the emergence and reemergence of its vectors in such areas. Aimed to further knowledge on ecological aspects affecting the occurrence of phlebotomine sand flies in VL transmission areas in the municipality of Várzea Grande, state of Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil, sand fly captures were carried out. Monthly collections of sand flies were undertaken with CDC light-traps, which were left in both intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of ten residences during four consecutive days between January 2004 and June 2006. Twenty-two species of genus Lutzomyia and one of Brumptomyia were captured. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (65.23%), followed by L. evandroi (16.26%), L. lenti (7.69%), L. whitmani (4.92%), L. sallesi (2.34%) and L. termitophila (1.32%). The highest density of the main VL vector, L. longipalpis, was found in peridomiciliary areas, mostly males. No significant correlation was found between environment (temperature, air relative humidity and rain fall) and phlebotomine density; although a slight increase in sand fly density has been observed in the period following rainfalls, particularly L. longipalpis. No correlation was observed between distribution and density of L. longipalpis, prevalence of human VL cases and the presence of serologically positive dogs. The presence of infected dogs, increased vector density, susceptibility rate and interruption of epidemiological surveillance may raise the risk of VL transmission to man in Várzea Grande. PMID:18209928
Missawa, Nanci Akemi; Dias, Edelberto Santos
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that causes various clinical features depending on the infecting Leishmania species and the host immune response. Transmission occurs through the bite of an infected sand fly (subfamily of Phlebotominae). Leishmaniasis must be part of the differential diagnosis of persistent cutaneous lesions in travellers returning from an endemic area. The disease is most frequently characterized by one or more ulcerative lesions, which are predominant on the exposed parts of the body. The diagnosis is confirmed by microscopical observation of the parasite on a scraping or biopsy of the lesion, or by PCR, the latter allowing an identification of the Leishmania species. Treatment is dependent on the clinical presentation, the species of Leishmania and the comorbidities of the patient. PMID:23750392
Galluzzo, Christelle Weibel; Eperon, Gilles; Mauris, Anne; Chappuis, François
Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (<90%) to the vaccine strain (Onderstepoort). Seropositivity of lions (Panthera leo) in the zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species. PMID:22214864
Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shiomoda, Hiroshi; Tamaru, Seiji; Shimojima, Masayuki; Goto, Megumi; Une, Yumi; Sato, Azusa; Ikebe, Yusuke; Maeda, Ken
The article sets forth the basic principles for the control of the leishmaniases, which are for the most part diseases occurring in natural foci. The need for specially planned measures for leishmaniasis control is emphasized. Different measures are required in different regions according to the type of epidemic focus and the nature of the disease cycle. In view of the specificity of the biological interrelationships between leishmaniae and their invertebrate hosts, sandfly control is of paramount importance in the prophylaxis of the leishmaniases. In the USSR, it has been possible to clear completely foci of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis by the implementation of a series of special measures including measures to eradicate the causal agent (treatment of patients) and the vector of the infection.
Saf'janova, V. M.
Leishmaniases, which are important causes of morbidity and mortality in humans and dogs, are extremely difficult to treat. Antimicrobial peptides are rarely used as alternative treatments for naturally acquired parasitic diseases. Here we report that the acylated synthetic antimicrobial peptide Oct-CA(1-7)M(2-9) is safe and effective for treating naturally acquired canine leishmaniasis.
Alberola, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Francino, O.; Roura, X.; Rivas, L.; Andreu, D.
RNA–RNA hybridization assays and complete genome sequence analyses have shown that feline rotavirus (FRV) and canine rotavirus (CRV) strains display at least two distinct genotype constellations (genogroups), represented by the FRV strain RVA\\/Cat-tc\\/AUS\\/Cat97\\/1984\\/G3P and the human rotavirus (HRV) strain RVA\\/Human-tc\\/JPN\\/AU-1\\/1982\\/G3P3, respectively. G3P and G3P strains have been detected sporadically in humans. The complete genomes of two CRV strains (RVA\\/Dog-tc\\/ITA\\/RV198-95\\/1995\\/G3P and
Jelle Matthijnssens; Simona De Grazia; Jan Piessens; Elisabeth Heylen; Mark Zeller; Giovanni M. Giammanco; Krisztián Bányai; Canio Buonavoglia; Max Ciarlet; Vito Martella; Marc Van Ranst
Economic development leads to changing interactions between humans and their physical and biological environment. Worldwide patterns of human settlement in urban areas have led in developing countries to a rapid growth of mega-cities where facilities for housing, drinking-water and sanitation are inadequate, thus creating opportunities for the transmission of communicable diseases such as leishmaniasis. Increasing risk factors are making leishmaniasis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review was to close the gap in the approach to pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) by providing up-to-date information to obstetricians about physiopathology, epidemiology, vertical transmission, drugs and treatment during pregnancy. BACKGROUND: Infection with Leishmania chagasi during pregnancy is rare and deserves special attention since little information is available regarding the occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis during gestational period and the real possibility of vertical transmission of this disease. Because specific areas in the world are endemic for the disease and considering the continuous growth of the population, cases of pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis are becoming more frequent. Unfortunately, textbooks on infectious diseases do not include this specific group of patients, and studies in the literature on aspects related to pregnancy and visceral leishmaniasis are scarce. CONCLUSIONS: Vertical transmission of leishmaniasis is possible and the institution of treatment is imperative in cases of pregnant women with kala-azar. Amphotericin B is strongly recommended as the first choice drug due to its fewer maternal-fetal adverse effects.
Figueiro-Filho, Ernesto Antonio; Duarte, Geraldo; El-Beitune, Patricia; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Maia, Tamara Lemos
Background Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis) is endemic in northern Portugal, but molecularly confirmed cases of infection with small piroplasms have not been reported in the country. Three German shepherd dogs - a bitch and its 2-month old pup and an unrelated male - clinically suspected of piroplasmosis were assessed for babesial infection. Results Parasitemia with small piroplasms was detected by microscopy in two dogs. All three dogs were positive by PCR and the Babesia microti-like small piroplasm (syn. Theileria annae) was identified by DNA sequencing. These are the first confirmed cases of babesiosis caused by the B. microti-like piroplasm both in dogs from Portugal and in dogs suspected of clinical piroplasmosis outside of Spain. Conclusions Although the bitch and the male had visited neighboring Galicia (northwestern Spain), where the disease is endemic, incursion of this piroplasm into northern Portugal is evident and infection of the non-traveled pup was due to either vertical transmission or autochthonous tick infection.
Infection is a well-recognized complication of immunosuppressive therapy. We describe a case of leishmaniasis in a 62-year-old man who was undergoing immunosuppressive therapy because of heart transplantation. A geologist and native Texan, the patient had traveled extensively in south-central Texas, but not outside of the continental United States. Cutaneous lesions of the extremities developed, which were diagnosed histologically as leishmaniasis and confirmed by means of transmission electron microscopy. Cultures grew Leishmania mexicana. Treatment with sodium antimony gluconate was successful in healing the infective lesions. PMID:1323332
Golino, A; Duncan, J M; Zeluff, B; DePriest, J; McAllister, H A; Radovancevic, B; Frazier, O H
Background Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis) is endemic in northern Portugal, but molecularly confirmed cases of infection with small\\u000a piroplasms have not been reported in the country. Three German shepherd dogs - a bitch and its 2-month old pup and an unrelated\\u000a male - clinically suspected of piroplasmosis were assessed for babesial infection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Parasitemia with small piroplasms was detected by microscopy in
Paula Brilhante Simões; Luís Cardoso; Manuela Araújo; Yael Yisaschar-Mekuzas; Gad Baneth
Dogs are the domestic reservoir for Leishmania infantum, the parasite causing zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in both the Old and New Worlds. Since the available methods for canine leishmaniasis treatment and control have limited efficacy, the development of a canine Leishmania vaccine is highly desirable. Mechanisms of antileishmanial immune responses in murine, human, and canine infections are briefly presented. Vaccine candidates, including live or killed parasites, Leishmania purified fractions, defined recombinant parasite antigens, live recombinant bacteria expressing Leishmania antigens and antigen-encoding DNA plasmids, are reviewed. Finally, some practical requirements for the evaluation of vaccine candidates in dogs are indicated. PMID:11522409
The aims of this study were to carry out a serological survey of canine leishmaniasis and identify the phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The serological survey was conducted on a sample of 303 dogs, by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test. Phlebotomines were captured using automated light traps. The serological survey found that 30% of the dogs were seropositive, both from the center and from all districts of the town. A total of 2,772 specimens of phlebotomines were caught and the species most found was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%), which corroborated its role as the vector of for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the region. Phlebotomines of the species Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (the main vector for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Nyssomyia whitmani (the vector for Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis) were also caught. The findings indicate the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance, with attention towards diminishing the vector breeding sites and the transmission of these diseases in that region. PMID:19967228
Andrade, Ana Rachel Oliveira de; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Rocca, Maria Elizabeth Gizi; Aquino, Ricardo Braga
The aim of this study was to construct risk maps for the presence of the dominant Leishmania infantum vector, P. perniciosus, and check its usefulness (a) to predict the risk of canine leishmaniasis and (b) to define effective leishmaniasis control measures. We obtained data for the presence/absence of P. perniciosus at 167 sampling sites in southern Spain, from which we also took a series of ecological and climate-related data. The probability of P. perniciosus presence was estimated as a function of these environmental variables and generated spatial risk maps. Altitude, land use and drainage hole features (with or without PVC piping) were retained as the only predictors for the distribution of this vector species. Drainage hole features in retaining walls, with or without PVC piping, produce significant variations in the probability of P. perniciosus presence, varying from 2·3 to 91·8% if PVC piping is absent and from 0·4 to 66·5% if all holes have PVC piping. It was concluded that the use of PVC piping in drainage holes could help to reduce leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:21854702
Barón, S D; Morillas-Márquez, F; Morales-Yuste, M; Díaz-Sáez, V; Irigaray, C; Martín-Sánchez, J
Leishmaniasis is not known to be indigenous to Taiwan but a number of imported cases of visceral as well as post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis have been seen. Only two autochthonous cases of cutaneous-subcutaneous diseases have been documented in aborigi...
J. H. Cross J. J. Gunning D. J. Drutz J. C. Lien
Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, has strong but complex links with poverty. The burden of leishmaniasis falls disproportionately on the poorest segments of the global population. Within endemic areas, increased infection risk is mediated through poor housing conditions and environmental sanitation, lack of personal protective measures and economically driven migration and employment that bring nonimmune hosts into contact with infected sand flies. Poverty is associated with poor nutrition and other infectious diseases, which increase the risk that a person (once infected) will progress to the clinically manifested disease. Lack of healthcare access causes delays in appropriate diagnosis and treatment and accentuates leishmaniasis morbidity and mortality, particularly in women. Leishmaniasis diagnosis and treatment are expensive and families must sell assets and take loans to pay for care, leading to further impoverishment and reinforcement of the vicious cycle of disease and poverty. Public investment in treatment and control would decrease the leishmaniasis disease burden and help to alleviate poverty. PMID:17023215
Alvar, Jorge; Yactayo, Sergio; Bern, Caryn
Domestic dogs are the main reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas; one of the control measures adopted in Brazil is the elimination of this reservoir. In order to test the relationship between the euthanasia rate of the canine reservoir and the incidence of the disease in humans, data on dog culling from the Centre for Zoonosis Control of
Cáris Maroni Nunes; Marina Mota Pires; Karinne Marques da Silva; Filipe Daniel Assis; Jesualdo Gonçalves Filho; Silvia Helena Venturoli Perri
The Health Post of Corte de Pedra is located in a region endemic for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the Brazilian state of Bahia, and it treats 500–1,300 patients annually. To describe temporal changes in the epidemiology of ATL, we reviewed a random sample of 10% of patient charts (N = 1,209) from 1988 to 2008. There was a twofold increase in the number of cases over the 20-year period, with fluctuations in 10-year cycles. Patients were most frequently male, between the ages of 10 and 30 years, and engaged in agricultural labor; 4.3% of patients had mucosal disease, and 2.4% of patients had disseminated disease. Over the study period, the number of disseminated cases increased threefold, the proportion of cases in younger patients and agricultural workers decreased, and the proportion of patients residing in coastal areas increased. ATL is on the rise in Bahia, with a 10-year periodicity and evolving changes in epidemiology and manifestations of disease.
Jirmanus, Lara; Glesby, Marshall J.; Guimaraes, Luiz H.; Lago, Ednaldo; Rosa, Maria Elisa; Machado, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Edgar M.
We report the results of a study conducted during 1990-2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ? 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were having 1-3 rooms in a house compared with ? 4 rooms, having a roof that was not made of cement, and having domestic animals. In contrast, only 19% of dogs were seropositive, suggesting that this species is not important in the transmission cycle of Leishmania. These data indicate that active transmission is taking place in the central valley of Chiapas State, Mexico, in communities located < 1,000 meters above sea level near the Grijalva River. PMID:22232459
Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica
To determine whether disease outcomes and clades of Leishmania braziliensis genotypes are associated, we studied geographic clustering of clades and most severe disease outcomes for leishmaniasis during 1999–2003 in Corte de Pedra in northeastern Brazil. Highly significant differences were observed in distribution of mucosal leishmaniasis versus disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) (p<0.0001). Concordance was observed between distribution of these disease forms and clades of L. braziliensis genotypes shown to be associated with these disease forms. We also detected spread of DL over this region and an inverse correlation between frequency of recent DL diagnoses and distance to a previous DL case. These findings indicate that leishmaniasis outcomes are distributed differently within transmission foci and show that DL is rapidly spreading in northeastern Brazil.
Guimaraes, Luiz H.; Machado, Paulo R.L.; Lessa, Marcus; Lessa, Helio A.; Lago, Ednaldo; Ritt, Guilherme; Goes-Neto, Aristoteles; Schriefer, Ana L.F.; Riley, Lee W.; Carvalho, Edgar M.
Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease affecting humans and many domestic and wild animals. Domestic animals showing appreciable morbidity and mortality include dogs, cats, cattle and horses. Both canine and feline babesiosis are diseases characterised by haemolytic anaemia, icterus and haemoglobinuria. Canine babesiosis can range from chronic or subclinical to peracute and fatal, depending on the virulence of the species and the susceptibility of the host. This paper deals with canine babesiosis with specific reference to pathogenesis, clinical findings, complications, diagnosis and treatment, as well as newly identified prognostic factors in Babesia rossi babesiosis. PMID:19967929
Schoeman, J P
Leishmaniasis is an emerging disease in Thailand. Herein, we report on two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with leishmaniasis who presented with overlapping manifestations between cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the ribosomal RNA gene showed that the species was identical to a new species recently described in Thailand. The detection of DNA of this Leishmania species in saliva may have important implications for transmission and epidemiological studies.
Chusri, Sarunyou; Hortiwakul, Thanaporn; Silpapojakul, Khachornsakdi; Siriyasatien, Padet
Self-cure versus uncontrolled disease progression in experimental murine cutaneous leishmaniasis depends upon a delicate interplay among various activated cells of the host's immune system. Susceptibility or resistance to infection with Leishmania major is correlated with the ability of different inbred strains of mice to produce the characteristic spectra of lymphokines upon infection. Appropriate experimental interventions now allow the modulation of
Ingrid Miiller; Ulrich Fruth; Jacques A. Louis
From the early 1900s, visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala-azar) has been among the most important health problems in Sudan, particularly in the main endemic area in the eastern and central regions. Several major epidemics have occurred, the most recent—in Western Upper Nile province in southern Sudan, detected in 1988 — claiming over 100000 lives. The disease spread to other areas that
E. E. Zijlstra; A. M. El-Hassan
The courses of two protozoal diseases, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, were examined in three groups of C57BL/6J mice. One group of mice was homozygous recessive for the beige gene (bg/bg). Beige mice are the genetic homologue of the human Chédiak-Higashi syndrome and, among other defects, are profoundly deficient in natural killer cell activity. Wild-type (+/+) mice, which respond to experimental cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis by eventually eliminating their parasites, and heterozygous beige (bg/+) mice served as controls; both are phenotypically normal in natural killer cell activity, which is particularly high in the spleen. In bg/bg mice, the course of Leishmania tropica, a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, was similar to that in control mice after both primary and challenge inoculations. All groups of mice expressed similar humoral and cellular immune responses to L. tropica antigen. However, bg/bg mice failed to eliminate amastigotes of Leishmania donovani, a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, from their spleens over an observation period of 56 days, in contrast to bg/+ and +/+ controls. Similar levels of anti-leishmanial antibody were produced by all groups of mice, and all mice responded comparably to footpad injections of L. donovani antigen. The results of this study suggest a possible role for natural killer cells in recovery from L. donovani but not from L. tropica infection.
Kirkpatrick, C E; Farrell, J P
Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures. PMID:22839365
Chen, Jia; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Leishmaniasis represents a complex of diseases with an important clinical and epidemiological diversity. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is of higher priority than cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as it is a fatal disease in the absence of treatment. Anthroponotic VL foci are of special concern as they are at the origin of frequent and deathly epidemics (e.g. Sudan). Leishmaniasis burden remains important: 88
Different optical spectral characteristics in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate observed by triple-band trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound guidance
Different optical spectral characteristics were observed in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate by triple-wavelength trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The NIR imager acquiring at 705nm, 785nm and 808nm was used to quantify both the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) and oxygen saturation (StO2) in the prostate. The TVT tumor in the canine prostate as a model of prostate cancer was induced in a 7-year old, 27 kg dog. A 2 mL suspension of 2.5x106 cells/mL of homogenized TVT cells recovered from an in vivo subcutaneously propagated TVT tumor in an NOD/SCID mouse were injected in the cranial aspect of the right lobe of the canine prostate. The left lobe of the prostate had a cystic lesion present before TVT inoculation. After the TVT homogenate injection, the prostate was monitored weekly over a 9-week period, using trans-rectal NIR and TRUS in grey-scale and Doppler. A TVT mass within the right lobe developed a necrotic center during the later stages of this study, as the mass presented with substantially increased [HbT] in the periphery, with an area of reduced StO2 less than the area of the mass itself shown on ultrasonography. Conversely, the cystic lesion presented with slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the lesion shown on ultrasound with oxygen-reduction inside and in the periphery of the lesion. There was no detectable change of blood flow on Doppler US in the periphery of the cystic lesion. The slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the cystic lesion was correlated with intra-lesional hemorrhage upon histopathologic examination.
Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Rock, Kendra; Ownby, Charlotte L.; Slobodov, Gennady; Bunting, Charles F.; Piao, Daqing
Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania are further classified into several complexes, each of which can engage in distinct interactions with mammalian hosts resulting in differing disease presentations. It is therefore not unexpected that host immune responses to Leishmania are variable. The induction of interferon gamma (IFN-?) and response to it in these infections has received considerable attention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of some of the host responses during Leishmania infections that are regulated by IFN-?. In addition, studies that explore the nature of parasite-derived molecular mediators that might affect the host response to IFN-? are also discussed.
Kima, Peter E.; Soong, Lynn
Leishmaniasis is a global term for cutaneous and visceral anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases caused by the vector-borne parasites of the genus Leishmania. These diseases afflict at least 2 million people each year with more than 350 million at risk in 98 countries worldwide. These are diseases mostly of the impoverished making prevention, diagnosis and treatment difficult. Therapy of leishmaniasis ranges from local treatment of cutaneous lesions to systemic, often toxic, therapy for disseminated cutaneous, mucocutaneous and deadly visceral disease. This review is a summary of the clinical syndromes caused by Leishmania and treatment regimens currently used for various forms of leishmaniasis. PMID:23744570
McGwire, B S; Satoskar, A R
Skin lesions occur frequently in travelers to tropical countries. Military personnel acquire skin lesions regularly during jungle training as did Dutch troops who trained in the jungle of Belize in 1998, 2004 and 2009, in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively. Diagnostic investigations for cutaneous leishmaniasis included Giemsa stain, culture, PCR and NASBA and histopathology of biopsies. Treatment of leishmaniasis was with sodium stibogluconate, given intravenously or intralesionally, the latter with cryotherapy. In 1998 and 2004 cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania mexicana infection was diagnosed in 25 persons out of 99 (attack rate 25.2%) and 14 persons out of 80 (attack rate 17.5%) respectively. In 2009 cutaneous leishmaniasis was not acquired. Skin problems were common during and after jungle training. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was important in the first two cohorts but not observed in the third cohort. Factors that could have played a role in the absence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the third cohort include variability in transmission and availability of better preventive measures and adherence to these. Sodium stibogluconate treatment, intralesional or intravenous, was effective. PMID:21450527
van Thiel, P P A M; Zeegelaar, J E; van Gool, T; Faber, W R; Kager, P A
During the last decade, visceral leishmaniasis has been reconsidered in its epidemiology and strategies for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. This vectorial disease, responsible for more than 50,000 deaths each year across India, East Africa, South America, the Mediterranean area, Central Asia and China, is currently spreading over new territories. This formerly rural disease has even reached cities in South America. This spreading is caused by environmental changes due to global warming or human activity, and by the movement of workers and refugees. As a consequence, the burden of HIV/Leishmania coinfection is increasing in many developing countries even though effective antiretroviral therapy has led to a marked decrease in its incidence in Europe. The disease is now handled differently than it was 10 years ago: PCR has become the most accurate tool for diagnosis and follow-up in developed countries, and field diagnostic tools have been developed (antigenuria, rK39 dipstick). While resistance to antimoniate has appeared in India and Europe, new therapies have been evaluated such as miltefosine, the first oral therapy, or short treatment with liposomal amphotericin B. In France, liposomal amphotericin B has supplanted antimoniate meglumine because of better tolerance and shorter hospitalization duration. Protecting dogs through immunization or collars impregnated with deltamethrin proved effective to prevent zoonotic leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum. PMID:20850210
Faucher, B; Piarroux, R
Spirocercosis (Spirocerca lupi) in dogs has been mostly associated with the presence of esophageal granulomas that may transform to sarcomas; aortic aneurysms; mid-thoracic spondylitis; hypertrophic osteopathy; salivary gland necrosis; and pyothorax. Although the disease is frequently subclinical, esophageal dysphagia manifested by regurgitation, odynophagia, and hypersalivation is considered the clinical hallmark. Diagnosis should combine fecal analysis, thoracic radiography, and esophagoscopy to look for parasite ova, spondylitis or posterior mediastinal masses, and parasite nodules or tumors, respectively. Two avermectins, doramectin and ivermectin, have been effective in the treatment of canine spirocercosis, resulting in clinical remission, regression, or elimination of esophageal granulomas and cessation of egg shedding. PMID:18368693
Mylonakis, Mathios E; Rallis, Timoleon; Koutinas, Alexander F
The different cutaneous leishmaniases are distinct in their etiology, epidemiology, transmission, and geographical distribution. In most instances cutaneous leishmaniasis is limited to one or a few skin ulcers that develop at the site where the parasites were deposited during the bite of the sandfly vector. Lesions typically heal spontaneously after several months but some lesions can be large and follow a chronic, more severe course. Protective immunity is usually acquired following cutaneous infection with Leishmania spp., so prevention of disease through prophylactic immunization appears to be feasible. Since vaccination with live, virulent parasites is associated with an unacceptable rate of adverse events, attention has turned to the use of killed or attenuated parasite vaccines and defined subunit vaccines. Whole parasite vaccines have the advantage of delivering multiple antigenic epitopes that may be necessary for initiation of a broad-based immune response. Persistent or repeated immune-stimulation by parasite antigens and/or sustained expression of interleukin-12 appear to be critical elements in the development of durable immunity. A number of purified or recombinant antigens, when co-administered with a vaccine adjuvant, appear promising as vaccine candidates against cutaneous leishmaniasis. The sustained expression of recombinant Leishmania antigens by vaccination with DNA is an attractive approach because it mimics the persistent antigenic stimulation of subclinical infection. Effective vaccine-induced immunity must generate an antigen-specific memory T cell population that, upon exposure to the infecting parasite, rapidly produces a type 1 effector T cell response that leads to interferon-gamma-mediated activation of infected macrophages to kill the intracellular parasites. This parasite-directed recall response must be prompt and of sufficient magnitude to overcome the subversive effect that the intracellular infection has on macrophage effector function. It is unlikely that vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis would induce sterile immunity, but a small number of parasites are likely to persist subclinically. PMID:12358557
Melby, Peter C
Leishmaniae are obligatory intracellular protozoa in mononuclear phagocytes. They cause a spectrum of diseases, ranging in severity from spontaneously healing skin lesions to fatal visceral disease. Worldwide, there are 2 million new cases each year and 1/10 of the world's population is at risk of infection. To date, there are no vaccines against leishmaniasis and control measures rely on chemotherapy to alleviate disease and on vector control to reduce transmission. However, a major vaccine development program aimed initially at cutaneous leishmaniasis is under way. Studies in animal models and humans are evaluating the potential of genetically modified live attenuated vaccines, as well as a variety of recombinant antigens or the DNA encoding them. The program also focuses on new adjuvants, including cytokines, and delivery systems to target the T helper type 1 immune responses required for the elimination of this intracellular organism. The availability, in the near future, of the DNA sequences of the human and Leishmania genomes will extend the vaccine program. New vaccine candidates such as parasite virulence factors will be identified. Host susceptibility genes will be mapped to allow the vaccine to be targeted to the population most in need of protection.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), commonly known as kala-azar, is caused by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi in the Americas). These Leishmania species infect macrophages throughout the viscera, and parasites are typically found in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Patients with active disease typically exhibit marked immunosuppression, lack reactivity to the Leishmania skin test (LST), a delayed type hypersensitivity test, and their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) fail to respond when stimulated with leishmanial antigens in vitro. However, most people infected with visceralizing species of Leishmania never develop disease. Understanding immune failure and the underlying immune mechanism that lead to disease as well as control of infection are key questions for research in this field. In this review, we discuss immunological events described in human and experimental VL and how these can affect the outcome of infection.
Kumar, Rajiv; Nylen, Susanne
During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. We describe distribution of Leishmania major and L. tropica in Morocco and a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. infantum. We recommend using molecular techniques to diagnose suspected leishmaniasis cases.
Rhajaoui, Mohamed; Fellah, Hajiba; Azmi, Kifaya; Amarir, Fatima; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Ereqat, Suheir; Planer, Joseph; Abdeen, Ziad
Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama. PMID:22241132
Valderrama, Anayansi; Tavares, Mara Garcia; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando
A review of the literature on the inferior retained canines is carried out, their frequency, diagnosis and treatment options. Two clinical cases are shown, the first with an inferior lateral incisive transposition that blocked the eruption of the canines; the second case presented bilateral retention of the inferior canines. PMID:22031991
Cabrera Diaz, José R
Since July 2009, there has been a community outbreak of leishmaniasis in the south-west area of the Madrid autonomous community, Spain, affecting residents from four towns that are geographically close together and share extensive park areas. As of December 2012, 446 cases were reported (6 in 2009, 97 in 2010, 196 in 2011 and 147 in 2012), a mean incidence rate of 22.2 per 100,000 inhabitants during July 2009 and December 2012. The mean age was 44 years (range: 2 months to 95 years); 61.0% were male. A total of 68 (15.2%) had immunosuppressive conditions; 160 (35.9%) had visceral leishmaniasis and 286 (64.1%) cutaneous. A total of 421 (94.4%) cases were confirmed. Leishmania infantum was identified as the agent. Monitoring revealed high densities of the vector Phlebotomus perniciosus. The surveillance system for canine leishmaniasis did not detect any increase in prevalence during the period. Environmental control measures have been taken, such as improvements in sanitation and disinsection in the risk areas and control of the overpopulation of Leporidae, as xenodiagnosis studies have shown that hares play a role as active reservoirs. This is the largest reported community outbreak of leishmaniasis in Europe. The discovery of the new reservoir stands out in the multifactorial aetiology of the outbreak. Epidemiological research and environmental intervention measures are continuing. PMID:23929177
Arce, A; Estirado, A; Ordobas, M; Sevilla, S; García, N; Moratilla, L; de la Fuente, S; Martínez, A M; Pérez, A M; Aránguez, E; Iriso, A; Sevillano, O; Bernal, J; Vilas, F
Canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease affects wild canids and may be a factor impacting the health and population dynamics of coyotes (Canis latrans). Coyotes may serve also as a potential reservoir for transmission of these parasites to domestic dogs. We investigated 920 coyotes harvested by hunters and trappers throughout Illinois (USA) from 1995-1997. The objec- tives of the study were
Thomas A. Nelson; David G. Gregory; Jeffrey R. Laursen
Wild canids and domestic dogs are the main reservoir of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum (syn.: Leishmania chagasi). Serological diagnosis of VL is therefore important in both human and dog leishmaniasis from a clinical and epidemiological point of view. Routine diagnosis of VL is traditionally carried out by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), which is laborious and difficult to standardize and to interpret. In the last decade, however, several specific antigens of Leishmania infantum have been characterized, allowing the development of a recombinant-based immunoassay. Among them, the whole open reading frame encoding K9 antigen, the gene fragment encoding the repetitive sequence of K26, and the 3?-terminal gene fragment of the kinesin-related protein (K39sub) were previously evaluated as diagnostic markers for canine leishmaniasis and proved to be independent in their antibody reactivity. Since sensitivity of serological test is usually higher in multiple-epitope format, in this study the relevant epitopes of K9, K26, and K39 antigens were joined by PCR strategy to produce the chimeric recombinant protein. The resulting mosaic antigen was found highly expressed in Escherichia coli and efficiently purified by affinity chromatography. Antigenic properties of this recombinant antigen were evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a panel of human and dog sera previously characterized by parasitological and/or serological techniques. Chimeric ELISA showed 99% specificity in both human (n = 180) and canine (n = 343) control groups, while sensitivity was higher in canine VL (96%, n = 213) than in human VL (82%, n = 185). Accordingly, concordance between IFAT and canine chimeric ELISA (k = 0.95, 95% confidence interval = 0.93 to 0.98) was higher than between IFAT and human chimeric ELISA (k = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.76 to 0.87). Results suggest the potential use of this new antigen for routine serodiagnosis of VL in both human and canine hosts.
Boarino, A.; Scalone, A.; Gradoni, L.; Ferroglio, E.; Vitale, F.; Zanatta, R.; Giuffrida, M. G.; Rosati, S.
...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine...Virus Vaccines Â§ 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus...
...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine...Virus Vaccines Â§ 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type...
...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine...Virus Vaccines Â§ 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type...
...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine...Virus Vaccines Â§ 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus...
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine...Virus Vaccines Â§ 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type...
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine...Virus Vaccines Â§ 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus...
