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Sample records for canine leishmaniasis transmission

  1. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi-Parvar, Faeze; Hatam, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now. PMID:25628897

  2. New Means of Canine Leishmaniasis Transmission in North America: The Possibility of Transmission to Humans Still Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    At present it is not possible to determine in advance the outcome of Leishmania infantum infection. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Le. infantum, is a natural disease process which offers a insight into the interaction of the host and resultant disease outcome. Canine VL results in the same altered pathophysiology and immunodysregulation seen in humans. VL in US dogs is likely to be transmitted primarily via nontraditional, nonvector means. VL mediated by Le. infantum is endemic in U.S. Foxhound dogs, with vertical transmission likely to be the novel primary means of transmission. This population of dogs offers an opportunity to identify host factors of natural disease. Prevention of human clinical visceral leishmaniasis can occur only by better understanding the disease ecology of the primary reservoir host: the dog. PMID:19753139

  3. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  4. Culling Dogs in Scenarios of Imperfect Control: Realistic Impact on the Prevalence of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Danielle N. C. C.; Codeço, Cláudia T.; Silva, Moacyr A.; Werneck, Guilherme L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis belongs to the list of neglected tropical diseases and is considered a public health problem worldwide. Spatial correlation between the occurrence of the disease in humans and high rates of canine infection suggests that in the presence of the vector, canine visceral leishmaniasis is the key factor for triggering transmission to humans. Despite the control strategies implemented, such as the sacrifice of infected dogs being put down, the incidence of American visceral leishmaniasis remains high in many Latin American countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Mathematical models were developed to describe the transmission dynamics of canine leishmaniasis and its control by culling. Using these models, imperfect control scenarios were implemented to verify the possible factors which alter the effectiveness of controlling this disease in practice. Conclusions/Significance A long-term continuous program targeting both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs should be effective in controlling canine leishmaniasis in areas of low to moderate transmission (R0 up to 1.4). However, the indiscriminate sacrifice of asymptomatic dogs with positive diagnosis may jeopardize the effectiveness of the control program, if tests with low specificity are used, increasing the chance of generating outrage in the population, and leading to lower adherence to the program. Therefore, culling must be planned accurately and implemented responsibly and never as a mechanical measure in large scale. In areas with higher transmission, culling alone is not an effective control strategy. PMID:23951375

  5. Rapid Immunochromatographic Test for Serodiagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Otranto, D.; Paradies, P.; Sasanelli, M.; Spinelli, R.; Brandonisio, O.

    2004-01-01

    An rK39 immunochromatographic test and immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) for serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis were evaluated. The two tests showed correlation for all but one of the sera obtained from 68 dogs confirmed as leishmaniasis cases and 40 dogs (22 healthy dogs and 18 dogs with other diseases) from areas where the disease is not endemic. Specificity was 100% for both tests, while sensitivity was 97% for the rapid test and 99% for IFAT. PMID:15184465

  6. Canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in Senegal: risk of emergence in humans?

    PubMed

    Faye, B; Bañuls, A L; Bucheton, B; Dione, M M; Bassanganam, O; Hide, M; Dereure, J; Choisy, M; Ndiaye, J L; Konaté, O; Claire, M; Senghor, M W; Faye, M N; Sy, I; Niang, A A; Molez, J F; Victoir, K; Marty, P; Delaunay, P; Knecht, R; Mellul, S; Diedhiou, S; Gaye, O

    2010-12-01

    In the context of global warming and the risk of spreading arthropod-borne diseases, the emergence and reemergence of leishmaniasis should not be neglected. In Senegal, over the past few years, cases of canine leishmaniasis have been observed. We aim to improve the understanding of the transmission cycle of this zoonosis, to determine the responsible species and to evaluate the risk for human health. An epidemiological and serological study on canine and human populations in the community of Mont Rolland (Thiès area) was conducted. The data showed a high seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis (>40%) and more than 30% seropositive people. The dogs' seroprevalence was confirmed by PCR data (concordance > 0.85, Kappa > 0.7). The statistical analysis showed strong statistical associations between the health status of dogs and seropositivity, the number of positive PCRs, clinical signs and the number of Leishmania isolates. For the first time, the discriminative PCRs performed on canine Leishmania strains clearly evidenced that the pathogenic agent is Leishmania infantum. The results obtained show that transmission of this species is well established in this area. That the high incidence of seropositivity in humans may be a consequence of infection with this species is discussed. PMID:20868766

  7. Canine leishmaniasis in the Gargano promontory (Apulia, South Italy).

    PubMed

    Brandonisio, O; Carelli, G; Ceci, L; Consenti, B; Fasanella, A; Puccini, V

    1992-03-01

    We examined 444 dogs by visiting farms and peripheral districts on the Gargano promontory (Province of Foggia, Apulia, South Italy). Clinical examination and immunofluorescence antibody test for leishmaniasis were performed. Bone marrow and lymph node samples obtained from 25 dogs with positive serological test were cultured on Tobie-Evans medium. The results obtained show both a higher seropositivity rate for canine leishmaniasis (14.4%) and a higher percentage of asymptomatic dogs with positive serological test (53.1%) compared to previous research in the same area. Seven strains isolated from infected dogs belonged to Leishmania infantum species zymodeme Montpellier 1. None of 82 sera of humans living in close contact with infected dogs were positive for leishmaniasis. PMID:1644148

  8. [Canine leishmaniasis in Campania: new and old foci].

    PubMed

    Baldi, L; Mizzoni, V; Guarino, A

    2004-06-01

    Canine Leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in Campania Region (Italy) and is strictly related to Human Visceral Leishmaniasis. Past and present reports of the prevalence in the Region show that exist places were CanL has been known for a century (Vesuvius and Ischia Foci) and other localities where the disease appears to be recent (Caserta and Salerno provinces); moreover, the zoonosis is seen not only in endemic foci (autochthonous), but also in non-endemic areas (imported cases), for example in the Benevento and Avellino provinces. Two zymodemes have been identified in human and canine population and also in sandflies: MON 1 and MON 72. Endemic or stable CanL foci correspond with Vesuvius Area, Ischia island, Maddaloni and neighbouring Commons, other foci in the Salerno province. These foci are associated with optimal ecological condition, abundance of reservoirs and hosts, abundance of phlebotomine vectors, prevalence in canine population around 10-40%, incidence in canine population 5%, risk for human population 0.002%. Instable foci occur at the border of the stable foci: they may be the result of changes in climate with the occasional introduction of infected dogs in the areas; in the foci are registered low presence of phlebotomine vectors, prevalence around 0.5-3%, sporadic human cases. Today, in Campania region CanL undoubtedly has an increased incidence and a wider geographic distribution than before: new cases are now reported in areas that were previously non-endemic. Ecological, demographic and environmental changes, large population movements, urbanization have led to an increased incidence and to importation into suburbs with high densities of people and sand-flies. These changes include "global warming", increased number of stray dogs, dogs and population movements, changes in human population (increased number of immune-depressed and old people). Nowadays, the most important focus of CanL and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis of the Mediterranean area is located in Campania Region: during the year 2000, 143 cases of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis have been recorded in Italy, an half of them (83 cases) in Campania region. PMID:15305720

  9. Prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in Beichuan County, Sichuan, China and phylogenetic evidence for an undescribed Leishmania sp. in China based on 7SL RNA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease, which is still endemic in the west and northwest area of China. Canines are the major reservoirs of Leishmania, the etiological agent of human visceral leishmaniasis. Phlebotomus chinensis is the main transmission vector of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). Methods In this study, rK39 dip-stick, ELISA and PCR methods were used to investigate the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Beichuan County, Sichuan Province, China. Results Among the 86 dogs which were included in the study, 13 dogs were positive using the dip-stick test (15.12%), while 8 dogs were positive using ELISA (9.30%) and 19 dogs were positive for PCR (22.03%). In total, 32 dogs were positive for one or more tests (37.21%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis based on the partial 7SL RNA fragment provided evidence that an undescribed Leishmania species, which is clearly a causative agent of CanL and human visceral leishmaniasis, does exist in China. This result is consistent with our previous study. Conclusions Our work confirmed that canine leishmaniasis is still prevalent in Beichuan County. Further control is urgently needed, as canine leishmaniasis is of great public health importance. The phylogenetic analysis based on 7SL RNA segment provides evidence for the existence of an undescribed Leishmania sp. in China. PMID:22515334

  10. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, Amanda Codeço; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; SANTOS, Fernanda Nunes; de SOUZA, Marcos Barbosa; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ABRANTES, Tuanne Rotti; PÉRISSÉ, André Reynaldo Santos

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT). The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents) were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%). Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4), animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6), and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1) were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpiswas not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area. PMID:26422157

  11. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Amanda Codeço; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; de Souza, Marcos Barbosa; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Abrantes, Tuanne Rotti; Périssé, André Reynaldo Santos

    2015-01-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT). The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents) were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%). Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4), animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6), and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1) were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area. PMID:26422157

  12. A canine leishmaniasis pilot survey in an emerging focus of visceral leishmaniasis: Posadas (Misiones, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An increasing number of reports are calling our attention to the worldwide spread of leishmaniasis. The urbanization of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been observed in different South American countries, due to changes in demographic and ecological factors. In May 2006, VL was detected for the first time in the city of Posadas (Misiones, Argentina). This event encouraged us to conduct a clinical and parasitological pilot survey on domestic dogs from Posadas to identify their potential role as reservoirs for the disease. Methods One hundred and ten dogs from the city of Posadas were included in the study. They were selected based on convenience and availability. All dogs underwent clinical examination. Symptomatology related to canine leishmaniasis was recorded, and peripheral blood and lymph node aspirates were collected. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using rK39-immunocromatographic tests and IFAT. Parasite detection was based on peripheral blood and lymph node aspirate PCR targeting the SSUrRNA gene. Molecular typing was addressed by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products obtained by SSUrRNA and ITS-1 PCR. Results According to clinical examination, 69.1% (76/110) of the dogs presented symptoms compatible with canine leishmaniasis. Serological analyses were positive for 43.6% (48/110) of the dogs and parasite DNA was detected in 47.3% (52/110). A total of 63 dogs (57.3%) were positive by serology and/or PCR. Molecular typing identified Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) as the causative agent. Conclusions This work confirms recent findings which revealed the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of L. infantum in this area of South America. This new VL focus could be well established, and further work is needed to ascertain its magnitude and to prevent further human VL cases. PMID:21122107

  13. First Record of Autochthonous Canine Leishmaniasis in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Tánczos, Balázs; Balogh, Nándor; Király, László; Biksi, Imre; Szeredi, Levente; Gyurkovsky, Monika; Scalone, Aldo; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Gramiccia, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hungary is traditionally regarded as a leishmaniasis-free country, and human or canine cases diagnosed locally have been recorded as imported. However, recent entomological surveys have verified the presence in Hungary of Phlebotomus neglectus and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi, which have been incriminated as competent vectors of Leishmania infantum elsewhere in Europe. Following the occurrence in October 2007 of an undisputable clinical case of L. infantum canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a 4-year-old female pug in a kennel of 20 dogs in Tolna province, an investigation was performed to assess the infection status in that canine population and to search for putative phlebotomine vectors. Another female pug became sick during the study period (May–November 2008) and L. infantum was confirmed as the causative agent. The other animals appeared clinically healthy; however, 4 additional dogs were found positive by indirect fluorescent antibody test (2 dogs), or by buffy-coat PCR (1 dog), or by both methods (1 dog). Hence the overall Leishmania infection prevalence in the kennel was 30% (6/20). All dogs were born in the same place and had been always kept outdoors. They had neither been abroad nor received a blood transfusion. No sand flies were collected with CDC Standard Miniature Light traps, Mosquito Magnet® X (MMX) dry ice-baited traps, or sticky traps placed either in or around the kennel and at nearby chicken yards during July and August of 2008 and 2009. Considering the dogs' historical background and the failure to trap any sand fly vectors in the kennel area, the origin of CanL in this site remains unexplained. PMID:22607079

  14. Seroprevalence of CANINE LEISHMANIASIS AND American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections with both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishman...

  15. Environmental Factors and Ecosystems Associated with Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; de Carvalho Araújo, Andreina; da Silva Ferreira, Juliana Isabel Giuli; Tonhosolo, Renata; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2015-12-01

    Environment influences the composition, distribution, and behavior of the vectors and mammalian hosts involved in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), affecting the epidemiology of the disease. In Brazil, the urbanization process and canine cases of VL are indicators for local health authorities. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of the canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Maranhão State, Brazil. Blood samples collected from 960 dogs from six municipalities and six different ecosystems (Baixada Maranhense, Mangue, Mata dos Cocais, Amazônia, Cerrado, and Restinga) to serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], indirect fluorescence antibody test [IFAT], and chromatographic immunoassay methods [Dual Path Platform technology, DPP(®)]) and parasitological diagnosis. From serological tests, 11.14% (107) of the dogs were positive for CVL, with 59.16% (568), 14.5% (148), and 131% (126) positives to ELISA, DPP, and IFAT tests, respectively. Only seven animals (0.73%) were positive in a parasitological test. We also performed parasite isolation and phylogenetic characterization. All isolates of dogs obtained from Maranhão were grouped in a single branch with Leishmania infantum chagasi from Brazil. The ecosystem Amazonia presented the highest positivity rates to CVL in serological and parasitological tests. Brazilian biomes/ecosystems suffer large degradation and may favor, depending on climatic conditions, the installation of new diseases. In the case of VL, dogs are reservoirs of parasites and sentinels for human infection. PMID:26684524

  16. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-01-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  17. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-04-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  18. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in the Madrid region, Spain.

    PubMed

    Amela, C; Mendez, I; Torcal, J M; Medina, G; Pachón, I; Cañavate, C; Alvar, J

    1995-04-01

    A cross-sectional serological survey was carried out in the Madrid Autonomous Region (Comunidad de Madrid) in order to study and describe canine leishmaniasis epidemiology. The presence of leishmaniasis-specific antibodies was ascertained by immunofluorescence testing, 591 dogs were screened, revealing a prevalence of 5.25% (95% confidence interval 7.4-3.6), with no difference being encountered between rural and periurban areas. Age-specific prevalence exhibits a peak at 2-3 years and another at 7-8 years. Incidence or force of infection by occupation is as follows: pet dogs 0.059 (95% confidence interval 0.009-0.108) and working dogs 0.035 (95% confidence interval 0.012-0.057), there being a ratio between infection rates of 1.7, viz., indicating a 70% greater risk of infection among pet than among working dogs. The basic case reproduction number R0 is 1.06, suggesting that very intense control measures would not be needed for a drop in prevalence and incidence of infection to be achieved. PMID:7672069

  19. Endemic transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Yangzom, Thinley; Cruz, Israel; Bern, Caryn; Argaw, Daniel; den Boer, Margriet; Vélez, Iván Dario; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Molina, Ricardo; Alvar, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis was first reported in Bhutan in 2006. We conducted studies of the parasite, possible vectors and reservoirs, and leishmanin skin test and risk factor surveys in three villages. Nineteen cases were reported from seven districts. Parasite typing yielded two novel microsatellite sequences, both related to Indian L. donovani. In one case village, 40 (18.5%) of 216 participants had positive leishmanin skin test results, compared with 3 (4.2%) of 72 in the other case village and 0 of 108 in the control village. Positive results were strongly associated with the village and increasing age. None of the tested dogs were infected. Eighteen sand flies were collected, 13 Phlebotomus species and 5 Sergentomyia species; polymerase chain reaction for leishmanial DNA was negative. This assessment suggests that endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission has occurred in diverse locations in Bhutan. Surveillance, case investigations, and further parasite, vector, and reservoir studies are needed. The potential protective impact of bed nets should be evaluated. PMID:23091191

  20. Environmental risk mapping of canine leishmaniasis in France

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, a Trypanosomatid protozoan transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Leishmaniasis is endemic in southern France, but the influences of environmental and climatic factors on its maintenance and emergence remain poorly understood. From a retrospective database, including all the studies reporting prevalence or incidence of CanL in France between 1965 and 2007, we performed a spatial analysis in order to i) map the reported cases in France, and ii) produce an environment-based map of the areas at risk for CanL. We performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by a Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC) to assess if the locations of CanL could be grouped according to environmental variables related to climate, forest cover, and human and dog densities. For each group, the potential distribution of CanL in France was mapped using a species niche modelling approach (Maxent model). Results Results revealed the existence of two spatial groups of CanL cases. The first group is located in the Cévennes region (southern Massif Central), at altitudes of 200-1000 m above sea level, characterized by relatively low winter temperatures (1.9°C average), 1042 mm average annual rainfall and much forest cover. The second group is located on the Mediterranean coastal plain, characterized by higher temperatures, lower rainfall and less forest cover. These two groups may correspond to the environments favoured by the two sandfly vectors in France, Phlebotomus ariasi and Phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. Our niche modelling of these two eco-epidemiological patterns was based on environmental variables and led to the first risk map for CanL in France. Conclusion Results show how an ecological approach can help to improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of CanL in France. PMID:20377867

  1. Clinical follow-up examination after treatment of canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Steuber, S; Greiner, M

    1998-12-01

    In 16 dogs, the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis could be detected by direct microscopic identification, by determination of the antibody titre or by PCR method (peripheral blood/bone marrow). On the basis of the clinical and laboratory diagnostic results 9 cases of the cutaneous type and 7 dogs of the combined cutaneous-visceral type (+ mono- or polyarthritis, hepatopathy and/or renal insufficiency as well as occular manifestation) have been classified. Therapy was: GLUCANTIME in 6 dogs, allopurinol in 3 dogs as single agent, combination-therapy GLUCANTIME and allopurinol in 7 dogs. During GLUCANTIME-treatment the following adverse reactions could be observed: general weakness, reduced food intake up to anorexia, vomiting and diarrhoea. Laboratory parameters showed sporadically leucopenia or pancreatitis. Adverse reactions during allopurinol therapy were: vomitus/diarrhoea or urine concrements. One dog with GLUCANTIME therapy, 2 dogs with allopurinol as well as 2 dogs with combination therapy are clinically symptom-free at the moment (peripheral blood and bone marrow: PCR negative). The remaining 11 patients showed a good to very good improvement of the clinical symptoms. However, since the peripheral blood respectively the bone marrow continue to be PCR positive, relapses have to be expected in these dogs. PMID:10622623

  2. Heterogeneity of Environments Associated with Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis in South-Eastern France and Implication for Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Faucher, Benoit; Gaudart, Jean; Faraut, Francoise; Pomares, Christelle; Mary, Charles; Marty, Pierre; Piarroux, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is currently spreading into new foci across Europe. Leishmania infantum transmission in the Old World was reported to be strongly associated with a few specific environments. Environmental changes due to global warming or human activity were therefore incriminated in the spread of the disease. However, comprehensive studies were lacking to reliably identify all the environments at risk and thereby optimize monitoring and control strategy. Methodology/Findings We exhaustively collected 328 cases of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis from 1993 to 2009 in South-Eastern France. Leishmaniasis incidence decreased from 31 yearly cases between 1993 and 1997 to 12 yearly cases between 2005 and 2009 mostly because Leishmania/HIV coinfection were less frequent. No spread of human visceral leishmaniasis was observed in the studied region. Two major foci were identified, associated with opposite environments: whereas one involved semi-rural hillside environments partly made of mixed forests, the other involved urban and peri-urban areas in and around the region main town, Marseille. The two neighboring foci were related to differing environments despite similar vectors (P. perniciosus), canine reservoir, parasite (L. infantum zymodeme MON-1), and human host. Conclusions/Significance This unprecedented collection of cases highlighted the occurrence of protracted urban transmission of L. infantum in France, a worrisome finding as the disease is currently spreading in other areas around the Mediterranean. These results complete previous studies about more widespread canine leishmaniasis or human asymptomatic carriage. This first application of systematic geostatistical methods to European human visceral leishmaniasis demonstrated an unsuspected heterogeneity of environments associated with the transmission of the disease. These findings modify the current view of leishmaniasis epidemiology. They notably stress the need for locally defined control strategies and extensive monitoring including in urban environments. PMID:22880142

  3. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Reemerging Focus of Intense Transmission in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Tanure, Aline; Gomes, Marcela Esteves; Apolinário, Estefânia Conceição; Bodevan, Emerson Cotta; de Araújo, Holbiano Saraiva; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa

    2013-01-01

    This study was developed in the urban area of Governador Valadares, a reemerging focus of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, presenting 86 human cases of VL from 2008 to 2011. The disease prevailed in males (73.2%) with most patients between 0 and 9 years (44.1%) and a lethality rate of 16.2%. A canine survey was carried out on 16,529 domestic dogs in 35 districts in the area and it showed that 30.2% of them (4,992 dogs) were positive for VL by serum assays. Prevalence ratios for canine VL varied between 13.6% and 53.4%. The clinical exam of 343 seropositive dogs showed that 49.9% of them were considered symptomatic, with larger prevalence of canine VL being in short-furred animals (90%). The entomological survey was performed in eight districts, where 2,539 phlebotomines were captured, preferentially in the peridomicile (84.5%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species (90%) suggesting its participation in the VL transmission in the area. The correlation between canine prevalence and L. longipalpis density was evaluated. PMID:24000322

  4. Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Pace, David

    2014-11-01

    Leishmaniasis remains an important neglected tropical infection that affects children more than adults. Geographical variation exists in the distribution of the various Leishmania species. Although the majority of the disease burden is found in poor countries, leishmaniasis is also endemic in several countries within Southern Europe. Transmission is mediated by the sandfly and may follow an anthroponotic or zoonotic cycle that also varies by region. The expression of leishmaniasis depends on a complex interaction between the type of infecting species and the host immune response. Infection may be asymptomatic or may manifest as cutaneous disease that is pleiomorphic in presentation, muco-cutaneous disease or the visceral form that may be lethal if untreated. Molecular techniques aid diagnosis especially in cases where amastigotes are not visualised. The efficacy of treatment varies with the type of infecting species and resistance patterns. Preventive measures aimed at avoiding sandfly bites are effective in reducing acquisition of leishmaniasis and should be promoted for travellers visiting endemic regions. The persistent lack of a vaccine against human leishmaniasis is a result of the poor investment in this neglected parasitosis. PMID:25238669

  5. First surveys to investigate the presence of canine leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Róbert; Tánczos, Balázs; Bongiorno, Gioia; Maroli, Michele; Dereure, Jacques; Ready, Paul D

    2011-07-01

    Hungary is regarded as free of leishmaniasis because only a few imported cases have been reported. However, southern Hungary has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and so it was included in the EU FP6 EDEN project, which aimed to map the northern limits of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Europe. The numbers of traveling and imported dogs have increased in the last decade, raising concerns about the introduction of CanL caused by Leishmania infantum. Serum samples were collected from 725 dogs (22 localities, 6 counties) that had never traveled to endemic countries, as well as from other potential reservoir hosts (185 red foxes and 13 golden jackals). All sera were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, but they were sero-negative using the OIE cut-off of 1:80 serum dilution except for those of two dogs resident since birth in southern Hungary. These had not received a blood transfusion, but the mode of transmission is unclear because no sandfly vectors were caught locally. From 2006 to 2009, phlebotomine sandflies were sampled in the summer months at 47 localities of 8 counties. They were trapped with castor-oil-impregnated sticky-paper, light, and CO(2)-baited traps. Small numbers of two vectors of Leishmania infantum were found. Phlebotomus neglectus occurred in three villages near to Croatia and one in north Hungary at latitude 47 °N, and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi was trapped at two sites in a southeastern county close to the sites where it was first found in 1931-1932. Our report provides baseline data for future investigations into the northward spread of CanL into Hungary, which we conclude has yet to occur. PMID:21254904

  6. Restricted Outbreak of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis with High Microfocal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.; Gil, José F.; Quipildor, Marcelo; Cajal, Silvana P.; Pravia, Carlos; Juarez, Marisa; Villalpando, Carlos; Locatelli, Fabricio M.; Chanampa, Mariana; Castillo, Gabriela; Oreste, María F.; Hoyos, Carlos L.; Negri, Vanesa; Nasser, Julio R.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Salta, the northwestern province of Argentina. We describe an outbreak involving five recreational hunters whose exposure was limited to several hours in a residual patch of primary forest. All patients presented with typical cutaneous lesions after a mean incubation period of 59 days (range 15–78), and one developed simultaneous mucosal involvement. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of lesions confirmed Leishmania (V.) braziliensis as the etiologic agent in three cases. All patients were cured with anti-Leishmania treatment. Entomologic surveys in the transmission area revealed a predominance of Lutzomyia neivai. This outbreak report confirms a microfocal transmission pattern of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Americas and based on a well-determined exposure, allows the determination of incubation times for leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis. PMID:23339200

  7. Canine Antibodies against Salivary Recombinant Proteins of Phlebotomus perniciosus: A Longitudinal Study in an Endemic Focus of Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kostalova, Tatiana; Lestinova, Tereza; Sumova, Petra; Vlkova, Michaela; Rohousova, Iva; Berriatua, Eduardo; Oliva, Gaetano; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Scalone, Aldo; Gramiccia, Marina; Gradoni, Luigi; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Background Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania parasites. During blood feeding, sand flies deposit into the host skin immunogenic salivary proteins which elicit specific antibody responses. These anti-saliva antibodies enable an estimate of the host exposure to sand flies and, in leishmaniasis endemic areas, also the risk for Leishmania infections. However, the use of whole salivary gland homogenates as antigen has several limitations, and therefore, recombinant salivary proteins have been tested to replace them in antibody detection assays. In this study, we have used for the first time sand fly salivary recombinant proteins in a longitudinal field study on dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera from dogs naturally exposed to P. perniciosus bites over two consecutive transmission seasons in a site endemic for canine leishmaniasis (CanL) were tested at different time points by ELISA for the antibodies recognizing whole saliva, single salivary 43 kDa yellow-related recombinant protein (rSP03B), and a combination of two salivary recombinant proteins, 43 kDa yellow-related protein and 35.5 kDa apyrase (rSP01). Dogs were also tested for Leishmania infantum positivity by serology, culture, and PCR and the infection status was evaluated prospectively. We found a significant association between active CanL infection and the amount of anti-P. perniciosus saliva antibodies. Importantly, we detected a high correlation between IgG antibodies recognizing rSP03B protein and the whole salivary antigen. The kinetics of antibody response showed for both a whole saliva and rSP03B a similar pattern that was clearly related to the seasonal abundance of P. perniciosus. Conclusions These results suggest that P. perniciosus rSP03B protein is a valid alternative to whole saliva and could be used in large-scale serological studies. This novel method could be a practical and economically-sound tool to detect the host exposure to sand fly bites in CanL endemic areas. PMID:26111018

  8. An Epidemic Outbreak of Canine Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia Caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Iván D.; Carrillo, Lina M.; López, Liliana; Rodríguez, Erwin; Robledo, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    The largest recorded outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia's history occurred during 2005–2009 in soldiers of the Colombian Army, with ?40,000 cases. This outbreak was caused by the influx of military personnel into the jungle with the mission of combat illicit crops and the guerrilla. The soldiers remain for long periods within the rainforest and are exposed to the bite of infected sand flies. During the military activities, soldiers work with dogs specially trained to detect landmines, and therefore, dogs are also exposed to the infected sand flies and show high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). This work describes an epidemic outbreak of canine CL caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis in Colombia, South America. The clinical features of the disease and the response to treatment with pentavalent antimonials observed in 72 guard dogs from the Colombian Army are described. A program for prevention and control of canine CL is also discussed. PMID:22556078

  9. Canine leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum MON-1 in northern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Nejjar, R; Lemrani, M; Malki, A; Ibrahimy, S; Amarouch, H; Benslimane, A

    1998-12-01

    A seroprevalence study of canine leishmaniasis was carried out in five provinces in northern Morocco: Taounate, Al Hoceima, Zouagha Moulay Yacoub, Chefchaouen and Ouezzane. 55 localities have been concerned and a total of 1,013 dogs were screened, which represents almost 100% of the canine census. Of the screened dogs: 87 showed antibody titer > or = 100 when tested by IFAT (seroprevalence of 8.6%) and were distributed in 83 asymptomatics (without clinical symptoms) and four symptomatics (with one or several symptoms of leishmaniasis) with important variations according to the locality. Relative frequency of asymptomatic dogs was observed (8.2%), and the seroprevalence increased in middle altitude (500 m < altitude < 1,000 m) and high altitude (> or = 1,000 m). Parasites isolated from dogs were identified as L. infantum MON-1 by isoenzyme profile and Rsal digestion. PMID:9879555

  10. An epidemic outbreak of canine cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Iván D; Carrillo, Lina M; López, Liliana; Rodríguez, Erwin; Robledo, Sara M

    2012-05-01

    The largest recorded outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia's history occurred during 2005-2009 in soldiers of the Colombian Army, with ~40,000 cases. This outbreak was caused by the influx of military personnel into the jungle with the mission of combat illicit crops and the guerrilla. The soldiers remain for long periods within the rainforest and are exposed to the bite of infected sand flies. During the military activities, soldiers work with dogs specially trained to detect landmines, and therefore, dogs are also exposed to the infected sand flies and show high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). This work describes an epidemic outbreak of canine CL caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis in Colombia, South America. The clinical features of the disease and the response to treatment with pentavalent antimonials observed in 72 guard dogs from the Colombian Army are described. A program for prevention and control of canine CL is also discussed. PMID:22556078

  11. Blood-brain barrier disruption during spontaneous canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Melo, G D; Grano, F G; Silva, J E S; Kremer, B E; Lima, V M F; Machado, G F

    2015-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a complex disease caused by Leishmania infantum, and in dogs, besides the classical symptoms, there are descriptions of inflammatory alterations in the brain. Brain inflammation is a strictly controlled process, and as the brain counts on the efficiency of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we aimed to assess BBB integrity in dogs with spontaneous visceral leishmaniasis. Therefore, we evaluated markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in brain tissue related to BBB disruption and brain inflammation. Elevated albumin quota revealed BBB breakdown, corroborated by increased concentrations of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the CSF. In the brain, albumin and IgG staining formed halos around blood vessels, a classical indicator of BBB leakage. Soluble IgG was also detected in the choroid plexus and ependyma, and in these structures, IgG stained random resident cells. IgG(+) cells and Fc?-RI(+) cells were identified in the choroid plexus, ependyma and perivascular in the brain parenchyma. The data support the occurrence of BBB disruption in dogs with spontaneous visceral leishmaniasis, and IgG as a key molecule that is capable of initiating and/or maintaining the inflammatory stimuli in the nervous milieu and the CSF as an important disseminator of inflammatory stimuli within the CNS. PMID:26434684

  12. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePLUS

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease spread by the bite of the female sandfly. ... There are different forms of leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects the skin and mucous membranes. Skin sores usually start at the site of the sandfly bite. In a ...

  13. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis: a comparative serological study of dogs and foxes in Amazon Brazil.

    PubMed

    Courtenay, O; Macdonald, D W; Lainson, R; Shaw, J J; Dye, C

    1994-09-01

    The paper describes a longitudinal field study of canine leishmaniasis in sympatric domestic dog and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) populations. Dogs were studied in house-to-house surveys, and foxes were studied by live-trapping and radio-telemetry. Because serological tests (IFAT in this case) for leishmaniasis are often of uncertain sensitivity and specificity, we draw conclusions comparatively. Both cross-sectional (age-prevalence) and longitudinal analyses indicate that incidence in dogs was highest in the dry season. Seasonal changes in the age-prevalence relationship for dogs suggest that serological conversion and recovery rates decline with prior exposure to infection, where 'recovery' may be due to loss of a positive antibody titre or death from leishmaniasis. The mean incidence in dogs was higher in the rural than in the urban population and higher in hunting dogs than pet dogs. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of fox serological data suggest that foxes remain positive for longer than dogs on average, either because detectable antibody is more persistent or because they experience a lower mortality rate due to leishmaniasis. PMID:7970884

  14. Genetic and clinical characterization of canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Paola A; Nevot, M Cecilia; Hoyos, Carlos L; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Lauthier, Juan J; Ruybal, Paula; Cardozo, Rubén M; Russo, Pablo D; Vassiliades, Carola N; Mora, María C; Estévez, J Octavio; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Korenaga, Masataka; Basombrío, Miguel A; Marco, Jorge D

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniases comprise zoonotic diseases caused by protozoan flagellates of the Leishmania genus. They are endemic to South America, and the visceral form has been recently reported in Argentina. Dogs can play different roles in the Leishmania transmission cycles, depending mainly on the species of parasite involved. Here we focused on the clinical characterization of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Northeast Argentina and on the molecular typing of its etiological agent. The nested polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the Leishmania cytochrome b (cyt b) gene was performed on DNA templates purified from lymph nodes, bone marrow or spleen aspirates obtained from 48 dogs previously diagnosed by the observation of Leishmania amastigotes on smears from these aspirates. Their clinical and epidemiological data were also recorded. Systemic abnormalities were observed in 46 subjects (95.8%), most frequently lymphadenopathy, and emaciation (89.6 and 75%). Furthermore, 87% also presented tegumentary abnormalities, such as alopecia (54.2%) or secondary skin lesions (47.9%), among others. Twenty three dogs were positive for cyt b amplification. The sequence analysis showed the presence of two genotypes, LiA1 and LiA2, assigned to Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, with 99.9 and 100% homology with the reference strain MHOM/TN/80/IPT1 respectively. LiA1 was identified in 18 cases (78.3%) and LiA2 in five (21.7%). Two cyt b variants of L. (L.) infantum were incriminated as the causative agents of CanL cases from three cities: Posadas, Garupá, and Ituzaingó. All three cities are located in the northeastern area of the country, where these parasites seem to be spreading in urban areas. PMID:26277067

  15. Canine transmissible venereal tumour: a review.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, B; Das, U; Das, A K

    2016-03-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a contagious venereal tumour of dogs, commonly observed in dogs that are in close contact with one another, or in stray and wild dogs that exhibit unrestrained sexual activity. CTVT represents a unique, naturally transmissible, contagious tumour, where the mutated tumour cell itself is the causative agent and perpetuates as a parasitic allograft in the host. Clinical history, signalment and cytological features are often obvious for establishing a diagnosis though biopsy and histological examination may be needed in atypical cases. Most cases are curable with three intravenous injections of vincristine sulphate at weekly intervals. The role of stray and wild dogs makes the disease difficult to control and necessitates sustained animal birth control in stray dogs along with prompt therapy of the affected dogs. This review captures the manifold developments in different areas embracing this fascinating tumour, including its biology, diagnosis and therapeutic alternatives. PMID:23981098

  16. Immunodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Mimotope Peptides Selected from Phage Displayed Combinatorial Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Machado, Christina Monerat; Machado de Avila, Ricardo Andrez; NGuyen, Christophe; Granier, Claude; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Carneiro, Rubens Antonio; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2015-01-01

    ELISA and RIFI are currently used for serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). The accuracy of these tests is controversial in endemic areas where canine infections by Trypanosoma cruzi may occur. We evaluated the usefulness of synthetic peptides that were selected through phage display technique in the serodiagnosis of CVL. Peptides were chosen based on their ability to bind to IgGs purified from infected dogs pooled sera. We selected three phage clones that reacted only with those IgGs. Peptides were synthesized, polymerized with glutaraldehyde, and used as antigens in ELISA assays. Each individual peptide or a mix of them was reactive with infected dogs serum. The assay was highly sensitive and specific when compared to soluble Leishmania antigen that showed cross-reactivity with anti-T. cruzi IgGs. Our results demonstrate that phage display technique is useful for selection of peptides that may represent valuable synthetic antigens for an improved serodiagnosis of CVL. PMID:25710003

  17. Immunodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis using mimotope peptides selected from phage displayed combinatorial libraries.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Machado, Christina Monerat; de Avila, Ricardo Andrez Machado; NGuyen, Christophe; Granier, Claude; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Carneiro, Rubens Antonio; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2015-01-01

    ELISA and RIFI are currently used for serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). The accuracy of these tests is controversial in endemic areas where canine infections by Trypanosoma cruzi may occur. We evaluated the usefulness of synthetic peptides that were selected through phage display technique in the serodiagnosis of CVL. Peptides were chosen based on their ability to bind to IgGs purified from infected dogs pooled sera. We selected three phage clones that reacted only with those IgGs. Peptides were synthesized, polymerized with glutaraldehyde, and used as antigens in ELISA assays. Each individual peptide or a mix of them was reactive with infected dogs serum. The assay was highly sensitive and specific when compared to soluble Leishmania antigen that showed cross-reactivity with anti-T. cruzi IgGs. Our results demonstrate that phage display technique is useful for selection of peptides that may represent valuable synthetic antigens for an improved serodiagnosis of CVL. PMID:25710003

  18. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rights Job Postings Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Leishmaniasis Share | Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease spread ...

  19. Slc11a1 (formerly Nramp1) and susceptibility to canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Robert, Elisenda; Altet, Laura; Utzet-Sadurni, Mireia; Giger, Urs; Sanchez, Armand; Francino, Olga

    2009-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is the most important zoonosis in Europe and it is caused by Leishmania infantum, a protozoan intracellular parasite. Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic in the Mediterranean basin, Middle East, and South America, and is emerging within non endemic areas such as the United Kingdom and North America. We have analyzed 24 polymorphisms in the canine Slc11a1 (formerly NRAMP1) gene: 19 new polymorphisms characterized by direct sequencing from 40 dogs of different breeds and five polymorphisms previously described. Data analysis in a case-control study including 164 dogs of 19 different breeds revealed that two of the 24 polymorphisms were associated with increased risk for CVL: one intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A4549G in intron 6: odds ratio (OR) = 6.78, P = 0.001) and one silent SNP in exon 8 (C4859T: OR = 13.44, P = 0.004). In silico analysis of the significant SNP revealed that SNP in the promoter region affect putative transcription binding sites and SNP C4859T in exon 8 disrupts a putative exonic splicing enhancer (ESE). These results corroborate that Slc11a1 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for CVL. PMID:18307968

  20. Slc11a1 (formerly Nramp1) and susceptibility to canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Robert, Elisenda; Altet, Laura; Utzet-Sadurni, Mireia; Giger, Urs; Sanchez, Armand; Francino, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is the most important zoonosis in Europe and it is caused by Leishmania infantum, a protozoan intracellular parasite. Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic in the Mediterranean basin, Middle East, and South America, and is emerging within non endemic areas such as the United Kingdom and North America. We have analyzed 24 polymorphisms in the canine Slc11a1 (formerly NRAMP1) gene: 19 new polymorphisms characterized by direct sequencing from 40 dogs of different breeds and five polymorphisms previously described. Data analysis in a case-control study including 164 dogs of 19 different breeds revealed that two of the 24 polymorphisms were associated with increased risk for CVL: one intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A4549G in intron 6: odds ratio (OR) = 6.78, P = 0.001) and one silent SNP in exon 8 (C4859T: OR = 13.44, P = 0.004). In silico analysis of the significant SNP revealed that SNP in the promoter region affect putative transcription binding sites and SNP C4859T in exon 8 disrupts a putative exonic splicing enhancer (ESE). These results corroborate that Slc11a1 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for CVL. PMID:18307968

  1. Immunological changes in canine peripheral blood leukocytes triggered by immunization with first or second generation vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; de Andrade, Renata Aline; Sathler-Avelar, Renato; Magalhães, Camila Paula; Carvalho, Andréa Teixeira; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Campolina, Sabrina Sidney; Mello, Maria Norma; Vianna, Leonardo Rocha; Mayrink, Wilson; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Rocha, Luciana Morais; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2011-05-15

    In this study, we summarized the major phenotypic/functional aspects of circulating leukocytes following canine immunization with Leishvaccine and Leishmune®. Our findings showed that Leishvaccine triggered early changes in the innate immunity (neutrophils and eosinophils) with late alterations on monocytes. Conversely, Leishmune(®) induced early phenotypic changes in both, neutrophils and monocytes. Moreover, Leishvaccine triggered mixed activation-related phenotypic changes on T-cells (CD4+ and CD8+ and B-lymphocytes, whereas Leishmune(®) promoted a selective response, mainly associated with CD8+ T-cell activation. Mixed cytokine profile (IFN-?/IL-4) was observed in Leishvaccine immunized dogs whereas a selective pro-inflammatory pattern (IFN-?/NO) was induced by Leishmune® vaccination. The distinct immunological profile triggered by Leishvaccine and Leishmune® may be a direct consequence of the distinct biochemical composition of these immunobiological, i.e. complex versus purified Leishmania antigen along with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) versus saponin adjuvant. Both immunobiologicals are able to activate phagocytes and CD8+ T-cells and therefore could be considered as a putative vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). PMID:21439654

  2. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by neotropical Leishmania infantum despite of systemic disease: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Amanda; Lobo, Rogério; Cupolillo, Elisa; Bustamante, Fábio; Porrozzi, Renato

    2012-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis caused by a protozoan Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). Here, we report a typical case of canine cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. infantum infection without any other systemic symptom in one dog in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A mongrel female dog was admitted in a veterinary clinic with reports of chronic wounds in the body. Physical examination revealed erosive lesions in the limbs, nasal ulcers, presence of ectoparasites and seborrheic dermatitis. Blood samples and fragments of healthy and injured skin were collected. The complete hemogram revealed aregenerative normocytic normochromic anemia and erythrocyte rouleaux, and biochemical analysis revealed normal renal and hepatic functions. Cytology of the muzzle and skin lesions suggested pyogranulomatous inflammatory process. The histopathology of a skin fragment was performed and revealed suspicion of protozoa accompanied by necrotizing dermatitis. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was accomplished by positive serology, isolation of Leishmania from the skin lesion, and also by molecular test (PCR targeting the conserved region of Leishmania kDNA). Culture was positive for damaged skin samples. PCR targeting a fragment of Leishmania hsp70 gene was performed employing DNA extracted from damaged skin. RFLP of the amplified hsp70 fragment identified the parasite as L. infantum, instead of Leishmania braziliensis, the main agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro. Characterization of isolated promastigotes by five different enzymatic systems confirmed the species identification of the etiological agent. Serology was positive by ELISA and rapid test. This case warns to the suspicion of viscerotropic Leishmania in cases of chronic skin lesions and brings the discussion of the mechanisms involved in the parasite tissue tropism. PMID:22583758

  3. An Integrated Approach Using Spatial Analysis to Study the Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in Area of Recent Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Júlia Alves; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Andrade-Filho, José Dilermando; de Sousa, Alessandra Mara; Morais, Mayron Henrique Gomes; Rocha, Ana Maria Sampaio; Machado-Coelho, George Luis Lins; Lima, Fernanda Pinheiro; Madureira, Ana Paula; Garcia, Tânia Cristina; Freitas, Christian Resende; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Margonari, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Some epidemiological aspects of leishmaniasis in the municipality of Formiga, Brazil, an important touristic site, were evaluated. Those included phlebotomine sand fly vectors, canine infection, and geoprocessing analysis for determining critical transmission areas. Sand flies (224 insects) belonging to ten different species were captured. The most captured species included Lutzomyia longipalpis (35.3%), Lutzomyia cortelezzii (33.5%), and Lutzomyia whitmani (18.3%). A significant correlation between sand fly densities and climatic conditions was detected. Serological diagnosis (DPP and ELISA) was performed in 570 dogs indicating a prevalence of 5.8%. After sequencing the main species circulating in the area were Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. Spatial analysis demonstrated that vegetation and hydrography may be related to sand fly distribution and infected dogs. The municipality of Formiga has proven leishmaniasis vectors and infected dogs indicating the circulation of the parasite in the city. Correlation of those data with environmental and human cases has identified the critical areas for control interventions (south, northeast, and northwest). In conclusion, there is current transmission of visceral and canine human cases and the city is on the risk for the appearance of cutaneous cases. PMID:26229961

  4. The prevention of canine leishmaniasis and its impact on public health.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2013-07-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne disease of great veterinary and medical significance. Prevention of CanL requires a combined approach including measures focused on dogs and the environment where the vectors perpetuate. Over past decades, considerable effort has been put towards developing novel and cost-effective strategies against CanL. Vaccination is considered among the most promising tools for controlling CanL, and synthetic pyrethroids are useful and cost-effective in reducing risk of L. infantum infection in dogs. The effectiveness of the use of vaccines plus repellents in preventing L. infantum infection and subsequent disease development should be assessed by means of large-scale, randomized controlled field trials because this combined strategy may become the next frontier in the control of CanL. PMID:23746747

  5. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Silva, Denise Amaro da; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

    2015-10-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  6. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Denise Amaro; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  7. Transmission, reservoir hosts and control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Quinnell, R J; Courtenay, O

    2009-12-01

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) caused by Leishmania infantum is an important disease of humans and dogs. Here we review aspects of the transmission and control of ZVL. Whilst there is clear evidence that ZVL is maintained by sandfly transmission, transmission may also occur by non-sandfly routes, such as congenital and sexual transmission. Dogs are the only confirmed primary reservoir of infection. Meta-analysis of dog studies confirms that infectiousness is higher in symptomatic infection; infectiousness is also higher in European than South American studies. A high prevalence of infection has been reported from an increasing number of domestic and wild mammals; updated host ranges are provided. The crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, opossums Didelphis spp., domestic cat Felis cattus, black rat Rattus rattus and humans can infect sandflies, but confirmation of these hosts as primary or secondary reservoirs requires further xenodiagnosis studies at the population level. Thus the putative sylvatic reservoir(s) of ZVL remains unknown. Review of intervention studies examining the effectiveness of current control methods highlights the lack of randomized controlled trials of both dog culling and residual insecticide spraying. Topical insecticides (deltamethrin-impregnated collars and pour-ons) have been shown to provide a high level of individual protection to treated dogs, but further community-level studies are needed. PMID:19835643

  8. Validity and Reliability of Enzyme Immunoassays Using Leishmania major or L. infantum Antigens for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Cardoso, Fernanda Alvarenga; Hiamamoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Brazuna, Júlia Cristina Macksoud; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2013-01-01

    Background American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle. The limited accuracy of diagnostic tests for canine leishmaniasis may contribute to the lack of impact of control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays employing L. major or L. infantum antigens and their reliability between three laboratories of different levels of complexity. Methods A validation study of ELISA techniques using L. major or L. infantum antigens was conducted. Direct visualization of the parasite in hematoxylin/eosin-stained histopathological sections, immunohistochemistry, and isolation of the parasite in culture.were used as gold standard. An animal that was positive in at least one of the tests was defined as infected with L. infantum. Serum samples collected from 1,425 dogs were analyzed. Samples were separated in three aliquots and tested in three different laboratories. Sensitivity, specificity and the area under de ROC curve were calculated and the reliability was evaluated between the participant laboratories. Results The sensitivity was 91.8% and 89.8% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The specificity was 83.75% and 82.7% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The area under de ROC curve was 0.920 and 0.898 for L. major and L. infantum, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficients between laboratories ranged from 0.890 to 0.948 when L. major was used as antigen, and from 0.818 to 0.879 when L. infantum was used. Interpretation ELISA tests using L. major or L. infantum antigens have similar accuracy and reliability. Our results do not support the substitution of the L. major antigen of the ELISA test currently used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. PMID:23922884

  9. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease spread by the bite of infected sand flies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis. The ... the disease is to protect yourself from sand fly bites: Stay indoors from dusk to dawn, when ...

  10. Evidence for an impact on the incidence of canine leishmaniasis by the mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Maroli, M; Mizzon, V; Siragusa, C; D'Oorazi, A; Gradoni, L

    2001-12-01

    Dogs are the domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum Nicolle (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the agent of zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis. In southern Europe, where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is widespread due to L. infantum, killing seropositive dogs is considered unacceptable and drug treatment has low efficacy in preventing transmission. We made a field evaluation of the efficacy of deltamethrin dog collars in a CanL focus of southern Italy, Mount Vesuvius area of Campania region, where the vector is Phlebotomus perniciosus Newstead (Diptera: Psychodidae), by assessing their impact on the incidence of CanL in an intervention town, compared to that in dogs of control towns where no collars were fitted. During two consecutive transmission seasons, collars were fitted to 350 (1998) and 354 (1999) dogs from San Sebastiano al Vesuvio (70% of the canine population). Control dogs (371 and 264 in the 2 years, respectively) were from four towns of the same area. Before each transmission season, the CanL seroprevalence in the intervention and control towns was evaluated by cross-sectional surveys and found to be similar (about 15% in 1998 and 10% in 1999, respectively). After each transmission period, incidence rates of seroconversions were determined in adult dogs that were serologically negative before the season under evaluation, and in puppies. After the 1998 season, 2.7% of the dogs in the intervention town seroconverted compared to 5.4% in the control towns (50% protection, P = 0.15). After the 1999 season, 3.5% of collared dogs seroconverted compared to 25.8% of control dogs (86% protection, P < 0.001). The increase in seroconversion rates recorded in control dogs suggests an increase in the Leishmania force of infection in the canine reservoir during the 1999 sandfly season, as supported by the concomitant increase of human cases in control towns and in the whole Campania region. Our results suggest that the impact of mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars on the incidence of CanL may be negligible during low transmission seasons, or probably in low endemic foci, but can be very strong when the force of transmission is high. PMID:11776454

  11. Canine Antibody Response to Phlebotomus perniciosus Bites Negatively Correlates with the Risk of Leishmania infantum Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Vlkova, Michaela; Rohousova, Iva; Drahota, Jan; Stanneck, Dorothee; Kruedewagen, Eva Maria; Mencke, Norbert; Otranto, Domenico; Volf, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Background Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects that can transmit Leishmania parasites. Hosts bitten by sand flies develop an immune response against sand fly salivary antigens. Specific anti-saliva IgG indicate the exposure to the vector and may also help to estimate the risk of Leishmania spp. transmission. In this study, we examined the canine antibody response against the saliva of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, and characterized salivary antigens of this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera of dogs bitten by P. perniciosus under experimental conditions and dogs naturally exposed to sand flies in a L. infantum focus were tested by ELISA for the presence of anti-P. perniciosus antibodies. Antibody levels positively correlated with the number of blood-fed P. perniciosus females. In naturally exposed dogs the increase of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 was observed during sand fly season. Importantly, Leishmania-positive dogs revealed significantly lower anti-P. perniciosus IgG2 compared to Leishmania-negative ones. Major P. perniciosus antigens were identified by western blot and mass spectrometry as yellow proteins, apyrases and antigen 5-related proteins. Conclusions Results suggest that monitoring canine antibody response to sand fly saliva in endemic foci could estimate the risk of L. infantum transmission. It may also help to control canine leishmaniasis by evaluating the effectiveness of anti-vector campaigns. Data from the field study where dogs from the Italian focus of L. infantum were naturally exposed to P. perniciosus bites indicates that the levels of anti-P. perniciosus saliva IgG2 negatively correlate with the risk of Leishmania transmission. Thus, specific IgG2 response is suggested as a risk marker of L. infantum transmission for dogs. PMID:22022626

  12. Evaluation of a Prototype Flow Cytometry Test for Serodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ker, Henrique Gama; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; das Dores Moreira, Nádia; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a critical challenge since conventional immunoserological tests still present some deficiencies. The current study evaluated a prototype flow cytometry serology test, using antigens and fluorescent antibodies that had been stored for 1 year at 4°C, on a broad range of serum samples. Noninfected control dogs and Leishmania infantum-infected dogs were tested, and the prototype test showed excellent performance in differentiating these groups with high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy (100% in all analyses). When the CVL group was evaluated according to the dogs' clinical status, the prototype test showed outstanding accuracy in all groups with positive serology (asymptomatic II, oligosymptomatic, and symptomatic). However, in dogs which had positive results by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) but negative results by conventional serology (asymptomatic I), serological reactivity was not observed. Additionally, sera from 40 dogs immunized with different vaccines (Leishmune, Leish-Tec, or LBSap) did not present serological reactivity in the prototype test. Eighty-eight dogs infected with other pathogens (Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Babesia canis) were used to determine cross-reactivity and specificity, and the prototype test performed well, particularly in dogs infected with B. canis and E. canis (100% and 93.3% specificities, respectively). In conclusion, our data reinforce the potential of the prototype test for use as a commercial kit and highlight its outstanding performance even after storage for 1 year at 4°C. Moreover, the prototype test efficiently provided accurate CVL serodiagnosis with an absence of false-positive results in vaccinated dogs and minor cross-reactivity against other canine pathogens. PMID:24108778

  13. A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Rocha, Olguita G Ferreira; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2014-08-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL. PMID:24766461

  14. A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Ferreira Rocha, Olguita G; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL. PMID:24766461

  15. Modelling canine leishmaniasis spread to non-endemic areas of Europe.

    PubMed

    Espejo, L A; Costard, S; Zagmutt, F J

    2015-07-01

    Expansion of sandflies and increasing pet travel have raised concerns about canine leishmaniasis (CanL) spread to new areas of Europe. This study aimed to estimate the probability of CanL introduction and persistence following movements of infected dogs. Stochastic modelling was used to estimate the probabilities of (1) CanL infection during travels or imports of infected dogs (P inf and P infCA, respectively), (2) CanL persistence in a dog network with sandflies after introduction of an infected dog (P per), and (3) persistence in a CanL-free region (P per region) for N dogs moving between endemic and free regions. Different mitigation measures (MMs) were assessed. P inf [7.8%, 95% predictive interval (PI) 2.6-16.4] and P per (72.0%, 95% PI 67.8-76.0) were reduced by use of repellent, vaccine, prophylactic medication, and insecticide, in decreasing order of effectiveness. Testing and exclusion of positive dogs was most effective in reducing P per region for a small N. The spread of CanL to CanL-free areas with sandflies is thus likely, but can be reduced by MMs. PMID:25345963

  16. Serological survey with PCR validation for canine visceral leishmaniasis in northern Palestine.

    PubMed

    Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Ereqat, Suheir; Azmi, Kifaya; Baneth, Gad; Jaffe, Charles L; Abdeen, Ziad

    2006-02-01

    Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the Mediterranean region. A seroprevalence study for CVL was conducted in northern Palestine. Domestic dogs (n = 148) were screened for antileishmanial antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ten dogs (6.8%) were seropositive. Promastigotes were isolated from one seropositive dog and identified as L. infantum by excreted factor (EF) serotyping, isozyme electrophoresis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition to the ELISA, the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-, modified ITS1 (mITS1)-, and kinetoplast DNA (kDNA)-PCRs were used to validate this technique as a diagnostic tool for CVL using blood; each assay was performed on 60 blood samples. kDNA-PCR (13/60 positives, 21.7%) was the most sensitive of the assays examined followed by mITS1-PCR (9/60, 15.0%), ELISA (5/60, 8.3%), and ITS1-PCR (3/60, 5%). However, ITS1-PCR and mITS1-PCR were also capable of identifying the parasite species and indicated they belong to L. infantum. In view of its higher sensitivity, kDNA-PCR is recommended for the routine diagnosis of CVL. PMID:16629333

  17. Cellular immunophenotypic profile in the splenic compartment during canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Nicolato, Roney de Carvalho; Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo de Assis

    2014-02-15

    To determine the role of the spleen in the pathogenesis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), we analyzed cellular immunophenotypic profiles of 52 dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum, clinically classified as follows: asymptomatic dogs-I (AD-I), seronegative/PCR+; asymptomatic dogs-II (AD-II), seropositive/PCR+; oligosymptomatic dogs (OD) and symptomatic dogs (SD). Seven non-infected dogs (CD) were included as a control group. AD-II presented higher levels of CD8+ T splenocytes and lower TCD4+/TCD8+ ratio in comparison with CD. OD and SD showed lower percentages of CD21+ as compared with AD-II. All seropositive dogs presented lower levels of CD45RA+ than CD. Regardless of the stimuli used, the proliferation index from splenocytes in vitro was inversely correlated with clinical status. After LSA stimulation, there was a higher percentage of specific CD8+ T in AD-II than CD and non-stimulated culture. In contrast, splenocytes from SD under in vitro LSA stimulation induced decreased MHC-II+ expression in comparison with all groups, and non-stimulated culture. In conclusion, the role of CD8+ T splenocytes seems to be important for an effective immunological response, a hallmark of asymptomatic CVL, whereas the pronounced loss of MHC-II expression upon LSA stimulation is a biomarker of symptomatic CVL. PMID:24365402

  18. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload ... of Leishmaniasis World Health Organization ​​​​​​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of ...

  19. Evaluation of PCR in the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis in two different epidemiological regions: Campinas (SP) and Teresina (PI), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, L N G; Borba, A S; Castagna, C L; Carvalho Filho, E B; Marson, F A L; Sá Junior, F F; Angerami, R N; Levy, C E

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis has greater sensitivity and specificity than culture and visualization of the parasite. This study compares PCR for the diagnosis of the genus and species of Leishmania with serological techniques used for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Brazil, considering two regions. We analysed peripheral blood samples collected from 195 dogs in the Campinas (SP) and Teresina (PI) regions. ELISA was performed as a serological method and PCR was performed using specific primers for the genus Leishmania spp. and the species Leishmania chagasi. In Campinas, a greater sensitivity of PCR (88.24%) (P = 0.0455) compared to Teresina (14.71%) (P < 0.0001) was observed, and an agreement was observed for Cohen's kappa index (0.9096). Both PCR and ELISA showed discordance for sensitivity (Campinas 100%, Teresina 21.74%), specificity (Campinas 30.77%, Teresina 100%), positive predictive value (Campinas 68.97%, Teresina 100%), negative predictive value (Campinas 100%, Teresina 37.94%) and Cohen's kappa index (0.1238). This study confirms the importance of PCR in analysis of the canine reservoir, and as an effective method for the detection of active and recent infection. PMID:25019604

  20. Improving Serodiagnosis of Human and Canine Leishmaniasis with Recombinant Leishmania braziliensis Cathepsin L-like Protein and a Synthetic Peptide Containing Its Linear B-cell Epitope

    PubMed Central

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Background The early and correct diagnosis of human leishmaniasis is essential for disease treatment. Another important step in the control of visceral leishmaniasis is the identification of infected dogs, which are the main domestic reservoir of L. infantum. Recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides based on Leishmania genes have emerged as valuable targets for serodiagnosis due to their increased sensitivity, specificity and potential for standardization. Cathepsin L-like genes are surface antigens that are secreted by amastigotes and have little similarity to host proteins, factors that enable this protein as a good target for serodiagnosis of the leishmaniasis. Methodology/Principal Findings We mapped a linear B-cell epitope within the Cathepsin L-like protein from L. braziliensis. A synthetic peptide containing the epitope and the recombinant protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of human tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis, as well as canine visceral leishmaniasis. Conclusions/Significance The recombinant protein performed best for human tegumentary and canine visceral leishmaniasis, with 96.30% and 89.33% accuracy, respectively. The synthetic peptide was the best to discriminate human visceral leishmaniasis, with 97.14% specificity, 94.55% sensitivity and 96.00% accuracy. Comparison with T. cruzi-infected humans and dogs suggests that the identified epitope is specific to Leishmania parasites, which minimizes the likelihood of cross-reactions. PMID:25569432

  1. Emerging trends in the seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis in the Madrid region (central Spain).