Exames parasitológicos, imunoistoquímicos e histopatológicos para detecção de Leishmania chagasi em tecidos esplênicos de cães com leishmaniose visceral Parasitological, immunohistochemical and histopathological study for Leishmania chagasi detection in spleenic tissues of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis
The purpose of this work was a Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis - CVL study by parasitological direct examination of Leishmania (L.) chagasi (imprinting and histological), immunohistochemical test and histopathological analysis using spleen tissues from 34 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Control Centre from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. According to the clinical signs, the dogs were divided in three groups: asymptomatics
Karen Ingrid Tasca; Wilma Aparecida; Starke Buzetti; Michely da Silva Tenorio; Silvana de Cássia Paulan
The present study describes pathologic findings and immunohistochemical diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in\\u000a 22 dogs who died naturally in the Aegean region of Turkey. At necropsy, lymphadenomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly, hepatic, and\\u000a nephrosclerotic lesions were conspicuous. Histopathologically, chronic inflammatory reactions of the spleen, lymph nodes,\\u000a bone marrow, liver, and skin were marked findings. Cytological and histological examinations showed macrophages loaded
Nihat Toplu; Ahmet Aydogan
Major therapeutic obstacles in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) include the alarming increase in antimonial unresponsiveness especially in Bihar, India and relapses in HIV- Leishmania co-infected patients. The therapeutic armamentarium for VL is currently plagued with several limitations as the available drugs are toxic, majority are effective only parenterally and need to be administered for extended periods. The first
Shyam Sundar; Mitali Chatterjee
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis transmission occurs in a complex cycle where the environment has a significant influence. Some important parameters related to this cycle can be qualified and quantified with Remote Sensing and Geoprocessing, employed to study 27 cases of CL occurred at Itapira municipality (São Paulo\\/Brazil), reported between 1992 and 1997. Forest remnants related to these cases were delimited and the
Cristina Aparicio; Marisa Dantas Bitencourt
Sandflies (Phlebotominae, Nematocera, Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan-borne diseases in humans, and these insects depend on the regulation of water balance to cope with the sudden and enormous intake of blood over a very short time period. The sandfly ...
SummaryCutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been discovered in some parts of Ghana. The case of an HIV infected patient presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital is discussed. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was confirmed by histology. Also highlighted is the fact that this is the first reported case of dual infection of HIV and Leishmaniasis in Ghana.The possibility of rapid spread to other members of the community, both immunecompetent and immunesuppressed in view of the large numbers of organisms present in the lesion is discussed. PMID:17299577
Lartey, Margaret; Adusei, L; Hanson-Nortey, L; Addy, Jh
The area of distribution of leishmaniasis is determined by the distribution of its nosogeographical forms, these being determined by the composition of the parasitic system (parasite—vector—host) and by environmental conditions. There are three distinct nosogeographical forms of visceral leishmaniasis in the Old World (Mediterranean—Middle Asian, Indian, and East African forms). In the Mediterranean—Middle Asian subzone there are three types of focus: natural, semi-synanthropic, and synanthropic. This situation reflects the evolution of visceral leishmaniasis from a zoonosis to an anthroponosis. Indian kala azar is a true anthroponosis. There are two geographical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Old World: a zoonotic form and an anthroponotic form. Natural foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis are located mainly in the deserts of Middle Asia. Foci of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis have developed mainly in those areas where zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis does not occur. All the known published data concerning autochthonous cases of leishmaniasis in the Old World are summarized in two maps, and a third map shows the distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the USSR.
Lysenko, A. Ja.
The purpose of this paper is to present the first case of unusual reverse oblique (110 degrees to midsagittal plane) migration of mandibular right canine crossing the jaw midline and piercing the lower border of the mandible at the level of the opposite canine and also to report two more cases of transmigrated mandibular canine and one case of transmigrating mandibular canine. Mandibular canines are “cornerstone” of dental arch; their importance is manifested by their efficiency in masticatory function, stability of dental arch, and aid in maintaining natural facial expression. Early detection of this anomaly can help preserving these canines by orthodontic intervention or by surgical transplantation. This developmental anomaly is properly diagnosed by radiographic evaluation, which is primarily based on the panoramic radiograph. In patients with overretained deciduous canines or missing permanent canines, an intraoral radiograph should be supplemented with panoramic radiograph. This paper discusses the importance of early diagnosis of canine transmigration in treatment planning and reviews the various possible treatment options.
Umashree, N.; Kumar, Avinash; Nagaraj, Tejavathi
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), due to Leishmania major, is endemic in different parts of Iran and has long been recognized in most provinces of Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of childhood leishmaniasis in 3 areas at the southeast of Kashan. A descriptive study was carried out on all children referred to central laboratories during a 3-year period. Initial information including age, sex, sites of ulcer on the body, number of lesions, address, and the place of the disease was obtained. The study gathered 117 children, and the results showed a prevalence of 7.2% in patients with lesions among the population and 4.2% of people displayed lesion and scar. The ages of subjects were from 6 to 15 years (average 9.75 years). The boy: girl ratio was 1.2. All of our patients lived in an endemic area. The face was affected in 47.0% of cases. The encountered forms of leishmaniasis are as follows: papulonodular 27.4%, ulcer 60.7%, sporotrichoid 6%, impetiginous 2.5%, and erysipeloid 3.4%. Treatment with intramuscular meglumine antimoniate 20-30 mg/kg/day was done for 93 patients. Meglumine antimoniate treatment was tolerated with no side effects. All leishmaniasis lesions healed within an average period of 2-14 months. Hyperpigmented scars were formed in 25.6% of the patients, atrophic scars in 4.3%, and hypopigmented scars were in 3.4%, respectively. The findings of this study indicate increased prevalence of CL in the villages at the area of Kashan and Aran-Bidgol. The clinical finding patterns belonged to different endemic strains of L. major in Isfahan, which indicates the possible transmission of infection from Isfahan to this area.
Talaei, Rezvan; Shajari, Gholamreza; Vakili, Zarichehr; Taghaviardakani, Abbas
In 2005, 200 cases of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) were recorded among International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) troops stationed in the Mazar-e Sharif airport area. Within the local population, investigations revealed 3782 cases of ZCL, 174 cases of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), and 2 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the period from March 21, 2004 to March 20, 2005, and 4045 cases of ZCL, 198 cases of ACL, and no cases of VL from March 21, 2005 to March 20, 2006. The previously unknown transmission dynamics of ZCL, and differing seasonal distribution of ZCL and ACL, are here defined, thus permitting quantification and prediction of infection rates in deployed troops for the first time. At Mazar-e Sharif, Phlebotomus papatasi and Rhombomys opimus occurred in the highest densities yet observed, together with record-high Leishmania major infection rates. Data indicate the existence of high-density, anthropogenically induced ZCL in Afghanistan. PMID:17888728
Faulde, Michael; Schrader, Joachim; Heyl, Gerhard; Amirih, Mohammed; Hoerauf, Achim
Mucocutaneous is an infection caused by a single celled parasite transmitted by sand fly bites. There are about 20 species of Leishmania that may cause mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Some Leishmania species are closely linked to humans and are therefore found in cities (L. tropica) whereas some others are more traditionally associated with animal species and therefore considered zoonoses (L. major). The evidence for optimal treatment of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is patchy. Although the cutaneous form of the disease is often self-limiting, it does result in significant scarring and can spread to more invasive, mucocutaneous disease. Therefore, treatment may be considered to prevent these complications. Drugs for systemic and topical treatment are presented and discussed with regard to their application, use and adverse effects.
Sixty-seven patients, 19 females and 48 males, 4-66 years old, suffering from lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated topically with an ointment comprising 15% paromomycin sulfate and 12% methylbenzethonium chloride in white soft paraffin (P-ointment, U.K. patent GB117237A). After 10 days of treatment, twice daily, the lesions in 72% of the treated patients were free of parasites, 15% became free
Joseph El-On; Rita Livshin; Zvi Even-Paz; David Hamburger; Louis Weinrauch
This paper describes canine augmentation technology (CAT) for use in urban search and rescue (USAR). CAT is a WiFi enabled sensor array that is worn by a trained canines deployed in urban disasters. The system includes, but is not limited to, cameras that provide emergency responders with real-time data to remotely monitor, analyze and take action during USAR operations. An
James Tran; Alexander Ferworn; Cristina Ribeiro; Mieso Denko
Although three new drugs or drug formulations, liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome), miltefosine and paromomycin should be available for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) within the next year, they all suffer from limitations of either cost, specific toxicities or parenteral administration. As part of research to identify better treatments for VL and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), alternative and potentially cheaper formulations
Simon L. Croft; Karin Seifert; Vanessa Yardley
The geographic spread and urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil has been described since the early 1980s. However, the putative factors associated with this process, its full characterization, and the implications for disease control still challenge researchers and Public Health professionals. Although the available data show that the disease occurs mainly in urban areas, current knowledge is insufficient to claim specificity in urban transmission as compared to rural niches. Transmission scenarios in urban settings appear to be highly heterogeneous, each showing some degree of similarity to the rural epidemiological pattern. The understanding of a relatively recent and complex problem like the introduction, spread, and maintenance of visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas requires new analytical approaches that consider the network of relevant variables and more elaborate methods capable of capturing the dynamics of the environmental and demographic transformations taking place in transmission areas. PMID:19082285
Werneck, Guilherme L
Leishmaniasis is endemic since last century in Adrianópolis Municipality, Ribeira Valley and is a serious public health. A study carried out during 1993-2003 on epidemiological surveys conducted in rural communities showed 339 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) detected from four municipalities (Adrianópolis, Cerro Azul, Doutor Ulysses and Rio Branco do Sul). A larger prevalence of cutaneous lesions was observed in rural workers (36%), women with domestic activities (18%), and younger students (31%). Multiple lesions were noticed in 53% of patients, but only one case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was reported. Twenty stocks were isolated from patients with characteristics lesions and were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and Random Amplified DNA (RAPD). In Phlebotominae survey, five species were obtained. Lutzomyia intermedia sl. represented 97.5% in peridomiciliar area and 100% in domicile. A canine serological survey made (Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody Test, IFAT and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, ELISA) in six rural county of Adrianópolis Municipality during 1998-1999 showed that 15.1% (24/159) of dogs were sera reactive. No lesions were observed in dogs and no parasite was isolated from lymph node aspirates and biopsies. In wild reservoirs study, only seven animals (Cricetidae, Desmodus sp. and edentates) were captured, but no parasites were found in culture from deep organs. The paper presents results of our 10 years study on cutaneous leishmaniasis survey in the Ribeira River Valley, East Region of Paraná State, Brazil. Environment changes in this region are also discussed. PMID:15652328
de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Luz, Ennio; Telles, Flávio Queiroz; Pandey, Ashok; Biseto, Alceu; Dinaiski, Marlene; Sbalqueiro, Ives; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that has both zoonotic and anthroponotic etiologies. In India, VL is endemic, considered to be anthroponotic, and caused by Leishmania donovani . Anthroponotic diseases are maintained by transmission from human to human and to a lesser extent from human to animals. Serum samples from 1,220 animals from 7 human VL endemic districts of Bihar, India, were tested for antibodies to a recombinant kinetoplast antigen (rK39 antigen) present in amastigotes of visceralizing Leishmania species, i.e., L. donovani complex. Additionally, PCR was used to examine samples positive by rK39 antigen serology. Antibodies to rK39 indicative of VL were detected in 33 of 1,220 animals. Thirty-one of 867 goats (Capra hircus), 1 of 161 cattle (Bos indicus), and 1 of 54 wild rats (Rattus sp.) were positive by rK39 serology. None of 106 chickens (Gallus domesticus), 26 sheep (Ovis aries), 3 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus), or 3 dogs (Canis familiaris) was positive by rK39 serology. Leishmania donovani DNA was detected by PCR in 20 rK39 positive blood samples from goats and 1 sample from a cow. The present study indicates that goats are potential animal reservoirs of human VL in India. PMID:22765517
Singh, Niti; Mishra, Jyotsna; Singh, Ram; Singh, Sarman
Approximately 6,000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are reported annually in Colombia, a greater than twofold increase since the 1980s. Such reports certainly underestimate true incidence, and their geographic distribution is likely biased by local health service effectiveness. We investigated how well freely available environmental data explain the distribution of cases among 1,079 municipalities. For each municipality, a unique predictive logistic regression model was derived from the association among remaining municipalities between elevation, land cover (preclassified maps derived from satellite images), or both, and the odds of at least one case being reported. Land cover had greater predictive power than elevation; using both datasets improved accuracy. Fitting separate models to different ecologic zones, reflecting transmission cycle diversity, enhanced the accuracy of predictions. We derived measures that can be directly related to disease control decisions and show how results can vary, depending on the threshold selected for predicting a disease-positive municipality. The results identify areas where disease is most likely to be underreported.
Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid H.; Davies, Clive R.
On the Indian subcontinent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is considered an anthroponosis. To determine possible reasons for its persistence during interepidemic periods, we mapped Leishmania infections among healthy persons and animals in an area of active VL transmission in Nepal. During 4 months (September 2007–February 2008), blood was collected from persons, goats, cows, and buffaloes in 1 village. Leishmania infections were determined by using PCR. We found infections among persons (6.1%), cows (5%), buffaloes (4%), and goats (16%). Data were georeferenced and entered into a geographic information system. The bivariate K-function results indicated spatial clustering of Leishmania spp.–positive persons and domestic animals. Classification tree analysis determined that among several possible risk factors for Leishmania infection among persons, proximity of Leishmania spp.–positive goats ranked first. Although our data do not necessarily mean that goats constitute a reservoir host of L. donovani, these observations indicate the need for further investigation of goats’ possible role in VL transmission.
Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Van der Auwera, Gert; Rijal, Suman; Picado, Albert; Speybroeck, Niko; Khanal, Basudha; De Doncker, Simonne; Das, Murari Lal; Ostyn, Bart; Davies, Clive; Coosemans, Marc; Berkvens, Dirk; Boelaert, Marleen
Canine babesiosis and canine ehrlichiosis are the major tick-borne diseases throughout the world. The concurrent infection\\u000a between canine babesiosis and canine ehrlichiosis can occur in endemic regions. This report showed the clinical pathology\\u000a and treatment outcome of concurrent infection in a dog admitted to a veterinary hospital. Based on the history, physical examination,\\u000a and laboratory finding, the dog was diagnosed
Sukullaya Assarasakorn; Anuchai Niwetpathomwat
The oral agent miltefosine has demonstrated a 195% cure rate in Indian visceral leishmaniasis. We performed a large, placebo-controlled study of miltefosine therapy (2.5 mg\\/kg per day orally for 28 days) against cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia and Guatemala. In regions in Colombia where Leishmania vianna panamensis is common, the per-protocol cure rates for miltefosine and placebo were 91% (40 of
J. Soto; B. A. Arana; J. Toledo; N. Rizzo; J. C. Vega; A. Diaz; M. Luz; P. Gutierrez; M. Arboleda; J. D. Berman; K. Junge; J. Engel; H. Sindermann
Background: visceral leishmaniasis is the most serious clinical picture of leishmaniasis or kala azar. In Mexico it is a rare disease, which is a reason why it is diagnosed late concluding with patient's death most of the time. We present a clinical case of an HIV-positive male patient who developed visceral leishmaniasis, with the objective of showing the pathophysiological characteristics as well as the diagnostic approach and treatment. Clinical case: a 45-year-old male, a water utility company worker, presented to the hospital as having chronic bloody diarrhea, abdominal distension, cramping pain, weight loss and fever. On physical examination, he was febrile, with pain localized to the right lower quadrant and hepatosplenomegaly. The ELISA test for HIV was positive and the ultrasound showed a cecal tumor. A tumor biopsy was performed and the pathology report described leishmaniasis. Conclusions: in patients with leishmaniasis and HIV the response to treatment is poor and the mortality rate is high due to lower immune response from the host. Current studies suggest treating these patients with HIV and leishmaniasis with pertinent drugs in combination with miltefosine and liposomal amphotericin B. PMID:23693114
Rossiere-Echazarreta, Natalia Lorena; Rodríguez-Campos, Esther Alicia; Morales-Esponda, Mario; Domínguez-Moreno, Rogelio; Cruz-Ortiz, Margarita; Rodríguez-Guzmán, Leoncio Miguel
BackgroundWhile three countries in South Asia decided to eliminate anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by 2015, its control in other regions seems fraught with difficulties. Is there a scope for more effective VL control in the Americas where transmission is zoonotic? We reviewed the evidence on VL control strategies in Latin America—diagnosis, treatment, veterinary interventions, vector control—with respect to entomological and
Gustavo A. S. Romero; Marleen Boelaert
The authors describe a case of monoclonal gammopathy occurring about six months after a visceral leishmaniasis. A literature survey suggests that strong antigenic stimulation caused by visceral leishmaniasis can induce monoclonal gammopathy in a predisposed subject. PMID:18843217
Rombola, F; Spinoso, A; Bertuccio, S N
Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics with a global yearly incidence of 1.5 million. Although CL is the most common form of leishmaniasis, which is responsible for 60% of DALYs lost due to tropical-cluster diseases prevalent in Yemen, available information is very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was conducted to determine the molecular characterization of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous lesions in Yemen. Dermal scrapes were collected and examined for Leishmania amastigotes using the Giemsa staining technique. Amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS-1) gene was carried out using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from Leishmania isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified Leishmania tropica from 16 isolates which were represented by two sequence types. Conclusions/Significance The predominance of the anthroponotic species (i.e. L. tropica) indicates the probability of anthroponotic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yemen. These findings will help public health authorities to build an effective control strategy taking into consideration person–to-person transmission as the main dynamic of transmission of CL.
Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M.; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Bin Shuaib, Naemah O. M.; Azazy, Ahmed A.; Mahmud, Rohela
Background Leishmaniasis is an intracellular parasitic infection transmitted to humans via the sandfly. Approximately 350 million people are at risk of contracting the disease and an estimated 1.6 million new cases occur annually. Of the two main forms, visceral and cutaneous, the visceral form is fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. Aims This literature review aims to identify and evaluate the current evidence base for the use of various preventative methods against human leishmaniasis. Methods A literature search was performed of the relevant database repositories for primary research conforming to a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 84 controlled studies investigating 12 outcome measures were identified, implementing four broad categories of preventative interventions: animal reservoir control, vector population control, human reservoir control and a category for multiple concurrently implemented interventions. The primary studies investigated a heterogeneous mix of outcome measures using a range of different methods. Conclusions This review highlights an absence of research measuring human-specific outcomes (35% of the total) across all intervention categories. The apparent inability of study findings to be generalizable across different geographic locations, points towards gaps in knowledge regarding the biology of transmission of Leishmania in different settings. More research is needed which investigates human infection as the primary outcome measure as opposed to intermediate surrogate markers, with a focus on developing a human vaccine.
Stockdale, Lisa; Newton, Robert
Leishmania is a protozoan parasite and a causative agent of the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis. High cost, resistance and toxic side effects of traditional drugs entail identification and development of therapeutic alternatives. The sound understanding of parasite biology is key for identifying novel drug targets, that can induce the cell mediated immunity (mainly CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma mediated responses) polarized towards a Th1 response. These aspects are important in designing a new vaccine along with the consideration of the candidates with respect to their ability to raise memory response in order to improve the vaccine performance. This review is an effort to identify molecules according to their homology with the host and their ability to be used as potent vaccine candidates. PMID:22475861
Singh, Bhawana; Sundar, Shyam
Interbacterial adhesion of bacteria isolated from canine dental plaque was assessed by performing a visual coaggregation assay. Using conditions mimicking those likely to be encountered in vivo, the entire cultivable plaque microbiota from a single dog was assessed, and eight (6.7%) unique coaggregation interactions were detected for 120 crosses. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize several of the bacteria
David R. Elliott; Michael Wilson; Catherine M. F. Buckley; David A. Spratt
SUMMARY Leishmaniasis represents a complex of diseases with an important clinical and epidemiological diversity. Visceral leish- maniasis is of higher priority than cutaneous leishmaniasis as it is a fatal disease in the absence of treatment. The clin- ical spectrum of leishmaniasis and control of the infection are influenced by the parasite-host relationship. The role of cellular immune responses of the
C. Pizzorni; M. E. Secchi; M. Cutolo
Since first emerging into the North American canine population in 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) subtype H3N8 has shown horizontal transmission among dogs, with a high level of adaptation to this species. Severity of disease is variable, and co-infection by other respiratory pathogens is an impo...
Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are abundant predators in the Serengeti ecosystem and interact with other species of wild carnivores and domestic animals in ways that could en- courage disease transmission. Hyenas also have a unique hierarchical social system that might affect the flow of pathogens. Antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV), feline immunodefi- ciency virus (FIV), feline panleukopenia virus\\/canine parvovirus
Tara M. Harrison; Jonna K. Mazet; Kay E. Holekamp; Edward Dubovi; Anne L. Engh; Keith Nelson; Russell C. Van Horn; Linda Munson
A rapid and accurate method to detect and quantify Leishmania parasite is urgently needed to facilitate early diagnosis of Leishmaniasis and monitoring of antileishmania therapy. In this study, real-time assay was applied to estimate parasite load in clinical samples of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) patients. The mean parasite load in blood of VL patients (n
Sandeep Verma; Rajesh Kumar; Gajendra Kumar Katara; Laishram Chandreshwor Singh; Narender Singh Negi; V. Ramesh; Poonam Salotra
Leishmaniasis remains a public health problem worldwide, affecting approximately 12 million people in 88 countries; 50 000 die of it each year. The disease is caused by Leishmania, obligate intracellular vector-borne parasites. In spite of its huge health impact on the populations in vast areas, leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected diseases. No safe and effective vaccine currently exists against any form of human leishmaniasis. The spectrum and efficacy of available antileishmanial drugs are also limited. First part of this review discusses the approaches used for the vaccination against leishmaniasis that are based on the pathogen and includes virulent or attenuated parasites, parasites of related nonpathogenic species, whole killed parasites, parasites' subunits, DNA vaccines, and vaccines based on the saliva or saliva components of transmitting phlebotomine vector. Second part describes parasite detection and quantification using microscopy assays, cell cultures, immunodetection, and DNA-based methods, and shows a progress in the development and application of these techniques. In the third part, first-line and alternative drugs used to treat leishmaniasis are characterized, and pre-clinical research of a range of natural and synthetic compounds studied for the leishmanicidal activity is described. The review also suggests that the application of novel strategies based on advances in genetics, genomics, advanced delivery systems, and high throughput screenings for leishmanicidal compounds would lead to improvement of prevention and treatment of this disease. PMID:22360481
Kobets, T; Grekov, I; Lipoldova, M
In Portugal human and canine leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania infantum, and Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi are the proven vectors. Three main foci were identified in eighty's decade: Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro region, Lisbon region and Algarve region, but according to OnLeish observatory data, canine leishmaniasis cases have been reported from several other regions, for which sand fly species and their infection rates are unknown. This study is the first phlebotomine survey in Torres Novas municipality, Santarém District, Portugal. The main objectives were to identify the phlebotomine species, their bioecological aspects, Leishmania infection rate and the risk factors for the presence of phlebotomine species in the municipality. From June to November, 2010, 275 biotopes were surveyed with CDC light-traps. Captures covered the 17 parishes of the municipality and included domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic biotopes. Specimens were identified morphologically and females were used for molecular detection of Leishmania and bloodmeal identification. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to identify risk factors for phlebotomine presence. Nonparametric tests were used to compare densities of independent groups. A total of 1262 sand flies were captured and identified, and four species detected: P. perniciosus (73.69%), P. ariasi (8.16%), P. sergenti (6.58%) and Sergentomyia minuta (11.57%). In 71.4% localities at least one L. infantum proven vector species was present. Risk factors were identified as: high average temperatures and low relative humidities, sheltered locations and absence of strong wind, presence of pine trees as dominant vegetation, peridomestic biotopes, particularly sheep pens or proximity of sheep, poultry and house martin nests. L. infantum infection rate was 4% for P. ariasi and 0.48% for the total of Larroussius females. P. perniciosus females exhibited an opportunistic behavior, feeding in a wide variety of vertebrate hosts. The high abundance and distribution of proven vector species, together with a canine leishmaniasis seroprevalence of 7.93% in the District, and the capture of a gravid infective sand fly female, suggests that Torres Novas municipality is a potential zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in the country. PMID:23262215
Branco, S; Alves-Pires, C; Maia, C; Cortes, S; Cristovão, J M S; Gonçalves, L; Campino, L; Afonso, M O
The purpose of this article is to provide small animal veterinarians in private practice a guideline for interpretation of the most common findings in canine intraoral radiology. Normal oral and dental anatomy is presented. A brief review of variations of normal, common periodontal and endodontic pathology findings and developmental anomalies is provided. PMID:23643019
Bannon, Kristin M
HYPERADRENOCORTICISM, or Cushing's syndrome, is one of the most common canine endocrinopathies seen in small animal practice. Although in many cases the clinical signs are fairly characteristic, the chronic course of the disease and some unusual clinical manifestations can make it hard to recognise. In addition, the diagnostic tests that are available can be difficult to interpret. This article summarises
Ian Ramsey; Jelena Ristic
Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by the genus Leishmania transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies. Surveillance of the prevalence of Leishmania and responsive vector species in endemic and surrounding areas is important for predicting the risk and expansion of the disease. Molecular biological methods are now widely applied to epidemiological studies of infectious diseases including leishmaniasis. These techniques are used to detect natural infections of sand fly vectors with Leishmania protozoa and are becoming powerful tools due to their sensitivity and specificity. Recently, genetic analyses have been performed on sand fly species and genotyping using PCR-RFLP has been applied to the sand fly taxonomy. In addition, a molecular mass screening method has been established that enables both sand fly species and natural leishmanial infections to be identified simultaneously in hundreds of sand flies with limited effort. This paper reviews recent advances in the study of sand flies, vectors of leishmaniasis, using molecular biological approaches.
Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Caceres, Abraham G; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
Abstract. To study the link between climatic variables and the incidence of leishmaniasis a study was conducted in Cayenne, French Guiana. Patients infected between January 1994 and December 2010. Meteorological data were studied in relation to the incidence of leishmaniasis using an ARIMA model. In the final model, the infections were negatively correlated with rainfall (with a 2-month lag) and with the number of days with rainfall > 50 mm (lags of 4 and 7 months). The variables that were positively correlated were temperature and the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index with lags of 8 and 4 months, respectively. Significantly greater correlations were observed in March for rainfall and in November for the Multivariate El Niño/Southern Oscillation Index. Climate thus seems to be a non-negligible explanatory variable for the fluctuations of leishmaniasis. A decrease in rainfall is linked to increased cases 2 months later. This easily perceptible point could lead to an interesting prevention message. PMID:23939706
Roger, Amaury; Nacher, Mathieu; Hanf, Matthieu; Drogoul, Anne Sophie; Adenis, Antoine; Basurko, Celia; Dufour, Julie; Sainte Marie, Dominique; Blanchet, Denis; Simon, Stephane; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre
Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania tropica, has recently emerged in urban and rural foci of central and northern Israel, and constitutes a major public health concern. Rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), the suspected natural reservoir, were trapped in the cutaneous leishmaniasis urban focus of Maale Adumim in central Israel and evaluated for L. tropica infection by real-time kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology. Real-time PCR on blood and computerized western blot serology analysis was positive for L. tropica in 58% and 80%, respectively, of the hyraxes tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 region indicated that similar genotypes were present in humans and hyraxes from the same habitat. The high rates of infection and exposure to L. tropica among hyraxes supports their involvement in the transmission cycle of this parasite, and their potential role as a reservoir for human disease.
Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Jaffe, Charles L.; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Warburg, Alon; King, Roni; Svobodova, Milena; Peleg, Ofer; Baneth, Gad
Scientific conferences, a major feature of academic life, rarely provide the opportunity for self appraisal of a research field. During a recent meeting on leishmaniasis research in the post-genomic era, ~60 researchers participated in group discussions that aimed to provide a critical self-appraisal of the state of the field and to highlight major roadblocks likely to prevent translation of new research into tools for leishmaniasis control. These discussions demonstrated a surprising concordance of views and highlighted a number of critical areas for future development.
Kaye, Paul M.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.
Background In the Indian subcontinent, about 200 million people are at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In 2005, the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh started the first regional VL elimination program with the aim to reduce the annual incidence to less than 1 per 10,000 by 2015. A mathematical model was developed to support this elimination program with basic quantifications of transmission, disease and intervention parameters. This model was used to predict the effects of different intervention strategies. Methods and Findings Parameters on the natural history of Leishmania infection were estimated based on a literature review and expert opinion or drawn from a community intervention trial (the KALANET project). The transmission dynamic of Leishmania donovani is rather slow, mainly due to its long incubation period and the potentially long persistence of parasites in infected humans. Cellular immunity as measured by the Leishmanin skin test (LST) lasts on average for roughly one year, and re-infection occurs in intervals of about two years, with variation not specified. The model suggests that transmission of L. donovani is predominantly maintained by asymptomatically infected hosts. Only patients with symptomatic disease were eligible for treatment; thus, in contrast to vector control, the treatment of cases had almost no effect on the overall intensity of transmission. Conclusions Treatment of Kala-azar is necessary on the level of the individual patient but may have little effect on transmission of parasites. In contrast, vector control or exposure prophylaxis has the potential to efficiently reduce transmission of parasites. Based on these findings, control of VL should pay more attention to vector-related interventions. Cases of PKDL may appear after years and may initiate a new outbreak of disease; interventions should therefore be long enough, combined with an active case detection and include effective treatment.
Picado, Albert; Ostyn, Bart; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman; Boelaert, Marleen; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Duerr, Hans-Peter
Clinically speaking, there are 2 types of leishmaniasis in Kenya, visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, caused by Leishmania donovani, and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. aethiopica, L. major, L. tropica (a recent discovery), and L. donovani (post ka...
P. Lawyer J. Githure Y. Mebrahtu P. Perkins R. Muigai
Two normal collie dogs were given 1,200 R total body irradiation followed by successful marrow grafts from their grey collie littermates with cyclic hematopoiesis. During observation periods of 97 and 41 days after grafting, both previously normal recipients showed regular cyclic fluctuations of their granulocyte and reticulocyte counts similar to those observed in their donors. These findings suggest that canine cyclic neutropenia is due to a defect in the marrow stem cell.
Weiden, Paul L.; Robinett, Barbra; Graham, Theodore C.; Adamson, John; Storb, Rainer
WE have previously discussed1,2 the classification of lower milk canines by multivariate statistical analysis. By this means we have shown that the Taungs and Kromdraai specimens found in South Africa are neither those of chimpanzees, gorillas nor orang-utans and that, in tests based on four carefully chosen dimensions of the specimens, they cannot be distinguished from the teeth of humans.
J. Bronowski; W. M. Long
A total of 161 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica occurred in the Jerusalem district during 2004–2005; 127 (79%) cases were in a town just outside Jerusalem. Environmental models suggest that in the context of global warming, this outbreak has the potential to extend into Jerusalem.
Singer, Shepherd Roee; Abramson, Nitsa; Shoob, Hanna; Zaken, Ora; Zentner, Gary
Although there have been significant advances in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), there remain challenges to ensure that treatments effective in India are also effective in other regions of the world and to identify treatment for post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis as well as the opportunity to develop a safe oral short-course treatment. At the same time, there have been few advances for the treatment of simple or complex forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), other than topical paromomycin formulations. The main challenge for CL is to ensure that this disease is on the research and development agenda, so that new drugs are evaluated or compounds are screened in appropriate models, and that the standardization of quality of clinical trials is guaranteed. Problems also remain in the treatment of HIV/leishmaniasis co-infected patients. We are some way from having the ideal treatments for VL and CL and drug research and development for these diseases must remain focused. PMID:21933306
Croft, S L; Olliaro, P
More than 10 million people around the world are currently affected by Leishmania sp. (33). Infection with this protozoan parasite continues to be a problem in underdeveloped coun- tries and is a continuous worry in developed countries due to the possibility of the disease afflicting tourists returning from countries where the organism is endemic (82). Leishmaniasis is a neglected infectious
Felipe F. Tuon; Valdir S. Amato; A. Bacha; Tariq AlMusawi; Maria I. Duarte; Vicente Amato Neto; Miami Beach
Previously developed methods for noninvasive PCR diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have significant limitations. Diagnosis of VL using PCR and buccal swabs was evaluated in 307 subjects, including 148 patients confirmed to have VL. This method is simple and well tolerated and has good potential for development, showing 83% sensitivity with 90.56% specificity in control groups.
Vaish, Manisha; Mehrotra, Sanjana; Chakravarty, Jaya; Sundar, Shyam
American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.
Ewing, S. A.; Panciera, R. J.
The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) uses light transmitted through a cellular body in a microfluidic optical resonator to distinguish different types of cells by their optical properties. The OFIS technique has differentiated canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cells from monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells based on their distinctive transmission spectra. A single characteristic parameter indicative of strong multi-transverse-mode resonances was determined for each cell by forming a linear combination of the mean and standard deviation of the transmission spectra over one free spectral range, excluding the peaks of passive Fabry-Pérot cavities without cells. The difference in the characteristic parameters of HSA and monocyte samples was statistically highly significant with a p-value as low as 10(-6). The same method shows that the characteristic parameters of canine lymphoma and lymphocytes are distinct with p < 0.005. A receiver operating-characteristic curve constructed from t-distributions fit to the HSA and monocyte data indicates that 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity can be simultaneously achieved. PMID:20483694
Wang, Weina; Kisker, David W; Thamm, Douglas H; Shao, Hua; Lear, Kevin L
Temporal distribution of positive results of tests for detecting Leishmania infection in stray dogs of an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in the Brazilian tropics: a 13 years survey and association with human disease.
Human visceral leishmaniasis occurs in periodic waves in endemic areas of Brazil. In this study we followed the prevalence of human visceral leishmaniasis and of Leishmania infantum infection in stray dogs of an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis at periods of time between 1997 and 2010. Prevalence of human visceral leishmaniasis had two peaks (40 cases) in 1997 and 2006 with sharp declines to 2 cases in 2001 and to 5 cases in 2008. Similar fluctuations were also observed in the occurrence of positive spleen culture and anti-Leishmania serology in dogs, although the proportion of dogs with active spleen parasitism remained relatively high even in the periods of low prevalence of human disease. These observations support the notion that stray dogs may constitute a renewable source of parasites, capable of sustaining the persistence of the infection in urban areas, even in periods of low transmission by phlebotomines. PMID:22795669
Fraga, Deborah B M; Solcà, Manuela S; Silva, Virgínia M G; Borja, Lairton S; Nascimento, Eliane G; Oliveira, Geraldo G S; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain C; Veras, Patrícia S T; dos-Santos, Washington L C
Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major has become a hot topic in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in the study area. Methods: Sand flies were collected biweekly from indoors and outdoors fixed places in the selected villages, using 30 sticky paper traps from the beginning to the end of the active season of 2006 in Kerman Province, south of Iran. The flies were mounted and identified. Some blood fed and gravid female sand flies of rodent burrows and indoors were dissected and examined microscopically for natural promastigote infection of Leishmania parasite during August to September. Results: In total, 2439 specimens comprising 8 species (3 Phlebotomus and 5 Sergentomyia) were identified. The most common sand fly was P. papatasi and represented 87.1% of sand flies from indoors and 57.2% from outdoors. The activity of the species extended from April to end October. There are two peaks in the density curve of this species, one in June and the second in August. Natural promastigote infection was found in P. papatasi (12.7%). Conclusion: Phlebotomus papatasi is considered as a probable vector among gerbils and to humans with a high percentage of promastigote infection in this new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The Bahraman area which until recently was unknown as an endemic area seems now to represent a focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in Iran.
Yaghoobi-Ershadi, MR; Hakimiparizi, M; Zahraei-Ramazani, AR; Abdoli, H; Akhavan, AA; Aghasi, M; Arandian, MH; Ranjbar, AA
Visceral leishmaniasis is a sporadic illness in Bulgaria. However, cases in humans are registered nearly every year. This study describes the geographical distribution of the disease in Bulgaria from 1988 to 2012, over a period of 25 years. Cases were analysed according to age, sex, and place of residence. A total of 122 cases were registered in 25 years, 118 of which were autochthonous and four of which were imported from endemic countries in southern Europe. The average annual incidence for the study period was 0.06 per 100,000 population, or an average of five cases per year (maximum 15 in 1989; no cases notified in 1991, 1995, 1996 and 2008). Cases of visceral leishmaniasis were recorded in 13 out of 28 regions in Bulgaria, mainly in the southern part of the country. The highest number of cases were registered in the regions of Blagoevgrad (n=36) and Stara Zagora (n=34). Data presented in this study show that there is ongoing transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Bulgaria with a high mortality rate (1:7), affecting mostly children. PMID:23929117
Harizanov, R; Rainova, I; Tzvetkova, N; Kaftandjiev, I; Bikov, I; Mikov, O
Following an outbreak of more than 200 cases of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) during 2004 and 2005 among International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) troops stationed in the Mazar-e Sharif (MeS) airport area, epidemiological investigations indicated the presence of a local high-density ZCL focus. Based on ZCL's specific transmission modes, density and seasonality, integrated preventive measures were continuously implemented from February
Michael Faulde; Joachim Schrader; Gerhard Heyl; Achim Hoerauf
Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne parasitic disease caused by the intraerythrocytic parasites, Babesia canis and Babesia gibsoni. A lethargic, weak, American Staffordshire Terrier (pit bull) dog, which had regenerative, normocytic, normochromic anemia, was shown by polymerase chain reaction analysis to be infected with B. gibsoni. Transmission electron microscopy of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-treated blood disclosed many well-preserved, intraerythrocytic babesia trophozoites. Four morphologic forms of babesia trophozoites are described (small spheres, small rods, irregular forms lacking pseudoinclusions, and large spheres having pseudoinclusions) and are compared with intraerythrocytic forms of B. canis and B. gibsoni described in other light and electron microscopic studies of in vivo and in vitro Babesia infections. This is the first detailed transmission electron microscopic study of canine B. gibsoni-infected red blood cells in North America. PMID:15152839
Radi, Zaher A; Styer, Eloise L; Frazier, Ken S
Background Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of traditional vector control methods. The specific larval food source is unknown for all but a few sand fly species, and this is particularly true for the vectors of Leishmania parasites. We provide methods and materials that could be used to understand, and ultimately break, the transmission cycle of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods and Findings We demonstrated in laboratory studies that analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes found naturally in plant and animal tissues was highly effective for linking adult sand flies with their larval diet, without having to locate or capture the sand fly larvae themselves. In a field trial, we also demonstrated using this technique that half of captured adult sand flies had fed as larvae on rodent feces. Through the identification of rodent feces as a sand fly larval habitat, we now know that rodent baits containing insecticides that have been shown in previous studies to pass into the rodents' feces and kill sand fly larvae also could play a future role in sand fly control. In a second study we showed that rubidium incorporated into rodent baits could be used to demonstrate the level of bloodfeeding by sand flies on baited rodents, and that the elimination of sand flies that feed on rodents can be achieved using baits containing an insecticide that circulates in the blood of baited rodents. Conclusions Combined, the techniques described could help to identify larval food sources of other important vectors of the protozoa that cause visceral or dermal leishmaniasis. Unveiling aspects of the life cycles of sand flies that could be targeted with insecticides would guide future sand fly control programs for prevention of leishmaniasis.
Mascari, Thomas M.; Hanafi, Hanafi A.; Jackson, Ryan E.; Ouahabi, Souad; Ameur, Btissam; Faraj, Chafika; Obenauer, Peter J.; Diclaro, Joseph W.; Foil, Lane D.
Urbanization and vector domestication are currently proposed as factors that contributed to the recent increase of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Is likely also urban transmission? Oran is the main city in the Argentinean hyper-endemic area of ACL, and human cases in urban residences are usually reported. In order to assess the spatial distribution of risk, phlebotomine traps were located in different environments of Oran. A total of 7,787 sand flies were captured: Lutzomyia neivai (98.1%), Lutzomyia migonei (1.2%), Lutzomyia cortelezzii (0.7%), and one Lutzomyia shannoni. During the season of transmission (April-May) a single sand fly was obtained in one out of five urban sites, while a trap in a peri-urban pigsty captured up to 2,985 Lu. neivai/night. Captures performed in the other season of vector activity (September-October) revealed that small-scale changes in the pigsty environment resulted in noticeable changes in the abundance of Lu. neivai. In addition, in a new neighbourhood, on the fringe of the city, 1,073 Lu. neivai/site were captured in the forested edge but one in the yard of the houses. Therefore, in this urban ACL focus the human-vector effective contact risk is still associated with peri-urban vegetation and ecotone modifications despite the urban residence of the cases. PMID:18545855
Salomón, Oscar D; Quintana, María G; Zaidenberg, Mario
Since 2010, the number of cases of both human visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in southwestern Madrid region (Spain) and more specifically in the town of Fuenlabrada has increased. Direct xenodiagnosis of leishmaniasis proved that hares (Lepus granatensis) from this focus are able to infect with Leishmania infantum colonized Phlebotomus perniciosus. To a better understanding of this focus of leishmaniasis, we conducted an entomological survey using CDC light traps, at the end of the seasonal transmission period of 2011 before the beginning of control measures of the disease, to study the phlebotomine sand flies species involved. Detection of Leishmania DNA in the sand flies captured was studied by kDNA-PCR and cpb-PCR. In addition, blood fed and gravid female P. perniciosus were analysed by a PCR based in vertebrate cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. Taxonomic identification of captured sand flies (n = 174) as P. perniciosus (n = 171) and Sergentomyia minuta (n = 3) together with the analysis of blood feeding in ten sand flies that shows a high preference for hares (n = 6), followed by humans (n = 3), and cats (n = 1) confirm a strong association between P. perniciosus hares and humans in the focus. Moreover, 79 out of 135 (58.5 %) P. perniciosus were positive to L. infantum by PCR approaches. These data support the increase of human leishmaniasis cases in the area and the existence of an unusual sylvatic cycle alternative to the classical domestic one, where the dog is the main reservoir of L. infantum. PMID:23535889
Jiménez, Maribel; González, Estela; Iriso, Andrés; Marco, Elisa; Alegret, Ana; Fúster, Fernando; Molina, Ricardo
Laryngeal leishmaniasis is extremely rare. We report a case of primary laryngeal leishmaniasis in a 70-year-old male who was admitted with complaints of gradual progressive hoarseness of the voice, dyspnea, cough for the past 3 months and noisy breathing for the past 5 days. An X-ray of the soft tissue of the neck showed a prevertebral soft tissue mass causing narrowing of the airway at the C6-C7 vertebral level. A computerized tomography (CT) scan showed a soft tissue mass in the subglottic region causing significant narrowing of the airway. A direct laryngoscopy showed a pinkish-white, friable mass involving the subglottic region and the anterior half of the vocal cords. With the clinical suspicion of malignancy, an endoscopic biopsy was done. A histopathological examination showed diffuse mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate in subepithelium with numerous Leishmania donovani bodies in the cytoplasm of histiocytes. PMID:19136784
Kumar, Bipin; Ghimire, Anand; Karki, Smriti; Upadhyaya, Paricha
American cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired epidemic characteristics on the northern coastline of the State of São Paulo beginning in the 1990s. From secondary data, a descriptive study of the disease in the four municipalities making up this region over the period from 1993 to 2005 was conducted. The frequency of phlebotomine capture in the probable transmission locations was analyzed. 689 autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were notified, with single and grouped cases, thus determining that the spatial distribution was heterogenous. There was synchronism and cyclicity of disease manifestation, at intervals of six to eight years. All ages were affected, with slight predominance among males, without association with any specific occupation. Among the 2,758 phlebotomines captured, Nyssomyia intermedia predominated (80.4%) inside homes and in areas surrounding them. The disease presented a transmission profile inside homes and in areas surrounding them, between the urban fringe and forests, and inside forests. In such cases, transmission would be more related to enzootic foci. PMID:19142444
Condino, Maria Lúcia Fadel; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Holcman, Márcia Moreira; Salum, Maria Rafaela Braga; Silva, Diogo Correa da; Novaes Júnior, René Antonio
Macrophage-specific delivery systems are the subject of much interest nowadays, because of the fact that macrophages act as host cells for many parasites and bacteria, which give rise to outbreak of so many deadly diseases(eg. leishmaniasis, tuberculosis etc.) in humans. To combat these deadly diseases initially macrophage specific liposomal delivery system were thought of and tested in vivo against experimental leishmaniasis in hamsters using a series of indigenous or synthetic antileishmanial compounds and the results were critically discussed. In vitro testing was also done against macrophages infected with Leishmania donovani, the causative agent for visceral leishmaniasis. The common problem of liposome therapy being their larger size, stability and storage, non-ionic surfactant vesicles, niosomes were prepared, for their different drug distribution and release characteristics compared to liposomes. When tested in vivo, the retention capacity of niosomes was found to be higher than that of liposomes due to the absence of lipid molecules and their smaller size. Thus the therapeutic efficacy of certain antileishmanial compounds was found to be better than that in the liposomal form. The niosomes, being cheaper, less toxic, biodegradable and non-immunogenic, were considered for sometime as suitable alternatives to liposomes as drug carriers. Besides the advent of other classical drugs carriers(e.g. neoglycoproteins), the biggest challenge came from polymeric delivery vehicles, specially the polymeric nanoparticles which were made of cost effective biodegradable polymers and different natural polymers. Because of very small size and highly stable nature, use of nanoparticles as effective drug carriers has been explored in experimental leishmaniasis using a series of antileishmanial compounds, both of indigenous and synthetic origin. The feasibility of application in vivo, when tested for biological as well as for other physicochemical parameters, the polymeric nanoparticles have turned out to be the best and thus may be projected for effective use in the clinics. PMID:15357216
Basu, Mukul Kumar; Lala, Sanchaita
Hepatozoon americanum infection is an emerging tickborne disease in the southern United States. This organism causes a very different and much more severe disease than does Hepatozoon canis, the etiologic agent of canine hepatozoonosis in the rest of the world. H americanum is transmitted through ingestion of the definitive host, Amblyomma maculatum (the Gulf Coast tick). Clinical signs of American canine hepatozoonosis tend to wax and wane over time and may include lameness, weakness, pain, muscle atrophy, fever, and mucopurulent ocular discharge. Radiographs typically reveal periosteal proliferation of various bones. Extreme leukocytosis is the most common laboratory finding, along with a mild elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase. Diagnosis is made by visualization of gamont-containing neutrophils or monocytes on examination of blood smears; observation of typical cysts, meronts or pyogranulomas on muscle biopsy; or detection of serum antibodies against H americanum sporozoites. Common complications of chronic infection include glomerulopathies, amyloidosis, and vasculitis. Although the prognosis for this disease in the past was guarded to poor, recent advances in treatment have increased the long-term survival rate of infected dogs. PMID:12910749
Vincent-Johnson, Nancy A
A long-term evaluation of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis patients was conducted to detect immunological and\\/or parasitological indicators associated with cure or protection against leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) patients from endemic areas of Leishmania braziliensis infection in Brazil were studied during the active disease, at the end of therapy, and up to 10 years after the end
Sergio G. Coutinho; Claude Pirmez; Alda Maria Da-Cruz
Numerous experimental vaccines have been developed to protect against the cutaneous and visceral forms of leishmaniasis caused by infection with the obligate intracellular protozoan Leishmania, but a human vaccine still does not exist. Remarkably, the efficacy of anti-Leishmania vaccines has never been fully evaluated under experimental conditions following natural vector transmission by infected sand fly bite. The only immunization strategy
Nathan C. Peters; Nicola Kimblin; Nagila Secundino; Shaden Kamhawi; Phillip Lawyer; David L. Sacks
British military personnel account for 45% of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases seen in the UK and 103 cases from Belize were seen in 1998-2009. Systemic treatment of CL from Belize should not be considered essential in immunocompetent patients because mucosal leishmaniasis very rarely occurs. PMID:21856236
Bailey, Mark S
Since 1991, visceral leishmaniasis has extended to new areas rarely affected before in Iraq, such as the southern governorates. In 2003, in the aftermath of the invasion of the Coalition Forces, Thi Qar Governorate was at high risk for an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis. This paper de- scribes the cooperation of an international nongovernmental organization and a district primary health
A. K. Jassim; R. Maktoof; H. Ali; K. Campbell
Among parasitic diseases, morbidity and mortality caused by leishmaniasis are surpassed only by malaria and lymphatic filariasis. However, estimation of the leishmaniasis disease burden is challenging, due to clinical and epidemiological diversity, marked geographic clustering, and lack of reliable data on incidence, duration, and impact of the various disease syndromes. Non-health effects such as impoverishment, disfigurement, and stigma add to
Caryn Bern; James H. Maguire; Jorge Alvar
Based on the long-term (1961-1992) study of the parasitic systems of zoonotic cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in the context of a landscape, the authors made an epidemiological regional and typological zoning of Turkmenistan. Regional zoning identified 13 districts by zoonotic cutanenous leishmaniasis and 6 districts by visceral leishmaniasis. While typologically zoning according to the human hazard ofzoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, the authors divided the landscapes of Turkmenistan into 5 groups: hyperendemic; mesoendemic; hypoendemic; enzootic by cutaneous leishmaniasis, but not dangerous to man; nonenzootic by cutaneous leishmaniasis and not dangerous to man. While typologically zoning with respect with visceral leishmaniasis, the authors divided them into 4 groups: epidemically hazardous landscapes of sandy deserts and semisavanna low-mountain of South-Eastern Turkmenistan; epidemically hazardous landscapes of foothills, low-mountains, and middle mountains of Kopetdag; epidemiologically potentially dangerous landscapes of the piedmont plain of Kopetdag and the valley of the Murgab river; nonenzootic landscapes in terms of visceral leishmaniasis, and those not dangerous to man. PMID:18365471
Ponirovski?, E N; Darchenkova, N N
Pre-eruptive migration of a tooth across the midline is termed as transmigration. It is believed that transmigration is rare and unique to the mandibular permanent canines, and even more rarely reported for others. Transmigration is a phenomenon of yet unknown etiology. It follows the direction of its long axis, with the crown leading the migration. The tendency of a canine to cross the barrier of mandibular midline suture is a more important consideration than the distance of migration after crossing the midline. Here we present one new case of aberrantly positioned right mandibular canine which has undergone migration and was accidently found on radiological examination before orthodontic treatment. Once diagnosed an aberrantly positioned impacted canine requires surgical removal.
Bahl, Rashi; Singla, Jeetinder; Gupta, Mohita; Malhotra, Ankit
Tropical canine pancytopenia (TCP) is a newly recognized infectious disease of dogs in diverse tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is characterized by hemorrhage, pancytopenia, severe emaciation and persistent infection. Dogs with TCP are often pr...
D. L. Huxsoll H. L. Amyx J. A. Ferguson P. K. Hildebrandt R. M. Nims
We describe a case of isolated primary laryngeal leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent Italian patient with a previous medical history negative for visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, presenting with hoarseness. We also summarize the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic features and the therapeutic management of other cases of laryngeal leishmaniasis in immunocompetent subjects, described in the literature. Considering the insidious and nonspecific clinical presentation, the increasing number of different forms of mild or underestimated immunosuppressive conditions, and the number of people travelling in endemic zones, along with the ability of Leishmania amastigotes to survive for a long period in the body, we believe it is important for pathologists and clinicians to be aware of this unusual form of leishmaniasis in order to avoid delayed recognition and treatment. The rarity of the presentation and the lack of guidelines on mucosal leishmaniasis may contribute to the potential undiagnosed cases or delayed diagnosis, the possible relapses, as well as the correct pharmacological and/or surgical therapeutic approach.
Cocuzza, Salvatore; Strazzulla, Alessio; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Cosentino, Stefano; Serra, Agostino; Caltabiano, Rosario; Lanzafame, Salvatore; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe
Background Insecticide thermal fogging (ITF) is a tool to control vector borne diseases. Insecticide application success for vector control has been associated with housing materials and architecture. Vector abundance is correlated with weather changes. Nevertheless, housing quality and weather impacts on vector abundance have been unaccounted for in most New World insecticide control trials for leishmaniasis vectors. Methods We conducted a 15 month insecticide control trial that included two deltamethrin [6 mg a.i.m-2] based ITF interventions in 12 of 24 monitored houses at Trinidad de Las Minas, a hyperendemic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission village in western Panamá. During the study we followed sand fly (SF) abundance, keeping track of rainfall and quantified housing quality using an index based on architecture and construction materials. Results We found a 50 to 80% reduction in SF density in the fogged houses when compared with control houses, while controlling for seasonal changes in SF abundance associated with rainfall. We found heterogeneities in the reductions, as abundance changed according to SF species: Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dysponeta and Lu. triramula reduced in density between 40% and 90% after ITF. In contrast, Lu. trapidoi density increased 5% after ITF. Differences in the impact of ITF were associated with housing quality, the most destitute houses, i.e., those with features that ease insect entrance, had a disproportionally larger SF abundance, in some cases with increased domiciliary SF density following the ITF. Conclusion Our results suggest the potential of insecticide application to control SF density and leishmaniasis transmission could depend on housing quality beyond insecticide efficiency.
BACKGROUND: Insecticide thermal fogging (ITF) is a tool to control vector borne diseases. Insecticide application success for vector control has been associated with housing materials and architecture. Vector abundance is correlated with weather changes. Nevertheless, housing quality and weather impacts on vector abundance have been unaccounted for in most New World insecticide control trials for leishmaniasis vectors. METHODS: We conducted a 15 month insecticide control trial that included two deltamethrin [6 mg a.i.m-2] based ITF interventions in 12 of 24 monitored houses at Trinidad de Las Minas, a hyperendemic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission village in western Panama. During the study we followed sand fly (SF) abundance, keeping track of rainfall and quantified housing quality using an index based on architecture and construction materials. RESULTS: We found a 50 to 80% reduction in SF density in the fogged houses when compared with control houses, while controlling for seasonal changes in SF abundance associated with rainfall. We found heterogeneities in the reductions, as abundance changed according to SF species: Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dysponeta and Lu. triramula reduced in density between 40% and 90% after ITF. In contrast, Lu. trapidoi density increased 5% after ITF. Differences in the impact of ITF were associated with housing quality, the most destitute houses, i.e., those with features that ease insect entrance, had a disproportionally larger SF abundance, in some cases with increased domiciliary SF density following the ITF. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest the potential of insecticide application to control SF density and leishmaniasis transmission could depend on housing quality beyond insecticide efficiency. PMID:23742709
Chaves, Luis Fernando; Calzada, Jose E; Rigg, Chystrie; Valderrama, Anayansi; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Saldaña, Azael
Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.
Background New cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been reported recently in some parts of Mazandaran Province, north of Iran where the first human case of VL was reported in 1949. This study aimed to determine the present status of Leishmania infantum infection among humans and domestic dogs using serological and molecular methods in central parts of Mazandaran Province. Methods In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were randomly collected from 402 humans and forty-nine domestic dogs throughout 2009 and 2010 in the central part of Mazandaran Province including Semeskadeh and Kiakola districts where recent cases of human visceral leishmaniasis had been reported there. All the collected samples were tested by direct agglutination test (DAT) for the detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies as well as convenience PCR assay on whole blood samples for detection of leishmanial infection and identification of Leishmania species. Results None of 402 collected human (402) and dog (49) blood samples showed anti Leishmania infantum antibodies at titers 1:3200 and 1:320 as cut-off values of DAT, respectively but only 2 of domestic dogs (4.1%) were found PCR-positive corresponding to L.infantum. Conclusion This study confirms the circulation of L. infantum at least among domestic dogs and highlights the sporadic pattern of VL in the studied areas. Further investigations regarding to sand flies fauna and wild canines as reservoir hosts of the disease, are recommended.
Fakhar, M; Rahmati, B; Gohardehi, S; Mohebali, M; Akhoundi, B; Sharif, M; Ali Mahdavi, S
Y SYSTEMS FOR THE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF LEISHMANIASIS TMENT AND PREVENTION OF LEISHMANIASIS TMENT AND PREVENTION OF LEISHMANIASIS TMENT AND PREVENTION OF LEISHMANIASIS TMENT AND PREVENTION OF LEISHMANIASIS
Leishmaniasis is a disease that ranges in severity from skin lesions to serious disfigurement and fatal systemic infection. WHO estimates that the disease results in 2 million new cases a year, threatens 350 million people in 88 countries and that there are 12 million people currently infected worldwide. Current treatment is based on chemotherapy, which relies on a handful of
Canine lateral saphenous vein and human greater saphenous vein were studied together to determine similarities and differences. Helical strips of both vessels contracted to norepinephrine with similar sensitivity. Canine veins developed more isometric tension than human veins treated similarly. Histological studies show canine veins to have little connective tissue and a single circular layer of smooth muscle. Human veins have
Michael R. Goldberg; Paul D. Joiner; Albert L. Hyman; Philip J. Kadowitz
Austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [Meles meles] and one stone marten [Martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. Phylogenetic analysis of fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (CDV) lineages circulating in Austria. The majority of CDV strains detected from 2002 to 2004 were well embedded in the European lineage. One Austrian canine sample detected in 2003, with a high similarity to Hungarian sequences from 2005 to 2006, could be assigned to the Arctic group (phocine distemper virus type 2-like). The two canine sequences from 2007 formed a clearly distinct group flanked by sequences detected previously in China and the USA on an intermediate position between the European wildlife and the Asia-1 cluster. The Austrian wildlife strains (2006 and 2007) could be assigned to the European wildlife group and were most closely related to, yet clearly different from, the 2007 canine samples. To elucidate the epidemiological role of Austrian wildlife in the transmission of the disease to dogs and vice versa, H protein residues related to receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analysed. All samples showed the amino acids expected for their host of origin, with the exception of a canine sequence from 2007, which had an intermediate position between wildlife and canine viral strains. In the period investigated, canine strains circulating in Austria could be assigned to four different lineages reflecting both a high diversity and probably different origins of virus introduction to Austria in different years. PMID:21498265
Benetka, V; Leschnik, M; Affenzeller, N; Möstl, K
Canine brucellosis is a worldwide disease of dogs characterized prinicpally by abortions in females and epididymitis and infertility in males. It originally was observed in the USA, but recently it has been discovered in Japan, Mexico, Peru, Germany and, possibly, in Brazil. It affects dogs of all breeds and has been diagnosed in breeding kennels and in stray dogs. Several human cases have occurred, with 6 being accidental infections by laboratory personnel. B. canis, like B. ovis, is naturally mucoid, lacking "S" antigens. Serological tests therefore are not appropriate to classification. On the basis of manometric technics, B. canis is similar to B. suis; nevertheless the host range excludes swine. Agreement on its taxonomic status is not universal, although it has been provisionally accepted by the Subcommittee on Taxonomy of Brucella as a new species. A brief review of salient characteristics of B. canis was presented, however the principal discussion focused on recently observed aspects of the immunopathogenesis of male infertility and reported the development of a rapid slide agglutination test, using as antigen a concentrated and stained (Rose Bengal dye) suspension of B. ovis. PMID:1261739
Carmichael, L E; George, L W
Canine tooth size reduction and the associated reduction in canine dimorphism is a basal hominin character that also provides important evidence for models of behavioral evolution. Two specimens of Australopithecus anamensis (KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283) that do not preserve the canine crown, but do preserve the root or alveolus, appear to suggest that canine size variation and canine dimorphism
J. Michael Plavcan; Carol V. Ward; Faydre L. Paulus
Acute primary cutaneous leishmaniasis typically presents microscopically with a lymphohistiocytic infiltrate containing admixed plasma cells, parasitized macrophages and abundant organisms. Tuberculoid granulomatous changes may occur in the later phases of primary infection. A 23-year-old male presented 1 month after visiting Peru with classic clinical findings of acute primary cutaneous leishmaniasis, while histopathology showed a tuberculoid granulomatous process that lacked any organisms in hematoxylin-eosin and fungal stains. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and tissue cultures confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis with Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis infection. A pauci-organism tuberculoid granulomatous process may uncommonly be the presenting histopathology in the acute infectious phase of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinicians and dermatopathologists should be aware of this atypical presentation, which may cause diagnostic confusion and delay proper treatment. PCR testing should be employed in cases with high clinical suspicion when histopathology is not definitive. PMID:22236114
Miller, Daniel D; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Garg, Amit; Goldberg, Lynne J; Bhawan, Jag
Visceral leishmaniasis is a deadly parasitic disease caused by obligate intramacrophage protozoans of the Leishmania genus. The World Health Organization estimates the annual death toll to be 50,000, with 500,000 new cases each year. Without treatment, visceral leishmaniasis is inevitably fatal. For the last 70 years, the first line of defense has been pentavalent antimonials; however, increased resistance has brought amphotericin B to the forefront of treatment options. Unfortunately, the difficult route of drug administration, toxicity issues, and cost prevent amphotericin B from reaching the infected population, and mortality continues to rise. Our reformulation of amphotericin B for oral administration has resulted in a highly efficacious antileishmanial treatment that significantly reduces or eradicates liver parasitemia in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis. This formulation has overcome amphotericin B's significant physicochemical barriers to absorption and holds promise for the development of a self-administered oral therapy for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:19545212
Wasan, Kishor M; Wasan, Ellen K; Gershkovich, Pavel; Zhu, Xiaohua; Tidwell, Richard R; Werbovetz, Karl A; Clement, John G; Thornton, Sheila J
We present a review of current knowledge about mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). Although involvement of mucous membranes is classically admitted in New World leishmaniasis, particularly occurring in infection by Leishmania (L.) braziliensis species complex, ML is also a possible presentation of Old World leishmaniasis, in either L. donovani or L. major species complex infections. Thus, ML has to be considered not only as a Latin American disease but as an Old and New World disease. We describe ML epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinics, diagnosis, and therapy. Considering both its highly disfiguring lesions and its possible lethal outcome, ML should not be underestimated by physicians. Moreover, leishmaniasis is expected to increase its burden in many countries as sandfly vector distribution is widespreading towards non-endemic areas. Finally, the lack of clear understanding of ML pathogenesis and the absence of effective human vaccines strongly claim for more research.