    PubMed

    Gálvez, R; Miró, G; Descalzo, M A; Nieto, J; Dado, D; Martín, O; Cubero, E; Molina, R

    2010-05-11

    This report describes a cross-sectional serological survey of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) performed in 2006 and 2007 in the Madrid region (central Spain) where the disease is endemic. The work presented here is one of the several studies conducted in different Spanish regions under the Integrated Project of the European Commission entitled Emerging Diseases in a changing European eNvironment (EDEN). The aim of this project is to identify and catalogue European ecosystems and environmental conditions that determine the spatial and temporal distributions and dynamics of several pathogenic agents including Leishmania infantum (EDEN-LEI). The study area (Madrid Autonomous Region) was selected on the grounds of its wide altitude range. This area was surveyed from NE to SW across its mountain range (Sistema Central) and plateau area. One thousand and seventy-six dogs from 32 villages were examined for clinical signs of CanL, and serum samples were obtained to determine several haematological and biochemical variables. Leishmaniasis-specific antibodies were identified using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). 87 of the 1076 dogs were seropositive for the protozoan (IFAT: cut-off>or=1/80) indicating a seroprevalence of 8.1% (0-16.1% depending on the village). On the basis of a physical examination and the biochemical/haematological status of each dog, 32 of the 87 infected dogs were described as clinically healthy (37%). Seroprevalence showed a peak in young dogs (1-2 years) and a second larger peak among the older dogs (7-8 years). Factors correlated with a higher infection risk were age (OR=1.15 [95% CI: 1.07-1.22]), weight (OR=1.10 [95% CI: 1.04-1.16]), and living outdoors as opposed to in a home (OR=3.38 [95% CI: 1.42-8.05]). According to data from studies performed in 1992 in the same area, the seroprevalence of CanL has increased 1.54-fold [95% CI: 1.04-2.29]. Given that this increasing trend cannot be attributed to differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of the dog populations, it is proposed that environmental changes could have had an impact on vector and reservoir densities and their geographical distributions. Further studies designed to explain this trend should attempt to correlate sand fly densities and CanL seroprevalences with climate, land use and human changes. PMID:20031330

  2. Evaluation of two recombinant Leishmania proteins identified by an immunoproteomic approach as tools for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral and human tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Martins, Vívian Tamietti; Garde, Esther; de Jesus Pereira, Nathália Cristina; Lopes, Eliane Gonçalves Paiva; Borges, Luiz Felipe Nunes Menezes; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira

    2016-01-15

    Serological diagnostic tests for canine and human leishmaniasis present problems related with their sensitivity and/or specificity. Recently, an immunoproteomic approach performed with Leishmania infantum proteins identified new parasite antigens. In the present study, the diagnostic properties of two of these proteins, cytochrome c oxidase and IgE-dependent histamine-releasing factor, were evaluated for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral (CVL) and human tegumentary (HTL) leishmaniasis. For the CVL diagnosis, sera samples from non-infected dogs living in an endemic or non-endemic area of leishmaniasis, sera from asymptomatic or symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) dogs, from Leish-Tec(®)-vaccinated dogs, and sera from animals experimentally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or Ehrlichia canis were used. For the HTL diagnosis, sera from non-infected subjects living in an endemic area of leishmaniasis, sera from active cutaneous or mucosal leishmaniasis patients, as well as those from T. cruzi-infected patients were employed. ELISA assays using the recombinant proteins showed both sensitivity and specificity values of 100% for the serodiagnosis of both forms of disease, with high positive and negative predictive values, showing better diagnostic properties than the parasite recombinant A2 protein or a soluble Leishmania antigen extract. In this context, the two new recombinant proteins could be considered to be used in the serodiagnosis of CVL and HTL. PMID:26790739

  3. Canine leishmaniasis in Southern Italy: a role for nitric oxide released from activated macrophages in asymptomatic infection?

    PubMed Central

    Panaro, Maria A; Brandonisio, Olga; de Caprariis, Donato; Cavallo, Pasqua; Cianciulli, Antonia; Mitolo, Vincenzo; Otranto, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    Background Human and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum is endemic in Italy, with a high percentage of infected asymptomatic animals. However, the immune response mechanisms underlying the clinical presentation of CanL have not been fully investigated. Among leishmanicidal molecules produced by activated macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) produced by an inducible NO synthase seems to play an important protective role, but no conclusive data are available. Therefore, NO released by cultured macrophages from dogs with natural Leishmania infection living in an endemic area for CanL was evaluated. Methods On the basis of one year's clinical and laboratory follow-up, 22 dogs infected by Leishmania infantum were identified and grouped as: asymptomatic dogs (n = 13) and dogs with symptoms of leishmaniasis (n = 9). Each animal was bled twice at 4-month intervals and macrophage and lymphocyte cultures were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Supernatants of L. infantum-infected macrophage cultures, with or without addition of autologous lymphocytes, were assayed for NO production by Griess reaction for nitrites. Results In the first months of the infection the levels of NO in supernatants of Leishmania-infected macrophages were higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic dogs, but they were significantly increased in the latter group eight months after the diagnosis of infection. Furthermore, NO release significantly decreased in the presence of autologous lymphocytes in both groups of animals. Conclusion These results suggest that NO may be involved in the long-term protection of dogs against natural Leishmania infection and in the clinical presentation of canine leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean area. PMID:18471289

  4. Evaluating the Accuracy of Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Guedes, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio; Bordoni, Marcelo; Borja, Lairton Souza; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; da Silva Estrela Tuy, Pétala Gardênia; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Nascimento, Eliane Gomes; de Sá Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno; dos-Santos, Washington Luis Conrado; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2014-01-01

    Host tissues affected by Leishmania infantum have differing degrees of parasitism. Previously, the use of different biological tissues to detect L. infantum DNA in dogs has provided variable results. The present study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing (qPCR) in dogs from an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by determining which tissue type provided the highest rate of parasite DNA detection. Fifty-one symptomatic dogs were tested for CVL using serological, parasitological and molecular methods. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed for accuracy evaluation of these methods. qPCR detected parasite DNA in 100% of these animals from at least one of the following tissues: splenic and bone marrow aspirates, lymph node and skin fragments, blood and conjunctival swabs. Using latent variable as gold standard, the qPCR achieved a sensitivity of 95.8% (CI 90.4–100) in splenic aspirate; 79.2% (CI 68–90.3) in lymph nodes; 77.3% (CI 64.5–90.1) in skin; 75% (CI 63.1–86.9) in blood; 50% (CI 30–70) in bone marrow; 37.5% (CI 24.2–50.8) in left-eye; and 29.2% (CI 16.7–41.6) in right-eye conjunctival swabs. The accuracy of qPCR using splenic aspirates was further evaluated in a random larger sample (n?=?800), collected from dogs during a prevalence study. The specificity achieved by qPCR was 76.7% (CI 73.7–79.6) for splenic aspirates obtained from the greater sample. The sensitivity accomplished by this technique was 95% (CI 93.5–96.5) that was higher than those obtained for the other diagnostic tests and was similar to that observed in the smaller sampling study. This confirms that the splenic aspirate is the most effective type of tissue for detecting L. infantum infection. Additionally, we demonstrated that LCA could be used to generate a suitable gold standard for comparative CVL testing. PMID:25076494

  5. Vectorborne Transmission of Leishmania infantum from Hounds, United States.

    PubMed

    Schaut, Robert G; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Esch, Kevin J; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo; Petersen, Christine A

    2015-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by predominantly vectorborne Leishmania spp. In the United States, canine visceral leishmaniasis is common among hounds, and L. infantum vertical transmission among hounds has been confirmed. We found that L. infantum from hounds remains infective in sandflies, underscoring the risk for human exposure by vectorborne transmission. PMID:26583260

  6. Vectorborne Transmission of Leishmania infantum from Hounds, United States

    PubMed Central

    Schaut, Robert G.; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Esch, Kevin J.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by predominantly vectorborne Leishmania spp. In the United States, canine visceral leishmaniasis is common among hounds, and L. infantum vertical transmission among hounds has been confirmed. We found that L. infantum from hounds remains infective in sandflies, underscoring the risk for human exposure by vectorborne transmission. PMID:26583260

  7. High rates of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma nabiasi infection in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in sympatric and syntrophic conditions in an endemic canine leishmaniasis area: epidemiological consequences.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Sáez, V; Merino-Espinosa, G; Morales-Yuste, M; Corpas-López, V; Pratlong, F; Morillas-Márquez, F; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2014-05-28

    Leishmania infantum infection has been reported in various host species, both domestic and wild, in some cases with high prevalence rates. However, until the recent discovery of infected hares, no studies had provided clear evidence of any significant reservoir other than domestic dogs. Our focus was on another lagomorph, Oryctolagus cuniculus or wild rabbit. This species is native to the Iberian Peninsula and its presence and abundance gave rise to the name of Spain. In an endemic area for canine leishmaniasis in the southeast of Spain, 150 rabbits were captured over a period of three years. Samples of blood, bone marrow, liver, spleen, heart and skin were taken and analysed through parasitological, serological and molecular techniques in order to detect Leishmania and Trypanosoma. 20.7% of the rabbits were infected with L. infantum and 82.4% with Trypanosoma nabiasi, and 14.8% of mixed infections were detected. Both parasites were found in all the animal organs analysed, a factor which, along with the presence of serological cross-reactions, must be taken into account in epidemiological studies on leishmaniasis. O. cuniculus is an abundant and gregarious species, with a long enough average lifespan to ensure L. infantum transmission. The presence of the parasite in the skin and blood of these rabbits with no acute manifestation of disease ensures its contact with the vector, which finds in their warrens a suitable biotope to inhabit. The rabbit therefore seems to meet the most of conditions for being considered a reservoir host of L. infantum. PMID:24774436

  8. Performance of a real time PCR for leishmaniasis diagnosis using a L. (L.) infantum hypothetical protein as target in canine samples.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Fabio Antonio; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia; Meira, Cristina da Silva; Motoie, Gabriela; Gava, Ricardo; Hiramoto, Roberto M; de Almeida, Marcos E; da Silva, Alexandre J; Cutolo, Andre Antonio; Menz, Ingrid

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis represents an important public health issue in different parts of the world, requiring that measures be put in place to control the spread of the disease worldwide. The canine leishmaniasis diagnosis is not easy based on clinical signs, since dogs may not develop the infection with recognizable signs. Thus, the laboratorial diagnosis is essential to ascertain the incidence and prevalence of canine leishmaniasis especially in areas with major control efforts. Although, the diagnosis can be performed by the use of different approaches, the molecular methods such as PCR have become an indispensable tool for leishmaniases diagnosis. A TaqMan assay for real-time PCR (Linj31-qPCR) was developed to determine the parasite occurrence in clinical cases of leishmaniasis. The assay targets an L. (L.) infantum hypothetical protein region. The specificity of the assay was verified by using Leishmania World Health Organization reference strains including parasites belonging to subgenus L. (Leishmania), subgenus L. (Viannia), other Leishmania species and Trypanosoma cruzi. The sensitivity was verified by using isolates of L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (L.) infantum. The usefulness of the assay for diagnosis was ascertained by testing 277 samples from dogs in regions endemic for visceral and/or cutaneous leishmaniasis and from regions in which leishmaniasis was not endemic in São Paulo State, Brazil. Diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was determined on these animals by conventional PCR and three serological tests. The dog samples were divided into four groups. I, dogs with CVL (n = 101); II, dogs with other diseases and without CVL (n = 97); III, dogs with American cutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 7), and, IV, dogs without CVL (n = 72) from areas where leishmaniasis was not endemic as control group. Results indicated that Linj31-qPCR was able to identify parasites belonging to subgenus L. (Leishmania) with no cross-amplification with other parasite subgenera. The Linj31-qPCR detected Leishmania parasites DNA in 98% of samples from Group I. In conclusion this methodology can be used as routine diagnostic tools to detect parasites from subgenus Leishmania. PMID:26297683

  9. Development of a Fluorescent Based Immunosensor for the Serodiagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis Combining Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Susana; Cardoso, Luís; Reed, Steven G.; Reis, Alexandre B.; Martins-Filho, Olindo A.; Silvestre, Ricardo; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    Background An accurate diagnosis is essential for the control of infectious diseases. In the search for effective and efficient tests, biosensors have increasingly been exploited for the development of new and highly sensitive diagnostic methods. Here, we describe a new fluorescent based immunosensor comprising magnetic polymer microspheres coated with recombinant antigens to improve the detection of specific antibodies generated during an infectious disease. As a challenging model, we used canine leishmaniasis due to the unsatisfactory sensitivity associated with the detection of infection in asymptomatic animals where the levels of pathogen-specific antibodies are scarce. Methodology Ni-NTA magnetic microspheres with 1,7 µm and 8,07 µm were coated with the Leishmania recombinant proteins LicTXNPx and rK39, respectively. A mixture of equal proportions of both recombinant protein-coated microspheres was used to recognize and specifically bind anti-rK39 and anti-LicTNXPx antibodies present in serum samples of infected dogs. The microspheres were recovered by magnetic separation and the percentage of fluorescent positive microspheres was quantified by flow cytometry. Principal Findings A clinical evaluation carried out with 129 dog serum samples using the antigen combination demonstrated a sensitivity of 98,8% with a specificity of 94,4%. rK39 antigen alone demonstrated a higher sensitivity for symptomatic dogs (96,9%), while LicTXNPx antigen showed a higher sensitivity for asymptomatic (94,4%). Conclusions Overall, our results demonstrated the potential of a magnetic microsphere associated flow cytometry methodology as a viable tool for highly sensitive laboratorial serodiagnosis of both clinical and subclinical forms of canine leishmaniasis. PMID:23991232

  10. Advances in flow cytometric serology for canine visceral leishmaniasis: diagnostic applications when distinct clinical forms, vaccination and other canine pathogens become a challenge.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Renata Aline; Silva Araújo, Márcio Sobreira; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Vianna, Leonardo Rocha; Mayrink, Wilson; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2009-03-15

    We have previously reported the applicability of flow cytometry anti-fixed Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes IgG (FC-AFPA-IgG) as a novel serological device for laboratorial diagnosis of CVL. Herein, we validate throughout a blind study applied into a broader range of coded sera samples that FC-AFPA-IgG at serum dilution 1:8192 have an outstanding performance to discriminate the serological reactivity of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL, n=64) and Leishmune vaccines (VAC, n=62) and non-infected controls (NI, n=25). Moreover, we have evaluated the performance of indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the crude-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in parallel with FC-AFPA-IgG, to discriminate the seroreactivity of NI, CVL and VAC. Our data demonstrated that both ELISA and FC-AFPA-IgG showed similar performance to detect the seronegativity in 100% of NI, whereas FC-AFPA-IgG displayed better performance to exclude seropositivity in 100% of VAC. The high kappa agreement indexes observed suggested similar performance between these two serological testes when distinct clinical forms of CVL become a challenge. Furthermore, the FC-AFPA-IgG applied at sera dilution 1:8192 showed a remarkable performance to discriminate CVL from other co-endemic canine infections with high co-negativity in dogs infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania braziliensis (86% and 84%, respectively). In conclusion, the data presented here re-emphasize the applicability of FC-AFPA-IgG as an innovative methodology able to discriminate post-infection imunomediated seroreactivity from that triggered by prophylactic immunization with minor cross-reactivity with other relevant canine pathogens, which may contribute as a supplementary assay for the CVL immunodiagnosis. PMID:19046772

  11. Application of an Improved Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Method for Serological Diagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Santarém, Nuno; Silvestre, Ricardo; Cardoso, Luís; Schallig, Henk; Reed, Steven G.; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela

    2010-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is essential toward a more efficient control of this zoonosis, but it remains problematic due to the high incidence of asymptomatic infections. In this study, we present data on the development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based techniques for the detection of antibodies against the recombinant protein Leishmania infantum cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase (LicTXNPx) and a comparison of the results with those employing soluble Leishmania antigens from promastigote or amastigote forms and the homologue recombinant protein L. infantum mitochondrial TXNPx (LimTXNPx). Moreover, we offer an evaluation of the diagnostic potential of rK39 for CanL in the Portuguese canine population and propose an improvement to the existing ELISA-based serological techniques by combining the LicTXNPx and rK39 antigens as a Leishmania antigen mixture (LAM). The data demonstrated that ELISAs based on soluble promastigote or amastigote antigens had generally higher levels of sensitivity for detection of antibodies in symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs than for detection of those against isolated recombinant proteins. Nevertheless, the specificities were found to be similar for all target antigens used. Importantly, the LAM-ELISA methodology improved the overall sensitivity, maintaining a high overall level of specificity. In addition, it was demonstrated that the detection of anti-LAM IgG2 can increase the accuracy of the serological diagnosis. Overall, the obtained results showed that the strategy of combining two well-defined Leishmania antigens, LicTXNPx and rK39, proved to be a sensitive and specific improvement to current serological diagnosis of CanL, being a useful tool for the detection of both clinical and subclinical forms of canine Leishmania infection. PMID:20164286

  12. Urban Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Argentina: Spatial Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Gil, José F.; Nasser, Julio R.; Cajal, Silvana P.; Juarez, Marisa; Acosta, Norma; Cimino, Rubén O.; Diosque, Patricio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2010-01-01

    We used kernel density and scan statistics to examine the spatial distribution of cases of pediatric and adult American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an urban disease-endemic area in Salta Province, Argentina. Spatial analysis was used for the whole population and stratified by women > 14 years of age (n = 159), men > 14 years of age (n = 667), and children < 15 years of age (n = 213). Although kernel density for adults encompassed nearly the entire city, distribution in children was most prevalent in the peripheral areas of the city. Scan statistic analysis for adult males, adult females, and children found 11, 2, and 8 clusters, respectively. Clusters for children had the highest odds ratios (P < 0.05) and were located in proximity of plantations and secondary vegetation. The data from this study provide further evidence of the potential urban transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Argentina. PMID:20207869

  13. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Manuela; Cassini, Rudi; Drigo, Michele; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Pietrobelli, Mario; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie

    2014-11-01

    With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environmental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribution of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM) and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30) and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt prediction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level) characterised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveillance strategies. PMID:25545936

  14. Molecular detection of the blood meal source of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baum, Maurício; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Goulart, Thais Marchi; Baura, Walter; Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Vieira da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara

    2015-03-01

    The feeding behavior of sand flies provides valuable information about the vector/host interactions and elucidates the epidemiological patterns of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of sand flies in endemic areas of leishmaniasis in Paraná State through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a prepronociceptin (PNOC) gene fragment and its subsequent DNA sequencing. Moreover, molecular assays were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the PNOC gene amplification. Besides that, a time-course digestion test of the blood using sand flies that fed artificially on BALB/c mice was performed. Of 1263 female sand flies collected in the field, 93 (3.6%) specimens were engorged and 27 allowed efficient amplification of the PNOC gene. These flies had fed on equine (Equus caballus), porcine (Sus scrofa) and canine (Canis lupus familiaris) species. The results also showed that the identification of the blood meal sources of the sand flies using the molecular method was directly linked to the level of digestion of the blood (time-course) and not to the amount of blood that had been ingested or to the presence of inhibitors in the blood. PMID:25530542

  15. Prevalence of Dermatological Presentations of Canine Leishmaniasis in a Nonendemic Area: A Retrospective Study of 100 Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Spada, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study determined the prevalence of dermatological lesions associated with canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a nonendemic area in Italy. The medical records of 131 dogs with CanL were reviewed and, of these, 115/131 dogs (88%) had dermatological manifestations of which 100/131 dogs (76%) met the inclusion criteria. Sixty-two percent of dogs were male and 38% were female and the mean age was 6.4 years. Thirty-two percent of dogs were mixed breeds; the remainder represented a variety of pure breeds. In 79% of dogs dermatological signs occurred in association with systemic signs of CanL, whilst 21% of dogs had only dermatological manifestations. The most common dermatological manifestation was exfoliative dermatitis (74%), followed by ulcerative (18%) and nodular (11%) lesions. In 51% of dogs the lesions were localized mainly on the pinnae, head, and pressure points; in the remaining 49% lesions were generalized. The only statistically significant association was between Retriever breed and animals with only dermatological signs (P = 0.0034, OD 5.97, CI 0.996–37.933). In this study dermatological manifestations of CanL were very commonly reported, and their prevalence is similar to previous studies in endemic areas despite the fact that dogs living in nonendemic areas are not exposed to repeated infectious bites and continuous stimulation of the dermal immune system. PMID:24660088

  16. A Surveillance Program on Canine Leishmaniasis in the Public Kennels of Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Santi, Annalisa; Renzi, Maria; Baldelli, Raffaella; Calzolari, Mattia; Caminiti, Antonino; Dell'Anna, Silvia; Galletti, Giorgio; Lombardini, Annalisa; Paternoster, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Since 2007, a canine leishmaniasis (CanL) surveillance program has been carried out in public kennels of the Emilia-Romagna region with the aim of providing health guarantees for dog adoptions. According to this program, monitoring activities were performed to verify the presence of sandflies and infected dogs, and a specific CanL risk class was assigned to each kennel, resulting in different control approaches (entomological and/or serological monitoring, clinical surveillance, therapeutic treatment of infected dogs, protections against vector bites). From 2007 to 2012, 20,931 dogs, 89.8% of which were identified by microchip and housed in 73 kennels, were examined using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. In all, 528 (2.8%) dogs tested positive, and 43.0% of these were asymptomatic. The authors used monitoring results, in particular serological tests performed on dogs at admittance to the kennel and annual controls of sentinel dogs, to estimate CanL risk in the whole region and to evaluate the efficacy of the preventive measures adopted. CanL seroprevalence in dogs tested at the admittance in kennels increased significantly from 2010 (1.0%; 29/2858) to 2012 (2.4%; 69/2841). In contrast, the number of seroconversions in sentinel dogs was stable in 2010 (1.2%; 11/896) and 2011 (1.6%; 13/825) and decreased in 2012 (0.9%; 8/850), suggesting the efficacy of the preventive measures applied. PMID:24575787

  17. A surveillance program on canine leishmaniasis in the public kennels of Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santi, Annalisa; Renzi, Maria; Baldelli, Raffaella; Calzolari, Mattia; Caminiti, Antonino; Dell'Anna, Silvia; Galletti, Giorgio; Lombardini, Annalisa; Paternoster, Giulia; Tamba, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Since 2007, a canine leishmaniasis (CanL) surveillance program has been carried out in public kennels of the Emilia-Romagna region with the aim of providing health guarantees for dog adoptions. According to this program, monitoring activities were performed to verify the presence of sandflies and infected dogs, and a specific CanL risk class was assigned to each kennel, resulting in different control approaches (entomological and/or serological monitoring, clinical surveillance, therapeutic treatment of infected dogs, protections against vector bites). From 2007 to 2012, 20,931 dogs, 89.8% of which were identified by microchip and housed in 73 kennels, were examined using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. In all, 528 (2.8%) dogs tested positive, and 43.0% of these were asymptomatic. The authors used monitoring results, in particular serological tests performed on dogs at admittance to the kennel and annual controls of sentinel dogs, to estimate CanL risk in the whole region and to evaluate the efficacy of the preventive measures adopted. CanL seroprevalence in dogs tested at the admittance in kennels increased significantly from 2010 (1.0%; 29/2858) to 2012 (2.4%; 69/2841). In contrast, the number of seroconversions in sentinel dogs was stable in 2010 (1.2%; 11/896) and 2011 (1.6%; 13/825) and decreased in 2012 (0.9%; 8/850), suggesting the efficacy of the preventive measures applied. PMID:24575787

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN A PREVIOUSLY UNAFFECTED AREA BY CONVENTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND CELL-BLOCK FIXATION.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Tuanne Rotti; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Denise Amaro da; Perié, Carolina Dos Santos F S; V Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

    2016-01-01

    After the report of a second case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in São Bento da Lagoa, Itaipuaçu, in the municipality of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological survey was carried out, through active search, totaling 145 dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and rapid chromatographic immunoassay based on dual-path platform (DPP(r)) were used to perform the serological examinations. The parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous fragments was performed by parasitological culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the serological assessment, 21 dogs were seropositive by IFA, 17 by ELISA, and 11 by DPP(r), with sensitivity of 66.7%, 66.7% and 50%, and specificity of 87.2%, 90.2% and 94%, respectively for each technique. The immunohistochemistry of bone marrow using the cell-block technique presented the best results, with six positive dogs found, three of which tested negative by the other parasitological techniques. Leishmania sp. was isolated by parasitological culture in three dogs. The detection of autochthonous Leishmania infantum in Itaipuaçu, and the high prevalence of seropositive dogs confirm the circulation of this parasite in the study area and alert for the risk of expansion in the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26910449

  19. A Novel Molecular Test to Diagnose Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis at the Point of Care.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Saldarriaga, Omar A; Tartaglino, Lilian; Gacek, Rosana; Temple, Elissa; Sparks, Hayley; Melby, Peter C; Travi, Bruno L

    2015-11-01

    Dogs are the principal reservoir hosts of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) but current serological methods are not sensitive enough to detect all subclinically infected animals, which is crucial to VL control programs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have greater sensitivity but require expensive equipment and trained personnel, impairing its implementation in endemic areas. We developed a diagnostic test that uses isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) to detect Leishmania infantum. This method was coupled with lateral flow (LF) reading with the naked eye to be adapted as a point-of-care test. The L. infantum RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity similar to real time-PCR, detecting DNA of 0.1 parasites spiked in dog blood, which was equivalent to 40 parasites/mL. There was no cross amplification with dog or human DNA or with Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis, or Trypanosoma cruzi. The test also amplified Leishmania donovani strains (N = 7). In a group of clinically normal dogs (N = 30), RPA-LF detected more subclinical infections than rK39 strip test, a standard serological method (50% versus 13.3% positivity, respectively; P = 0.005). Also, RPA-LF detected L. infantum in noninvasive mucosal samples of dogs with a sensitivity comparable to blood samples. This novel molecular test may have a positive impact in leishmaniasis control programs. PMID:26240156

  20. GENOTYPE CHARACTERIZATION OF Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis ISOLATED FROM HUMAN AND CANINE BIOPSIES WITH AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    PubMed Central

    FERREIRA, Lasaro Teixeira; GOMES, Aparecida Helena de Souza; PEREIRA-CHIOCCOLA, Vera Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) can be caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis complex. The evolution of ATL initially results in lesions and can develop into disseminated or diffuse forms. The genetic diversity of L. (V.) braziliensis in some endemic areas of Brazil has been poorly studied, such as in the state of São Paulo. This study analyzed the genetic diversity of L. (V.) braziliensis isolates collected from patients and dogs with LTA from the state of São Paulo. Methods: Leishmaniasis diagnosis was determined by PCR. The 132 biopsies were collected in different regions of Sao Paulo State, Brazil (36 municipalities). The genetic characterization of L. (V.) braziliensis isolates was tested by RFLP-PCR using DNA extracted from biopsies. The primer set amplified a specific region of Leishmania internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA locus. Results: Of the 132 samples, 52 (40%) were completely genotyped by RFLP-PCR (44 from human patients and eight from dogs). The results showed nine distinct patterns. The majority of the genotyped samples were from Sorocaba (30), and the others were distributed among 14 other municipalities. The first pattern was more frequent (29 samples), followed by pattern 2 (nine samples) and pattern 3 (three samples). Patterns 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9 were composed of two samples each and pattern 5 of one sample. Conclusion: These results suggest that polymorphic strains of L. (V.) braziliensis circulate in the state of São Paulo. These data agree with studies from other regions of Brazil, showing great variability among the natural populations of endemic foci. PMID:26200968

  1. Novel markers of inflammatory response and hepatic dysfunction in canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Tonin, Alexandre A; Calado, Andréa M C; Bottari, Nathieli B; Dalenogare, Diéssica; Thomé, Gustavo R; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Alves, Leucio C; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-02-01

    Dogs are the main host of Leishmania infantum, and the clinical presentation may range from asymptomatic to systemic manifestations. The immune mechanisms in infected, but clinically healthy dogs, prevails Th1 response mediated by cytokines. In this sense, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are considered as key enzymes in several physiological processes, including the modulation of inflammatory process. Considering the variable immune response against Leishmania and the known participation of ADA and BChE, the aim of this study was to assess the relation between these two enzymes with the inflammatory response as well as hepatic function in dogs naturally infected with L. infantum. For this purpose, the activity of ADA and BChE was assessed in sera of 24 dogs naturally infected with L. infantum, plus 17 healthy dogs. The naturally infected dogs had clinical signs compatible with leishmaniasis and sera activities of ADA (P<0.01) and BChE (P<0.05) decreased, when compared to the healthy group. The reduction of ADA activity probably represented an effect on inflammatory response, especially due to the decreased hydrolysis of extracellular adenosine, might in order to protect against tissue damage and, also, setting a down-regulation on pro-inflammatory cytokines. BChE enzyme had no effect on modulating the immune response in leishmaniasis, but it decreased, a fact may related to deficiency of synthesis in the liver. Therefore, ADA and BChE activities reduced probably in order to protect against extra tissue damage and due failure in synthesis, respectively. PMID:26454326

  2. Immunological comparison of DNA vaccination using two delivery systems against canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mehdi; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Saljoughian, Noushin; Doroud, Delaram; Jamshidi, Shahram; Mahdavi, Niousha; Shirian, Sadegh; Daneshbod, Yahya; Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2015-09-15

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal disease caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. Dogs are the primary reservoirs of this parasite, and vaccination of dogs could be an effective method to reduce its transfer to humans. In order to develop a vaccine against VL (apart from the choice of immunogenic candidate antigens), it is necessary to use an appropriate delivery system to promote a proper antigen-specific immune response. In this study, we compared two vaccine delivery systems, namely electroporation and cationic solid-lipid nanoparticle (cSLN) formulation, to administer a DNA vaccine containing the Leishmania donovani A2 antigen, and L. infantum cysteine proteinases of type I (CPA) and II (CPB) without its unusual C-terminal extension. The protective potencies of these two vaccine delivery systems were evaluated against L. infantum challenge in outbred dogs. Our results show that the administration of pcDNA-A2-CPA-CPB(-CTE)GFP vaccine as a prime-boost by either electroporation or cSLN formulation protects the dogs against L. infantum infection. Partial protection in vaccinated dogs is associated with significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of IgG2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α and with low levels of IgG1 and IL-10 as compared to the control group. Protection was also correlated with a low parasite burden and a strong delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. This study demonstrates that both electroporation and cSLN formulation can be used as efficient vaccine delivery systems against visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:26255093

  3. Vaginal canine transmissible venereal tumour associated with intra-tumoural Leishmania spp. amastigotes in an asymptomatic female dog.

    PubMed

    Kegler, K; Habierski, A; Hahn, K; Amarilla, S P; Seehusen, F; Baumgärtner, W

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year-old female boxer dog was presented with a vaginal serosanguineous discharge not associated with oestrus. There was a friable mass occupying the upper caudal part of the vagina. Cytological and histological examination revealed a monomorphic population of neoplastic round cells consistent with canine transmissible venereal tumour (TVT). In addition, Leishmania spp. amastigotes were found within the neoplastic tissue. In order to characterize whether the amastigotes were present inside macrophages and/or neoplastic cells, a co-localization study using cell- and pathogen-specific markers was performed. To detect Leishmania spp. a 5.8S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) parasite-specific sequence was used for in-situ hybridization and Mac387 was used as a macrophage marker for immunohistochemistry. Leishmania spp. rRNA was detected inside Mac387(+) macrophages and within the cytoplasm of some neoplastic cells. DNA isolation and polymerase chain reaction using specific primers and sequencing analysis identified the organism as Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). This is the first report describing infection of tumour cells by L. infantum in a genital TVT from an asymptomatic bitch. Transplantation of Leishmania-laden neoplastic cells could represent an alternative route of venereal transmission of leishmaniasis among dogs. PMID:23348016

  4. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis from the island. The presence of L. (N.) flaviscutellata in peridomestic areas is also an important finding, since the species is involved in the transmission of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. Health education practices directed to the local community and tourists are important control actions that can be taken in Ilha Grande to reduce the burden of leishmaniases. PMID:24499568

  5. Clinical forms of canine visceral Leishmaniasis in naturally Leishmania infantum-infected dogs and related myelogram and hemogram changes.

    PubMed

    Nicolato, Roney de Carvalho; de Abreu, Raquel Trópia; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Bouillet, Leoneide Erica Maduro; Lemos, Denise Silveira; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Hematological analysis has limited applications for disease diagnosis in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs, but it can be very important in evaluating the clinical forms of the disease and in understanding the evolution of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) pathogenesis. Recently, we demonstrated that alterations in leucopoiesis and erythropoiesis are related to clinical status and bone marrow parasite density in dogs naturally infected by L. infantum. To further characterize these alterations, we evaluated the association between the hematological parameters in bone marrow and peripheral blood alterations in groups of L. infantum-infected dogs: asymptomatic I (AD-I: serum negative/PCR+), asymptomatic II (AD-II: serum positive), oligosymptomatic (OD), and symptomatic (SD). Results were compared with those from noninfected dogs (NID). The SD group was found to present a decrease in erythropoietic lineage with concomitant reductions in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit parameters, resulting in anemia. The SD group also had increased neutrophils and precursors and decreased band eosinophils and eosinophils, leading to peripheral blood leucopenia. In the AD-II group, lymphocytosis occurred in both the peripheral blood and the bone marrow compartments. The SD group exhibited lymphocytosis in the bone marrow, with lymphopenia in the peripheral blood. In contrast, the AD-I group, showed no significant changes suggestive of CVL, presenting normal counts in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Our results showed for the first time that important changes in hematopoiesis and hematological parameters occur during ongoing CVL in naturally infected dogs, mainly in symptomatic disease. Taken together, our results based on myelogram and hemogram parameters enable better understanding of the pathogenesis of the anemia, lymphocytosis, and lymphopenia, as well as the leucopenia (eosinopenia and monocytopenia), that contribute to CVL prognosis. PMID:24376612

  6. Clinical Forms of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Naturally Leishmania infantum–Infected Dogs and Related Myelogram and Hemogram Changes

    PubMed Central

    Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Bouillet, Leoneide Erica Maduro; Lemos, Denise Silveira; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Hematological analysis has limited applications for disease diagnosis in Leishmania infantum–infected dogs, but it can be very important in evaluating the clinical forms of the disease and in understanding the evolution of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) pathogenesis. Recently, we demonstrated that alterations in leucopoiesis and erythropoiesis are related to clinical status and bone marrow parasite density in dogs naturally infected by L. infantum. To further characterize these alterations, we evaluated the association between the hematological parameters in bone marrow and peripheral blood alterations in groups of L. infantum–infected dogs: asymptomatic I (AD-I: serum negative/PCR+), asymptomatic II (AD-II: serum positive), oligosymptomatic (OD), and symptomatic (SD). Results were compared with those from noninfected dogs (NID). The SD group was found to present a decrease in erythropoietic lineage with concomitant reductions in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit parameters, resulting in anemia. The SD group also had increased neutrophils and precursors and decreased band eosinophils and eosinophils, leading to peripheral blood leucopenia. In the AD-II group, lymphocytosis occurred in both the peripheral blood and the bone marrow compartments. The SD group exhibited lymphocytosis in the bone marrow, with lymphopenia in the peripheral blood. In contrast, the AD-I group, showed no significant changes suggestive of CVL, presenting normal counts in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Our results showed for the first time that important changes in hematopoiesis and hematological parameters occur during ongoing CVL in naturally infected dogs, mainly in symptomatic disease. Taken together, our results based on myelogram and hemogram parameters enable better understanding of the pathogenesis of the anemia, lymphocytosis, and lymphopenia, as well as the leucopenia (eosinopenia and monocytopenia), that contribute to CVL prognosis. PMID:24376612

  7. Subtractive Phage Display Selection from Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Identifies Novel Epitopes That Mimic Leishmania infantum Antigens with Potential Serodiagnosis Applications

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lourena E.; Lima, Mayara I. S.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Lage, Paula S.; Lopes, Eliane G. P.; Lage, Daniela P.; Ribeiro, Tatiana G.; Andrade, Pedro H. R.; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F.; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Goulart, Luiz R.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs. PMID:24256622

  8. [Canine visceral leishmaniasis in dog from Caldas Novas, Goiás].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Elisa M R; Linhares, Guido F C; Duarte, Sabrina C; Jayme, Valéria D S; Oliveira, Helton F; Oliveira, Vilma F

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to describe a visceral case of leishmaniasis in a dog from Caldas Novas, GO, region until then considered as a disease free area. The animal, attended in the Veterinarian Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás, presented loss of weight, alopecic area of irregular format at the nasal back, onicogrifosis, atrophy of the heads muscles and failure of the right popliteus lymphonode. For the laboratorial diagnosis, samples were collected by biopsy from the complete skin of the auricular region, by punsion from the popliteus lymphonode for preparation of Giemsa stained blades and 5 mL of the blood were also collected for serum diagnosis. The direct microscopy revealed, from the evaluation of the imprint obtained from the skin fragment and from the squash of the inhaled lymphonode, great amount of amastigoste forms of Leishmania in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Based on the clinical presentation, on the parasitologic and on the serology examination of the samples, we concluded the exams with the diagnosis of calazar disease. PMID:20059874

  9. Short-term exogenous glucocorticosteroidal effect on iron and copper status in canine leishmaniasis (Leishmania infantum)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Prednisolone was administered as an anti-inflammatory for 7 consecutive days in 11 dogs with leishmaniasis (CL group) and 5 clinically normal dogs (control group). After a 15-day wash-out phase, the same medication was given as an immunosuppressive for another 7-day period. In both animal groups and experimental periods an overall significant increase of serum iron and transferrin saturation was noted. Serum copper showed a significant increase during the anti-inflammatory period in the control group and a significant decrease during the immunosuppressive period in the CL group. No differences or changes of any kind regarding bone marrow hemosiderin were found between the 2 groups either before or after the end of both experimental periods. The only change noticed in the hematocrit values was a significant decrease in the control group after the end of the anti-inflammatory period. Based on these findings the use of prednisolone cannot be recommended and, if contemplated, should be carefully monitored, especially at an immunosuppressive dosage, because it may promote parasite replication through the induction of increased serum iron levels and hypocupremia. PMID:16479727

  10. Evaluation of a novel chromatographic immunoassay based on Dual-Path Platform technology (DPP® CVL rapid test) for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Ferreira, Adelson L; dos Santos, Claudiney B; Pinto, Israel de-Souza; de-Azevedo, Carolina T; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is the major source of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and is transmitted from dogs to sand flies to humans. To control the spread of this disease, early and accurate detection of infected dogs is critical but challenging. Here we demonstrate the potential of the Dual-Path Platform (DPP(®)) CVL rapid test for detecting K26/K39-reactive antibodies in sera from clinically symptomatic (n=60) and asymptomatic (n=60) Leishmania infantum-infected dogs. For the specificity evaluation, assays were performed using known negative diagnostic serum samples (n=59) and cross-reaction control sera (n=11) from animals born in a VL-free area of Brazil. The diagnostic kit displayed high specificity (96%) but low sensitivity (47%) in identifying parasite-positive dogs without signs of CVL. However, the test sensitivity was significantly higher (98%) in diseased cases, indicating that this convenient test may be useful to identify the most infectious dogs. Efforts should be pursued to obtain a more sensitive DPP-multiplexed test parameter (i.e. based on simultaneous yet separate antibody detection of carefully selected multiple antigens of diagnostic utility) for effective serodiagnosis of early-infected dogs, as this will likely allow more efficient canine removal regimens than those used in practice by public health services. PMID:22137538

  11. Canine leishmaniasis: the key points for qPCR result interpretation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and follow up of CanL is difficult since the range of clinical signs is varied and seroprevalence is high in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: i) demonstrate the advantages of Leishmania qPCR to diagnose and control CanL and highlight its prognostic value and ii) propose guidelines for tissue selection and infection monitoring. Findings This study included 710 dogs living in an endemic area of leishmaniasis. Forty percent (285/710) exhibited clinical signs consistent with CanL. Infection was detected in 36.3% (258/710) of the dogs of which 4.5% (32/710) were detected by qPCR, 16.2% (115/710) detected by ELISA and 15.6% (111/710) tested positive for both tests. Only 17.9% (127/710) of the dogs were classified sick (affected) with CanL. All symptomatic dogs with medium or high ELISA titers were qPCR-positive in blood samples. All dogs with inconclusive or low ELISA results with high or medium qPCR parasitemia values developed the disease. Seventy one percent of asymptomatic ELISA-positive dogs confirmed by qPCR (medium to high parasitemia) developed the disease. Bone marrow or lymph node aspirate should be selected to ensure the absence of the parasite in asymptomatic dogs: 100-1,000 parasites/ml in bone marrow are detectable in blood, whereas lower parasite loads are usually negative. Almost 10% of negative samples in blood were positive in conjunctival swabs. Conclusions Because qPCR allows parasite quantification, it is an effective tool to confirm a diagnosis of CanL in (i) cases of inconclusive ELISA results, (ii) when the dog has not yet seroconverted, or (iii) for treatment monitoring. PMID:21489253

  12. A multicentric evaluation of the recombinant Leishmania infantum antigen-based immunochromatographic assay for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health challenge in Brazil and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of the causative agent. The culling of animals to control VL in some countries makes the accurate diagnosis of canine VL (CVL) essential. Recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B were selected from a cDNA library of Leishmania infantum amastigotes due to their strong potential as candidates in diagnostic testing for CVL. The present multicentric study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of a prototype test using these antigens (DPP rLci1A/rLci2B) against 154 sera obtained from symptomatic dogs within three endemic areas of VL in Brazil. The specificity was evaluated using 40 serum samples from negative dogs and dogs infected with other pathogens. Sensitivity and specificity rates of DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype were compared to rates from other diagnostic tests currently in use by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, including DPP®LVC, EIE®LVC. Findings DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype offered similar performance to that offered by DPP®LVC rapid test, as follows: sensitivity of 87% (CI 81–91) and 88% (CI 82–93) and specificity of 100% (CI 91–100) and 97% (CI 87–100), respectively for DPP rLci1A/rLci2B and DPP®LVC. When results of these two tests were considered concomitantly, sensitivity increased to 93.5% (CI 89–96). Conclusions The recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B represent promising candidates for use in a multi-antigen rapid test for CVL. The inclusion of novel antigens to the DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype model could offer additionally enhanced sensitivity to detect animals infected by L. infantum. PMID:24684857

  13. A new Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein and its non-described specific B cell conformational epitope applied in the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Lage, Daniela P; Martins, Vívian T; Duarte, Mariana C; Costa, Lourena E; Garde, Esther; Dimer, Laura M; Kursancew, Amanda C S; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Roatt, Bruno M; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo A; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A P; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2016-04-01

    The serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) presents problems related to its sensitivity and/or specificity. In the present study, a new Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein, LiHyD, was produced as a recombinant protein (rLiHyD) and evaluated in ELISA experiments for the CVL serodiagnosis. LiHyD was characterized as antigenic in a recent immunoproteomic search performed with Leishmania infantum proteins and the sera of dogs developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Aiming to compare the efficacy between whole proteins and synthetic peptides, two linear and one conformational B cell epitopes of LiHyD were synthesized and also evaluated as diagnostic markers. The four antigens were recognized by the sera of dogs suffering VL. On the contrary, low reactivity was observed when they were assayed with sera from non-infected healthy dogs living in endemic or non-endemic areas of leishmaniasis. In addition, no reactivity was found against them using sera from dogs experimentally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia canis, or Ehrlichia canis, or sera from animals vaccinated with the Leish-Tec® vaccine, a prophylactic preparation commercially available for CVL prevention in Brazil. As comparative diagnostic tools, a recombinant version of the amastigote-specific A2 protein and a soluble crude Leishmania extract were studied. Both antigens presented lower sensitivity and/or specificity values than the LiHyD-based products. The rLiHyD presented better results for the CVL serodiagnosis than its linear epitopes, although the peptide recreating the conformational epitope resulted also appropriate as a diagnostic marker of CVL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the use of a conformational epitope derived from a Leishmania protein for serodiagnosis of CVL. PMID:26782811

  14. Phlebotomine vector ecology in the domestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Cristina; Marín, Dairo; Góngora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, María C; Trujillo, Jorge E; Rueda, Norma K; Marín, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Pérez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E; Ocampo, Clara B

    2011-11-01

    Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction-Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral. PMID:22049038

  15. Phlebotomine Vector Ecology in the Domestic Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Cristina; Marín, Dairo; Góngora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, María C.; Trujillo, Jorge E.; Rueda, Norma K.; Marín, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Pérez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.

    2011-01-01

    Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral. PMID:22049038

  16. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania spp. in naturally infected Phlebotomus tobbi and Sergentomyia dentata in a focus of human and canine leishmaniasis in western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özbel, Yusuf; Karakuş, Mehmet; Arserim, Suha K; Kalkan, Şaban Orçun; Töz, Seray

    2016-03-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is reported from 38 provinces of Turkey and dogs are accepted as main reservoir hosts. Kuşadası town, belonging to Aydın province and located in western part of Turkey, is endemic for human and canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum MON1 and MON98. In this study, phlebotomine survey was conducted to determine the vector sand fly species and to identify sand fly blood meal sources. In August and September 2012, 1027 sand fly specimens were caught using CDC light traps. Eight Phlebotomus and two Sergentomyia species with the dominancy of Phlebotomus tobbi (61.34%) were detected. A total of 622 female sand flies (571 Phlebotomus; 51 Sergentomyia) were checked for Leishmania infection by direct dissection of the midgut. The half of the midgut content was inoculated into NNN culture for isolation of the parasite. Leishmania species-specific ITS1 real time PCR, conventional PCR assays of ITS1 and hsp70 genes and subsequent sequencing were performed from extracted DNAs. A region of cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene of vertebrates based PCR was used to determine the source of blood meal of sand flies. In microscopical examinations, two female specimens (0.32%) were found naturally infected with high number and different stages of promastigotes. No growth was observed in NNN culture but Leishmania DNA was obtained from both specimens. First positive specimen was identified as P. tobbi and L. infantum DNA was detected. Second specimen was Sergentomyia dentata, but Leishmania DNA could not be identified on species level. A total of 16 blood-fed female P. tobbi specimens were used for blood meal analysis and eight, three and one specimens were positive for human, dog and mouse, respectively. This is the first detection of Leishmania promastigotes using microscopical examination in P. tobbi and S. dentata in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in western part of Turkey. Our results indicate that, (i) P. tobbi is the principal vector species and (ii) human and dogs are main blood sources. The detection of Leishmania sp. in Sergentomyia species may be an evidence for natural cycle of Sauro-leishmania agents in the area. PMID:26747008

  17. Immunogenicity in dogs of three recombinant antigens (TSA, LeIF and LmSTI1) potential vaccine candidates for canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Vale, André Macedo; França da Silva, João Carlos; da Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Quetz, Josiane da Silva; Martins Filho, Olindo Assis; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Corrêa Oliveira, Rodrigo; Machado-Coelho, George Lins; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Bethony, Jeffrey Michael; Frank, Glen; Nascimento, Evaldo; Genaro, Odair; Mayrink, Wilson; Reed, Steven; Campos-Neto, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Control of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains a difficult and serious problem mostly because there is no reliable and effective vaccine available to prevent this disease. A mixture of three recombinant leishmanial antigens (TSA, LeIF and LmSTI1) encoded by three genes highly conserved in the Leishmania genus have been shown to induce excellent protection against infection in both murine and simian models of cutaneous leishmaniasis. A human clinical trial with these antigens is currently underway. Because of the high degree of conservation, these antigens might be useful vaccine candidates for VL as well. In the present study, using the dog model of the visceral disease, we evaluated the immunogenicity of these three antigens formulated with two different adjuvants, MPL-SE and AdjuPrime. The results were compared with a whole parasite vaccine formulated with BCG as the adjuvant. In order to investigate if sensitization with the recombinant antigens would result in recognition of the corresponding native parasite antigens upon infection, the animals were exposed for four weeks after the termination of the immunization protocol with the recombinant antigens to a low number of L. chagasi promastigotes, an etiological agent of VL. Immune response was evaluated by quantitative ELISA in the animal sera before and after exposure to the viable parasites. Both antigen specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody levels were measured. Immunization of dogs with the recombinant antigens formulated in either MPL-SE or AdjuPrime resulted in high antibody levels particularly to LmSTI1. In addition, this immunization although to low levels, resulted in the development of antibody response to the whole parasite lysate. Importantly, experimental exposure with low numbers of culture forms of L. chagasi promastigotes caused a clear boost in the immune response to both the recombinant antigens and the corresponding native molecules. The boost response was predominantly of the IgG2 isotype in animals primed with the recombinant antigens plus MPL-SE. In contrast, animals primed with the recombinant antigens formulated in AdjuPrime as well as animals vaccinated with crude antigen preparation responded with mixed IgG1/IgG2 isotypes. These results point to the possible use of this antigen cocktail formulated with the adjuvant MPL-SE in efficacy field trials against canine VL. PMID:16120256

  18. Longitudinal analysis of serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune®.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Mary; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; de Araújo, Maria de Fátima Lereno; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Tolezano, José Eduardo; Vieira, Rafael F C; Biondo, Alexander W

    2013-11-01

    Development of vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) may provide a prophylactic barrier, but antibody response detected by standard diagnostic techniques may not separate vaccinated from naturally infected dogs. Moreover, anti-Leishmania antibody levels in vaccinated dogs may be detectable for months. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate an "in-house" ELISA with three serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of CVL in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®). A total of 18 mongrel dogs were submitted to a complete protocol of the vaccine, monitored and evaluated in 5 times (T0-T4) up to 180 days after T0. Twenty-one days after the first dose (T1), 50% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA and 5.5% by IFAT, while by the official ELISA and DPP(®) CVL rapid test all dogs tested negative. At time T2, 42 days after of the first dose, 100%, 83.3%, 11.1%, and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, IFAT, official ELISA kit and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Ninety days after the first dose (T3), 100%, 83.3%, 72.2% and 33.3% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, IFAT, and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Finally, at time T4, 88.8%, 33.3%, 11.1% and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, DPP(®) CVL rapid test and IFAT, respectively. In conclusion, dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®) cross-react by an "in-house" ELISA and by the three official Brazilian serological tests for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis up to six months after the first vaccine dose, and may be mistakenly diagnosed and removed. PMID:23920056

  19. Evaluation of conjunctival swab sampling in the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis: A two-year follow-up study in Çukurova Plain, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Paşa, Serdar; Atasoy, Abidin; Arserim, Suha K; Ölgen, M Kirami; Ziya Alkan, M; Durrant, Caroline; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-12-15

    The diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs is a very important and problematic public health issue in Turkey. A longitudinal study was carried out on dogs in selected villages in the Çukurova Plain in Turkey, from July 2011 to June 2013, where cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) leishmaniasis is endemic. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of CanL and to evaluate the early diagnostic performance of the non-invasive conjunctival swab nested PCR (CS n-PCR) test in comparison with the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT). The consecutive blood and CS samples from a representative number of dogs (80-100 dogs/each survey) were collected in a cohort of 6 villages located in the area. Clinical symptoms, demographic and physical features about each dog were noted and lymph node aspiration samples were obtained from selected dogs with lymphadenopathy. In four surveys during the period, a total of 338 sets (blood and CS) of samples from 206 dogs were obtained, such that 83 dogs were sampled more than once. In the cross-sectional analysis, the CanL prevalence was found to be 27.18% (between 7.14% and 39.13%) by IFAT and 41.74% (between 29.03% and 46.66%) by CS n-PCR. The isolated strains were identified as Leishmania infantum MON-1 (n=9) and MON-98 (n=2) by MLEE analysis. Genetic studies targeting the Hsp70 and ITS1 regions performed on 11 dog isolates also showed two clear separate groups. According to IFAT results, 24 of the 83 dogs sampled more than once showed seroconversion (n=19) or a four-fold increase in Ab titers (n=5), while 17 were positive in the initial screening. Forty-two dogs stayed negative during the whole period. The natural Leishmania exposure rate was detected as 31.14% in the study area. CS n-PCR only detected Leishmania infection earlier than IFAT in 8 dogs. No statistical difference was found after the analysis of demographical and physical data. The results indicated that (i) circulation of the dog population is very common in settlements in the Çukurova Plain, but the disease prevalence is high and stable, (ii) the performance of CS n-PCR for detecting Leishmania-dog contact is higher than IFAT, (iii) and some of the parasites isolated from dogs have different zymodemes and/or genotypes from previous human and sand fly isolates; suggesting the probability of two different cycles of leishmaniasis in this particular area. This hypothesis should be supported by future studies targeting vectors and reservoirs. PMID:26415899

  20. Spatial Distribution of Sand Fly Vectors and Eco-Epidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Transmission in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Cristina; López, Marla; Fuya, Patricia; Lugo, Ligia; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; González, Camila

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmania is transmitted by Phlebotominae insects that maintain the enzootic cycle by circulating between sylvatic and domestic mammals; humans enter the cycles as accidental hosts due to the vector’s search for blood source. In Colombia, leishmaniasis is an endemic disease and 95% of all cases are cutaneous (CL), these cases have been reported in several regions of the country where the intervention of sylvatic areas by the introduction of agriculture seem to have an impact on the rearrangement of new transmission cycles. Our study aimed to update vector species distribution in the country and to analyze the relationship between vectors’ distribution, climate, land use and CL prevalence. Methods A database with geographic information was assembled, and ecological niche modeling was performed to explore the potential distribution of each of the 21 species of medical importance in Colombia, using thirteen bioclimatic variables, three topographic and three principal components derived from NDVI. Binary models for each species were obtained and related to both land use coverage, and a CL prevalence map with available epidemiological data. Finally, maps of species potential distribution were summed to define potential species richness in the country. Results In total, 673 single records were obtained with Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psychodopygus panamensis, Psathyromyia shannoni and Pintomyia evansi the species with the highest number of records. Eighteen species had significant models, considering the area under the curve and the jackknife results: L. gomezi and P. panamensis had the widest potential distribution. All sand fly species except for Nyssomyia antunesi are mainly distributed in regions with rates of prevalence between 0.33 to 101.35 cases per 100,000 inhabitants and 76% of collection data points fall into transformed ecosystems. Discussion Distribution ranges of sand flies with medical importance in Colombia correspond predominantly to disturbed areas, where the original land coverage is missing therefore increasing the domiciliation potential. We highlight the importance of the use of distribution maps as a tool for the development of strategies for prevention and control of diseases. PMID:26431546

  1. Evaluation of Live Recombinant Nonpathogenic Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinase and A2 Genes as a Candidate Vaccine against Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Mehdi; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Jamshidi, Shahram; Shirian, Sadegh; Mahdavi, Niousha; Hassankhani, Mehdi; Daneshbod, Yahya; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a major veterinary and public health problem caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) in many endemic countries. It is a severe chronic disease with generalized parasite spread to the reticuloendothelial system, such as spleen, liver and bone marrow and is often fatal when left untreated. Control of VL in dogs would dramatically decrease infection pressure of L. infantum for humans, since dogs are the main domestic reservoir. In the past decade, various subunits and DNA antigens have been identified as potential vaccine candidates in experimental animal models, but none has been approved for human use so far. In this study, we vaccinated outbreed dogs with a prime-boost regimen based on recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinase genes (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB-CTE) and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. infantum infectious challenge. We showed that vaccinated animals produced significantly higher levels of IgG2, but not IgG1, and also IFN-γ and TNF-α, but low IL-10 levels, before and after challenge as compared to control animals. Protection in dogs was also correlated with a strong DTH response and low parasite burden in the vaccinated group. Altogether, immunization with recombinant L. tarentolae A2-CPA-CPB-CTE was proven to be immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, hence representing a promising live vaccine candidate against CVL. PMID:26197085

  2. Evaluation of an immunochemotherapeutic protocol constituted of N-methyl meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) and the recombinant Leish-110f + MPL-SE vaccine to treat canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Miret, Jorge; Nascimento, Evaldo; Sampaio, Weverton; França, João Carlos; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Vale, André; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Vieira, Edvá; da Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Mayrink, Wilson; Campos Neto, Antonio; Reed, Steven

    2008-03-17

    The evaluation of the efficacy of an immunochemotherapy protocol to treat symptomatic dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi was studied. This clinical trial had the purpose to test the combination of N-methyl meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime and the second generation recombinant vaccine Leish-110f plus the adjuvant MPL-SE to treat the canine leishmaniasis (CanL). Thirty symptomatic naturally infected mongrel dogs were divided into five groups. Animals received standard treatment with Glucantime or treatment with Glucantime Leish-110f + MPL-SEas immunochemotherapy protocol. Additional groups received Leish-110f + MPL-SE only, MPL-SE only, or placebo. Evaluation of haematological, biochemical (renal and hepatic function) and plasmatic proteins, immunological (humoral and cellular immune response) and the parasitological test revealed improvement of the clinical parameters and parasitological cure in dogs in both chemotherapy alone and immunochemotherapy cohorts. However, the immunotherapy and immunochemotherapy cohorts had reduced number of deaths, higher survival probability, and specific cellular reactivity to leishmanial antigens, in comparison with chemotherapy cohort only and control groups (adjuvant alone and placebo). These results support the notion of using well-characterized recombinant vaccine as an adjunct to improve the current chemotherapy of CanL. PMID:18328956

  3. Evaluation of Live Recombinant Nonpathogenic Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinase and A2 Genes as a Candidate Vaccine against Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mehdi; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Jamshidi, Shahram; Shirian, Sadegh; Mahdavi, Niousha; Hassankhani, Mehdi; Daneshbod, Yahya; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a major veterinary and public health problem caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) in many endemic countries. It is a severe chronic disease with generalized parasite spread to the reticuloendothelial system, such as spleen, liver and bone marrow and is often fatal when left untreated. Control of VL in dogs would dramatically decrease infection pressure of L. infantum for humans, since dogs are the main domestic reservoir. In the past decade, various subunits and DNA antigens have been identified as potential vaccine candidates in experimental animal models, but none has been approved for human use so far. In this study, we vaccinated outbreed dogs with a prime-boost regimen based on recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinase genes (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB-CTE) and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. infantum infectious challenge. We showed that vaccinated animals produced significantly higher levels of IgG2, but not IgG1, and also IFN-γ and TNF-α, but low IL-10 levels, before and after challenge as compared to control animals. Protection in dogs was also correlated with a strong DTH response and low parasite burden in the vaccinated group. Altogether, immunization with recombinant L. tarentolae A2-CPA-CPB-CTE was proven to be immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, hence representing a promising live vaccine candidate against CVL. PMID:26197085

  4. Association of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (IRP2) with Leishmania Burden in Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Paulo Ricardo Porfírio; Martins, Daniella Regina Arantes; Monteiro, Glória Regina Góis; Queiroz, Paula Vivianne; Freire-Neto, Francisco Paulo; Queiroz, José Wilton; Morais Lima, Ádila Lorena; Jeronimo, Selma Maria Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania infantum infection in humans and dogs can evolve with a wide range of clinical presentations, varying from asymptomatic infections to visceral leishmaniasis. We hypothesized that the immune response elicited by L. infantum infection could modulate whether the host will remain asymptomatic or progress to disease. A total of 44 dogs naturally infected with L. infantum were studied. Leishmania burden was estimated in the blood and spleen by qPCR. The expression of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10 and Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (IRP2) were determined in the spleen by quantitative PCR. Sera cytokines were evaluated by ELISA. Dogs were grouped in quartiles according parasite burden. Increased expression of IFN-? and TNF-? was associated with reduced Leishmania burden, whereas increased IL-10 and IRP2 expressions were associated with higher Leishmania load. Increased plasma albumin and IFN-? expression explained 22.8% of the decrease in parasite burden in the spleen. These data confirm that lower IFN-? response and higher IL-10 correlated with increased parasite load and severity of the visceral leishmaniasis in dogs. The balance between the branches of immune response and the intracellular iron availability could determine, in part, the course of Leishmania infection. PMID:24146743

  5. Influence of transmural pressure on retrograde pressure pulse transmission velocity in the canine superior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Minten, J; Van de Werf, F; Aubert, A E; Kesteloot, H; De Geest, H

    1984-11-01

    The influence of intrathoracic and intraluminal pressure on venous pressure pulse propagation velocity in the superior vena cava was investigated in acute canine experiments. The propagation velocity of distinct points of the venous pressure curve was measured under different conditions of preload, during expiratory and inspiratory apnea and during positive-negative pressure respiration. Under control conditions transmission velocities varied from 1.07 m/s to 3.29 m/s. After volume expansion propagation velocities rose significantly and varied from 1.09 m/s to 6.48 m/s. During expiratory apnea and at peak negative expiratory pressure, the propagation speed of distinct pressure points was higher than during inspiratory apnea and at peak positive inspiratory pressure. Significant linear correlation coefficients were found between the transmission velocities of different distinct pressure points and the transmural pressure, but not between the propagation speed and the intraluminal pressure. PMID:6085251

  6. Higher Expression of CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CCL21, and CXCL8 Chemokines in the Skin Associated with Parasite Density in Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Guerra-Sá, Renata; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Oliveira, Guilherme Corrêa; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Background The immune response in the skin of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum is poorly understood, and limited studies have described the immunopathological profile with regard to distinct levels of tissue parasitism and the clinical progression of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methodology/Principal Findings A detailed analysis of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages) as well as the expression of chemokines (CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CCL13, CCL17, CCL21, CCL24, and CXCL8) was carried out in dermis skin samples from 35 dogs that were naturally infected with L. infantum. The analysis was based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the context of skin parasitism and the clinical status of CVL. We demonstrated increased inflammatory infiltrate composed mainly of mononuclear cells in the skin of animals with severe forms of CVL and high parasite density. Analysis of the inflammatory cell profile of the skin revealed an increase in the number of macrophages and reductions in lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells that correlated with clinical progression of the disease. Additionally, enhanced parasite density was correlated with an increase in macrophages and decreases in eosinophils and mast cells. The chemokine mRNA expression demonstrated that enhanced parasite density was positively correlated with the expression of CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CCL21, and CXCL8. In contrast, there was a negative correlation between parasite density and CCL24 expression. Conclusions/Significance These findings represent an advance in the knowledge about skin inflammatory infiltrates in CVL and the systemic consequences. Additionally, the findings may contribute to the design of new and more efficient prophylactic tools and immunological therapies against CVL. PMID:22506080

  7. The genetic structure of Leishmania infantum populations in Brazil and its possible association with the transmission cycle of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; dos Santos, Barbara Neves; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Ramos, Tereza Pompilio Bastos; Porrozzi, Renato; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Cupolillo, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, Mediterranean basin and West and Central Asia. Although the geographic structure of L. infantum populations from the Old World have been described, few studies have addressed the population structure of this parasite in the Neotropical region. We employed 14 microsatellites to analyze the population structure of the L. infantum strains isolated from humans and dogs from most of the Brazilian states endemic for VL and from Paraguay. The results indicate a low genetic diversity, high inbreeding estimates and a depletion of heterozygotes, which together indicate a predominantly clonal breeding system, but signs of sexual events are also present. Three populations were identified from the clustering analysis, and they were well supported by F statistics inferences and partially corroborated by distance-based. POP1 (111 strains) was observed in all but one endemic area. POP2 (31 strains) is also well-dispersed, but it was the predominant population in Mato Grosso (MT). POP3 (31 strains) was less dispersed, and it was observed primarily in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Strains originated from an outbreak of canine VL in Southern Brazil were grouped in POP1 with those from Paraguay, which corroborates the hypothesis of dispersal from Northeastern Argentina and Paraguay. The distribution of VL in MS seems to follow the west-east construction of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline from Corumbá municipality. This may have resulted in a strong association of POP3 and Lutzomyia cruzi, which is the main VL vector in Corumbá, and a dispersion of this population in this region that was shaped by human interference. This vector also occurs in MT and may influence the structure of POP2. This paper presents significant advances in the understanding of the population structure of L. infantum in Brazil and its association with eco-epidemiological aspects of VL. PMID:22606248

  8. Comparison against 186 canid whole-genome sequences reveals survival strategies of an ancient clonally transmissible canine tumor

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Brennan; Davis, Brian W.; Rimbault, Maud; Long, Adrienne H.; Karlins, Eric; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Reiman, Rebecca; Parker, Heidi G.; Drögemüller, Cord; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Chapman, Erica S.; Trent, Jeffery M.; Leeb, Tosso; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Wayne, Robert K.; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2015-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a parasitic cancer clone that has propagated for thousands of years via sexual transfer of malignant cells. Little is understood about the mechanisms that converted an ancient tumor into the world's oldest known continuously propagating somatic cell lineage. We created the largest existing catalog of canine genome-wide variation and compared it against two CTVT genome sequences, thereby separating alleles derived from the founder's genome from somatic mutations that must drive clonal transmissibility. We show that CTVT has undergone continuous adaptation to its transmissible allograft niche, with overlapping mutations at every step of immunosurveillance, particularly self-antigen presentation and apoptosis. We also identified chronologically early somatic mutations in oncogenesis- and immune-related genes that may represent key initiators of clonal transmissibility. Thus, we provide the first insights into the specific genomic aberrations that underlie CTVT's dogged perseverance in canids around the world. PMID:26232412

  9. Comparison against 186 canid whole-genome sequences reveals survival strategies of an ancient clonally transmissible canine tumor.