Cocuzza, Salvatore; Cosentino, Stefano; Serra, Agostino; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe
... The Global Public Health Concern of Leishmaniasis: FDA Scientists Play a Major Role in Development of a Candidate Vaccine to Protect ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/scienceresearch
We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis presenting as significant lymphadenopathy in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The lymphadenopathy was initially suspected to be tubercular in nature on pathological examination. This report highlights the increasing incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and Leishmania co-infection in India, and the importance of demonstrating tubercle bacilli on culture before suggesting a diagnosis of tuberculosis.???Keywords: leishmaniasis; AIDS; tuberculosis
Yaduvanshi, A.; Jain, M.; Jain, S; Jain, S.; Arora, S.
Between August 2002 and February 2004, the Department of Defense identified 522 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in military personnel. This commentary examines reasons why there were so many cases of leishmaniasis during this conflict as compared with Operation Desert Storm. Lessons learned can be applied to reduce the risk to US personnel during future conflicts. Among the factors to be considered are environment, exposure, vector control, and the failure to deliver insect repellent to deployed US personnel. PMID:15551719
Elston, Dirk M; Miller, Scott D
This report presents a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a soldier returning from Operation Enduring Freedom. During the United States' last major military conflict, Operation Desert Storm, the diagnosis of multiple cases of visceral leishmaniasis led to policy changes, including a temporary ban on troop blood donation. This case demonstrates the applicability of recently developed Leishmania polymerase chain reaction and serological assays when conventional methods of diagnosis, such as tissue microscopy and culture, fail. PMID:15495722
Halsey, Eric S; Bryce, L Michelle; Wortmann, Glenn W; Weina, Peter J; Ryan, Jeffrey R; DeWitt, Caroline C
BackgroundLeishmaniasis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Available therapies are problematic due to toxicity, treatment duration and emerging drug resistance. Mouse models of leishmaniasis have demonstrated that disease outcome depends critically on the balance between effector and regulatory CD4+ T cell responses, something mirrored in descriptive studies of human disease. Recombinant IL-2\\/diphtheria toxin fusion protein
Senad Divanovic; Aurelien Trompette; Jamie I. Ashworth; Marepalli B. Rao; Christopher L. Karp
\\u000a Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a term used to describe a group of diseases caused by multiple species of parasites within\\u000a the genus Leishmania. Most cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis will spontaneously heal without external intervention, although the severity of disease\\u000a and time course for healing may vary enormously depending on the species of infecting parasite as well as the nature of
Jay P. Farrell
Summary Recent studies have shown that mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), a severe and debilitating form of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis infection, is accompanied by high circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-oL. Analysis of TNF polymorphisms in Venezuelan ACL patients and endemic unaffected controls demonstrates a high relative risk (RR) of 7.5 (P <0.001) of MCL disease
Maira Cabrera; Marie-Anne Shaw; Claire Sharpies; Hazel Williams; Marianella Castes; Jacinto Convit; Jenefer M. Blackwell
Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a neglected complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)?a deadly, infectious disease that claims approximately 20,000 to 40,000 lives every year. PKDL is thought to be a reservoir for transmission of VL, thus, adequate control of PKDL plays a key role in the ongoing effort to eliminate VL. Over the past few years, several expert meetings have recommended that a greater focus on PKDL was needed, especially in South Asia. This report summarizes the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Consortium Meeting held in New Delhi, India, 27–29 June 2012. The PKDL Consortium is committed to promote and facilitate activities that lead to better understanding of all aspects of PKDL that are needed for improved clinical management and to achieve control of PKDL and VL. Fifty clinicians, scientists, policy makers, and advocates came together to discuss issues relating to PKDL epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and control. Colleagues who were unable to attend participated during drafting of the consortium meeting report.
Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a neglected complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-a deadly, infectious disease that claims approximately 20,000 to 40,000 lives every year. PKDL is thought to be a reservoir for transmission of VL, thus, adequate control of PKDL plays a key role in the ongoing effort to eliminate VL. Over the past few years, several expert meetings have recommended that a greater focus on PKDL was needed, especially in South Asia. This report summarizes the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Consortium Meeting held in New Delhi, India, 27-29 June 2012. The PKDL Consortium is committed to promote and facilitate activities that lead to better understanding of all aspects of PKDL that are needed for improved clinical management and to achieve control of PKDL and VL. Fifty clinicians, scientists, policy makers, and advocates came together to discuss issues relating to PKDL epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and control. Colleagues who were unable to attend participated during drafting of the consortium meeting report. PMID:23819611
Desjeux, Philippe; Ghosh, Raj Shankar; Dhalaria, Pritu; Strub-Wourgaft, Nathalie; Zijlstra, Ed E
Environmental risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis were investigated for the largest outbreak recorded in Colombia. The outbreak began in 2003 in Chaparral, and in the following five years produced 2,313 cases in a population of 56,228. Candidate predictor variables were land use, elevation, and climatic variables such as mean temperature and precipitation. Spatial analysis showed that incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was higher in townships with mean temperatures in the middle of the county's range. Incidence was independently associated with higher coverage with forest or shrubs (2.6% greater for each additional percent coverage, 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.5–4.9%), and lower population density (22% lower for each additional 100 persons/km2, 95% CI = 7–41%). The extent of forest or shrub coverage did not show major changes over time. These findings confirmed the roles of climate and land use in leishmaniasis transmission. However, environmental variables were not sufficient to explain the spatial variation in incidence.
Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Ferro, Cristina; Cadena, Horacio; Marin, Dairo; Holford, Theodore R.; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.
Narcolepsy is a lifelong illness characterized by persistent sleepiness, hypnagogic hallucinations, and episodes of motor paralysis called cataplexy. We have tested the hypothesis that a transient neurodegenerative process is linked to symptom onset. Using the amino-cupric silver stain on brain sections from canine narcoleptics, we found elevated levels of axonal degeneration in the amygdala, basal forebrain (including the nucleus of
J. M. Siegel; R. Nienhuis; S. Gulyani; S. Ouyang; M. F. Wu; E. Mignot; R. C. Switzer; G. McMurry; M. Cornford
Canine aggression poses serious public health and animal welfare concerns. Most of what is understood about breed differences in aggression comes from reports based on bite statistics, behavior clinic caseloads, and experts’ opinions. Information on breed-specific aggressiveness derived from such sources may be misleading due to biases attributable to a disproportionate risk of injury associated with larger and\\/or more physically
Deborah L. Duffy; Yuying Hsu; James A. Serpell
Canine infertility has many causes that must be considered during evaluation of abnormal reproductive function. An important infectious agent is Brucella canis. Classically deemed a major reason of abortion, this organism also produces infertility in stud dogs and poses a potential health hazard to dogs and humans. The State of Georgia has, out of necessity, instigated regulations to manage outbreaks
R. Bruce Hollett
The canine respiratory secretory immune response was studied by quantitative delivery of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) to the lower respiratory tract (LRT) and compared with intravenous administration of KLH. Respiratory secretions (RS) were standardized by IgA content and antibody against KLH studied by precipitin, passive hemagglutination and radioimmunoelectrophoretic (RIEP) techniques. Dogs immunized with KLH by either the respiratory or the
J. O’Rourke; R. Patterson; Mary Roberts; Irena Suszko
...Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs shall be prepared...Twenty-five canine parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates...antibody against canine parvovirus to determine susceptibility. Dogs shall be...
...Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs shall be prepared...Twenty-five canine parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates...antibody against canine parvovirus to determine susceptibility. Dogs shall be...
In 1997 a descriptive study with a qualitative emphasis was carried out in order to document, by gender, the knowledge and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis among inhabitants 14 years and older in seven communities of Colombia's Pacific coastal department of Chocó. Since the control activities carried out by the Chocó Sectional Health Services had not had the desired results, the residents of the region were at high risk of contracting leishmaniasis, which they called bejuco (liana) and yateví. Qualitative data were collected by directly involving each community in discussion workshops and by interviewing knowledgeable informants. Using these materials as a foundation, the researchers prepared a survey with 10 closed-ended questions, which they administered to all persons over 14 years of age in each randomly chosen home visited. The results indicate that 94% of the population knew that leishmaniasis appeared as a skin disease; those not knowing that were more often women than men. With respect to the mode of transmission, 35% of the respondents connected the disease to the bite of an insect, but they did not what the etiologic agent was and thought that the bite was inflicted by a worm that lives in the mountains. In the communities studied, the residents used a great variety of treatments to cure the disease. The treatments were based on plants, chemical substances, burning the lesions with a piece of heated metal, and, to a lesser degree, drugs. Despite being responsible for taking care of sick persons in the household, women were not acquainted with the traditional treatments used in the community. This gender difference in treatment knowledge was statistically significant, the only such statistically significant gender difference found in the research. Of the people surveyed, 45% did not know how to prevent the disease. This was more often true for women; 102 of the 155 respondents saying they did not know how to prevent the disease were women. This research emphasizes the importance of studying the knowledge and practices of local inhabitants before designing and organizing educational programs to control leishmaniasis. PMID:10517095
Isaza, D M; Restrepo, B N; Arboleda, M; Casas, E; Hinestroza, H; Yurgaqui, T
The epidemiology of the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with Leishmania major is poorly documented in Mali. Following reports of CL in the tourist areas of the Dogon country (Bandiagara Escarpment), a joint French and Malian bio-clinical team conducted a field study from 16 to 27 January, 2010. The population of 5 villages has been examined by a dermato-infectiologist and cases were selected by visual inspection of skin lesions. Smears and biopsies (from the lesions) and venous blood were obtained from suspected cases of CL. Diagnosis was performed by light microscopy, in vitro cultures, serology and molecular biology. Fifty patients with skin lesions have been examined. Twenty-one have been suspected as CL. At least one sample was obtained from 18 patients. The lesions were predominantly old, more or less scarring and secondary infected. A skin smear was performed for 15 patients, a skin biopsy for 14 patients: smears and cultures were all negative. The PCR (Leishmania spp.) made on 14 biopsies was positive for 12 patients (86%). The low amount of amplified DNA obtained did not allow the sequencing and identification of the species of Leishmania. Western blot (WB) serology was positive in 11 cases out of 12 (92%). This investigation showed the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bandiagara. A further investigation is required during transmission period (September-October) to confirm the presence of Leishmania major epidemic in Dogon country. PMID:22246557
Kone, A K; Delaunay, P; Djimdé, A A; Thera, M A; Giudice, P D; Coulibaly, D; Traoré, K; Goita, S M; Abathina, A; Izri, A; Marty, P; Doumbo, O K
Phlebotomus martini is a known vector of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is known to be endemic in areas of north and south Sudan, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda, and Somalia but has not been reported from Tanzania. In this report we present the first documented collection of P. martini and P. vansomerenae in Tanzania. Sand flies were collected using standard dry-ice baited CDC light traps (John W. Hock Company, Gainesville, FL) from five sampling sites in the Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions from 14 to 20 July 2010. Phlebotomus martini was collected from all sites and represented 6.6% of the total identified sand flies. Phlebotomus martini ranged from 4.5 to 9.4% of the total identified catch from the four sites in the Kilimanjaro region and 17.9% of the total identified catch at the one collection site in the Arusha region. In addition, one male specimen of the sibling species, Phlebotomus vansomerenae, was found at Chemka Springs in the Kilimanjaro region. These data indicate the presence of an established population(s) of P. martini in northern Tanzania that could support L. donovani transmission in an area with no prior case history of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:23427673
Clark, J W; Kioko, E; Odemba, N; Ngere, F; Kamanza, J; Oyugi, E; Kerich, G; Kimbita, E; Bast, J D
An American cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak, with cases clustering during 1993 in Tartagal city, Salta, was reported. The outbreak involved 102 individuals, 43.1% of them with multiple ulcers. Age (mean: 33 years old) and sex distribution of cases (74.5% males), as well as working activity (70 forest-related), support the hypothesis of classical forest transmission leishmaniasis, despite the fact that the place of permanent residence was in periurban Tartagal. Moreover, during July, sandflies were only collected from one of the 'deforestation areas'. Lutzomyia intermedia was the single species of the 491 phlebotomines captured, reinforcing the vector incrimination of this species. Most infections must have been acquired during the fall (April to June), a pattern consistent with previous sandfly population dynamics data. Based on the epidemiological and entomological results, it was advised not to do any vector-targeted periurban control measures during July. Further studies should be done to assess if the high rate of multiple lesions was due to parasite factors or to infective vector density factors. PMID:11340485
Salomon, O D; Zaidenberg, M; Burgos, R; Heredia, V I; Caropresi, S L
Since the early 1980s, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) which is, in general, a rural zoonotic disease, has spread to the urban centers of the north, and now the south and west of Brazil. The principal drivers differ between cities, though human migration, large urban canid populations (animal reservoir), and a decidedly peripatetic and adaptable sand fly vector are the primary forces. The exact number of urban cases remains unclear as a result of challenges with surveillance. However, the number of urban cases registered continues to increase annually. Most control initiatives (e.g. culling infected dogs and household spraying to kill the sand fly) could be effective, but have proven hard to maintain at large scales due to logistical, financial and other reasons. In this article, the urbanization of VL in Brazil is reviewed, touching on these and other topics related to controlling VL within and outside Brazil. PMID:21596622
Harhay, Michael O; Olliaro, Piero L; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery
Kala-azar is a chronic infection of reticuloendothelial system caused by flagellated protozoan, leishmania donovani injected into human host by the bite of the sand fly (phlebotomous) previously infected by biting and sucking the blood of a patient of leishmaniasis. It is characterized by irregular fever of long duration, large spleen and liver, anaemia, leucopenia and progressive emaciation. This article reports a case of a 10 year old girl from Khotang, a nonendemic zone for Kala-azar, who presented with long history of abdominal distension for 11 months, fever for 9 months, cough for a week and weight loss. Clinical examination revealed pallor, enlarged liver and huge splenomegaly. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of kala-azar by the presence of L.D bodies in bone marrow smear. The patient is being treated with i.v Amphotericin B in Infectious Disease Hospital, Teku. PMID:18603904
Joshi, S; Bajracharya, B L; Baral, M R
Severe outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kabul led to complaints from the public. It was felt that a study of the epidemiology of the disease in this city would help not only in organizing better control measures in Kabul, but also in dealing with similar conditions that might arise elsewhere because of urbanization and migration from rural to urban areas. A housing project in north-west Kabul was studied through house-to-house visits of selected households. The prevalence of active sores was 11.6% and that of scars 4.3%, indicating both the recentness and the severity of the outbreak. All ages and both sexes were involved. The finding of infected dogs suggests that these animals may be reservoirs of infection. A survey of sandflies in the Kabul area showed the presence of 7 species of Phlebotomus, 4 of which are potential vectors, and 4 species of Sergentomyia.
Nadim, A.; Rostami, Gh. S.
INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the mandibular anterior teeth after orthodontic treatment. METHODS: The sample consisted of dental casts of 221 consecutively treated
Anne-Marie Renkema; Alianne Renkema; Ewald Bronkhorst; Christos Katsaros
This report presents three cases where the rK39 strip test failed to diagnose two cases of post–kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis and one case of visceral leishmaniasis. However, a strong clinical suspicion prompted further evaluation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which established the etiology. The present case series highlights the usefulness of PCR in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.
Singh, Sunny K.; Ghosh, Susmita; Sarkar, Avijit; Mukhopadhyay, Debanjan; Roy, Susmita; Ganguly, Dwijendra Nath; Barbhuiya, Joyashree Nath; Saha, Bibhuti; Chatterjee, Mitali
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most prevalent clinical forms of leishmaniasis. Preliminary data suggest that cytokine gene polymorphisms can contribute to resistance or susceptibility to CL. Therefore, we investigated the association of functional polymorphisms in four cytokine genes with susceptibility to, and clinical outcome of CL. A total of 201 patients with self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis (SCL) and 92
Eskandar Kamali-Sarvestani; Manoochehr Rasouli; Hosein Mortazavi; Behrouz Gharesi-Fard
The objective of this study is to propose a generic program for the management of urban canine populations with suggestion of performance indicators. The following international guidelines on canine population management were revised and consolidated: World Health Organization, World Organisation for Animal Health, World Society for the Protection of Animals, International Companion Animal Management Coalition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Management programs should cover: situation diagnosis, including estimates of population size; social participation with involvement of various sectors in the planning and execution of strategies; educational actions to promote humane values, animal welfare, community health, and responsible ownership (through purchase or adoption); environmental and waste management to eliminate sources of food and shelter; registration and identification of animals; animal health care, reproductive control; prevention and control of zoonoses; control of animal commerce; management of animal behavior and adequate solutions for abandoned animals; and laws regulating responsible ownership, prevention of abandonment and zoonoses. To monitor these actions, four groups of indicators are suggested: animal population indicators, human/animal interaction indicators, public service indicators, and zoonosis indicators. The management of stray canine populations requires political, sanitary, ethologic, ecologic, and humanitarian strategies that are socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable. Such measures must also include the control of zoonoses such as rabies and leishmaniasis, considering the concept of "one health," which benefits both the animals and people in the community. PMID:23099875
Garcia, Rita de Cassia Maria; Calderón, Néstor; Ferreira, Fernando
Abstract. Sri Lanka reports significantly more cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases than visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, both of which are caused by Leishmania donovani MON-37. A cross-sectional study conducted in an area with a high prevalence of CL prevalent included 954 participants of an estimated population of 61,674 to estimate the number of CL cases, ascertain whether there is a pool of asymptomatic VL cases, and identify risk factors for transmission. A total of 31 cases of CL were identified, of whom 21 were previously diagnosed and 10 were new cases. Using rK39 rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies against Leishmania spp., we found that only one person was seropositive but did not have clinical symptoms of CL or VL, which indicated low transmission of VL in this area. ?(2) test, independent sample t-test, and multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and spatial distribution of environmental risk factors showed that living near paddy fields is associated with increased risk for transmission of CL (P ? 0.01). PMID:23918217
Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Munasinghe, Asoka; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sivanantharajah, Sundaramoorthy; Seneviratne, Kamal; Bandara, Samantha; Athauda, Indira; Navaratne, Chaturi; Silva, Ositha; Wackwella, Hasini; Matlashewski, Greg; Wickremasinghe, Renu
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the positions of the root apices of palatally impacted canines with cone beam computed tomography. While it is true that the position of the crown determines the surgical approach and direction of traction, the location of the apex also plays an important role in orthodontic mechanics. Methods: Twenty-seven unilateral palatally impacted canines were evaluated on cone beam images. Measurements were taken using Osirix(®) software, in order to compare the location of the apex of the palatally impacted canine with the apex of the contro-lateral normally erupted canine. Results: The root apex of a palatally impacted canine was usually correctly positioned in the line of the arch. Conclusion: In most cases, the orthodontic management of palatally impacted canines requires little or no root torquing. PMID:22717116
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has several downregulatory functions on the immune system: inhibition of interleukin-2 receptor induction, decrease of interferon-gamma-induced class II antigen expression, inhibition of macrophage activation, as well as cytotoxic and lymphokine-activated killer cell generation. TGF-beta has also been recognized as an important immunoregulator in murine leishmaniasis, for which it increases susceptibility to disease. In the present study we evaluate the involvement of TGF-beta in human leishmaniasis in vitro and in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Human macrophages produce active TGF-beta after infection by Leishmania amazonensis (480 +/- 44.7 pg/ml; mean +/- SEM), L. donovani chagasi (295 +/- 7.6 pg/ml), or L. braziliensis (196 +/- 15.7 pg/ml). When TGF-beta was added to cultures of human macrophages infected with L. braziliensis it led to an increase of approximately 50% in parasite numbers as compared with untreated cultures. Exogenous TGF-beta added to macrophage cultures was able to reverse the effect of interferon-gamma in controlling Leishmania growth. Even at 100 IU/ml interferon-gamma the presence of TGF-beta increases the number of intracellular parasites. On the other hand, TNF-alpha at high concentration (100 IU/ml) totally blunts the suppressive effect of TGF-beta. Immunostaining for TGF-beta was observed in the dermis, produced by fibroblasts and occasionally by inflammatory cells in the biopsies from human leishmaniasis lesions, being present in most of the biopsies taken from patients with early cutaneous leishmaniasis (less than 2 months of ulcer development) and in cases of active mucosal leishmaniasis. Taken together these observations suggest an important role for TGF-beta in human leishmaniasis, with its production by infected macrophages being probably related to parasite establishment in the early stages of the disease. Images Figure 4
Barral, A.; Teixeira, M.; Reis, P.; Vinhas, V.; Costa, J.; Lessa, H.; Bittencourt, A. L.; Reed, S.; Carvalho, E. M.; Barral-Netto, M.
Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is widespread in dogs in several countries and causes mild enteric illness evolving to severe enteritis in young pups.In in vitro cultures canine coronaviruses generally induce extensive cell death, however nature of the events leading to cell death remains largely unknown.We analysed the induction of cytopathic effect by CCoV in a canine fibrosarcoma cell line (A-72) in
A. Ruggieri; L. Di Trani; I. Gatto; M. Franco; E. Vignolo; B. Bedini; G. Elia; C. Buonavoglia
We previously demonstrated that direct intramuscular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying the human FIX (hFIX) cDNA can safely be administered to hemophilic B canines and express human factor IX protein; however, the functional activity of the hFIX protein could not be assessed due to anti-human FIX antibody (inhibitor) formation. To test the therapeutic efficacy of rAAV in hemophilic
H Chao; R J Samulski; D A Bellinger; P E Monahan; T C Nichols; C E Walsh
Information on the efficacy of pharmaceutical protocols for the prevention of the major canine filarioses (i.e., Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum) under natural conditions is scant. Chemoprophylaxis for canine filarioses under field conditions deserves to be studied more fully and information about vector biology, ecology, and seasonality has to be well appreciated to correctly set control protocols. It is advisable that researchers planning field trials to assess the efficacy of any product for the prevention of canine vector-borne diseases should consider different eco-epidemiological aspects of diseases, including their dynamics of transmission, which are driven by complex interactions between animals, pathogens, and vectors. PMID:24096604
Giannelli, Alessio; Daugschies, Arwid; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a known complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by L. donovani. It is rare in VL caused by L. infantum and L. chagasi. In Sudan, it occurs with a frequency of 58% among successfully treated VL patients. In the majority of cases, PKDL can be diagnosed on the basis of clinical appearance, distribution of the lesions, and past history of treated VL. The ideal diagnostic method is to demonstrate the parasite in smears, by culture or PCR. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in patients who develop PKDL in the absence of previous history of visceral leishmaniasis. We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis misdiagnosed as PKDL and 3 cases of PKDL who were either misdiagnosed or mistreated as other dermatoses. This caused exacerbation of their disease leading to high parasite loads in the lesions and dissemination to internal organs in one of the patients, who was also diabetic. The latter patient had L. major infection. A fourth patient with papulonodular lesions on the face and arms of 17-year duration and who was misdiagnosed as having PKDL is also described. He turned out to have cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major. Fortunately, he was not treated with steroids. He was cured with intravenous sodium stibogluconate.
El Hassan, Ahmed Mohamed; Khalil, Eltahir Awad Gasim; Elamin, Waleed Mohamed; El Hassan, Lamyaa Ahmed Mohamed; Ahmed, Mogtaba Elsaman; Musa, Ahmed Mudawi
Leishmaniasis is a disease with worldwide increasing incidence, which in Germany is almost exclusively observed in patients who have travelled to classical endemic regions such as the Mediterranean basin. Cause of the disease is an infection with protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, which are transmitted by sand flies and replicate intracellularly within mammalian hosts. Depending on the inoculated parasite (sub-) species and the immune status of the host, a local cutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral form of leishmaniasis will develop. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, which frequently appears only weeks after the bite of a sand fly, starts with the formation of a papule, which subsequently can turn into a skin ulcer. The latter may heal spontaneously after months leaving behind a scar or persist as chronic, non-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis. If cutaneous leishmaniasis is suspected, a sterile skin biopsy followed by appropriate diagnostic measures in a specialized laboratory to identify the pathogen should be performed. For the decision on the type of therapy, several clinical parameters (e.g. number and localization of lesions, immune status) and, most importantly, the underlying parasite (sub-) species need to be considered. Therapy can consist of a variety of topical measures or systemic drug treatment. A modern and safe vaccine does not yet exist. PMID:22422121
von Stebut, E; Schleicher, U; Bogdan, C
Leptospirosis is increasingly diagnosed as a re-emerging canine disease in the USA. Our objectives were to describe potential risk factors for canine leptospirosis infections in northern California, through the use of a case-control study, and to perform a spatial analysis to investigate which aspects of the landscape and land use patterns are important in the transmission of leptospiro- sis. Forty-three
George S. Ghneim; Joshua H. Viers; Bruno B. Chomel; Philip H. Kass; Daphne A. Descollonges; Michael L. Johnson
An avian-origin Korean H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) strain, designated A/canine/Korea/01/2007 (H3N2), was isolated from nasal swabs of pet dogs exhibiting severe respiratory syndrome in 2007. In the present study, we report the first complete genome sequence containing 3? and 5? noncoding regions (NCRs) of H3N2 CIV, which will provide important insights into the molecular basis of pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of CIV.
Park, Seong-Jun; Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Hong, Minki; Na, Woonseong; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Poo, Haryoung
An avian-origin Korean H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) strain, designated A/canine/Korea/01/2007 (H3N2), was isolated from nasal swabs of pet dogs exhibiting severe respiratory syndrome in 2007. In the present study, we report the first complete genome sequence containing 3' and 5' noncoding regions (NCRs) of H3N2 CIV, which will provide important insights into the molecular basis of pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of CIV. PMID:22879618
Park, Seong-Jun; Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Hong, Minki; Na, Woonseong; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Poo, Haryoung; Park, Bong-Kyun; Song, Dae-Sub
Four new antigenic proteins located in Leishmania ribosomes have been characterized: S4, S6, L3 and L5. Recombinant versions of the four ribosomal proteins from Leishmania major were recognized by sera from human and canine patients suffering different clinical forms of leishmaniasis. The prophylactic properties of these proteins were first studied in the experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major inoculation into BALB/c mice. The administration of two of them, LmL3 or LmL5 combined with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) was able to protect BALB/c mice against L. major infection. Vaccinated mice showed smaller lesions and parasite burden compared to mice inoculated with vaccine diluent or vaccine adjuvant. Protection was correlated with an antigen-specific increased production of IFN-? paralleled by a decrease of the antigen-specific IL-10 mediated response in protected mice relative to non-protected controls. Further, it was demonstrated that BALB/c mice vaccinated with recombinant LmL3 or LmL5 plus CpG-ODN were also protected against the development of cutaneous lesions following inoculation of L. braziliensis. Together, data presented here indicate that LmL3 or LmL5 ribosomal proteins combined with Th1 inducing adjuvants, may be relevant components of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by distinct species. PMID:23313653
Ramírez, Laura; Santos, Diego M; Souza, Ana P; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Barral, Aldina; Alonso, Carlos; Escutia, Marta R; Bonay, Pedro; de Oliveira, Camila I; Soto, Manuel
Methods of genotyping canines by analysis of polymorphisms in the number of microsatellite DNA repeats are provided. The internal repeat sequence is amplified by the use of specific primers. The number of repeats, and therefore the distance between the primers, is highly variable in a population, thereby providing an allelic marker for the locus. The combined information from multiple loci provides a means of distinguishing individuals, even among inbred dog breeds, for parentage testing, forensic testing and analysis of individuals relatedness.
Halverson; Joy (Davis, CA); Dvorak; Jan (Davis, CA); Stevenson; Tamara (Davis, CA)
ABSTRACT : Canine hepatozoonosis is caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum, apicomplexan parasites transmitted to dogs by ingestion of infectious stages. Although the two agents are phylogenetically related, specific aspects, including characteristics of clinical disease and the natural history of the parasites themselves, differ between the two species. Until recently, H. canis infections had not been clearly documented in North America, and autochthonous infection with H. americanum has yet to be reported outside of the southern United States. However, recent reports demonstrate H. canis is present in areas of North America where its vector tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has long been endemic, and that the range of H. americanum is likely expanding along with that of its vector tick, Amblyomma maculatum; co-infections with the two organisms have also been identified. Significant intraspecific variation has been reported in the 18S rRNA gene sequence of both Hepatozoon spp.-infecting dogs, suggesting that each species may represent a complex of related genogroups rather than well-defined species. Transmission of H. americanum to dogs via ingestion of cystozoites in muscle of infected vertebrates was recently demonstrated, supporting the concept of predation as a means of natural transmission. Although several exciting advances have occurred in recent years, much remains to be learned about patterns of infection and the nature of clinical disease caused by the agents of canine hepatozoonosis in North America. PMID:19426444
Little, Susan E; Allen, Kelly E; Johnson, Eileen M; Panciera, Roger J; Reichard, Mason V; Ewing, Sidney A
Canine hepatozoonosis is caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum, apicomplexan parasites transmitted to dogs by ingestion of infectious stages. Although the two agents are phylogenetically related, specific aspects, including characteristics of clinical disease and the natural history of the parasites themselves, differ between the two species. Until recently, H. canis infections had not been clearly documented in North America, and autochthonous infection with H. americanum has yet to be reported outside of the southern United States. However, recent reports demonstrate H. canis is present in areas of North America where its vector tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has long been endemic, and that the range of H. americanum is likely expanding along with that of its vector tick, Amblyomma maculatum; co-infections with the two organisms have also been identified. Significant intraspecific variation has been reported in the 18S rRNA gene sequence of both Hepatozoon spp.-infecting dogs, suggesting that each species may represent a complex of related genogroups rather than well-defined species. Transmission of H. americanum to dogs via ingestion of cystozoites in muscle of infected vertebrates was recently demonstrated, supporting the concept of predation as a means of natural transmission. Although several exciting advances have occurred in recent years, much remains to be learned about patterns of infection and the nature of clinical disease caused by the agents of canine hepatozoonosis in North America.