    PubMed

    Decker, Brennan; Davis, Brian W; Rimbault, Maud; Long, Adrienne H; Karlins, Eric; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Reiman, Rebecca; Parker, Heidi G; Drögemüller, Cord; Corneveaux, Jason J; Chapman, Erica S; Trent, Jeffery M; Leeb, Tosso; Huentelman, Matthew J; Wayne, Robert K; Karyadi, Danielle M; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2015-11-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a parasitic cancer clone that has propagated for thousands of years via sexual transfer of malignant cells. Little is understood about the mechanisms that converted an ancient tumor into the world's oldest known continuously propagating somatic cell lineage. We created the largest existing catalog of canine genome-wide variation and compared it against two CTVT genome sequences, thereby separating alleles derived from the founder's genome from somatic mutations that must drive clonal transmissibility. We show that CTVT has undergone continuous adaptation to its transmissible allograft niche, with overlapping mutations at every step of immunosurveillance, particularly self-antigen presentation and apoptosis. We also identified chronologically early somatic mutations in oncogenesis- and immune-related genes that may represent key initiators of clonal transmissibility. Thus, we provide the first insights into the specific genomic aberrations that underlie CTVT's dogged perseverance in canids around the world. PMID:26232412

  10. One Health: the global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Day, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming. PMID:21985335

  11. One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming. PMID:21985335

  12. [Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Algeria. 7. Visceral leishmaniasis in the Grande Kabylie focus].

    PubMed

    Dedet, J P; Addadi, K; Lannuzel, B

    1977-01-01

    The authors present the results of a survey on visceral leishmaniasis in the Grande Kabylie region (Algeria). With a 2.6 human cases per 100,000 annual prevalence, and a 11.4 per cent incidence of canine leishmaniasis, the Grande Kabylie appears to be the most important focus of visceral leishmaniasis in North Africa. The endemicity ecological factors are discussed and a control program is proposed. PMID:580909

  13. Modeling the Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Vectors (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Iran: A Potential Transmission in Disease Prone Areas.

    PubMed

    Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Rassi, Yavar; Karimi, Ameneh; Charrahy, Zabihollah

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is now the main vector-borne disease in Iran. Two forms of the disease exist in the country, transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. Modeling distribution of the vector species is beneficial for preparedness and planning to interrupt the transmission cycle. Data on sand fly distribution during 1990-2013 were used to predict the niche suitability. MaxEnt algorithm model was used for prediction using bioclimatic and environmental variables (precipitation, temperature, altitude, slope, and aspect). Regularized training, area under the curve, and unregularized training gains were 0.916, 0.915, and 1.503, respectively, for Ph. papatasi. These values were calculated as 0.987, 0.923, and 1.588 for Ph. sergenti s.l. The jackknife test showed that the environmental variable with the highest gain when used in isolation has the mean temperature of the wettest quarter for both species, while slope decreases the gain the most when it is omitted from the model. Classification of probability of presence for two studied species was performed on five classes using equal intervals in ArcGIS. More than 60% probability of presence was considered as areas with high potential of CL transmission. These areas include arid and semiarid climates, mainly located in central part of the country. Mean of altitude, annual precipitation, and temperature in these areas were calculated 990 and 1,235?m, 273 and 226?mm, and 17.5 and 16.4°C for Ph. papatasi and Ph. sergenti s.l., respectively. These findings can be used in the prediction of CL transmission potential, as well as for planning the disease control interventions. PMID:26335462

  14. Immunologic progression of canine leishmaniosis following vertical transmission in United States dogs.

    PubMed

    Vida, Blake; Toepp, Angela; Schaut, Robert G; Esch, Kevin J; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Shimak, Raeann M; Petersen, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is caused by Leishmania infantum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, endemic in U.S. hunting dog populations. CanL has been found in dogs in 28 states and two Canadian provinces. Previous studies by our group, (Boggiatto et al., 2011), demonstrated that vertical transmission of Leishmania was the predominant means of transmission within U.S. dogs. Very little is known regarding how this alternative means of transmission, alters the long-term immunity and clinical presentation of leishmaniosis in dogs born to a positive bitch. This study follows the immunological progression of CanL in three pups after birth to an infected bitch. During the course of the study, these dogs were tested every six months over the course of six years. Both immunologic (IFN-γ, T cell proliferation, antibody production) and parasitological parameters (qPCR) of vertically-infected dogs were measured. Within the six years after birth to an L. infantum-infected, oligosymptomatic bitch, all dogs had at least one L. infantum PCR-positive test. Interestingly, despite living in the same location for their entire lives and being full siblings, these pups demonstrate three different disease progression patterns of L. infantum infection. One dog progressed to oligosymptomatic disease, maintaining a positive titer and had intermittent positive PCR results. One asymptomatic dog had positive serological titers and demonstrated a robust CD4(+) immune response to infection. The third dog had a negligible response to L. infantum antigen and was healthy. This work demonstrates the biologic variability associated with vertically-transmitted infection similar to the variety of presentations observed during vector-borne leishmaniosis. PMID:26827836

  15. Health-seeking behaviour, diagnostics and transmission dynamics in the control of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Medley, Graham F; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Olliaro, Piero L; Adams, Emily R

    2015-12-01

    Countries in the Indian subcontinent have committed to reducing the incidence of kala-azar, a clinical manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis, to below 1 in 10,000 by 2020. We address the role of timing of use and accuracy of diagnostics in kala-azar control and elimination. We use empirical data on health-seeking behaviour and health-system performance from the Indian state of Bihar, Bangladesh and Nepal to parameterize a mathematical model. Diagnosis of cases is key to case management, control and surveillance. Treatment of cases prevents onward transmission, and we show that the differences in time to diagnosis in these three settings explain the observed differences in incidence. Shortening the time from health-care seeking to diagnosis is likely to lead to dramatic reductions in incidence in Bihar, bringing the incidence down to the levels seen in Bangladesh and Nepal. The results emphasize the importance of maintaining population and health-system awareness, particularly as transmission and disease incidence decline. We explore the possibility of diagnosing patients before the onset of clinical kala-azar (before 14 days fever), and show that this could have a marked impact on incidence, even for a moderately sensitive test. However, limited specificity (that results in false positives) is a major barrier to such a strategy. Diagnostic tests of high specificity used at an early stage of active infection, even if sensitivity is only moderate, could have a key role in the control of kala-azar, and prevent its resurgence when paired with the passive health-care system and tests of high sensitivity, such as the test for rK39 antibody response. PMID:26633763

  16. Domestic and peridomestic risk factors associated with transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in three hypo endemic, endemic, and hyper endemic areas: A randomized epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Heidari, Asieh; Bidabadi, Leila Shirani; Siadat, Amir Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis is an infection caused by leishmania protozoa. Knowledge about health effects associated with environment situation and human behavior in national and local levels seems to be very necessary. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional case-control study was carried out in three adjacent counties of Isfahan province in Iran. Data were collected by face-to-face interviewing and recorded structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test and logistic. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The economic level had significant association with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) transmission (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant association between existence of food storage and transmission of CL. We, however, found significant reduction of CL transmission following use of insect control measures (P < 0.05). The odds ratio for peridomestic transmission was 0.420 for houses that weren’t round with any old or ruined houses. Conclusion: We conclude that among aforementioned risk factors, the impact of peridomestic factors is stronger in CL transmission when compared with domestic and behavioral factors. PMID:25538774

  17. Leishmaniasis Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on a Guatemalan patient who has cutaneous leishmaniasis. (Credit: B. Arana, MERTU, Guatemala) Marked splenomegaly (enlargement/swelling ... patient in lowland Nepal who has visceral leishmaniasis. (Credit: C. Bern, CDC) There are several different forms ...

  18. Leishmaniasis FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... count (thrombocytopenia). How common is leishmaniasis in the world? The number of new cases per year is ... million (400,000). In what parts of the world is leishmaniasis found? In the Old World (the ...

  19. Understanding the transmission dynamics of Leishmania donovani to provide robust evidence for interventions to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Mary M; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Bern, Caryn; Boelaert, Marleen; den Boer, Margriet; Burza, Sakib; Chapman, Lloyd A C; Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Coleman, Michael; Courtenay, Orin; Croft, Simon; Das, Pradeep; Dilger, Erin; Foster, Geraldine; Garlapati, Rajesh; Haines, Lee; Harris, Angela; Hemingway, Janet; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Jervis, Sarah; Medley, Graham; Miles, Michael; Paine, Mark; Picado, Albert; Poché, Richard; Ready, Paul; Rogers, Matthew; Rowland, Mark; Sundar, Shyam; de Vlas, Sake J; Weetman, David

    2016-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected vector-borne disease. In India, it is transmitted to humans by Leishmania donovani-infected Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. In 2005, VL was targeted for elimination by the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh by 2015. The elimination strategy consists of rapid case detection, treatment of VL cases and vector control using indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, to achieve sustained elimination of VL, an appropriate post elimination surveillance programme should be designed, and crucial knowledge gaps in vector bionomics, human infection and transmission need to be addressed. This review examines the outstanding knowledge gaps, specifically in the context of Bihar State, India.The knowledge gaps in vector bionomics that will be of immediate benefit to current control operations include better estimates of human biting rates and natural infection rates of P. argentipes, with L. donovani, and how these vary spatially, temporally and in response to IRS. The relative importance of indoor and outdoor transmission, and how P. argentipes disperse, are also unknown. With respect to human transmission it is important to use a range of diagnostic tools to distinguish individuals in endemic communities into those who: 1) are to going to progress to clinical VL, 2) are immune/refractory to infection and 3) have had past exposure to sand flies.It is crucial to keep in mind that close to elimination, and post-elimination, VL cases will become infrequent, so it is vital to define what the surveillance programme should target and how it should be designed to prevent resurgence. Therefore, a better understanding of the transmission dynamics of VL, in particular of how rates of infection in humans and sand flies vary as functions of each other, is required to guide VL elimination efforts and ensure sustained elimination in the Indian subcontinent. By collecting contemporary entomological and human data in the same geographical locations, more precise epidemiological models can be produced. The suite of data collected can also be used to inform the national programme if supplementary vector control tools, in addition to IRS, are required to address the issues of people sleeping outside. PMID:26812963

  20. Canine transmissible venereal tumour: assessment of mast cell numbers as indicators of the growth phase.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Chiwome, T; Chitanga, S; Bhebhe, E

    2006-08-01

    Mast cells are immune cells that are involved mainly in type 1 hypersensitivity reactions, and they have been implicated in tumour angiogenesis. In this study we assessed the presence of mast cell numbers and microvessel density during the progression and regression stages of natural spontaneous canine transmissible venereal tumours (CTVT). Mast cells were demonstrated by histochemical staining with toluidine blue, alcian blue and safranin O. Microvessel counts were demonstrated by immunohistochemical labelling with an antibody against the endothelial cell marker factor VIII. Mitotic cells, apoptotic cells and tumour infiltrating lymphocytes were counted from haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections. Tumour fibrosis was evaluated on Masson's trichome-stained sections. The results showed that progressing tumours had significantly higher mast cell counts and microvessel counts at the invasive edges of the tumours than did regressing tumours. In both the progressing and regressing tumours, microvessel counts were significantly positively correlated with mast cell counts. Regressing tumours had significantly higher mast cell counts of the whole tumour than progressing tumours. The results also showed that progressing tumours had significantly higher mitotic rate than regressing tumours, and fibrosis and apoptosis were significantly higher in regressing tumours than progressing tumours. There were no significant differences between the biochemical and haematological values of dogs with progressing and regressing tumours. These results suggests that mast cells play a role in CTVT progression probably by promoting vascularization at the invasion front during the progression phase, and that mast cell count could be used as one of the histological factors to indicate growth stage of CTVT. PMID:16838203

  1. The changing global distribution and prevalence of canine transmissible venereal tumour

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a contagious cancer that is naturally transmitted between dogs by the allogeneic transfer of living cancer cells during coitus. CTVT first arose several thousand years ago and has been reported in dog populations worldwide; however, its precise distribution patterns and prevalence remain unclear. Results We analysed historical literature and obtained CTVT prevalence information from 645 veterinarians and animal health workers in 109 countries in order to estimate CTVT’s former and current global distribution and prevalence. This analysis confirmed that CTVT is endemic in at least 90 countries worldwide across all inhabited continents. CTVT is estimated to be present at a prevalence of one percent or more in dogs in at least 13 countries in South and Central America as well as in at least 11 countries in Africa and 8 countries in Asia. In the United States and Australia, CTVT was reported to be endemic only in remote indigenous communities. Comparison of current and historical reports of CTVT indicated that its prevalence has declined in Northern Europe, possibly due to changes in dog control laws during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Analysis of factors influencing CTVT prevalence showed that presence of free-roaming dogs was associated with increased CTVT prevalence, while dog spaying and neutering were associated with reduced CTVT prevalence. Our analysis indicated no gender bias for CTVT and we found no evidence that animals with CTVT frequently harbour concurrent infectious diseases. Vincristine was widely reported to be the most effective therapy for CTVT. Conclusions Our results provide a survey of the current global distribution of CTVT, confirming that CTVT is endemic in at least 90 countries worldwide. Additionally, our analysis highlights factors that continue to modify CTVT’s prevalence around the world and implicates free-roaming dogs as a reservoir for the disease. Our analysis also documents the disappearance of the disease from the United Kingdom during the twentieth century, which appears to have been an unintentional result of the introduction of dog control policies. PMID:25186078

  2. Canine visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi in Amazonian Brazil: comparison of the parasite density from the skin, lymph node and visceral tissues between symptomatic and asymptomatic, seropositive dogs.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luciana Vieira R; Carneiro, Liliane Almeida; Campos, Marliane Batista; Chagas, Eujênia Janis; Laurenti, Márcia D; Corbett, Carlos E P; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is recognizable by characteristic signs of disease and is highly lethal. The infection, however, may be quite inapparent in some seropositive dogs, and this has raised the polemic question as to whether or not such animals can be a source of infection for Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). In this study we have examined 51 dogs with acute CVL from an AVL area in Pará State, northern Brazil, and compared the parasite density, amastigotes of Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, in the skin, lymph node and viscera of symptomatic with that of nine asymptomatic but seropositive dogs (IFAT-IgG). Post-mortem biopsy fragments of these tissues were processed by immunohistochemistry, using a polyclonal antibody against Leishmania sp. The X² and Mann Whitney tests were used to evaluate the means of infected macrophage density (p < 0.05). There was no difference (p > 0.05) in the skin (10.7/mm² x 15.5/mm²) and lymph node (6.3/mm² x 8.3/mm²), between asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs, respectively. It was higher (p < 0.05), however, in the viscera of symptomatic (5.3/mm²) than it was in asymptomatic (1.4/mm²) dogs. These results strongly suggest that asymptomatic or symptomatic L. (L.) i. chagasi-infected dogs can serve as a source of infection, principally considering the highest (p < 0.05) parasite density from skin (10.7/mm² x 15.5/mm²), the place where the vetor L. longipalpis takes its blood meal, compared with those from lymph node (6.3/mm² x 8.3/mm²) and viscera (1.4/mm²x 5.3/mm²). PMID:21049230

  3. Comparison of the Infectivity and Transmission of Contemporary Canine and Equine H3N8 Influenza Viruses in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pecoraro, Heidi L.; Bennett, Susi; Garretson, Kristina; Quintana, Ayshea M.; Lunn, Katharine F.; Landolt, Gabriele A.

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses indicate that canine influenza viruses (CIVs) (H3N8) evolved from contemporary equine influenza virus (EIV). Despite the genetic relatedness of EIV and CIV, recent evidence suggests that CIV is unable to infect, replicate, and spread among susceptible horses. To determine whether equine H3N8 viruses have equally lost the ability to infect, cause disease, and spread among dogs, we evaluated the infectivity and transmissibility of a recent Florida sublineage EIV isolate in dogs. Clinical signs, nasal virus shedding, and serological responses were monitored in dogs for 21 days after inoculation. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that both the viruses have maintained the ability to infect and replicate in dogs and result in seroconversion. Transmission of EIV from infected to sentinel dogs, however, was restricted. Furthermore, both CIV and EIV exhibited similar sialic acid-?2,3-gal receptor-binding preferences upon solid-phase binding assays. The results of the in vivo experiments reported here suggesting that dogs are susceptible to EIV and previous reports by members of our laboratory showing limited CIV infection in horses have been mirrored in CIV and EIV infections studies in primary canine and equine respiratory epithelial cells. PMID:24198997

  4. Canine distemper outbreak in raccoons suggests pathogen interspecies transmission amongst alien and native carnivores in urban areas from Germany.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Solís, Zaida; Förster, Christine; Aue, Angelika; Wittstatt, Ulrich; Wibbelt, Gudrun; König, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    From December 2012 to May 2013, an outbreak occurred among urban wild carnivores from Berlin. We collected 97 free-ranging raccoons from the city area. PCR assays, histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in 74 raccoons. Phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin gene fragments (1767 nucleotides) of CDV isolated from four raccoons showed close relation to CDV isolates from foxes from Germany and a domestic dog from Hungary; all belonging to the "Europe" lineage of CDV. These study results suggest an inter-species transmission of CDV as the origin for the outbreak among the raccoon population. Implications for domestic pets and suggested interspecies transmission between urban wildlife and raccoons are discussed. This is the first major outbreak of CDV amongst free-ranging raccoons in Europe. PMID:25258173

  5. Natural transmission of Leishmania infantum through experimentally infected Phlebotomus perniciosus highlights the virulence of Leishmania parasites circulating in the human visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Martín-Martín, Inés; Jiménez, Maribel; González, Estela; Eguiluz, César; Molina, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    A human leishmaniasis outbreak is occurring in the Madrid region, Spain, with the parasite and vector involved being Leishmania infantum and Phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the virulence of L. infantum isolates from the focus using a natural transmission model. Hamsters were infected by intraperitoneal inoculation (IP) or by bites of sand flies experimentally infected with L. infantum isolates obtained from P. perniciosus collected in the outbreak area (IPER/ES/2012/BOS1FL1 and IPER/ES/2012/POL2FL6) and a well characterized L. infantum strain JPCM5 (MCAN/ES/98/LLM-877). Hamster infections were monitored by clinical examination, serology, culture, parasite burden, Giemsa-stained imprints, PCR, histopathology and xenodiagnostic studies. Establishment of infection of L. infantum was achieved with the JPCM5 strain and outbreak isolates by both P. perniciosus infective bites or IP route. However, high virulence of BOS1FL1 and POL2FL6 isolates was highlighted by the clinical outcome of disease, high parasite detection in spleen and liver, high parasitic loads and positivity of Leishmania serology. Transmission by bite of POL2FL6 infected flies generated a slower progression of clinical disease than IP infection, but both groups were infective to P. perniciosus by xenodiagnosis at 2 months post-infection. Conversely, hamsters inoculated with JPCM5 were not infective to sand flies. Histopathology studies confirmed the wide spread of POL2FL6 parasites to several organs. A visceral leishmaniasis model that mimics the natural transmission in nature allowed us to highlight the high virulence of isolates that are circulating in the focus. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the outbreak epidemiology. PMID:26645907

  6. Use of ELISA employing homologous and heterologous antigens for the detection of IgG and subclasses (IgG1 and IgG2) in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Flávia Coelho; Schubach, Armando de O; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Pacheco, Tânia M V; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Abboud, Luiz Cláudio de Souza; Honse, Carla de Oliveira; Alves, Andreia Silva; Marzochi, Mauro C A

    2011-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence is the method recommended for the diagnosis of visceral leishmanisis in dogs, however, the accuracy of this technique is low and its use on a large scale is limited. Since ELISA does not present these limitations, this technique might be an option for the detection of IgG or specific IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses. Canine ehrlichiosis is an important differential diagnosis of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL). The present study compared ELISA using Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania braziliensis antigen for the detection of anti-Leishmania IgG and subclasses in serum samples from 37 dogs naturally infected with L. chagasi (AVL) and in samples from four dogs co-infected with L. braziliensis and L. chagasi (CI). The occurrence of cross-reactivity was investigated in control serum samples of 17 healthy dogs (HC) and 35 infected with Ehrlichia canis (EC). The mean optical density obtained for the detection of IgG was significantly higher when L. chagasi antigen was used, and was also higher in subgroup VLs (symptomatic) compared to subgroup Vla (asymptomatic). The correlation between IgG and IgG1 was low. The present results suggest that IgG ELISA using homologous antigen yields the best results, permitting the diagnosis of asymptomatic L. chagasi infection and the discrimination between cases of AVL and ehrlichiosis in dogs. PMID:22012455

  7. T-cell-derived cytokines, nitric oxide production by peripheral blood monocytes and seric anti-Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi IgG subclass patterns following immunization against canine visceral leishmaniasis using Leishvaccine and Leishmune.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; de Andrade, Renata Aline; Sathler-Avelar, Renato; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Vianna, Leonardo Rocha; Mayrink, Wilson; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Mello, Maria Norma; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2009-02-11

    It is generally accepted that distinct cytokine expression by the cellular immune response plays a critical role during the outcome of experimental as well as natural canine visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL). Despite the fact that immunoprophylaxis of CVL has become an important control strategy and protective immunity has been reported upon immunization with whole as well as purified Leishmania antigens, the cytokine profile of T-cells triggered by anti-CVL vaccines still remain to be determined. Herein, we have developed a cross-sectional analysis of German Shepherd dogs submitted to vaccination protocols with Leishvaccine (n=6) and Leishmune (n=6). Our data identified distinct immunological profiles elicited by Leishvaccine and Leishmune, with the Leishvaccine triggering a mixed, IFN-gamma and IL-4, cytokine pattern in addition to high levels of anti-Leishmania IgG1, whereas the Leishmune induced an immunological pattern characterized by enhanced levels of IFN-gamma, NO and anti-Leishmania chagasi IgG2. It was important to notice that despite the distinct immunological patterns triggered by Leishvaccine and Leishmune, the ability of both immunobiologicals to activate T-cell-derived IFN-gamma synthesis further suggesting their immunogenic potential against CVL. These findings added support to our hypothesis that both antigenic composition (whole antigen in Leishvaccine versus purified antigen in Leishmune) as well as the adjuvant nature (BGC and saponin) used for the vaccine formulation may count for the distinct activation pattern observed. PMID:19110023

  8. Epidemiological aspects of vector, parasite, and domestic reservoir in areas of recent transmission and no reported human cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Fiuza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires; Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques; Regina-Silva, Shara; de Avelar, Daniel Moreira; Silva, Maiara Alves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; da Costa, Ailton Junior Antunes; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-08-01

    About 97% of the human cases of the American visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur in Brazil. In the last few years, the disease expanded to medium- and large-sized cities, in which surveillance and control actions have been intensified, in an effort to control VL spreading. Our two-year study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, the sixth most populous city in Brazil, which is endemic for VL. We focused in two particular districts of recent transmission of the disease, with no reported human cases and submitted to minor surveillance and control actions. Our aim was to draw an epidemiological profile of the local situation concerning Lutzomyia vector, Leishmania parasites, and the main domestic reservoirs (dogs). Lutzomyia longipalpis comprised 96.5% of the total phlebotomine sand flies captured and displayed an expressive minimal infection rate by Leishmania infantum (16.7%). Positive correlations were found between the population densities of L. longipalpis, rainfall and temperature. L. infantum was also detected in the cortelezzii complex and, for the first time, in Lutzomyia lloydi. Leishmania braziliensis, an etiological agent of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis, was also identified in L. longipalpis. Among the 1408 dogs serologically tested by standard enzyme-linked and fluorescence immune assays (ELISA/IFA) 3.6% were positive for VL. L. infantum DNA and Leishmania parasites were identified in 100% and 72.5% of the seropositive dogs, respectively. The co-positivity of other diagnostic tests for VL-Leishmania-nested PCR, imprint and myeloculture-was compared to the standard serology. Both symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs displayed an equal average number of positive diagnostic tests for VL. The districts studied display favorable conditions for the rapid spreading of human infection, in terms of L. longipalpis population density, and presence of L. infantum in both vector and main reservoir. PMID:25882769

  9. The Rapid Test Based on Leishmania infantum Chimeric rK28 Protein Improves the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis by Reducing the Detection of False-Positive Dogs.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Pacheco, Luciano Vasconcellos; Borja, Lairton Souza; Tuy, Pétala Gardênia da Silva Estrela; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) has spread to many urban centers worldwide. Dogs are considered the main reservoir of VL, because canine cases often precede the occurrence of human cases. Detection and euthanasia of serologically positive dogs is one of the primary VL control measures utilized in some countries, including Brazil. Using accurate diagnostic tests can minimize one undesirable consequence of this measure, culling false-positive dogs, and reduce the maintenance of false-negative dogs in endemic areas. In December 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health replaced the ELISA (EIE CVL) screening method and Indirect Immunofluorescence Test (IFI CVL) confirmatory method with a new protocol using the rapid DPP CVL screening test and EIE CVL confirmatory test. A study of diagnostic accuracy of these two protocols was done by comparing their performance using serum samples collected from a random sample of 780 dogs in an endemic area of VL. All samples were evaluated by culture and real time PCR; 766 out of the 780 dogs were tested using the previous protocol (IFI CVL + EIE CVL) and all 780 were tested using the current protocol (DPP CVL + EIE CVL). Performances of both diagnostic protocols were evaluated using a latent class variable as the gold standard. The current protocol had a higher specificity (0.98 vs. 0.95) and PPV (0.83 vs. 0.70) than the previous protocol, although sensitivity of these two protocols was similar (0.73). When tested using sera from asymptomatic animals, the current protocol had a much higher PPV (0.63 vs. 0.40) than the previous protocol (although the sensitivity of either protocol was the same, 0.71). Considering a range of theoretical CVL prevalences, the projected PPVs were higher for the current protocol than for the previous protocol for each theoretical prevalence value. The findings presented herein show that the current protocol performed better than previous protocol primarily by reducing false-positive results. PMID:26731098

  10. The Rapid Test Based on Leishmania infantum Chimeric rK28 Protein Improves the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis by Reducing the Detection of False-Positive Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Lairton Souza; Tuy, Pétala Gardênia da Silva Estrela; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) has spread to many urban centers worldwide. Dogs are considered the main reservoir of VL, because canine cases often precede the occurrence of human cases. Detection and euthanasia of serologically positive dogs is one of the primary VL control measures utilized in some countries, including Brazil. Using accurate diagnostic tests can minimize one undesirable consequence of this measure, culling false-positive dogs, and reduce the maintenance of false-negative dogs in endemic areas. In December 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health replaced the ELISA (EIE CVL) screening method and Indirect Immunofluorescence Test (IFI CVL) confirmatory method with a new protocol using the rapid DPP CVL screening test and EIE CVL confirmatory test. A study of diagnostic accuracy of these two protocols was done by comparing their performance using serum samples collected from a random sample of 780 dogs in an endemic area of VL. All samples were evaluated by culture and real time PCR; 766 out of the 780 dogs were tested using the previous protocol (IFI CVL + EIE CVL) and all 780 were tested using the current protocol (DPP CVL + EIE CVL). Performances of both diagnostic protocols were evaluated using a latent class variable as the gold standard. The current protocol had a higher specificity (0.98 vs. 0.95) and PPV (0.83 vs. 0.70) than the previous protocol, although sensitivity of these two protocols was similar (0.73). When tested using sera from asymptomatic animals, the current protocol had a much higher PPV (0.63 vs. 0.40) than the previous protocol (although the sensitivity of either protocol was the same, 0.71). Considering a range of theoretical CVL prevalences, the projected PPVs were higher for the current protocol than for the previous protocol for each theoretical prevalence value. The findings presented herein show that the current protocol performed better than previous protocol primarily by reducing false-positive results. PMID:26731098

  11. Knowledge of the Population about Visceral Leishmaniasis Transmission in Endemic Areas near the Banks of the Mossoró River in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Amorim, Camila Fernandes; Santos Albano Amóra, Sthenia; Aparecida Kazimoto, Thaís; de Lima Costa, Kalídia Felipe; Fernandes Silva, Luanna; de Sousa, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo; Barbosa Nogueira Freitas, Yannara; Dutra Alves, Nilza; Carneiro Feijó, Francisco Marlon

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an anthropozoonosis with high prevalence and incidence in the Northeastern region of Brazil. This study aimed to determine whether people living near the Mossoró River in the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, have knowledge of VL and to characterize the environmental properties of this region. Questionnaires were administered to 478 residents in three neighborhoods near the Mossoró River, addressing the population’s knowledge about VL and environmental characteristics. Most survey participants were female, with ages between 18 and 40 years, 53.8% had completed primary education, and 61.5% owned pet dogs (p < 0.05). The majority (95.9%) showed little knowledge about the characteristics inherent to sandflies, and 85.3% were unaware of the environments preferred by this vector (p < 0.05). Sewage from the homes of respondents was mainly dumped into the river (44.6%), and 76.6% of the respondents complained about the accumulation of garbage in the streets (p < 0.05). The association between education and knowledge about the transmission of VL and preferred vector locations was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The lack of knowledge in the population about VL and the residential environment indicates a risk of maintaining sand fly habitats and hence disease transmission. PMID:25809514

  12. Knowledge of the population about visceral leishmaniasis transmission in endemic areas near the banks of the Mossoró River in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Amorim, Camila Fernandes; Santos Albano Amóra, Sthenia; Kazimoto, Thaís Aparecida; de Lima Costa, Kalídia Felipe; Silva, Luanna Fernandes; de Sousa, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo; Freitas, Yannara Barbosa Nogueira; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Feijó, Francisco Marlon Carneiro

    2015-03-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an anthropozoonosis with high prevalence and incidence in the Northeastern region of Brazil. This study aimed to determine whether people living near the Mossoró River in the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, have knowledge of VL and to characterize the environmental properties of this region. Questionnaires were administered to 478 residents in three neighborhoods near the Mossoró River, addressing the population's knowledge about VL and environmental characteristics. Most survey participants were female, with ages between 18 and 40 years, 53.8% had completed primary education, and 61.5% owned pet dogs (p<0.05). The majority (95.9%) showed little knowledge about the characteristics inherent to sandflies, and 85.3% were unaware of the environments preferred by this vector (p<0.05). Sewage from the homes of respondents was mainly dumped into the river (44.6%), and 76.6% of the respondents complained about the accumulation of garbage in the streets (p<0.05). The association between education and knowledge about the transmission of VL and preferred vector locations was statistically significant (p<0.05). The lack of knowledge in the population about VL and the residential environment indicates a risk of maintaining sand fly habitats and hence disease transmission. PMID:25809514

  13. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Babuadze, Giorgi; Alvar, Jorge; Argaw, Daniel; de Koning, Harry P.; Iosava, Merab; Kekelidze, Merab; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tsereteli, David; Chakhunashvili, Giorgi; Mamatsashvili, Tamar; Beria, Nino; Kalandadze, Irine; Ejov, Mikhail; Imnadze, Paata

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet) and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi. The highest proportions of seropositive pet dogs were present in District #2 (28.1%, 82/292) and District #1 (26.9%, 24/89) in Tbilisi, compared to 17.3% (26/150) of pet dogs in Kutaisi. The percentage of seropositive stray dogs was also twice as high in Tbilisi (16.1%, n?=?670) than in Kutaisi (8%, n?=?50); only 2/58 wild animals screened were seropositive (2. 6%). A total of 873 Phlebotomine sand flies were collected, with 5 different species identified in Tbilisi and 3 species in Kutaisi; 2.3% of the females were positive for Leishmania parasites. The Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) was performed on 981 human subjects in VL foci in urban areas in Tbilisi and Kutaisi. A particularly high prevalence of LST positives was observed in Tbilisi District #1 (22.2%, 37.5% and 19.5% for ages 5–9, 15–24 and 25–59, respectively); lower prevalence was observed in Kutaisi (0%, 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively; P<0.05). This study shows that Tbilisi is an active focus for leishmaniasis and that the infection prevalence is very high in dogs and in humans. Although exposure is as yet not as high in Kutaisi, this is a new VL focus. The overall situation in the country is alarming and new control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24603768

  14. American leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, P. C. C.

    1971-01-01

    The origin of leishmaniasis in the New World is discussed, and the numerous forms of the disease are briefly described. The epidemological pattern of American leishmaniasis is clearly that of a zoonosis in various stages of development. Nine geographical types of cutaneous leishmaniasis are recognized, and probably others exist also; the visceral disease is of the well known Mediterranean type and of a uniform type throughout the Americas. The prevalence of human infection in the different regions is discussed with particular reference to the animal reservoirs. Disturbances of the terrain for agricultural development, road construction, etc., lead to epidemics and there is some evidence that the disease is now spreading in Latin America. PMID:5316253

  15. The Effect of Removing Potentially Infectious Dogs on the Numbers of Canine Leishmania infantum Infections in an Endemic Area with High Transmission Rates

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Santos, Claudiney B.; Ferreira, Adelson L.; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effect of the rapid removal of potentially infectious dogs on the prevalence and incidence of canine infections, a prospective study was undertaken in an area endemic for Leishmania infantum. We used serological testing based on the rapid DPP rK28 fusion protein chromatographic immunoassay for this dog screening-and-culling intervention trial. The outcome was evaluated by measuring seropositivity and sero-conversion/-reversion rates for canine infection. Our estimates indicated that concomitant detection and elimination of seropositive dogs with active disease may affect the numbers of canine infections and disease burden temporarily, although it is insufficient as a measure to interrupt the zoonotic L. infantum transmission. However, most of the asymptomatic, seropositive dogs continuously exhibit low levels of antibodies and/or reverted, remaining seronegative thereafter. In the process of waiting for an effective vaccine, one option for canine reservoir control may be to identify these possibly genetically resistant animals and promote their expansion in the population. PMID:22665602

  16. Do open garbage dumps play a role in canine rabies transmission in Biyem-Assi health district in Cameroon?

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Tabue N.; Roland, Madgan E.; Françoise, Kenfack M. M.; Francis, Zeukeng; Livo, Esemu F.; Clovis, Seumen T. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. In Cameroon, efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies are often thwarted by the lack of community awareness. The community knowledge, as well as attitudes and perception on rabies, is therefore important for both prevention of human deaths and control in animals. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the level of community knowledge as well as the role of open garbage dumps (OGDs) in the epidemiology of human rabies. Overall 420 heads of household were interviewed in the Biyem-Assi health district of Yaoundé. OGDs were identified through a systematic check, and household wastes they contained were characterized. Results Although 66.9% of respondents have knowledge on stray dogs, only 35% of respondents knew the role of OGDs in the increase of stray dog population. Overall OGDs consisted of fermentable wastes. Nutrition places for stray dogs were wild garbage dumps (68.1%), markets (18.3%), and houses (13.6%). The feeding behavior of stray dogs correlated significantly with the human rabies transmission (? 2=154.12, df=4, p<0.05). Conclusion Most participants knew that rabies could be transmitted by a dog bite as well as the measures to be taken in this type of situation. Increased knowledge of respondents on rabies showed OGDs and stray dogs as significant risk factors for canine rabies in Biyem-Assi health district. PMID:25595689

  17. Canine transmissible venereal tumor cell depletion of B lymphocytes: molecule(s) specifically toxic for B cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kuang-Wen; Hung, Shao-Wen; Hsiao, Ya-Wen; Bennett, Michael; Chu, Rea-Min

    2003-05-12

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is an excellent model for investigating the interaction between host immunity and tumor growth. Although CTVT is an allograft, initially the host immune system is unable to destroy the tumor cells, and the tumor grows progressively for about 4-6 months (P phase). After a short stable phase, the tumor undergoes regression (R phase). In this study, CTVT inoculation significantly reduced the proportion of B lymphocytes among all peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), but the proportion of B lymphocytes returned to normal after complete removal of CTVT. Following CTVT inoculation, immunoglobulin concentrations decreased gradually, coincident with B lymphocyte decline. Furthermore, CTVT secreted a soluble, heat- and protease K-sensitive cytotoxic molecule(s) that destroyed peripheral blood B lymphocytes (PBBL) but spared other types of immune cells regardless of whether mitogens, such as IL-2 or Con A, were present. The decrease in the proportion and viability of PBBL was caused by a cytotoxic molecule(s) that induced apoptosis. The molecular weight of the CTVT-derived cytotoxic molecule(s) was 30-100kDa. Human, domestic cat, horse and mouse B cells were also sensitive to the substance. PMID:12730015

  18. Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries. PMID:24898032

  19. A single-centre, open-label, controlled, randomized clinical trial to assess the preventive efficacy of a domperidone-based treatment programme against clinical canine leishmaniasis in a high prevalence area.

    PubMed

    Sabaté, David; Llinás, Jorge; Homedes, Josep; Sust, Mariano; Ferrer, Lluís

    2014-07-01

    The innate immune response acting immediately after initial infection with Leishmania parasites is known to play a relevant role in prevention against clinical progression of the disease. Domperidone is a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist that has shown to enhance the innate cell-mediated immune response. The aim of this study was to assess the preventive efficacy of a domperidone-based treatment programme against clinical canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a high prevalence area. The study was performed with 90 healthy, seronegative dogs of different sex, age, weight and breed from a single veterinary clinic located in Valencia (Spain). Dogs were randomly allocated into two groups. Dogs in one group (domperidone-treated group; n=44) were administered an oral suspension of domperidone at 0.5 mg/kg bw/day during 30 consecutive days, every 4 months. Dogs in the other group (negative control group; n=46) were left untreated. A 21-month follow-up period was implemented covering two seasonal phases of the sand fly vector. During this period all animals underwent periodic clinical examinations and blood samplings for anti-Leishmania serological testing. Dogs seropositive for Leishmania (IFAT antibody titre?1:80) plus at least one clinical sign consistent with CanL (indicative of active infection and incipient disease progression) were categorized as a 'prevention failure'. These dogs were withdrawn from the study after confirming the infection by direct observation of the parasite in smears of lymph nodes and/or bone marrow aspirates. The cumulative percentage of 'prevention failure' after 12 months was significantly lower in the domperidone-treated group than in the negative control group (7% versus 35%, p=0.003). Differences between groups persisted after 21 months (11% versus 48%, p<0.001). The prevention rate provided by domperidone was 80% during the first 12 months and 77% throughout the complete 21-month follow-up period, with odds ratios of 7.3 (p=0.001) and 7.15 (p<0.001), respectively, this indicating that the risk for domperidone-treated dogs to develop the clinical disease is quite 7 times lower than for dogs left untreated. The results of this study demonstrate that the implementation of a strategic domperidone-based treatment programme consisting in quarterly repeated 30-day treatments with domperidone effectively reduces the risk to develop clinical CanL in areas with high prevalence of the disease. PMID:24698328

  20. Canine echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan: using prevalence data adjusted for measurement error to develop transmission dynamics models.

    PubMed

    Ziadinov, I; Mathis, A; Trachsel, D; Rysmukhambetova, A; Abdyjaparov, T A; Kuttubaev, O T; Deplazes, P; Torgerson, P R

    2008-08-01

    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A cross-sectional study of dogs in four villages in rural Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Echinococcus spp. A total of 466 dogs were examined by arecoline purgation for the presence of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. In addition, a faecal sample from each dog was examined for taeniid eggs. Any taeniid eggs found were investigated using PCR techniques (multiplex and single target PCR) to improve the diagnostic sensitivity by confirming the presence of Echinococcus spp. and to identify E. granulosus strains. A total of 83 (18%) dogs had either E. granulosus adults in purge material and/or E. granulosus eggs in their faeces as confirmed by PCR. Three genotypes of E. granulosus: G1, G4 and the G6/7 complex were shown to be present in these dogs through subsequent sequence analysis. Purge analysis combined with PCR identified 50 dogs that were infected with adult E. multilocularis and/or had E. multilocularis eggs in their faeces (11%). Bayesian techniques were employed to estimate the true prevalence, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the procedures used and the transmission parameters. The sensitivity of arecoline purgation for the detection of echinococcosis in dogs was rather low, with a value of 38% (credible intervals (CIs) 27-50%) for E. granulosus and 21% (CIs 11-34%) for E. multilocularis. The specificity of arecoline purgation was assumed to be 100%. The sensitivity of coproscopy followed by PCR of the isolated eggs was calculated as 78% (CIs 57-87%) for E. granulosus and 50% (CIs 29-72%) for E. multilocularis with specificity of 93% (CIs 88-96%) and 100% (CIs 97-100%), respectively. The 93% specificity of the coprological-PCR for E. granulosus could suggest coprophagia rather than true infections. After adjusting for the sensitivity of the diagnostic procedures, the estimated true prevalence of infection of E. granulosus was 19% (CIs 15-25%) and the infection pressure in the dog population was estimated to be 0.29 infections per year (CIs 0.014-0.75). Logistic regression analysis failed to identify any significant risk factors for infections for E. granulosus. After adjusting for the sensitivity of the test procedures, the estimated true prevalence for E. multilocularis was 18% (CIs 12-30%). Dogs that were restrained had a significantly lower prevalence of E. multilocularis of 11% (CIs 6-29%) compared with 26% in free-roaming dogs (CIs 17-44%) and independently within these groups hunting dogs were more likely to be infected than non-hunting dogs. PMID:18371969

  1. Vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis: A review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Keerti; Jain, N K

    2015-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as Kala-Azar, is one of the most severely neglected tropical diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). The threat of this debilitating disease continues due to unavailability of promising drug therapy or human vaccine. An extensive research is undergoing to develop a promising vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. In this review we compiled the findings of recent research with a view to facilitate knowledge on experimental vaccinology for visceral leishmaniasis. Various killed or attenuated parasite based first generation vaccines, second generation vaccines based on antigenic protein or recombinant protein, and third generation vaccines derived from antigen-encoding DNA plasmids including heterologous prime-boost Leishmania vaccine have been examined for control and prevention of visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccines based on recombinant protein and antigen-encoding DNA plasmids have given promising results and few vaccines including Leishmune®, Leishtec, and CaniLeish® have been licensed for canine visceral leishmaniasis. A systematic investigation of these vaccine candidates can lead to development of promising vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis, most probably in the near future. PMID:25858230

  2. Canine neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Prier, J. E.; Brodey, R. S.

    1963-01-01

    The authors review current knowledge of spontaneous neoplasms in the dog. The prevalence of certain types of canine tumour has been studied, and comparisons have been made with the occurrence of similar neoplasms in man. Where there are appropriate analogies between the two species, the dog with spontaneous tumours can be used for studies that are not practicable in man. Nutritional and morphological studies have been done on cells cultured from canine tumours. Some consistency has been demonstrated in the morphology of cultures of different tumours of the same type. Nutritional studies with the transmissible venereal sarcoma of the dog have shown the cells to be subject to a growth-repressing effect by SH-containing amino-acids. Attempts to transmit tumours to other dogs or other species have generally been unsuccessful. A transplantable tumour developed in a mouse injected with non-cellular material from a canine thyroid carcinoma, but it is not certain that the tumour was induced. Cell-culture studies have shown that some tumours yield a factor that is cytopathogenic for normal cells, but none has been shown capable of inducing neoplasms in vivo. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 6 PMID:14058226

  3. Safety and Efficacy of Antimicrobial Peptides against Naturally Acquired Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Alberola, J.; Rodríguez, A.; Francino, O.; Roura, X.; Rivas, L.; Andreu, D.

    2004-01-01

    Leishmaniases, which are important causes of morbidity and mortality in humans and dogs, are extremely difficult to treat. Antimicrobial peptides are rarely used as alternative treatments for naturally acquired parasitic diseases. Here we report that the acylated synthetic antimicrobial peptide Oct-CA(1-7)M(2-9) is safe and effective for treating naturally acquired canine leishmaniasis. PMID:14742227

  4. Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Desjeux, P

    2004-09-01

    Leishmaniasis represents a complex of diseases with an important clinical and epidemiological diversity. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is of higher priority than cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as it is a fatal disease in the absence of treatment. Anthroponotic VL foci are of special concern as they are at the origin of frequent and deathly epidemics (e.g. Sudan). Leishmaniasis burden remains important: 88 countries, 350 million people at risk, 500,000 new cases of VL per year, 1-1.5 million for CL and DALYs: 2.4 millions. Most of the burden is concentrated on few countries which allows clear geographic priorities. Leishmaniasis is still an important public health problem due to not only environmental risk factors such as massive migrations, urbanisation, deforestation, new irrigation schemes, but also to individual risk factors: HIV, malnutrition, genetic, etc em leader Leishmaniasis is part of those diseases which still requires improved control tools. Consequently WHO/TDR research for leishmaniasis has been more and more focusing on the development of new tools such as diagnostic tests, drugs and vaccines. The ongoing effort has already produced significant results. The newly available control tools should allow a scaling up of control activities in priority areas. In anthroponotic foci, the feasibility of getting a strong impact on mortality, morbidity and transmission, is high. PMID:15225981

  5. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ready, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-)tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control), surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL should be susceptible to elimination by rapid case detection and treatment combined with local vector control, and one of the most important interventions may well be socioeconomic development. PMID:24833919

  6. Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... testing for leishmaniasis. Tissue specimens—such as from skin sores (for cutaneous leishmaniasis) or from bone marrow (for visceral leishmaniasis)—can be examined for the parasite under a microscope, in special cultures, and in other ways. Blood tests that detect ...

  7. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal near-infrared optical tomography of canine prostate bearing transmissible venereal tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Piao, Daqing

    2009-02-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography is conducted on a tumor-bearing canine prostate with the assistance of trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The canine prostate tumor model is made possible by a unique round cell neoplasm of dogs, transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) that can be transferred from dog to dog regardless of histocompatibility. A characterized TVT cell line was homogenized and passed twice in subcutaneous tissue of NOD/SCID mice. Following the second passage, the tumor was recovered, homogenized and then inoculated by ultrasound guidance into the prostate gland of a healthy dog. The dog was then imaged with a combined trans-rectal NIR and TRUS imager using an integrated trans-rectal NIR/US applicator. The image was taken by NIR and US modalities concurrently, both in sagittal view. The trans-rectal NIR imager is a continuous-wave system that illuminates 7 source channels sequentially by a fiber switch to deliver sufficient light power to the relatively more absorbing prostate tissue and samples 7 detection channels simultaneously by a gated intensified high-resolution CCD camera. This work tests the feasibility of detecting prostate tumor by trans-rectal NIR optical tomography and the benefit of augmenting TRUS with trans-rectal NIR imaging.

  8. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled optical tomography of a transmissible venereal tumor model in the canine pelvic canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Piao, Daqing

    2009-05-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography was performed concurrently with, albeit reconstructed without spatial a prior of, trans-rectal ultrasound (US) on transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) developed as a model in the canine pelvic canal. Studies were taken longitudinally at prior to, 14 days after, and 35 days after the TVT injection. As the tumor grew, the nodules became increasingly hyperabsorptive and moderately hyperscattering on NIR. The regions of strong NIR contrast, especially on absorption images, correlated well with those of US hypoechoic masses indicative of tumors. Combining the information of trans-rectal NIR and US detected the tumor more accurately than did the US alone at 14 days postinjection.

  9. Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum in Salta, Argentina: Possible Reservoirs and Vectors.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Paola A; Marco, Jorge D; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Cardozo, Rubén M; Hoyos, Carlos L; Mora, María C; García Bustos, María F; López-Quiroga, Inés; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gentile, Alberto G; Barrio, Alejandra B; Korenaga, Masataka; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisha; Basombrío, Miguel A

    2015-08-01

    Cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) were not recorded until recently in the Chaco region of northwestern Argentina. Dogs were surveyed at the sites of infection of two HVL index cases in the Chaco region of Salta province. Canine cases (CanL) were diagnosed by two parasitological methods, two molecular methods targeting mini- and maxicircle DNA, and immunochromatographic dipstick. Among 77 dogs studied, 10 (13%) were found infected with Leishmania spp. In seven dogs and two humans, the infecting species was typed as Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. The same genotype was detected in the human and two of the CanL. Although several diagnostic methods displayed weak or moderate agreement, the concordance values for serology versus maxicircle PCR were very good (Kappa index = 0.84). Sandflies captured in the area were identified as Lutzomyia migonei and Lu. cortelezzii/Lu. sallesi (cortelezzii complex). The focal appearance of leishmaniasis in dogs and humans in a sylvatic region and its relatively low prevalence of infection suggests that L. (L.) infantum transmission to dogs and humans may, in this region, stem from sylvatic reservoirs. PMID:26055744

  10. Epidemiological study on leishmaniasis in an area of environmental tourism and ecotourism, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ana Rachel Oliveira de; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Rocca, Maria Elizabeth Gizi; Aquino, Ricardo Braga

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to carry out a serological survey of canine leishmaniasis and identify the phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The serological survey was conducted on a sample of 303 dogs, by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test. Phlebotomines were captured using automated light traps. The serological survey found that 30% of the dogs were seropositive, both from the center and from all districts of the town. A total of 2,772 specimens of phlebotomines were caught and the species most found was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%), which corroborated its role as the vector of for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the region. Phlebotomines of the species Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (the main vector for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Nyssomyia whitmani (the vector for Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis) were also caught. The findings indicate the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance, with attention towards diminishing the vector breeding sites and the transmission of these diseases in that region. PMID:19967228

  11. [Evidence for the transmission of the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis by the sandfly Phlebotomus (Adlerius) turanicus Artemiev, 1974 in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Lesnikova, E V; Sabitov, E A

    1995-01-01

    Four sandfly [correction of mosquito] species were identified in all foci of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Turkmenistan. There is evidence that three of them (Phlebotomus papatasi, P. caucasicus, P. andrejevi) cannot be carriers of VL agent in Turkmenistan. The carrier of Leishmania infantum in Turkmenistan is likely to be the zooanthropophilic sandfly [correction of mosquito] P. turanicus that prevails in the settlements and their vicinities in the desert foothill plains and in the burrows of foxes. The time of the carrier activity is May to September, and its peak size is observed in mid-July. In September, the promastigote infection of P. turanicus is as high as 47.5%. The carrier size may vary with years, the infection of children and dogs ceased with the reduction in the P. turanicus size. There are evidence for the distribution of the carrier in the populated locality, dwelling and natural biotopes. PMID:7476676

  12. PKDL—A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Roy, Surajit; Ghosh, Tamal Kanti; Guha, Subhasish K.; Kundu, Pratip K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita; Maji, Ardhendu K.

    2015-01-01

    Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46%) for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6–12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period. PMID:26485704

  13. Entomological studies of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in relation to cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in Al Rabta, North West of Libya.

    PubMed

    Dokhan, Mostafa Ramahdan; Kenawy, Mohamed Amin; Doha, Said Abdallah; El-Hosary, Shabaan Said; Shaibi, Taher; Annajar, Badereddin Bashir

    2016-02-01

    Al Rabta in the North-West of Libya is a rural area where cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic for long time. Few reports are available on sand flies in this area which is an important focus of CL. Therefore, this study aimed at updating the species composition, and monthly fluctuation of sand flies in this area. Sand flies were biweekly collected by CDC light traps from June to November 2012 and April to November 2013 in two villages, Al Rabta East (RE) and Al Rabta West (RW). Nine species (6 Phlebotomus and 3 Sergentomyia) were reported in the two villages. A total of 5605 and 5446 flies were collected of which Phlebotomus represented 59.30 and 56.63% in RE and RW, respectively. Sergentomyia minuta and Phlebotomus papatasi were the abundant species. Generally, more males were collected than females for all species. The overall ratios (males: females) for most of species were not deviated from the expected 1:1 ratio (Chi-squared, P>0.05). Sand fly abundance (fly/trap) is directly related to the temperature and RH (P<0. 01) while it inversely related to wind velocity (P>0.05). Flies were active from April to November with increased activity from June to October. Prominent peaks were in September and June. The abundance of P. papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti, vectors of CL (August-October) coincided with the reported higher numbers of CL cases (August- November). The obtained results could be important for the successful planning and implementation of leishmaniasis control programs. PMID:26589378

  14. Separate modulation of neuropeptide Y1 receptor on purinergic and on adrenergic neuroeffector transmission in canine splenic artery.

    PubMed

    Yang, X P; Chiba, S

    2001-10-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that the vasoconstrictor responses to trains of up to 10 pulses at 1 Hz of stimulation appeared to be purinergic monophasic, whereas a longer train of 30 pulses induced a biphasic vasoconstriction consisting of an initial, transient purinergic constriction followed by a prolonged adrenergic response. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) at doses of 0.01 and 0.1 microM produced a dose-dependent inhibition on the monophasic and biphasic vasoconstrictor responses to nerve stimulation. The treatment with Leu31 Pro34 neuropeptide Y (LP-NPY) (0.03 microM) did not affect the monophasic responses to short pulse trains of stimulation. However, LP-NPY markedly potentiated the second phase response to 30 pulse trains of stimulation, although it did not modify the first one. The LP-NPY-induced potentiation was abolished by BIBP 3226 (1 microM), a selective NPY Y1 receptor antagonist. The results indicate that the activation of NPY Y1 receptors may enhance the prolonged adrenergic vasoconstriction but not the transient purinergic response in the canine splenic artery. PMID:11811353

  15. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis/HIV Coinfection Presented as a Diffuse Desquamative Rash

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; Sugui, Daniel; Nunes, Rafael Fernandes; de Azevedo, Karime; de Azevedo, Marcelo; Marques, Alexandre; Martins, Carlos; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is endemic in tropical areas and in the Mediterranean. This condition spreads to 98 countries in four continents, surpassing 12 million infected individuals, with 350 million people at risk of infection. This disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, with various animal reservoirs, such as rodents, dogs, wolves, foxes, and even humans. Transmission occurs through a vector, a sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The wide spectrum of nonvisceral forms includes: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, a papular lesion that progresses to ulceration with granular base and a large framed board; diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis; mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which can cause disfiguring and mutilating injuries of the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection is considered an emerging problem in several countries, including Brazil, where, despite the growing number of cases, a problem of late diagnosis occurs. Clinically, the cases of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection may demonstrate unusual aspects, such as extensive and destructive lesions. This study aims to report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection with atypical presentation of diffuse desquamative eruption and nasopharyngeal involvement. PMID:25548691

  16. The epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis in Andean countries.

    PubMed

    Davies, C R; Reithinger, R; Campbell-Lendrum, D; Feliciangeli, D; Borges, R; Rodriguez, N

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge of leishmaniasis epidemiology in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In all 5 countries leishmaniasis is endemic in both the Andean highlands and the Amazon basin. The sandfly vectors belong to subgenera Helcocyrtomyia, Nyssomiya, Lutzomyia, and Psychodopygus, and the Verrucarum group. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania in the Viannia subgenus. Human Leishmania infections cause cutaneous lesions, with a minority of L. (Viannia) infections leading to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are both rare. In each country a significant proportion of Leishmania transmission is in or around houses, often close to coffee or cacao plantations. Reservoir hosts for domestic transmission cycles are uncertain. The paper first addresses the burden of disease caused by leishmaniasis, focusing on both incidence rates and on the variability in symptoms. Such information should provide a rational basis for prioritizing control resources, and for selecting therapy regimes. Secondly, we describe the variation in transmission ecology, outlining those variables which might affect the prevention strategies. Finally, we look at the current control strategies and review the recent studies on control. PMID:11175518

  17. Drug Resistance in Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Sundar, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    The treatment options of leishmaniasis are limited and far from satisfactory. For more than 60 years, treatment of leishmaniasis has centered around pentavalent antimonials (Sbv). Widespread misuse has led to the emergence of Sbv resistance in the hyperendemic areas of North Bihar. Other antileishmanials could also face the same fate, especially in the anthroponotic cycle. The HIV/ visceral leishmaniasis (VL) coinfected patients are another potential source for the emergence of drug resistance. At present no molecular markers of resistance are available and the only reliable method for monitoring resistance of isolates is the technically demanding in vitro amastigote-macrophage model. As the armametrium of drugs for leishmaniasis is limited, it is important that effective monitoring of drug use and response should be done to prevent the spread of resistance. Regimens of simultaneous or sequential combinations should be seriously considered to limit the emergence of resistance. PMID:20606973

  18. American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A.; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study conducted during 1990–2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ? 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were having 1–3 rooms in a house compared with ? 4 rooms, having a roof that was not made of cement, and having domestic animals. In contrast, only 19% of dogs were seropositive, suggesting that this species is not important in the transmission cycle of Leishmania. These data indicate that active transmission is taking place in the central valley of Chiapas State, Mexico, in communities located < 1,000 meters above sea level near the Grijalva River. PMID:22232459

  19. Vector and reservoir control for preventing leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    González, Urbà; Pinart, Mariona; Sinclair, David; Firooz, Alireza; Enk, Claes; Vélez, Ivan D; Esterhuizen, Tonya M; Tristan, Mario; Alvar, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is caused by the Leishmania parasite, and transmitted by infected phlebotomine sandflies. Of the two distinct clinical syndromes, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) affects the skin and mucous membranes, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects internal organs. Approaches to prevent transmission include vector control by reducing human contact with infected sandflies, and reservoir control, by reducing the number of infected animals. Objectives To assess the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions for cutaneous and for visceral leishmaniasis. Search methods We searched the following databases to 13 January 2015: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and WHOLIS, Web of Science, and RePORTER. We also searched trials registers for ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions in leishmaniasis-endemic regions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently searched for trials and extracted data from included RCTs. We resolved any disagreements by discussion with a third review author. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 14 RCTs that evaluated a range of interventions across different settings. The study methods were generally poorly described, and consequently all included trials were judged to be at high or unclear risk of selection and reporting bias. Only seven trials reported clinical outcome data which limits our ability to make broad generalizations to different epidemiological settings and cultures. Cutaneous leishmaniasis One four-arm RCT from Afghanistan compared indoor residual spraying (IRS), insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), and insecticide-treated bedsheets, with no intervention. Over 15 months follow-up, all three insecticide-based interventions had a lower incidence of CL than the control area (IRS: risk ratio (RR) 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 0.97, 2892 participants, moderate quality evidence; ITNs: RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.56, 2954 participants, low quality evidence; ITS: RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.57, 2784 participants, low quality evidence). No difference was detected between the three interventions (low quality evidence). One additional trial of ITNs from Iran was underpowered to show a difference. Insecticide treated curtains were compared with no intervention in one RCT from Venezuela, where there were no CL episodes in the intervention areas over 12 months follow-up compared to 142 in control areas (RR 0.00, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.49, one trial, 2938 participants, low quality evidence). Personal protection using insecticide treated clothing was evaluated by two RCTs in soldiers, but the trials were underpowered to reliably detect effects on the incidence of CL (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.20, two trials, 558 participants, low quality evidence). Visceral leishmaniasis In a single RCT of ITNs versus no intervention from India and Nepal, the incidence of VL was low in both groups and no difference was detected (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.15, one trial, 19,810 participants, moderate quality evidence). Two trials from Brazil evaluated the effects of culling infected dogs compared to no intervention or IRS. Although they report a reduction in seroconversion over 18 months follow-up, they did not measure or report effects on clinical disease. Authors' conclusions Using insecticides to reduce phlebotomine sandfly numbers may be effective at reducing the incidence of CL, but there is insufficient evidence from trials to know whether it is better to spray the internal walls of houses or to treat bednets, curtains, bedsheets or clothing. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Vector and reservoir control for preventing leishmaniasis This review summarises trials evaluating different measures to prevent leishmaniasis. After searching for relevant trials up to January 2015, we included 14 randomized controlled trials. What is vector and reservoir control and how might they prevent leishmaniasis? Leishmaniasis is a group of infectious diseases caused by Leishmania parasites, which are transmitted between humans and animals by the bite of infected phlebotomine sandflies. There are two main clinical diseases: cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), where parasites infect the skin, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), where they infect the internal organs. Leishmaniasis could be prevented by reducing human contact with infected phlebotomine sandflies (the vector), or by reducing the number of infected animals (the reservoir). What the research says? Cutaneous leishmaniasis Using insecticides to reduce the number of sandflies may be effective at reducing the number of new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (low quality evidence). However, there is not enough evidence to know whether it is better to use insecticides to spray the internal walls of houses, or use insecticide treated bednets, bedsheets, or curtains. Personal protection using insecticide treated clothing was also evaluated in two small trials in soldiers, but the trials were too small to know whether this was effective (low quality evidence). Visceral leishmaniasis Insecticide treated nets may not be effective at preventing visceral leishmaniasis but this has only been tested in a single trial from India and Nepal (low quality evidence). Although culling dogs is sometimes discussed as a potential way to reduce visceral leishmaniasis, this has not been tested in trials measuring clinical disease. PMID:26246011

  20. Geographic Clustering of Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil1

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Luiz H.; Machado, Paulo R.L.; Lessa, Marcus; Lessa, Hélio A.; Lago, Ednaldo; Ritt, Guilherme; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Schriefer, Ana L.F.; Riley, Lee W.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether disease outcomes and clades of Leishmania braziliensis genotypes are associated, we studied geographic clustering of clades and most severe disease outcomes for leishmaniasis during 1999–2003 in Corte de Pedra in northeastern Brazil. Highly significant differences were observed in distribution of mucosal leishmaniasis versus disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) (p<0.0001). Concordance was observed between distribution of these disease forms and clades of L. braziliensis genotypes shown to be associated with these disease forms. We also detected spread of DL over this region and an inverse correlation between frequency of recent DL diagnoses and distance to a previous DL case. These findings indicate that leishmaniasis outcomes are distributed differently within transmission foci and show that DL is rapidly spreading in northeastern Brazil. PMID:19523284

  1. Canine Distemper

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and, often, the nervous systems of puppies and dogs. The virus also infects wild canids (e.g. ... How is Canine Distemper virus spread? Puppies and dogs usually become infected through airborne exposure to the ...

  2. Headspace solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined to chemometric analysis for volatile organic compounds determination in canine hair: a new tool to detect dog contamination by visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lidia S; Rodrigues, Frederico de M; de Oliveira, Fabio S; Mesquita, Paulo R R; Leal, Danielle C; Alcântara, Adriano C; Souza, Barbara M; Franke, Carlos R; Pereira, Pedro A de P; de Andrade, Jailson B

    2008-11-15

    A new analytical methodology using HS-SPME/GC-MS was optimized in order to attain maximum sensitivity, using multivariate strategies. The proposed method was employed to evaluate the VOC profile exhaled from canine hair samples collected from 8 healthy dogs and from 16 dogs infected by Leishmania infantum. 274 VOCs were detected, which could be identified as aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. After application of the Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) healthy and infected dogs, with similar VOCs profiles, could be separately grouped, based on compounds such as 2-hexanone, benzaldehyde, and 2,4-nonadienal. The proposed method is non-invasive, painless, readily accepted by dog owners and could be useful to identify several biomarkers with applications in the diagnosis of diseases. PMID:18945650

  3. Vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv; Engwerda, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that encompasses a range of clinical manifestations affecting people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that protection from disease can be achieved in most people. In addition, we know how the host immune system must respond to infection in order to control parasite growth. However, there is still no vaccine for use in humans. Here, we review our understanding of host immunity following Leishmania infection and also discuss recent advances in the development of vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis, highlighting a new promising approach that targets the parasite hemoglobin receptor. PMID:25505961

  4. Molecular epidemiology of imported cases of leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Tamalee; Barratt, Joel; Sandaradura, Indy; Lee, Rogan; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent's Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55). Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94%) with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans. PMID:25734905

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Imported Cases of Leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Tamalee; Barratt, Joel; Sandaradura, Indy; Lee, Rogan; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent’s Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55). Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94%) with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans. PMID:25734905

  6. New Approaches on Leishmaniasis Treatment and Prevention: A Review of Recent Patents.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Juliana F; Figueiredo, Sonia M de; Monteiro, Fabricio M; Rocha-Silva, Fabiana; Gaciele-Melo, Cidiane; Coelho, Sabrina S C; Lyon, Sandra; Caligiorne, Rachel B

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered a neglected tropical disease having a worldwide distribution. The disease is caused by protozoa belonging to the genus Leishmania, being clinically divided into visceral leishmaniasis (VL), cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). Domestic dogs are the main parasite reservoir and effectively participate in the protozoa transmission. The human leishmaniasis treatment is based on a selection of therapeutic compounds, but the available drugs are toxic, presenting adverse side effects. The decision to treat or not to treat seropositive dogs is under discussion in some countries, because treatment is even more toxic to animals and, also, can generate drug resistant strains. Therefore, very few treatment choices have reached the clinic for this disease and there is an urgent need of new chemotherapy for both humans and animals. This study presents a review of new patents related to treatment and prevention of Leishmania infections. Some of these patents are related to new vaccine formulations for combating leishmaniasis. Likewise, the inventions related to the cream formulations for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis are very important, avoiding the side effects of drugs during the treatment. Furthermore, anti leishmaniasis products that are extracted from nature has increasingly been patented each year, demonstrating the importance of bioprospection studies to improve the armamentarium of anti leishmaniasis drugs. PMID:26392062

  7. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: Clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Handler, Marc Z; Patel, Parimal A; Kapila, Rajendra; Al-Qubati, Yasin; Schwartz, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries and territories, with 1.2 million new cases per year, making it a worldwide concern. The deadly visceral form is a leading cause of death from tropical parasitic infections, second only to malaria. Leishmaniasis appears to be increasing in many countries because of extended urbanization. The disease reservoir includes small mammals; parasite transmission occurs via bite of the female phlebotomine sandfly. Disease manifestations vary and largely depend upon the Leishmania species acquired. It may be first evident with a range of findings-from a localized cutaneous ulcer to diffuse painless dermal nodules-or, in the mucocutaneous form, ulceration of the oropharynx. In the potentially deadly visceral form, the internal organs and bone marrow are affected. PMID:26568335

  8. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Weilgama, Danister J.; Wijekoon, Chandana J.; Dissanayake, Manel; Rajapaksha, Kosala

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Sri Lanka. Of 116 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of CL, 86 were confirmed positive for Leishmania donovani. Most patients had single dry lesions, usually on the face. Patients were from 5 of the 7 agroclimatic zones in Sri Lanka. PMID:18214182

  9. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats*

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last 5 years were searched in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS and Scielo, and we selected 10 papers about cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs and cats in the Americas. In Brazil, often the indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) have been applied. Other countries like United States and Mexico have been using antigenic fractions for antibodies detections by Western blot. ELISA and Western blot showed a higher sensitivity and efficacy in the detection of leishmaniasis. Analysis of sensibility and specificity of the methods was rarely used. Although confirmatory to leishmaniasis, direct methods for parasites detection and polymerase chain reaction showed low positivity in disease detection. We suggested that more than one method should be used for the detection of feline and canine leishmaniasis. Serological methods such as Western blot and enzyme immunoassay have a high efficacy in the diagnosis of this disease.

  10. Impact of climate variability in the occurrence of leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Rocio; Sandoval, Claudia M; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Franco-Paredes, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that variation in the distribution of vectors associated to the transmission of Leishmania species may be related to climatic changes. However, the potential implications of these ecological changes in human health need to be further defined in various endemic populations where leishmaniasis carries a substantial burden of disease such as in Northeastern Colombia. Herein, we report the impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation climatic fluctuations during 1985-2002 in the occurrence of cases of leishmaniasis in two northeastern provinces of Colombia. During this period, we identified that during El Niño, cases of leishmaniasis increased, whereas during La Niña phases, leishmaniasis cases decreased. This preliminary data show how climatic changes influence the occurrence of leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia and contributes to the growing body of evidence that shows that the incidence of vector-borne diseases is associated with annual changes in weather conditions. PMID:16896132

  11. Visceral leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: eco-epidemiological aspects and control.

    PubMed

    Marzochi, Mauro Celio de Almeida; Fagundes, Aline; Andrade, Moacir Vieira de; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Marzochi, Keyla Belizia Feldman

    2009-01-01

    From 1977 (index case) to 2006, 87 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were confirmed in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in periurban areas on the continental and coastal slopes of the Pedra Branca massif and the continental slopes of the Gericinó massif. The majority (65.5%) of the patients were more than five years old, predominantly males (61.5%), but without any difference between the sexes below the age of 14 years. The overall fatality rate was 10.4%. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were detected. Leishmania chagasi was isolated from human and canine cases. The associations between the presence of phlebotomines and human and canine migrations, disorderly occupation involving degradation of environmental preservation areas and poor socioeconomic conditions may have created a favorable setting for the establishment and propagation of the disease. Close epidemiological surveillance associated with traditional control measures and others (active case researches, land clearing and health education), reduced the incidence of human cases from 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1981 to less than 0.01 per 100,000 since 1997. The canine infection rates decreased from 4.6% in 1984 to 1.6% in 2008. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected in some locations where human and canine cases occurred. In the years 2007 and 2008, no new human cases were reported, but there is a persistent and worrisome residual canine seroprevalence. PMID:19967242

  12. Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Latin America—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Gustavo A. S.; Boelaert, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    Background While three countries in South Asia decided to eliminate anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by 2015, its control in other regions seems fraught with difficulties. Is there a scope for more effective VL control in the Americas where transmission is zoonotic? We reviewed the evidence on VL control strategies in Latin America—diagnosis, treatment, veterinary interventions, vector control—with respect to entomological and clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings We searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE, LILACS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 1960 to November 2008 and references of selected articles. Intervention trials as well as observational studies that evaluated control strategies of VL in the Americas were included. While the use of rapid diagnostic tests for VL diagnosis seems well established, there is a striking lack of evidence from clinical trials for drug therapy and few well designed intervention studies for control of vectors or canine reservoirs. Conclusion Elimination of zoonotic VL in the Americas does not seem a realistic goal at this point given the lack of political commitment, gaps in scientific knowledge, and the weakness of case management and surveillance systems. Research priorities and current strategies should be reviewed with the aim of achieving better VL control. PMID:20098726

  13. Different optical spectral characteristics in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate observed by triple-band trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Rock, Kendra; Ownby, Charlotte L.; Slobodov, Gennady; Bunting, Charles F.; Piao, Daqing

    2011-03-01

    Different optical spectral characteristics were observed in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate by triple-wavelength trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The NIR imager acquiring at 705nm, 785nm and 808nm was used to quantify both the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) and oxygen saturation (StO2) in the prostate. The TVT tumor in the canine prostate as a model of prostate cancer was induced in a 7-year old, 27 kg dog. A 2 mL suspension of 2.5x106 cells/mL of homogenized TVT cells recovered from an in vivo subcutaneously propagated TVT tumor in an NOD/SCID mouse were injected in the cranial aspect of the right lobe of the canine prostate. The left lobe of the prostate had a cystic lesion present before TVT inoculation. After the TVT homogenate injection, the prostate was monitored weekly over a 9-week period, using trans-rectal NIR and TRUS in grey-scale and Doppler. A TVT mass within the right lobe developed a necrotic center during the later stages of this study, as the mass presented with substantially increased [HbT] in the periphery, with an area of reduced StO2 less than the area of the mass itself shown on ultrasonography. Conversely, the cystic lesion presented with slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the lesion shown on ultrasound with oxygen-reduction inside and in the periphery of the lesion. There was no detectable change of blood flow on Doppler US in the periphery of the cystic lesion. The slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the cystic lesion was correlated with intra-lesional hemorrhage upon histopathologic examination.

  14. Advances in leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Murray, Henry W; Berman, Jonathan D; Davies, Clive R; Saravia, Nancy G

    Governed by parasite and host factors and immunoinflammatory responses, the clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis encompasses subclinical (inapparent), localised (skin lesions), and disseminated infection (cutaneous, mucosal, or visceral). Symptomatic disease is subacute or chronic and diverse in presentation and outcome. Clinical characteristics vary further by endemic region. Despite T-cell-dependent immune responses, which produce asymptomatic and self-healing infection, or appropriate treatment, intracellular infection is probably life-long since targeted cells (tissue macrophages) allow residual parasites to persist. There is an epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Afghanistan and Pakistan and of visceral infection in India and Sudan. Diagnosis relies on visualising parasites in tissue or serology; culture and detection of parasite DNA are useful in the laboratory. Pentavalent antimony is the conventional treatment; however, resistance of visceral infection in India has spawned new treatment approaches--amphotericin B and its lipid formulations, injectable paromomycin, and oral miltefosine. Despite tangible advances in diagnosis, treatment, and basic scientific research, leishmaniasis is embedded in poverty and neglected. Current obstacles to realistic prevention and proper management include inadequate vector (sandfly) control, no vaccine, and insufficient access to or impetus for developing affordable new drugs. PMID:16257344

  15. Resurgence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Gandacu, Dan; Glazer, Yael; Anis, Emilia; Karakis, Isabella; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul; Grotto, Itamar

    2014-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. After a 15-year period of moderate illness rates, reported incidence increased from 0.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2001 to 4.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2012, and the disease emerged in areas where its presence had previously been minimal. We analyzed all cases reported to the national surveillance system and found that outbreak patterns revealed an expansion of Leishmania major infections over large areas in the southern part of the country and the occurrence of spatially focused L. tropica outbreaks in the northern part of the country. Outbreaks often followed new construction in populated areas. Further study of factors affecting the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed in Israel, as well as the development of effective methods to control the disease, an increase in awareness among health care professionals, and intensive public education regarding control measures in areas of known leishmaniasis foci. PMID:25271882

  16. Resurgence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gandacu, Dan; Anis, Emilia; Karakis, Isabella; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul; Grotto, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. After a 15-year period of moderate illness rates, reported incidence increased from 0.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2001 to 4.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2012, and the disease emerged in areas where its presence had previously been minimal. We analyzed all cases reported to the national surveillance system and found that outbreak patterns revealed an expansion of Leishmania major infections over large areas in the southern part of the country and the occurrence of spatially focused L. tropica outbreaks in the northern part of the country. Outbreaks often followed new construction in populated areas. Further study of factors affecting the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed in Israel, as well as the development of effective methods to control the disease, an increase in awareness among health care professionals, and intensive public education regarding control measures in areas of known leishmaniasis foci. PMID:25271882

  17. Canine Leishmania vaccines: still a long way to go.

    PubMed

    Gradoni, Luigi

    2015-02-28

    Dogs are the main reservoir host for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, a sand fly-borne disease caused by Leishmania infantum. In endemic areas, "susceptible" dogs suffer from a severe disease characterized by chronic polymorphic viscerocutaneous signs that manifest several months from the exposure, whereas "resistant" dogs can remain subclinically infected for years or lifelong. The protective immune response to Leishmania is cell-mediated; for visceralizing Leishmania species a mixed T helper (Th)1/Th2 response with a dominant Th1 profile is required for protection. The activation of the adaptive immune system in naturally resistant dogs is revealed by parasite-specific lymphoproliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity, the production of interferon-? and tumour necrosis factor-? cytokines, and enhanced macrophage leishmanicidal activity via nitric oxide. Hence, an effective canine Leishmania vaccine should induce strong and long-lasting Th1-dominated immunity to control both infection progression and the parasite transmissibility via the vector. Preclinical research in rodent models has evaluated the efficacy of several categories of Leishmania antigens including killed parasites, cell purified fractions, parasite protein components or subunits, single or multiple chimeric recombinant proteins, plasmid DNA and viral particles encoding parasite virulence factors. Promising antigen(s)/adjuvant combinations from each of the above categories have also been tested in dogs; they mostly resulted in limited or no protection in Phase I-II studies (designed to test vaccine safety, immunogenicity and laboratory-induced protection) in which vaccinated dogs were challenged by the artificial intravenous injection of high-load L. infantum promastigotes. The recombinant A2 antigen plus saponin conferred about 40% protection against infection by this challenge system and has been registered in Brazil as a canine vaccine (LeishTec(®)). An increasing number of efficacy studies have privileged the use of natural challenge consisting in the long-term exposure of vaccinated dogs in endemic settings (Phase III). A 2-year field model including regular assessments by a set of standard diagnostic markers useful for an accurate infection staging has been developed. Again, most of the vaccines tested by this system, which included several antigen categories and adjuvants, failed to protect against infection and disease. Only two vaccines, consisting of parasite purified fractions with saponin derivative adjuvants, showed to confer significant protection against disease and death under natural conditions, and have been registered as canine vaccines: FML-QuilA (Leishmune(®)) in Brazil, and LiESP/QA-21 (CaniLeish(®)) in Europe. PMID:25620293

  18. Immunotherapy and Immunochemotherapy in Visceral Leishmaniasis: Promising Treatments for this Neglected Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Ker, Henrique Gama; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has several clinical forms: self-healing or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; mucosal leishmaniasis; visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is fatal if left untreated. The epidemiology and clinical features of VL vary greatly due to the interaction of multiple factors including parasite strains, vectors, host genetics, and the environment. Human immunodeficiency virus infection augments the severity of VL increasing the risk of developing active disease by 100–2320 times. An effective vaccine for humans is not yet available. Resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in many regions, and the costs associated with drug identification and development, make commercial production for leishmaniasis, unattractive. The toxicity of currently drugs, their long treatment course, and limited efficacy are significant concerns. For cutaneous disease, many studies have shown promising results with immunotherapy/immunochemotherapy, aimed to modulate and activate the immune response to obtain a therapeutic cure. Nowadays, the focus of many groups centers on treating canine VL by using vaccines and immunomodulators with or without chemotherapy. In human disease, the use of cytokines like interferon-γ associated with pentavalent antimonials demonstrated promising results in patients that did not respond to conventional treatment. In mice, immunomodulation based on monoclonal antibodies to remove endogenous immunosuppressive cytokines (interleukin-10) or block their receptors, antigen-pulsed syngeneic dendritic cells, or biological products like Pam3Cys (TLR ligand) has already been shown as a prospective treatment of the disease. This review addresses VL treatment, particularly immunotherapy and/or immunochemotherapy as an alternative to conventional drug treatment in experimental models, canine VL, and human disease. PMID:24982655

  19. Relative Risk of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil: A Spatial Analysis in Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Pinheiro, Letícia Cavalari; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Assunção, Renato Martins; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. Methodology This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas) of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n?=?412), were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features) and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. Principal Findings The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146). The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. Conclusions The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities. PMID:24244776

  20. Quantitative PCR for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded skin sections.

    PubMed

    Müller, Norbert; Hentrich, Brigitte; Frey, Caroline F; Welle, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The present report describes a real-time PCR-based procedure to reliably determine the quantity of Leishmania amastigotes in relation to the amount of host tissue in histological skin sections from canine and equine cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The novel diagnostic Leishmania-PCR has a detection limit of <0.02 amastigotes per ?g tissue, which corresponds well to the detection limit of immunohistochemistry and is far beyond that of conventional histology. Our results emphasise the importance of PCR to complement routine histology of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, particularly in laboratories in which no immunohistochemical assay is available. PMID:26427730

  1. Canine lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. Leishmaniasis: clinical syndromes and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Satoskar, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a global term for cutaneous and visceral anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases caused by the vector-borne parasites of the genus Leishmania. These diseases afflict at least 2 million people each year with more than 350 million at risk in 98 countries worldwide. These are diseases mostly of the impoverished making prevention, diagnosis and treatment difficult. Therapy of leishmaniasis ranges from local treatment of cutaneous lesions to systemic, often toxic, therapy for disseminated cutaneous, mucocutaneous and deadly visceral disease. This review is a summary of the clinical syndromes caused by Leishmania and treatment regimens currently used for various forms of leishmaniasis. PMID:23744570

  3. Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1988-12-27

    A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear selectively held stationary by a first brake, the first carrier is allowed to rotate in the same forward direction as the input shaft when the second clutch is engaged, but prevented from rotating in a reverse direction opposite to the forward direction by a first one-way clutch, the first carrier being selectively held stationary by a second brake; a second planetary gear set including a second sun gear connected to the input shaft, a second carrier connected to the first ring gear and also the the output shaft, and a second ring gear.

  4. [Visceral leishmaniasis: an update].

    PubMed

    Faucher, B; Piarroux, R

    2011-09-01

    During the last decade, visceral leishmaniasis has been reconsidered in its epidemiology and strategies for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. This vectorial disease, responsible for more than 50,000 deaths each year across India, East Africa, South America, the Mediterranean area, Central Asia and China, is currently spreading over new territories. This formerly rural disease has even reached cities in South America. This spreading is caused by environmental changes due to global warming or human activity, and by the movement of workers and refugees. As a consequence, the burden of HIV/Leishmania coinfection is increasing in many developing countries even though effective antiretroviral therapy has led to a marked decrease in its incidence in Europe. The disease is now handled differently than it was 10 years ago: PCR has become the most accurate tool for diagnosis and follow-up in developed countries, and field diagnostic tools have been developed (antigenuria, rK39 dipstick). While resistance to antimoniate has appeared in India and Europe, new therapies have been evaluated such as miltefosine, the first oral therapy, or short treatment with liposomal amphotericin B. In France, liposomal amphotericin B has supplanted antimoniate meglumine because of better tolerance and shorter hospitalization duration. Protecting dogs through immunization or collars impregnated with deltamethrin proved effective to prevent zoonotic leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum. PMID:20850210

  5. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Pankaj; Dayama, Anand; Mehrotra, Sanjana; Sundar, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with up to 350 million people at risk of infection worldwide. Among its different clinical manifestations, visceral is the most severe form. Since clinical features of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) mimic several other common diseases, accurate diagnosis of VL is crucial as the treatment is associated with significant toxicity. Invasive and risky techniques involving demonstration of the parasites in stained preparations from splenic and bone marrow aspirate is still the gold standard for VL diagnosis. Serological tests using rk39 in ELISA or rapid immunochromatographic format, Direct Agglutination Test (DAT), immunoblotting have issues related to a significant proportion of asymptomatic individuals being positive with these tests and their inability to diagnose relapses as these remain positive for several months to years after cure. PCR is the most common molecular technique successfully used for diagnosis and differentiation of species. Through this review we focus extensively on the comparative utilities of the various diagnostic tools currently available for VL, describing in depth their advantages and disadvantages, addressing the recent advances attained in the field. A simple, rapid, non invasive, accurate and cost effective marker of active VL, which can be used in field conditions, is necessary to improve diagnosis of VL. PMID:21074233

  6. Paronychia-like cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chiheb, S; El Machbouh, L; Marnissi, F

    2015-01-01

    Chronic paronychia is an inflammatory recalcitrant disorder affecting the nail folds. We report one patient with paronychia  revealing ungueal leishmaniasis. A 34-year-old man, resident in the north of Morocco, presented with a 6-month history of an inflamed proximal nail fold of  the left thumb, resistant to antibiotics and anti-fungal treatments. En bloc excision of the proximal nail fold was done. The histopathological exam showed epithelioid  granulomas  with giant  cells and the presence of  leshmania  amastigotes, leading to the diagnosis of ungueal leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis can be very misleading. The paronychial form is rarely described. In endemic areas  it is necessary for the physician to be aware of atypical skin presentations of  leishmaniasis. PMID:26632940

  7. Indigenous microbiota and Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M E M; Carneiro, M B H; Dos Santos, L M; Vieira, L Q

    2016-01-01

    Animals are colonized by their indigenous microbiota from the early days of life. The estimated number of associated bacterial cells in humans is around of 10(14) per individual, most of them in the gut. Several studies have investigated the microbiota-host relationship, and the use of germfree animals has been an important tool in these studies. These animals, when infected with a pathogen, have shown to be sometimes more resistant and other times more susceptible than conventional animals. Leishmaniasis is a worldwide public health problem and presents a spectrum of clinical manifestations. However, very few studies have addressed the role of the indigenous microbiota on the outcome of this disease. In this review, we will highlight and discuss the data available on the ways by which the microbiota can influence the outcome of the disease in murine experimental models of cutaneous infection with Leishmania. PMID:26407073

  8. The Relationship between Leishmaniasis and AIDS: the Second 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Alvar, Jorge; Aparicio, Pilar; Aseffa, Abraham; Den Boer, Margriet; Cañavate, Carmen; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Gradoni, Luigi; Ter Horst, Rachel; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Moreno, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Summary: To date, most Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection cases reported to WHO come from Southern Europe. Up to the year 2001, nearly 2,000 cases of coinfection were identified, of which 90% were from Spain, Italy, France, and Portugal. However, these figures are misleading because they do not account for the large proportion of cases in many African and Asian countries that are missed due to a lack of diagnostic facilities and poor reporting systems. Most cases of coinfection in the Americas are reported in Brazil, where the incidence of leishmaniasis has spread in recent years due to overlap with major areas of HIV transmission. In some areas of Africa, the number of coinfection cases has increased dramatically due to social phenomena such as mass migration and wars. In northwest Ethiopia, up to 30% of all visceral leishmaniasis patients are also infected with HIV. In Asia, coinfections are increasingly being reported in India, which also has the highest global burden of leishmaniasis and a high rate of resistance to antimonial drugs. Based on the previous experience of 20 years of coinfection in Europe, this review focuses on the management of Leishmania-HIV-coinfected patients in low-income countries where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:18400800

  9. Leishmaniasis: Current Status of Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Handman, Emanuela

    2001-01-01

    Leishmaniae are obligatory intracellular protozoa in mononuclear phagocytes. They cause a spectrum of diseases, ranging in severity from spontaneously healing skin lesions to fatal visceral disease. Worldwide, there are 2 million new cases each year and 1/10 of the world's population is at risk of infection. To date, there are no vaccines against leishmaniasis and control measures rely on chemotherapy to alleviate disease and on vector control to reduce transmission. However, a major vaccine development program aimed initially at cutaneous leishmaniasis is under way. Studies in animal models and humans are evaluating the potential of genetically modified live attenuated vaccines, as well as a variety of recombinant antigens or the DNA encoding them. The program also focuses on new adjuvants, including cytokines, and delivery systems to target the T helper type 1 immune responses required for the elimination of this intracellular organism. The availability, in the near future, of the DNA sequences of the human and Leishmania genomes will extend the vaccine program. New vaccine candidates such as parasite virulence factors will be identified. Host susceptibility genes will be mapped to allow the vaccine to be targeted to the population most in need of protection. PMID:11292637

  10. Canine rabies ecology in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bingham, John

    2005-09-01

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio > or =1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in > or =1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids. PMID:16229759

  11. [The serological and entomological survey of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Ayvacik Region of Canakkale Province, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Tok, Hayal; Sevil, Naser; Ozensoy Töz, Seray; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Balcio?lu, I Cüneyt; Demir, Samiye; Ozbel, Yusuf; Co?kun, Mahmut

    2009-01-01

    The field studies were carried out in Ilyasfaki village belonging to Ayvacik town, Kalabakli village and center of Kepez town belonging to Canakkale province to determine the epidemiological situation of visceral leishmaniasis between June and August 2007. A total of 27 blood samples were taken from the dogs which are known as reservoir of Leishmania infantum causing visceral leishmaniasis in human and dogs. The dogs were also examined physically for clinical symptoms of the disease. A total of 789 sand fly specimens were collected using CDC miniature light traps and examined. Six Phlebotomus and one Sergentomyia species were identified as: Phlebotomus negletus, P. tobbi, P. simici, P. papatisi, P. perfiliewi, P. halepensis and S. theodori. Among these species P. neglectus, was found to be a dominant species in Ilyasfaki village by the rate of 94.4%, while P. tobbi was also found to be a dominant species in city center (including Kepez) and Kalabaki village by the rate of 50% and 48.1%, respectively. No seropositive dogs were found by IFA test. Seropositivity below cut-off level was only observed in two dogs from Kepez, in dilutions of 1/16 and 1/64. The risk level for human and canine visceral is found to be high and it requires more field studies on canine leishmaniasis in and around the area. PMID:19598084

  12. Canine hyperlipidaemia.

    PubMed

    Xenoulis, P G; Steiner, J M

    2015-10-01

    Hyperlipidaemia refers to an increased concentration of lipids in the blood. Hyperlipidaemia is common in dogs and has recently emerged as an important clinical condition that requires a systematic diagnostic approach and appropriate treatment. Hyperlipidaemia can be either primary or secondary to other diseases. Secondary hyperlipidaemia is the most common form in dogs, and it can be a result of endocrine disorders, pancreatitis, cholestasis, protein-losing nephropathy, obesity, as well as other conditions and the use of certain drugs. Primary hyperlipidaemia is less common in the general canine population but it can be very common within certain breeds. Hypertriglyceridaemia of Miniature Schnauzers is the most common form of primary hyperlipidaemia in dogs but other breeds are also affected. Possible complications of hyperlipidaemia in dogs include pancreatitis, liver disease, atherosclerosis, ocular disease and seizures. Management of primary hyperlipidaemia in dogs is achieved by administration of ultra low-fat diets with or without the administration of lipid lowering drugs such as omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates, niacin and statins. PMID:26456868

  13. Canine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Wanke, M M

    2004-07-01

    This review discusses the prevalence, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical findings, diagnostic methods, therapy, management and public health considerations of Brucella canis infection in dogs. Canine brucellosis is a contagious infection produced by a gram-negative coccobacilus called Brucella canis. The main sources of infection are vaginal fluids of infected females and urine in males. Routes of entry are venereal, oronasal, conjunctivae mucosa and placenta. The most significant symptoms are late abortions in bitches, epididymitis in males and infertility in both sexes, as well as generalized lymphadenitis, discospondylitis and uveitis. Diagnosis is complex because serology can give false positive results and chronic cases can give negative results, needing to be complemented with bacteriological studies. No antibiotic treatment is 100% effective and the infection often recurs in animals apparently treated successfully. Infected animals must be removed from the kennels and no longer used for breeding. Preferably, males should be castrated and females spayed. Human contagion is not frequent, although it has been reported, and is easily treated. PMID:15271453

  14. Mucocutaneous Leishmania tropica infection in a dog from a human cutaneous leishmaniasis focus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leishmania tropica is a causative agent of cutaneous leishmanaisis in the Middle East, North Africa and parts of southeastern Europe. Although transmission of L. tropica has been reported as anthroponotic, in Israel it was found to have a zoonotic pattern. Findings A one year old male Pekingese dog from Maale Adumim, a focus of L. tropica human cutaneous leishmaniasis near Jerusalem, was presented by its owner with a large proliferative red mucocutaneous lesion on the lip between the mouth and nose. Physical examination and a biochemistry panel were normal and a complete blood count showed mild leukocytosis with lymphocytosis and eosinophilia. A biopsy of the lesion was suggestive of the presence of Leishmania organisms. Serology for Leishmania sp. by ELISA was positive and an aspirate from the lesion showed a large number of Leishmania amastigotes. ITS1-HRM-PCR of the lesion was positive and sequencing indicated that infection was caused by L. tropica, which was also cultured from the lesion. Blood PCR was negative. The dog responded well to allopurinol treatment and its lesion shrunk considerably within one month of therapy and healed after two months. Conclusions Only a few cases of dog infection with L. tropica have been described to date. They were reported from Morocco and Iran and involved infection of visceral organs. This is the first report of focal mucocutaneous L. tropica infection in a dog and its response to anti-leishmanial treatment. Domestic and wild canines should be evaluated for being possible animal reservoirs for human L. tropica infection in endemic areas or merely accidental hosts. PMID:24661746

  15. Immunology of leishmaniasis*

    PubMed Central

    Heyneman, D.

    1971-01-01

    Knowledge of the immunological basis of the leishmaniases and of the host's response is fragmentary and largely pragmatic. This paper reviews certain conceptual and clinical aspects of the immunology of these diseases. Consideration is given to man's natural resistance and his ability to acquire resistance from natural infections and from vaccination. The age-distribution of infection in different populations is discussed in relation to the effects that interaction between the parasite and its intermediate host may have on its infection characteristics and virulence. Studies in the USSR of differences in virulence among 30 human strains and 39 rodent strains are reported. The rodent strains showed a broader range of virulence than did the human isolates. Serological tests for determining species relationships among the leishmaniae are generally nonspecific, but work concerned with the development of the antiserum—culture test is reviewed. Species identification and the recognition of new forms, perhaps with different infection characteristics, is, nevertheless, of the utmost importance in the prevention and treatment of the disease. The review concludes with a discussion of functional immunity and hypotheses of the immune process in leishmaniasis. PMID:5316252

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis with cardiac involvement in a dog: a case report.

    PubMed

    López-Peña, Mónica; Alemañ, Nuria; Muñoz, Fernando; Fondevila, Dolors; Suárez, María Luisa; Goicoa, Ana; Nieto, Jose María

    2009-01-01

    A dog presented with cutaneous nodules, enlarged lymph nodes and oedema in limbs, face and abdomen. The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis was established by identification of Leishmania amastigotes within macrophages from skin and popliteal lymph node biopsies. At necropsy, lesions were found in different organs, but it was particularly striking to observe large areas of pallor in the myocardium. Histological examination revealed an intense chronic inflammatory reaction in many organs, and numerous macrophages were found to contain amastigote forms of Leishmania. The inflammatory reaction was especially severe in the heart, where large areas of the myocardium appeared infiltrated with huge numbers of mononuclear immune cells, causing cardiac muscle atrophy and degeneration. Despite the severe inflammation, the number of parasitized macrophages was low in the myocardium, as revealed by immunohistochemical staining of Leishmania amastigotes. Because cardiac involvement is not usually described in this condition, this dog represents a very rare case of canine visceral leishmaniasis with affection of the myocardium. PMID:19405946

  17. Visceral leishmaniasis-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a traveler returning from a pilgrimage to the Camino de Santiago.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Emily R; Shamasunder, Sriram; Cascino, Thomas; White, Kristie L; Katrak, Shereen; Bern, Caryn; Schwartz, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 73-year-old American traveler who presented with 3?weeks of fatigue, fevers, chills, and pancytopenia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with hemophagocytic lymphohystiocytosis (HLH) and bone marrow biopsy revealed amastigotes consistent with visceral leishmaniasis. The range of endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission now extends into northern Spain and travelers to this region should use personal protective measures against sand fly exposure. PMID:25145768

  18. Factors Associated with the Seroprevalence of Leishmaniasis in Dogs Living around Atlantic Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the control of visceral leishmaniasis in rural zones near forest fragments. PMID:25089629

  19. Factors associated with the seroprevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs living around Atlantic Forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the control of visceral leishmaniasis in rural zones near forest fragments. PMID:25089629

  20. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission. PMID:25686382

  1. Voice Disorders in Mucosal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Jéssica Rafael; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Terceiro, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira; de Sousa Torraca, Tania Salgado; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. Objective To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age) and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. Results 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81%) were male and five (19%) female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years). The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%), followed by dysphonia (38.5%), odynophagia (30.8%) and dysphagia (26.9%). 23 patients (84.6%) presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. Conclusion We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some resonance structures (larynx, pharynx and nasal and oral cavities) or even to compensation mechanisms caused by the presence of lesions in the upper airways and digestive tract. PMID:25055046

  2. Leishmania infantum leishmaniasis in corticosteroid – treated patients

    PubMed Central

    Pittalis, Silvia; Nicastri, Emanuele; Spinazzola, Francesco; Ghirga, Piero; De Marco, Michele; Paglia, Maria Grazia; Narciso, Pasquale

    2006-01-01

    Background The number of leishmaniasis cases associated with immunosuppression has increased regularly over the past 20 years. Immunosuppression related to HIV infection, immunosuppressive treatment, organ transplantation, and neoplastic diseases increases the risk for Leishmania-infected people to develop visceral illness. Case presentation Three cases of Leishmania infantum leishmaniasis in corticosteroid (CS)-treated patients are reported: an isolated lingual leishmaniasis in a farmer treated with CS for asthma, a severe visceral leishmaniasis associated with cutaneous lesions in a woman with myasthenia gravis, and a visceral involvement after cutaneous leishmaniasis in a man receiving CS. Conclusion Physicians should recognise CS-treated patients as a population likely to be immunesuppressed. In immunodeficiency conditions, unusual forms of leishmaniasis can develop and foster the risk of a diagnostic delay and of poor response to therapy. PMID:17176478

  3. Immunogenicity of a multicomponent DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, Omar A; Travi, Bruno L; Park, Won; Perez, Luis E; Melby, Peter C

    2006-03-10

    Vaccination of dogs, the domestic reservoir of Leishmania chagasi, could not only decrease the burden of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL), but could also indirectly reduce the incidence of human VL. Intramuscular vaccination of foxhounds with a Leishmania multicomponent (10 antigen) DNA vaccine resulted in antigen-induced lymphoproliferative and IFN-gamma (but not IL-4) responses. This response was not augmented by co-administration of canine IL-12 or GM-CSF DNA adjuvants. The multicomponent DNA vaccine also induced a delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to viable L. donovani promastigotes and led to a reduction of parasite burden in an in vitro intracellular infection model, and in the draining lymph node of dogs early after cutaneous challenge. Thus, the multicomponent DNA vaccine was effective in priming dogs for a parasite-specific type 1 cellular immune response, which was able to restrict parasite growth. PMID:16310897

  4. CAPA-gene products in the haematophagous sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) - Vector for leishmaniasis disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sandflies (Phlebotominae, Nematocera, Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan-borne diseases in humans, and these insects depend on the regulation of water balance to cope with the sudden and enormous intake of blood over a very short time period. The sandfly ...

  5. Calcified bodies in New World cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Patricia; Salinas, Cesar; Bravo, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    We report a case of a 9-year-old boy who presented with 2 lesions that were compatible clinically with cutaneous leishmaniasis of the New World. A skin biopsy showed tuberculoid granulomas with rounded calcified bodies. The diagnosis was supported by a positive leishmanin test and a positive polymerase chain reaction. The patient responded to specific treatment for leishmaniasis. These calcified bodies, described under different names in the literature (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies, Schaumann bodies, psammoma bodies, or conchoidal bodies), have been reported in an experimental leishmaniasis and, only once before, in a case of human leishmaniasis of the Old World. PMID:22042260

  6. The canine vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D R; Wiekamp, M D

    1984-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ was studied in mature dogs with the optical, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopes. The canine vomeronasal complex is structurally well developed. Large blood vessels are present deep to both the lateral, 'non-receptor' and medial, 'receptor' epithelia. In addition to the unmyelinated vomeronasal nerves in the lamina propria deep to the 'receptor' epithelium, numerous nerves containing both myelinated and unmyelinated fibres are present deep to the 'non-receptor' epithelium. The 'non-receptor' epithelium consists of basal cells, ciliated and non-ciliated columnar cells, and globular cells packed with mitochondria. Contained within the 'non-receptor' epithelium are leucocytes, plasma cells, and nerve endings. The 'receptor' epithelium consists of basal, sustentacular, and ciliated receptor cells. The microtubules in cilia of the receptor cells do not appear to have dynein arms or radial spokes. Images Figs. 1-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 PMID:6746408

  7. Respiratory disease outbreak in a veterinary hospital associated with canine parainfluenza virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. Scott; Stull, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A cluster of canine parainfluenza virus infections was identified in a veterinary referral hospital. While hospital-associated outbreaks of canine parainfluenza virus infection have not been previously reported, veterinary hospitals possess some of the same risk factors that may be present in traditional high-risk sites such as kennels. Hospital-associated transmission of canine respiratory pathogens, therefore, must be considered. PMID:23814307

  8. Childhood cutaneous leishmaniasis: report of 117 cases from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talaei, Rezvan; Shajari, Gholamreza; Vakili, Zarichehr; Taghaviardakani, Abbas

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), due to Leishmania major, is endemic in different parts of Iran and has long been recognized in most provinces of Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of childhood leishmaniasis in 3 areas at the southeast of Kashan. A descriptive study was carried out on all children referred to central laboratories during a 3-year period. Initial information including age, sex, sites of ulcer on the body, number of lesions, address, and the place of the disease was obtained. The study gathered 117 children, and the results showed a prevalence of 7.2% in patients with lesions among the population and 4.2% of people displayed lesion and scar. The ages of subjects were from 6 to 15 years (average 9.75 years). The boy: girl ratio was 1.2. All of our patients lived in an endemic area. The face was affected in 47.0% of cases. The encountered forms of leishmaniasis are as follows: papulonodular 27.4%, ulcer 60.7%, sporotrichoid 6%, impetiginous 2.5%, and erysipeloid 3.4%. Treatment with intramuscular meglumine antimoniate 20-30 mg/kg/day was done for 93 patients. Meglumine antimoniate treatment was tolerated with no side effects. All leishmaniasis lesions healed within an average period of 2-14 months. Hyperpigmented scars were formed in 25.6% of the patients, atrophic scars in 4.3%, and hypopigmented scars were in 3.4%, respectively. The findings of this study indicate increased prevalence of CL in the villages at the area of Kashan and Aran-Bidgol. The clinical finding patterns belonged to different endemic strains of L. major in Isfahan, which indicates the possible transmission of infection from Isfahan to this area. PMID:17170577

  9. Immunosuppression in Kenyan visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, M; Koech, D K; Iha, D W; Bryceson, A D

    1983-01-01

    Cell-mediated immune responses were evaluated in 15 patients with active visceral leishmaniasis from Masinga location in eastern Kenya where the disease is endemic. Age and sex matched controls were selected from a village school in the same area. In vivo studies were carried out by skin testing with leishmanin, tuberculin, streptococcal and candida antigens. Lymphocyte blastogenic transformation to the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) and the antigens purified protein derivative (PPD), streptokinase-streptodornase (SKSD) and leishmanial antigen (LA) was studied in vitro. The results showed that immunosuppression in visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya was both specific and non-specific. In the majority of patients there was complete anergy to all antigens in vivo and in vitro. The suppression of responses to mitogens was less marked. Recovery of non-specific responses preceded the development of specific immunity. In a small number of patients (23%) immune unresponsiveness to leishmanial antigens persisted 1 year after parasitological cure. PMID:6839538

  10. Transplacental Transmission of Leishmania infantum as a Means for Continued Disease Incidence in North America

    PubMed Central

    Boggiatto, Paola Mercedes; Gibson-Corley, Katherine Nicole; Metz, Kyle; Gallup, Jack Michael; Hostetter, Jesse Michael; Mullin, Kathleen; Petersen, Christine Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs are the predominant domestic reservoir for human L. infantum infection. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is an emerging problem in some U.S. dog breeds, with an annual quantitative PCR prevalence of greater than 20% within an at-risk Foxhound population. Although classically Leishmania is transmitted by infected sand flies and phlebotomine sand flies exist in the United States, means of ongoing L. infantum transmission in U.S. dogs is currently unknown. Possibilities include vertical (transplacental/transmammary) and horizontal/venereal transmission. Several reports have indicated that endemic ZVL may be transmitted vertically. Aims Our aims for this present study were to establish whether vertical/transplacental transmission was occurring in this population of Leishmania-infected US dogs and determine the effect that this means of transmission has on immune recognition of Leishmania. Methodology A pregnant L. infantum-infected dam donated to Iowa State University gave birth in-house to 12 pups. Eight pups humanely euthanized at the time of birth and four pups and the dam humanely euthanized three months post-partum were studied via L. infantum-kinetoplast specific quantitative PCR (kqPCR), gross and histopathological assessment and CD4+ T cell proliferation assay. Key Results This novel report describes disseminated L. infantum parasites as identified by kqPCR in 8 day old pups born to a naturally-infected, seropositive U.S. dog with no travel history. This is the first report of vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally-infected dogs in North America, emphasizing that this novel means of transmission could possibly sustain infection within populations. Major Conclusions Evidence that vertical transmission of ZVL may be a driving force for ongoing disease in an otherwise non-endemic region has significant implications on current control strategies for ZVL, as at present parasite elimination efforts in endemic areas are largely focused on vector-borne transmission between canines and people. Determining frequency of vertical transmission and incorporating canine sterilization with vector control may have a more significant impact on ZVL transmission to people in endemic areas than current control efforts. PMID:21532741

  11. Is the Dog a Possible Reservoir for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Suriname?

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Alida; Ramkalup, Prakash; Mans, Dennis; Schallig, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Suriname, with at least 200 cases per year. Little is known about the biology of CL in the country. The most important parasite species is Leishmania Viannia guyanensis, but possible vectors and reservoirs are hardly incriminated. In the present study, it was investigated whether the dog could possibly be a zoonotic reservoir for the disease in Suriname. Forty-seven dogs were examined for overt clinical signs of leishmaniasis, and blood samples were collected on filter paper for serology (direct agglutination test) and molecular biology (by polymerase chain reaction). Three dogs had clinical signs that could be compatible with canine cutaneous leishmaniosis: dermatitis (two) or nasal lesion (one). Two dogs were seropositive with DAT (titre > 1?:?1600), and three animals had a borderline titre (1?:?800). All other animals (n = 42) were DAT negative. PCR analysis found Leishmania DNA equivalent to 1 parasite per mL in only one dog at a first round of analysis, but this animal was negative after retesting. The clinical, serological, and molecular data show some preliminary lines of evidence that canine leishmaniosis is present in Suriname, but further studies are needed to incriminate the reservoir, including a possible sylvatic cycle. PMID:24194768

  12. Eco-epidemiological survey of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Ribeira Valley River, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Luz, Ennio; Telles, Flávio Queiroz; Pandey, Ashok; Biseto, Alceu; Dinaiski, Marlene; Sbalqueiro, Ives; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2005-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic since last century in Adrianópolis Municipality, Ribeira Valley and is a serious public health. A study carried out during 1993-2003 on epidemiological surveys conducted in rural communities showed 339 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) detected from four municipalities (Adrianópolis, Cerro Azul, Doutor Ulysses and Rio Branco do Sul). A larger prevalence of cutaneous lesions was observed in rural workers (36%), women with domestic activities (18%), and younger students (31%). Multiple lesions were noticed in 53% of patients, but only one case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was reported. Twenty stocks were isolated from patients with characteristics lesions and were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and Random Amplified DNA (RAPD). In Phlebotominae survey, five species were obtained. Lutzomyia intermedia sl. represented 97.5% in peridomiciliar area and 100% in domicile. A canine serological survey made (Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody Test, IFAT and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, ELISA) in six rural county of Adrianópolis Municipality during 1998-1999 showed that 15.1% (24/159) of dogs were sera reactive. No lesions were observed in dogs and no parasite was isolated from lymph node aspirates and biopsies. In wild reservoirs study, only seven animals (Cricetidae, Desmodus sp. and edentates) were captured, but no parasites were found in culture from deep organs. The paper presents results of our 10 years study on cutaneous leishmaniasis survey in the Ribeira River Valley, East Region of Paraná State, Brazil. Environment changes in this region are also discussed. PMID:15652328

  13. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30–40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures. PMID:24626301

  14. [Platelet satellitism during cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Chouchene, Saoussen; Braham, Nejia; Hizem, Sondos; Bouatay, Amina; Abidi, Basma; Dakhli, Maha; Denguezli, Mohamed; Mahjoub, Touhami; Kortas, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Platelet satellitism is considered an uncommon phenomenon with an estimated frequency at 0.008%. About 100 cases have been published. If not recognized, this artifact can lead to an erroneous diagnosis of thrombocytopenia. We report the case of a patient, with cutaneous leishmaniasis, who developed an isolated thrombocytopenia. The blood smear prepared from peripheral blood sample collected with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid showed platelets rosetting around polymorphonuclear. This phenomenon disappeared after treatment with Glucantime® for fifteen days and improvement of the lesions. We discuss also possible mechanisms to better understand this phenomenon. PMID:25486672

  15. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in visceral leishmaniasis-endemic communities in Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rudra Pratap; Picado, Albert; Alam, Shahnawaz; Hasker, Epco; Singh, Shri Prakash; Ostyn, Bart; Chappuis, François; Sundar, Shyam; Boelaert, Marleen

    2012-11-01

    We assessed the prevalence of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a late cutaneous manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in 16 VL-endemic communities in Bihar, India. The prevalence of confirmed PKDL cases was 4.4 per 10?000 individuals and 7.8 if probable cases were also considered. The clinical history and treatment of the post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis cases are discussed. PMID:22882665

  16. Canine viral enteritis. Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V; Carmichael, L

    1979-05-01

    Two apparently novel viral gastroenteritides of dogs were recognized in 1978: one caused by a parvo-like virus (CPV) and one by a corona-like virus (CCV). A rotavirus has also been tentatively associated with neonatal pup enteritis. Canine viral enteritis is characterized by a sudden onset of vomiting and diarrhea, rapid spread and high morbidity. Treatment is only supportive but must be initiated promptly. Infected animals should be isolated immediately; the extremely contagious nature of these diseases makes them difficult to contain. Feces from infected dogs appear to be the primary means of transmission. Sodium hypochlorite solutions (eg, Clorox) are recommended for disinfection. The development of effective vaccines is an immediate and pressing problem. PMID:224304

  17. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Unusual disease in Portugal?].

    PubMed

    Campino, Lenea; Abranches, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Due to its morbility and disfiguring scars, cutaneous leishmaniasis is a serious Public Health problem. The incidence of the disease, world wide, is estimated to be of 1 million to 1.5 million cases per year. In Portugal, it has been considered a rare disease and sporadic cases have been described. In Southwest Europe, Leishmania infantum has been the only agent responsible for the autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In 1994, in an portuguese clinical case, the parasite isolated from a cutaneous lesion was identified as L. infantum zymodeme MON-29. As described in this work cutaneous leishmaniasis should not be considered, any longer, a rare disease in Portugal. PMID:12645224

  18. Protective Immunity and Vaccination Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Mou, Zhirong; Liu, Dong; Uzonna, Jude

    2012-01-01

    Although a great deal of knowledge has been gained from studies on the immunobiology of leishmaniasis, there is still no universally acceptable, safe, and effective vaccine against the disease. This strongly suggests that we still do not completely understand the factors that control and/or regulate the development and sustenance of anti-Leishmania immunity, particularly those associated with secondary (memory) immunity. Such an understanding is critically important for designing safe, effective, and universally acceptable vaccine against the disease. Here we review the literature on the correlate of protective anti-Leishmania immunity and vaccination strategies against leishmaniasis with a bias emphasis on experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:22661975

  19. [Visceral leishmaniasis: a possible diagnosis in Belgium].