Little, Susan E; Allen, Kelly E; Johnson, Eileen M; Panciera, Roger J; Reichard, Mason V; Ewing, Sidney A
Coronaviruses of potential recombinant origin with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), referred to as a new subtype (IIb) of canine coronavirus (CCoV), were recently identified in dogs in Europe. To assess the distribution of the TGEV-like CCoV subtype, during 2001–2008 we tested fecal samples from dogs with gastroenteritis. Of 1,172 samples, 493 (42.06%) were positive for CCoV. CCoV-II was found in 218 samples, and CCoV-I and CCoV-II genotypes were found in 182. Approximately 20% of the samples with CCoV-II had the TGEV-like subtype; detection rates varied according to geographic origin. The highest and lowest rates of prevalence for CCoV-II infection were found in samples from Hungary and Greece (96.87% and 3.45%, respectively). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the CCoV-IIb strains were related to prototype TGEV-like strains in the 5? and the 3? ends of the spike protein gene.
Mari, Viviana; Elia, Gabriella; Addie, Diane D.; Camero, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio
Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is endemic in Tunisia. The incidence in adult patients has increased in recent years; but most of these patients are not HIV positive as in other Mediterranean countries where all the cases are associated with HIV. We present the case of a woman with symptoms suggestive of leishmaniasis but whose bone marrow was sterile and whose serological tests for Leishmania spp. were negative. For this patient, the parasite was only detected in a routine duodenal biopsy. There are few reports of visceral leishmaniasis cases diagnosed by duodenal biopsy and almost all patients were HIV positive in that case. Thus it seems interesting to perform a duodenal biopsy in case of a difficult diagnostic even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms and/or HIV infection. PMID:16580803
Bel Haj Salah, M; Mekni, A; Khanfir, M; Bellil, K; Benhaha-Bellil, S; Chelly, I; Kchir, N; Haouet, S; Zitouna, M-M
The adjuvant of the FML-vaccine against murine and canine visceral leishmaniasis, the Riedel de Haen saponin mixture, was fractionated by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose to afford one TLC homogeneous Quillaja saponaria Molina QS21 saponin fraction (18.0%), a mixture of two deacylsaponins (19.4%), sucrose (39.9%), sucrose and glucose (19.7%), rutin (0.8%) and quercetin (2.2%), that were identified by comparison of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The QS21 shows the typical aldehyde group in C-23 (65% equatorial) and a normonoterpene moiety acylated in C-28. The deacylsaponins show the aldehyde group but do not have the normonoterpene moiety. Balb/c mice were vaccinated with 150 microg of FML antigen of Leishmania donovani and 100 microg of each obtained fraction and further challenged by infection with 10(8) amastigotes of Leishmania chagasi. The safety analysis and the effect on humoral and cellular immune responses and in clinical signs showed that the QS21 saponin and the deacylsaponins are the most active adjuvant compounds of the Riedel the Haen saponin mixture. Both induced the highest and non-significantly different increases in DTH, CD4+ T lymphocytes in spleen, IFN-gamma in vitro, body weight gain and the most pronounced reduction of parasite burden in liver (95% for QS21 and 86% for deacylsaponins; p>0.05). While the QS21 showed mild toxicity, significant adjuvant effect on the anti-FML humoral response before and after infection, and decrease in liver relative weight, the deacylsaponins showed no toxicity, less haemolysis and antibody and DTH responses increased mainly after infection, still inducing a stronger Leishmania-specific in vitro splenocyte proliferation. Our results confirm in the Riedel de Haen saponin extract the presence of deacylsaponins normonoterpene-deprivated which are non-toxic and capable of inducing a specific and strong immunoprotective response in vaccination against murine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:16556475
Oliveira-Freitas, E; Casas, C P; Borja-Cabrera, G P; Santos, F N; Nico, D; Souza, L O P; Tinoco, L W; da Silva, B P; Palatnik, M; Parente, J P; Palatnik-de-Sousa, C B
The outcomes of Leishmania infection are determined by host immune and nutrition status, parasite species, and co-infection with other pathogens. While subclinical infection and self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are common, uncontrolled parasite replication can lead to non-healing local lesions or visceral leishmaniasis (VL). It is known that infection control requires Th1-differentiation cytokines (IL-12, IL-18, and IL-27) and Th1 cell and macrophage activation. However, there is no generalized consensus for the mechanisms of host susceptibility. The recent studies on regulatory T cells and IL-17-producing cells help explain the effector T cell responses that occur independently of the known Th1/Th2 cell signaling pathways. This review focuses on the immunopathogenesis of non-healing American CL and progressive VL. We summarize recent evidence from human and animal studies that reveals the mechanisms of dysregulated, hyper-responses to Leishmania braziliensis, as well as the presence of disease-promoting or the absence of protective responses to Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania donovani. We highlight immune-mediated parasite growth and immunopathogenesis, with an emphasis on the putative roles of IL-17 and its related cytokines as well as arginase. A better understanding of the quality and regulation of innate immunity and T cell responses triggered by Leishmania will aid in the rational control of pathology and the infection. PMID:23053396
Soong, Lynn; Henard, Calvin A; Melby, Peter C
The usage of reovirus has reached phase II and III clinical trials in human cancers. However, this is the first study to report the oncolytic effects of reovirus in veterinary oncology, focusing on canine mast cell tumor (MCT), the most common cutaneous tumor in dogs. As human and canine cancers share many similarities, we hypothesized that the oncolytic effects of reovirus can be exploited in canine cancers. The objective of this study was to determine the oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine MCT in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. We demonstrated that MCT cell lines were highly susceptible to reovirus as indicated by marked cell death, high production of progeny virus and virus replication. Reovirus induced apoptosis in the canine MCT cell lines with no correlation to their Ras activation status. In vivo studies were conducted using unilateral and bilateral subcutaneous MCT xenograft models with a single intratumoral reovirus treatment and apparent reduction of tumor mass was exhibited. Furthermore, cell death was induced by reovirus in primary canine MCT samples in vitro. However, canine and murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMCMC) were also susceptible to reovirus. The combination of these results supports the potential value of reovirus as a therapy in canine MCT but warrants further investigation on the determinants of reovirus susceptibility. PMID:24073198
Hwang, Chung Chew; Umeki, Saori; Kubo, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshiharu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken; Baba, Kenji; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Coffey, Matt; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya
Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the
Peter J Irwin
Canine biotechnology studies are far less developed than in other species. Canine reproduction and gametes have unique characteristics compared to other mammals which makes adaptation of knowledge from other species difficults. Culture media for oocytes with or without serum, hormonal or protein supplementation, and oviductal cells have been used for in vitro maturation. Age and phase of the estrous cycle
C Gobello; Y Corrada
The etiology of tooth impactions has long been related to an arch-length deficiency. This is valid for most impactions, but not for palatal impaction of the maxillary canine. This study shows that 85 percent of the palatally impacted canines have sufficient space for eruption. The bud of the maxillary canine is wedged between the nasal cavity, the orbit, and the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus. The buds of the lateral incisor and the first premolar are located behind the canine's palatal surface. An arch-length deficiency will not allow the maxillary canine to "jump" the buds, the nasal cavity, or the sinus in order to reappear in the palate. A canine can be palatally impacted if an extra space is available in the maxillary bone. This space can be provided by (1) excessive growth in the base of the maxillary bone, (2) space created by agenesis or peg-shaped lateral incisors, or (3) stimulated eruption of the lateral incisor or the first premolar. In those conditions the canine is free to "dive" in the bone and to become palatally impacted. A dysplasia in the maxillary-premaxillary suture can also modify the direction of the maxillary canine's eruption. PMID:6576636
Supernumerary teeth are defined as the teeth developed in excess of the number found in a normal dentition. Supernumerary canine is an extremely rare finding particularly in the mandible. This case report presents a 25-year-old female patient with the unique feature of bilateral mandibular supplemental supernumerary canines. The patient was non-syndromic without any other supernumerary teeth.
Abouei Mehrizi, Ehsan; Semyari, Hassan; Eslami Amirabadi, Gholamreza
The usage of reovirus has reached phase II and III clinical trials in human cancers. However, this is the first study to report the oncolytic effects of reovirus in veterinary oncology, focusing on canine mast cell tumor (MCT), the most common cutaneous tumor in dogs. As human and canine cancers share many similarities, we hypothesized that the oncolytic effects of reovirus can be exploited in canine cancers. The objective of this study was to determine the oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine MCT in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. We demonstrated that MCT cell lines were highly susceptible to reovirus as indicated by marked cell death, high production of progeny virus and virus replication. Reovirus induced apoptosis in the canine MCT cell lines with no correlation to their Ras activation status. In vivo studies were conducted using unilateral and bilateral subcutaneous MCT xenograft models with a single intratumoral reovirus treatment and apparent reduction of tumor mass was exhibited. Furthermore, cell death was induced by reovirus in primary canine MCT samples in vitro. However, canine and murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMCMC) were also susceptible to reovirus. The combination of these results supports the potential value of reovirus as a therapy in canine MCT but warrants further investigation on the determinants of reovirus susceptibility.
Hwang, Chung Chew; Umeki, Saori; Kubo, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshiharu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken; Baba, Kenji; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Coffey, Matt; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya
The genetic background of mice infected with Leishmania major determines the response to infection, resulting in a resistant or susceptible phenotype. Susceptible mice develop a T-helper type 2 (Th2)-type immune response following infection distinguished by the development of interleukin (IL)-4 secreting T cells in the lymph node and spleen. In SJL mice, which normally heal L. major lesions, subtoxic doses of mercury induce an autoimmune syndrome characterized by an expansion of Th2 cells. In this study, we examined the effect of mercury administration on the outcome of L. major infection in SJL mice. We show that subtoxic doses of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) exacerbate disease outcome in SJL mice resulting in increased footpad swelling and increased parasite burdens. Furthermore, the effects of HgCl2 treatment on resistance to L. major are time-dependent. The nonhealing phenotype was observed only if mice had been treated with HgCl2 prior to L. major infection for at least 1 week, a timepoint at which mice treated with HgCl2 alone had increased splenocyte IL-4 production. HgCl2 treatment also increased production of serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG1, two IL-4 dependent isotypes. These results show that HgCl2 treatment enhances the susceptibility to L. major in SJL mice, consistent with the induction of host Th2 parameters. These findings have implications for the role of mercury contamination in areas of endemic leishmaniasis. PMID:11737666
Bagenstose, L M; Mentink-Kane, M M; Brittingham, A; Mosser, D M; Monestier, M
At present sporadic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are encountered mainly in the natural foci. The natural foci of VL are situated mainly in valleys and foothills. In southern areas of the Turkmen SSR the majority of cases were registered in small settlements situated near wells in interbarkhan lowerings. The reservoir of pathogen here may be Vulpes vulpes and dogs and the most likely vector is Phlebotomus turanicus. In Kazakhstan cases of VL are encountered in the thickets of the Syr-Darya floodlands in Kzyl-Orda Province, where the natural reservoir of the pathogen are Canis aureus L. and Vulpes corsac, and the vector is P. smirnovi. Synanthropic foci in Dzhambul and Chimkent, where dogs were most likely the source of the infection and P. longiductus was the vector, are at present inactive. The maps have been plotted where landscape dissemination of mosquitoes (VL vectors) is compared to places of habitation of Canis aureus L. and VL incidence in humans at peaks of the disease endemia. Medical personnel should be on the look-out for VL on the whole territory with VL natural foci. PMID:2146471
Dergacheva, T I; Darchenkova, N N
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is a chronic protozoan infection in humans associated with significant global morbidity and mortality. The causative agent is a haemoflagellate protozoan Leishmania donovani, an obligate intracellular parasite that resides and multiplies within macrophages of the reticulo-endothelial system. Most of the existing anti-leishmanial drugs have serious side effects that limit their clinical application. As an alternate strategy, vaccination is also under experimental and clinical trials. The in vitro evaluation designed to facilitate rapid testing of a large number of drugs has been focussed on the promastigotes milt little attention on the clinically relevant parasite stage, amastigotes. Screening designed to closely reflect the situation in vivo is currently time consuming, laborious, and expensive, since it requires intracellular amastigotes and animal model. The ability to select transgenic Leishmania expressing reporter proteins, such as the green fluorescent proteins (GFP) or the luciferase opened up new possibilities for the development of drug screening models. Many experimental animal models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, but none accurately reproduces what happens in humans. Available in vitro and in vivo methodologies for antileishmanial drug screening and their respective advantages and disadvantages are reviewed.
Gupta, Suman; Nishi
Amastigotes of the genus Leishmania have been observed in biopsies of apparently unrelated lesions in patients with AIDS and visceral leishmaniasis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus infection and severe immunodepression in whom the presence of the parasite was detected as an incidental finding on histological study of a perianal squamous cell carcinoma. This finding led to the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of previously unsuspected visceral leishmaniasis. In a review of the literature we have found no previous examples of this association. PMID:21885024
Armengot-Carbó, M; Carmena-Ramón, R; Rodrigo-Nicolás, B; Ferrando-Marco, J
Although civilian physicians in the United States seldom encounter patients with leishmaniasis, therapeutic advances in endemic regions have opened the door to approaches that can be applied in this country. Advances revolve around the use of oral miltefosine in all forms of leishmaniasis and the use of short-course intravenous liposomal amphotericin B in visceral and possibly cutaneous infection. Lengthy, traditional intravenous treatment with pentavalent antimony (sodium stibogluconate) still has a role in the United States; however, although expensive, miltefosine and liposomal amphotericin B are considerably more appealing selections for initial therapy. PMID:22403313
Murray, Henry W
An updated view of the establishment and spread of the leishmaniases in Europe is presented, mostly with respect to newly emerging and re-emerging foci and the incrimination of neglected as well as new reservoir hosts. At the same time, a concept of specific versus permissive vectors reassesses the potential role of various sandfly species in Leishmania transmission and considers the risk of introduction of exotic Leishmania species in Europe. The leishmaniases are dynamic diseases and the circumstances of transmission are continually changing in relation to environmental, demographic and human behavioural factors. Changes in the habitat of the natural hosts and vectors, immunosuppressive conditions (like infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or organ transplantation-associated therapies in humans) and the consequences of war, all contribute to the transformation of the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. Such changes should be considered when studying the spread of the disease throughout Europe for targeted control measures to safeguard public health. PMID:23929183
Antoniou, M; Gramiccia, M; Molina, R; Dvorak, V; Volf, P
Cutaneous leishmaniasis was diagnosed in an Indiana resident, an 80-year-old man who had visited Afghanistan 7 months earlier. Although cultures were negative, skin biopsy demonstrated round to oval bodies that stained strongly positive with Giemsa staining. His ulcerated plaques cleared readily with oral ketoconazole. PMID:24010517
Fathi, Ramin; Fathi, Ahmad
This study of several techniques for detecting cryptic leishmaniasis in dogs from areas in Spain where Leishmania infantum is highly endemic concludes that immunological techniques (enzyme-linked immunosor- bent assay, immunofluorescence antibody test, Western blotting, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, and in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay) do not clearly differentiate between noninfected and infected asymptom- atic dogs and that culture and PCR are
Laura Iniesta; Salceda Fernandez-Barredo; Beatrice Bulle; M. Teresa Gomez; Renaud Piarroux; Montserrat Gallego; Jose M. Alunda; Montserrat Portus
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by a hemoflagellate, Leishmania spp. The parasite is transmitted by the bite of an infected female phlebotomine sandfly. The disease is prevalent throughout the world and in at least 88 countries. Human leishmanial infections may manifest in any of the four most common forms. Depending on the causative species, it can manifest as cutaneous
Sarman Singh; Ramu Sivakumar
Human leishmaniasis is a severe health problem in many countries around the world. Hence, a cheap, reliable, and accurate diagnostic test is required to fight this disease. Perhaps the direct agglutination test (DAT) meets these criteria, but antigen elaboration involves many difficulties. We have developed a new antigen elaboration method, the EasyDAT method, that avoids the problems associated with the
P. Gomez-Ochoa; J. A. Castillo; J. Lucientes; M. Gascon; J. J. Zarate; J. I. Arbea; V. Larraga; C. Rodriguez
Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) was diagnosed in a 6-year-old female dog from northern Virginia. The disease was confined to the eyes and adjacent tissues and was manifested as a severe bilateral endophthalmitis and associated blepharitis. Leishmania d...
E. E. McConnell E. F. Chaffee I. G. Cashell F. M. Garner
Sex-associated hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and progesterone have all been shown to modulate immune responses, which can result in differential disease outcomes between males and females, as well as between pregnant and nonpregnant females. Most parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis, usually result in more severe disease in males compared with females. This review highlights our current knowledge concerning the role
Heidi Snider; Claudio Lezama-Davila; James Alexander; Abhay R. Satoskar
Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Between 700,000 and 1.2 million cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and between 200,000 and 400,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is fatal if left untreated, occur annually worldwide. Liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB), alone or in combination with other drugs, has been extensively studied as VL treatment, but data on routine field use are limited, and several challenges to patients' access to this life-saving drug remain. Areas covered: This article provides a review of clinical studies on LAMB for VL and other forms of leishmaniasis. The current development of generic versions of LAMB and related challenges are also discussed. Expert opinion: LAMB proved to be highly efficacious and safe in over 8000 VL patients treated by MÉdecins Sans Frontières in South Asia, and its use was feasible even at primary healthcare level. Despite requiring higher doses, LAMB is the drug of choice to treat vulnerable groups (e.g., pregnant or HIV positive) and relapsing VL patients in East Africa. LAMB should be included in national VL guidelines and registered in all VL endemic countries. Its cost should be further reduced and regulatory pathways to prove bioequivalence for generic LAMB products should be implemented.
Balasegaram, Manica; Ritmeijer, Koert; Lima, Maria Angeles; Burza, Sakib; Ortiz Genovese, Gemma; Milani, Barbara; Gaspani, Sara; Potet, Julien; Chappuis, Francois
BACKGROUND: Immune responses to sandfly saliva have been shown to protect animals against Leishmania infection. Yet very little is known about the molecular characteristics of salivary proteins from different sandflies, particularly from vectors transmitting visceral leishmaniasis, the fatal form of the disease. Further knowledge of the repertoire of these salivary proteins will give us insights into the molecular evolution of
Jennifer M Anderson; Fabiano Oliveira; Shaden Kamhawi; Ben J Mans; David Reynoso; Amy E Seitz; Phillip Lawyer; Mark Garfield; MyVan Pham; Jesus G Valenzuela
An evaluation of Leishmania PCR was performed with bone marrow, lymph node, and blood samples from 492 patients, 60 positive controls, and 90 negative controls. Results were compared with microscopy results for Giemsa-stained smears. PCR and microscopy of lymph node and bone marrow aspirates from patients with microscopically confirmed visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were equally sensitive. However, in patients clinically suspected
OMRAN F. OSMAN; LINDA OSKAM; ED E. ZIJLSTRA; NEL C. M. KROON; GERARD J. SCHOONE; EL-TAHIR A. G. KHALIL; AHMED M. EL-HASSAN; PIET A. KAGER
In the first part of this study we showed that the World Health Organization recommended regimen for the treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis, which is 20 mg antimony (Sb)/kilogram body weight/day for a minimum period of 28 days, although safe, is ineffecti...
Background Pentavalent antimonials (Sb5) and miltefosine are the first-line drugs for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia; however, toxicity and treatment duration negatively impact compliance and cost, justifying an active search for better therapeutic options. We compared the efficacy and safety of thermotherapy and meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. Method An open randomized Phase III clinical trial was performed in five military health centres. located in northwestern, central and southern Colombia. Volunteers with parasitological positive diagnosis (Giemsa-stained smears) of cutaneous leishmaniasis were included. A single thermotherapy session involving the application of 50°C at the center and active edge of each lesion. Meglumine antimoniate was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 20?mg Sb5/kg weight/day for 20?days. Results Both groups were comparable. The efficacy of thermotherapy was 64% (86/134 patients) by protocol and 58% (86/149) by intention-to-treat. For the meglumine antimoniate group, efficacy by protocol was 85% (103/121 patients) and 72% (103/143) by intention-to-treat, The efficacy between the treatments was statistically significant (p 0.01 and <0.001) for analysis by intention to treat and by protocol, respectively. There was no difference between the therapeutic response with either treatment regardless of the Leishmania species responsible for infection. The side effects of meglumine antimoniate included myalgia, arthralgia, headache and fever. Regarding thermotherapy, the only side effect was pain at the lesion area four days after the initiation of treatment. Conclusion Although the efficacy rate of meglumine antimoniate was greater than that of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, the side effects were also greater. Those factors, added to the increased costs, the treatment adherence problems and the progressive lack of therapeutic response, make us consider thermotherapy as a first line treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Registered ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00471705
Background Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. Methodology We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area–likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. Conclusions We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today.
Costa, Maria Antonietta; Matheson, Carney; Iachetta, Lucia; Llagostera, Agustin; Appenzeller, Otto
The number of human rabies cases acquired from dog bites constitutes a high proportion of the total rabies cases in China, although the number of human rabies cases has gradually decreased in recent years. The pivotal role of dogs in the spread of rabies indicates that controlling and preventing canine rabies could be a key step in eradicating human rabies in China. The primary aims of this review are to discuss the properties and pathogenesis of the rabies virus, the clinical signs and diagnosis of canine rabies, threshold host density and vaccination of dogs, and the prevention and control of canine rabies in China. PMID:23122320
Zhu, Wu Yang; Liang, Guo Dong
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative targets for vector control via RNA interference (RNAi).
McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, Maria Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative targets for vector control via RNA interference (RNAi). PMID:23554910
McCarthy, Christina B; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F P; Diambra, Luis A
During August and September 1975, an epidemiological investigation was carried out in another focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Khorassan province namely the Esferayen district located in the north western part of this province. The disease in Esferayen area is of zoonotic type having Rhombomys opimus as reservoir and P. papatasi as vector. PMID:1037090
Javadian, E; Nadim, A; Tahvildare-Bidruni, G; Assefi, V
Leishmaniasis is a complex of diseases with numerous clinical manifestations for instance harshness from skin lesions to severe disfigurement and chronic systemic infection in the liver and spleen. So far, the most classical leishmaniasis therapy, despite its documented toxicities, remains pentavalent antimonial compounds. The arvailable therapeutic modalities for leishmaniasis are overwhelmed with resistance to leishmaniasis therapy. Mechanisms of classical drug resistance are often related with the lower drug uptake, increased efflux, the faster drug metabolism, drug target modifications and over-expression of drug transporters. The high prevalence of leishmaniasis and the appearance of resistance to classical drugs reveal the demand to develop and explore novel, less toxic, low cost and more promising therapeutic modalities. The review describes the mechanisms of classical drug resistance and potential drug targets in Leishmania infection. Moreover, current drug-delivery systems and future perspectives towards Leishmaniasis treatment are also covered. PMID:24144417
Yasinzai, Masoom; Khan, Momin; Nadhman, Akhtar; Shahnaz, Gul
Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease, and it is classified as one of the most important tropical fly-borne infections. This disease can cause two types of clinical manifestations: cutaneous forms and visceral forms. Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also called kala-azar, is a very serious infection that can be fatal. The management of visceral leishmaniasis requires informed diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Continuous research and development regarding the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis had led to many improvements. Paromomycin is a relatively new antibiotic drug that has been used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis for several years. This article reviews and discusses the use of paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis therapy.
Since first emerging in the North American canine population in 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) subtype H3N8 has shown horizontal transmission among dogs, with a high level of adaptation to this species. The severity of disease is variable, and coinfection by other respiratory pathogens is an important factor in the degree of morbidity and mortality. The first influenza vaccine for dogs, an inactivated vaccine containing CIV subtype H3N8, was conditionally approved by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) for licensure in May 2009 and fully licensed in June 2010. This study evaluates the efficacy of this vaccine to reduce the severity of illness in dogs cochallenged with virulent CIV and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.
Larson, Laurie J.; Henningson, Jamie; Sharp, Patricia; Thiel, Bliss; Deshpande, Muralidhar S.; Davis, Tamara; Jayappa, Huchappa; Wasmoen, Terri; Lakshmanan, Nallakannu; Schultz, Ronald D.
We report on a 76-year old patient with recurrent mucosal leishmaniasis. Multiple treatment regimens were administered. After the second relapse, immunologic workup and review of the patient's history revealed the presence of Good syndrome, characterized by immunodeficiency in patients with thymoma. The third relapse was treated with oral miltefosine with complete resolution of the lesions. Miltefosine is an option for treating Old World leishmaniasis (Leishmania infantum) and immunodeficiency should be considered in patients with recurrent leishmaniasis. PMID:23871798
Stoeckle, Marcel; Holbro, Andreas; Arnold, Andreas; Neumayr, Andreas; Weisser, Maya; Blum, Johannes
A research project was undertaken to learn how the highly acute olfactory sensitivity of the canine could be applied with advantage to environmental problems. The objectives were to determine how dogs could be trained to detect hazardous and toxic polluta...
L. D. Arner G. R. Johnson H. S. Skovronek
Belo Horizonte, the capital of the southeastern state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the fourth-largest city in the country, has the highest incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) together with a high prevalence of canine VL. The Northeast Sanitary District (NSD) of Belo Horizonte has the largest historical average of human VL cases in the metropolitan region, and is classified as a priority area for epidemiological and entomological monitoring of the disease. The objectives of the present study were to determine the seasonal variation in phlebotomine fauna and to describe the environmental situations in the NSD through characterization of peri-domiciles and application of geographical information system analysis. Entomological captures were performed every two weeks during the period July 2006 to June 2007 using HP light traps placed at 16 locations where cases of human VL had been reported in 2005. The environmental characterization of these locations was accomplished using forms and photographic images. Spatial analyses was used to determine the influence of vegetation, hydrography, altitude and pockets of poverty on the occurrence of cases of human and canine VL, and of phlebotomine vectors. A total of 633 phlebotomines belonging to the subtribes Psychodopygina and Lutzomyina were captured and, of these, 75% were identified as Nyssomyia whitmani and 11% as Lutzomyia longipalpis. The majority of the studied peri-domiciles presented inadequate hygienic conditions that would favor the development of phlebotomines. No significant correlations could be established between biogeographical aspects and either the incidence of human and canine VL or the occurrence of phlebotomines. The proximity of areas with vegetation, villages, slums and open watercourses exerted little influence on the incidence of VL. These findings reinforce the urbanization of the VL profile since the disease occurred in locations where conditions that have been classically related to its prevalence were not present. The results reported herein will be important for implementing measures against VL in the study area. PMID:21110938
Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Falcão, Alda Lima; de Carvalho, Deborah Aparecida Alves; de Souza, Carina Margonari; Freitas, Christian Rezende; Gomes Lopes, Camila Ragonezi; Moreno, Elizabeth Castro; Melo, Maria Norma
Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.
Irwin, Peter J
To determine the relative efficacy and toxicity of stibogluconate and ketoconazole for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, we conducted a comparative trial in which 120 Guatemalan men with parasitologically proven cutaneous leishmaniasis were random...
T. R. Navin
Health service records for north-east Brazil suggest a consistent rise in numbers of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis over the past decade. In a study site in Pernambuco, prospective, cross-sectional and retrospective epidemiological surveys of infection (a positive Montenegro skin test response) and/or clinical symptoms confirmed a high current force of infection (0.092/year), and an approximately 10-fold increase in transmission during the last 10 years. Cross-sectional analysis indicated that the incidence rate among children (aged < or = 15 years) was lower than that among adult immigrants exposed for similar time periods, but there was no apparent difference in transmission rate according to gender. Coupled with the known behaviour of the local sandfly vector, Lutzomyia whitmani, this suggests that most people are infected outside their houses, rather than either indoors or while visiting remnant rainforest. The estimated proportion of infections which lead to cutaneous lesions (0.81-0.87) is relatively high for L. braziliensis areas. However, an unusually low proportion of clinical infections (0.0042) apparently leads to metastasis. PMID:10696402
Brandão-Filho, S P; Campbell-Lendrum, D; Brito, M E; Shaw, J J; Davies, C R
Abstract A study was undertaken between November 2008 and March 2010, in the focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Central Tunisia, to evaluate the role of Psammomys obesus (n=472) and Meriones shawi (n=167) as reservoir hosts for Leishmania major infection. Prevalence of L. major infection was 7% versus 5% for culture (p=not signifiant [NS]), 19% versus 16% for direct examination of smears (p=NS), and 20% versus 33% (p=NS) for Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test among P. obesus and M. shawi, respectively. The peak of this infection was in winter and autumn and increased steadily with age for the both species of rodents. The clinical examination showed that depilation, hyper-pigmentation, ignition, and severe edema of the higher edge of the ears were the most frequent signs observed in the study sample (all signs combined: 47% for P. obesus versus 43% for M. shawi; p=NS). However, the lesions were bilateral and seem to be more destructive among M. shawi compared with P. obesus. Asymptomatic infection was ?40% for both rodents. This study demonstrated that M. shawi plays an important role in the transmission and the emergence of Leishmania major cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia.
Toumi, Amine; Snoussi, Mohamed-Ali; Chlif, Sadok; Zaatour, Amor; Boukthir, Aicha; Bel Haj Hamida, Nabil; Chemkhi, Jomaa; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben-Salah, Afif
The effects ofHerpes canis, an encephalitogenic agent of the canine species, on canine cerebellar explants and brain cell cultures were investigated. A progression of the infection from cell to cell in brain explant cultures could be followed resulting in degeneration and widespread cell death within 72 hours after inoculation. Astrocytes were recongized as the preferential cells for viral replication. Nerve
G. R. Johnson; A. Koestner; O. Kindig; J. F. Long
We have developed a mouse model for Babesia canis infection using severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice whose circulating red blood cells had been substituted with canine red blood cells. Substitution of red blood cells in SCID mice was achieved by repetitive transfusions of canine red blood cells, together with administration of an anti-mouse red blood cell monoclonal antibody. Following inoculation
Satoru Arai; Masayoshi Tsuji; Sam-Ju Kim; Tetsuya Nakade; Yasunori Kanno; Chiaki Ishihara
To determine whether canine malignancies share common genetic lesions with their human counterparts, and are thus potentially interesting model systems in which to pose questions regarding tumor etiology and progression, we have elucidated the entire exon\\/intron structure of the canine p53 gene. A search for p53 gene abnormalities in mammary tumor tissue was undertaken utilizing single strand conformation polymorphism analysis.
Lee Lee Chu; Gerard R. Rutteman; Julius M. C. Kong; Majid Ghahremani; Martin Schmeing; Wim Misdorp; Evert van Garderen; Jerry Pelletier
Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects millions of people around the world. Several species of Leishmania infect mouse strains, and murine models closely reproduce the cutaneous lesions caused by the parasite in humans. Mouse models have enabled studies on the pathogenesis and effector mechanisms of host resistance to infection. Here, we review the role of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and peroxynitrite (ONOO?) in the control of parasites by macrophages, which are both the host cells and the effector cells. We also discuss the role of neutrophil-derived oxygen and nitrogen reactive species during infection with Leishmania. We emphasize the role of these cells in the outcome of leishmaniasis early after infection, before the adaptive Th-cell immune response.
Horta, Maria Fatima; Mendes, Barbara Pinheiro; Roma, Eric Henrique; Noronha, Fatima Soares Motta; Macedo, Juan Pereira; Oliveira, Luciana Souza; Duarte, Myrian Morato; Vieira, Leda Quercia
As part of a World Health Organization-led effort to update the empirical evidence base for the leishmaniases, national experts provided leishmaniasis case data for the last 5 years and information regarding treatment and control in their respective countries and a comprehensive literature review was conducted covering publications on leishmaniasis in 98 countries and three territories (see ‘Leishmaniasis Country Profiles Text S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S11, S12, S13, S14, S15, S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S22, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27, S28, S29, S30, S31, S32, S33, S34, S35, S36, S37, S38, S39, S40, S41, S42, S43, S44, S45, S46, S47, S48, S49, S50, S51, S52, S53, S54, S55, S56, S57, S58, S59, S60, S61, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S67, S68, S69, S70, S71, S72, S73, S74, S75, S76, S77, S78, S79, S80, S81, S82, S83, S84, S85, S86, S87, S88, S89, S90, S91, S92, S93, S94, S95, S96, S97, S98, S99, S100, S101’). Additional information was collated during meetings conducted at WHO regional level between 2007 and 2011. Two questionnaires regarding epidemiology and drug access were completed by experts and national program managers. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence ranges were estimated by country and epidemiological region based on reported incidence, underreporting rates if available, and the judgment of national and international experts. Based on these estimates, approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cases and 0.7 to 1.2 million VL and CL cases, respectively, occur each year. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is more widely distributed, with about one-third of cases occurring in each of three epidemiological regions, the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, and western Asia from the Middle East to Central Asia. The ten countries with the highest estimated case counts, Afghanistan, Algeria, Colombia, Brazil, Iran, Syria, Ethiopia, North Sudan, Costa Rica and Peru, together account for 70 to 75% of global estimated CL incidence. Mortality data were extremely sparse and generally represent hospital-based deaths only. Using an overall case-fatality rate of 10%, we reach a tentative estimate of 20,000 to 40,000 leishmaniasis deaths per year. Although the information is very poor in a number of countries, this is the first in-depth exercise to better estimate the real impact of leishmaniasis. These data should help to define control strategies and reinforce leishmaniasis advocacy.
Velez, Ivan D.; Bern, Caryn; Herrero, Merce; Desjeux, Philippe; Cano, Jorge; Jannin, Jean
...Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed...recommended for use in dogs, shall be...Twenty-five parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates...drawn from each dog and tested for...antibody to canine parvovirus in the same...
...Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed...recommended for use in dogs, shall be...Twenty-five parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates...drawn from each dog and tested for...antibody to canine parvovirus in the same...
...false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.201 Section 113.201 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines Â§ 113.201 Canine...
...false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.201 Section 113.201 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines Â§ 113.201 Canine...
...113.300 and the requirements prescribed in this section. (1) To detect ferret virulent canine distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of the Master Seed Virus equivalent to...
...113.300 and the requirements prescribed in this section. (1) To detect ferret virulent canine distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of the Master Seed Virus equivalent to...
Ectopic eruption of maxillary canines can be associated with root resorption of adjacent teeth. This case report describes and discusses an interesting case of a 15-year-old girl with a Class III malocclusion and an impacted maxillary canine. Because of the unfavorable position of the ectopic canine and the severe root resorption of the maxillary left central and lateral incisors, the treatment options included extraction of the maxillary permanent canines. The mandibular first premolars were extracted to compensate for the Class III malocclusion. A panoramic radiograph taken earlier in the mixed dentition already indicated a possible eruption disturbance of the maxillary left permanent canine. The importance of early diagnosis of maxillary canine ectopic eruption is highlighted in this case report. The early identification of radiographic signs of an ectopic pathway of eruption should be followed by deciduous canine extraction to prevent canine retention and maxillary incisor root resorption. PMID:22858336
Garib, Daniela Gamba; Janson, Guilherme; Baldo, Taiana de Oliveira; dos Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra
Levels of the serum opsonin mannan-binding lectin (MBL) were directly correlated with the probability of developing visceral leishmaniasis. Monocytes infected with MBL-opsonized Leishmania chagasi promastigotes secreted higher levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 than cells infected with nonopsonized parasites. Our findings indicate that MBL can modulate the clinical outcome of infection with L. chagasi and the function of
I. K. F. de Miranda Santos; C. H. N. Costa; H. Krieger; M. F. Feitosa; D. Zurakowski; B. Fardin; R. B. B. Gomes; D. L. Weiner; D. A. Harn; R. A. B. Ezekowitz; J. E. Epstein
Studies were conducted from 1986 through 1993 to further define the geographic distribution and relative importance of different species of Leishmania as a cause of leishmaniasis in Peru. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of cutaneous and/or mucosal or diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were enrolled at the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment (NAMRID) Laboratory in Lima, the Tropical Disease Clinic at San Marcos University Daniel A. Carrión, the Central Military Hospital, and a Ministry of Health hospital in Cusco, Peru. Clinical features, lesion aspirates, and biopsy tissue were obtained from each patient. All specimens were collected and assayed separately, including multiple specimens from some of the same patients for Leishmania parasites by inoculating aliquots of either aspirates or biopsy tissue suspensions onto Senekji's blood agar medium. Stocks of Leishmania isolates were used to prepare promastigotes to produce extracts for identifying the Leishmania species by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis enzyme technique. A total of 351 isolates of Leishmania were obtained from 350 patients who were infected primarily in the low and high jungle of at least 15 different Departments of Peru. Of the 351 isolates, 79% were identified as L. (V.) braziliensis, 7% as L. (V.) guyanensis, 10% as L. (V.) peruviana, 2% as L. (V.) lainsoni, and 1.7% as L. (L.) amazonensis. The clinical form of disease varied depending on the species of Leishmania, with L. (V.) braziliensis being associated most frequently with cutaneous, mucosal ulcers and mixed cutaneous and mucosal disease, and L. (V) peruviana, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) lainsoni with cutaneous lesions. Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was isolated from six patients, three with cutaneous lesions, one with mucosal lesions, and two with diffuse cutaneous lesions. Among all of the leishmaniasis cases, males were affected more frequently, and cases occurred among patients less than 10 to more than 51 years of age. These data further defined the geographic distribution and the relative frequency of Leishmania species associated with different clinical forms of leishmaniasis in Peru. PMID:9715953
Lucas, C M; Franke, E D; Cachay, M I; Tejada, A; Cruz, M E; Kreutzer, R D; Barker, D C; McCann, S H; Watts, D M
This study of several techniques for detecting cryptic leishmaniasis in dogs from areas in Spain where Leishmania infantum is highly endemic concludes that immunological techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence antibody test, Western blotting, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, and in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay) do not clearly differentiate between noninfected and infected asymptomatic dogs and that culture and PCR are more reliable diagnostic tools.
Iniesta, Laura; Fernandez-Barredo, Salceda; Bulle, Beatrice; Gomez, M. Teresa; Piarroux, Renaud; Gallego, Montserrat; Alunda, Jose M.; Portus, Montserrat
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that is associated with a spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections, which primarily depends on the parasite species. In visceral leishmaniasis (VL), as opposed to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), parasites that infect host cells at the sand fly bite site have the striking ability to disseminate to visceral organs where they proliferate and persist for long periods of time. Imaging the dynamics of the host-Leishmania interaction in VL provides a powerful approach to understanding the mechanisms underlying host cell invasion, Leishmania dissemination and persistence within visceral organs and, to dissecting the immune responses to infection. Therefore, by allowing the visualization of the critical steps involved in the pathogenesis of VL, state-of-the-art microscopy technologies have the great potential to aid in the identification of better intervention strategies for this devastating disease. In this review, we emphasize the current knowledge and the potential significance of imaging technologies in understanding the infection process of visceralizing Leishmania species. Then, we discuss how application of innovative microscopy technologies to the study of VL will provide rich opportunities for investigating host-parasite interactions at a previously unexplored level and elucidating visceral disease-promoting mechanisms. PMID:23772814
Leishmaniasis is an endemic protozoan infection in Sardinia, one of the major islands of the Mediterranean Basin. We report two cases of endonasal primary Leishmaniasis, which is a very rare event in adult men who are immunocompetent, born in, and residents of Sardinia. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of intra and extracellular Leishmania amastigotes in the histological smear. Isoenzymatic characterization identified Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-111 in both cases. Laboratory and instrumental investigations excluded visceral involvement. Treatment with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantim) intralesional administration, 1 ml weekly for 4-5 weeks, led to complete resolution. The unusual location is likely a reflection an uncommon site of inoculation of the protozoa, transmitted by flying vectors. The patients were a shepherd and a farmer, respectively, both professions at high risk of infection because of their habits of sleeping outdoors under trees or in country cottages during spring and summer and exposed to sand fly bites. Although mucosal involvement and infection by Leishmania infantum, a potential cause of visceral leishmaniasis, the Sardinian patients experienced a benign disease course considering muco-cutaneous forms described in the New World. Differential diagnosis and early detection are necessary in order to start effective treatment and prevent more serious complications. PMID:19723479
Pau, Monica; Atzori, Laura; Aste, Natalia; Aste, Nicola
Familial and sporadic forms of narcolepsy exist in both humans and canines. Mutations in the hypocretin receptor 2 gene (Hcrtr 2) cause canine familial narcolepsy. In humans, mutations in hypocretin-related genes are rare, but cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 is undetectable in most sporadic cases. Using the canine model, we investigated (1) whether hypocretin deficiency is involved in sporadic cases and
Beth Ripley; Nobuhiro Fujiki; Mutsumi Okura; Emmanuel Mignot; Seiji Nishino
In this paper we discuss the use of accelerometers and Bluetooth to monitor canine pose in the context of common poses observed in urban search and rescue dogs. We discuss the use of the canine pose system in a disaster environment, and propose techniques for determining canine pose. In addition we discuss the challenges with this approach in such environments.
Cristina Ribeiro; Alexander Ferworn; Mieso Denko; James Tran; Chris Mawson
In this paper we discuss determining canine pose in the context of common poses observed in Urban Search and Rescue dogs through the use a sensor network made up of accelerometers. We discuss the use of the Canine Pose Estimation System in a disaster environment, and propose techniques for determining canine pose. In addition we discuss the challenges with this
Cristina Ribeiro; Alexander Ferworn; Mieso K. Denko; James Tran
The dog is an attractive model for genetic studies of complex disease. With drafts of the canine genome complete, a large number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are potentially useful for gene-mapping studies and empirical esti- mations of canine diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) are now available. Unfortunately, most canine SNPs remain uncharacterized, and the amount and quality of DNA
MELANIE LEE CHANG; R EBECCA LEE TERRILL; M ARIA M. BAUTISTA; E. J. Carlson; D. J. Dyer; K. L. Overall; S. P. Hamilton
Two HIV infected patients with visceral leishmaniasis and unusual cutaneous lesions are described. The first patient developed linear brown macules containing Leishmania parasites on the fingers and palms of the hands. This patient never received highly active antiretroviral treatment and the visceral leishmaniasis could not be cured even with liposomal amphotericin. In the second patient, Leishmania parasites were present in
Robert Colebunders; Katrien Depraetere; Thomas Verstraeten; Julian Lambert; Esther Hauben; Eric Van Marck; Toby Maurer; Anne-Laure Bañuls; Jean-Claude Dujardin
BACKGROUNDVisceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic parasitic infection that infects approximately 400 000 individuals annually, with a predilection towards early childhood.AIMSTo study the epidemiology of VL in childhood.METHODSVL is endemic in Malta, a small archipelago of islands in the centre of the Mediterranean with a total population approaching half a million. Notification of human cases of leishmaniasis is compulsory. Case
Victor Grech; Joseph Mizzi; Mariella Mangion; Cecil Vella
We present a case of a child with Leishmania infantum cutaneous leishmaniasis unresponsive to 2 courses of intravenous liposomal amphotericin B, a treatment failure that has not been reported in this Leishmania species. The patient responded to topical imiquimod and had no relapse. We review the literature on the treatment failure of liposomal amphotericin B for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:21829140
Hervás, Juan A; Martín-Santiago, Ana; Hervás, Daniel; Rojo, Estrella; Mena, Ana; Rocamora, Vicente; Dueñas, Joaquín
Pentavalent antimonial compounds, the mainstay in the treatment of the various forms of leishmaniasis, have considerable toxicity, are difficult to administer and expensive. We describe a safe and efficient therapeutic modality using a spring-loaded and air-powered device for the intralesional injection of a high-velocity meglumine antimoniate microspray in a patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Thomas Bogenrieder; Norbert Lehn; Michael Landthaler; Wilhelm Stolz
The humoral immune response against Leishmania braziliensis histone H1 by patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis is described. For this purpose, the protein was purified as a recombinant protein in a prokaryotic expression system and was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a collection of sera from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and Chagas' disease. The assays showed that L. braziliensis histone
Emma Carmelo; E. Martinez; A. C. Gonzalez; J. E. Pinero; Manuel E. Patarroyo; Antonio del Castillo; Basilio Valladares
Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis is a rare entity characterized by disseminated cutaneous nodules associated with specific anergy to leishmanial antigens. A low but not absent IFN-? expression by cells present in cutaneous lesions has been documented during the active phase of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study we confirm this observation, and extend it by showing a similar pattern in peripheral
Glória Bomfim; Cristiane Nascimento; Jackson Costa; Edgar M. Carvalho; Manoel Barral-Netto; Aldina Barral
Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico.
Gonzalez, Camila; Rebollar-Tellez, Eduardo A.; Ibanez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martinez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sanchez-Cordero, Victor
In South Korea, where avian influenza virus subtypes H3N2, H5N1, H6N1, and H9N2 circulate or have been detected, 3 genetically similar canine influenza virus (H3N2) strains of avian origin (A/canine/Korea/01/2007, A/canine/Korea/02/2007, and A/canine/Korea/03/2007) were isolated from dogs exhibiting severe respiratory disease. To determine whether the novel canine influenza virus of avian origin was transmitted among dogs, we experimentally infected beagles with this influenza virus (H3N2) isolate. The beagles shed virus through nasal excretion, seroconverted, and became ill with severe necrotizing tracheobronchitis and bronchioalveolitis with accompanying clinical signs (e.g., high fever). Consistent with histologic observation of lung lesions, large amounts of avian influenza virus binding receptor (SA? 2,3-gal) were identified in canine tracheal, bronchial, and bronchiolar epithelial cells, which suggests potential for direct transmission of avian influenza virus (H3N2) from poultry to dogs. Our data provide evidence that dogs may play a role in interspecies transmission and spread of influenza virus.
Song, Daesub; Kang, Bokyu; Lee, Chulseung; Jung, Kwonil; Ha, Gunwoo; Kang, Dongseok; Park, Seongjun; Park, Bongkyun
Current therapy for leishmaniasis is unsatisfactory because parenteral antimonial salts and pentamidine are associated with significant toxicity and failure rates. We examined the efficacy of KY62, a new, water-soluble, polyene antifungal, against cutaneous infection with Leishmania amazonensis and against visceral infection with Leishmania donovani in susceptible BALB/c mice. Mice were infected with L. amazonensis promastigotes in the ear pinna and in the tail and were treated with KY62 or amphotericin B. The cutaneous lesions showed a remarkable response to therapy with KY62 at a dose of 30 mg per kg of body weight per day. At this dose, the efficacy of KY62 was equivalent to or better than that of amphotericin B at 1 to 5 mg/kg/day. Mice infected intravenously with 107 L. donovani promastigotes and treated with KY62 showed a 4-log reduction in the parasite burden in the liver and spleen compared to untreated mice. These studies indicate potent activity of KY62 against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. amazoniensis and against experimental visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani.
Al-Abdely, Hail M.; Graybill, John R.; Bocanegra, Rosie; Najvar, Laura; Montalbo, Eleanor; Regen, Steven L.; Melby, Peter C.
Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.
Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki
Ectopic eruption with impaction of maxillary permanent canine teeth is a frequently encountered clinical problem. Surgical exposure and attachment of a gold chain to impacted maxillary canines is often required in order to bring them into the dental arch and to allow good alignment. The principle of radiographic parallax is employed to determine whether the impacted canine is placed buccal or palatal to adjacent teeth. Good flap design allows adequate access to the impacted tooth. Bone removal should be adequate to free the impacted crown to its greatest circumference. An orthodontic eyelet with a gold chain is then bonded to the crown of the impacted tooth. Use of a good bonding technique will minimize chances of bond failure necessitating a second surgical procedure. A traumatic surgical procedure will allow minimal postoperative complications and a rapid recovery. Clinical Relevance: This article describes a surgical technique to expose impacted maxillary canines and attach gold chains, to facilitate orthodontic alignment into the dental arch. The principle of radiographic parallax to determine the bucco-palatal position of impacted canines is also discussed. PMID:23094569
Mittal, Mohit; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan
Among the countries endemic for tropical diseases, Turkmenistan along with Uzbekistan has a special role to play in having basic scientific knowledge of leishmaniasis. This article summarizes the principal scientific findings in the course of the 20th century in respect of leishmaniasis and sand fly fevers. The most important results of studies on cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are cited. The role of different researchers in the epidemiology, epizootology, natural focality of these diseases, their clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are described in detail. The paper gives information obtained by the latest studies on the etiology of leishmaniasis. The most important publications on this topic are assessed. Particular emphasis is laid on the results of the Anti-Leishmaniasis Expedition carried out by the researchers of the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine to the Tedjen oasis of Turkmenistan. PMID:21395041
Ponirovski?, E N; Kondrashin, A V; Erokhin, P I; Annacharyeva, D
The aim of this study was to analyze the magnitude and trend of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) in the State of São Paulo from 1975 to 2008. An ecological study that classified municipalities according to the magnitude of transmission was performed. From 1975 to 1985, 1,281 cases of ATL were registered in 45 municipalities, rising to 258 municipalities and 4,093 cases from 1986 to 1995; and reaching 385 municipalities and 7,604 cases from 1996 to 2008. Lutzomyia intermedia s.l. was collected in most of the entomological surveys. In the classification of municipalities according to magnitude, 67.5% were observed to have a "small magnitude," 19.2% "moderate magnitude" and 13.3% "high magnitude." The highest incidences of ATL have been restricted to underserved areas close to the Atlantic forest. There was an increase in the number of municipalities with small occurrence of cases and expansion in the area of risk. PMID:23090308
da Silva, Rubens Antonio; Mercado, Vanessa Taís Cruz; Henriques, Lúcia de Fátima; Ciaravolo, Ricardo Mário de Carvalho; Wanderley, Dalva Marli Valério
The normal sonographic appearance of the adult canine gastrointestinal tract has been described. Interpretation of abdominal ultrasonographic findings in puppies is difficult due to the lack of information on normal ultrasonographic findings. The gastrointestinal tract, jejunal lymph node size and the presence and appearance of abdominal fluid were investigated in 23 normal, 7-12-week-old Beagle puppies. The duodenal wall thickness was greater than in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (mean 3.8 +/- standard deviation [SD] 5 mm, range 3.2-4.8 mm). The mean stomach wall thickness was 2.7 +/- SD 0.4 mm (range 2.2-3.7 mm), the mean jejunal wall thickness was 2.5 +/- SD 0.5 mm (range 1.2-3.4 mm), and the mean colonic wall thickness was 1.3 +/- SD 0.3 mm (range 0.7-2.0 mm). In addition, mean duodenal and jejunal mucosal layer thicknesses measured 2.7 +/- SD 0.5 mm (range 2.0-3.8 mm) and 1.5 +/- SD 0.4 mm (range 0.6-2.5 mm), respectively. Homogenous, hypoechoic jejunal lymph nodes were easily found and the mean thickness was 7.1 +/- SD 2.2 mm (range 1.5-12.5 mm). A mild amount of anechoic free peritoneal fluid was present in all puppies. PMID:20166399
Stander, Nerissa; Wagner, Wencke M; Goddard, Amelia; Kirberger, Robert M
Tropical canine pancytopenia (TCP) is a newly recognized infectious disease of dogs in diverse tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is characterized by hemorrhage, pancytopenia, severe emaciation and persistent infection. Dogs with TCP are often presented with epistaxis, which is the most dramatic sign of the disease; however, a large number of affected dogs develop severe pancytopenia and die without manifesting clinical signs of hemorrhage. The disease has been reported most frequently in the German Shepherd. Pathological findings consist of petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages on serosal and mucosal surfaces of numerous organs. The most prominent histological finding is a perivascular plasma cell infiltrate in most organs. Disease, indistinguishable from the natural disease, has been produced in laboratory dogs inoculated with whole blood from affected dogs. Ehrlichia canis has been consistently recovered from all experimentally infected dogs. Attempts to transmit the disease to other laboratory animals and to propagate the agent in cell cultures and embryonating eggs have been unsuccessful. The tick is the probable vector of the disease. PMID:16512116
Huxsoll, D L; Hildebrandt, P K; Nims, R M; Amyx, H L; Ferguson, J A
Usefulness of the rK39-Immunochromatographic Test, Direct Agglutination Test, and Leishmanin Skin Test for Detecting Asymptomatic Leishmania Infection in Children in a New Visceral Leishmaniasis Focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia
In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis–endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test.
Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefania; Canavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel
Canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease affects wild canids and may be a factor impacting the health and population dynamics of coyotes (Canis latrans). Coyotes may serve also as a potential reservoir for transmission of these parasites to domestic dogs. We investigated 920 coyotes harvested by hunters and trappers throughout Illinois (USA) from 1995-1997. The objectives of the study were to: 1) survey the regional prevalence and intensity of heartworms in coyotes in Illinois, 2) determine whether heartworm intensity correlates with physical condition, particularly body weight and winter fat levels, and 3) evaluate the relationship between heartworm infections and the reproductive success of females. Prevalence of heartworms statewide was 16.0%. Prevalence was significantly higher in males (17.7%) than in females (14.1%; P = 0.04) and was higher in the older age-classes (P < 0.0001). The regional prevalence of heartworms increased from northern to southern Illinois. Intensity ranged from 1 to 111 with a mean of 8.7 (SD = 13.2) worms. Intensities did not differ significantly between sexes (P = 0.53) or among age-classes (P = 0.84). Most infected coyotes had low intensity infections, 78.2% carried < 12 heartworms, 11.6% had 12-24 worms, and 10.2% were infected with > 24 worms. Body weights were not correlated with the presence of heartworms, nor were levels of kidney fat and marrow fat. However, reproductive success was lower in infected females. The percent of yearling females that bred was lower among infected females, as was the number of offspring produced by adults > or = 3.5 yr old. Our study demonstrates that heavy infections adversely affect fur quality and reduce fecundity of some females, but these effects are small and few coyotes (4.1%) had enough worms to trigger them. Coyote populations have increased in Illinois during the past 20 yr, but prevalence and intensity of heartworm disease appears to have changed little in that period. We conclude that heartworm disease is only a minor factor influencing coyote population dynamics in Illinois. PMID:14567221
Nelson, Thomas A; Gregory, David G; Laursen, Jeffrey R
In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator . The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium . In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989  and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991  showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission eigenvalue problem. The need to answer these questions became important after a series of papers by Cakoni et al , and Cakoni et al  suggesting that these transmission eigenvalues could be used to obtain qualitative information about the material properties of the scattering object from far-field data. The first answer to the existence of transmission eigenvalues in the general case was given in 2008 when Päivärinta and Sylvester showed the existence of transmission eigenvalues for the index of refraction sufficiently large  followed in 2010 by the paper of Cakoni et al who removed the size restriction on the index of refraction . More importantly, in the latter it was shown that transmission eigenvalues yielded qualitative information on the material properties of the scattering object and Cakoni et al established in  that transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the Tikhonov regularized solution of the far-field equation. Since the appearance of these papers there has been an explosion of interest in the transmission eigenvalue problem (we refer the reader to our recent survey paper  for a detailed account of the developments in this field up to 2012) and the papers in this special issue are representative of the myriad directions that this research has taken. Indeed, we are happy to see that many open theoretical and numerical questions raised in  have been answered (totally or partially) in the contributions of this special issue: the existence of transmission eigenvalues with minimal assumptions on the contrast, the numerical evaluation of transmission eigenvalues, the inverse spectral problem, applications to non-destructive testing, etc. In addition to these topics, many other new investigations and research directions have been proposed as we shall see in the brief content summary below. A number of papers in this special issue are concerned with the question of existence of transmission eigenvalues and the structure of the associated transmission eigenfunctions. The three papers by respectively Robbiano , Blasten and P
Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem
Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369
Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J
Canine hematopoietic tumors constitute a group of neoplasms that are frequently encountered in veterinary practice. Although common, they are also a diagnostically confusing group of tumors due to continued revision of their definition and classification. The confusion that arises from these changes presents the clinician with a perpetual challenge of diagnosis and therapy. Therapy of canine hematopoietic tumors has traditionally evolved from treatment of human patients with similar diseases, and in turn, these neoplasms have served as models for evaluating newer therapies for possible application in human patients. Methods of treatment have included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hyperthermia. 9 tabs.
Mammary mixed tumours are the most frequent neoplasias in female dogs. In humans, mixed tumours are frequently found in the salivary glands and are known as pleomorphic adenomas. In addition to their histomorphologic similarities, mixed tumours and pleomorphic adenomas have the potential to become malignant and give rise to carcinomas in mixed tumours and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma, respectively. The factors associated with malignant transformation are still poorly known in the case of canine mixed tumours. However, this form of neoplasia tends to be associated with a better prognosis than other malignant histological types. This paper discusses the main features associated with female canine mammary mixed tumours.
Dantas Cassali, Geovanni; Cavalheiro Bertagnolli, Angelica; Ferreira, Enio; Araujo Damasceno, Karine; de Oliveira Gamba, Conrado; Bonolo de Campos, Cecilia
The scattering of a time-harmonic plane wave in an inhomogeneous medium is modeled by the scattering problem for the Helmholtz equation. A transmission eigenvalue is a wavenumber at which the scattering operator has a non-trivial kernel or cokernel. Because many sampling methods for locating scatterers succeed only at wavenumbers that are not transmission eigenvalues, they have been studied for some
Lassi Päivärinta; John Sylvester
As the US FERC moves forward to implement the transmission access provisions of the National Energy Policy Act of 1992, the debate over Regional Transmission Groups continues. Independent energy producers have much at stake in this debate and their reaction to the general RTG concept and to specific RTG proposals will weigh heavily in determining the fate of these proposals.
Ellison, C.T. (Grueneich, Ellison Schneider, Sacramento, CA (United States))
The endangered Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was recently reintroduced into Arizona and New Mexico (USA). In 1999 and 2000, pups from three litters that were part of the reintroduction program died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. Overall, half (seven of 14) of the pups died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. The parents and their litters were analyzed for variation at the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene DRB1. Similar MHC genes are related to disease resistance in other species. All six of the surviving pups genotyped for the MHC gene were heterozygous while five of the pups that died were heterozygous and one was homozygous. Resistance to pathogens is an important aspect of the management and long-term survival of endangered taxa, such as the Mexican wolf. PMID:14733289
Hedrick, Philip W; Lee, Rhonda N; Buchanan, Colleen
Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the main emergent diseases in the Americas. As in other vector-transmitted diseases, its transmission is sensitive to the physical environment, but no study has addressed the nonstationary nature of such relationships or the interannual patterns of cycling of the disease. Methods and Findings We studied monthly data, spanning from 1991 to 2001, of CL incidence in Costa Rica using several approaches for nonstationary time series analysis in order to ensure robustness in the description of CL's cycles. Interannual cycles of the disease and the association of these cycles to climate variables were described using frequency and time-frequency techniques for time series analysis. We fitted linear models to the data using climatic predictors, and tested forecasting accuracy for several intervals of time. Forecasts were evaluated using “out of fit” data (i.e., data not used to fit the models). We showed that CL has cycles of approximately 3 y that are coherent with those of temperature and El Niño Southern Oscillation indices (Sea Surface Temperature 4 and Multivariate ENSO Index). Conclusions Linear models using temperature and MEI can predict satisfactorily CL incidence dynamics up to 12 mo ahead, with an accuracy that varies from 72% to 77% depending on prediction time. They clearly outperform simpler models with no climate predictors, a finding that further supports a dynamical link between the disease and climate.
Chaves, Luis Fernando; Pascual, Mercedes
Sixty-five patients were diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) on Margarita Island in the decade from 1990 to1999; 86.2% were <= 3 years old. All were leishmanin-negative at diagnosis. Evaluation of 23 cured patients in 1999 revealed that 22/23 had converted to leishmanin-positive; five had persisting antibodies to rK39 antigen, with no clinical evidence of disease. Leishmanin tests were positive in 20.2% of 1,643 healthy individuals from 417 households in endemic areas. Of the positive reactors, 39.8% were identified in 35 (8.4%) of the households, 15 of which had an antecedent case of VL, a serologically positive dog or both. Weak serological activity to rK39 antigen was detected in 3 of 488 human sera from the endemic areas. The presence of micro-foci of intense peri-urban transmission and the apparent absence of other Trypanosomatidae causing human disease offer a unique opportunity for the study of reservoirs, alternative vectors and evaluation of control measures on the Island. PMID:12563469
Zerpa, Olga; Ulrich, Marian; Benitez, Margarita; Avila, Concepción; Rodríguez, Vestalia; Centeno, Marta; Belizario, Doris; Reed, Steven G; Convit, Jacinto
This is the first report of cutaneous leishmaniasis in kangaroos where infection was acquired within Australia. The diagnosis is based on the clinical criteria used for humans, the lesion histopathology, the detection and isolation of parasites from the lesions, and the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes using the polymerase chain reaction. Despite a clear indication that the parasites belong to the genus Leishmania, no assignation to a known Leishmania species could be made using these or other less conserved genetic loci such as the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon repeat. As is the case in humans, some but not all animals harbouring lesions had antibodies to the isolated parasites or to several other Leishmania species. The isolated parasites displayed two well characterised Leishmania glycoconjugates, the lipophosphoglycan and proteophosphoglycan. They were infectious for mouse macrophages in vitro and established long-term infection at 33 degrees C but not at 37 degrees C. Our findings raise the possibility of transmission to humans, which may be unrecognised and suggest the possibility that imported species of Leishmania could become endemic in Australia. PMID:15111087
Rose, K; Curtis, J; Baldwin, T; Mathis, A; Kumar, B; Sakthianandeswaren, A; Spurck, T; Low Choy, J; Handman, E
Sandflies (Phlebotominae, Nematocera, Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan-borne diseases in humans, and these insects depend on the regulation of water balance to cope with the sudden and enormous intake of blood over a very short time period. The sandfly inventory of neuropeptides, including those that regulate diuretic processes, is completely unknown. Direct MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometric analysis of dissected ganglia of Phlebotomus papatasi, combined with a data-mining of sandfly genome 'contigs', was used to identify native CAPA-peptides, a peptide class associated with the regulation of diuresis in other hematophagous insects. The CAPA-peptides identified in this study include two CAPA-PVKs, differentially processed CAPA-PK, and an additional CAPA precursor peptide. The mass spectrometric analysis of different parts of the neuroendocrine system of the sandfly indicate that it represents the first insect which accumulates CAPA-PVKs exclusively in hormone release sites of abdominal ganglia and CAPA-PK (nearly) exclusively in the corpora cardiaca. Additionally, sandflies feature the smallest abdominal ganglia (~35 ?m) where CAPA-peptides could be detected so far. The small size of the abdominal ganglia does not appear to affect the development of the median neurosecretory system as it obviously does in another comparably small insect species, Nasonia vitripennis, in which no capa-gene expression was found. Rather, immunocytochemical analyses confirm that the general architecture in sandflies appears identical to that of much larger mosquitoes. PMID:23266568
Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne; Russell, William K; Hauser, Frank; Russell, David H; Li, Andrew; Nachman, Ronald J
Sera from 57 wolves (Canis lupus) in three areas of Alaska were evaluated for evidence of previous exposure to infectious canine hepatitis virus (ICHV) and canine distemper virus (CDV). Fifty-four sera (94.7%) were positive for ICHV exposure and four (7%) were positive for CDV exposure. All four CDV-reacting wolves also had titres to ICHV. The relatively common occurrence of ICHV
R. O. STEPHENSON
Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration. A Benzonase(®) digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38-45 %. PMID:24132487
Puig, Meritxell; Piedra, Jose; Miravet, Susana; Segura, María Mercedes
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a skin infection caused by the Leishmania species, an intracellular protozoan parasite that is transmitted by various species of female sandflies. According to the geographic distribution and vectors, leishmaniasis is classified as Old World or New World cutaneous leishmaniasis. In Korea, 24 cases of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis have been reported, but New World cutaneous leishmaniasis has not been reported as yet. A 37-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of a painful and erythematous nodule with two satellite papules on the left postauricular area and a papule on the left arm after traveling to the Amazon region in Brazil. After we performed skin biopsies of the lesions, diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis was made by the histopathological findings. After intralesional injection of sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam®, GlaxoSmithKline) twice a week for 4 weeks, the lesions improved with scarring. Herein, we discuss this case of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis that was successfully treated with intralesional injection of sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam®) in Korea.