    PubMed

    Desmyttere, S; Hachimi-Idrissi, S; Otten, J

    1993-10-01

    A 22-months old girl contracted visceral leishmaniasis during a vacation in Portugal, 12 months prior the manifestation of disease. She presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. A serological test proved the diagnosis. Therapy with a pentavalent antimony drug brought about immediate improvement. Visceral leishmaniasis has to be suspected in individuals with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia who have resided in endemic areas (Mediterranean countries, India, East Africa, South America) during the previous years. If untreated, visceral leishmaniasis runs a fatal course. Therefore, early diagnosis by morphological and serological means and specific therapy with pentavalent antimony drugs are mandatory. PMID:8266313

  20. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania infection in naturally infected sand flies in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unknown. Methods 2650 sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and identified morphologically. The identified sand flies were tested for Leishmania infection by nested PCR. The source of blood meal of 10 freshly engorged females: 6 Phlebotomus longicuspis and 4 Phlebotomus sergenti, was determined using the Cyt b sequence. Results The collected sand flies consisted of 10 species, seven of which belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and three to the genus Sergentomyia. The most abundant species was P. longicuspis, accounting for 72% of the total sand flies collected. In females of three P. longicuspis and four P. sergenti, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica DNA was detected, respectively. The source of blood meal of engorged females showed that all sand flies tested fed on humans. Conclusions We report for the first time the natural infection of P. longicuspis with L. infantum in Morocco. The high frequency of this species in this region, in addition to its anthropophilic character make P. longicuspis the putative vector of L. infantum in this cutaneous leishmaniasis focus where L. tropica is confirmed as the causative agent of the disease and P. sergenti as its vector. The presence of L. infantum, and its presumed vector in this area, makes this a site of high risk of visceral leishmaniasis, mostly because of the proximity of a focus of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:24990497

  1. Field evaluation of alphacypermethrin in indoor residual spraying for leishmaniasis control in an endemic area, northern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Morocco, the main strategies of leishmaniasis vector control are based on environmental modifications. Use of local residual indoor spraying with synthetic pyrethroids is often envisaged. The need to evaluate this control method is essential. The current study was conducted to determine the efficacy of an alphacypermethrin IRS program against leishmaniasis vectors in an endemic area in the north of Morocco. Methods The survey was conducted in four neighbouring localities in three different districts in northern Morocco: Ait Chaib and Aichoun in Sefrou district, Bouassem (Boulmane) and Lmrouj (Taounate). Indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin at a dose of 30 mg/m2 was used in Ait Chaib and Lmrouj localities during 2010, 2011 and 2012, while localities of Aichoun and Bouassem were taken as control. In the four studied areas, sand flies were collected bimonthly from April to November in 2011 and 2012, using sticky traps, to determine their abundance and feeding pattern. Alphacypermethrin IRS were evaluated for their residual effect using the WHO cone bioassay test. Leishmaniasis incidence was estimated by passive and active case detection in each study area. Results Significant reductions in leishmaniasis incidence and in gravidity rate were observed when comparing sprayed and unsprayed localities. The residual activity of alphacypermethrin at the concentration used lasted 10 weeks after spraying. However, the abundance of sand flies was not significantly affected by alphacypermethrin IRS. Conclusion This study indicated that IRS has a significant impact on leishmaniasis transmission; therefore it could be recommended as an effective tool for leishmaniasis control in areas with high leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:24330760

  2. Development of Vaccines against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Krystal J.; Kedzierski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease resulting in a global morbidity of 2,090 thousand Disability-Adjusted Life Years and a mortality rate of approximately 60,000 per year. Among the three clinical forms of leishmaniasis (cutaneous, mucosal, and visceral), visceral leishmaniasis (VL) accounts for the majority of mortality, as if left untreated VL is almost always fatal. Caused by infection with Leishmania donovani or L. infantum, VL represents a serious public health problem in endemic regions and is rapidly emerging as an opportunistic infection in HIV patients. To date, no vaccine exists for VL or any other form of leishmaniasis. In endemic areas, the majority of those infected do not develop clinical symptoms and past infection leads to robust immunity against reinfection. Thus the development of vaccine for Leishmania is a realistic public health goal, and this paper summarizes advances in vaccination strategies against VL. PMID:21912561

  3. Canine viral enteritis.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V; Carmichael, L E

    1983-08-01

    Canine viral enteritis should be suspected in dogs with an acute onset of vomiting and diarrhea, especially in puppies and where several animals are affected simultaneously. Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation, most often detection of viral particles in the stool. No diagnostic test is entirely specific or absolutely sensitive, however, and laboratory findings should be weighed accordingly. Immunization is the key to successful control. Effective vaccines for canine parvovirus are available. Maternal antibody suppresses response to vaccination in young pups and is the major problem in the control of infection. Vaccines against canine rotavirus and coronavirus are not available. The need for such vaccines and the feasibility of their effective use have not yet been clearly demonstrated. PMID:6316616

  4. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

  5. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

  6. Leishmaniasis, an emerging infection in travelers.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2010-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection with a wide clinical spectrum, which ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. A review of the recent literature indicates a sharp increase in imported leishmaniasis cases in developed, non-endemic countries over the last decade, in association with increasing international tourism, military operations, and the influx of immigrants from endemic countries. South America is the main area for the acquisition of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and adventure travelers on long-term trips in highly-endemic forested areas are at particular risk. Popular Mediterranean destinations are emerging as the main areas of acquisition of visceral leishmaniasis for European travelers. Leishmaniasis should be considered in patients presenting with a compatible clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, even if this occurred several months or years ago. Appropriate counseling should be provided to adventure travelers, military personnel, researchers, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sandflies in endemic areas. PMID:20952234

  7. Leishmaniasis in travelers: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Pasquale; Seidita, Aurelio; Vitale, Giustina; Cascio, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection whose clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. Over the last decades, an increase in imported leishmaniasis cases in developed, non-endemic countries, have been pointed-out from a review of the international literature. Among the possible causes are increasing international tourism, influx of immigrants from endemic regions and military operations. The main area for the acquisition of cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially for adventure travelers on long-term trips in highly-endemic forested areas, is represented from South America, whereas popular Mediterranean destinations are emerging as the main areas to acquire visceral variant. Leishmaniasis should be considered in the diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with a compatible clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, even if this occurred several months or years before. Adventure travelers, researchers, military personnel, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sand flies in endemic areas, should receive counseling regarding leishmaniasis and appropriate protective measures. PMID:25287721

  8. Case study for a vaccine against leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Alvar, Jorge; Croft, Simon L; Kaye, Paul; Khamesipour, Ali; Sundar, Shyam; Reed, Steven G

    2013-04-18

    Leishmaniasis in many ways offers a unique vaccine case study. Two reasons for this are that leishmaniasis is a disease complex caused by several different species of parasite that are highly related, thus raising the possibility of developing a single vaccine to protect against multiple diseases. Another reason is the demonstration that a leishmaniasis vaccine may be used therapeutically as well as prophylactically. Although there is no registered human leishmaniasis vaccine today, immunization approaches using live or killed organisms, as well as defined vaccine candidates, have demonstrated at least some degree of efficacy in humans to prevent and to treat some forms of leishmaniasis, and there is a vigorous pipeline of candidates in development. Current approaches include using individual or combined antigens of the parasite or of salivary gland extract of the parasites' insect vector, administered with or without formulation in adjuvant. Animal data obtained with several vaccine candidates are promising and some have been or will be entered into clinical testing in the near future. There is sufficient scientific and epidemiological justification to continue to invest in the development of vaccines against leishmaniasis. PMID:23598489

  9. Seroepidemiological Survey of Canine Leishmania Infections from Peripheral Areas in Natal, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle Ribeiro; Carlota, Francisco Canindé; de Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Human visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Natal, northeast of Brazil, where the domestic dog is an important parasite reservoir in the infectious cycle of Leishmania spp. In this study, was evaluated the antileishmanial IgG antibody and epidemiological factors related to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methods: Sera samples obtained by venipuncture of 1,426 dogs living in areas of human visceral leishmaniasis occurrence were tested for detection of IgG anti-leishmania antibodies with Immunofluorescence Antibody Assay (IFA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Chi-square (x2) and Odds Ratio (OR) were calculated. Differences were considered statistically significant at p≤0.05. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 10.30% (147/1,426); prevalence increased when the samples were found to be positive at least for one technique ([417/1,426] 29.3%). The high percentage of seroprevalence was observed in Nova República (15.35%), Nova Natal I (12.7%) and Lagoa Azul (11.4%) neighborhoods. In the Planalto, Soledade and Brasil Novo, the infection rates ranged from 7.5 at 8.06%. (p=0.00051). There was neither statistically significant difference between leishmanial infection nor clinical signs of disease (p=0.84; OR=1.0 [0.41; 2.3]), sex (p=0.78, OR=0.94 [0.66; 1.28]); and breed (p=0.92; OR=1.0 [0.65; 1.54]) were observed. Conclusion: The RESULTS suggest that CVL is widely distributed in Natal, may be increasingly urbanizing and will spread through neighborhoods but not endemic, resulting in a serious public health problem, emphasizing the need for epidemiological studies to a greater understanding of the distribution of canine leishmaniasis in these specific areas and contribute proactively to the public health policies. PMID:26668661

  10. Efficacy of canine influenza virus (H3N8) vaccine to decrease severity of clinical disease after co-challenge with canine influenza virus and Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since first emerging into the North American canine population in 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) subtype H3N8 has shown horizontal transmission among dogs, with a high level of adaptation to this species. Severity of disease is variable, and co-infection by other respiratory pathogens is an impo...

  11. A Review of Preventative Methods against Human Leishmaniasis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, Lisa; Newton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an intracellular parasitic infection transmitted to humans via the sandfly. Approximately 350 million people are at risk of contracting the disease and an estimated 1.6 million new cases occur annually. Of the two main forms, visceral and cutaneous, the visceral form is fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. Aims This literature review aims to identify and evaluate the current evidence base for the use of various preventative methods against human leishmaniasis. Methods A literature search was performed of the relevant database repositories for primary research conforming to a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 84 controlled studies investigating 12 outcome measures were identified, implementing four broad categories of preventative interventions: animal reservoir control, vector population control, human reservoir control and a category for multiple concurrently implemented interventions. The primary studies investigated a heterogeneous mix of outcome measures using a range of different methods. Conclusions This review highlights an absence of research measuring human-specific outcomes (35% of the total) across all intervention categories. The apparent inability of study findings to be generalizable across different geographic locations, points towards gaps in knowledge regarding the biology of transmission of Leishmania in different settings. More research is needed which investigates human infection as the primary outcome measure as opposed to intermediate surrogate markers, with a focus on developing a human vaccine. PMID:23818997

  12. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  13. FIRST CASE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE URBAN CENTER OF RIO DE JANEIRO: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; de Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement. PMID:24553614

  14. American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis: Effectiveness of an Immunohistochemical Protocol for the Detection of Leishmania in Skin

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Cibele Fontes; Alves, Cintia Fontes; Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Souza, Carolina Carvalho; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Melo, Maria Norma; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Raso, Pedro; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Background American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic in Latin America, where Brazil has over 27 thousand cases per year. The aim of the present study was to develop an immunohistochemical method (IHC) for ATL diagnosis. For this purpose, we used serum from a dog naturally infected with Leishmania (L) infantum (canine hyperimmune serum) as the primary antibody, followed by a detection system with a secondary biotinylated antibody. Methodology Skin samples were obtained from 73 patients in an endemic area of Caratinga, Minas Gerais (MG) State, Brazil all testing positive for ATL with the Montenegro skin test, microscopy, and PCR. Canine hyperimmune serum of a dog naturally infected with Leishmania (L.) infantum was employed as a primary antibody in an immunohistochemical diagnostic method using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase. To assess the specificity of this reaction, IHC assays employing two monoclonal antibodies were carried out. As the polymer-based technology is less time-consuming and labor intensive than the IHC labeled streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method, we compared the two methods for all samples. Results The IHC method detected ATL in 67 of the 73 cases (91.8%). Immunolabeled parasites were primarily detected inside macrophages either in the superficial or the deep dermis. Detection was facilitated by the high contrast staining of amastigotes (dark brown) against the light blue background. A lower detection rate (71.2%) was observed with the both of the monoclonal Leishmania antibodies compared to the canine hyperimmune serum. This may have been due to a non-specific background staining observed in all histological samples rendering positive detection more difficult. The higher efficacy of the canine hyperimmune serum in the IHC method was confirmed by the method using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase as well as that with the polymer-based technology (biotin-avidin-free system). Conclusions The data are encouraging with regard to validating IHC as a standard alternative method for ATL diagnosis. PMID:23704900

  15. [Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in children].

    PubMed

    Minodier, P; Noël, G; Blanc, P; Uters, M; Retornaz, K; Garnier, J M

    2007-02-01

    Visceral Leishmania infantum leishmaniasis is endemic in the south of France. For many years the mainstay for treatment of infected children was pentavalent antimony: meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam). However these drugs are poorly tolerated and resistance similar to that observed in the treatment of Indian visceral Leishmania donovani leishmaniasis has been reported. Currently liposomal amphotericin B is being used instead of antimony for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in children in France. In addition to being well tolerated, liposomal amphotericin B is almost 100% effective. It can be administered in six intravenous injections of 3-4 mg/kg each (days 1 to 5 then day 10). A two-day protocol (10 mg/kg/d) that would reduce overall cost by shortening the duration of hospitalization is now being studied. Another oral drug, i.e., miltefosine, has been successfully used for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India. However it has not been evaluated for treatment of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:17506279

  16. Entomological and ecological studies in a new potential zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in Torres Novas municipality, Central Region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Branco, S; Alves-Pires, C; Maia, C; Cortes, S; Cristovão, J M S; Gonçalves, L; Campino, L; Afonso, M O

    2013-03-01

    In Portugal human and canine leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania infantum, and Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi are the proven vectors. Three main foci were identified in eighty's decade: Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro region, Lisbon region and Algarve region, but according to OnLeish observatory data, canine leishmaniasis cases have been reported from several other regions, for which sand fly species and their infection rates are unknown. This study is the first phlebotomine survey in Torres Novas municipality, Santarém District, Portugal. The main objectives were to identify the phlebotomine species, their bioecological aspects, Leishmania infection rate and the risk factors for the presence of phlebotomine species in the municipality. From June to November, 2010, 275 biotopes were surveyed with CDC light-traps. Captures covered the 17 parishes of the municipality and included domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic biotopes. Specimens were identified morphologically and females were used for molecular detection of Leishmania and bloodmeal identification. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to identify risk factors for phlebotomine presence. Nonparametric tests were used to compare densities of independent groups. A total of 1262 sand flies were captured and identified, and four species detected: P. perniciosus (73.69%), P. ariasi (8.16%), P. sergenti (6.58%) and Sergentomyia minuta (11.57%). In 71.4% localities at least one L. infantum proven vector species was present. Risk factors were identified as: high average temperatures and low relative humidities, sheltered locations and absence of strong wind, presence of pine trees as dominant vegetation, peridomestic biotopes, particularly sheep pens or proximity of sheep, poultry and house martin nests. L. infantum infection rate was 4% for P. ariasi and 0.48% for the total of Larroussius females. P. perniciosus females exhibited an opportunistic behavior, feeding in a wide variety of vertebrate hosts. The high abundance and distribution of proven vector species, together with a canine leishmaniasis seroprevalence of 7.93% in the District, and the capture of a gravid infective sand fly female, suggests that Torres Novas municipality is a potential zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in the country. PMID:23262215

  17. Molecular Epidemiology for Vector Research on Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by the genus Leishmania transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies. Surveillance of the prevalence of Leishmania and responsive vector species in endemic and surrounding areas is important for predicting the risk and expansion of the disease. Molecular biological methods are now widely applied to epidemiological studies of infectious diseases including leishmaniasis. These techniques are used to detect natural infections of sand fly vectors with Leishmania protozoa and are becoming powerful tools due to their sensitivity and specificity. Recently, genetic analyses have been performed on sand fly species and genotyping using PCR-RFLP has been applied to the sand fly taxonomy. In addition, a molecular mass screening method has been established that enables both sand fly species and natural leishmanial infections to be identified simultaneously in hundreds of sand flies with limited effort. This paper reviews recent advances in the study of sand flies, vectors of leishmaniasis, using molecular biological approaches. PMID:20617005

  18. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in coexistence with leprosy.

    PubMed

    Patrao, Ninon A R; Bhat, Ramesh M; Dandekeri, Sukumar; Kambil, Srinath M

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis and leprosy are diseases both caused by intracellular pathogens that represent a major health predicament even today. Both these diseases have some characteristics in common, such as the involvement of mucocutaneous tissue, a course with a chronic granulomatous response, a broad clinical spectrum in relation to the host's immunity, and they often affect the poor population in tropical countries. Co-infection of the two diseases, although known to occur, is rarely encountered and reported. Even though new cases of leprosy are diagnosed in the region of coastal Karnataka of India, cutaneous leishmaniasis is rarely reported. We hereby describe a patient who presented with concurrent leprosy and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:26266674

  19. Immunity to visceral leishmaniasis: implications for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Khadem, Forough; Uzonna, Jude E

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania donovani, L. infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi), is a globally widespread disease with a burden of about 400,000 new infections reported annually. It is the most dangerous form of human leishmaniasis in terms of mortality and morbidity and is spreading to several nonendemic areas because of migration, global traveling and military conflicts. The emergence of Leishmania-HIV co-infection and increased prevalence of drug-resistant strains have worsened the impact of the disease. The traditional low-cost drugs are often toxic with several adverse effects, highlighting the need for development of new therapeutic and prophylactic strategies. Therefore, a detailed understanding of mechanisms of protective immunity is extremely important in order to develop new therapeutics in the form of vaccines or immunotherapies. This review gives an overview of visceral leishmaniasis, with particular emphasis on the innate and adaptive immune responses, vaccine and vaccination strategies and their potentials for immunotherapy against the disease. PMID:25156379

  20. Improvement in clinical signs and cellular immunity of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis using the immunomodulator P-MAPA.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Maria Emília B; Neto, Luiz Silveira; Alexandre, Eduardo Costa; Munari, Danísio Prado; Andrade, Mariana Macedo C; Somenzari, Marcos Arruda; Ciarlini, Paulo César; de Lima, V M F

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the immunotherapeutic potential of the protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride immuno-modulator (P-MAPA) on canine visceral leishmaniasis. Twenty mongrel dogs presenting clinical symptoms compatible with leishmaniasis and diagnosis confirmed by the detection of anti-leishmania antibodies were studied. Ten dogs received 15 doses of the immunomodulator (2.0 mg/kg) intramuscularly, and 10 received saline as a placebo. Skin and peripheral blood samples were collected following administration of the immunomodulator. The groups were followed to observe for clinical signals of remission; parasite load in the skin biopsies using real-time PCR, the cytokines IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-? in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated in vitro with either total promastigote antigen or phytohemagglutinin measured by capture ELISA, and changes in CD4? and CD8? T cell subpopulations evaluated by flow cytometry. Comparison between the groups showed that treatment with the immunomodulator promoted improvement in clinical signs and a significant reduction in parasite load in the skin. In peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures, supernatants showed a decrease in IL-10 levels and an increase in IL-2 and IFN-?. An increase in CD8? T cells was observed in peripheral blood. In addition, the in vitro leishmanicidal action of P-MAPA was investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and no leishmanicidal activity was detected. These findings suggest that P-MAPA has potential as an immunotherapeutic drug in canine visceral leishmaniasis, since it assists in reestablishing partial immunocompetence of infected dogs. PMID:23639468

  1. Investigational Drugs for Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The armamentarium of antileishmanials is small. It is further being threatened by development of resistance and decreasing sensitivity to the available drugs. Development of newer drugs are sorely needed. Areas covered Literature search on investigational drugs for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was done on PubMed. Those candidates with at least in vitro and in vivo activity against leishmania species causing VL were reviewed. Among the investigational drugs the nitroimidazole compound fexinidazole is the one of the few drugs which has reached phase II trials. Although the (S)-PA-824 is in phase II trials for the treatment of tuberculosis its R enantiomer has shown good antileishmanial activity. Development of sitamaquin, which has completed phase II studies has been stopped for VL due to its low efficacy. Many novel delivery system and oral formulations of Amphotericin B which are cheap and less toxic are in investigational stages, and will go a long way in improving the treatment of VL. Expert opinion Very few new drugs have reached the clinical stage in the treatment of this neglected tropical disease. Thus, there is an urgent need for support from public private partnerships to ensure that drug candidates are promptly taken forward into development. PMID:25409760

  2. Cytokine profile and pathology in human leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-de-Jesus, A; Almeida, R P; Lessa, H; Bacellar, O; Carvalho, E M

    1998-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis and control of the infection are influenced by the parasite-host relationship. The role of cellular immune responses of the Th1 type in the protection against disease in experimental and human leishmaniasis is well established. In humans, production of IFN-gamma is associated with the control of infection in children infected by Leishmania chagasi. In visceral leishmaniasis, an impairment in IFN-gamma production and high IL-4 and IL-10 levels (Th2 cytokines) are observed in antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Moreover, IL-12 restores IFN-gamma production and enhances the cytotoxic response. IL-10 is the cytokine involved in down-regulation of IFN-gamma production, since anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody (mAb) restores in vitro IFN-gamma production and lymphoproliferative responses, and IL-10 abrogates the effect of IL-12. In cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis, high levels of IFN-gamma are found in L. amazonensis-stimulated PBMC. However, low or absent IFN-gamma levels were observed in antigen-stimulated PBMC from 50% of subjects with less than 60 days of disease (24 +/- 26 pg/ml). This response was restored by IL-12 (308 +/- 342 pg/ml) and anti-IL-10 mAb (380 +/- 245 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). Later during the disease, high levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha are produced both in cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis. After treatment there is a decrease in TNF-alpha levels (366 +/- 224 pg/ml before treatment vs 142 +/- 107 pg/ml after treatment, P = 0.02). Although production of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha might be involved in the control of parasite multiplication in the early phases of Leishmania infection, these cytokines might also be involved in the tissue damage seen in tegumentary leishmaniasis. PMID:9686192

  3. Canine parvovirus: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs-the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with high morbidity (100%) and frequent mortality up to 10% in adult dogs and 91% in pups. The disease condition has been complicated further due to emergence of a number of variants namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c over the years and involvement of domestic and wild canines. There are a number of different serological and molecular tests available for prompt, specific and accurate diagnosis of the disease. Further, both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are available to control the disease in animals. Besides, new generation vaccines namely recombinant vaccine, peptide vaccine and DNA vaccine are in different stages of development and offer hope for better management of the disease in canines. However, new generation vaccines have not been issued license to be used in the field condition. Again, the presence of maternal antibodies often interferes with the active immunization with live attenuated vaccine and there always exists a window of susceptibility in spite of following proper immunization regimen. Lastly, judicious use of the vaccines in pet dogs, stray dogs and wild canids keeping in mind the new variants of the CPV-2 along with the proper sanitation and disinfection practices must be implemented for the successful control the disease. PMID:23637476

  4. The Biology and Control of Leishmaniasis Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Claborn, David M

    2010-01-01

    Vector control remains a key component of many anti-leishmaniasis programs and probably will remain so until an effective vaccine becomes available. Technologies similar to those used for control of adult mosquitoes, specifically interior residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets, are currently at the forefront as disease control measures. This article provides a review of literature on the biology and control of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the context of changing disease risks and the realities of modern vector control. The Literature Retrieval System of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Washington, DC, was the primary search engine used to review the literature. PMID:20606968

  5. Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: rationale and concerns related to reservoir control

    PubMed Central

    Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

    2014-01-01

    The control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is a challenge, particularly in Brazil, where the disease has been gradually spreading across the country over the past 30 years. Strategies employed for decreasing the transmission risk are based on the control of vector populations and reservoirs; since humans are considered unnecessary for the maintenance of transmission. Among the adopted strategies in Brazil, the sacrifice of infected dogs is commonly performed and has been the most controversial measure. In the present study, we provide the rationale for the implementation of different control strategies targeted at reservoir populations and highlight the limitations and concerns associated with each of these strategies. PMID:25372177

  6. Cryopreservation of canine embryos.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yasuyuki; Suwa, Yoshinori; Asano, Tomoyoshi; Ueta, Yoshiko Yanagimoto; Kobayashi, Nanae; Ohshima, Natsumi; Shirasuna, Saori; Abdel-Ghani, Mohammed Ali; Oi, Maya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Miyoshi, Masafumi; Miyahara, Kazuro; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    The assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) such as in vitro fertilization, embryo transfer, and cryopreservation of gametes have contributed considerably to the development of biomedical sciences in addition to improving infertility treatments in humans as well as the breeding of domestic animals. However, ARTs used in canine species have strictly limited utility when compared with other mammalian species, including humans. Although successful somatic cell cloning has been reported, artificial insemination by frozen semen to date is only available for the improved breeding and reproduction for companion and working dogs as well as guide dogs for the blind. We describe here the successful cryopreservation of embryos and subsequent embryo transfer in dogs. Canine embryos were collected from excised reproductive organs after artificial insemination and subsequently cryopreserved by a vitrification method. When the 4-cell to morula stage of cryopreserved embryos were nonsurgically transferred into the uteri of nine recipient bitches using a cystoscope, five recipients became pregnant and four of them delivered a total of seven pups. The cryopreservation of embryos in canine species will facilitate the transportation and storage of genetic materials and will aid in the elimination of vertically transmitted diseases in dogs. In addition, this technique will contribute to the improved breeding of companion and working dogs such as guide dogs, drug-detecting dogs, and quarantine dogs. PMID:20926804

  7. Visceral leishmaniasis with concomittant post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis responds to oral sitamaquine: case report.

    PubMed

    Mbui, J; Rashid, R; Lodenyo, H; Nyakundi, P; Kipmutai, R; Mutuma, G; Kirigi, G; Kinoti, D; Wasunna, M

    2003-08-01

    We report a rare case of visceral leishmanisis with concomitant post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis as the initial presentation in a female patient from Baringo district, Rift valley province, Kenya. PMID:14601788

  8. Visceral leishmaniasis in an infant following a holiday trip to Spain.

    PubMed

    Trück, Johannes; Rampton, Charlotte; Kelly, Susan Jane; Kelly, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Imported leishmaniasis is rare in non-endemic countries such as the UK. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) can be life-threatening and its recognition is imperative for successful clinical management. We present a case of VL in an 11-month-old infant several months after returning from a 1-week holiday trip to the South of Spain. The infant suffered from intermittent fever for 5?weeks, and hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia, and was successfully treated with a short course of liposomal amphotericin B. This case of VL is to highlight the possibility of transmission of unusual pathogens when travelling to the Mediterranean and therefore the importance of taking a detailed travel history. VL should be considered in the differential diagnosis in returning travellers presenting with prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly and/or pancytopenia. PMID:25920739

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TANURE, Aline; PEIXOTO, Jennifer Cunha; AFONSO, Margarete Martins dos Santos; DUARTE, Rosemere; PINHEIRO, Aimara da Costa; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:26422156

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Tanure, Aline; Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Duarte, Rosemere; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Coelho, Suedali Villas Bôas; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis(82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii(17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:26422156

  11. Canine Gastric Pathology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Amorim, I; Taulescu, M A; Day, M J; Catoi, C; Reis, C A; Carneiro, F; Gärtner, F

    2016-01-01

    Gastric disorders are common in dogs and are a major reason for veterinary consultation. In human medicine, the classification of gastric diseases based on histological features, genotypes and molecular phenotypes helps to better understand the characteristics of each subtype, and to improve early diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Canine gastric lesions often show strong histological similarities to their human counterparts. However, such conditions in the canine stomach are poorly studied and their cellular and molecular features are largely unknown. This article reviews the histopathological classification of inflammatory and neoplastic lesions of the canine stomach and provides an update on the application of molecular techniques within the field of canine gastric pathology. The canine disorders are compared with current knowledge of the equivalent human diseases. PMID:26774560

  12. Serological and infection statuses of dogs from a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Laranjeira, Daniela Farias; da Matta, Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro; Tomokane, Thaíse Yumie; Marcondes, Mary; Corbet, Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study investigated the serological status of dogs living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area and its correlation with the parasitological condition of the animals. METHODS Canine humoral response was evaluated using the sera of 134 dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry to detect parasites in the skin, lymph node, and spleen of the animals. The specific antibodies investigated were IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgE. RESULTS According to the parasitological, laboratory, and clinical findings, the dogs were placed into one of four groups: asymptomatic with (AP+, n = 21) or without (AP-, n = 36) Leishmania tissue parasitism and symptomatic with (SP+, n = 52) or without (SP-, n = 25) parasitism. Higher IgG and IgE levels were positively correlated with the infection condition and parasite load, but not with the clinical status. In all groups, total IgG was the predominant antibody, which occurred at the expense of IgG2 instead of IgG1. Most of the infected dogs tested positive for IgG (SP+, 98.1%; AP+, 95.2%), whereas this was not observed with IgE (SP+, 80.8%; AP+, 71.2%). The most relevant finding was the high positivity of the uninfected dogs for Leishmania-specific IgG (SP-, 60.0%; AP-, 44.4%), IgE (SP-, 44.0%; AP-, 27.8%), IgG1 (SP-, 28.0%; AP-, 22.2%), and IgG2 antibodies (SP-, 56.0%; AP-, 41.7%). CONCLUSIONS The serological status of dogs, as determined by any class or subclass of antibodies, did not accurately distinguish dogs infected with L. (L.) infantum chagasi from uninfected animals. The inaccuracy of the serological result may impair not only the diagnosis, but also epidemiological investigations and strategies for visceral leishmaniasis control. This complex serological scenario occurring in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area highlights the challenges associated with canine diagnosis and points out the difficulties experienced by veterinary clinicians and coordinators of control programs. PMID:25210815

  13. Ecoepidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak, Israel.

    PubMed

    Singer, Shepherd Roee; Abramson, Nitsa; Shoob, Hanna; Zaken, Ora; Zentner, Gary; Stein-Zamir, Chen

    2008-09-01

    A total of 161 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica occurred in the Jerusalem district during 2004-2005; 127 (79%) cases were in a town just outside Jerusalem. Environmental models suggest that in the context of global warming, this outbreak has the potential to extend into Jerusalem. PMID:18760010

  14. New approaches from nanomedicine for treating leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Víctor; Seabra, Amedea B; Reguera, Rosa M; Khandare, Jayant; Calderón, Marcelo

    2015-12-22

    Leishmaniasis, a vector-borne disease caused by obligate intramacrophage protozoa, threatens 350 million people in 98 countries around the world. There are already 12 million infected people worldwide and two million new cases occur annually. Leishmaniasis has three main clinical presentations: cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML), and visceral (VL). It is considered an opportunistic, infectious disease and the HIV-leishmaniasis correlation is well known. Antimonial compounds are used as first-line treatment drugs, but their toxicity, which can be extremely high, leads to a number of undesirable side effects and resultant failure of the patients to adhere to treatment. There is also a reported increase in Leishmania sp. resistance to these drugs. Nanotechnology has emerged as an attractive alternative because of its improved bioavailability and lower toxicity, and other characteristics that help to relieve the burden of this disease. In this review we will present some of the recent advances in the nanotechnological research regarding the treatment of leishmaniasis. The preclinical results regarding the approaches for a biomedical treatment of the disease have been encouraging, but further efforts will still be necessary for this therapy to have greater clinical applicability in humans. PMID:26487097

  15. Social and Economic Burden of Human Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2016-03-01

    Leishmaniasis continues to pose a major public health problem worldwide. With new epidemics occurring in endemic areas and the spread of the disease to previously free areas because of migration, tourism, and military activities, there is a great need for the development of an effective vaccine. Leishmaniasis is a disease of the poor, occurring mostly in remote rural villages with poor housing and little or no access to modern health-care facilities. In endemic areas, diagnosis of any form of leishmaniasis puts a huge financial strain on an already meagre financial resource at both the individual and community levels. Most often families need to sell their assets (land and livestock) or take loans from informal financial outfits with heavy interest rates to pay for the diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis. Here, we discuss the disease with special emphasis on its socioeconomic impact on the affected individual and community. In addition, we highlight the reasons why continued research aimed at developing an effective Leishmania vaccine is necessary. PMID:26787156

  16. Ocular Leishmaniasis Treated by Intralesional Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Nikandish, Malihe; Goyonlo, Vahid Mashayekhi; Taheri, Ahmad Reza; Kiafar, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases with varied clinical manifestations. Ocular involvement is an unusual presentation of leishmaniasis, and the eyelid is not a common site of cutaneous lesions, likely due to the mobility of the lids. Some case reports of conjunctival involvement are either a contiguous dissemination from lid margin or in the setting of disseminated leishmaniasis in an immunocompromised host. To our knowledge, isolated involvement of the bulbar conjunctiva has not been reported. We present the first case in the literature of a patient with an erythematous fibrovascular lesion in the interpalpebral zone that was clinically diagnosed as pterygium, but recurred at the site of surgical excision. After histopathologic diagnosis, the lesion was treated with intralesional injection of amphotericin B and improved completely within a few weeks. An accurate diagnosis of leishmaniasis in the eye may be challenging in many clinical settings. To our knowledge, an isolated pterygium.like lesion has not been reported in literature. In addition, intralesional injection of amphotericin B is a novel treatment method in this setting.

  17. Recent updates and perspectives on leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Dianella

    2015-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector-borne tropical infection considered to be a disease of the poor. Concentrated in poverty-stricken countries within Southeast Asia, East Africa, and Latin America, it is also endemic in several Mediterranean countries. The management of the heterogeneous syndromes determined by parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania is particularly difficult in developed, non-endemic countries owing to the unfamiliarity of physicians with clinical symptoms, diagnostic possibilities, and available treatment options. Therefore, travelers and other people who may be exposed to sand flies in endemic areas should receive counseling regarding leishmaniasis and appropriate protective measures. Serological diagnosis is rarely used for cutaneous and mucocutaneous diseases, but it is the most commonly used technique for visceral leishmaniasis. The drugs used to treat this last disease are expensive and sometimes have toxic side effects. This review highlights the diagnostic, chemotherapeutic, and immunizing strategies to control leishmaniasis, though no human vaccine is commercially available currently owing to the complexity of the cellular immune response to this parasite. PMID:26142667

  18. Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sundar, S

    2001-11-01

    Throughout the world, pentavalent antimonial compounds (Sb(v)) have been the mainstay of antileishmanial therapy for more than 50 years. Sb(v) has been highly effective in the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL: kala-azar) at a low dose (10 mg/kg) for short durations (6-10 days). But in the early 1980s reports of its ineffectiveness emerged, and the dose of Sb(v) was eventually raised to 20 mg/kg for 30-40 days. This regimen cures most patients with VL except in India, where the proportion of patients unresponsive to Sb(v) has steadily increased. In hyperendemic districts of north Bihar, 50-65% patients fail treatment with Sb(v). Important reasons are rampant use of subtherapeutic doses, incomplete duration of treatment and substandard drugs. In vitro experiments have established emergence of Sb(v) resistant strains of Leishmania donovani, as isolates from unresponsive patients require 3-5 times more Sb(v) to reach similarly effectiveness against the parasite as in Sb(v) responders. Anthroponotic transmission in India has been an important factor in rapid increase in the Sb(v) refractoriness. Pentamidine was the first drug to be used and cured 99% of these refractory patients, but over time even with double the amount of initial doses, it cures only 69-78% patients now and its use has largely been abandoned in India. Despite several disadvantages, amphotericin B is the only drug available for use in these areas and should be used as first-line drug instead of Sb(v). The new oral antileishmanial drug miltefosine is likely to be the first-line drug in future. Unfortunately, development of newer antileishmanial drugs is rare; two promising drugs, aminosidine and sitamaquine, may be developed for use in the treatment of VL. Lipid associated amphotericin B has an excellent safety and efficacy profile, but remains out of reach for most patients because of its high cost. PMID:11703838

  19. Canine mast cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Macy, D W

    1985-07-01

    Despite the fact that the mast cell tumor is a common neoplasm of the dog, we still have only a meager understanding of its etiology and biologic behavior. Many of the published recommendations for treatment are based on opinion rather than facts derived from careful studies and should be viewed with some skepticism. Because of the infrequent occurrence of this tumor in man, only a limited amount of help can be expected from human oncologists; therefore, burden of responsibility for progress in predicting behavior and developing treatment effective for canine mast cell tumors must fall on the shoulders of the veterinary profession. PMID:3929444

  20. Canine paroxysmal movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Urkasemsin, Ganokon; Olby, Natasha J

    2014-11-01

    Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders characterized by muscle hypertonicity that can produce involuntary movements. Signs emanate from the central nervous system; consciousness is not impaired, ictal electroencephalography is normal, and there are no autonomic signs, distinguishing them from seizure disorders. In humans they are classified into 3 groups, each responding to different therapies. A mutation in the gene for brevican (BCAN) has been identified as the cause of Episodic Falling in Cavalier King Charles spaniels. Further elucidation of the genetic causes will enhance our ability to identify and treat these canine diseases. PMID:25441627

  1. Absence of canine papillomavirus sequences in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Sardon, D; Blundell, R; Burrai, G P; Alberti, A; Tore, G; Passino, E Sanna; Antuofermo, E

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (PVs) are found in human breast cancer tissue; however, it remains controversial as to whether these viruses play a role in the aetiology of this tumour. There has been minimal study of whether PVs are found in normal or abnormal mammary glands of animals. The present study investigated whether a PV sequence could be found in the mammary glands of 33 female dogs by rolling circle amplification and polymerase chain reaction. No PV DNA was found in normal or neoplastic canine mammary tissues, suggesting that canine PVs are probably not involved in the pathogenesis of canine mammary neoplasia. PMID:25435511

  2. Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in Cape Verde archipelago. Results To provide information regarding the health status of the canine population in Vila do Maio, Maio Island, Cape Verde, 53 rectal swabs were collected from 53 stray dogs during 2010 and 93 rectal swabs and 88 blood samples were collected from 125 stray dogs in 2011. All rectal swabs (2010 n = 53; 2011 n = 93) were analysed for the presence of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus nucleic acids by quantitative PCR methods. Specific antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were also assessed (2011 n = 88). From the 2010 sampling, 43.3% (23/53) were positive for canine parvovirus DNA, 11.3% (6/53) for canine distemper virus RNA and 1.9% (1/53) for canine coronavirus RNA. In 2011, the prevalence values for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus were quite similar to those from the previous year, respectively 44.1% (41/93), and 1.1% (1/93), but canine distemper virus was not detected in any of the samples analysed (0%, 0/93). Antibodies against canine parvovirus were detected in 71.6% (63/88) blood samples and the seroprevalence found for canine distemper virus was 51.1% (45/88). Conclusions This study discloses the data obtained in a molecular and serological epidemiological surveillance carried out in urban populations of stray and domestic animals. Virus transmission and spreading occurs easily in large dog populations leading to high mortality rates particularly in unvaccinated susceptible animals. In addition, these animals can act as disease reservoirs for wild animal populations by occasional contact. Identification of susceptible wildlife of Maio Island is of upmost importance to evaluate the risk of pathogen spill over from domestic to wild animals in Cape Verde and to evaluate the associated threat to the wild susceptible species. PMID:24755118

  3. Caseating Granulomas in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Jessica; Habib, Robert; Charaffeddine, Khalil; Taraif, Suad; Loya, Asif; Khalifeh, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background Caseating granulomas are often associated with a mycobacterial infection (TB) and are thought to be exceedingly rare in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, no large series has accurately documented the incidence of caseating granulomas in CL. Methods A multiregional cohort consisting of 317 patients with CL [Syria (157), Pakistan (66), Lebanon (47), Saudi Arabia (43), Ethiopia (2) and Iran (2)] was reviewed. Clinical [age, sex, disease duration, lesion type and geographic and anatomic location] and microscopic data [presence of and type of granuloma, Ridley's parasitic index (PI) and pattern (RP)] were documented. Presence of microorganisms was evaluated using special stains (GMS, PAS, AFB and Gram) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for TB and CL. All cases included in this study were confirmed as CL by PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for molecular speciation and were negative for other organisms by all other studies performed. Categorical and continuous factors were compared for granuloma types using Chi-square, t-test or Mann-Whitney test as appropriate. Results Granulomas were identified in 195 (61.5%) cases of CL and these were divided to 49 caseating (25.2%), 9 suppurative (4.6%) and 137 tuberculoid without necrosis (70.2%). Caseating and tuberculoid granuloma groups were significantly different in terms of the geographical source, with more cases harboring caseating granulomas in Saudi Arabia (p<0.0001). Histologically, both groups were also different in the distribution of their RP (p<0.0001) with a doubling RP3 in caseating granulomas (31% vs. 15%) as opposed to doubling of RP5 in tuberculoid granuloma group (38% vs. 19%). Time needed to achieve healing (RP5) was notably shorter in tuberculoid vs. caseating group (4.0 vs. 6.2 months). Parasitic Index, CL species and other considered variables did not differ for the granuloma type groups. Conclusion In our multiregional large cohort, a notable 18.2% of all CL cases harbored caseating granulomas therefore; CL should be considered part of the differential diagnosis for cases with caseating granulomas in endemic regions, especially considering that the regions included in our cohort are also endemic for TB. Of note, cases of CL with caseating granulomas also showed a slower healing process, with no association with specific species, which may be due to worse host immune response in such cases or to a more aggressive leishmania strains. PMID:25340702

  4. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women. PMID:12852237

  5. Severe Clinical Presentation of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Naturally Infected Dogs with Disruption of the Splenic White Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Isadora S.; Silva, Joselli S.; Almeida, Valter A.; Junior, Floriano G. Leal.; Souza, Patrício AN.; Larangeira, Daniela F.; Moura-Neto, José P.; Fraga, Deborah BM.; de Freitas, Luiz A. R.; dos-Santos, Washington L.C.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the association between the disruption of splenic lymphoid tissue and the severity of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs. Clinical and laboratory data from 206 dogs were reviewed. Spleen sections collected during the euthanasia of these animals were analyzed, and the splenic lymphoid tissue samples were classified as well organized (spleen type 1), slightly disorganized (spleen type 2), or moderately to extensively disorganized (spleen type 3). Of 199 dogs with evidence of Leishmania infection, 54 (27%) had spleen type 1, 99 (50%) had spleen type 2, and 46 (23%) had spleen type 3. The number of clinical signs associated with visceral leishmaniasis was significantly higher in the animals with evidence of Leishmania infection and spleen type 2 or 3 than in the animals with spleen type 1. Alopecia, anemia, dehydration, dermatitis, lymphadenopathy, and onychogryphosis were all more frequent among animals with evidence of Leishmania infection and spleen type 3 than among the dogs with evidence of Leishmania infection and spleen type 1. The association between the severity of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the disorganization of the splenic lymphoid tissue was even more evident in the group of animals with positive spleen culture. Conjunctivitis and ulceration were also more common in the animals with spleen type 3 than in the animals with spleen type 1. The serum levels (median, interquartile range) of albumin (1.8, 1.4–2.3 g/dL) and creatinine (0.7, 0.4–0.8 mg/dL) were significantly lower and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase were significantly higher (57, 39–95 U) in animals with spleen type 3 than in animals with spleen type 1 (2.8, 2.4–3.4 g/dL; 0.9, 0.7–1.2 mg/dL and 23, 20–32 U, respectively). Our data confirm the hypothesis that disruption of the splenic lymphoid tissue is associated with a more severe clinical presentation of canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:24498367

  6. Modular multiantigen T cell epitope-enriched DNA vaccine against human leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Das, Shantanabha; Freier, Anja; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Das, Sushmita; Oswald, Detlef; Losch, Florian O; Selka, Melanie; Sacerdoti-Sierra, Nina; Schönian, Gabriele; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Seifert, Karin; Schroff, Matthias; Juhls, Christiane; Jaffe, Charles L; Roy, Syamal; Das, Pradeep; Louzir, Hechmi; Croft, Simon L; Modabber, Farrokh; Walden, Peter

    2014-04-30

    The leishmaniases are protozoal diseases that severely affect large populations in tropical and subtropical regions. There are only limited treatment options and preventative measures. Vaccines will be important for prevention, control and elimination of leishmaniasis, and could reduce the transmission and burden of disease in endemic populations. We report the development of a DNA vaccine against leishmaniasis that induced T cell-based immunity and is a candidate for clinical trials. The vaccine antigens were selected as conserved in various Leishmania species, different endemic regions, and over time. They were tested with T cells from individuals cured of leishmaniasis, and shown to be immunogenic and to induce CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses in genetically diverse human populations of different endemic regions. The vaccine proved protective in a rodent model of infection. Thus, the immunogenicity of candidate vaccine antigens in human populations of endemic regions, as well as proof of principle for induction of specific immune responses and protection against Leishmania infection in mice, provides a viable strategy for T cell vaccine development. PMID:24786324

  7. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Sand Flies in Punjab, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Ayesha; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Qadir, Abdul; Sabir, Arshad Makhdoom

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis make the disease a public health concern in Punjab, Pakistan. The knowledge of how the population perceives the disease and its vector is essential in order to design an effective management strategy, but such studies are rare in Pakistan. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study was based on a cross-sectional self-administered survey comprising 250 household samples collected from five localities including Bhawalpur, Multan, Jhang, Faisalabad and Lahore. The results revealed that the respondents had a poor knowledge of the vector and disease. Few of the respondents were aware about the identification of sand flies, their breeding place, biting time, transmission of leishmaniasis and control measures. Skin infection and sandflies as the main disease symptom and vector of the disease, respectively, were known to some of the respondents. Some believed that summer was the main peak incidence of the disease and it could be transmitted from man to man via contact. However, most of the respondents believed that the disease could be cured. Admission to hospitals, cleanliness and use of bed nets were the treatment measures for the disease in suspected patients, whereas some thought that the use of bed nets could be helpful in preventing leishmaniasis infection. Conclusions/Significance Poor knowledge of the disease and its vector in the study population emphasize the need to initiate health education and awareness campaigns to minimize the risks of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future. PMID:26090870

  8. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando José

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail) are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106) of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease. PMID:24553602

  9. Leishmaniasis and Climate Change—Case Study: Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Mastrángelo, Andrea Verónica; Fernández, María Soledad

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases closely associated with the environment, such as leishmaniases, have been a usual argument about the deleterious impact of climate change on public health. From the biological point of view interaction of different variables has different and even conflicting effects on the survival of vectors and the probability transmission of pathogens. The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. These studies showed that the changes in transmission due to change or increase in frequency and intensity of climatic instability were expressed through changes in the probability of vector-human reservoir effective contacts. These changes of contact in turn are modulated by both direct effects on the biology and ecology of the organisms involved, as by perceptions and changes in the behavior of the human communities at risk. Therefore, from the perspective of public health and state policy, and taking into account the current nonlinear increased velocity of climate change, we concluded that discussing the uncertainties of large-scale models will have lower impact than to develop-validate mitigation strategies to be operative at local level, and compatibles with sustainable development, conservation biodiversity, and respect for cultural diversity. PMID:22685477

  10. Multi-modal Analysis of Courtship Behaviour in the Old World Leishmaniasis Vector Phlebotomus argentipes

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Daniel P.; Yaman, Khatijah; Underhilll, Beryl A.; Mitchell, Fraser; Carter, Victoria; Hamilton, James G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes is arguably the most important vector of leishmaniasis worldwide. As there is no vaccine against the parasites that cause leishmaniasis, disease prevention focuses on control of the insect vector. Understanding reproductive behaviour will be essential to controlling populations of P. argentipes, and developing new strategies for reducing leishmaniasis transmission. Through statistical analysis of male-female interactions, this study provides a detailed description of P. argentipes courtship, and behaviours critical to mating success are highlighted. The potential for a role of cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship is also investigated, by comparing chemicals extracted from the surface of male and female flies. Principal Findings P. argentipes courtship shared many similarities with that of both Phlebotomus papatasi and the New World leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. Male wing-flapping while approaching the female during courtship predicted mating success, and touching between males and females was a common and frequent occurrence. Both sexes were able to reject a potential partner. Significant differences were found in the profile of chemicals extracted from the surface of males and females. Results of GC analysis indicate that female extracts contained a number of peaks with relatively short retention times not present in males. Extracts from males had higher peaks for chemicals with relatively long retention times. Conclusions The importance of male approach flapping suggests that production of audio signals through wing beating, or dispersal of sex pheromones, are important to mating in this species. Frequent touching as a means of communication, and the differences in the chemical profiles extracted from males and females, may also indicate a role for cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship. Comparing characteristics of successful and unsuccessful mates could aid in identifying the modality of signals involved in P. argentipes courtship, and their potential for use in developing new strategies for vector control. PMID:25474027

  11. Promoting canine health at Crufts.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The Canine Health Schemes, run by BVA in partnership with the Kennel Club, were promoted at this year's Crufts, which was held at the NEC, Birmingham, last month. Tim Keen, BVA marketing manager, reports. PMID:27034308

  12. [Description of 173 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Belazzoug, S; Belkaid, M; Tabet-Derraz, O

    The authors present 173 cases of cutaneous Leishmaniasis observed in the Biskra area. Sidi Okba is the biggest focus of this disease which mainly affects children from 1 to 5 years. Lesions are dry and often multiple (2 or 3). The authors have observed that 73% of girls are affected on the face and point out the aesthetic damage caused by the oriental sore. PMID:262965

  13. First report of Warileya rotundipennis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Mabel; Ferro, Cristina; Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Rubiano, Luisa; Delgado, Marcela; Cossio, Alexandra; Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Ocampo, Clara; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2015-08-01

    The expansion of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis from sylvatic ecosystems into peri-urban and domestic settings has occurred as sand flies have adapted to anthropogenic environmental modifications. Assessment of the intradomiciliary presence of sand flies in households of the settlement "La Cabaña", in the Department of Risaralda, Colombia, revealed an abundance of Warileya rotundipennis. This unexpected observation motivated further analyses to evaluate the participation of this species in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collections using CDC light traps were conducted during two consecutive nights in May and August 2011.The total of 667 sand flies collected were classified into five species: W. rotundipennis (n=654; 98.05%), Nyssomyia trapidoi (n=7; 1.04%); Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (n=3; 0.44%); Lutzomyia lichyi (n=2; 0.29%) and Psychodopygus panamensis (n=1; 0.14%). The striking predominance of W. rotundipennis within households during both wet (May) and dry (August) seasons, anthropophilic behavior demonstrated by human blood in 95.23% (60/63) evaluable blood-engorged specimens, and natural infection (5/168-3%) with genetically similar parasites of the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus observed in a patient in this community, support the involvement of W. rotundipennis in the domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in "La Cabaña". PMID:25917717

  14. First report of Warileya rotundipennis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Mabel; Ferro, Cristina; Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Rubiano, Luisa; Delgado, Marcela; Cossio, Alexandra; Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Ocampo, Clara; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis from sylvatic ecosystems into peri-urban and domestic settings has occurred as sand flies have adapted to anthropogenic environmental modifications. Assessment of the intradomiciliary presence of sand flies in households of the settlement “La Cabaña”, in the Department of Risaralda, Colombia, revealed an abundance of Warileya rotundipennis. This unexpected observation motivated further analyses to evaluate the participation of this species in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collections using CDC light traps were conducted during two consecutive nights in May and August 2011. The total of 667 sand flies collected were classified into five species: W. rotundipennis (n = 654; 98.05%), Nyssomyia trapidoi (n = 7; 1.04%); Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (n = 3; 0.44%); Lutzomyia lichyi (n = 2; 0.29%) and Psychodopygus panamensis (n = 1; 0.14%). The striking predominance of W. rotundipennis within households during both wet (May) and dry (August) seasons, anthropophilic behavior demonstrated by human blood in 95.23% (60/63) evaluable blood-engorged specimens, and natural infection (5/168–3%) with genetically similar parasites of the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus observed in a patient in this community, support the involvement of W. rotundipennis in the domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in “La Cabaña”. PMID:25917717

  15. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  16. [Hematologic abnormalities in infantile visceral leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Chouchene, S; Braham, N; Bouatay, A; Hizem, S; Berriri, S; Eljemai, A; Boughamoura, L; Kortas, M

    2015-11-01

    The clinical and biological manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis are often confusing, most particularly because it can mimic and lead to a variety of hematological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the hematologic abnormalities observed in infantile visceral leishmaniasis from January 2000 and December 2013. The study included 35 children with a mean age of 3.5 years. Clinical manifestations were dominated by splenomegaly, fever, and paleness, defining the classic triad in 16% of our patients. Anemia was present in all patients. Leukopenia was found in 51% of the cases. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 48% of our patients and 36% had pancytopenia. All cases were confirmed by the presence of Leishman bodies (amastigotes) in the bone marrow smears. Quantitative and qualitative megakaryocyte abnormalities were found. Similarly, dysgranulopoiesis was observed in 31% of the cases, eosinophilia was present in 6%, erythroid hypoplasia in 3%, and erythroid hyperplasia in 34%. Different features of dyserythropoiesis were revealed in 71% of the patients with images of hemophagocytosis in 6% and multiple dysplasias in 9%. The knowledge of these hematological abnormalities associated with infantile visceral leishmaniasis can assist us in searching for Leishman bodies in the bone marrow smears to provide a diagnosis more quickly without necessarily resorting to more sophisticated tests. PMID:26433577

  17. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  18. [Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Algeria. 3. Systematic screening of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Biskra area].