Shin, Ji Yeon; Lee, Young Bok; Cho, Baik Kee
The pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in leishmaniasis patients are, to a great extent, unknown. We examined and characterized the pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in a group of patients with Old World (Leishmania major) cutaneous leishmaniasis. Miltefosine plasma concentrations were determined in samples taken during and up to 5 months after the end of treatment from 31 Dutch military personnel who contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis in Afghanistan and were treated with 150 mg miltefosine/day for 28 days. Samples were analyzed with a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 4 ng/ml. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed with nonlinear mixed-effect modeling, using NONMEM. The pharmacokinetics of miltefosine could best be described by an open two-compartment disposition model, with a first elimination half-life of 7.05 days and a terminal elimination half-life of 30.9 days. The median concentration in the last week of treatment (days 22 to 28) was 30,800 ng/ml. The maximum duration of follow-up was 202 days after the start of treatment. All analyzed samples contained a concentration above the LLOQ. Miltefosine is eliminated from the body much slower than previously thought and is therefore still detectable in human plasma samples taken 5 to 6 months after the end of treatment. The presence of subtherapeutic miltefosine concentrations in the blood beyond 5 months after treatment might contribute to the selection of resistant parasites, and moreover, the measures for preventing the teratogenic risks of miltefosine treatment should be reconsidered.
Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; van Thiel, Pieter P. A. M.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; Keizer, Ron J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Beijnen, Jos H.; de Vries, Peter J.
Narcolepsy is currently treated with anti-depressants to control REM-related symptoms such as cataplexy and with amphetamine-like stimulants for the management of sleepiness. Both stimulant and antidepressant drugs presynaptically enhance monoaminergic transmission but both classes of compounds lack pharmacological specificity. In order to determine which monoamine is selectively involved in the therapeutic effect of these compounds, we examined the effects of selective monoamine uptake inhibitors and release enhancers on cataplexy using a canine model of the human disorder. A total of 14 compounds acting on the adrenergic (desipramine, nisoxetine, nortriptyline, tomoxetine, viloxazine), serotoninergic (fenfluramine, fluoxetine, indalpine, paroxetine, zimelidine) and dopaminergic (amfonelic acid, amineptine, bupropion, GBR 12909) systems were tested. Some additional compounds interesting clinically but with less pharmacological selectivity, i.e., cocaine, dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate, nomifensine and pemoline, were also included in the study. All compounds affecting noradrenergic transmission completely suppressed canine cataplexy at low doses in all dogs tested, whereas compounds which predominantly modified serotoninergic and dopaminergic transmission were either inactive or partially active at high doses. Our results demonstrate the preferential involvement of adrenergic systems in the control of cataplexy and, presumably, REM sleep atonia. Our findings also demonstrate that canine narcolepsy is a useful tool in assessing the pharmacological specificity of antidepressant drugs. PMID:7862832
Mignot, E; Renaud, A; Nishino, S; Arrigoni, J; Guilleminault, C; Dement, W C
Abstract Recurrence of mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is frequent, but the causative mechanisms are unknown.,Our aim,was,to compare,cellular and,cytokine,patterns,of lesions from,ML that evolved,to recurrence,or cure in order to determine,the risk factor associated,with recurrence. Lesions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry before and after therapy, and patients were followed-up,for five years. Higher levels of CD4, activity, in addition to a poor regulatory response, could underlie
Felipe Francisco Tuon; Adriano Gomes-Silva; Alda Maria Da-Cruz
Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is an infectious cell line circulating in many feral dog populations. It originated once, about 10,000 years ago. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial sequences from dogs, wolves, and a geographically diverse collection of CTVT samples indicate that the cancer has periodically acquired mitochondria from its host. We suggest that this may be because the cancer's own mitochondria have a tendency to degenerate, due to high mutation rates and relaxed selection, resulting in host mitochondria being more fit. PMID:21252340
Rebbeck, Clare A; Leroi, Armand M; Burt, Austin
The war on drugs has resulted in numerous policing reforms, partly a function of policy established through the court system. In Illinois v. Caballes (2005), the Supreme Court held that a canine sniff of a vehicle’s exterior is not a ‘‘search,’’ but acknowledged that a prolonged detention could result in a Fourth Amendment violation. This study examines the universe of
Narcolepsy-cataplexy is a disabling neurological disorder that affects 12000 individuals. The main clinical features of narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness and symptoms of abnormal REM sleep (cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations) are currently treated using amphetamine-like compounds or modafinil and antidepressants. Pharmacological research in the area is facilitated greatly by the existence of a canine model of the disorder. The mode
SEIJI NISHINO; EMMANUEL MIGNOT
BACKGROUND: Evolution has resulted in large repertoires of olfactory receptor (OR) genes, forming the largest gene families in mammalian genomes. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of olfactory receptors is essential if we are to understand the differences in olfactory sensory capability between individuals. Canine breeds constitute an attractive model system for such investigations. RESULTS: We sequenced 109 OR genes considered
Stéphanie Robin; Sandrine Tacher; Maud Rimbault; Amaury Vaysse; Stéphane Dréano; Catherine André; Christophe Hitte; Francis Galibert
Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is still at an investigational stage, and varying methods have been described in the literature. These include the transabdominal preperitoneal approach, the intraperitoneal onlay mesh procedure, and the extraperitoneal approach. This study evaluates the differences in macroscopic adhesion formation between transabdominal preperitoneal mesh placement, intraperitoneal onlay mesh procedures, and extraperitoneal mesh placement in a canine model.
B. Schlechter; J. Marks; R. B. Shillingstad; J. L. Ponsky
This review summarizes the current knowledge about the emergence of canine parvovirus from an ancestor virus similar to feline panleukopenia virus most likely from a wild carnivore host. The recent evolution of CPV, namely the emergence of new antigenic types, their biological properties and global distribution are also discussed.
Although canine rabies has been eliminated from industrialized countries, infected dogs remain the primary source of human and livestock exposures in Asia, Africa and much of South America. Human deaths are the most important direct economic impact of canine rabies, followed by livestock losses and the cost of PEP, while expenses associated with dog vaccination and control are major indirect impacts. The global burden of rabies disproportionately affects Asia, which experiences more than half of human rabies deaths and approximately 65% of livestock losses, and performs more than 90% of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Africa is second to Asia in terms of human deaths and livestock losses, but administers the least number of PEPs of the three regions. Recent experience in Latin America shows that efforts to reduce human deaths from rabies through expanded dog vaccination and improved access to PEP result in significant monetary savings. The elimination of canine rabies would lead to major economic benefits in developing countries that are often the least capable of dealing with the disease. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on the elimination of canine rabies. PMID:23499650
Shwiff, Stephanie; Hampson, Katie; Anderson, Aaron
ExtractCanine hip dysplasia was first recognized 40 years ago (Schnelle, 1935) and since then it has been accepted as a common pathological condition of the coxofemoral joint. It is a disease that is characterized by an abnormal laxity of the joint which may or may not cause clinical signs of hind-limb lameness. Although it appears to be most prevalent in
T. J. Quinlan
Laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is a serious challenge for the otolaryngologist. Although progress has been made in preventing and treating LTS, more research is required. Existing canine models for LTS incur high mortality and morbidity, require relatively complicated procedures or costly equipment, entail lengthy waiting periods, or have unpredictable results. A simple, reliable, and inexpensive procedure, requiring no tracheotomy, is described
RON ELIASHAR; ISAAC ELIACHAR; TERRY GRAMLICH; RAMON ESCLAMADO; MARSHAL STROME
To evaluate the association of oral Treponema (T.) spp. with severity of canine periodontitis, subgingival plaque samples of dogs of various breeds undergoing surgery were investigated. A wide range of oral Treponema spp. was analysed by a molecular and culture-independent approach applying DNA–DNA dot blot hybridization analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization using Treponema specific oligonucleotide probes specific for phylogenetic
Marcel Nordhoff; Bärbel Rühe; Claudia Kellermeier; Annette Moter; Rose Schmitz; Leo Brunnberg; Lothar H. Wieler
An 11-week-old, female Alaskan husky dog housed outdoors in the Yukon, Canada, was diagnosed with infectious canine hepatitis. The predisposing factors in this puppy for such a rare disease included inappropriate vaccination program, potential contact with endemic wildlife, and immunosuppression due to prednisone treatment. PMID:23633720
Wong, Valerie M; Marche, Candace; Simko, Elemir
The presence of estrogen receptor in 67 canine mammary lesions was correlated with pathological features of the dis ease. All tissue specimens were analyzed for estrogen receptor content by a sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation method pre viously used in analyzing human breast cancer cytosols. Patho logical features of the tissues were assessed by a veterinary pathologist without knowledge of results of
E. G. MacEwen; A. K. Patnaik; H. J. Harvey; W. B. Panko
The aims of this study were to investigate the serum and tissue content of androgens and estrogens in canine inflammatory mammary carcinomas (IMC) as well as in non-inflammatory malignant mammary tumors (MMT), and assessed the immunoexpression of estrogen and androgen receptors using immunohistochemistry. Profiles for the androgens dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (A4), and testosterone (T), and for the estrogens 17? estradiol
Juan C. Illera; Maria D. Pérez-Alenza; Ana Nieto; Maria A. Jiménez; Gema Silvan; Susana Dunner; Laura Peña
Abstract A 9.52 kg, 9-year-old, spayed female beagle was presented with the chief complaint of abdominal distention of 1 week’s duration. A presumptive diagnosis of canine intestinal lymphangectasia was arrived at by exclusion of other causes for the patient’s ascites. The patient was successfully treated with dietary modification and immunosuppressive therapy.
Ten 3-month-old Tibetan mastiffs became ill 2 days after they were bought from a Tibetan mastiff exhibition, and 4 of them died 2 weeks later. A canine influenza virus (ZJ0110) was isolated from the lung of a deceased Tibetan mastiff and was characterized in detail. Sequence analysis indicated that the 8 genes of the canine isolate were most similar to those of avian-origin canine influenza viruses (H3N2) isolated in South Korea in 2007, with which they shared >98% sequence identity. ZJ0110 could experimentally infect 6-month-old beagles by intranasal inoculation and by airborne transmission, causing severe respiratory syndrome. Moreover, ZJ0110 could replicate in the upper respiratory tracts of mice and guinea pigs, and the virus titer was comparable to that in the upper respiratory tracts of dogs. Although the virus was genetically of avian origin, ZJ0110 could not experimentally infect chicken or ducks by intranasal inoculation. These results suggest that dogs might be an intermediary host in which avian influenza viruses adapt to replicate in mammals. PMID:23107656
Teng, Qiaoyang; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Dawei; Zhou, Jiewen; Dai, Xiaoguang; Chen, Zhaoguo; Li, Zejun
This study was designed to investigate the morphological features of osteogenic cultures that were established from canine marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Tripotent canine MSCs were plated in osteogenic conditions for 3 weeks, at the end of which the cultures were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the culture was determined during the differentiation period. To assess whether endochondral or intramembranous ossification was involved in MSC bone differentiation, the cultures were explored for cartilage-related gene expression. Multiple nodule-like cell aggregates appeared to form in the osteogenic cultures. These nodules were covered by a periosteum-like layer and osteocyte-like cells of varying morphology were located in lacuna-like cavities within the nodule mass. Furthermore, the bone nodules possessed an abundant matrix in which clearly striated collagen I fibres were arranged in perpendicular bundles. Matrix vesicles involving in matrix mineralization were evident in the nodules. This was in accordance with increased ALP activity in the culture. No expression of cartilage-related genes was observed, which suggested that osteogenesis might occur by intramembranous ossification. In conclusion, canine MSCs could be an appropriate model for studying in vitro bone development. PMID:20594192
Eslaminejad, M B; Taghiyar, L
Artemisinin is a sesquitrepenelactone with an endoperoxide bridge. It is a naturally occurring substance from Artemisia species plants. Artemisia species have been used in oriental medicine for centuries to treat malaria, gastrointestinal helminthosia, diarrhea, and as an antipyretic and sedative agent. Antileishmanial activity of the plants has been announced a few years ago. Dogs are the most important reservoir of leishmaniasis in some parts of the world. To use it as an antileishmanial drug in dogs, its side effects on different organs, among them the kidney as the organ of elimination have to be elucidated. Artemisinin with different concentrations (0.15, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 ?g/ml) was added to the culture of MDCK (Madin darby canine kidney) cells with and without iron (86 ?g/dl). All the changes were controlled and photographed every 12 hours using an invert microscope. After 60 hours, supernatants and cell extracts were examined for LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) concentration and total protein. Also TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) test was performed on cell extracts. Some microscopic slides were prepared from the cells and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic exams. Biochemical parameters showed cellular reaction and injury in a concentration dependent manner. Cell injury was more severe in the iron-added groups. Microscopic exams showed cell and nuclear swelling, granular degeneration, vacuole and vesicle formation, cellular detachment, piknosis, karyorrhexis, cellular necrosis and inhibition of new mitosis. On using the drug for leishmaniasis treatment in the dog, it should be done with caution and supervision.
Zare, Payman; Mohammadpour, Hemn; Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Hossein
SUMMARY Ninety percent of the 500,000 annual new cases of visceral leishmaniasis occur in India/Bangladesh/Nepal, Sudan and Brazil. Importantly, 80-90% of human infections are sub-clinical or asymptomatic, usually associated with strong cell-mediated immunity. Understanding the environmental and genetic risk factors that determine why two people with the same exposure to infection differ in susceptibility could provide important leads for improved therapies. Recent research using candidate gene association analysis and genome-wide linkage studies (GWLS) in collections of families from Sudan, Brazil and India have identified a number of genes/regions related both to environmental risk factors (e.g. iron), as well as genes that determine type 1 versus type 2 cellular immune responses. However, until now all of the allelic association studies carried out have been underpowered to find genes of small effect sizes (odds ratios or OR<2), and GWLS using multicase pedigrees have only been powered to find single major genes, or at best oligogenic control. The accumulation of large DNA banks from India and Brazil now makes it possible to undertake genome-wide asscociation studies (GWAS), which are ongoing as part of phase two of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Data from this analysis should seed research into novel genes and mechanisms that influence susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis.
BLACKWELL, J. M.; FAKIOLA, M.; IBRAHIM, M. E.; JAMIESON, S.E.; JERONIMO, S. B.; MILLER, E. N.; MISHRA, A.; MOHAMED, H. S.; PEACOCK, C. S.; RAJU, M.; SUNDAR, S.; WILSON, M. E.
Leishmaniasis is endemic in the Middle East, and both cutaneous and visceral forms are reported from the region ranging from the Levant to Afghanistan. The potential and proven phlebotomine sand fly vectors and reservoir hosts of the Leishmaniases species in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and Yemen are described. This region has seen a movement of populations across the area, due to both military and civilian strife. Refugees, armed forces, and multi-national contractors are particularly at risk to acquire this disease. There has been an upsurge in Leishmaniasis research, especially as new foci are exposed and the need to protect the naïve populations moving into endemic areas becomes a public health priority. New sand fly vectors and animal reservoirs have been discovered while novel control methods are being evaluated. Modern molecular techniques are now being used more routinely and revealing some unusual findings. The aim of this review is to collate the most recent data on the burden of the disease, diagnostic applications, eco-epidemiology of vectors, and reservoir hosts, and how the control projects have been developing in the Middle East. PMID:20846030
Jacobson, Raymond L
Without doubt the single most important constraint on assessing the value of vector control in leishmaniasis control is the lack of well documented examples of intervention; information is usually anecdotal and therefore it is simply not possible to evaluate precisely the significance of sandfly control in disease control. Where the vector is peri-domestic, house spraying with residual insecticides has been employed, but this has usually been as a by-product of anti-malarial control (e.g. N.E.India). Increasing incidence of leishmaniasis following the cessation of mosquito control is cited as evidence of efficacy. However, habitat modification such as the destruction of mammal reservoirs and their burrows, has been effective in arid regions of the Middle East and Central Asia, and forest clearance in combination with insecticides in French Guiana. There have been several imaginative attempts at controlling sandflies by applying insecticides to non-domestic resting sites (eg. emergent trees in rain-forest; termite hills in Kenya and S. Ethiopia) but these have met with varying degrees of success. Fortunately there is little evidence of insecticide resistance. Therefore, there is still scope for exploring control methods based on either the systematic application of insecticides alone, the impregnation of nets or curtains, or even the use of insecticides or chemosterilants in conjunction with an attractant (eg. sugar or pheromones). PMID:1793281
Lane, R P
Leishmaniasis is caused by the infection of haemoparasite Leishmania . The disease is a major public health problem in at least 88 countries, including India. Various species of Leishmania are involved in causing this disease. In India, Leishmania donovani species causes visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar. The parasite is mainly transmitted from infected to uninfected person through the bites of female sandfly. Rarely the parasite can transmit through placenta from mother to child, through sexual intercourse, as laboratory acquired and through blood transfusion. This paper reports a unique case of transfusion-transmitted fatal kala-azar in an Indian infant who acquired this infection within few days of his birth after receiving blood from his maternal uncle, who was asymptomatic at the time of blood donation but died due to severe kala-azar within three months. The baby started having fever and developed hepatosplenomegaly within one month of blood transfusion and in spite of repeated anti-leishmanial treatment with sodium antimony gluconate the child died at the age of 7 months. This paper details the clinico-pathological findings of this child and also reviews the literature on this aspect and its impact on transfusion medicine. PMID:16912434
Dey, A; Singh, S
Andrographolide (AG) is a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. AG is a potent and low-toxicity antileishmanial agent. Chemotherapy applications of AG are, however, seriously constrained because of poor bioavailability, short plasma half-life, and inappropriate tissue localization. Nanoparticulation of AG was therefore envisaged as a possible solution. AG nanoparticles (AGnp) loaded in 50:50 poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolic acid) were prepared for delivery into the monocyte–macrophage cells infested with the amastigote form of leishmanial parasite for evaluation in the chemotherapy of leishmaniasis. Particle characteristics of AGnp were optimized by proportionate application of a stabilizer, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Physicochemical characterization of AGnp by photon correlation spectroscopy exhibited an average particle size of 173 nm and zeta potential of ?34.8 mV. Atomic force microscopy visualization revealed spherical nanoparticles with a smooth surface. Antileishmanial activity was found to be significant for the nanoparticle preparation with 4% PVA (IC50 34 ?M) in about one-fourth of the dosage of the pure compound AG (IC50 160 ?M). AGnp therefore have significant potential to target the infested macrophage cells and prove valuable in chemotherapy of neglected tropical diseases such as leishmaniasis.
Roy, Partha; Das, Suvadra; Bera, Tanmoy; Mondol, Subhasis; Mukherjee, Arup
Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Resembling Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania donovani in Three Patients Co-Infected with Visceral Leishmaniasis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Ethiopia
We report paired strains of Leishmania parasites, one from the viscera and the other from skin lesions that were isolated from three patients with visceral leishmaniasis and disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis that were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The causative parasites were characterized by polymerase chain reaction–restriction length polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and by a panel of multilocus microsatellite markers. We demonstrated that the causative agent was Leishmania donovani in all cases, irrespective of the phenotype of the disease. The paired strains from viscera and skin lesions of the same patients showed genetic identity across the 14 microsatellite markers investigated. These findings demonstrate that the skin lesions in these human immunodeficiency virus–positive patients with visceral leishmaniasis were caused by dissemination of viscerotropic L. donovani parasites as a consequence of severe immunosuppression. However, in all three patients, rapid clearance of the skin lesions was observed after antimonial therapy.
Gelanew, Tesfaye; Hurissa, Zewdu; Diro, Ermias; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Kuhls, Katrin; Schonian, Gabriele; Hailu, Asrat
Background The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. Methodology/Principal finding In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. Conclusion The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi.
Casanova, Claudio; Andrighetti, Maria T. M.; Sampaio, Susy M. P.; Marcoris, Maria L. G.; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Prado, Angelo P.
Background The question "Where have you been?" is a common one asked by doctors in Northern Europe and America when faced with clinical symptoms not typical of their country. This question must also arise in the clinics of developing countries in which non-autochthonous cases such as the one described here can appear. Important outbreaks of Leishmania infantum have been recorded in the last decade in several Latin American countries but its presence has not yet been recorded in Argentina. We report the first case of visceral leishmaniasis owing to L. infantum in this country. Case presentation A 71-year-old Spanish woman who has been living in Mendoza, Argentina, during the last 40 years presented with a history of high fever and shivering, anemia, leukopenia and splenomegaly over two years. Argentinian doctors did not suspect visceral leishmaniasis even when the histological analysis revealed the presence of "intracytoplasmatic spheroid particles compatible with fungal or parasitic infection". After a serious deterioration in her health, she was taken to Spain where she was evaluated and visceral leishmaniasis was established. Specific identification of the parasite was done by PCR-ELISA, isoenzyme electrophoresis and RAPD-PCR. Conclusion We would like to point out that: i) cases such as the one described here, which appear in non-endemic areas, can pass unnoticed by the clinical physician. ii) in countries in which these introduced cases reside, in-depth parasitological studies are required into vectors and possible reservoirs to rule out the rare case of local infection and, once infection has taken place, to ensure that this does not spread by anthroponotic transmission or a competent reservoir.
Martin-Sanchez, Joaquina; Navarro-Mari, Jose M; Pasquau-Liano, Juan; Salomon, Oscar D; Morillas-Marquez, Francisco
Background: Sand flies of subgenus Adlerius has a wide geographical distribution in Iran and are mostly found in wild form in mountainous areas. They are always considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to determine the Adlerius species and its composition in an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of the country. Methods: Sand flies were collected from 6 different areas of Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province using sticky paper traps from August to September which is active season for sand flies in this area, in 2009. The flies were mounted and identified. The length of third antennal segments, ascoid, labrum, coxite, surstyle, style, aedeagus, genital filament, genital pump, width of style, and the end of aedeagus were measured and the number of costal hairs group was also counted as the morphological characters. Results: A total of 30 adult sand flies, (26 males and 4 females) including Phlebotomus halepensis (46.8%), P. longiductus (13.3%), P. balcanicus (23.3%), P. comatus (3.3%), and Adlerius spp. (13.3%) belong to subgenus Adlerius were identified respectively in 6 counties. One P. comatus male was captured in front of a cave located in the hillside of a mountain covered with the vegetation in Varzeqan area. Conclusion: The presence of at least 5 species of the subgenus Adlerius in Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province, an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iran, shows that the risk of parasite transmission among man and reservoir animals is high during the active season of sand flies. P. comatus is a new record for Iran and needs to be added to the list of Iranian phlebotomines of subgenus Adlerius.
Zahraei-Ramazani, Ali Reza; Kumar, Dinesh; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Naghian, Abdollah; Jafari, Reza; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Abdoli, Hamid; Soleimani, Hassan; Shareghi, Niloofar; Ghanei, Maryam; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali
Partial contents: Experimental Infections with Geographical Isolates of Leishmaniasis; Immunity to L. donovani in the Golden Hamster; Courses of Infection of WR503 Strain in Hamsters Following IC Inoculation of Promastigotes; Effect of Cortisone (2.5 mg/1...
J. P. Farrell
The current interest in leishmaniasis stems from the importance of this disease with respect to travel medicine, veterans of Operation Desert Storm, humanitarian concerns, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Herein, I review aspects of leishmaniasis that are of practical value to practitioners, including presentation, diagnosis, and chemotherapy; I will emphasize advances in chemotherapy over the last 10 years. Amphotericin B and its new lipid formulations are now competitive with pentavalent antimony as primary therapy for visceral leishmaniasis. Pentamidine, paromomycin, and adjunctive therapy with interferon-gamma are secondary regimens for the treatment of this condition. High-dose long-term regimens of antimony have been shown to be highly effective for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Preliminary evidence of efficacy has been observed with short courses of pentamidine for the treatment of Leishmania braziliensis complex disease and topical paromomycin/methylbenzethonium chloride for the treatment of Leishmania major disease. PMID:9145744
Berman, J D
Two HIV infected patients with visceral leishmaniasis and unusual cutaneous lesions are described. The first patient developed linear brown macules containing Leishmania parasites on the fingers and palms of the hands. This patient never received highly active antiretroviral treatment and the visceral leishmaniasis could not be cured even with liposomal amphotericin. In the second patient, Leishmania parasites were present in a skin biopsy of a fibrous histiocytoma. After completing visceral leishmaniasis treatment, a discrete elevation of one of his tattoos was seen. A biopsy specimen of this tattoo revealed Leishmania amastigotes. In this patient the visceral leishmaniasis was finally cured with meglumine antimoniate, followed by pentacarinat isothianate as maintenance therapy in conjunction with highly active antiretroviral treatment. PMID:10534667
Colebunders, R; Depraetere, K; Verstraeten, T; Lambert, J; Hauben, E; Van Marck, E; Maurer, T; Bañuls, A L; Dujardin, J C
Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Surinam is generally caused by infection by Leishmania guyanensis. We report three cases of infection with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi, a Leishmania species not described from Surinam before. Treatment with pentamidine proved to be effective.
van Thiel, Pieter-Paul A. M.; van Gool, Tom; Kager, Piet A.; Bart, Aldert
Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis causes three main types of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL), localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), and disseminated leishmaniasis (DL). All forms are observed among individuals of Corte de Pedra, Brazil. We previously used random amplified markers to identify a multiclonal population among L. (V.) braziliensis isolates from ATL patients, defining parasite clades associated with different clinical syndromes. Herein we compared sequences of random amplified markers to identify genotypes of L. (V.) braziliensis recovered from lesions of CL, ML, and DL patients. Six polymorphic genomic loci were sequenced from 35 parasite isolates. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions-deletions (indels) at each locus allowed us to segregate the L. (V.) braziliensis population according to haplotypes. Several SNPs, indels, and haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk of DL. Molecular genotyping may provide markers to identify L. (V.) braziliensis strains likely to cause this emerging, hard-to-treat form of ATL.
Queiroz, Adriano; Sousa, Rosana; Heine, Claudia; Cardoso, Manuela; Guimaraes, Luiz Henrique; Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Riley, Lee W.; Wilson, Mary E.
Guatemalans with parasitologically proven cutaneous leishmaniasis were randomly and equally divided into 3 treatment groups: those receiving sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), 20 mg antimony/kg/day iv for 20 days; those receiving ketoconazole (600 mg/day ...
T. R. Navin
The purpose of this study was to determine the PGE2concentration in naturally-occurring cancer in pet dogs and in canine cancer cell lines in order to identify specific types of canine cancer with high PGE2production which could serve as preclinical models to evaluate anticancer strategies targeting PGE2. PGE2concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay in canine melanoma, soft tissue sarcoma, transitional cell
S. I. Mohammed; K. Coffman; N. W. Glickman; M. G. Hayek; D. J. Waters; D. Schlittler; D. B. DeNicola; D. W. Knapp
P-cadherin is a classical cadherin expressed by myoepithelial cells in mammary tissue. Its expression in human breast cancer has been associated with aggressive tumour behaviour. To analyse the possible role of P-cadherin in canine mammary carcinogenesis, its expression was examined immunohistochemically in 82 samples of normal (n=2), hyperplastic (n=11) and neoplastic (n=69) canine mammary tissues. In normal and hyperplastic canine
A Gama; J Paredes; A Albergaria; F Gartner; F Schmitt
Prion diseases range from being highly infectious, for example scrapie and CWD, which show facile transmission between susceptible individuals, to showing negligible horizontal transmission, such as BSE and CJD, which are spread via food or iatrogenically, respectively. Scrapie and CWD display considerable in vivo dissemination, with PrPSc and infectivity being found in a range of peripheral tissues. This in vivo dissemination appears to facilitate the recently reported excretion of prion through multiple routes such as from skin, feces, urine, milk, nasal secretions, saliva and placenta. Furthermore, excreted scrapie and CWD agent is detected within environmental samples such as water and on the surfaces of inanimate objects. The cycle of “uptake of prion from the environment—widespread in vivo prion dissemination—prion excretion—prion persistence in the environment” is likely to explain the facile transmission and maintenance of these diseases within wild and farmed populations over many years.
Maddison, Ben C
The main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Suriname is Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. This case report presents a patient infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, a species never reported before in Suriname. This finding has clinical implications, because L. braziliensis has a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a more extensive and destructive form of CL that requires different treatment. Clinicians should be aware that chronic cutaneous ulcers in patients from the Guyana region could be caused by L. braziliensis. PMID:22556081
Hu, Ricardo V P F; Kent, Alida D; Adams, Emily R; van der Veer, Charlotte; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Mans, Dennis R A; de Vries, Henry J C; Schallig, Henk D F H; Lai A Fat, Rudy F M
Cytokine-inducible (or type 2) nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is indispensable for the resolution of Leishmania major or Leishmania donovani infections in mice. In contrast, little is known about the expression and function of iNOS in human leishmaniasis. Here, we show by immunohistological analysis of skin biopsies from Mexican patients with local (LCL) or diffuse (DCL) cutaneous leishmaniasis that the expression
Muna Qadoumi; Inge Becker; Norbert Donhauser; Martin Rollinghoff; Christian Bogdan
In 1996, an epidemic outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) started in Barbar el Fugara, a village in Gedarif State (eastern Sudan). From 1997 to 2000, regular epidemiological studies were carried out in the human population, as well as in mammals and sand flies. In symptomatic patients, 46\\/69 lymph node, 6\\/20 post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and 1\\/4 cutaneous cultures in NNN medium were
Jacques Dereure; Sayda Hassan El-Safi; Bruno Bucheton; Mickaël Boni; Musa Mohamed Kheir; Bernard Davoust; Francine Pratlong; Eric Feugier; Monique Lambert; Alain Dessein; Jean-Pierre Dedet
Despite a plethora of publications on the murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis and their contribution to our understanding\\u000a of the factors that regulate the development of CD4+ T cell immunity in vivo, there is still no effective vaccine against\\u000a the human disease. While recovery from natural or experimental infection with Leishmania major, the causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis, results in
Ifeoma Okwor; Jude Uzonna
Here we describe a case of paediatric visceral leishmaniasis recorded in an infant initially suspected for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia due to the clinical and haematological presentation. Eventually the patient was found positive for Leishmania infantum infection and successfully treated. This case emphasises how pivotal a ‘One Health’ approach is for diagnosing this zoonotic disease; highlighting the importance of including Visceral Leishmaniasis in the differential diagnosis of leukaemia-like syndromes in infants travelling to, and living in, the Mediterranean region.
Ether-lipids and alkylphosphocholines have been found to have anti-leishmanial activity. Oral treatment with hexadecylphosphocholine (HePC) efficiently reduces parasite burden in murine visceral leishmaniasis. Drugs for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis are most commonly administered parenterally, whereas efficient drugs for topical treatment are not in current use. Here we investigate the efficacy of topical treatment with HePC in mice infected with
Ruprecht Schmidt-Ott; Thomas Klenner; Peter Overath; Toni Aebischer
BackgroundCutaneous leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is in Ethiopia mainly caused by the parasite Leishmania aethiopica. This neglected tropical disease is common in rural areas and causes serious morbidity. Persistent nonhealing cutaneous leishmaniasis has been associated with poor T cell mediated responses; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe have recently shown in an experimental model of
Tamrat Abebe; Asrat Hailu; Mihretu Woldeyes; Woinshet Mekonen; Kassahun Bilcha; Thomas Cloke; Lionel Fry; Nafisa-Katrin Seich al Basatena; Karina Corware; Manuel Modolell; Markus Munder; Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier; Ingrid Müller; Pascale Kropf
It has been established that the Republic of Uzbekistan is divided into two strata by the epidemic risk for zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL). The distribution of ZCL endemicity in Urbekistan coincides with that of great gerbils (Rhombomys opimus), the main natural reservoir of leishmaniasis pathogens. In the past 34 years, there have been 8 epidemiological rises in the incidence of ZCL, which are associated with a large number of great gerbils and Ph. papatasis mosquitoes providing the epidemiological process. PMID:21395042
Tashbaev, N S; Mustafaev, Kh M
We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis and acute renal failure in a white male patient, 28 years of age, infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The clinical presentation of the patient was diarrheic syndrome of long evolution, fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia, accompanied by nephrotic syndrome and irreversible acute renal failure. Renal biopsy showed glomerular AA amyloid deposits. This is the first case described in humans of secondary amyloidosis caused by visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:17227255
Navarro, M; Bonet, J; Bonal, J; Romero, R
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc/ copper ratio in the serum of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Qom Province, center of Iran. Methods: Serum levels of zinc and copper were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and serum iron concentration was measured by using an Auto Analyzer. The study group consisted of 60 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and the control group of 100 healthy volunteers from the same area who were not exposed to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Result: There were no statistically significant differences in age and body mass index between the two groups. Serum Zn (P< 0.001) and Fe (P< 0.05) levels were lower in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis than the control group. We also found serum Cu concentration (P< 0.05) in the patient group was significantly higher than that of the control group. However, zinc/ copper ratio (P< 0.001) was lower in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis than in the control group. Conclusion: Our data indicated that Zn/Cu ratio was significantly lower in patients with CL as compared to the controls. Earlier reports suggest that, this ratio imbalance could be a useful marker for immune dysfunction in leishmaniasis. There was also strong association of Zn, Cu and Fe with CL. It suggests the use of blood zinc, copper, iron concentration and the copper/zinc ratio (Zn/Cu), as a means for estimating the prognosis of CL.
Pourfallah, F; Javadian, S; Zamani, Z; Saghiri, R; Sadeghi, S; Zarea, B; Faiaz, Sh; Mirkhani, F; Fatemi, N
The purpose of this study was to establish a correlation between the endemic level of tegumentary leishmaniasis in different regions of Brazil during 2002–2009 and the number of cases of mucosal or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The proportion of mucosal leishmaniasis was inversely correlated with prevalence of infection. In areas with a lower infection prevalence, the proportion of mucosal leishmaniasis increased (P < 0.05). The hypothesis of an Amazonian origin and dissemination through human migration is considered. Our results show that in regions with lower prevalence and endemically younger, the proportion of cases that evolve to the mucosal form is higher than in regions with higher prevalence and endemically older.
Bedoya-Pacheco, Sandro J.; Araujo-Melo, Maria H.; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia M.; Pimentel, Maria Ines F.; Conceicao-Silva, Fatima; Schubach, Armando O.; Marzochi, Mauro C. A.
Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) has caused several outbreaks of haemorrhagic pneumonia in dogs in recent years. This highly contagious and often fatal disease is characterised by sudden onset of clinical signs including pyrexia, dyspnoea and haemorrhagic nasal discharge. Post mortem examination typically reveals pulmonary haemorrhage and pleural effusion. Histopathology demonstrates fibrino-suppurative, necrotising and haemorrhagic pneumonia in most cases. The pathogenesis of S. zooepidemicus infection in dogs is incompletely understood. Bacterial virulence factors as well as host factors may contribute to the severe outcome. S. zooepidemicus occasionally causes zoonotic infections with potentially serious consequences. Canine vaccines for S. zooepidemicus are currently not available and prevention of the disease therefore relies on limiting bacterial spread by implementing stringent control measures in kennels. Further research, particularly sequence analysis of canine strains, is required to gain insights into epidemiology and pathogenesis of this emerging disease. PMID:20570190
Priestnall, Simon; Erles, Kerstin
Udell, Dorey, and Wynne (2011) demonstrated that both domesticated and nondomesticated canids-specifically, gray wolves-have the capacity to succeed on perspective-taking tasks, suggesting that dogs' ability to respond to the human attentional state is not a by-product of domestication alone. Furthermore, not all dogs were successful on the task. Instead, the occluder type used was a strong predictor of performance, indicating the important role of environment and experience for tasks of this type. Here, we address several commentaries reflecting on the methods and design of that study, as well as the interpretation of the results. We also discuss the positive shift toward more interactive approaches in the field of canine behavior and cognition. Finally, we question the functionality of describing canine social behavior in terms of theory of mind. PMID:21870213
Udell, Monique A R; Wynne, Clive D L
Link proteins are glycoproteins in cartilage that are involved in the stabilization of aggregates of proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid. We have identified link proteins in synovial cell cultures form normal canine synovium using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunofluorescence, and immunolocation with specific antibodies by electrophoretic transfer. We have also found evidence for the synthesis of link proteins in these cultures by fluorography of radiolabeled synovial cell extracts. We have identified a 70,000 mol-wt protein in canine synovial cell culture extracts that has antigenic cross-reactivity with the 48,000-mol-wt link protein. Three link proteins were identified in normal canine articular cartilage. These results indicate that link proteins are more widely distributed in connective tissues than previously recognized and may have biological functions other than aggregate stabilization.
1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the
M. Miura; T. Inuzuka
This patent describes an overdrive transmission device for use with a motor vehicle. It consists of: a housing; a driving shaft rotatably mounted within the housing; a planetary gear-train; a driven shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and driven by the planetary gear train; and, a device for selectively connecting the planetary gear carrier to the housing or to the
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by abnormal manifestations of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and ex- cessive daytime sleepiness. Using a canine model of the disease, we found that central D, antagonists suppressed cataplexy, a form of REM-sleep atonia occurring in narco- lepsy, whereas this symptom was aggravated by D, agonists. The effect on cataplexy was stereospecific for the S(-) en-
Seiji Nishino; Janis Arrigoni; Delphine Valtier; Joseph D. Miller; Christian Guilleminault; William C. Dement
Nine canines were anesthetized with pentobarbital and studied by both selective and semiselective coronary artery angiography following intravenous bolus doses of 1,3,5,8, or 10 mg\\/kg of cocaine. Catheterization was accomplished with a 5 Fr catheter over a 0.035 inch guidewire under fluoroscopic control, and angio grams were obtained by injection of a diatrizoate solution. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed
Jimmie L. Valentine; William S. Yamanashi; David Leak; Seppo Saksanen; Benny D. Wagner; Steven W. Phillips
Functionally and morphologically, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells resemble intercalated cells of urinary epithelia. Experiments were performed on domes of confluent MDCK monolayers to test for apical H+ secretion. Apical application of 10-3 mol\\/l amiloride or of Na+-free solution significantly reduced the limiting pH gradient across the dome epithelium (? pHd) consistent with inhibition of apical Na+\\/H+ exchange. Short-circuit current
H. Oberleithner; W. Steigner; S. Silbernagl; U. Vogel; G. Gstraunthaler; W. Pfaller
Experiments in dome epithelium of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were performed to elucidate aldosterone action on acid-base transport. By means of pH-sensitive microelectrodes the pH of the dome fluid was measured while the apical plasma membrane was superfused. In the absence of HCO3-the dome fluid (facing the basolateral cell membrane) alkalinized in response to 10-7 mol\\/l aldosterone. Amiloride (10-3
H. Oberleithner; U. Vogel; U. Kersting; W. Steigner
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected.
Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G
A computer-controlled optical electromechanical biaxial test system was employed to study the mechanical response of excised\\u000a sheets of canine visceral pleura. Three classes of tests were performed: uniform biaxial stretching tests and tests in which\\u000a the specimen was cyclically stretched along one axis while either the load or dimension was maintained at a prescribed level\\u000a in the orthogonal direction. The
J. D. Humphrey; D. L. Vawter; R. P. Vitoi
Summary Conventional microelectrode techniques were employed to determine the mechanism of Cl secretion by canine tracheal epithelium. Epinephrine, a potent stimulator of Cl secretion in these cells, hyperpolarized both the transepithelial potential (20 to 38.9 mV) and the potential across the basolateral membrane (-63.9 to -68.2 mV) and depolarized the potential across the apical membrane (-43.9 to -29.3 mV). Epinephrine
Stephen R. Shorofsky; Michael Field; Harry A. Fozzard
Human bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an immune-mediated blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies against BP antigens (230/180 kd), which are constitutive glycoproteins of hemidesmosomes found in basal keratinocytes. Blistering diseases similar to human BP have been reported in dogs. IgG deposits at the basement membrane zone (BMZ) are a common feature of canine BP. Although circulating anti-BMZ IgG autoantibodies have been demonstrated in some cases of canine BP, the specific skin protein targeted by these autoantibodies has not been identified. In this study, we characterized the antigenic target of the autoantibodies in the serum from a 3-year-old castrated male Pit Bull Terrier with BP. Direct immunofluorescence of the patient's skin demonstrated IgG deposits at the dermal-epidermal junction. Indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated autoantibodies in the patient's serum that stained the epidermal roof of salt-split canine skin and left the dermal floor unstained. These serum autoantibodies did not stain normal intact dog skin but labeled intact bovine tongue. Direct immunoelectron microscopy of the dog's skin revealed IgG deposits within the hemidesmosomes of the basal keratinocytes. Western immunoblotting experiments showed that canine keratinocytes express both the 230-kd and 180-kd bullous pemphigoid antigens, and the autoantibodies from the patient's serum recognized the 180-kd bullous pemphigoid antigen in proteins extracted from canine and human keratinocytes. Canine BP has many parallel features with human BP including similar immune deposition of IgG within hemidesmosomes and a hemidesmosome-associated 180-kd glycoprotein target for circulating autoantibodies. PMID:7483213
Iwasaki, T; Olivry, T; Lapiere, J C; Chan, L S; Peavey, C; Liu, Y Y; Jones, J C; Ihrke, P J; Woodley, D T
Important data obtained in mice raise the possibility that immunization against the saliva of sand flies could protect from leishmaniasis. Sand fly saliva stimulates the production of specific antibodies in individuals living in endemic areas of parasite transmission. To characterize the humoral immune response against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in humans, we carried out a prospective study on 200 children living in areas of Leishmania major transmission. We showed that 83% of donors carried anti-saliva IgG antibodies, primarily of IgG4 isotype. Positive sera reacted differentially with seven salivary proteins. The protein PpSP30 was prominently recognized by all the sera. The salivary proteins triggered the production of various antibody isotypes. Interestingly, the immunodominant PpSP30 was recognized by all IgG subclasses, whereas PpSP12 was not by IgG4. Immunoproteomic analyses may help to identify the impact of each salivary protein on the L. major infection and to select potential vaccine candidates.
Marzouki, Soumaya; Ahmed, Melika Ben; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Abdeladhim, Maha; Aleya-Bouafif, Nissaf Ben; Namane, Abdelkader; Hamida, Nabil Belhaj; Salah, Afif Ben; Louzir, Hechmi
(-)-Ephedrine has been used in the treatment of patients with myasthenia gravis. To investigate the possible effects of ephedrine on neuromuscular transmission, canine intercostal muscle endplates were studied by microelectrode techniques. At concentrations less than 10(-4) M, ephedrine had no effect on neuromuscular transmission. At a concentration of 10(-4) M, ephedrine increased the quantal content of the endplate potential by 21%. The presynaptic store of acetylcholine quanta available for immediate release was unchanged, but the probability of quantal release was increased by 16%. At this concentration, ephedrine decreased the amplitude of the miniature endplate potential by 38%. In the presence of 10(-3) M ephedrine, the miniature endplate potentials and currents became undetectable. The kinetic properties of the acetylcholine receptor channel were studied by analysis of acetylcholine-induced endplate current noise. At 10(-4) M, ephedrine reduced the channel conductance by 43% but had no effect on the open time. At 5 x 10(-4) M, ephedrine reduced the channel conductance by 84% and increased the open time by 23 percent. PMID:8221087
Sieb, J P; Engel, A G
The structural polypeptides of two strains of canine distemper virus and the Lec strain of measles virus were analysed by SDS-polyacrylamide-slab-gel electrophoresis. One strain of canine distemper virus derived from a live vaccine (Convac, Dumex), contained six major structural polypeptides with mol.wt. of 85, 78, 59, 43, 41 and 34 x 10(3). The 85K polypeptide was glycosylated. It was interpreted to be equivalent ot the 79K glycoprotein of the measles hemagglutinin. The second strain, a rapidly growing variant of the Onderstepoort strain of canine distemper virus characterized by extensive syncytium forming cytopathic effects in tissue culture, contained the 5, 43, 41 and 34K polypeptides, but the 85 and 78K polypeptides were not present in detectable amounts. The 43K polypeptide was identified as cellular actin by limited proteolysis. By use of monospecific rabbit hyperimmune sera against each of the major structural polypeptides of measles virus, the 59, 41 and 34K structural polypeptides could be identified as nucleocapsid protein (NP), fusion (F) polypeptide, and the membrane (M) polypeptide, respectively. In neutralization tests with rabbit hyperimmune sera against each of the two strains, this Onderstepoort strain, which contained reduced amounts of the hemagglutinin glycoprotein, gave higher neutralization titers than the vaccine strain. PMID:6893798
In studies aimed at local treatment of experimental osteoarthritis (OA) it is optimal to have an internal (untreated) OA control. Such an approach excludes interanimal variation, and allows paired statistical evaluation of treatment efficacy. For this purpose, we developed and characterized a bilateral version of the canine Groove model. We hypothesized that the bilateral version of the canine Groove model would show consistent and clear development of features of OA similar to those found in the unilateral version. In six Beagle dogs, grooves were surgically made in the articular cartilage of the femoral condyles of both knee joints. Six additional dogs underwent bilateral sham surgery. The degree of OA was quantified 20 weeks after surgery and was compared in retrospect to 23 animals that undergone the same procedure in a single knee joint with the contralateral knee serving as a non-OA control. Bilateral groove surgery resulted in OA. This was based on the observed ineffective repair response in which an increase in proteoglycan synthesis, a diminished retention of these newly formed proteoglycans, and an enhanced loss of resident proteoglycans resulted in a decreased cartilage proteoglycan content. These biochemical effects were corroborated by clear histological features of OA. All these effects were found in femor as well as in the (surgically untouched) tibia. Interestingly, features of OA were slightly more severe in the bilateral model than in the unilateral variant. The bilateral canine Groove model showed consistent and clear development of features of OA, comparable to the unilateral model. PMID:18473386
Intema, Femke; DeGroot, Jeroen; Elshof, Bram; Vianen, Marieke E; Yocum, Sue; Zuurmond, Annemarie; Mastbergen, Simon C; Lafeber, Floris P
This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10 cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus pseudintermedius alone (n=5) or in combination with Malassezia pachydermatis (n=5). Some coryneform isolates displayed resistance to fusidic acid or enrofloxacin, two antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. The frequency of isolation of coryneform bacteria was 16% among 55 cases of canine otitis externa examined at the Danish hospital during 2007. In contrast, detectable levels of coryneform bacteria were not demonstrated in samples from the acustic meatus of 35 dogs with apparently healthy ears, attending the hospital during the same year. On basis of the current knowledge, these coryneform bacteria should be regarded as potential secondary pathogens able to proliferate in the environment of an inflamed ear canal. PMID:20434850
Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A; Schjærff, Mette; Kania, Stephen A; Frank, Linda A; Guardabassi, Luca
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a parasitic disease endemic in many countries, and dogs present as the major natural reservoir of the parasite, Leishmania chagasi (syn. L. infantum). Biomarkers in the canine immune system is an important technique in the course of developing vaccines and treatment strategies against CVL. New methodologies for studying the immune response of dogs during Leishmania infection and after receiving vaccines and treatments against CVL would be useful. In this context, we used peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy dogs to evaluate procedures related to (i) establishment of in vitro conditions of monocytes differentiated into macrophages infected with L. chagasi and (ii) purification procedures of T-cell subsets (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) using microbeads. Our data demonstrated that after 5 days of differentiation, macrophages were able to induce significant phagocytic and microbicidal activity after L. chagasi infection and also showed increased frequency of parasitism and a higher parasite load. Although N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels presented similar levels of macrophage culture and L. chagasi infection, a progressive decrease in myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels was a hallmark over 5 days of culture. High purity levels (>90%) of CD4 and CD8 T cells were obtained on a magnetic separation column. We concluded that monocytes differentiated into macrophages at 5 days and displayed an intermediate frequency of parasitism and parasite load 72h after L. chagasi infection. Furthermore, the purification system using canine T-lymphocyte subsets obtained after 5 days of monocyte differentiation proved efficient for CD4 or CD8 T-cell purification (?90%). The in vitro analysis using L. chagasi-infected macrophages and purified T cells presented a prospective methodology that could be incorporated in CVL vaccine and treatment studies that aim to analyze the microbicidal potential induced by specific CD4(+) and/or CD8(+) T cells. PMID:24018185
Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Moura, Sandra Lima; Zanini, Marcos Santos; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro
The interspecies transmission of avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) to dogs was first reported in 2007. The present study characterized a novel CIV H3N2 isolated from cats in an animal shelter. A comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the A/Canine/Korea/CY009/2010(H3N2) (CY009) and A/Feline/Korea/FY028/2010 (H3N2) (FY028) strains isolated from dogs and cats, respectively, in the animal shelter identified point mutations in 18 amino acid positions within eight viral genes. Interestingly, CY009 and FY028 replicated well in specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs and in mice, respectively. Mice infected with the FY028 strain exhibited significant over expression of IL-10, TNF-?, and IFN-? (p<0.001) at 3 days postinfection. Thus, an emergency monitoring system should be developed to identify influenza mutations that occur during interspecies transmission in companion animals and for continuous public health surveillance. PMID:23618838
Jeoung, Hye-Young; Lim, Seong-In; Shin, Bo-Hye; Lim, Ji-Ae; Song, Jae-Young; Song, Dae-Sub; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Moon, Hyoung-Joon; An, Dong-Jun
Transmission of Leishmania tropica was studied in 2 adjacent foci in Israel where vector populations differ. Only Phlebotomus sergenti was found infected with L. tropica in the southern focus; P. arabicus was the main vector in the northern focus. Rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) were incriminated as reservoir hosts in both foci. L. tropica strains from the northern focus isolated from sand flies, cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, and rock hyraxes were antigenically similar to L. major, and strains from the southern focus were typically L. tropica. Laboratory studies showed that P. arabicus is a competent vector of L. tropica, and P. sergenti is essentially refractory to L. tropica from the northern focus. Susceptibility of P. arabicus may be mediated by O glycoproteins on the luminal surface of its midgut. The 2 foci differ with respect to parasites and vectors, but increasing peridomestic rock hyrax populations are probably responsible for emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in both foci.
Svobodova, Milena; Votypka, Jan; Peckova, Jitka; Dvorak, Vit; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Baneth, Gad; Sztern, Julia; Kravchenko, Vasiliy; Orr, Amnon; Meir, David; Schnur, Lionel F.; Volf, Petr
In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively. PMID:23145187
Witschel, Matthias; Rottmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto
Visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, is a chronic disease caused by Leishmania donovani, Leishmania chagasi or Leishmania infantum. The disease is transmitted through the bite of a species of sandfly of the genus Phlebotomus, releasing amastigote parasites that invade various organs of the body and eventually result in such conditions as anemia, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Although no vaccine exists for the disease, diagnostic techniques based not only on pathological tests, but more sophisticated detectors such as polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, latex agglutination and immunochromatographic strip testing have been developed. Traditional treatment for the disease consists of two pentavalent antimonial drugs, sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate, but the growing resistance to these drugs has compelled scientists to search for new efficient compounds. (c) 2002 Prous Science. All rights reserved. PMID:12677177
Kumari, Seema; Ram, Vishnu Ji
In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively.
Witschel, Matthias; Rottmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto
The paper contains up-to-date information on the occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in natural foci in the USSR. Data are given on the vertebrates that are the main carriers and reservoirs of leishmaniae, the phlebotomines that are the vectors of the parasite, and the conditions required for the independent existence of foci of infection unlinked with any human economic activity. The main achievements of Soviet investigators in research on natural foci are described, a preliminary schema is given for typing foci by the nature of the terrain, and there is also an account of biocoenoses in the wild animal burrows that constitute the primary natural unit foci. The biology and ecology of the main hosts of leishmaniae, the interrelationships between leishmaniae, vertebrate animals, and phlebotomines, and the conditions required for infection of human beings with leishmaniae are also discussed.
Petrisceva, P. A.
As the part of a study to develop buparvaquone (BPQ) formulations for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, the topical delivery of BPQ and one of its prodrugs from a range of formulations was evaluated. In previous studies, BPQ and its prodrugs were shown to be potent antileishmanials in-vitro, with ED50 values in the nanomolar range. 3-Phosphono-oxymethyl-buparvaquone (3-POM-BPQ) was the most potent antileishmanial and was chosen, together with the parent drug, for further investigation. The ability of the parent and prodrug formulations to cross human and murine skin was tested in-vitro using the Franz diffusion cells. Formulations intended for topical application containing either BPQ or 3-POM-BPQ were developed using excipients that were either acceptable for topical use (GRAS or FDA inactive ingredients) or currently going through the regulatory process. BPQ was shown to penetrate both human epidermal membranes and full thickness BALB/c skin from a range of formulations (gels, emulsions). Similarly, 3-POM-BPQ penetrated full-thickness BALB/c skin from several gel formulations. In-vitro binding studies showed that BPQ bound melanin in a dose-dependent manner and preferably bound to delipidized skin over untreated BALB/c skin (on a weight to weight basis). The results confirm that BPQ and its prodrug 3-POM-BPQ can penetrate the skin from several formulations, making them potentially interesting candidates for further investigation of topical formulations using in-vivo models of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:17227619
Garnier, Tracy; Mäntylä, Antti; Järvinen, Tomi; Lawrence, M Jayne; Brown, Marc B; Croft, Simon L
Visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed in a dog that had been living with his owners in Spain for two years. Clinical diagnosis was somewhat delayed as the disease is largely unknown to Canada and was manifested by a nonresponsive anemia which was not easily explained on peripheral blood evaluation alone, and concomitant interstitial nephritis. On post mortem examination splenomegaly was the main gross pathological finding. Light microscopic examination of bone marrow aspirates and subsequent electron microscopic examination of splenic and hepatic tissues revealed numerous Leishman-Donovan bodies in cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Parasitized reticuloendothelial cells were seen singly or forming granulomata. These latter did not contain giant cells and were confined mainly to the liver and spleen, being sparse and single in the first but extremely numerous and coalescing in the latter. Accumulation of intrafollicular hyaline material was seen in a small number of splenic follicles. Leishman-Donovan bodies on electron microscopic examination had a trilaminar periplast, a large round nucleus with heavy blocks of marginated chromatin and two nucleoli, a short flagellum and a kinetoplast. Lymph nodes and bone marrow had numerous parasitized macrophages but no granulomata. Leishman-Donovan bodies were not detected in the lungs and kidneys both of which exhibited a chronic intersitital reaction. The comparative hematological profile as well as the importance of bone marrow and electron microscopic examinations of the spleen and liver in diagnosis are discussed. The potential public health hazard of leishmaniasis to North America and particularly to Canada is considered. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 11.
Tryphonas, L; Zawidzka, Z; Bernard, M A; Janzen, E A
Liposomes containing antimonial compounds trapped in the aqueous phase were tested in the treatment of experimental leishmaniasis. The rationale of this approach was based on the hypothesis that the liposomes and the parasite are taken up by the same cell, the reticuloendothelial cell, and we present electron microscopic evidence that supports this hypothesis. Suppression of leishmaniasis was quantified by determining the total number of parasites per liver from impression smears. When two antimonials, meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate, were encapsulated within liposomes, each was more than 700 times more active compared to either of the free (unencapsulated) drugs. After infection, if untreated, all of the hamsters eventually would die from the disease. Liposome-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate was about 330-640 times more effective in causing a drop in the death rate than was the free antimonial. The efficacy of treatment was influenced by the lipid composition and charge of the liposomes. For example, positively charged liposomes containing egg phosphatidylcholine were much less effective than negatively charged ones. In contrast, positively and negatively charged sphingomyelin liposomes were equally effective. Liposomes containing phosphatidylserine (which were negatively charged, but also had a much higher charge density) were among the less-effective preparations. Among those tested, the most consistently efficacious liposomes contained highly saturated long-chain phospholipids (eg., dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine), cholesterol, and a negative charge. We conclude that liposomes may be useful as carriers of drugs to treat infectious diseases involving the reticuloendothelial system. The toxicities of antimony are very similar to those of arsenic. Encapsulation of antimonial drugs and reduction of the dose required for effective therapy should minimize such systemic toxicities as acute cardiomyopathy and toxic nephritis. Images
Alving, Carl R.; Steck, Edgar A.; Chapman, Willie L.; Waits, Virginia B.; Hendricks, Larry D.; Swartz, Glenn M.; Hanson, William L.
Background Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. Methodology/Principal Findings For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n?=?401, 73.99%) and occurring in urban zones (n?=?422, 77.86%). Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56–21.09). Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania) amazonensis cases (1.20%), majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia) braziliensis (n?=?248, 98.80%). Conclusions/Significance CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V.) braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region.
Marlow, Mariel Asbury; da Silva Mattos, Marise; Makowiecky, Maria Ernestina; Eger, Iriane; Rossetto, Andre Luiz; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Steindel, Mario
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to occur since the 1980s on the western bank of the White Nile River (Central Sudan), 150 km south of Khartoum, and has resulted in high mortality. The most recent outbreak of the disease in this area began in 2006. Entomological surveys were carried out during May 2008, June 2010 and May and July 2011 in the White Nile area. Sandflies were collected using Centers for Disease Control light traps and sticky oil traps in the village of Kadaba and the nearby woodland. Phlebotomus females were dissected for the presence of Leishmania promastigotes. A total of 17,387 sandflies, including six species of Phlebotomus and 10 species of Sergentomyia, were identified. The Phlebotomus species recorded were Phlebotomus orientalis, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus duboscqi, Phlebotomus rodhaini and Phlebotomus saevus. P. orientalis was collected in both habitats. The relative abundance of P. orientalis in the woodland habitat was higher than that recorded in the village habitat. In the woodland habitat, there was a notable increase in the relative abundance of P. orientalis during the surveys conducted in 2008 and 2010 compared to 2011. None of the 311 P. orientalis females dissected were infected with Leishmania promastigotes, although relatively high parous rates were recorded in both habitats. Based on the distribution of P. orientalis recorded in this study, this species is the most likely vector of VL in the endemic focus in the White Nile area. Further investigation is required to elucidate the seasonal abundance and distribution of the vector, as well as the transmission season of VL in both habitats so that appropriate control strategies for the vector can be designed. PMID:22666856
Widaa, Sally Osman; Ahmed, Khalid Awadelkarim; Bari, Amel Ahmed Elsheikh; Ali, Mayada Mohmmedelhassan; Ibrahim, Mihad Abdelaal; Bashir, Mohammed Ahmed; Mastour, Ahmed Hamid Awadelkarim; Yagi, Zakkiah Algali; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar
Background: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an expanding disease and public health problem in Iran. In the current study, natural Leishmania infection rate and seasonal fluctuation of the infection in Rhombomys opimus population of a hyperendemic focus of ZCL in Iran was investigated. Methods: The study was conducted from October 2006 to October 2008 in Esfahan Province, central part of Iran. An extensive sampling of rodents using Sherman traps was done in different seasons. Nested PCR assay was used for detection and identification of Leishmania species and the results were confirmed using PCR-RFLP. Results: Leishmania infection rate was 58.6% (34 of 58) using nested PCR. 44.8% of the gerbils were infected only with L. turanica and 1.7% with L. gerbilli alone. A m