    PubMed

    Dedet, J P; Addadi, K

    1977-01-01

    In the Biskra area which is a historical focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, the authors have carried out a systematic survey of the disease among the school age population (age interval: 6-15 years of age). The incidence of the disease found through the detection of suspect cutaneous leishmaniasis scars rose to 32.4%. The incidence brought about by intradermal skin-testing (to Leishmanin) was 76.9%. The comparative value of the two systematic survey methods is discussed with reference to the situation of other endemic foci. PMID:555289

  19. Molecular detection of canine parvovirus in flies (Diptera) at open and closed canine facilities in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Clarence; Isdell, Allen E; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma S; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sanchez, Susan

    2014-06-01

    More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV. Molecular diagnostic methods were used in this cross-sectional study to detect the presence of CPV in flies trapped at thirty-eight canine facilities. The flies involved were identified as belonging to the house fly (Mucidae), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae) and blow/bottle fly (Calliphoridae) families. A primary surveillance location (PSL) was established at a canine facility in south-central South Carolina, USA, to identify fly-virus interaction within the canine facility environment. Flies trapped at this location were pooled monthly and assayed for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These insects were found to be positive for CPV every month from February through the end of November 2011. Fly vector behavior and seasonality were documented and potential environmental risk factors were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean numbers of each of the three fly families captured, and after determining fly CPV status (positive or negative), it was determined whether there were significant relationships between numbers of flies captured, seasonal numbers of CPV cases, temperature and rainfall. Flies were also sampled at thirty-seven additional canine facility surveillance locations (ASL) and at four non-canine animal industry locations serving as negative field controls. Canine facility risk factors were identified and evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted on the number of CPV cases reported within the past year to determine the correlation of fly CPV status (positive or negative) for each facility, facility design (open or closed), mean number of dogs present monthly and number of flies captured. Significant differences occurred between fly CPV positive vs. negative sites with regard to their CPV case numbers, fly numbers captured, and number of dogs present. At the ASL, a statistically significant relationship was found between PCR-determined fly CPV status (positive or negative) and facility design (open vs. closed). Open-facility designs were likely to have more CPV outbreaks and more likely to have flies testing positive for CPV DNA. PMID:24679715

  20. [Lutzomyia whitmani periurbanization in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Maranhão, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Leonardo, Francisco Santos; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário

    2004-01-01

    An entomological survey was performed in the periurban area of the municipality of Dom Pedro in the state of Maranhão in 2000, in order to estimate the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis, due to the occurrence of one suspect death caused by kala azar. However, it was surprisingly verified that 82.4% (2,440 specimens) from the total of 2,961 sand flies captured in the peridomicile were Lutzomyia whitmani. This association has indicated a new pattern for cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission (urban), as has been observed with regard to kala azar in the northeast of Brazil. PMID:15330071

  1. Bayesian Geostatistical Modeling of Leishmaniasis Incidence in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Scholte, Ronaldo G. C.; Guimarães, Luiz H.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries with an estimated 350 million people at risk and approximately 2 million cases annually. Brazil is one of the most severely affected countries. Methodology We applied Bayesian geostatistical negative binomial models to analyze reported incidence data of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil covering a 10-year period (2001–2010). Particular emphasis was placed on spatial and temporal patterns. The models were fitted using integrated nested Laplace approximations to perform fast approximate Bayesian inference. Bayesian variable selection was employed to determine the most important climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic predictors of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Principal Findings For both types of leishmaniasis, precipitation and socioeconomic proxies were identified as important risk factors. The predicted number of cases in 2010 were 30,189 (standard deviation [SD]: 7,676) for cutaneous leishmaniasis and 4,889 (SD: 288) for visceral leishmaniasis. Our risk maps predicted the highest numbers of infected people in the states of Minas Gerais and Pará for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Our spatially explicit, high-resolution incidence maps identified priority areas where leishmaniasis control efforts should be targeted with the ultimate goal to reduce disease incidence. PMID:23675545

  2. Rare variants of cutaneous leishmaniasis presenting as eczematous lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis may present with clinical presentation such as zosteriform, sporotrichoid and erysipeloid. The eczema variant has rarely been reported. We report a 27- year- old patient with atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling eczema on the hand of a man in Yazd province in the central of Iran. PMID:25405136

  3. Animal Models for the Analysis of Immune Responses to Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, David L.; Melby, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    This unit focuses on the murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis and models of visceral leishmaniasis in mice and hamsters. Each basic protocol describes the methods used to inoculate parasites and to evaluate infections with regard to lesion progression and visceralization, and quantification of parasite load. PMID:18432753

  4. Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon1

    PubMed Central

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H.; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar

    2014-01-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%. PMID:25279543

  5. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  6. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  7. Complexities of Assessing the Disease Burden Attributable to Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bern, Caryn; Maguire, James H.; Alvar, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Among parasitic diseases, morbidity and mortality caused by leishmaniasis are surpassed only by malaria and lymphatic filariasis. However, estimation of the leishmaniasis disease burden is challenging, due to clinical and epidemiological diversity, marked geographic clustering, and lack of reliable data on incidence, duration, and impact of the various disease syndromes. Non-health effects such as impoverishment, disfigurement, and stigma add to the burden, and introduce further complexities. Leishmaniasis occurs globally, but has disproportionate impact in the Horn of Africa, South Asia and Brazil (for visceral leishmaniasis), and Latin America, Central Asia, and southwestern Asia (for cutaneous leishmaniasis). Disease characteristics and challenges for control are reviewed for each of these foci. We recommend review of reliable secondary data sources and collection of baseline active survey data to improve current disease burden estimates, plus the improvement or establishment of effective surveillance systems to monitor the impact of control efforts. PMID:18958165

  8. Spatial distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in the Aydin Mountains and surroundings: the main focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozbel, Yusuf; Balcioğlu, I Cüneyt; Olgen, M Kirami; Simsek, Fatih M; Töz, Seray Özensoy; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Demir, Samiye; Alkan, M Ziya

    2011-03-01

    An entomological survey was conducted to determine the spatial distribution of phlebotomine fauna and understand the effect of environmental factors. The entomological survey was carried out during 2006-2007 in a study area in the rural area of Aydin province, near the Kusadasi town where VL, CL, and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) are endemic. In 2006 and 2007, 132 locations were sampled using sticky traps mainly on embankments. Detailed environmental and meteorological information was also collected for each location. The results of entomological studies indicated that the probable vectors are Phlebotomus tobbi and P. neglectus for VL and CanL, and P. similis for CL in this western leishmaniasis focus. The data revealed a correlation between their presence and spatial variables such as altitude, sampling site location, and humidity. The distribution areas of probable vector species in this study area allowed the identification of risk levels, which may provide useful information to guide the leishmaniasis research in endemic regions. PMID:21366787

  9. Presentation of AIDS with Disseminated Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Davarpanah, Mohammadali; Rassaei, Masumeh; Sari aslani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease in form of visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL), and mucocutaneous (MCL) leishmaniasis. Immunocompromised patients have increased risk of Leishmania infection, especially in endemic areas for visceral leishmaniasis, where in the world HIV/VL coinfection has become endemic. The case here suffers from both AIDS and visceral-cutaneous leishmaniasis. We report an Iranian woman with disseminated cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis who became positive for HIV test. PMID:26075117

  10. Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: Review of the Epidemiological and Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Mohebali, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening vector-borne parasitic disease is distributed in some parts of the new world and old world. The disease is endemic in different parts of Iran. This review article has been focused on major topics of epidemiological aspects and clinical features of VL in Iran for the period of 2002 through 2012. For the detection of VL in humans as well as animal reservoir hosts, anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using direct agglutination test (DAT) as a validated serological test. Parasitological examinations were performed on suspected VL patients as well as canines and rodents. Different molecular methods were used for identification of species and genotype/ or strain of Leishmania spp. isolated from infected humans, animal reservoir hosts and vectors. Altogether, 1698 out of 36081 (4.7%) human serum samples collected from 5 distinct geographical zones showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers ≥ 1:3200 using DAT. The majority of VL cases in the endemic areas were found among children up to 12 years old. Almost 75% of DAT-positive cases (≥1:3200) in endemic areas showed clinical signs and symptoms. Predominant signs and symptoms in 217 hospitalized patients with DAT positive (≥1:3200) results included paleness (99.5%), fever (96.9%), splenomegaly (91.5%), hepatomegaly (53.6%) and lymphadenopathy (21.1%). Integrated VL surveillance system in primary care using DAT, could decrease mortality and morbidity of the disease in the VL endemic areas of the northwestern Iran. Out of 7204 serum samples collected from domestic dogs in various geographical locations of Iran, 879 (12.2%) were DAT sero-positive at titers ≥ 1:320. L. infantum as the principal causative agent of the disease was isolated from infected humans, domestic and wild canines and rodents. The principal animal reservoir hosts of the infection are domestic and wild canines. Ph. kandelakii, Ph. perfiliewi transcaucasicus, Ph. tobbi in northwestern Iran; Ph. major s.l. (=Ph. neglectus), Ph. keshishiani, and Ph. alexandri in southern parts of Iran were molecularly and/or parasitologically positive for L. infantum infections. The zoonotic form of VL (ZVL) caused by L. infantum occurs sporadically in all geographical zones of Iran but in northwestern and southern parts of the country the disease is endemic. DAT as an appropriate and potential tool has been used for sero-diagnosis and sero-epidemiological of VL among humans as well as domestic and wild canines. PMID:24454426

  11. Canine filarial infections in Liguria, north-west Italy.

    PubMed

    Magi, M; Guardone, L; Mignone, W; Monni, G; Tozzini, G; Prati, M C; Macchioni, F

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study on the presence of various species of filarial nematodes in dogs in Liguria, north-west Italy, a region traditionally considered free from the disease. Between 2009 and 2012 blood samples were taken from 365 dogs in rural areas in Liguria. The blood samples were then submitted to Knott's test, histochemical staining, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Dirofilaria immitis antigens. Overall, 35 of the 365 dogs were positive using Knott's test for microfilariae (prevalence 9.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.6-12.6%). Acanthocheilonema reconditum was the most prevalent species (8.0%), while Dirofilaria repens (1.4%) and Dirofilaria immitis (0.6%) were less common. One co-infection by D. repens and A. reconditum was observed. All morphological identifications were confirmed by histochemical staining and PCR. In addition, a retrospective analysis of data on D. immitis antigens in 11,363 samples of canine sera was carried out. Sera were collected and analysed for D. immitis antigens by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale (IZS) of Piedmont, Liguria and Aosta Valley (Imperia section) between 2004 and 2013 during annual tests for leishmaniasis on autochthonous dogs throughout Liguria. Serological data from IZS showed an overall seroprevalence of 0.65% (95% CI: 0.50-0.80%) for D. immitis throughout the region. The present study updates the epidemiological map of canine filarial infections in Italy and suggests the need for surveillance and prophylaxis in Liguria. PMID:25758206

  12. PD-1-mediated T cell exhaustion during visceral leishmaniasis impairs phagocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Kevin J.; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Martinez, Pedro A.; Jones, Douglas E.; Petersen, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    Control of Leishmania infantum infection is dependent upon Th1 CD4+ T cells to promote macrophage intracellular clearance of parasites. Deficient CD4+ T cell effector responses during clinical visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are associated with elevated production of IL-10. In the primary domestic reservoir of VL, dogs, we define occurrence of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell exhaustion as a significant stepwise loss of antigen-specific proliferation and IFN? production, corresponding to increasing VL symptomatology. Exhaustion was associated with a fourfold increase in the population of T cells with surface expression of Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) between control and symptomatic populations. Importantly, exhausted populations of CD8+ T cells and to a lesser extent CD4+ T cells were present prior to onset of clinical VL. VL exhausted T cells did not undergo significant apoptosis ex vivo after antigen stimulation. Antibody block of PD-1 ligand, B7.H1, promoted return of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell function and dramatically increased reactive oxygen species production in co-cultured monocyte-derived phagocytes. As a result, these phagocytes had decreased parasite load. We demonstrate for the first time that pan-T cell, PD-1-mediated, exhaustion during VL influenced macrophage reactive oxygen intermediate production. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway improved the ability of phagocytes isolated from dogs presenting with clinical VL to clear intracellular parasites. T cell exhaustion during symptomatic canine leishmaniasis has implications for the response to vaccination and therapeutic strategies for control of Leishmania infantum in this important reservoir species. PMID:24154626

  13. Epitope Mapping of the HSP83.1 Protein of Leishmania braziliensis Discloses Novel Targets for Immunodiagnosis of Tegumentary and Visceral Clinical Forms of Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Gold standard serological diagnostic methods focus on antigens that elicit a strong humoral immune response that is specific to a certain pathogen. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify linear B-cell epitopes that are conserved among Leishmania species but are divergent from the host species Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris and from Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, to select potential targets for the immunodiagnosis of leishmaniasis. Using these criteria, we selected heat shock protein 83.1 of Leishmania braziliensis for this study. We predicted three linear B-cell epitopes in its sequence. These peptides and the recombinant heat shock protein 83.1 (rHSP83.1) were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) against serum samples from patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and from dogs infected with Leishmania infantum (canine VL [CVL]). Our data show that rHSP83.1 is a promising target in the diagnosis of TL. We also identified specific epitopes derived from HSP83.1 that can be used in the diagnosis of human TL (peptide 3), both human and canine VL (peptides 1 and 3), and all TL, VL, and CVL clinical manifestations (peptide 3). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves confirmed the superior performance of rHSP83.1 and peptides 1 and 3 compared to that of the soluble L. braziliensis antigen and the reference test kit for the diagnosis of CVL in Brazil (EIE-LVC kit; Bio-Manguinhos, Fiocruz). Our study thus provides proof-of-principle evidence of the feasibility of using bioinformatics to identify novel targets for the immunodiagnosis of parasitic diseases using proteins that are highly conserved throughout evolution. PMID:24807053

  14. Epitope mapping of the HSP83.1 protein of Leishmania braziliensis discloses novel targets for immunodiagnosis of tegumentary and visceral clinical forms of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira

    2014-07-01

    Gold standard serological diagnostic methods focus on antigens that elicit a strong humoral immune response that is specific to a certain pathogen. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify linear B-cell epitopes that are conserved among Leishmania species but are divergent from the host species Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris and from Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, to select potential targets for the immunodiagnosis of leishmaniasis. Using these criteria, we selected heat shock protein 83.1 of Leishmania braziliensis for this study. We predicted three linear B-cell epitopes in its sequence. These peptides and the recombinant heat shock protein 83.1 (rHSP83.1) were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) against serum samples from patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and from dogs infected with Leishmania infantum (canine VL [CVL]). Our data show that rHSP83.1 is a promising target in the diagnosis of TL. We also identified specific epitopes derived from HSP83.1 that can be used in the diagnosis of human TL (peptide 3), both human and canine VL (peptides 1 and 3), and all TL, VL, and CVL clinical manifestations (peptide 3). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves confirmed the superior performance of rHSP83.1 and peptides 1 and 3 compared to that of the soluble L. braziliensis antigen and the reference test kit for the diagnosis of CVL in Brazil (EIE-LVC kit; Bio-Manguinhos, Fiocruz). Our study thus provides proof-of-principle evidence of the feasibility of using bioinformatics to identify novel targets for the immunodiagnosis of parasitic diseases using proteins that are highly conserved throughout evolution. PMID:24807053

  15. BRAF Mutations in Canine Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kennedy, Katherine; Shapiro, Susan G.; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations of the BRAF gene lead to constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Although many human cancers carry the mutated BRAF gene, this mutation has not yet been characterized in canine cancers. As human and canine cancers share molecular abnormalities, we hypothesized that BRAF gene mutations also exist in canine cancers. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced the exon 15 of BRAF, mutation hot spot of the gene, in 667 canine primary tumors and 38 control tissues. Sequencing analysis revealed that a single nucleotide T to A transversion at nucleotide 1349 occurred in 64 primary tumors (9.6%), with particularly high frequency in prostatic carcinoma (20/25, 80%) and urothelial carcinoma (30/45, 67%). This mutation results in the amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for valine at codon 450 (V450E) of canine BRAF, corresponding to the most common BRAF mutation in human cancer, V600E. The evolutional conservation of the BRAF V600E mutation highlights the importance of MAPK pathway activation in neoplasia and may offer opportunity for molecular diagnostics and targeted therapeutics for dogs bearing BRAF-mutated cancers. PMID:26053201

  16. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans. PMID:19426440

  17. Leishmaniasis sand fly vector density reduction is less marked in destitute housing after insecticide thermal fogging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide thermal fogging (ITF) is a tool to control vector borne diseases. Insecticide application success for vector control has been associated with housing materials and architecture. Vector abundance is correlated with weather changes. Nevertheless, housing quality and weather impacts on vector abundance have been unaccounted for in most New World insecticide control trials for leishmaniasis vectors. Methods We conducted a 15 month insecticide control trial that included two deltamethrin [6 mg a.i.m-2] based ITF interventions in 12 of 24 monitored houses at Trinidad de Las Minas, a hyperendemic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission village in western Panamá. During the study we followed sand fly (SF) abundance, keeping track of rainfall and quantified housing quality using an index based on architecture and construction materials. Results We found a 50 to 80% reduction in SF density in the fogged houses when compared with control houses, while controlling for seasonal changes in SF abundance associated with rainfall. We found heterogeneities in the reductions, as abundance changed according to SF species: Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dysponeta and Lu. triramula reduced in density between 40% and 90% after ITF. In contrast, Lu. trapidoi density increased 5% after ITF. Differences in the impact of ITF were associated with housing quality, the most destitute houses, i.e., those with features that ease insect entrance, had a disproportionally larger SF abundance, in some cases with increased domiciliary SF density following the ITF. Conclusion Our results suggest the potential of insecticide application to control SF density and leishmaniasis transmission could depend on housing quality beyond insecticide efficiency. PMID:23742709

  18. Toward Diagnosing Leishmania infantum Infection in Asymptomatic Dogs in an Area Where Leishmaniasis Is Endemic?

    PubMed Central

    Otranto, D.; Paradies, P.; de Caprariis, D.; Stanneck, D.; Testini, G.; Grimm, F.; Deplazes, P.; Capelli, G.

    2009-01-01

    The most frequently used diagnostic methods were compared in a longitudinal survey with Leishmania infantum-infected asymptomatic dogs from an area of Italy where leishmaniasis is endemic. In February and March 2005, 845 asymptomatic dogs were tested by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), a dipstick assay (DS), and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for L. infantum and by IFAT for Ehrlichia canis. Dogs seronegative for L. infantum were further parasitologically evaluated by microscopic examination of lymph node tissues and PCR of skin samples. A total of 204 animals both serologically and parasitologically negative for L. infantum at the first sampling were enrolled in the trial and were further examined for canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in November 2005 (i.e., the end of the first sandfly season) and March 2006 and 2007 (1- and 2-year follow-ups, respectively). At the initial screening, the overall rates of L. infantum seroprevalence were 9.5% by IFAT, 17.1% by ELISA, and 9.8% by DS and the overall rate of E. canis seroprevalence was 15%. The rates of concordance between the results of IFAT and DS were almost equal, whereas the rate of concordance between the results of IFAT and DS and those of the ELISA was lower. The results of the annual incidence of Leishmania infection were variable, depending on the test employed, with the highest values registered for PCR (i.e., 5.7% and 11.4% at the 1- and 2-year follow-ups, respectively), followed by ELISA, IFAT, and DS. Over the 2 years of observation, 55 animals (i.e., 26.9%) became positive for L. infantum by one or more diagnostic tests at different follow-up times, with 12.7% showing clinical signs related to CanL, while the remaining 87.3% were asymptomatic. A diagnostic scheme for assessment of the L. infantum infection status in asymptomatic dogs is suggested. PMID:19129471

  19. Toward diagnosing Leishmania infantum infection in asymptomatic dogs in an area where leishmaniasis is endemic.

    PubMed

    Otranto, D; Paradies, P; de Caprariis, D; Stanneck, D; Testini, G; Grimm, F; Deplazes, P; Capelli, G

    2009-03-01

    The most frequently used diagnostic methods were compared in a longitudinal survey with Leishmania infantum-infected asymptomatic dogs from an area of Italy where leishmaniasis is endemic. In February and March 2005, 845 asymptomatic dogs were tested by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), a dipstick assay (DS), and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for L. infantum and by IFAT for Ehrlichia canis. Dogs seronegative for L. infantum were further parasitologically evaluated by microscopic examination of lymph node tissues and PCR of skin samples. A total of 204 animals both serologically and parasitologically negative for L. infantum at the first sampling were enrolled in the trial and were further examined for canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in November 2005 (i.e., the end of the first sandfly season) and March 2006 and 2007 (1- and 2-year follow-ups, respectively). At the initial screening, the overall rates of L. infantum seroprevalence were 9.5% by IFAT, 17.1% by ELISA, and 9.8% by DS and the overall rate of E. canis seroprevalence was 15%. The rates of concordance between the results of IFAT and DS were almost equal, whereas the rate of concordance between the results of IFAT and DS and those of the ELISA was lower. The results of the annual incidence of Leishmania infection were variable, depending on the test employed, with the highest values registered for PCR (i.e., 5.7% and 11.4% at the 1- and 2-year follow-ups, respectively), followed by ELISA, IFAT, and DS. Over the 2 years of observation, 55 animals (i.e., 26.9%) became positive for L. infantum by one or more diagnostic tests at different follow-up times, with 12.7% showing clinical signs related to CanL, while the remaining 87.3% were asymptomatic. A diagnostic scheme for assessment of the L. infantum infection status in asymptomatic dogs is suggested. PMID:19129471

  20. Risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Cukurova region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Votýpka, Jan; Kasap, Ozge Erisoz; Volf, Petr; Kodym, Petr; Alten, Bulent

    2012-03-01

    We conducted a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum outbreaks in villages in the Cukurova region, South Anatolia, Turkey. 282 respondents from eight villages were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics, personal protection and knowledge of leishmania were analyzed. Young people, aged from 5-19 years, were found to be the most endangered group of villagers. The concurrent presence of both lesions and scars in nine persons may indicate repeated infections. Sleeping without bed nets, ownership of a dog and cattle ownership (living close to a barn and storage of dried dung according univariate analyses) were associated with a significantly increased risk of leishmania infection. Non-impregnated bed nets provided only partial protection, but their use decreased the risk approximately 1.6 times. Further research on the role of dogs in the transmission cycle and the effect of suitable interventions are needed to design the best strategy for disease control. Results suggest that personal protection should be increased, particularly among outdoor sleepers, with insecticide-treated bed nets suggested as the best choice. PMID:22284721

  1. Immune Regulation during Chronic Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Faleiro, Rebecca J.; Kumar, Rajiv; Hafner, Louise M.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic parasitic disease associated with severe immune dysfunction. Treatment options are limited to relatively toxic drugs, and there is no vaccine for humans available. Hence, there is an urgent need to better understand immune responses following infection with Leishmania species by studying animal models of disease and clinical samples from patients. Here, we review recent discoveries in these areas and highlight shortcomings in our knowledge that need to be addressed if better treatment options are to be developed and effective vaccines designed. PMID:25010815

  2. Immune regulation during chronic visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, Rebecca J; Kumar, Rajiv; Hafner, Louise M; Engwerda, Christian R

    2014-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic parasitic disease associated with severe immune dysfunction. Treatment options are limited to relatively toxic drugs, and there is no vaccine for humans available. Hence, there is an urgent need to better understand immune responses following infection with Leishmania species by studying animal models of disease and clinical samples from patients. Here, we review recent discoveries in these areas and highlight shortcomings in our knowledge that need to be addressed if better treatment options are to be developed and effective vaccines designed. PMID:25010815

  3. Approaches to canine health surveillance.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2014-01-01

    Effective canine health surveillance systems can be used to monitor disease in the general population, prioritise disorders for strategic control and focus clinical research, and to evaluate the success of these measures. The key attributes for optimal data collection systems that support canine disease surveillance are representativeness of the general population, validity of disorder data and sustainability. Limitations in these areas present as selection bias, misclassification bias and discontinuation of the system respectively. Canine health data sources are reviewed to identify their strengths and weaknesses for supporting effective canine health surveillance. Insurance data benefit from large and well-defined denominator populations but are limited by selection bias relating to the clinical events claimed and animals covered. Veterinary referral clinical data offer good reliability for diagnoses but are limited by referral bias for the disorders and animals included. Primary-care practice data have the advantage of excellent representation of the general dog population and recording at the point of care by veterinary professionals but may encounter misclassification problems and technical difficulties related to management and analysis of large datasets. Questionnaire surveys offer speed and low cost but may suffer from low response rates, poor data validation, recall bias and ill-defined denominator population information. Canine health scheme data benefit from well-characterised disorder and animal data but reflect selection bias during the voluntary submissions process. Formal UK passive surveillance systems are limited by chronic under-reporting and selection bias. It is concluded that active collection systems using secondary health data provide the optimal resource for canine health surveillance. PMID:26401319

  4. Coarse-resolution Ecology of Etiological Agent, Vector, and Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya.

    PubMed

    Samy, Abdallah M; Annajar, Badereddin B; Dokhan, Mostafa Ramadhan; Boussaa, Samia; Peterson, A Townsend

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis ranks among the tropical diseases least known and most neglected in Libya. World Health Organization reports recognized associations of Phlebotomus papatasi, Psammomys obesus, and Meriones spp., with transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL; caused by Leishmania major) across Libya. Here, we map risk of ZCL infection based on occurrence records of L. major, P. papatasi, and four potential animal reservoirs (Meriones libycus, Meriones shawi, Psammomys obesus, and Gerbillus gerbillus). Ecological niche models identified limited risk areas for ZCL across the northern coast of the country; most species associated with ZCL transmission were confined to this same region, but some had ranges extending to central Libya. All ENM predictions were significant based on partial ROC tests. As a further evaluation of L. major ENM predictions, we compared predictions with 98 additional independent records provided by the Libyan National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC); all of these records fell inside the belt predicted as suitable for ZCL. We tested ecological niche similarity among vector, parasite, and reservoir species and could not reject any null hypotheses of niche similarity. Finally, we tested among possible combinations of vector and reservoir that could predict all recent human ZCL cases reported by NCDC; only three combinations could anticipate the distribution of human cases across the country. PMID:26863317

  5. Coarse-resolution Ecology of Etiological Agent, Vector, and Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Abdallah M.; Annajar, Badereddin B.; Dokhan, Mostafa Ramadhan; Boussaa, Samia; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis ranks among the tropical diseases least known and most neglected in Libya. World Health Organization reports recognized associations of Phlebotomus papatasi, Psammomys obesus, and Meriones spp., with transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL; caused by Leishmania major) across Libya. Here, we map risk of ZCL infection based on occurrence records of L. major, P. papatasi, and four potential animal reservoirs (Meriones libycus, Meriones shawi, Psammomys obesus, and Gerbillus gerbillus). Ecological niche models identified limited risk areas for ZCL across the northern coast of the country; most species associated with ZCL transmission were confined to this same region, but some had ranges extending to central Libya. All ENM predictions were significant based on partial ROC tests. As a further evaluation of L. major ENM predictions, we compared predictions with 98 additional independent records provided by the Libyan National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC); all of these records fell inside the belt predicted as suitable for ZCL. We tested ecological niche similarity among vector, parasite, and reservoir species and could not reject any null hypotheses of niche similarity. Finally, we tested among possible combinations of vector and reservoir that could predict all recent human ZCL cases reported by NCDC; only three combinations could anticipate the distribution of human cases across the country. PMID:26863317

  6. Ebola virus mediated infectivity is restricted in canine and feline cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Ziying; Bart, Stephen M; Ruthel, Gordon; Vande Burgt, Nathan H; Haines, Kathleen M; Volk, Susan W; Vite, Charles H; Freedman, Bruce D; Bates, Paul; Harty, Ronald N

    2016-01-15

    Ebolaviruses and marburgviruses belong to the Filoviridae family and often cause severe, fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. The magnitude of the 2014 outbreak in West Africa and the unprecedented emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the United States underscore the urgency to better understand the dynamics of Ebola virus infection, transmission and spread. To date, the susceptibility and possible role of domestic animals and pets in the transmission cycle and spread of EVD remains unclear. We utilized infectious VSV recombinants and lentivirus pseudotypes expressing the EBOV surface glycoprotein (GP) to assess the permissiveness of canine and feline cells to EBOV GP-mediated entry. We observed a general restriction in EBOV-mediated infection of primary canine and feline cells. To address the entry mechanism, we used cells deficient in NPC1, a host protein implicated in EBOV entry, and a pharmacological blockade of cholesterol transport, to show that an NPC1-dependent mechanism of EBOV entry is conserved in canine and feline cells. These data demonstrate that cells of canine and feline origin are susceptible to EBOV GP mediated infection; however, infectivity of these cells is reduced significantly compared to controls. Moreover, these data provide new insights into the mechanism of EBOV GP mediated entry into cells of canine and feline origin. PMID:26711035

  7. [Direct agglutination tests in the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Pará].

    PubMed

    Garcez, L M; Shaw, J J; Silveira, F T

    1996-01-01

    The direct agglutination test (DAT) was evaluated for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human and canids (dogs and foxes Cerdocyon thous). The results were compared with those of the immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sera used were from: humans (303): confirmed VL (16), suspected VL (65), other conditions (102), negative controls (15) and individuals from an endemic area (105); dogs (82): from an endemic area (68), Salvaterra/Marajó/Pará (21 of which were parasitologically positive), and negative controls (14), from Belém; foxes (9): caught on Marajó Island. Antigens for DAT were prepared from promastigots of L. (L.) donovani, L. (L.) chagasi. Antigens used in ELISA and IFAT were prepared from promastigotes (soluble antigen) and amastigotes respectively of L. (L.) chagasi. In humans, the specificity and sensitivity of DAT using L. (L.) donovani were high (98.4% and 100% respectively) and comparable to that of IFAT (97.5% and 100%). ELISA was less specific (84.8%) although similarly sensitive (100%). In dogs, DAT was more specific using L. (L.) donovani as antigen than using L. (L.) chagasi. However, both DAT and ELISA were less sensitive (both 71.4%) than IFAT (100%). This difference was reflected in the results from endemic dogs, 87% of which were positive by IFAT but only 54% by ELISA and 49% by DAT. Similarly, all 9 fox sera were positive by IFAT, 7 of 9 (78%) by ELISA but none by DAT. In conclusion, DAT using L. (L.) donovani antigen can provide a useful test for human VL; utilization on a large scale would be possible with a suitable reference laboratory to monitor antigen quality. However, DAT appears less useful for canine studies, as it was less sensitive than ELISA and especially IFAT in detecting canine infection. PMID:8713608

  8. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: An Evolving Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  9. Visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: an evolving disease.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  10. Eosinophils and mast cells in leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Nilda E; Wilson, Mary E

    2014-08-01

    Leishmania spp. are parasitic protozoa endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and the causative agent of leishmaniasis, a collection of syndromes whose clinical manifestations vary according to host and pathogen factors. Leishmania spp. are inoculated into the mammalian host by the bite of an infected sand fly, whereupon they are taken up by phagocytosis, convert into the replicative amastigote stage within macrophages, reproduce, spread to new macrophages and cause disease manifestations. A curative response against leishmaniasis depends in the classical activation of macrophages and the IL-12-dependent onset of an adaptive type 1 response characterized by the production of IFN-γ. Emerging evidence suggests that neutrophils, dendritic cells and other immune cells can serve as either temporary or stable hosts for Leishmania spp. Furthermore, it is becoming apparent that the initial interactions of the parasite with resident or early recruited immune cells can shape both the macrophage response and the type of adaptive immune response being induced. In this review, we compile a growing number of studies demonstrating how the earliest interactions of Leishmania spp. with eosinophils and mast cells influence the macrophage response to infection and the development of the adaptive immune response, hence, determining the ultimate outcome of infection. PMID:24838146

  11. Natural Products: Insights into Leishmaniasis Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Igor A.; Mazotto, Ana Maria; Cardoso, Verônica; Alves, Renan L.; Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade; Pinheiro, Anderson S.; Vermelho, Alane B.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that affects several populations worldwide, against which there are no vaccines available and the chemotherapy is highly toxic. Depending on the species causing the infection, the disease is characterized by commitment of tissues, including the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs. Despite the relevance of host inflammatory mediators on parasite burden control, Leishmania and host immune cells interaction may generate an exacerbated proinflammatory response that plays an important role in the development of leishmaniasis clinical manifestations. Plant-derived natural products have been recognized as bioactive agents with several properties, including anti-protozoal and anti-inflammatory activities. The present review focuses on the antileishmanial activity of plant-derived natural products that are able to modulate the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. The capability of crude extracts and some isolated substances in promoting an anti-inflammatory response during Leishmania infection may be used as part of an effective strategy to fight the disease. PMID:26538837

  12. Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Everton Falcão de; Silva, Elaine Araújo e; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Gamarra, Roberto Macedo; Ribeiro, Alisson André; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de

    2012-05-01

    The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies. PMID:22510836

  13. [Three Pediatric Cases of Leishmaniasis with Different Clinical Forms and Treatment Regimens].

    PubMed

    Ayd?n Teke, Türkan; Metin Timur, Özge; Gayretli Ayd?n, Zeynep Gökçe; Öz, Nur; Bayhan, Gülsüm ?clal; Y?lmaz, Nurullah; Mungan, Mesut; Tan?r, Gönül

    2015-06-01

    Several clinical syndromes caused by an obligate intracellular parasite Leishmania spp. subsumed under the term leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is endemic in Turkey and the neighboring countries Iran, Iraq, and Syria. Leishmania spp. causes three main clinical forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral disease. The clinical forms may vary by species and/or region of acquisition. Two forms are observed in Turkey; visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Two cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis with different treatment regimens and a case of visseral leishmaniasis associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis are presented in this report. PMID:26081889

  14. Review of the Risks of Some Canine Zoonoses from Free-Roaming Dogs in the Post-Disaster Setting of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Garde, Elena; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Free-roaming dogs are seldom considered an important public health risk following natural disasters in developing regions. With the high number of recognized canine zoonoses and evidence of increased transmission of some significant diseases this is a risk that may be being overlooked. Communities with free-roaming dogs and endemic canine zoonoses of importance should be developing appropriate community preparedness and response plans to mitigate the occurrence of increased transmission following disasters. Abstract In the absence of humane and sustainable control strategies for free-roaming dogs (FRD) and the lack of effective disaster preparedness planning in developing regions of the world, the occurrence of canine zoonoses is a potentially important yet unrecognized issue. The existence of large populations of FRDs in Latin America predisposes communities to a host of public health problems that are all potentially exacerbated following disasters due to social and environmental disturbances. There are hundreds of recognized canine zoonoses but a paucity of recommendations for the mitigation of the risk of emergence following disasters. Although some of the symptoms of diseases most commonly reported in human populations following disasters resemble a host of canine zoonoses, there is little mention in key public health documents of FRDs posing any significant risk. We highlight five neglected canine zoonoses of importance in Latin America, and offer recommendations for pre- and post-disaster preparedness and planning to assist in mitigation of the transmission of canine zoonoses arising from FRDs following disasters.

  15. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sarkari, Bahador; Qasem, Asgari; Shafaf, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of inhabitants of an endemic area in Fars province toward cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Methods The study was carried out in Lapui district in Fars province, south of Iran, one of the most important foci of CL in this province. Sample size (237 residents) was calculated based on population. House-to-house survey was done to collect the data regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the inhabitants. The head of each household was interviewed by a trained staff to assess his/her KAP related to CL. A semi-structured KAP questionnaire was used for data collection. Results Mean age of participants was 39 and more than half of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40. Males constituted 172 (72.5%) of subjects. Most of the respondents (84.3%) were literate. The majority of the study population (83%) had heard about Salak (local name for CL) and most of these respondents (91%) were aware that CL is presented with a cutaneous lesion. Nearly two-third of the participants (63.5%) stated the bite of mosquito (not specifically sandflies) for CL transmission. The respondents' attitude regarding the treatment of CL was not satisfactory since only 48% believed that CL can be treated by medicine. A noticeable proportion of respondents (21%) believed in indigenous medicine for the treatment of CL. A small proportion of respondents (14%) stated that traditional healers are good at treating this disease. More than two-third (69%) of respondents believed that the disease is preventable although most of interviewees did not know about preventive measures. Conclusions In this study, insufficient knowledge of community about infection nature, vector, transmission mode and preventive measures of CL, highlights the needs for a health education initiative to enhance the awareness of people about CL. This would improve inhabitants' contribution in control program of CL in this area. PMID:25183278

  16. Ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G T; Dean, C

    2001-07-01

    Many behavioral and ecological factors influence the degree of expression of canine dimorphism for different reasons. Regardless of its socioecological importance, we know virtually nothing about the processes responsible for the development of canine dimorphism. Our aim here is to describe the developmental process(es) regulating canine dimorphism in extant hominoids, using histological markers of tooth growth. Teeth preserve a permanent record of their ontogeny in the form of short- and long-period incremental markings in both enamel and dentine. We selected 52 histological sections of sexed hominoid canine teeth from a total sample of 115, from which we calculated the time and rate of cuspal enamel formation and the rate at which ameloblasts differentiate along the future enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to the end of crown formation. Thus, we were able to reconstruct longitudinal growth curves for height attainment in male and female hominoid canines. Male hominoids consistently take longer to form canine crowns than do females (although not significantly so for our sample of Homo). Male orangutans and gorillas occasionally take up to twice as long as females to complete enamel formation. The mean ranges of female canine crown formation times are similar in Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo. Interspecific differences between female Pan canine crown heights and those of Gorilla and Pongo, which are taller, result from differences in rates of growth. Differences in canine crown heights between male Pan and the taller, more dimorphic male Gorilla and Pongo canines result both from differences in total time taken to form enamel and from faster rates of growth in Gorilla and Pongo. Although modern human canines do not emerge as significantly dimorphic in this study, it is well-known that sexual dimorphism in canine crown height exists. Larger samples of sexed modern human canines are therefore needed to identify clearly what underlies this. PMID:11424078

  17. Zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed with the help of dermoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ramot, Yuval; Nanova, Krassimira; Alper-Pinus, Ruslana; Zlotogorski, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is usually easy to recognize; however, several atypical features exist, which may pose a diagnostic challenge. Here we report a 55-year-old female patient, who presented with an itchy and painful eruption localized in a dermatomal distribution along the right upper chest. Although the clinical appearance of the lesions suggested the diagnosis of herpes zoster, dermoscopic evaluation revealed erythema, hyperkeratosis, burst star whitish appearance and hairpin vessels, compatible with the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Indeed, leishmania amastigotes were detected by smear from the lesions. Zosteriform presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis, as exemplified by our patient, is especially rare. In our case dermoscopy has proven to be an accessible and easy tool to diagnose such atypical presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and dermatologists in endemic areas should be familiar with its typical dermoscopic features. PMID:25126460

  18. Topoisomerase 1B as a target against leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    D'Annessa, Ilda; Castelli, Silvia; Desideri, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis affects more than 12 million people in 98 countries, the infection being caused by more than 20 species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania and spread by sandflies bite. Poor sanitary conditions, malnutrition, deforestation and urbanization increase the risk for leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is the only tropical disease treated with non-anti-leishmanial drugs, among which liposomal amphotericin B, a combination of pentavalent antimonials and paromomycin and miltefosine, that are highly toxic, represent the most used ones. Drug resistance is now widespread and the search for new molecular targets is open. Topoisomerase 1B, that controls the topological state of DNA and is essential for the parasites viability, has been detected as a promising target for anti-leishmaniasis therapy. The enzyme presents structural/functional differences with the human counterpart, making it unique among Eukarya. Here we review the structural features of this enzyme and the drugs that can be developed and used for this specific targeting. PMID:25769969

  19. New data on epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Zenaishvili, O; Gugushvili, G; Chubabria, G; Manjgaladze, M; Kokaia, N

    2009-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is spread as sporadic cases in eastern regions of Georgia. In Georgia as throughout the world steady increase of the disease incidence is observed. It is related to socio-economic crisis of population, increase in the number of invaded dogs and global warming processes. In west Georgia visceral leishmaniasis cases were never observed in the past. From 2004 to 2008 authors registered 10 local cases of visceral leishmaniasis in kutaisi (8 children and 2 adult patients). It should be noted that from these 10 patients eight resided in sapichkia area and two were from other areas of kutaisi. Authors consider that the detailed epidemiologic evaluation of the above mentioned cases should be carried out urgently to avoid the emergence of new endemic of visceral leishmaniasis in west Georgia. PMID:19644197

  20. Leishmaniasis in the Middle East: Incidence and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Nasir; Al-Shaqha, Waleed Mohammed; Azzi, Arezki

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide, with several countries reporting cases of leishmaniasis resulting in loss of human life or a lifelong stigma because of bodily scars. The Middle East is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, with countries like Syria reporting very high incidence of the disease. Despite several countries establishing national control programs for containing the sandfly vector and treatment of infection, the disease continues to spread. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. These factors contribute to the spread and proliferation of the causative species Leishmania and its sandfly host. This review discusses the current epidemiological scenario in Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, emphasizing the number of cases reported, vector species, Leishmania species, and treatment available. The data is primarily from WHO reports for each country and current and old literature. PMID:25275483

  1. [Visceral leishmaniasis without splenomegaly. A pediatric case report].

    PubMed

    Leblanc, C; Nouar, D; Izri, A; Brun, S; Marty, P; Gaudelus, J; De Pontual, L

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric visceral leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania infantum, a dog parasite transmitted to humans by the bite of the female phlebotomine sand fly. The well-known clinical triad is fever, pallor, and splenomegaly. A secondary macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) can complicate this infection, which is lethal when not treated. When MAS is observed without any explanation, a visceral leishmaniasis is highly recommended. We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a 21-month-old child complicated by a macrophage activation syndrome without splenomegaly. No immunodeficiency was diagnosed that could explain this unusual clinical condition. To our knowledge, this is the first case of visceral leishmaniasis without splenomegaly reported to date. PMID:26776600

  2. Using humans to make a human leishmaniasis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kamhawi, Shaden; Oliveira, Fabiano; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2014-04-30

    The cellular immune response to peptide pools from conserved Leishmania antigens in leishmaniasis-immune individuals identified epitopes for a human DNA vaccine (Das et al., this issue). PMID:24786322

  3. Visceral leishmaniasis with pericarditis in an HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Mofredj, Ali; Guerin, Jean Michel; Leibinger, Frank; Masmoudi, Rafik

    2002-01-01

    The clinical presentation of visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, is variable but usually includes fever, severe cachexia, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. In immunocompromised patients the clinical course of the disease is even less specific and the diagnosis is often made by means of incidental detection of the parasites at atypical sites such as the gastrointestinal tract, peripheral blood, lungs and cerebrospinal fluid. We describe a case of pericardial leishmaniasis in an HIV-infected patient. PMID:11928856

  4. Sex Hormones and Modulation of Immunity against Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Heidi; Lezama-Davila, Claudio; Alexander, James; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2009-01-01

    Sex-associated hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and progesterone have all been shown to modulate immune responses, which can result in differential disease outcomes between males and females, as well as between pregnant and nonpregnant females. Most parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis, usually result in more severe disease in males compared with females. This review highlights our current knowledge concerning the role of sex hormones in modulating leishmaniasis in both clinical settings and experimental disease models. PMID:19212130

  5. First case of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis.

    PubMed

    Liautaud, Bernard; Vignier, Nicolas; Miossec, Charline; Plumelle, Yves; Kone, Moumini; Delta, Delphine; Ravel, Christophe; Cabié, André; Desbois, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis in the Caribbean, which until now, was known only to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease presented with fatigue, anemia, and hepatosplenomegaly in a 61-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who was receiving antiretroviral therapy. Diagnosis was made by bone marrow biopsy. VL is life-threatening, and its emergence in the Caribbean is of concern. PMID:25404076

  6. Implications of age and diet on canine cerebral cortex transcription.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kelly S; Vester, Brittany M; Apanavicius, Carolyn J; Kirby, Naomi A; Schook, Lawrence B

    2009-08-01

    Mechanisms contributing to age-related cognitive decline are poorly defined. Thus, we used canine microarrays to compare gene expression profiles of brain tissue from geriatric and young adult dogs. Cerebral cortex samples were collected from six geriatric (12-year old) and six young adult (1-year old) female beagles after being fed one of two diets (animal protein-based versus plant-protein based) for 12 months. RNA samples were hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Canine Genome Arrays. Statistical analyses indicated that the age had the greatest impact on gene expression, with 963 transcripts differentially expressed in geriatric dogs. Although not as robust as age, diet affected mRNA abundance of 140 transcripts. As demonstrated in aged rodents and humans, geriatric dogs had increased expression of genes associated with inflammation, stress response, and calcium homeostasis and decreased expression of genes associated with neuropeptide signaling and synaptic transmission. In addition to its existing strengths, availability of gene sequence information and commercial microarrays make the canine a powerful model for studying the effects of aging on cognitive function. PMID:18079023

  7. Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Dunbar, Mike R; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel; Droge, Egil; Sakuya, Nicholas M; Matandiko, Wigganson; McRobb, Rachel; Hanlon, Cathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies. We provide the first comprehensive disease exposure data for these species in these ecosystems. Twenty-one lions, 20 hyenas, 13 wild dogs, and 38 domestic dogs were sampled across both regions from 2009 to 2011. Laboratory results show 10.5% of domestic dogs, 5.0% of hyenas, and 7.7% of wild dogs sampled were positive for CDV exposure. All lions were negative. Exposure to CPV was 10.0% and 4.8% for hyenas and lions, respectively. All wild dogs were negative, and domestic dogs were not tested due to insufficient serum samples. All species sampled were negative for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies except lions. Forty percent of lions tested positive for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Because these lions appeared clinically healthy, this finding is consistent with seroconversion following exposure to rabies antigen. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first ever documentation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies consistent with rabies exposure that did not lead to clinical disease in free-ranging African lions from this region. With ever-increasing human pressure on these ecosystems, understanding disease transmission dynamics is essential for proper management and conservation of these carnivore species. PMID:23805791

  8. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: an emerging infectious disease in travelers.

    PubMed

    Ergen, Elizabeth Noble; King, Allison Hutsell; Tuli, Malika

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniasis describes any of 3 diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, the most common of which is cutaneous leishmaniasis. The majority of cutaneous cases occur in Central and South America, the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East, and Central Asia. Most cases diagnosed among nonmilitary personnel in the United States are acquired in Mexico and Central America. Here, we present the case of an American tourist who developed localized cutaneous leishmaniasis 2 weeks after returning from Costa Rica. After undergoing several unsuccessful rounds of empiric antibiotic treatment for a presumed Staphylococcus aureus skin infection, the patient was referred to our dermatology clinic where cutaneous leishmaniasis was diagnosed by tissue biopsy. This case highlights the importance of cutaneous leishmaniasis as an emerging infectious disease that may be misdiagnosed due to its rarity and varied clinical presentation as well as the limited use of tissue biopsy in general practice. We also provide relevant background information on cutaneous leishmaniasis, a rhyming poem, and an illustration in order to promote greater awareness of this disease and assist clinicians with its diagnosis. PMID:26682298

  9. Canine heartworm disease in Porto Velho: first record, distribution map and occurrence of positive mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; da Cruz, Edson Neves; Cunha, Príscila Nayara Araújo; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make the first report on canine heartworm disease in the state of Rondônia and confirm its transmission in this state. Blood samples were randomly collected from 727 dogs in the city of Porto Velho. The samples were analyzed to search for microfilariae and circulating antigens, using three different techniques: optical microscopy on thick blood smears stained with Giemsa; immunochromatography; and PCR. Mosquitoes were collected inside and outside the homes of all the cases of positive dogs and were tested using PCR to search for DNA of Dirofilaria immitis. Ninety-three blood samples out of 727 (12.8%) were positive according to the immunoassay technique and none according to the thick smear method. Among the 93 positive dogs, 89 (95.7%) were born in Porto Velho. No difference in the frequency of infection was observed between dogs raised indoors and in the yard. PCR on the mosquitoes resulted in only one positive pool. This result shows that the transmission of canine heartworm disease is occurring in the city of Porto Velho and that there is moderate prevalence among the dogs. The techniques of immunochromatography and PCR were more effective for detecting canine heartworm than thick blood smears. The confirmation of canine heartworm disease transmission in Porto Velho places this disease in the ranking for differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules in humans in Rondônia. PMID:24473882

  10. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Ferguson-Mignan, Thomas F. N.; Cobb, Malcolm; Mongan, Nigel P.; Rutland, Catrin S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed. PMID:26266250

  11. Environmental Risk Factors for the Incidence of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Sub-Andean Zone of Colombia (Chaparral, Tolima)

    PubMed Central

    Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Ferro, Cristina; Cadena, Horacio; Marín, Dairo; Holford, Theodore R.; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis were investigated for the largest outbreak recorded in Colombia. The outbreak began in 2003 in Chaparral, and in the following five years produced 2,313 cases in a population of 56,228. Candidate predictor variables were land use, elevation, and climatic variables such as mean temperature and precipitation. Spatial analysis showed that incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was higher in townships with mean temperatures in the middle of the county's range. Incidence was independently associated with higher coverage with forest or shrubs (2.6% greater for each additional percent coverage, 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.5–4.9%), and lower population density (22% lower for each additional 100 persons/km2, 95% CI = 7–41%). The extent of forest or shrub coverage did not show major changes over time. These findings confirmed the roles of climate and land use in leishmaniasis transmission. However, environmental variables were not sufficient to explain the spatial variation in incidence. PMID:20134000

  12. Decreased presence of Langerhans cells is a critical determinant for Indian Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shibabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Debanjan; Braun, Claudia; Barbhuiya, Joyashree N; Das, Nilay K; Chatterjee, Uttara; von Stebut, Esther; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2015-03-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is the dermal sequel of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and occurs after apparent cure or alongside with VL. It is confined to South Asia (India, Nepal and Bangladesh) and East Africa (mainly Sudan), the incidence being 5-10% and 50-60% respectively. In South Asia, as the transmission of VL is anthroponotic, PKDL patients are the proposed disease reservoir, thus assuming epidemiological significance, its eradication being linked to the control of leishmaniasis. In the absence of an animal model and its low incidence, factors contributing towards the immunopathogenesis of PKDL remain an open-ended, yet pertinent question. This study delineated the lesional immunopathology in terms of granuloma formation, Langerhans cells, tissue macrophages along with mRNA expression of IL-12p40 and IL-10. Our study in Indian PKDL for the first time identified that the number of CD1a(+) /CD207(+) Langerhans cells are decreased and CD68(+) macrophages are increased along with the absence of an epitheloid granuloma. Importantly, this decrease in Langerhans cells was associated with decreased mRNA expression of IL-12p40 and increased IL-10. This was reverted with treatment allowing for elimination of parasites and disease resolution along with an increase in Langerhans cells and decrease in macrophages. Thus, in Indian PKDL, absence of a granuloma formation along with a decrease in Langerhans cells collectively caused immune inactivation essential for parasite persistence and disease sustenance. PMID:25580856

  13. Report of the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) consortium meeting, New Delhi, India, 27–29 June 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a neglected complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)―a deadly, infectious disease that claims approximately 20,000 to 40,000 lives every year. PKDL is thought to be a reservoir for transmission of VL, thus, adequate control of PKDL plays a key role in the ongoing effort to eliminate VL. Over the past few years, several expert meetings have recommended that a greater focus on PKDL was needed, especially in South Asia. This report summarizes the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Consortium Meeting held in New Delhi, India, 27–29 June 2012. The PKDL Consortium is committed to promote and facilitate activities that lead to better understanding of all aspects of PKDL that are needed for improved clinical management and to achieve control of PKDL and VL. Fifty clinicians, scientists, policy makers, and advocates came together to discuss issues relating to PKDL epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and control. Colleagues who were unable to attend participated during drafting of the consortium meeting report. PMID:23819611

  14. Environmental risk factors for the incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in a sub-Andean zone of Colombia (Chaparral, Tolima).

    PubMed

    Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Ferro, Cristina; Cadena, Horacio; Marín, Dairo; Holford, Theodore R; Munstermann, Leonard E; Ocampo, Clara B

    2010-02-01

    Environmental risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis were investigated for the largest outbreak recorded in Colombia. The outbreak began in 2003 in Chaparral, and in the following five years produced 2,313 cases in a population of 56,228. Candidate predictor variables were land use, elevation, and climatic variables such as mean temperature and precipitation. Spatial analysis showed that incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was higher in townships with mean temperatures in the middle of the county's range. Incidence was independently associated with higher coverage with forest or shrubs (2.6% greater for each additional percent coverage, 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.5-4.9%), and lower population density (22% lower for each additional 100 persons/km(2), 95% CI = 7-41%). The extent of forest or shrub coverage did not show major changes over time. These findings confirmed the roles of climate and land use in leishmaniasis transmission. However, environmental variables were not sufficient to explain the spatial variation in incidence. PMID:20134000

  15. Leishmaniasis entomological field studies: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando; Canto-Lara, Silvia B; Del Rosario Garcia-Miss, Maria

    2009-12-01

    Occupational health remains neglected in developing countries because of competing social, economic and political challenges. Ethical issues in the workplace related to the hazards and risks of becoming infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana, through the bite of naturally infected sand flies, is another area of concern that has been neglected as well. We report here the results of reviewing two entomological field studies carried out in our research center from 2003 to 2006. Eight students from our School of Biology were invited to catch sand flies. A total of six of the eight (75%) developed a typical clinical picture of Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL) caused by L. (L.) mexicana. In this article we identify the ethical issues related to these kinds of studies and propose some guidelines for conducting them. PMID:20021495

  16. Proteome Profiling of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesion

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Santos, Claire; Attarha, Sanaz; Saini, Ravi Kanth; Boaventura, Viviane; Costa, Jackson; Khouri, Ricardo; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia Ida; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used proteomics and biological network analysis to evaluate the potential biological processes and components present in the identified proteins of biopsies from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis in comparison with normal skin. We identified 59 proteins differently expressed in samples from infected and normal skin. Biological network analysis employing identified proteins showed the presence of networks that may be involved in the cell death mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. After immunohistochemical analyses, the expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and granzyme B was validated in the tissue and positively correlated with the lesion size in CL patients. In conclusion, this work identified differentially expressed proteins in the inflammatory site of CL, revealed enhanced expression of caspase-9, and highlighted mechanisms associated with the progression of tissue damage observed in lesions. PMID:25207817

  17. Visceral leishmaniasis in zoo and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Souza, Tayse Domingues; Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2014-03-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an emerging zoonosis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Although the domestic dog is the main vertebrate host, many zoo and wild mammal species have been diagnosed with L. infantum infection, especially in endemic areas. There are many available diagnostic approaches, including serological, parasitological and molecular tests. Among wild animals, carnivores and primates are more often clinically affected, with some species, such as the bush dog (Speothos venaticus) being especially susceptible to development of clinical signs. There are also reports and research articles of VL in felids, rodents, and marsupials. This work aims to review the occurrence of VL in zoo and wildlife and raise awareness of its importance in the field of conservational veterinary medicine. PMID:24439771

  18. Oral Manifestations in the American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Daniel Cesar Silva; Palmeiro, Mariana Reuter; Moreira, João Soares; Martins, Ana Cristina da Costa; da Silva, Aline Fagundes; de Fátima Madeira, Maria; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Confort, Eliame Mouta; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; da Conceição Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis – MCL) including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing. Objectives Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities. Methods A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test) and non parametric (Mann-Whitney) tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant. Results The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9%) have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites. Conclusion Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL. PMID:25386857

  19. [Consolidation of international guidelines for the management of canine populations in urban areas and proposal of performance indicators].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Rita de Cassia Maria; Calderón, Néstor; Ferreira, Fernando

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a generic program for the management of urban canine populations with suggestion of performance indicators. The following international guidelines on canine population management were revised and consolidated: World Health Organization, World Organisation for Animal Health, World Society for the Protection of Animals, International Companion Animal Management Coalition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Management programs should cover: situation diagnosis, including estimates of population size; social participation with involvement of various sectors in the planning and execution of strategies; educational actions to promote humane values, animal welfare, community health, and responsible ownership (through purchase or adoption); environmental and waste management to eliminate sources of food and shelter; registration and identification of animals; animal health care, reproductive control; prevention and control of zoonoses; control of animal commerce; management of animal behavior and adequate solutions for abandoned animals; and laws regulating responsible ownership, prevention of abandonment and zoonoses. To monitor these actions, four groups of indicators are suggested: animal population indicators, human/animal interaction indicators, public service indicators, and zoonosis indicators. The management of stray canine populations requires political, sanitary, ethologic, ecologic, and humanitarian strategies that are socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable. Such measures must also include the control of zoonoses such as rabies and leishmaniasis, considering the concept of "one health," which benefits both the animals and people in the community. PMID:23099875

  20. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:26608724

  1. [Leishmaniasis: knowledge and practice in populations of the Pacific coast of Colombia].

    PubMed

    Isaza, D M; Restrepo, B N; Arboleda, M; Casas, E; Hinestroza, H; Yurgaqui, T

    1999-09-01

    In 1997 a descriptive study with a qualitative emphasis was carried out in order to document, by gender, the knowledge and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis among inhabitants 14 years and older in seven communities of Colombia's Pacific coastal department of Chocó. Since the control activities carried out by the Chocó Sectional Health Services had not had the desired results, the residents of the region were at high risk of contracting leishmaniasis, which they called bejuco (liana) and yateví. Qualitative data were collected by directly involving each community in discussion workshops and by interviewing knowledgeable informants. Using these materials as a foundation, the researchers prepared a survey with 10 closed-ended questions, which they administered to all persons over 14 years of age in each randomly chosen home visited. The results indicate that 94% of the population knew that leishmaniasis appeared as a skin disease; those not knowing that were more often women than men. With respect to the mode of transmission, 35% of the respondents connected the disease to the bite of an insect, but they did not what the etiologic agent was and thought that the bite was inflicted by a worm that lives in the mountains. In the communities studied, the residents used a great variety of treatments to cure the disease. The treatments were based on plants, chemical substances, burning the lesions with a piece of heated metal, and, to a lesser degree, drugs. Despite being responsible for taking care of sick persons in the household, women were not acquainted with the traditional treatments used in the community. This gender difference in treatment knowledge was statistically significant, the only such statistically significant gender difference found in the research. Of the people surveyed, 45% did not know how to prevent the disease. This was more often true for women; 102 of the 155 respondents saying they did not know how to prevent the disease were women. This research emphasizes the importance of studying the knowledge and practices of local inhabitants before designing and organizing educational programs to control leishmaniasis. PMID:10517095

  2. An analysis of reported cases of leishmaniasis in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region, 1986-2012.

    PubMed

    Olalla, Hector R; Velez, Lenin N; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Caceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Zambrano, Flavio C; Romero-Álvarez, Daniel A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-06-01

    An analysis of reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed using the data registered in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region during 27 years from 1986 to 2012. The cases/subjects with both the suspected CL lesions and the amastigote-positive results were recruited for the analysis. The yearly occurrence of cases showed a markedly higher number during the six years, 1988 and 1993. After 1994 when the insecticide spraying campaign using helicopter in 1993-1994, the number dropped remarkably. Then, the yearly occurrence gradually fluctuated from 101 cases in 1996 to 11 in 2009, maintaining a low number of cases after the campaign. The monthly occurrence of cases showed a markedly high number during March and August, suggesting a correlation to the rainy season (months) in the areas. A statistical significance was found between the monthly average number of the CL case and the average precipitation (p=0.01474). It was suggested that the time of transmission of CL would depend on the rainy seasons at each endemic area of Ecuador, which has a diverse climatic feature depending on the geographic regions. Such information at given leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador would be important for the future planning of the disease control. Molecular analysis and characterization of clinical samples revealed the presence of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. PMID:25796313

  3. [Indoor and outdoor nebulization of DDT in the campaign against cutaneous zoonotic leishmaniasis in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Benzerroug, E H; Benhabylles, N; Izri, M A; Belahcene, E K

    1992-03-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis is expanding in certain regions of Algeria. Since 1981, when the disease was confined to the foci of Biskra and Abadla, it spread to the neighbouring departments (wilayas) and especially to the wilaya of M'sila. The authors report the results of a large campaign against the disease, using DDT house spraying, in this wilaya. The annual incidence, which was 426 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in January 1983, dropped to 17.9 in January 1984. In addition, the efficacy of DDT in the reduction of the sandfly population was tested in two localities. One was sprayed with DDT and the other was not. In the sprayed locality the sandfly population decreased markedly as compared to the control locality. From these observations the authors believe that DDT plays a major role in the interruption of transmission, a hypothesis which needs to be confirmed by case-control studies. They further recommend that an interdisciplinary approach should be developed for the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:1567269

  4. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Paraguayan Communities, Patients, and Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Ruoti, Mónica; Oddone, Rolando; Lampert, Nathalie; Orué, Elizabeth; Miles, Michael A.; Alexander, Neal; Rehman, Andrea M.; Njord, Rebecca; Shu, Stephanie; Brice, Susannah; Krentel, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) due to Leishmania (V.) braziliensis are endemic in Paraguay. We performed a series of knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys simultaneously with individuals in endemic communities in San Pedro department (n = 463), health professionals (n = 25), and patients (n = 25). Results showed that communities were exposed to high risk factors for transmission of L. braziliensis. In logistic regression analysis, age was the only factor independently associated with having seen a CL/MCL lesion (P = 0.002). The pervasive attitude in communities was that CL was not a problem. Treatment seeking was often delayed, partly due to secondary costs, and inappropriate remedies were applied. Several important cost-effective measures are indicated that may improve control of CL. Community awareness could be enhanced through existing community structures. Free supply of specific drugs should continue but ancillary support could be considered. Health professionals require routine and standardised provision of diagnosis and treatment algorithms for CL and MCL. During treatment, all patients could be given simple information to increase awareness in the community. PMID:23690792

  5. [Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in five villages of Dogon country, Mali].

    PubMed

    Kone, A K; Delaunay, P; Djimdé, A A; Thera, M A; Giudice, P D; Coulibaly, D; Traoré, K; Goita, S M; Abathina, A; Izri, A; Marty, P; Doumbo, O K

    2012-02-01

    The epidemiology of the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with Leishmania major is poorly documented in Mali. Following reports of CL in the tourist areas of the Dogon country (Bandiagara Escarpment), a joint French and Malian bio-clinical team conducted a field study from 16 to 27 January, 2010. The population of 5 villages has been examined by a dermato-infectiologist and cases were selected by visual inspection of skin lesions. Smears and biopsies (from the lesions) and venous blood were obtained from suspected cases of CL. Diagnosis was performed by light microscopy, in vitro cultures, serology and molecular biology. Fifty patients with skin lesions have been examined. Twenty-one have been suspected as CL. At least one sample was obtained from 18 patients. The lesions were predominantly old, more or less scarring and secondary infected. A skin smear was performed for 15 patients, a skin biopsy for 14 patients: smears and cultures were all negative. The PCR (Leishmania spp.) made on 14 biopsies was positive for 12 patients (86%). The low amount of amplified DNA obtained did not allow the sequencing and identification of the species of Leishmania. Western blot (WB) serology was positive in 11 cases out of 12 (92%). This investigation showed the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bandiagara. A further investigation is required during transmission period (September-October) to confirm the presence of Leishmania major epidemic in Dogon country. PMID:22246557

  6. 2006 AAHA canine vaccine guidelines.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michael A; Carmichael, Leland E; Childers, Henry; Cotter, Susan; Davidson, Autumn; Ford, Richard; Hurley, Kate F; Roth, James A; Schultz, Ronald D; Thacker, Eileen; Welborn, Link

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, AAHA's Canine Vaccine Task Force met to reexamine and revise guidelines on the use of vaccines in dogs. The results of the Task Force's work are summarized and tabulated in this article and are published in their entirety on the AAHA website (www.aahanet.org). The 2006 AAHA Canine Vaccine Guidelines contain information on new technological developments in vaccines, an introduction to conditionally licensed vaccines, and detailed recommendations on the use of available vaccines. Perhaps the most noteworthy addition to the guidelines is a separate set of recommendations created for shelter facilities. Vaccines are classified as core (universally recommended), noncore (optional), or not recommended. The Task Force recognizes that vaccination decisions must always be made on an individual basis, based on risk and lifestyle factors. PMID:16527908

  7. Sensitivity and specificity of parallel or serial serological testing for detection of canine Leishmania infection

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused byLeishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26910354

  8. Predicted Distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis Vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae; Phlebotominae) in Iran: A Niche Model Study.

    PubMed

    Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Rassi, Y; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M R; Haghdoost, A A; Akhavan, A A; Charrahy, Z; Karimi, A

    2015-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important vector-borne disease in Iran. Till now, Leishmania infantum has been detected from five species of sand flies in the country including Phlebotomus kandelakii, Phlebotomus major s.l., Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus alexandri and Phlebotomus tobbi. Also, Phlebotomus keshishiani was found to be infected with Leishmania parasites. This study aimed at predicting the probable niches and distribution of vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. Data on spatial distribution studies of sand flies were obtained from Iranian database on sand flies. Sample points were included in data from faunistic studies on sand flies conducted during 1995-2013. MaxEnt software was used to predict the appropriate ecological niches for given species, using climatic and topographical data. Distribution maps were prepared and classified in ArcGIS to find main ecological niches of the vectors and hot spots for VL transmission in Iran. Phlebotomus kandelakii, Ph. major s.l. and Ph. alexandri seem to have played a more important role in VL transmission in Iran, so this study focuses on them. Representations of MaxEnt model for probability of distribution of the studied sand flies showed high contribution of climatological and topographical variables to predict the potential distribution of three vector species. Isothermality was found to be an environmental variable with the highest gain when used in isolation for Ph. kandelakii and Ph. major s.l., while for Ph. alexandri, the most effective variable was precipitation of the coldest quarter. The results of this study present the first prediction on distribution of sand fly vectors of VL in Iran. The predicted distributions were matched with the disease-endemic areas in the country, while it was found that there were some unaffected areas with the potential transmission. More comprehensive studies are recommended on the ecology and vector competence of VL vectors in the country. PMID:26032232

  9. Cost-effectiveness of canine vaccination to prevent human rabies in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Meagan C; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Mzimbiri, Imam; Lankester, Felix; Lembo, Tiziana; Meyers, Lauren A.; Paltiel, A David; Galvani, Alison P

    2014-01-01

    Background The annual mortality rate of human rabies in rural Africa is 3.6 deaths per 100,000 individuals. Rabies can be prevented by prompt post-exposure prophylaxis, but this is costly and often inaccessible in rural Africa. As 99% of human exposures occur through rabid dogs, canine vaccination also prevents transmission of rabies to humans. Objective Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rabies control through annual canine vaccination campaigns in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Design We model transmission dynamics in dogs and wildlife and assess empirical uncertainty in the biological parameters to make probability-based evaluations of cost-effectiveness. Data Sources Epidemiological parameters from contact tracing study and literature; cost data from ongoing vaccination campaigns Target Population Two districts of rural Tanzania, Ngorongoro and Serengeti Time Horizon Ten years Perspective Health policymaker Interventions Vaccination coverage ranging from 0 to 95% in increments of 5% Outcome Measures Life-years for health outcomes and 2010 USD for economic outcomes Results of Base-Case Analysis Annual canine vaccination campaigns are very cost-effective in both districts compared with no canine vaccination. In Serengeti, annual campaigns up to 70% coverage are cost-saving. Results of Sensitivity Analysis Across a wide range of parameter assumptions and levels of societal willingness-to-pay for life-years, the optimal vaccination coverage for Serengeti is 70%. In Ngorongoro, though optimal coverage depends on willingness-to-pay, vaccination campaigns are always cost-effective and life-saving, and therefore preferred. Limitations Canine vaccination is very cost-effective in both districts, but there is greater uncertainty regarding the optimal coverage in Ngorongoro. Conclusions Annual canine rabies vaccination campaigns confer extraordinary value and dramatically reduce the health burden of rabies. Primary Funding Source US National Institutes of Health (U01 GM087719) PMID:24592494

  10. Canine Blastomycosis in Southern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Harasen, Greg L.G.; Randall, James W.

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of canine blastomycosis in southern Saskatchewan is examined and three clinical cases are described. Nineteen cases of the disease have been diagnosed in southern Saskatchewan since April of 1981. Eight cases were diagnosed during a six month period from August 1985 to February 1986 in dogs residing in a small central area of Regina. The geographical and chronological clustering of cases suggests a local source of exposure to Blastomyces dermatitidis, not previously considered to be endemic to Saskatchewan. PMID:17422705

  11. Transforming growth factor-beta in human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Barral, A.; Teixeira, M.; Reis, P.; Vinhas, V.; Costa, J.; Lessa, H.; Bittencourt, A. L.; Reed, S.; Carvalho, E. M.; Barral-Netto, M.

    1995-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has several downregulatory functions on the immune system: inhibition of interleukin-2 receptor induction, decrease of interferon-gamma-induced class II antigen expression, inhibition of macrophage activation, as well as cytotoxic and lymphokine-activated killer cell generation. TGF-beta has also been recognized as an important immunoregulator in murine leishmaniasis, for which it increases susceptibility to disease. In the present study we evaluate the involvement of TGF-beta in human leishmaniasis in vitro and in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Human macrophages produce active TGF-beta after infection by Leishmania amazonensis (480 +/- 44.7 pg/ml; mean +/- SEM), L. donovani chagasi (295 +/- 7.6 pg/ml), or L. braziliensis (196 +/- 15.7 pg/ml). When TGF-beta was added to cultures of human macrophages infected with L. braziliensis it led to an increase of approximately 50% in parasite numbers as compared with untreated cultures. Exogenous TGF-beta added to macrophage cultures was able to reverse the effect of interferon-gamma in controlling Leishmania growth. Even at 100 IU/ml interferon-gamma the presence of TGF-beta increases the number of intracellular parasites. On the other hand, TNF-alpha at high concentration (100 IU/ml) totally blunts the suppressive effect of TGF-beta. Immunostaining for TGF-beta was observed in the dermis, produced by fibroblasts and occasionally by inflammatory cells in the biopsies from human leishmaniasis lesions, being present in most of the biopsies taken from patients with early cutaneous leishmaniasis (less than 2 months of ulcer development) and in cases of active mucosal leishmaniasis. Taken together these observations suggest an important role for TGF-beta in human leishmaniasis, with its production by infected macrophages being probably related to parasite establishment in the early stages of the disease. Images Figure 4 PMID:7573370

  12. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control. PMID:18634509

  13. Role of the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus)in the Epidemiology of Urban Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lopes de Carvalho, Renata; McCallum, Hamish; Pereira, Marcos Horácio

    2002-01-01

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is a serious public health problem in several Brazilian cities. Although the proximity of chicken houses is often cited as a risk factor in studies of urban ZVL, the role chickens play in the epidemiology of the disease has not been defined. Chickens attract both male and female sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis), but are unable to sustain Leishmania infections, and their presence may exert a zooprophylactic effect. We discuss environmental, physiologic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors related to chicken raising that could influence Le. infantum transmission in Brazilian cities and evaluate whether this practice significantly affects the risk of acquiring ZVL. PMID:12498667

  14. Canine Rabies: A Looming Threat to Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Cáceres, Sigfrido

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary This review is guided by three questions: What is canine rabies? Why is it a looming threat to public health? Why should we care about canine rabies being a public health threat? It seeks to answer these questions and notes that canine rabies is viral zoonosis with dogs being the major vectors. The disease is a looming threat to public health because rabid dogs bite humans, resulting in thousands of deaths every year. We should care about this evolving situation because, in general, rabies is a neglected disease for which there are vaccines, preventive measures, post-exposure prophylaxis, and control protocols. Abstract Rabies is an acute, fatal viral disease that infects domestic and wild animals and is transmissible to humans. Worldwide, rabies kills over 55,000 people every year. The domestic dog plays a pivotal role in rabies transmission. Domestic dogs are not only part of our daily lives but also of our immediate surroundings, and this is reflected in the rise in pet dog ownership in developed and developing countries. This is important given that more frequent exposures and interactions at the animal-human interface increases the likelihood of contracting zoonotic diseases of companion animals. Despite existing vaccines and post-exposure prophylactic treatment, rabies remains a neglected disease that is poorly controlled throughout much of the developing world, particularly Africa and Asia, where most human rabies deaths occur. It is believed that with sustained international commitments, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal. PMID:26486619

  15. Cross-Sectional Study to Assess Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Region in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Munasinghe, Asoka; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sivanantharajah, Sundaramoorthy; Seneviratne, Kamal; Bandara, Samantha; Athauda, Indira; Navaratne, Chaturi; Silva, Ositha; Wackwella, Hasini; Matlashewski, Greg; Wickremasinghe, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lanka reports significantly more cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases than visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, both of which are caused by Leishmania donovani MON-37. A cross-sectional study conducted in an area with a high prevalence of CL prevalent included 954 participants of an estimated population of 61,674 to estimate the number of CL cases, ascertain whether there is a pool of asymptomatic VL cases, and identify risk factors for transmission. A total of 31 cases of CL were identified, of whom 21 were previously diagnosed and 10 were new cases. Using rK39 rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies against Leishmania spp., we found that only one person was seropositive but did not have clinical symptoms of CL or VL, which indicated low transmission of VL in this area. ?2 test, independent sample t-test, and multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and spatial distribution of environmental risk factors showed that living near paddy fields is associated with increased risk for transmission of CL (P ? 0.01). PMID:23918217

  16. Complete genome sequence of an avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus isolated from dogs in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Jun; Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Hong, Minki; Na, Woonseong; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Poo, Haryoung; Park, Bong-Kyun; Song, Dae-Sub

    2012-09-01

    An avian-origin Korean H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) strain, designated A/canine/Korea/01/2007 (H3N2), was isolated from nasal swabs of pet dogs exhibiting severe respiratory syndrome in 2007. In the present study, we report the first complete genome sequence containing 3' and 5' noncoding regions (NCRs) of H3N2 CIV, which will provide important insights into the molecular basis of pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of CIV. PMID:22879618

  17. Oncolytic Reovirus in Canine Mast Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Chung Chew; Umeki, Saori; Kubo, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshiharu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken; Baba, Kenji; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Coffey, Matt; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    The usage of reovirus has reached phase II and III clinical trials in human cancers. However, this is the first study to report the oncolytic effects of reovirus in veterinary oncology, focusing on canine mast cell tumor (MCT), the most common cutaneous tumor in dogs. As human and canine cancers share many similarities, we hypothesized that the oncolytic effects of reovirus can be exploited in canine cancers. The objective of this study was to determine the oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine MCT in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. We demonstrated that MCT cell lines were highly susceptible to reovirus as indicated by marked cell death, high production of progeny virus and virus replication. Reovirus induced apoptosis in the canine MCT cell lines with no correlation to their Ras activation status. In vivo studies were conducted using unilateral and bilateral subcutaneous MCT xenograft models with a single intratumoral reovirus treatment and apparent reduction of tumor mass was exhibited. Furthermore, cell death was induced by reovirus in primary canine MCT samples in vitro. However, canine and murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMCMC) were also susceptible to reovirus. The combination of these results supports the potential value of reovirus as a therapy in canine MCT but warrants further investigation on the determinants of reovirus susceptibility. PMID:24073198

  18. Regulation of PKC Mediated Signaling by Calcium during Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Nivedita; Chakraborty, Supriya; Paul Chowdhury, Bidisha; Banerjee, Sayantan; Halder, Kuntal; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Subrata; Sen, Parimal C.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is an ubiquitous cellular signaling molecule that controls a variety of cellular processes and is strictly maintained in the cellular compartments by the coordination of various Ca2+ pumps and channels. Two such fundamental calcium pumps are plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) which play a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis. This intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is often disturbed by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study we have dileneated the involvement of PMCA4 and SERCA3 during leishmaniasis. We have observed that during leishmaniasis, intracellular Ca2+ concentration was up-regulated and was further controlled by both PMCA4 and SERCA3. Inhibition of these two Ca2+-ATPases resulted in decreased parasite burden within the host macrophages due to enhanced intracellular Ca2+. Contrastingly, on the other hand, activation of PMCA4 was found to enhance the parasite burden. Our findings also highlighted the importance of Ca2+ in the modulation of cytokine balance during leishmaniasis. These results thus cumulatively suggests that these two Ca2+-ATPases play prominent roles during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25329062

  19. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis of the Lid: A Report of Nine Cases

    PubMed Central

    Maraghi, Sharif; Bagherani, Nooshin; Rafiei, Abdolla

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania species and is classified into three forms; cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral. The eyelid is a rare site involved by leishmaniasis and only makes up 2.5% of cases with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Although CL can affect both upper and lower lids on either their outer or inner aspects, the lateral canthus is most often affected. The most common aspect of lid leishmaniasis is chalazion-like lesions but ulcerous, phagedenic, cancer-like forms, and unilateral chronic granulomatous blepharitis may be observed. When the lid is involved, the disease is usually self-limiting; healing usually takes up to one year, hence early diagnosis and treatment are important. The diagnosis is based on a high index of suspicion regarding the endemicity of the disease in the region. Response to treatment in lid CL cases is quite satisfactory. In this article, we report nine cases of lid leishmaniasis with satisfactory responses to intralesional meglumine antimoniate. PMID:20157413

  20. [The impact of climate change on leishmaniasis in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Chrystian Soares; Coelho, Alexandre Bragança; Féres, José Gustavo; Souza, Elvanio Costa de; Cunha, Dênis Antônio da

    2016-01-01

    This paper sought to assess how climate change will affect the proliferation of leishmaniasis in Brazil in three time frames: 2010-2039, 2040-2079 and 2080-2100, and with two climate change scenarios. The relation of temperature, precipitation and the number of hospital admissions due to leishmaniasis was estimated and projections were made using these results. Results show that precipitation has a strong relation with leishmaniasis incidence and projections show that by the end of the twenty-first century there will be a 15% growth in the annual number of hospital admissions due to leishmaniasis in Brazil, compared to the base scenario (1992-2002). In regional terms, projections indicate growth in every region, with the exception of the Mid-West. The highest relative growth will be in the South of the country, while the highest increase in absolute terms will be observed in the Northeast region. In general, the incidence of leishmaniasis will grow in Brazil due to climate change. PMID:26816183

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis and malaria prevalence in West Pokot District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutero, C M; Mutinga, M J; Ngindu, A M; Kenya, P R; Amimo, F A

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis and malaria in the human population of West Pokot district of Kenya was studied in 1986. A total of 2139 people was proportionately screened for the two diseases according to four age categories (0-4, 5-14, 15-44 and greater than 45 years). Diagnostic methods included the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Leishmanin skin test for visceral leishmaniasis, and parasitological examination for malaria. The epidemiological value of the spleen rate was evaluated in relation to visceral leishmaniasis and malaria endemicity. A general decline of infection rates with altitude was observed for both diseases. Visceral leishmaniasis was less prevalent than malaria, with less than 2% active cases in any age group and had the same distribution in both sexes. Malaria infection rate was highest in the younger age groups, declining from 21.5% in the 0-4 year old age group to 5.5% in people more than 45 years old. Malaria affected significantly more males than females. The spleen rate was inappropriate for epidemiological survey of either malaria or visceral leishmaniasis due to an overlap in the distribution of the two diseases. PMID:1628545

  2. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: Differential diagnosis, diagnosis, histopathology, and management.

    PubMed

    Handler, Marc Z; Patel, Parimal A; Kapila, Rajendra; Al-Qubati, Yasin; Schwartz, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of leishmaniasis can be challenging because it mimics both infectious and malignant conditions. A misdiagnosis may lead to an unfavorable outcome. Using culture, histologic, and/or polymerase chain reaction study results, a diagnosis of leishmaniasis can be established and treatment initiated. Appropriate management requires an accurate diagnosis, which often includes identification of the specific etiologic species. Different endemic areas have varying sensitivities to the same medication, even within individual species. Species identification may be of practical value, because infections with select species have a substantial risk of visceral involvement. In addition, HIV and otherwise immunocompromised patients with leishmaniasis have a propensity for diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. For most New World Leishmania species, parenteral antimonial drugs remain the first line of therapy, while Old World species are easily treated with physical modalities. Historically, live organism vaccination has been used and is effective in preventing leishmaniasis, but results in an inoculation scar and an incubation period that may last for years. A more effective method of vaccination would be welcome. PMID:26568336

  3. Permissive and protective roles for neutrophils in leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, E D; Liang, Y; Shelite, T R; Walker, D H; Melby, P C; Soong, L

    2015-11-01

    Leishmania parasites are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease that causes substantial morbidity and considerable mortality in many developing areas of the world. Recent estimates suggest that roughly 10 million people suffer from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), and approximately 76,000 are afflicted with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is universally fatal without treatment. Efforts to develop therapeutics and vaccines have been greatly hampered by an incomplete understanding of the parasite's biology and a lack of clear protective correlates that must be met in order to achieve immunity. Although parasites grow and divide preferentially in macrophages, a number of other cell types interact with and internalize Leishmania parasites, including monocytes, dendritic cells and neutrophils. Neutrophils appear to be especially important shortly after parasites are introduced into the skin, and may serve a dual protective and permissive role during the establishment of infection. Curiously, neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection appears to continue into the chronic phase of disease, which may persist for many years. The immunological impact of these cells during chronic leishmaniasis is unclear at this time. In this review we discuss the ways in which neutrophils have been observed to prevent and promote the establishment of infection, examine the role of anti-neutrophil antibodies in mouse models of leishmaniasis and consider recent findings that neutrophils may play a previously unrecognized role in influencing chronic parasite persistence. PMID:26126690

  4. New developments in canine hepatozoonosis in North America: a review

    PubMed Central

    Little, Susan E; Allen, Kelly E; Johnson, Eileen M; Panciera, Roger J; Reichard, Mason V; Ewing, Sidney A

    2009-01-01

    Canine hepatozoonosis is caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum, apicomplexan parasites transmitted to dogs by ingestion of infectious stages. Although the two agents are phylogenetically related, specific aspects, including characteristics of clinical disease and the natural history of the parasites themselves, differ between the two species. Until recently, H. canis infections had not been clearly documented in North America, and autochthonous infection with H. americanum has yet to be reported outside of the southern United States. However, recent reports demonstrate H. canis is present in areas of North America where its vector tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has long been endemic, and that the range of H. americanum is likely expanding along with that of its vector tick, Amblyomma maculatum; co-infections with the two organisms have also been identified. Significant intraspecific variation has been reported in the 18S rRNA gene sequence of both Hepatozoon spp.-infecting dogs, suggesting that each species may represent a complex of related genogroups rather than well-defined species. Transmission of H. americanum to dogs via ingestion of cystozoites in muscle of infected vertebrates was recently demonstrated, supporting the concept of predation as a means of natural transmission. Although several exciting advances have occurred in recent years, much remains to be learned about patterns of infection and the nature of clinical disease caused by the agents of canine hepatozoonosis in North America. PMID:19426444

  5. Peridomiciliary Breeding Sites of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Vivaldo Pim; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Biral dos Santos, Claudiney; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in areas modified by humans indicates that phlebotomine sand fly vectors breed close to human habitations. Potential peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomines were sampled in an area of transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil. Three concentric circles rounding houses and domestic animal shelters, with radii of 20, 40, and 60 m, defined the area to be monitored using adult emergence traps. Of the 67 phlebotomines collected, Lutzomyia intermedia comprised 71.6%; Lutzomyia schreiberi, 20.9%; and Lutzomyia migonei, 4.5%. The predominance of L. intermedia, the main species suspected of transmitting L. (V.) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil, indicates its participation in the domiciliary transmission of ACL, providing evidence that the domiciliary ACL transmission cycle might be maintained by phlebotomines that breed close to human habitations. This finding might also help in planning measures that would make the peridomiciliary environment less favorable for phlebotomine breeding sites. PMID:23091196

  6. Wave transmission characteristics and anisotropy of canine carotid arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moritz, W. E.; Anliker, M.

    1974-01-01

    A method was developed to generate and record three types of small amplitude waves (pressure, torsion and axial) in the exposed carotid artery of anesthetized dogs. The pressure waves were studied with the aid of miniature pressure transducers; electro-optical tracking units monitored the axial and circumferential surface displacements. Results from 6 dogs are presented in the form of the phase velocities and attenuation of three types of waves. The data demonstrate incompatibility with an isotropic elastic model for the mechanical behavior of the artery. The measured damping appears to be primarily due to the viscoelastic properties of the vessel wall material.

  7. Survey of Wild Mammal Hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Parasites in Panamá and Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E.; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A.; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D.; Adler, Gregory H.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America. PMID:25859156

  8. Immunopathogenesis of non-healing American cutaneous leishmaniasis and progressive visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Lynn; Henard, Calvin A.; Melby, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    The outcomes of Leishmania infection are determined by host immune and nutrition status, parasite species, and co-infection with other pathogens. While subclinical infection and self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are common, uncontrolled parasite replication can lead to non-healing local lesions or visceral leishmaniasis (VL). It is known that infection control requires Th1-differentiation cytokines (IL-12, IL-18, and IL-27) and Th1 cell and macrophage activation. However, there is no generalized consensus for the mechanisms of host susceptibility. The recent studies on regulatory T cells and IL-17-producing cells help explain the effector T cell responses that occur independently of the known Th1/Th2 cell signaling pathways. This review focuses on the immunopathogenesis of non-healing American CL and progressive VL. We summarize recent evidence from human and animal studies that reveals the mechanisms of dysregulated, hyper-responses to Leishmania braziliensis, as well as the presence of disease-promoting or the absence of protective responses to Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania donovani. We highlight immune-mediated parasite growth and immunopathogenesis, with an emphasis on the putative roles of IL-17 and its related cytokines as well as arginase. A better understanding of the quality and regulation of innate immunity and T cell responses triggered by Leishmania will aid in the rational control of pathology and the infection. PMID:23053396

  9. Effects of P-MAPA immunomodulator on Toll-like receptor 2, ROS, nitric oxide, MAPKp38 and IKK in PBMC and macrophages from dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Melo, L M; Perosso, J; Almeida, B F M; Silva, K L O; Somenzari, M A; de Lima, V M F

    2014-02-01

    Leishmania (L.) chagasi is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) that can be transmitted to humans and dogs. VL in Brazil represents a serious public health problem; therefore, it is important to study new alternatives to treat infected dogs. In dogs, the therapeutic arsenal against canine VL is limited. The immunomodulator protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride (P-MAPA) improves immunocompetence when the immune system is impaired, but its dependence on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the mechanisms involved in immune response remain unclear. The in vitro action of P-MAPA on the expression of TLR2 and TLR4, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and IKK phosphorylation was studied in mononuclear cells from peripheral blood and macrophages from healthy and Leishmania-infected dogs. The PBMC or macrophages were isolated and cultured with different concentrations of P-MAPA (20,100 and 200 ?g/ml) in a humid environment at 37°C with 5% CO(2). Observation revealed that Leishmania-infected dogs showed a decrease in TLR2 in macrophages compared with healthy dogs and in induction with P-MAPA. ROS were increased in PBMCs from Leishmania spp.-infected dogs compared with healthy dogs and P-MAPA improved ROS production. NO production was increased in culture supernatant from macrophages stimulated by P-MAPA in both healthy and Leishmania spp. infected dogs. Treatment of macrophages from healthy dogs with immunomodulatory P-MAPA induced p38 MAPK and IKK phosphorylation, suggesting signal transduction by this pathway. These findings suggest that P-MAPA has potential as a therapeutic drug in the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:24374021

  10. Tuberous sclerosis with visceral leishmaniasis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis, a tropical infectious disease, is a major public health problem in India. Tuberous sclerosis, a congenital neuro-ectodermosis, is an uncommon disease which requires life long treatment. Case presentation A 15-year-old Indian patient, presented to the outpatient department of our institute with a high-grade fever for two months, splenomegaly and a history of generalized tonic-clonic convulsions since childhood. The clinical and laboratory findings suggested visceral leishmaniasis with tuberous sclerosis. The patient was treated with miltefosine and antiepileptics. Conclusion The patient responded well and in a follow up six months after presentation, she was found free of visceral leishmaniasis and seizures. Diagnosis and treatment of this rare combination of diseases is difficult.

  11. Lipsosomal Amphotericin B for Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Wortmann, Glenn; Zapor, Michael; Ressner, Roseanne; Fraser, Susan; Hartzell, Josh; Pierson, Joseph; Weintrob, Amy; Magill, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Treatment options for cutaneous leishmaniasis in the United States are problematic because the available products are either investigational, toxic, and/or of questionable effectiveness. A retrospective review of patients receiving liposomal amphotericin B through the Walter Reed Army Medical Center for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis during 2007–2009 was conducted. Twenty patients who acquired disease in five countries and with five different strains of Leishmania were treated, of whom 19 received a full course of treatment. Sixteen (84%) of 19 experienced a cure with the initial treatment regimen. Three patients did not fully heal after an initial treatment course, but were cured with additional dosing. Acute infusion-related reactions occurred in 25% and mild renal toxicity occurred in 45% of patients. Although the optimum dosing regimen is undefined and the cost and toxicity may limit widespread use, liposomal amphotericin B is a viable treatment alternative for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:21036832

  12. Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: Report of 27 Cases.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Iván D; Jiménez, Alejandra; Vásquez, Daniel; Robledo, Sara M

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) is a poorly described disease that is frequently misdiagnosed as other clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) such as diffuse CL or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Twenty-seven cases of DL diagnosed between 1997 and 2015 are described. A higher prevalence was observed in men (mean age 32 years). The number of lesions per patient ranged from 12 to 294, distributed mainly in the upper extremities, face and trunk. The lesions were mostly plaques or nodules. Seven patients had nasal mucous damage, 74% of the patients were of mixed race, 92% lived in northwestern Colombia, and Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis was identified as the causative agent in 58% of cases. Eighteen patients recovered with pentavalent antimonial. The importance of distinguishing DL from those other clinical presentations is based on the fact that disseminated, diffuse and post-kala-azar CL are very different in etiology, clinical manifestations and response to treatment and prognosis. PMID:26557074

  13. Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: Report of 27 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Iván D.; Jiménez, Alejandra; Vásquez, Daniel; Robledo, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) is a poorly described disease that is frequently misdiagnosed as other clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) such as diffuse CL or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Twenty-seven cases of DL diagnosed between 1997 and 2015 are described. A higher prevalence was observed in men (mean age 32 years). The number of lesions per patient ranged from 12 to 294, distributed mainly in the upper extremities, face and trunk. The lesions were mostly plaques or nodules. Seven patients had nasal mucous damage, 74% of the patients were of mixed race, 92% lived in northwestern Colombia, and Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis was identified as the causative agent in 58% of cases. Eighteen patients recovered with pentavalent antimonial. The importance of distinguishing DL from those other clinical presentations is based on the fact that disseminated, diffuse and post-kala-azar CL are very different in etiology, clinical manifestations and response to treatment and prognosis. PMID:26557074

  14. Visceral leishmaniasis: Revisiting current treatments and approaches for future discoveries.

    PubMed

    No, Joo Hwan

    2016-03-01

    The current treatments for visceral leishmaniasis are old and toxic with limited routes of administration. The emergence of drug-resistant Leishmania threatens the efficacy of the existing reservoir of antileishmanials, leading to an urgent need to develop new treatments. It is particularly important to review and understand how the current treatments act against Leishmania in order to identify valid drug targets or essential pathways for next-generation antileishmanials. It is equally important to adapt newly emerging biotechnologies to facilitate the current research on the development of novel antileishmanials in an efficient fashion. This review covers the basic background of the current visceral leishmaniasis treatments with an emphasis on the modes of action. It briefly discusses the role of the immune system in aiding the chemotherapy of leishmaniasis, describes potential new antileishmanial drug targets and pathways, and introduces recent progress on the utilization of high-throughput phenotypic screening assays to identify novel antileishmanial compounds. PMID:26748356

  15. Tegumentary leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas: what have we learned and what do we need?

    PubMed

    Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Maciel, Marcel Gonçalves; Guerra, Marcus Vinítius de Farias; Talhari, Anette Chursciack; Prestes, Suzane Ribeiro; Fernandes, Marcos Antonio; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Martins, Alessandra; Coelho, Leíla Ines de Aguiar Raposo Camara; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the occurrence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, in the last 30 years with emphasis on the last 10 years (2001 to 2010). The disease was predominantly observed in males (76.2%), in the 21- to 30-year-old age group (26.6%) and in extractive workers (43.7%); 3.3% of the cases were the mucosal form. The endemic channel shows the disease seasonality, with a predominance of cases at the beginning and end of each year. The number of cases by municipality in the period of 2001-2010 shows the maintenance of the endemic in the localities where the highest numbers of cases have always been registered, namely, Manaus, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara and Presidente Figueiredo. The comparison of data from 2001 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2010 showed the emergence of this disease in municipalities that had been previously unaffected. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the activities of control, diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas. In conclusion, the historical series of ATL analyzed in this study suggests that the transmission foci remain and are even expanding, though without continuous transmission in the intra- or peridomicile settings. Moreover, the disease will persist in the Amazon while the factors associated with infection acquisition relative to forest exploitation continue to have economic appeal. There is a real expectation of wide variations in disease incidence that can be influenced by climate and economic aspects. PMID:26061366

  16. Characterisation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Matara district, southern Sri Lanka: evidence for case clustering.

    PubMed

    Kariyawasam, K K G D U L; Edirisuriya, C S; Senerath, U; Hensmen, D; Siriwardana, H V Y D; Karunaweera, N D

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by Phlebotomus spp. sand flies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by Leishmania donovani. Transmission patterns are different in Southern and Northern Sri Lanka. Current study examined the prevalence, risk factors and distribution of CL in Matara District, Southern Sri Lanka. Total of 2260 individuals from four District Secretariat divisions (DSDs) were screened by house to house surveys using an interviewer administered questionnaire. The study population had an age range of 1-90?years (median??=??43??±??17.31), low monthly income (?4?hours/day) spent outdoors. However, exposure of limbs while outdoors, unawareness about the disease, type of occupation, common water source as the mode of water supply and presence of animal shelters within 200?m were not associated with the risk of acquiring the disease. Peri-domestic transmission is likely to contribute to the observed case clustering with all age groups at risk of acquiring the infection. Human behavioural habits coinciding with that of the vector, sand fly are likely to enable host-vector contact promoting its spread. Appropriate vector control measures, improvement of housing conditions, public education regarding preventive measures are required to contain the spread of disease. PMID:26345305

  17. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis masquerading as Wegener granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Brahn, Ernest; Pegues, David A; Yao, Qingping; Craft, Noah

    2010-04-01

    A 43-year-old Brazilian female presented in 2001 with nasal stuffiness and sinusitis. A biopsy was consistent with limited Wegener's granulomatosis although antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were negative. Her nasal inflammation progressed despite trials of prednisone, methotrexate, and azathioprine. A septal perforation developed and a repeat biopsy showed granulomatous inflammation. In 2006 the patient was referred to Division of Rheumatology, University of California, Los Angeles. The nose was grossly erythematous and a magnetic resonance imaging revealed nasal destruction and sinusitis. Palatine biopsies showed chronic inflammation. Cyclophosphamide at 150 mg/d resulted in markedly improved mucocutaneous lesions. The patient developed a leg and arm rash in 2007. A skin biopsy was positive for Leishmania braziliensis. The cyclophosphamide was discontinued and amphotericin B was initiated with transient benefit. Remission was achieved with pentavalent antimony. Despite multiple nasopharyngeal biopsies, for a 6-year span, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis masqueraded as Wegener's granulomatosis. Cyclophosphamide not only resulted in clinical improvement, due to reduced inflammatory response, but also allowed widespread cutaneous dissemination. PMID:20375822

  18. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. PMID:23999330

  19. Bibliometric analysis of leishmaniasis research in Medline (1945-2010)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Publications are often used as a measure of success of research work. Leishmaniasis is considered endemic in 98 countries, most of which are developing. This article describes a bibliometric review of the literature on leishmaniasis research indexed in PubMed during a 66-year period. Methods Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. The search strategy was Leishmania [MeSH] or leishmaniasis [MeSH] from 1 January 1945 until 31 December 2010. Neither language nor document type restrictions were employed. Results A total of 20,780 references were retrieved. The number of publications increased steadily over time, with 3,380 publications from 1945-1980 to 8,267 from 2001-2010. Leishmaniasis documents were published in 1,846 scientific journals, and Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (4.9%) was the top one. The USA was the predominant country by considering the first author’s institutional address (16.8%), followed by Brazil (14.9%), and then India (9.0%), however Brazil leads the scientific output in 2001-2010 period (18.5%), followed by the USA (13.5%) and India (10%). The production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalised by population (Israel and Switzerland), by gross domestic product (Nepal and Tunisia), and by gross national income per capita (India and Ethiopia). For geographical area, Europe led (31.7%), followed by Latin America (24.5%). Conclusions We have found an increase in the number of publications in the field of leishmaniasis. The USA and Brazil led scientific production on leishmaniasis research. PMID:23497410

  20. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:23293164

  1. A review of canine pseudocyesis.

    PubMed

    Gobello, C; de la Sota, R L; Goya, R G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the most relevant features of the physiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of canine pseudocyesis (PSC). This is a physiological syndrome, characterized by clinical signs such as: nesting, weight gain, mammary enlargement, lactation and maternal behaviour, which appears in non-pregnant bitches at the end of metaoestrus. PSC is a frequent finding in domestic dogs. Although it is generally admitted that prolactin (PRL) plays a central role in the appearance of PSC, its precise aetiophysiology is not completely understood yet. A number of clinical studies suggest that at some point of metaoestrus circulating PRL levels rise in overtly pseudopregnant bitches. Individual differences in sensitivity to PRL as well as the existence of molecular variants of canine PRL with different bioactivity versus immunoreactivity ratios may help clarify the aetiopathology of PSC. Diagnosis of PSC is based on the presence of typical clinical signs in metaoestrous non-pregnant bitches. Considering that PSC is a self limiting physiological state, mild cases usually need no treatment. Discouraging maternal behaviour and sometimes fitting Elizabethan collars to prevent licking of the mammary glands may suffice in these cases. Sex steroids (oestrogens, progestins and androgens) have been traditionally used to treat PSC but the side-effects usually outweigh the benefits of these medications. Inhibition of PRL release by ergot derivatives [bromocriptine (10-100 microg/kg per day for 10-14 days], cabergoline (5 microg/kg per day during 5-10 days), metergoline (0.2 mg/kg per day during 8-10 days) has proved to be effective for the treatment of canine PSC. Although some of these ergot derivatives present some untoward side-effects, they are transient and can usually be managed. Predisposed bitches not intended for breeding should be spayed as ovariectomy is the only permanent preventive measure. PMID:11928922

  2. The evolutionary ecology of transmissible cancers.

    PubMed

    Ujvari, Beata; Gatenby, Robert A; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Transmissible tumours, while rare, present a fascinating opportunity to examine the evolutionary dynamics of cancer as both an infectious agent and an exotic, invasive species. Only three naturally-occurring transmissible cancers have been observed so far in the wild: Tasmanian devil facial tumour diseases, canine transmissible venereal tumour, and clam leukaemia. Here, we define four conditions that are necessary and sufficient for direct passage of cancer cells between either vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. Successful transmission requires environment and behaviours that facilitate transfer of tumour cells between hosts including: tumour tissue properties that promote shedding of large numbers of malignant cells, tumour cell plasticity that permits their survival during transmission and growth in a new host, and a 'permissible' host or host tissue. This rare confluence of multiple host- and tumour cell-traits both explains the rarity of tumour cell transmission and provides novel insights into the dynamics that both promote and constrain their growth. PMID:26861618

  3. Genetics of Canine Primary Glaucomas.

    PubMed

    Komáromy, András M; Petersen-Jones, Simon M

    2015-11-01

    Primary glaucomas are a leading cause of incurable vision loss in dogs. Based on their specific breed predilection, a genetic cause is suspected to be responsible, and affected dogs should be excluded from breeding. Despite the high prevalence of primary glaucomas in dogs, their genetics have been studied in only a small number of breeds. The identification of canine glaucoma disease genes, and the development of genetic tests, will help to avoid the breeding of affected dogs in the future and will allow for earlier diagnosis and potentially more effective therapy. PMID:26277300

  4. Ultrasonographic features of canine lipomas.

    PubMed

    Volta, Antonella; Bonazzi, Mattia; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gazzola, Margherita; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic features of canine lipomas. A group of 94 dogs with a soft tissue mass was considered. All dogs were examined ultrasonographically and cyto/histologic examination was performed. Twenty-four dogs, whose mass was diagnosed as a lipoma, were selected. Fifty-five lipomas were present on the 24 dogs. Fifty-one lipomas were superficial and located subcutaneously. Four lipomas were deep and located in the paratesticular region. Ultrasonographically, lipomas appeared as oval, well-defined, encapsulated, striated masses. PMID:17153070

  5. Global database of leishmaniasis occurrence locations, 1960–2012

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Messina, Jane P; Battle, Katherine E; Duda, Kirsten A; Balard, Yves; Bastien, Patrick; Pratlong, Francine; Brownstein, John S; Freifeld, Clark C; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Madoff, Lawrence C; George, Dylan B; Myers, Monica F; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    The leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases of significant public health importance. However, information on their global occurrence is disparate and sparse. This database represents an attempt to collate reported leishmaniasis occurrences from 1960 to 2012. Methodology for the collection of data from the literature, abstraction of case locations and data processing procedures are described here. In addition, strain archives and online data resources were accessed. A total of 12,563 spatially and temporally unique occurrences of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis comprise the database, ranging in geographic scale from villages to states. These data can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses covering multiple resolutions. PMID:25984344

  6. [Recent advances in transmissible tumors].

    PubMed

    Tingting, Yin; Lu, Wang; Guodong, Wang

    2015-11-01

    Transmissible tumors are a class of tumor that can be transmitted between individuals through living cells. So far, four types of transmissible tumors including canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT),Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (DFTD), soft-shell clams leukemia (SSCL), and hamsters reticulum cell sarcoma (HRCS)have been discovered and identified. In the last decades, these transmissible tumors have been proved to be transmitted through living cells by cytological, histological and genetic studies. CTVT, the oldest mammalian somatic cell line, and DFTD originated from Schwann cell have been reported to avoid immunological recognition by down-regulating MHC expression, while a high copy number of Steamer retrotransposon is commonly exist in SSCL. In recent years, the whole-genome sequencing of CTVT and DFTD have been completed which facilitates studies on the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, transmission and evolution of transmissible tumors at the whole-genome level. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in transmissible tumors and discuss the research focus in next decade. PMID:26582522

  7. Identification of a canine adenovirus (infectious canine hepatitis virus) inhibitor in dog liver extracts as arginase.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, L E

    1972-09-01

    Extracts of canine liver inhibited growth of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) virus, a canine adenovirus. Purified extracts from mammalian, but not avian, liver tissue contained the inhibitor, and evidence is presented that the inhibitory factor is the enzyme arginase (arginine ureohydrolase). This study further emphasized the need for arginine in adenovirus growth and may explain some of the difficulties in isolating small amounts of ICH virus from suspensions of liver. PMID:4344396

  8. Seroconversion of puppies to canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus: a comparison of two combination vaccines.

    PubMed

    Coyne, M J

    2000-01-01

    Sixty puppies were randomly assigned to receive one of two commercially available combination vaccines, and responses to the canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus components of the vaccines were determined by measuring serum antibody titers. The percentage of puppies that seroconverted to canine parvovirus was significantly higher and the mean time for seroconversion was significantly shorter for puppies that received one of the vaccines than for puppies that received the other vaccine. Percentages of puppies that seroconverted to canine distemper virus were not significantly different. PMID:10730624

  9. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species.

    PubMed

    Dutari, Larissa C; Loaiza, Jose R

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  10. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  11. Novel Arylimidamides for Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis? †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Michael Zhuo; Zhu, Xiaohua; Srivastava, Anuradha; Liu, Qiang; Sweat, J. Mark; Pandharkar, Trupti; Stephens, Chad E.; Riccio, Ed; Parman, Toufan; Munde, Manoj; Mandal, Swati; Madhubala, Rentala; Tidwell, Richard R.; Wilson, W. David; Boykin, David W.; Hall, James Edwin; Kyle, Dennis E.; Werbovetz, Karl A.

    2010-01-01

    Arylimidamides (AIAs) represent a new class of molecules that exhibit potent antileishmanial activity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], <1 ?M) against both Leishmania donovani axenic amastigotes and intracellular Leishmania, the causative agent for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). A systematic lead discovery program was employed to characterize in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities, pharmacokinetics, mutagenicities, and toxicities of two novel AIAs, DB745 and DB766. They were exceptionally active (IC50 ? 0.12 ?M) against intracellular L. donovani, Leishmania amazonensis, and Leishmania major and did not exhibit mutagenicity in an Ames screen. DB745 and DB766, given orally, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of liver parasitemia in two efficacy models, L. donovani-infected mice and hamsters. Most notably, DB766 (100 mg/kg of body weight/day for 5 days) reduced liver parasitemia in mice and hamsters by 71% and 89%, respectively. Marked reduction of parasitemia in the spleen (79%) and bone marrow (92%) of hamsters was also observed. Furthermore, these compounds distributed to target tissues (liver and spleen) and had a moderate oral bioavailability (up to 25%), a large volume of distribution, and an elimination half-life ranging from 1 to 2 days in mice. In a repeat-dose toxicity study of mice, there was no indication of liver or kidney toxicity for DB766 from serum chemistries, although mild hepatic cell eosinophilia, hypertrophy, and fatty changes were noted. These results demonstrated that arylimidamides are a promising class of molecules that possess good antileishmanial activity and desirable pharmacokinetics and should be considered for further preclinical development as an oral treatment for VL. PMID:20368397

  12. Setting the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells co-cultured with canine macrophages infected with Leishmania chagasi.

    PubMed

    Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Ker, Henrique Gama; Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Sant'Ana, Rita de Cássia Oliveira; Wardini, Amanda Brito; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2015-07-30

    New methods for evaluating the canine immune system are necessary, not only to monitor immunological disorders, but also to provide insights for vaccine evaluations and therapeutic interventions, reducing the costs of assays using dog models, and provide a more rational way for analyzing the canine immune response. The present study intended to establish an in vitro toll to assess the parasitological/immunological status of dogs, applicable in pre-clinical trials of vaccinology, prognosis follow-up and therapeutics analysis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. We have evaluated the performance of co-culture systems of canine Leishmania chagasi-infected macrophages with different cell ratios of total lymphocytes or purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected dogs were used for the system set up. Employing the co-culture systems of L. chagasi-infected macrophages and purified CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell subsets we observed a microenvironment compatible with the expected status of the analyzed dogs. In this context, it was clearly demonstrated that, at this selected T-cell:target ratio, the adaptive immune response of uninfected dogs, composed by L. chagasi-unprimed T-cells was not able to perform the in vitro killing of L. chagasi-infected macrophages. Our data demonstrated that the co-culture system with T-cells from uninfected dogs at 1:5 and 1:2 ratio did not control the infection, yielding to patent in vitro parasitism (? 80%), low NO production (? 5 ?M) and IL-10 modulated (IFN-?/IL-10 ? 2) immunological profile in vitro. CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cells at 1:5 or 1:2 ratio to L. chagasi-infected macrophages seems to be ideal for in vitro assays. This co-culture system may have great potential as a canine immunological analysis method, as well as in vaccine evaluations, prognosis follow-up and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26095951

  13. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  14. Pharmacotherapy for leishmaniasis in the United States: focus on miltefosine.

    PubMed

    Vakil, Niyati H; Fujinami, Noriko; Shah, Punit J

    2015-05-01

    Leishmaniasis is a protozoan infection native to various countries, including those in South America and Southeast Asia. Although the incidence of leishmaniasis is low in the United States, it is an important cause of infection in individuals traveling to endemic areas. Various treatment modalities are available, depending on their availability in the geographic region. In the United States, the treatment of choice is considered to be liposomal amphotericin, although other therapies have been explored. In 2014, miltefosine became the first orally available medication approved for the treatment of leishmaniasis in the United States. Based on available data, miltefosine is a first-line option for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Miltefosine is equally efficacious to and may be as tolerable as liposomal amphotericin B. The most common adverse effects of miltefosine are vomiting, diarrhea, and transient liver enzyme level elevation. Miltefosine has not been readily available in the United States due to marketing delays and is expected to become available later this year. In the meantime, the drug may be obtained through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded-access investigational new drug protocol. PMID:25940658

  15. Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis due to Visceral Leishmaniasis in an HIV Patient

    PubMed Central

    Enríquez, Ricardo; Sirvent, Ana Esther; Padilla, Sergio; Toro, Paula; Sánchez, María; Millán, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 47 Final Diagnosis: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Symptoms: Nephrotic syndrome Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Renal biopsy Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare disease Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is an important opportunistic disease in HIV-positive patients. The information available on the effects of such co-infection in the kidney is limited. We describe a patient with HIV/leishmania coinfection who developed nephrotic syndrome and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. As far as we know, only 2 cases of this nephropathy in HIV/leishmania coinfection have been reported. Case Report: A 47-year-old man developed nephrotic syndrome. He had been diagnosed with HIV infection and visceral leishmaniasis and was treated with antiretroviral therapy, antimonial compounds, liposomal amphotericin B and miltefosine, but the leishmania followed a relapsing course. Renal biopsy disclosed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and leishmania amastigotes were seen within glomerular capillary lumens. He was given miltefosine and liposomal amphotericin B but the leishmaniasis persisted. Stage 3B chronic renal disease and nephrotic range proteinuria tend to become stable by 15-month follow-up. Conclusions: Our case illustrated some aspects of leishmaniasis in HIV patients: its relapsing course, the difficulties in therapy, and the renal involvement. PMID:25575099

  16. Cutaneous leishmaniasis with atypical clinical manifestations: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Neitzke-Abreu, Herintha Coeto; Venazzi, Mateus Sabaini; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Zanzarini, Paulo Donizeti; da Silva Fernandes, Andréa Claudia Bekner; Aristides, Sandra Mara Alessi; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana

    2014-01-01

    This case report alerts to the existence of atypical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). A woman with nodular cutaneous lesions over a neck with papules and pustules located deep in the hypodermis that formed plaques with subcutaneous induration and satellite papules was confirmed to have CL. After confirmation, the patient was treated with remission of the lesions, scarring and thickening of the skin.

  17. New insights into the diagnosis and chemotheraphy for visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V Dinesh; Verma, Priya Ranjan Prasad; Singh, Sandeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe form of leishmaniasis - a disease caused by protozoan parasites and transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly. In VL, parasites migrate to the vital organs and bone marrow, destroying white and red blood cells. VL has been called the parasitic version of HIV/AIDs (Human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), as it attacks the immune system. The most common form of the disease is cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin lesions and often leaves the infected individual permanently disfigured. Even though the disease is treatable, current treatments are difficult to administer, too expensive, or toxic for extensive use in developing nations. Furthermore, resistance to treatment is an increasing problem, particularly in India. 90% of people with VL die if the infection is left untreated, and death can come within 2 years, significantly faster than AIDS. The search for new drugs continues, with new chemical and natural compounds. Many potential drug targets have been identified in biochemical and molecular studies, and some have been validated. Attempts to exploit these targets are in progress. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical features, control Strategies, diagnosis and current treatment about visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:24033264

  18. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  19. Genome-Wide Scan for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Mixed-Breed Dogs Identifies Candidate Genes Involved in T Helper Cells and Macrophage Signaling.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Ribeiro, Érica S; Quintal, Amanda P N; Sangalli, Juliano R; Gazola, Valquiria R; Paula, Henrique B; Trinconi, Cristiana M; Lima, Valéria M F; Perri, Silvia H V; Taylor, Jeremy F; Schnabel, Robert D; Sonstegard, Tad S; Garcia, José F; Nunes, Cáris M

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs from a highly endemic area in Brazil using 149,648 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers genotyped in 20 cases and 28 controls. Using a mixed model approach, we found two candidate loci on canine autosomes 1 and 2. The positional association on chromosome 2 mapped to a predicted DNAse sensitive site in CD14+ monocytes that serve as a cis-regulatory element for the expression of interleukin alpha receptors 2 (IL2RA) and 15 (IL15RA). Both interleukins were previously found to lead to protective T helper 1 cell (Th1) response against Leishmania spp. in humans and mice. The associated marker on chromosome 1 was located between two predicted transcription factor binding sites regulating the expression of the transducin-like enhancer of split 1 gene (TLE1), an important player in Notch signaling. This pathway is critical for macrophage activity and CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th1 and T helper 2. Together, these findings suggest that the human and mouse model for protective response against Leishmania spp., which involves Th1 and macrophage modulation by interleukins 2, 15, gamma interferon and Notch signaling, may also hold for the canine model. PMID:26348501

  20. Genome-Wide Scan for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Mixed-Breed Dogs Identifies Candidate Genes Involved in T Helper Cells and Macrophage Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Ribeiro, Érica S.; Quintal, Amanda P. N.; Sangalli, Juliano R.; Gazola, Valquiria R.; Paula, Henrique B.; Trinconi, Cristiana M.; Lima, Valéria M. F.; Perri, Silvia H. V.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Garcia, José F.; Nunes, Cáris M.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs from a highly endemic area in Brazil using 149,648 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers genotyped in 20 cases and 28 controls. Using a mixed model approach, we found two candidate loci on canine autosomes 1 and 2. The positional association on chromosome 2 mapped to a predicted DNAse sensitive site in CD14+ monocytes that serve as a cis-regulatory element for the expression of interleukin alpha receptors 2 (IL2RA) and 15 (IL15RA). Both interleukins were previously found to lead to protective T helper 1 cell (Th1) response against Leishmania spp. in humans and mice. The associated marker on chromosome 1 was located between two predicted transcription factor binding sites regulating the expression of the transducin-like enhancer of split 1 gene (TLE1), an important player in Notch signaling. This pathway is critical for macrophage activity and CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th1 and T helper 2. Together, these findings suggest that the human and mouse model for protective response against Leishmania spp., which involves Th1 and macrophage modulation by interleukins 2, 15, gamma interferon and Notch signaling, may also hold for the canine model. PMID:26348501

  1. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing. PMID:25632689

  2. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Maria Antonietta; Matheson, Carney; Iachetta, Lucia; Llagostera, Agustín; Appenzeller, Otto

    2009-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. Methodology We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area–likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. Conclusions We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today. PMID:19746163

  3. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    PubMed

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment. PMID:2638021

  4. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  5. Low Quality Evidence of Epidemiological Observational Studies on Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mário; Marlow, Mariel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. Methods/Principal Findings For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n = 59), case-control (8.5%, n = 24), and cohort (6.0%, n = 17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n = 181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n = 24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n = 112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n = 38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n = 178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n = 659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. Conclusions/Significance A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the last two years, an emphasis on observational research which employs comparison groups and representative samples is urgently needed. PMID:25197965

  6. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  7. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation. PMID:25698302

  8. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  9. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding. PMID:23477413

  10. Interest in paromomycin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease, and it is classified as one of the most important tropical fly-borne infections. This disease can cause two types of clinical manifestations: cutaneous forms and visceral forms. Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also called kala-azar, is a very serious infection that can be fatal. The management of visceral leishmaniasis requires informed diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Continuous research and development regarding the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis had led to many improvements. Paromomycin is a relatively new antibiotic drug that has been used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis for several years. This article reviews and discusses the use of paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis therapy. PMID:22802694

  11. First Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Wild Adult Male and Female Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative targets for vector control via RNA interference (RNAi). PMID:23554910

  12. Predictors of Visceral Leishmaniasis Relapse in HIV-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cota, Gláucia F.; de Sousa, Marcos R.; Rabello, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a common complication in AIDS patients living in Leishmania-endemic areas. Although antiretroviral therapy has changed the clinical course of HIV infection and its associated illnesses, the prevention of VL relapses remains a challenge for the care of HIV and Leishmania co-infected patients. This work is a systematic review of previous studies that have described predictors of VL relapse in HIV-infected patients. Review Methods We searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE, LILACS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies were selected if they included HIV-infected individuals with a VL diagnosis and patient follow-up after the leishmaniasis treatment with an analysis of the clearly defined outcome of prediction of relapse. Results Eighteen out 178 studies satisfied the specified inclusion criteria. Most patients were males between 30 and 40 years of age, and HIV transmission was primarily via intravenous drug use. Previous VL episodes were identified as risk factors for relapse in 3 studies. Two studies found that baseline CD4+ T cell count above 100 cells/mL was associated with a decreased relapse rate. The observation of an increase in CD4+ T cells at patient follow-up was associated with protection from relapse in 5 of 7 studies. Meta-analysis of all studies assessing secondary prophylaxis showed significant reduction of VL relapse rate following prophylaxis. None of the five observational studies evaluating the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy use found a reduction in the risk of VL relapse upon patient follow-up. Conclusion Some predictors of VL relapse could be identified: a) the absence of an increase in CD4+ cells at follow-up; b) lack of secondary prophylaxis; and c) previous history of VL relapse. CD4+ counts below 100 cells/mL at the time of primary VL diagnosis may also be a predictive factor for VL relapse. PMID:21666786

  13. Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis: IgM and Polyclonal B-Cell Activation Lead to Disease Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Eszter; Jayakumar, Asha; Wing Cho, Ka; Goldsmith-Pestana, Karen; Dondji, Blaise; Lambris, John D.; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2010-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the draining lymph node (DLN) is the initial site for colonization and establishment of infection after intradermal transmission by the sand fly vector; however, little is known about the developing immune response within this site. Using an intradermal infection model, which allows for parasite visceralization, we have examined the ongoing immune responses in the DLN of BALB/c mice infected with L. infantum. Although not unexpected, at early times post-infection there is a marked B cell expansion in the DLN, which persists throughout infection. However, the characteristics of this response were of interest; as early as day 7 post-infection, polyclonal antibodies (TNP, OVA, chromatin) were observed and the levels appeared comparable to the specific anti-leishmania response. Although B-cell-deficient JHD BALB/c mice are relatively resistant to infection, neither B-cell-derived IL-10 nor B-cell antigen presentation appear to be primarily responsible for the elevated parasitemia. However, passive transfer and reconstitution of JHD BALB/c with secretory immunoglobulins, (IgM or IgG; specific or non-specific immune complexes) results in increased susceptibility to L. infantum infection. Further, JHD BALB/c mice transgenetically reconstituted to secrete IgM demonstrated exacerbated disease in comparison to wild type BALB/c mice as early as 2 days post-infection. Evidence suggests that complement activation (generation of C5a) and signaling via the C5aR (CD88) is related to the disease exacerbation caused by IgM rather than cytokine levels (IL-10 or IFN-?). Overall these studies indicate that polyclonal B cell activation, which is known to be associated with human visceral leishmaniasis, is an early and intrinsic characteristic of disease and may represent a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20213734

  14. Effects of vaccines on the canine immune system.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, T R; Jensen, J L; Rubino, M J; Yang, W C; Schultz, R D

    1989-01-01

    The effects of several commercially available polyvalent canine vaccines on the immune system of the dog were examined. The results demonstrated that the polyvalent vaccines used in this study significantly suppressed the absolute lymphocyte count and that most of the polyvalent vaccines significantly suppressed lymphocyte response to mitogen, but had no effect on natural effector cell activity, neutrophil chemiluminescence, nor antibody response to canine distemper virus. The individual vaccine components from the polyvalent vaccines when inoculated alone did not significantly suppress the lymphocyte response to mitogen. However, when canine distemper virus was combined with canine adenovirus type 1 or canine adenovirus type 2, significant suppression in lymphocyte responsiveness to mitogen occurred. The results indicate that interactions between canine distemper virus and canine adenovirus type 1 or canine adenovirus type 2 are responsible for the polyvalent vaccine induced suppression of lymphocyte responsiveness. PMID:2540897

  15. Aggregative Behavior of Bacteria Isolated from Canine Dental Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, David R.; Wilson, Michael; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Spratt, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Interbacterial adhesion of bacteria isolated from canine dental plaque was assessed by performing a visual coaggregation assay. Using conditions mimicking those likely to be encountered in vivo, the entire cultivable plaque microbiota from a single dog was assessed, and eight (6.7%) unique coaggregation interactions were detected for 120 crosses. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize several of the bacteria in isolation and as coaggregates, which revealed surface structures that may be involved in adhesion and coaggregation. The results of this study indicate that the prevalence of coaggregating pairs of dental plaque bacteria in dogs is similar to the prevalence of coaggregating pairs of dental plaque bacteria reported in humans. In addition, genera found in both hosts generally exhibited similar coaggregation reactions; however, autoaggregation was found to be more common among oral bacteria isolated from dogs. PMID:16885267

  16. Serologic survey for canine coronavirus in wolves from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarnke, R.L.; Evermann, J.; Ver Hoef, J.M.; McNay, M.E.; Boertje, R.D.; Gardner, C.L.; Adams, L.G.; Dale, B.W.; Burch, J.

    2001-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) were captured in three areas of Interior Alaska (USA). Four hundred twenty-five sera were tested for evidence of exposure to canine coronavirus by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody procedure. Serum antibody prevalence averaged 70% (167/ 240) during the spring collection period and 25% (46/185) during the autumn collection period. Prevalence was 0% (0/42) in the autumn pup cohort (age 4-5 mo), and 60% (58/97) in the spring pup cohort (age 9-10 mo). Prevalence was lowest in the Eastern Interior study area. A statistical model indicates that prevalence increased slightly each year in all three study areas. These results indicate that transmission occurs primarily during the winter months, antibody decay is quite rapid, and reexposure during the summer is rare.

  17. Seasonal Dynamics of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species Proven Vectors of Mediterranean Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Alten, Bulent; Maia, Carla; Afonso, Maria Odete; Campino, Lenea; Jiménez, Maribel; González, Estela; Molina, Ricardo; Bañuls, Anne Laure; Prudhomme, Jorian; Vergnes, Baptiste; Toty, Celine; Cassan, Cécile; Rahola, Nil; Thierry, Magali; Sereno, Denis; Bongiorno, Gioia; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Antoniou, Maria; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Mazeris, Apostolos; Karakus, Mehmet; Ozbel, Yusuf; Arserim, Suha K.; Erisoz Kasap, Ozge; Gunay, Filiz; Oguz, Gizem; Kaynas, Sinan; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tskhvaradze, Lamzira; Gramiccia, Marina; Volf, Petr; Gradoni, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent geographical expansion of phlebotomine vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean subregion has been attributed to ongoing climate changes. At these latitudes, the activity of sand flies is typically seasonal; because seasonal phenomena are also sensitive to general variations in climate, current phenological data sets can provide a baseline for continuing investigations on sand fly population dynamics that may impact on future scenarios of leishmaniasis transmission. With this aim, in 2011–2013 a consortium of partners from eight Mediterranean countries carried out entomological investigations in sites where L. infantum transmission was recently reported. Methods/Principal Findings A common protocol for sand fly collection included monthly captures by CDC light traps, complemented by sticky traps in most of the sites. Collections were replicated for more than one season in order to reduce the effects of local weather events. In each site, the trapping effort was left unchanged throughout the survey to legitimate inter-seasonal comparisons. Data from 99,000 collected specimens were analyzed, resulting in the description of seasonal dynamics of 56,000 sand flies belonging to L. infantum vector species throughout a wide geographical area, namely P. perniciosus (Portugal, Spain and Italy), P. ariasi (France), P. neglectus (Greece), P. tobbi (Cyprus and Turkey), P. balcanicus and P. kandelakii (Georgia). Time of sand fly appearance/disappearance in collections differed between sites, and seasonal densities showed variations in each site. Significant correlations were found between latitude/mean annual temperature of sites and i) the first month of sand fly appearance, that ranged from early April to the first half of June; ii) the type of density trend, varying from a single peak in July/August to multiple peaks increasing in magnitude from May through September. A 3-modal trend, recorded for P. tobbi in Cyprus, represents a novel finding for a L. infantum vector. Adults ended the activity starting from mid September through November, without significant correlation with latitude/mean annual temperature of sites. The period of potential exposure to L.infantum in the Mediterranean subregion, as inferred by adult densities calculated from 3 years, 37 sites and 6 competent vector species, was associated to a regular bell-shaped density curve having a wide peak center encompassing the July-September period, and falling between early May to late October for more than 99% of values. Apparently no risk for leishmaniasis transmission took place from December through March in the years considered. We found a common pattern of nocturnal females activity, whose density peaked between 11 pm and 2 am. Conclusions Despite annual variations, multiple collections performed over consecutive years provided homogeneous patterns of the potential behavior of leishmaniasis vectors in selected sites, which we propose may represent sentinel areas for future monitoring. In the investigated years, higher potential risk for L. infantum transmission in the Mediterranean was identified in the June-October period (97% relative vector density), however such risk was not equally distributed throughout the region, since density waves of adults occurred earlier and were more frequent in southern territories. PMID:26900688

  18. Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction

    PubMed Central

    Morters, Michelle K; Restif, Olivier; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Wood, James L N; Conlan, Andrew J K

    2013-01-01

    Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historical field data for wildlife, with important implications for disease control in dog populations. Here, we examine historical and more recent field data, in the context of host ecology and epidemic theory, to understand better the role of density in rabies transmission and the reasons why culling fails to control rabies. We conclude that the relationship between host density, disease incidence and other factors is complex and may differ between species. This highlights the difficulties of interpreting field data and the constraints of extrapolations between species, particularly in terms of control policies. We also propose that the complex interactions between dogs and people may render culling of free-roaming dogs ineffective irrespective of the relationship between host density and disease incidence. We conclude that vaccination is the most effective means to control rabies in all species. PMID:23004351

  19. HIV/AIDS-associated visceral leishmaniasis in patients from an endemic area in Central-west Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alexandrino-de-Oliveira, Priscilla; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Da-Costa, Francisco das Chagas Brandão; Pereira, Gracy Regina Oliveira Leite; da Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria

    2010-08-01

    An increase in morbidity associated with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients has been described in Africa and the Mediterranean. Despite the high endemicity of VL and HIV-1/AIDS in Brazil, this association has not been thoroughly investigated. Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of VL-HIV-1/AIDS cases from Central-west [Mato Grosso do Sul (MS)] Brazil. Medical records of 23 VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients were reviewed. Patients were predominantly adult males (87%) and 34.8% of the patients were intravenous drug users (IVDU). Leishmaniasis was the first opportunistic infection in 60% of the HIV-1 patients. Fever occurred in all patients, although splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were absent in 21.7% of the cases. CD4+ T-cell counts were below 200 cells/mm(3) in 80% of the cases and the counts did not increase after clinical remission despite antiretroviral therapy. The first drug chosen to treat the cases was antimonial, but the therapeutic regimen was altered to amphotericin B in 12 of 17 cases due to side effects. Relapses were reported in 56.5% of the patients. IVDU may constitute an important risk factor for the transmission of both diseases in MS. VL-HIV-1/AIDS patients in MS share similar clinical characteristics as those from other endemic regions worldwide. Thus, these findings are critical for improving the surveillance of VL-HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:20835619

  20. Visceral leishmaniasis in captive wild canids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luppi, Marcela M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Silva, Teane M A; Silva, Fabiana L; Motta, Rafael O C; Miranda, Ildikó; Ecco, Roselene; Santos, Renato L

    2008-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Belo Horizonte (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil). Leishmania sp. can naturally infect several species of mammals, and the domestic dog is the most important reservoir of the disease in South America. This report describes five cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazilian canids. Among 15 animals kept in captivity in a zoo in Belo Horizonte (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil), two animals, a bush dog (Spheotos venaticos) and a hoary zorro (Lycalopex vetulus) were serologically positive and developed clinical signs of VL, whereas three other canids, including a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and a hoary zorro (Lycalopex vetulus) had positive serological results without clinical signs. PMID:18556130

  1. Patients' associations and the control of leishmaniasis in Peru.

    PubMed Central

    Guthmann, J. P.; Calmet, J.; Rosales, E.; Cruz, M.; Chang, J.; Dedet, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is an important health problem in Peru, particularly in the mountainous Cuzco Region, where 25% of all new cases reported in 1989 were located. Cases have increased considerably since the beginning of the 1980s, when large-scale seasonal migration to endemic zones occurred, particularly the forest area of Madre de Dios, following the discovery of new gold deposits there, and the deterioration in the economic situation in Peru. Following the lack of official response from the Peruvian government, hundreds of people suffering from leishmaniasis in the Cuzco area formed self-help associations with the objective of obtaining the drugs needed to treat their disease. The major achievement of this spontaneous movement, which was supported by several public and private institutions, was to encourage sick people, particularly patients with mucosal lesions, to emerge from isolation. As a result, the prevalence and incidence of the disease have now considerably decreased in the region. PMID:9141749

  2. Lessons from other diseases: granulomatous inflammation in leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Paul M; Beattie, Lynette

    2016-03-01

    The Leishmania granuloma shares some, though not all, properties with that formed following mycobacterial infection. As a simplified, noncaseating granuloma composed of relatively few and largely mononuclear cell populations, it provides a tractable model system to investigate intra-granuloma cellular dynamics, immune regulation, and antimicrobial resistance. Here, the occurrence of granulomatous pathology across the spectrum of leishmaniasis, in humans and animal reservoir hosts, is first described. However, this review focuses on the process of hepatic granuloma formation as studied in rodent models of visceral leishmaniasis, starting from the initial infection of Kupffer cells to the involution of the granuloma after pathogen clearance. It describes how the application of intravital imaging and the use of computational modeling have changed some of our thoughts on granuloma function, and illustrates how host-directed therapies have been used to manipulate granuloma form and function for therapeutic benefit. Where appropriate, lessons that may be equally applicable across the spectrum of granulomatous diseases are highlighted. PMID:26678994

  3. Leishmaniasis Worldwide and Global Estimates of Its Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Iván D.; Bern, Caryn; Herrero, Mercé; Desjeux, Philippe; Cano, Jorge; Jannin, Jean

    2012-01-01

    As part of a World Health Organization-led effort to update the empirical evidence base for the leishmaniases, national experts provided leishmaniasis case data for the last 5 years and information regarding treatment and control in their respective countries and a comprehensive literature review was conducted covering publications on leishmaniasis in 98 countries and three territories (see ‘Leishmaniasis Country Profiles Text S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S11, S12, S13, S14, S15, S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S22, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27, S28, S29, S30, S31, S32, S33, S34, S35, S36, S37, S38, S39, S40, S41, S42, S43, S44, S45, S46, S47, S48, S49, S50, S51, S52, S53, S54, S55, S56, S57, S58, S59, S60, S61, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S67, S68, S69, S70, S71, S72, S73, S74, S75, S76, S77, S78, S79, S80, S81, S82, S83, S84, S85, S86, S87, S88, S89, S90, S91, S92, S93, S94, S95, S96, S97, S98, S99, S100, S101’). Additional information was collated during meetings conducted at WHO regional level between 2007 and 2011. Two questionnaires regarding epidemiology and drug access were completed by experts and national program managers. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence ranges were estimated by country and epidemiological region based on reported incidence, underreporting rates if available, and the judgment of national and international experts. Based on these estimates, approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cases and 0.7 to 1.2 million VL and CL cases, respectively, occur each year. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is more widely distributed, with about one-third of cases occurring in each of three epidemiological regions, the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, and western Asia from the Middle East to Central Asia. The ten countries with the highest estimated case counts, Afghanistan, Algeria, Colombia, Brazil, Iran, Syria, Ethiopia, North Sudan, Costa Rica and Peru, together account for 70 to 75% of global estimated CL incidence. Mortality data were extremely sparse and generally represent hospital-based deaths only. Using an overall case-fatality rate of 10%, we reach a tentative estimate of 20,000 to 40,000 leishmaniasis deaths per year. Although the information is very poor in a number of countries, this is the first in-depth exercise to better estimate the real impact of leishmaniasis. These data should help to define control strategies and reinforce leishmaniasis advocacy. PMID:22693548

  4. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-01-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age. PMID:22379198

  5. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage. PMID:24906525

  6. A Rare Case of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Presenting as Rhinophyma

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Bose, Kousik

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis(CL) is referred to a group of diseases because of the varied clinical presentation, ranging from small cutaneous nodule to wide spread mucosal destruction. The nose is rarely involved by CL in even in endemic region. In this report we describe a rare rhinophymatous presentation of CL from a non-endemic region which was diagnosed by fine needle sampling and treated with Miltefosine. PMID:26351477

  7. [Visceral leishmaniasis and pregnancy in renal transplanted patient: case report].

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaqueline de Almeida; Araújo, Ivan de Melo; Pavanetti, Luiz Carlos; Okamoto, Liene Shigaki; Dias, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and potentially fatal disease caused by different Leishmania species, Leishmania chagasi prevailing in Brazil. Main symptoms include fever, malaise, anorexia, weight loss and abdominal enlargement with typically occurring hepatosplenomegaly Currently, VL is considered an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts, including solid organ transplanted patients. The present study reports a case of VL associated to pregnancy after renal transplantation. PMID:26154649

  8. Live Vaccination Tactics: Possible Approaches for Controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Saljoughian, Noushin; Taheri, Tahareh; Rafati, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with durable immunity is the main goal and fundamental to control leishmaniasis. To stimulate the immune response, small numbers of parasites are necessary to be presented in the mammalian host. Similar to natural course of infection, strategy using live vaccine is more attractive when compared to other approaches. Live vaccines present the whole spectrum of antigens to the host immune system in the absence of any adjuvant. Leishmanization was the first effort for live vaccination and currently used in a few countries against cutaneous leishmaniasis, in spite of their obstacle and safety. Then, live attenuated vaccines developed with similar promotion of creating long-term immunity in the host with lower side effect. Different examples of attenuated strains are generated through long-term in vitro culturing, culturing under drug pressure, temperature sensitivity, and chemical mutagenesis, but none is safe enough and their revision to virulent form is possible. Attenuation through genetic manipulation and disruption of virulence factors or essential enzymes for intracellular survival are among other approaches that are intensively under study. Other designs to develop live vaccines for visceral form of leishmaniasis are utilization of live avirulent microorganisms such as Lactococcus lactis, Salmonella enterica, and Leishmania tarentolae called as vectored vaccine. Apparently, these vaccines are intrinsically safer and can harbor the candidate antigens in their genome through different genetic manipulation and create more potential to control Leishmania parasite as an intracellular pathogen. PMID:24744757

  9. [Macrophage activation syndrome and autoimmunity due to visceral leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Higel, L; Froehlich, C; Pages, M-P; Dupont, D; Collardeau-Frachon, S; Dijoud, F; Cochat, P; Belot, A

    2015-04-01

    Hemophagocytic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by an excessive immune response, mediated by activated cytotoxic T cells and macrophages. Among hemophagocytic syndromes, genetic and secondary forms can be distinguished. We report on the case of a male newborn who presented with macrophage activation syndrome associated with lymphoproliferation with favorable outcome under prednisone and cyclosporin. Hemopathy, infection, or genetic lymphohistiocytosis were initially ruled out. Severe autoimmunity was suspected because of positive antinuclear antibodies and Farr test associated with anemia and a positive Coombs test as well as cytolytic hepatitis with anti-liver, kidney microsome (LKM) antibodies. Treatment was therefore intensified by adding mycophenolate mofetil. This led to an unexpected deterioration of general health and lab exam results with recurrence of fever and inflammation. The initial investigations were revisited and completed by a liver biopsy, which revealed the presence of numerous leishmania parasites at the amastigote stage, enabling the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. The patient's condition dramatically improved under liposomal amphotericin B treatment. Our observation shows that visceral leishmaniasis can present as lupus-like syndrome with lymphoproliferation. Moreover, the lack of leishmania on marrow aspiration cannot rule out the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Detection of leishmania by serological or molecular tests is mandatory in case of hepatosplenomegaly with hemophagocytic syndrome together with autoantibodies, in order to avoid useless and life-threatening exposure to immunosuppressive treatments. PMID:25617995

  10. Leishmaniasis--an unusual cause of splenomegaly in Romania.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Teodora; Luca, A; Cr?can?, Irina; Merticariu, Amalia; D?n?il?, C

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by protozoans classified as Leishmania species. Romania is not considered an endemic country and there are only few reports of sporadic cases in the last 100 years. However, studies suggest that the disease is spreading north. We present the case of a 44 year old female that presented with asthenia, perspirations, vertigo, weight loss and menometrorhagias in small to medium quantity. Clinical exam revealed the presence of splenomegaly and her blood tests indicated she had pancitopenia; differential diagnosis included myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders, infections that evolve with spleen enlargement, autoimmune-related splenomegaly and hepatic--all tests were negative. She refused the bone marrow aspiration. Three months later, her condition worsened and the menometrorragias became more severe. Bone marrow aspiration revealed the presence of numerous intra and extracellular Leishmania spp. amastigotes. A detailed anamnesis showed that she had worked for six months in Italy as a care-giver nine months ago. She was transferred to Bucharest where she received optimal treatment. However, due to the continuous bleeding, the evolution was unfavourable. This is an alarm sign for physicians that should take into account the fact that, due to population migration and global warming, tropical infectious diseases are becoming more and more common. The signs and symptoms, as well as the treatment in leishmaniasis are reviewed, as well as a brief history of leishmaniasis in Romania. PMID:24741784

  11. Immunoregulation in Human American Leishmaniasis: Balancing Pathology and Protection

    PubMed Central

    Gollob, Kenneth J.; Viana, Agostinho G.; Dutra, Walderez O.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Leishmaniasis covers a broad spectrum of diseases with distinct, and sometimes overlapping, characteristics. The common thread in all forms of leishmaniasis is the infection by the parasite Leishmania belonging to the genus Leishmania. Upon infection of humans there can be at least three outcomes, 1) control of Leishmania by the host immune response resulting in asymptomatic disease, 2) patent infection and development of a relatively mild form of leishmaniasis, and 3) patent infection and development of severe clinical forms. The factors that determine the outcome of an initial inoculation with Leishmania are many, with the species of Leishmania representing one of the strongest predictive factors for the development of a given clinical form of disease. This is seen with L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis, infection leading mostly to tegumentary forms of disease, and L. infantum with the potential to induce visceral disease. However, it is also clear that the host immune response is a key factor in disease progression, not only responsible for control of Leishmania, but also playing an important role in disease progression and pathology. This duality between protective and pathogenic immune responses in individuals infected with Leishmania in the Americas is the focus of this review. PMID:24471648

  12. Canine parvovirus enteritis 2: Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Macartney, L; McCandlish, I A; Thompson, H; Cornwell, H J

    1984-11-01

    Two groups of puppies, eight and 10 weeks of age, were inoculated orally with canine parvovirus of faecal origin. The patterns of faecal excretion of virus, antibody production and systemic viral localisation following inoculation were studied. Faecal excretion of virus was first apparent at day 3 after inoculation, was present most frequently and in greatest quantity at days 4 to 7 after inoculation and fell sharply thereafter. Serum antibody was first detected at day 5 after inoculation with high titres in all samples from day 7 onwards. Virus isolation from serum samples revealed a non-cell associated viraemia at days 3 and 4 after inoculation. Immunocytochemical examination, using both immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques, first revealed antigen in the thymic cortex at day 1 after inoculation and in the germinal centres of the lymph nodes and the splenic white pulp from days 2 and 3. Viral antigen was first detected in the intestines at day 4 in individual cells in the proliferative zone of the crypt epithelium. From day 5 onwards, the amount of antigen present in the lymphoid tissue decreased so that by days 7 and 8, only a trace was present. There was widespread specific staining in the small intestinal mucosa at day 6, but little antigen was present by day 7. Virus was present in the bone marrow of some dogs killed at days 5 and 6. PMID:6095514

  13. The orthodontic management of ectopic canine

    PubMed Central

    Thirunavukkarasu, R.; Sriram, G.; Satish, R.

    2015-01-01

    The canines being the cornerstone of the arch and smile is one of the teeth, which has the longest eruption passage that gets influenced by local and general etiological factors easily. The initial calcification of the crowns starts at 4–5 months of age and proceeds toward eruption about 11–13 years of age with mesiobuccal crown angulation that gets corrected toward occlusion. It gets displaced buccally or palatally or may sometimes get impacted. Early intervention is the best suited to manage canine eruption patterns. Once erupted ectopically, they possess a great challenge in repositioning them back into their correct position. This case report discusses an orthodontic treatment planning and execution to correct a buccally placed canine with an anterior crossbite in an adult. PMID:26538959

  14. Systemic Meglumine Antimoniate in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis of Children: Clinical and Laboratory Complications.

    PubMed

    Layegh, Pouran; Khademi, Zeinab; Afzal Aghaee, Monavar; Moghiman, Toktam

    2015-12-01

    Children account for 7%-20% of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Iran, but there are few safety data to guide pediatric antiparasitic therapy. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory tolerance of the systemic pentavalent antimonial compound meglumine antimoniate, in 70 Iranian children with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Adverse effects were similar to those seen in adults. PMID:26582874

  15. Case Report: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Cuban Immigrants to Texas who Traveled through the Darién Jungle, Panama

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Meagan A.; Koshelev, Misha V.; Sun, Grace S.; Grekin, Sarah J.; Stager, Charles E.; Diwan, A. Hafeez; Wasko, Carina A.; Murray, Kristy O.; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is rarely seen in the United States. Four Cuban immigrants traveled along the same route at different times from Cuba to Ecuador, then northward, including through the Darién Jungle in Panama. These patients had chronic ulcerative non-healing skin lesions and were given a diagnosis of leishmaniasis. PMID:24865687

  16. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Cuban immigrants to Texas who traveled through the Darién Jungle, Panama.

    PubMed

    Barry, Meagan A; Koshelev, Misha V; Sun, Grace S; Grekin, Sarah J; Stager, Charles E; Diwan, A Hafeez; Wasko, Carina A; Murray, Kristy O; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is rarely seen in the United States. Four Cuban immigrants traveled along the same route at different times from Cuba to Ecuador, then northward, including through the Darién Jungle in Panama. These patients had chronic ulcerative non-healing skin lesions and were given a diagnosis of leishmaniasis. PMID:24865687

  17. Efficacy of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing Leishmania Antigen against Leishmania Challenge in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Misako; Takenaka, Akiko; Doki, Miho; Goto, Yasuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Endo, Yasuyuki; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Sugai, Akihiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination confers long-term protection against CDV reinfection. To investigate the utility of CDV as a polyvalent vaccine vector for Leishmania, we generated recombinant CDVs, based on an avirulent Yanaka strain, that expressed Leishmania antigens: LACK, TSA, or LmSTI1 (rCDV–LACK, rCDV–TSA, and rCDV–LmSTI1, respectively). Dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK were protected against challenge with lethal doses of virulent CDV, in the same way as the parental Yanaka strain. To evaluate the protective effects of the recombinant CDVs against cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, dogs were immunized with one recombinant CDV or a cocktail of three recombinant CDVs, before intradermal challenge (in the ears) with infective-stage promastigotes of Leishmania major. Unvaccinated dogs showed increased nodules with ulcer formation after 3 weeks, whereas dogs immunized with rCDV–LACK showed markedly smaller nodules without ulceration. Although the rCDV–TSA- and rCDV–LmSTI1-immunized dogs showed little protection against L. major, the cocktail of three recombinant CDVs more effectively suppressed the progression of nodule formation than immunization with rCDV–LACK alone. These results indicate that recombinant CDV is suitable for use as a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine for protection against both CDV and L. major infections in dogs. PMID:26162094

  18. Efficacy of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing Leishmania Antigen against Leishmania Challenge in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Miura, Ryuichi; Kooriyama, Takanori; Yoneda, Misako; Takenaka, Akiko; Doki, Miho; Goto, Yasuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Endo, Yasuyuki; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Sugai, Akihiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2015-07-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination confers long-term protection against CDV reinfection. To investigate the utility of CDV as a polyvalent vaccine vector for Leishmania, we generated recombinant CDVs, based on an avirulent Yanaka strain, that expressed Leishmania antigens: LACK, TSA, or LmSTI1 (rCDV-LACK, rCDV-TSA, and rCDV-LmSTI1, respectively). Dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK were protected against challenge with lethal doses of virulent CDV, in the same way as the parental Yanaka strain. To evaluate the protective effects of the recombinant CDVs against cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, dogs were immunized with one recombinant CDV or a cocktail of three recombinant CDVs, before intradermal challenge (in the ears) with infective-stage promastigotes of Leishmania major. Unvaccinated dogs showed increased nodules with ulcer formation after 3 weeks, whereas dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK showed markedly smaller nodules without ulceration. Although the rCDV-TSA- and rCDV-LmSTI1-immunized dogs showed little protection against L. major, the cocktail of three recombinant CDVs more effectively suppressed the progression of nodule formation than immunization with rCDV-LACK alone. These results indicate that recombinant CDV is suitable for use as a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine for protection against both CDV and L. major infections in dogs. PMID:26162094

  19. Canine mammary mixed tumours: a review.

    PubMed

    Dantas Cassali, Geovanni; Cavalheiro Bertagnolli, Angélica; Ferreira, Enio; Araújo Damasceno, Karine; de Oliveira Gamba, Conrado; Bonolo de Campos, Cecília

    2012-01-01

    Mammary mixed tumours are the most frequent neoplasias in female dogs. In humans, mixed tumours are frequently found in the salivary glands and are known as pleomorphic adenomas. In addition to their histomorphologic similarities, mixed tumours and pleomorphic adenomas have the potential to become malignant and give rise to carcinomas in mixed tumours and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma, respectively. The factors associated with malignant transformation are still poorly known in the case of canine mixed tumours. However, this form of neoplasia tends to be associated with a better prognosis than other malignant histological types. This paper discusses the main features associated with female canine mammary mixed tumours. PMID:23193497

  20. Canine Mammary Mixed Tumours: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dantas Cassali, Geovanni; Cavalheiro Bertagnolli, Angélica; Ferreira, Enio; Araújo Damasceno, Karine; de Oliveira Gamba, Conrado; Bonolo de Campos, Cecília

    2012-01-01

    Mammary mixed tumours are the most frequent neoplasias in female dogs. In humans, mixed tumours are frequently found in the salivary glands and are known as pleomorphic adenomas. In addition to their histomorphologic similarities, mixed tumours and pleomorphic adenomas have the potential to become malignant and give rise to carcinomas in mixed tumours and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma, respectively. The factors associated with malignant transformation are still poorly known in the case of canine mixed tumours. However, this form of neoplasia tends to be associated with a better prognosis than other malignant histological types. This paper discusses the main features associated with female canine mammary mixed tumours. PMID:23193497

  1. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S.; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer. PMID:24841386

  2. Dens invaginatus (dilated odontome) in mandibular canine

    PubMed Central

    Halawar, Sangamesh S; Satyakiran, GVV; Krishnanand, PS; Prashanth, R

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth related to shape of the teeth. Affected teeth show a deep infolding of enamel and dentin starting from the tip of the cusps and may extend deep into the root. It results from the invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla before calcification has occurred. Teeth most affected are maxillary lateral incisors. The presence of dens invaginatus in mandibular canine is extremely rare. The tooth was symptomatic in that it was mobile and was oriented horizontally. This article presents a case of symptomatic dens invaginatus in mandibular canine. PMID:25364169

  3. Canine olfactory detection of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J

    2013-01-01

    Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369

  4. Canine hematopoietic tumors: diagnosis, treatment and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Canine hematopoietic tumors constitute a group of neoplasms that are frequently encountered in veterinary practice. Although common, they are also a diagnostically confusing group of tumors due to continued revision of their definition and classification. The confusion that arises from these changes presents the clinician with a perpetual challenge of diagnosis and therapy. Therapy of canine hematopoietic tumors has traditionally evolved from treatment of human patients with similar diseases, and in turn, these neoplasms have served as models for evaluating newer therapies for possible application in human patients. Methods of treatment have included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hyperthermia. 9 tabs.

  5. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours.

    PubMed

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  6. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  7. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature of each animal shall be taken and the presence of respiratory or other clinical signs of canine... and controls using a scoring system approved by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

  8. Canine parvovirus enteritis, canine distemper, and major histocompatibility complex genetic variation in Mexican wolves.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Lee, Rhonda N; Buchanan, Colleen

    2003-10-01

    The endangered Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was recently reintroduced into Arizona and New Mexico (USA). In 1999 and 2000, pups from three litters that were part of the reintroduction program died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. Overall, half (seven of 14) of the pups died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. The parents and their litters were analyzed for variation at the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene DRB1. Similar MHC genes are related to disease resistance in other species. All six of the surviving pups genotyped for the MHC gene were heterozygous while five of the pups that died were heterozygous and one was homozygous. Resistance to pathogens is an important aspect of the management and long-term survival of endangered taxa, such as the Mexican wolf. PMID:14733289

  9. Reactivation of Mucosal and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Renal Transplanted Patient

    PubMed Central

    Tuon, Felipe F.; Bombonatto, Giovana Marina; Battaglin, Eveline Roesler; Sakumoto, Marcus Henrique; Amato, Valdir Sabbaga; de Camargo, Raphael Abegão; Nicodemo, Antônio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is a chronic form of tegumentary leishmaniasis, which causes destructive lesions of nasal, pharyngeal, and laryngeal mucosa. We describe a case of leishmaniasis reactivation with simultaneous cutaneous and mucosal forms in a renal transplanted patient with no history of prior leishmaniasis. Reactivation after renal transplantation was not reported in Brazil. A 67-year-old woman receiving prednisone 20 mg/day, tacrolimus 1 mg/day, and mycophenolic acid 360 mg/day presented with nose edema with erythema and cutaneous lesions. Amastigotes were identified on biopsies and the polymerase chain reaction confirmed Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B but died 3 weeks after as a result of bacterial septic shock. In conclusion, tegumentary leishmaniasis can reactivate with simultaneous cutaneous and mucosal forms in a renal transplanted patient during the immunosuppressant therapy. PMID:24732458

  10. Systemic therapy of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis: A case report and review article

    PubMed Central

    Abadir, Amir; Patel, Ameen; Haider, Shariq

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease endemic to Central and South America, Mexico and the Caribbean, and affects millions of people. As travel to these regions becomes more common, cutaneous leishmaniasis is becoming a disease of increasing importance in the developed world. However, disease recognition and access to appropriate therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis remains a challenge in North America. The present article reports a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a Canadian man following a trip to Costa Rica. Species-specific diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of a skin biopsy, which was positive for Leishmania panamensis. After failing a course of itraconazole, the patient was successfully treated with sodium stibogluconate, despite significant barriers to administering this therapy, and the paucity of data regarding its efficacy and tolerability. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and systemic treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, as well as its emerging presence in the developed world, are reviewed. PMID:21629609

  11. Spread of Vector-borne Diseases and Neglect of Leishmaniasis, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Campino, Lenea; Cañavate, Carmen; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Gradoni, Luigi; Soteriadou, Ketty; Mazeris, Apostolos; Ozbel, Yusuf; Boelaert, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    The risk for reintroduction of some exotic vector-borne diseases in Europe has become a hot topic, while the reality of others is neglected at the public health policy level. Leishmaniasis is endemic in all southern countries of Europe, with ?700 autochthonous human cases reported each year (3,950 if Turkey is included). Asymptomatic cases have been estimated at 30–100/1 symptomatic case, and leishmaniasis has up to 25% seroprevalence in domestic dogs. Even though leishmaniasis is essentially associated with Leishmania infantum and visceral leishmaniasis, new species, such as L. donovani and L. tropica, might colonize European sand fly vectors. Drug-resistant L. infantum strains might be exported outside Europe through dogs. Despite this possibility, no coordinated surveillance of the disease exists at the European level. In this review of leishmaniasis importance in Europe, we would like to bridge the gap between research and surveillance and control. PMID:18598618

  12. High levels of plasma IL-10 and expression of IL-10 by keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M; Khalil, E A G; Ismail, A; Kadaru, A M Y; Kharazmi, A; Theander, T G

    1998-01-01

    Some patients develop post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) after they have been treated for the systemic infection kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). It has been an enigma why the parasites cause skin symptoms after the patients have been successfully treated for the systemic disease. We report here that PKDL development can be predicted before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, and that IL-10 is involved in the pathogenesis. Before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania parasites were present in skin which appeared normal on all patients. However, IL-10 was detected in the keratinocytes and/or sweat glands of all patients who later developed PKDL (group 1) and not in any of the patients who did not develop PKDL (group 2). Furthermore, the levels of IL-10 in plasma as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture supernatants were higher in group 1 than in group 2. PMID:9472662

  13. Canine adenovirus downstream processing protocol.

    PubMed

    Puig, Meritxell; Piedra, Jose; Miravet, Susana; Segura, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration. A Benzonase(®) digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38-45 %. PMID:24132487

  14. Establishment and Characterization of an Air-Liquid Canine Corneal Organ Culture Model To Study Acute Herpes Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Harman, Rebecca M.; Bussche, Leen; Ledbetter, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the clinical importance of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced ocular disease, the underlying pathophysiology of the disease remains poorly understood, in part due to the lack of adequate virus–natural-host models in which to study the cellular and viral factors involved in acute corneal infection. We developed an air-liquid canine corneal organ culture model and evaluated its susceptibility to canine herpesvirus type 1 (CHV-1) in order to study ocular herpes in a physiologically relevant natural host model. Canine corneas were maintained in culture at an air-liquid interface for up to 25 days, and no degenerative changes were observed in the corneal epithelium during cultivation using histology for morphometric analyses, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Next, canine corneas were inoculated with CHV-1 for 48 h, and at that time point postinfection, viral plaques could be visualized in the corneal epithelium and viral DNA copies were detected in both the infected corneas and culture supernatants. In addition, we found that canine corneas produced proinflammatory cytokines in response to CHV-1 infection similarly to what has been described for HSV-1. This emphasizes the value of our model as a virus–natural-host model to study ocular herpesvirus infections. IMPORTANCE This study is the first to describe the establishment of an air-liquid canine corneal organ culture model as a useful model to study ocular herpesvirus infections. The advantages of this physiologically relevant model include the fact that (i) it provides a system in which ocular herpes can be studied in a virus–natural-host setting and (ii) it reduces the number of experimental animals needed. In addition, this long-term explant culture model may also facilitate research in other fields where noninfectious and infectious ocular diseases of dogs and humans are being studied. PMID:25231295

  15. Model-based investigations of different vector-related intervention strategies to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Stauch, Anette; Duerr, Hans-Peter; Picado, Albert; Ostyn, Bart; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman; Boelaert, Marleen; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Eichner, Martin

    2014-04-01

    The elimination of infectious diseases requires reducing transmission below a certain threshold. The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Initiative in Southeast Asia aims to reduce the annual VL incidence rate below 1 case per 10,000 inhabitants in endemic areas by 2015 via a combination of case management and vector control. Using a previously developed VL transmission model, we investigated transmission thresholds dependent on measures reducing the sand fly density either by killing sand flies (e.g., indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets) or by destroying breeding sites (e.g., environmental management). Model simulations suggest that elimination of VL is possible if the sand fly density can be reduced by 67% through killing sand flies, or if the number of breeding sites can be reduced by more than 79% through measures of environmental management. These results were compared to data from two recent cluster randomised controlled trials conducted in India, Nepal and Bangladesh showing a 72% reduction in sand fly density after indoor residual spraying, a 44% and 25% reduction through the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and a 42% reduction after environmental management. Based on model predictions, we identified the parameters within the transmission cycle of VL that predominantly determine the prospects of intervention success. We suggest further research to refine model-based predictions into the elimination of VL. PMID:24762676

  16. Comparison between three adjuvants for a vaccine against canine leishmaniasis: In vitro evaluation of macrophage killing ability.

    PubMed

    Trotta, T; Fasanella, A; Scaltrito, D; Gradoni, L; Mitolo, V; Brandonisio, O; Acquafredda, A; Panaro, M A

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in terms of dog macrophage killing ability in vitro, a vaccine based on Leishmania infantum promastigote soluble antigen (LSA) formulated with three different adjuvants (BCG, AdjuPrime, MPL/TDM/CWS). A significant increase of the macrophage killing ability was observed in dogs vaccinated with LSA+MPL/TDM/CWS after 1 month from vaccination. A similar increase of macrophage parasitocidal ability was present only after 5 months in dogs vaccinated with LSA+BCG or LSA+AdjuPrime. In all dogs the augmented killing percentage was still present after 12 months from vaccination. Therefore, in particular LSA+MPL/TDM/CWS vaccine seems promising for further studies in dogs. PMID:20061026

  17. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    PubMed Central

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico. PMID:22049037

  18. Ultrastructure of canine oocytes during in vivo maturation.

    PubMed

    De Lesegno, Christine Viaris; Reynaud, Karine; Pechoux, Christine; Thoumire, Sandra; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the canine oocyte ultrastructural modifications during in vivo maturation, with precise reference to the timing of the LH surge and of ovulation. Twenty-five bitches were ovariectomized at specific stages between the onset of proestrus and the fifth day post-ovulation: 65 oocytes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), either before the LH surge (n = 10), between the LH surge and ovulation (n = 12) or after ovulation (n = 43). Prior to the LH surge, the oocyte nucleus had already begun its displacement to the vicinity of the oolemma and reticulated nucleoli were infrequent. The cytoplasm showed signs of immaturity (few organelles preferentially located in the cortical zone, "mitochondrial cloud", scarce cortical granules). The LH surge was immediately followed by cumulus expansion but the ovulation occurred 2 days later. Retraction of the transzonal projections and the meiotic resumption occurred after another 3 days (5 days after the LH peak). The ovulation was then followed by gradual cytoplasmic modifications. Nucleoli re-assumed a reticulated aspect around 24 hr post-ovulation. From 48 hr post-ovulation mitochondria and SER were very numerous and evenly distributed. In conclusion canine oocyte maturation began prior to the LH surge and no cytoplasmic or nuclear modifications followed immediately the LH surge and ovulation. This study suggests that two distinct signals are needed for the final in vivo maturation: one prior to the LH surge (to induce maturation) and another one, around 3 days post-ovulation (to induce meiotic resumption). PMID:17476693

  19. Identification and phylogenetic relationship of Iranian strains of various Leishmania species isolated from cutaneous and visceral cases of leishmaniasis based on N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase gene.

    PubMed

    Hajjaran, Homa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Teimouri, Aref; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Mirjalali, Hamed; Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Shiee, Mohammad Reza; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2014-08-01

    The identity of Iranian Leishmania species has been resolved to some extent by some genetic markers. In this study, based on N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase (nagt) gene, we further elucidated the identity and phylogeny of the prevalent species in this country. DNAs of 121 isolates belonging to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients, canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) cases, and Rhombomys opimus rodents were amplified by targeting a partial sequence of nagt gene. All the amplicons were analyzed with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using Acc1 enzyme, and 49 amplicons representing different reservoir hosts were sequenced and aligned with similar sequences from GenBank database. The RFLP analysis revealed that 41 CL patients were infected Leishmania tropica and 36 with Leishmania major. Among 10 CVL isolates, 6 were identified as Leishmania infantum and 4 as L. tropica. Amongst 34 rodents' isolates, 11 and 23 isolates exhibited patterns similar to those of L. major, and L. tropica/Leishmania turanica, respectively. The sequencing results from all CL patients, CVL cases, and 4 reservoir rodents were in agreement with RFLP analysis and showed 99-100% homologies with the registered species of L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum from Turkey, Tunisia, Iraq and Israel. Of the 7 rodent isolates exhibiting RFLP patterns similar to L. tropica/L. turanica, 3 exhibited the highest homologies (99-100%) with L. turanica and 4 with Leishmania gerbilli. The 49 nagt DNA sequences were grouped into five clusters representing L. major, L. tropica, L. infantum, L. turanica and L. gerbilli species, encompassing 19 haplotypes. No correlation was observed between intraspecies divergence and geographic distribution of haplotypes. The L. tropica haplotypes exhibited more homologies with those of L. infantum than L. major (97.2% vs. 96.9%), a probable indication to the potential ability of L. tropica to visceralize. Characterization of Iranian Leishmania isolates using nagt gene allowed unambiguous identification of five prevalent species with a high-resolution phylogeny. PMID:24911282

  20. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission eigenvalue problem. The need to answer these questions became important after a series of papers by Cakoni et al [5], and Cakoni et al [6] suggesting that these transmission eigenvalues could be used to obtain qualitative information about the material properties of the scattering object from far-field data. The first answer to the existence of transmission eigenvalues in the general case was given in 2008 when Päivärinta and Sylvester showed the existence of transmission eigenvalues for the index of refraction sufficiently large [7] followed in 2010 by the paper of Cakoni et al who removed the size restriction on the index of refraction [8]. More importantly, in the latter it was shown that transmission eigenvalues yielded qualitative information on the material properties of the scattering object and Cakoni et al established in [9] that transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the Tikhonov regularized solution of the far-field equation. Since the appearance of these papers there has been an explosion of interest in the transmission eigenvalue problem (we refer the reader to our recent survey paper [10] for a detailed account of the developments in this field up to 2012) and the papers in this special issue are representative of the myriad directions that this research has taken. Indeed, we are happy to see that many open theoretical and numerical questions raised in [10] have been answered (totally or partially) in the contributions of this special issue: the existence of transmission eigenvalues with minimal assumptions on the contrast, the numerical evaluation of transmission eigenvalues, the inverse spectral problem, applications to non-destructive testing, etc. In addition to these topics, many other new investigations and research directions have been proposed as we shall see in the brief content summary below. A number of papers in this special issue are concerned with the question of existence of transmission eigenvalues and the structure of the associated transmission eigenfunctions. The three papers by respectively Robbiano [11], Blasten and Päivärinta [12], and Lakshtanov and Vainberg [13] provide new complementary results on the existence of transmission eigenvalues for the scalar problem under weak assumptions on the (possibly complex valued) refractive index that mainly stipulates that the contrast does not change sign on the boundary. It is interesting here to see three different new methods to obtain these results. On the other hand, the paper by Bonnet-Ben Dhia and Chesnel [14] addresses the Fredholm properties of the interior transmission problem when the contrast changes sign on the boundary, exhibiting cases where this property fails. Using more standard approaches, the existence and structure of transmission eigenvalues are analyzed in the paper by Delbary [15] for the case of frequency dependent materials in the context of Maxwell's equations, whereas the paper by Vesalainen [16] initiates the study of the transmission eigenvalue problem in unbounded domains by considering the transmission eigenvalues for Schrödinger equation with non-compactly supported potential. The paper by Monk and Selgas [17] addresses the case where the dielectric is mounted on a perfect conductor and provides some numerical examples of the localization of associated eigenvalues using the linear sampling method. A series of papers then addresses the question of localization of transmission eigenvalues and the associated inverse spectral problem for spherically stratified media. More specifically, the paper by Colton and Leung [18] provides new results on complex transmission eigenvalues and a new proof for uniqueness of a solution to the inverse spectral problem, whereas the paper by Sylvester [19] provides sharp results on how to locate all the transmission eigenvalues associated with angular independent eigenfunctions when the index of refraction is constant. The paper by Gintides and Pallikarakis [20] investigates an iterative least square method to identify the spherically stratified index of refraction from transmission eigenvalues. On the characterization of transmission eigenvalues in terms of far-field measurements, a promising new result is obtained by Kirsch and Lechleiter [21] showing how one can identify the transmission eigenvalues using the eigenvalues of the scattering operator which are available in terms of measured scattering data. In the paper by Kleefeld [22], an accurate method for computing transmission eigenvalues based on a surface integral formulation of the interior transmission problem and numerical methods for nonlinear eigenvalue problems is proposed and numerically validated for the scalar problem in three dimensions. On the other hand, the paper by Sun and Xu [23] investigates the computation of transmission eigenvalues for Maxwell's equations using a standard iterative method associated with a variational formulation of the interior transmission problem with an emphasis on the effect of anisotropy on transmission eigenvalues. From the perspective of using transmission eigenvalues in non-destructive testing, the paper by Cakoni and Moskow [24] investigates the asymptotic behavior of transmission eigenvalues with respect to small inhomogeneities. The paper by Nakamura and Wang [25] investigates the linear sampling method for the time dependent heat equation and analyses the interior transmission problem associated with this equation. Finally, in the paper by Finch and Hickmann [26], the spectrum of the interior transmission problem is related to the unique determination of the acoustic properties of a body in thermoacoustic imaging. We hope that this collection of papers will stimulate further research in the rapidly growing area of transmission eigenvalues and inverse scattering theory.

  1. DELINEATING TOXIC AREAS BY CANINE OLFACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project was undertaken to learn how the highly acute olfactory sensitivity of the canine could be applied with advantage to environmental problems. The objectives were to determine how dogs could be trained to detect hazardous and toxic pollutants in the environment an...

  2. Canine Coronavirus Highly Pathogenic for Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabriella; Campolo, Marco; Desario, Costantina; Castagnaro, Massimo; Tempesta, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is usually responsible for mild, self-limiting infections restricted to the enteric tract. We report an outbreak of fatal disease in puppies caused by a pathogenic variant of CCoV that was isolated from organs with severe lesions. PMID:16704791

  3. Canine coronavirus highly pathogenic for dogs.

    PubMed

    Buonavoglia, Canio; Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabriella; Campolo, Marco; Desario, Costantina; Castagnaro, Massimo; Tempesta, Maria

    2006-03-01

    Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is usually responsible for mild, self-limiting infections restricted to the enteric tract. We report an outbreak of fatal disease in puppies caused by a pathogenic variant of CCoV that was isolated from organs with severe lesions. PMID:16704791

  4. Infectious canine hepatitis associated with prednisone treatment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Valerie M; Marche, Candace; Simko, Elemir

    2012-11-01

    An 11-week-old, female Alaskan husky dog housed outdoors in the Yukon, Canada, was diagnosed with infectious canine hepatitis. The predisposing factors in this puppy for such a rare disease included inappropriate vaccination program, potential contact with endemic wildlife, and immunosuppression due to prednisone treatment. PMID:23633720

  5. Infectious canine hepatitis associated with prednisone treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Valerie M.; Marche, Candace; Simko, Elemir

    2012-01-01

    An 11-week-old, female Alaskan husky dog housed outdoors in the Yukon, Canada, was diagnosed with infectious canine hepatitis. The predisposing factors in this puppy for such a rare disease included inappropriate vaccination program, potential contact with endemic wildlife, and immunosuppression due to prednisone treatment. PMID:23633720

  6. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

    1988-02-02

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

  7. HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, George M.; Hunter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces, by maternal-infant exposure, and by percutaneous inoculation. For reasons that are still incompletely understood, CCR5-tropic viruses (R5 viruses) are preferentially transmitted by all routes. Transmission is followed by an orderly appearance of viral and host markers of infection in the blood plasma. In the acute phase of infection, HIV-1 replicates exponentially and diversifies randomly, allowing for an unambiguous molecular identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and a precise characterization of the population bottleneck to virus transmission. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 most often results in productive clinical infection arising from a single virus, highlighting the extreme bottleneck and inherent inefficiency in virus transmission. It remains to be determined if HIV-1 transmission is largely a stochastic process whereby any reasonably fit R5 virus can be transmitted or if there are features of transmitted/founder viruses that facilitate their transmission in a biologically meaningful way. Human tissue explant models of HIV-1 infection and animal models of SIV/SHIV/HIV-1 transmission, coupled with new challenge virus strains that more closely reflect transmitted/founder viruses, have the potential to elucidate fundamental mechanisms in HIV-1 transmission relevant to vaccine design and other prevention strategies. PMID:23043157

  8. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  9. Usefulness of the rK39-Immunochromatographic Test, Direct Agglutination Test, and Leishmanin Skin Test for Detecting Asymptomatic Leishmania Infection in Children in a New Visceral Leishmaniasis Focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cañavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis–endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test. PMID:22556076

  10. Canine cataplexy is preferentially controlled by adrenergic mechanisms: evidence using monoamine selective uptake inhibitors and release enhancers.

    PubMed

    Mignot, E; Renaud, A; Nishino, S; Arrigoni, J; Guilleminault, C; Dement, W C

    1993-01-01

    Narcolepsy is currently treated with anti-depressants to control REM-related symptoms such as cataplexy and with amphetamine-like stimulants for the management of sleepiness. Both stimulant and antidepressant drugs presynaptically enhance monoaminergic transmission but both classes of compounds lack pharmacological specificity. In order to determine which monoamine is selectively involved in the therapeutic effect of these compounds, we examined the effects of selective monoamine uptake inhibitors and release enhancers on cataplexy using a canine model of the human disorder. A total of 14 compounds acting on the adrenergic (desipramine, nisoxetine, nortriptyline, tomoxetine, viloxazine), serotoninergic (fenfluramine, fluoxetine, indalpine, paroxetine, zimelidine) and dopaminergic (amfonelic acid, amineptine, bupropion, GBR 12909) systems were tested. Some additional compounds interesting clinically but with less pharmacological selectivity, i.e., cocaine, dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate, nomifensine and pemoline, were also included in the study. All compounds affecting noradrenergic transmission completely suppressed canine cataplexy at low doses in all dogs tested, whereas compounds which predominantly modified serotoninergic and dopaminergic transmission were either inactive or partially active at high doses. Our results demonstrate the preferential involvement of adrenergic systems in the control of cataplexy and, presumably, REM sleep atonia. Our findings also demonstrate that canine narcolepsy is a useful tool in assessing the pharmacological specificity of antidepressant drugs. PMID:7862832

  11. Molecular analyses of H3N2 canine influenza viruses isolated from Korea during 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Lee, EunJung; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Bo-Hye; Song, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

    2016-04-01

    Canine influenza A virus (CIV) causes a respiratory disease among dog populations and is prevalent in North America and Asia. Recently, Asian H3N2 CIV infection has been of particular concern, with recent reports related to reassortants with pandemic 2009 strains, direct transmission from a human H3N2, a possibility of H3N2 CIV transmission to other mammals, and even the first outbreak of H3N2 CIVs in North America in April 2015. However, despite these global concerns, our understanding of how influenza A virus transmission impacts the overall populations of H3N2 CIVs remains incomplete. Hence, we investigated the evolutionary history of the most recent two Korean CIV isolates, A/canine/Korea/BD-1/2013 and A/canine/Korea/DG1/2014, along with 57 worldwide CIVs, using comprehensive molecular analyses based on genomic genotyping. This study presents that the new Korean CIV isolates are closely related to the predominantly circulating H3N2 CIVs with genotypes K, G, E, 3B, F, 2D, F, and 1E, carrying several mutations in antigenic and host determinant sites. Also, our findings show that the genome-wide genetic variations within the H3N2 CIVs are low; however, two antigenic protein (HA and NA) analysis demonstrates genetic diversification of the H3N2 CIVs, which evolves independently between Korea and China. PMID:26810402

  12. Seroconversion of sentinel chickens as a biomarker for monitoring exposure to visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Bárbara Ribeiro; Souza, Ana Paula Almeida; Prates, Deboraci Brito; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Miranda, José Carlos; Barral, Aldina

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania infantum chagasi causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL); it is transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis that injects saliva and parasites into the host's skin during a blood meal. Chickens represent an important blood source for sand flies and their presence in the endemic area is often cited as a risk factor for VL transmission. However, the role of chickens in VL epidemiology has not been well defined. Here, we tested if chicken antibodies against Lu. longipalpis salivary gland sonicate (SGS) could be used as markers of exposure to sand fly bites. All naturally exposed chickens in a VL endemic area in Brazil developed anti-SGS IgY antibodies. Interestingly, Lu. longipalpis recombinant salivary proteins rLJM17 and rLJM11 were also able to detect anti-SGS IgY antibodies. Taken together, these results show that chickens can be used to monitor the presence of Lu. longipalpis in the peri-domiciliary area in VL endemic regions, when used as sentinel animals. PMID:23912591

  13. First Molecular Characterization of Leishmania Species Causing Visceral Leishmaniasis among Children in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M.; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Eryani, Samira M.; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a debilitating, often fatal disease caused by Leishmania donovani complex; however, it is a neglected tropical disease. L. donovani complex comprises two closely related species, L. donovani that is mostly anthroponotic and L. infantum that is zoonotic. Differentiation between these two species is critical due to the differences in their epidemiology and pathology. However, they cannot be differentiated morphologically, and their speciation using isoenzyme-based methods poses a difficult task and may be unreliable. Molecular characterization is now the most reliable method to differentiate between them and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. The present study aims to characterize Leishmania species isolated from bone marrows of Yemeni pediatric patients using sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) gene. Out of 41 isolates from Giemsa-stained bone marrow smears, 25 isolates were successfully amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequenced in both directions. Phylogenetic analysis using neighbor joining method placed all study isolates in one cluster with L. donovani complex (99% bootstrap). The analysis of ITS1 for microsatellite repeat numbers identified L. infantum in 11 isolates and L. donovani in 14 isolates. These data suggest the possibility of both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission of VL-causing Leishmania species in Yemen. Exploring the possible animal reservoir hosts is therefore needed for effective control to be achieved. PMID:26966902

  14. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-visceral leishmaniasis-co-infection.

    PubMed

    Naufal Spir, Patrícia Rodrigues; Zampieri D'Andrea, Lourdes Aparecida; Fonseca, Elivelton Silva; Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel

    2016-04-01

    In Brazil, the rates of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased from 20% to 1-2% in some regions. However, the country contains 90% of individuals infected with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Latin America, and the west region of São Paulo state faces an alarming expansion of the disease. We describe the epidemiological aspects of the expanding infection of VL and a case report of an HIV-VL-co-infected child from the west region of São Paulo state. The patient was an AIDS-C3 with low levels of CD4, high viral load, severe diarrhea, oral and perineal candidiasis, severe thrombocytopenia, and protein-caloric malnourishment. She evolved with sepsis, renal and cardiac failure. An rK rapid diagnosis test, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and bone marrow aspirate were performed for VL. Her symptoms improved significantly after liposomal amphotericin B administration. From the 45 municipalities that compose the Regional Health Department of Presidente Prudente, Lutzomyia longipalpis vectors were found in 58% of them. VL infected dogs were found in 33% of those municipalities, infected dogs and humans were found in 29%, 20% are starting and 33% of the municipalities are preparing VL investigation. It is likely, in this patient, that VL advanced the clinical progression of the HIV disease and the development of AIDS severity. Supported by favorable conditions, the region becomes a new frontier of VL in Brazil. PMID:23834783

  15. Evaluation of the level of knowledge about visceral leishmaniasis in endemic areas of Maranhao, brazil

    PubMed

    Gama; Barbosa; Pires; Cunha; Freitas; Ribeiro; Costa

    1998-04-01

    A prospective study was performed to identify knowledge concerning visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in endemic areas of Maranhao, amongst the rural population of the Codo township and in a peripheral urban area (an old settlement, Maracana, on the outskirts of the city of Sao Luis, and Vila Nova/Bom Viver, Paco do Lumiar township). A total of 283 persons were interviewed, including 53 from Maracana, 103 from Vila Nova/Bom Viver, and 127 from Codo. The sites presented favorable conditions for the development and maintenance of VL. Some 93.8% of those interviewed had heard of kala-azar. In Maracana, 50.9% referred to sandflies as responsible for the transmission of VL, while 87.2% knew that dogs are the main link in the epidemiological cycle of the disease. Some 77.8% of those interviewed did not know how to control the disease. As regards manifestations of the disease, they largely associated it with fever, anemia, weight loss, and an enlarged abdomen. Only five individuals knew that Glucantimeis used to treat VL. We conclude that knowledge is poor with regard to all aspects of VL in both the rural and peripheral urban area. PMID:9658223

  16. [A social program for the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in M'Sila, Algeria].

    PubMed

    Cherif, Kamel; Boudrissa, Abdelkarim; Cherif, Mokhtar Hamdi; Harrat, Zoubir

    2012-01-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major is a serious public health problem in Algeria. On average, 10,000 new cases are reported every year among the 15 million people at risk of infection. With an annual incidence of 561.8 per 100,000 inhabitants, M'Sila has seen the worst outbreak of the disease in Algeria since the historic outbreak in Biskra. The main reservoir of the disease is Psammomys obesus, a gerbil that feeds exclusively on Chenopodiaceae, a salt-tolerant plant under which it makes its burrow. Removing these plants around houses within a radius of 300 meters is one of the most effective control measures. As part of a social program of public works, a pilot project aimed at controlling the disease was undertaken in 2003 in the five worst affected cities in M'Sila. 396 unemployed young people were recruited to remove the plants before the transmission season. Over 3,600 hectares were treated. The number of cases decreased from 1,391 in 2003 to 965 in 2004 (31% reduction). These measures need to be implemented in all endemic areas of the country to better assess their effectiveness in preventing the disease. PMID:23473045

  17. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in dogs: is high seroprevalence indicative of a reservoir role?

    PubMed

    Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; González, Kadir; Rigg, Chystrie; Pineda, Vanessa; Santamaría, Ana María; Rodríguez, Indra; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Laurenti, Marcia D; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-08-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complex disease with a rich diversity of animal host species. This diversity imposes a challenge, since understanding ACL transmission requires the adequate identification of reservoir hosts, those species able to be a source of additional infections. In this study we present results from an ACL cross-sectional serological survey of 51 dogs (Canis familiaris), where we used diagnostic tests that measure dog's exposure to Leishmania spp. parasites. We did our research in Panamá, at a village that has undergone significant ecosystem level transformations. We found an ACL seroprevalence of 47% among dogs, and their exposure was positively associated with dog age and abundance of sand fly vectors in the houses of dog owners. Using mathematical models, which were fitted to data on the proportion of positive tests as function of dog age, we estimated a basic reproductive number (R 0 ± s.e.) of 1·22 ± 0·09 that indicates the disease is endemically established in the dogs. Nevertheless, this information by itself is insufficient to incriminate dogs as ACL reservoirs, given the inability to find parasites (or their DNA) in seropositive dogs and previously reported failures to experimentally infect vectors feeding on dogs with ACL parasites. PMID:25990429

  18. Sustained Presence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Urban Manaus, the Largest Human Settlement in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Benício, Ednelza; Cordeiro, Mayara; Monteiro, Hannah; Saboia Moura, Marco Antônio; Oliveira, Cintia; Nunes Gadelha, Ellen Pricilla; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Talhari, Carolina; de Lima Ferreira, Luiz Carlos; Mira, Marcelo Távora; Lima Machado, Paulo Roberto; Talhari, Sinésio; Schriefer, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon is responsible for approximately 40% of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. Herein the sustained presence of ATL in Manaus, the largest settlement in the Amazon, was investigated. Records of notification of historic cases, and data from cases prospectively enrolled in the Tropical Medicine Foundation of the Amazonas State were used. Geographic coordinates of prospective patients' living sites were used to detect inner-city clusters of ATL. Infecting Leishmania species was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Among prospectively enrolled subjects, 94.8% were infected with Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, 76.7% were male, 30.2% were 0-20 years old, and 69.8% had an urban residence. Historic cases showed a profile similar to that of prospectively enrolled subjects. Several clusters of ATL, widely distributed within the city of Manaus, could be detected. In conclusion, there was a high frequency of disease in young age groups and cases clustered in urban neighborhoods. It cannot be determined from these data whether transmission of these cases occurred within or outside the city of Manaus. PMID:26483119

  19. First Molecular Characterization of Leishmania Species Causing Visceral Leishmaniasis among Children in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Eryani, Samira M; Lim, Yvonne A L; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a debilitating, often fatal disease caused by Leishmania donovani complex; however, it is a neglected tropical disease. L. donovani complex comprises two closely related species, L. donovani that is mostly anthroponotic and L. infantum that is zoonotic. Differentiation between these two species is critical due to the differences in their epidemiology and pathology. However, they cannot be differentiated morphologically, and their speciation using isoenzyme-based methods poses a difficult task and may be unreliable. Molecular characterization is now the most reliable method to differentiate between them and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. The present study aims to characterize Leishmania species isolated from bone marrows of Yemeni pediatric patients using sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) gene. Out of 41 isolates from Giemsa-stained bone marrow smears, 25 isolates were successfully amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequenced in both directions. Phylogenetic analysis using neighbor joining method placed all study isolates in one cluster with L. donovani complex (99% bootstrap). The analysis of ITS1 for microsatellite repeat numbers identified L. infantum in 11 isolates and L. donovani in 14 isolates. These data suggest the possibility of both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission of VL-causing Leishmania species in Yemen. Exploring the possible animal reservoir hosts is therefore needed for effective control to be achieved. PMID:26966902

  20. Synthetic Sex Pheromone Attracts the Leishmaniasis Vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to Traps in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Bray, D. P.; Bandi, K. K.; Brazil, R. P.; Oliveira, A. G.; Hamilton, J.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world’s burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly as vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of AVL, Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies, attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results demonstrate the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world’s most important neglected diseases, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (±)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. Then by formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, demonstrating the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control. PMID:19496409

  1. Current challenges in treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis in India: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Om Prakash; Singh, Bhawana; Chakravarty, Jaya; Sundar, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious parasitic disease causing considerable mortality and major disability in the Indian subcontinent. It is most neglected tropical disease, particularly in terms of new drug development for the lack of financial returns. An elimination campaign has been running in India since 2005 that aim to reduce the incidence of VL to below 1 per 10,000 people at sub-district level. One of the major components in this endeavor is reducing transmission through early case detection followed by complete treatment. Substantial progress has been made during the recent years in the area of VL treatment, and the VL elimination initiatives have already saved many lives by deploying them effectively in the endemic areas. However, many challenges remain to be overcome including availability of drugs, cost of treatment (drugs and hospitalization), efficacy, adverse effects, and growing parasite resistance. Therefore, better emphasis on implementation research is urgently needed to determine how best to deliver existing interventions with available anti-leishmanial drugs. It is essential that the new treatment options become truly accessible, not simply available in endemic areas so that they may promote healing and save lives. In this review, we highlight the recent advancement and challenges in current treatment options for VL in disease endemic area, and discuss the possible strategies to improve the therapeutic outcome. PMID:26951132

  2. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) transmitting visceral leishmaniasis and their geographical distribution in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Guan, Li-Ren; Zhou, Zheng-Bin; Jin, Chang-Fa; Fu, Qing; Chai, Jun-Jie

    2016-01-01

    After the existence of phlebotomine sand flies was first reported in China in 1910, the distribution of different species and their role in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been extensively studied. Up until 2008, four species have been verified as vectors of VL, namely, Phlebotomus chinensis (Ph. sichuanensis), Ph. longiductus (Ph. chinensis longiductus), Ph. wui (Ph. major wui), and Ph. alexandri. The sand fly species vary greatly depending on the natural environments in the different geographic areas where they are endemic. Ph. chinensis is euryecious and adaptable to different ecologies, and is thus distributed widely in the plain, mountainous, and Loess Plateau regions north of the Yangtze River. Ph. longiductus is mainly distributed in ancient oasis areas south of Mt. Tianshan in the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region. Ph. wui is the predominant species in deserts with Populus diversifolia and Tamarix vegetation in Xinjiang and the western part of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Finally, Ph. alexandri is steroecious and found only in stony desert areas, such as at the foot of the mountains in Xinjiang and the western Hexi Corridor, in Gansu province. This review summarized the relationship between the geographic distribution pattern of the four sand fly species and their geographical landscape in order to foster research on disease distribution and sand fly control planning. Furthermore, some problems that remained to be solved about vectors of VL in China were discussed. PMID:26906187

  3. CD4+FOXP3+ cells produce IL-10 in the spleens of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira; de Andrade, Mariana M C; Melo, Larissa M; Perosso, Juliana; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri O; Munari, Danisio P; Lima, Valéria M F

    2014-05-28

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by intracellular parasites of the genus Leishmania that affect humans and several animal species. Dogs are one of the main urban reservoirs of the parasite and play a central role in the transmission cycle to humans via sandflies. Studies concerning the immune response in dogs with VL have demonstrated that protective immunity is associated with cellular immune response, while disease progression is associated with humoral response and IL-10 and TGF-? production. The study aimed to evaluate IL-10 and TGF-? production by regulatory T (Treg) cells in the blood and spleen of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania spp. and correlate this with parasite load. Five healthy dogs and 29 dogs with proven infection were selected for the study group. Real-time PCR was used to quantify parasite load and confirm infection by Leishmania spp. Treg cells producing IL-10 and TGF-? were quantified using flow cytometry. An increase in IL-10 production by Treg cells was verified in the spleen of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania spp. Concurrently, a decrease in the total number of T cells in these dogs was verified compared with healthy dogs. No association was determined between parasite load and the percentage of spleen Treg cells producing IL-10 and TGF-?. These findings suggest that Treg cells are an important source of IL-10 in the spleen, participating in immune response modulation, while the reduced percentage of these cells in infected dogs could be attributed to persistent immune activation. PMID:24703254

  4. Vector incrimination of sand flies in the most important visceral leishmaniasis focus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Ravasan, Naseh Maleki; Javadian, Ezat-Aldin; Mohebali, Mehdi; Hajjaran, Homa; Zare, Zabiholah; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Rassi, Yavar

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence, host preference, and rate of Leishmania spp. infection of sand fly species are important parameters for incrimination of parasite vectors. We applied polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to detect Leishmania spp. parasites and blood meals within individual sand flies in the most important visceral leishmaniasis (VL) focus in northwestern Iran. Leishmania spp. minicircles (kinetoplast DNA) were found in 14 (0.9%) of 1,569 female specimens. Sequence analysis of 650 basepairs of an internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA gene identified L. infantum/L. donovani in 12 specimens and L. adleri-like parasites in 2 specimens. Nine (64.3%) of 14 of the Leishmania spp.-positive sand flies were Phlebotomus perfeliewi transcaucasicus. Blood meal identification of host DNA within sand flies by PCR-based and ELISA methods showed that 30% and 28%, respectively, were positive for human blood. Results of this study showed that P. perfeliewi transcaucasicus is the most prevalent, infected, and anthropophagic sand fly and plays a major role in VL transmission in the region studied. PMID:19815868

  5. Genogroup IV and VI Canine