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1

Canine Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi, in America) and is transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. Infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir of the parasite and play a key role in transmission to humans, in which the parasite produces visceral leishmaniasis. The increasing awareness that control of the human disease depends on effective

Jorge Alvar; Carmen Cañavate; Ricardo Molina; Javier Moreno; Javier Nieto

2004-01-01

2

Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL.

Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

2012-01-01

3

Canine leishmaniasis: epidemiological risk and the experimental model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing risk factors are making zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis a growing public health concern in many countries. Domestic dogs constitute the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania chagasi, and play a key role in the transmission to humans. New reagents and tools allow the detailed investigation of canine leishmaniasis, permitting the monitoring of the immunological status of dogs in both

Javier Moreno; Jorge Alvar

2002-01-01

4

Ecology of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in the Rural Community of Mont Rolland (Thi?s Region, Senegal): Area of Transmission of Canine Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Different epidemiological studies previously indicated that canine leishmaniasis is present in the region of Thiès (Senegal). However, the risks to human health, the transmission cycle and particularly the implicated vectors are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To improve our knowledge on the population of phlebotomine sand flies and the potential vectors of canine leishmaniasis, sand flies were collected using sticky traps, light traps and indoor spraying method using pyrethroid insecticides in 16 villages of the rural community of Mont Rolland (Thiès region) between March and July 2005. The 3788 phlebotomine sand flies we collected (2044 males, 1744 females) were distributed among 9 species of which 2 belonged to the genus Phlebotomus: P. duboscqi (vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Senegal) and P. rodhaini. The other species belonged to the genus Sergentomyia: S. adleri, S. clydei, S. antennata, S. buxtoni, S. dubia, S. schwetzi and S. magna. The number of individuals and the species composition differed according to the type of trap, suggesting variable, species-related degrees of endophily or exophily. The two species of the genus Phlebotomus were markedly under-represented in comparison to the species of the genus Sergentomyia. This study also shows a heterogeneous spatial distribution within the rural community that could be explained by the different ecosystems and particularly the soil characteristics of this community. Finally, the presence of the S. dubia species appeared to be significantly associated with canine leishmaniasis seroprevalence in dogs. Conclusions/Significance Our data allow us to hypothesize that the species of the genus Sergentomyia and particularly the species S. dubia and S. schwetzi might be capable of transmitting canine leishmaniasis. These results challenge the dogma that leishmaniasis is exclusively transmitted by species of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World. This hypothesis should be more thoroughly evaluated.

Senghor, Massila W.; Faye, Malick N.; Faye, Babacar; Diarra, Karamoko; Elguero, Eric; Gaye, Oumar

2011-01-01

5

Sexual and vertical transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum, which has in the domestic dog its principal vertebrate host. VL is usually transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, however atypical routes of transmission have been described. In this review we discuss the the role of sexual and vertical transmissions, and their role in the maintenance of VL in canine populations. PMID:24727504

Turchetti, Andreia P; Souza, Tayse D; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L

2014-01-01

6

Autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in Romania: neglected or (re)emerging?  

PubMed Central

Canine leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. In Romania between 1955 and 2013, no cases of human autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis were reported. Data regarding canine leishmaniasis is similarly scarce. Since the first report of clinical autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in 1935, there were only three sporadic reports of positive dogs all without any clinical signs. Our study reports the first clinical case of autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in the last 80 years, stressing the importance of a targeted surveillance of Leishmania infection, as infected dogs act as the primary reservoir for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.

2014-01-01

7

Autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in Romania: neglected or (re)emerging?  

PubMed

Canine leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. In Romania between 1955 and 2013, no cases of human autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis were reported. Data regarding canine leishmaniasis is similarly scarce. Since the first report of clinical autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in 1935, there were only three sporadic reports of positive dogs all without any clinical signs. Our study reports the first clinical case of autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in the last 80 years, stressing the importance of a targeted surveillance of Leishmania infection, as infected dogs act as the primary reservoir for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:24684827

Mircean, Viorica; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Mircean, Mircea; Bolfa, Pompei; Györke, Adriana; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

2014-01-01

8

Canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in Senegal: risk of emergence in humans?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of global warming and the risk of spreading arthropod-borne diseases, the emergence and reemergence of leishmaniasis should not be neglected. In Senegal, over the past few years, cases of canine leishmaniasis have been observed. We aim to improve the understanding of the transmission cycle of this zoonosis, to determine the responsible species and to evaluate the risk

B. Faye; A. L. Bañuls; B. Bucheton; M. M. Dione; O. Bassanganam; M. Hide; J. Dereure; M. Choisy; J. L. Ndiaye; O. Konaté; M. Claire; M. W. Senghor; M. N. Faye; I. Sy; A. A. Niang; J. F. Molez; K. Victoir; P. Marty; P. Delaunay; R. Knecht; S. Mellul; S. Diedhiou; O. Gaye

2010-01-01

9

Canine visceral leishmaniasis: dog infectivity to sand flies from non-endemic areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (vl), caused by Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi in the New World), is a zoonotic, endemic disease in Western Europe and Latin America. The potential spreading to new regions was suggested by the appearance of canine vl among foxhounds in the US. Although the sand fly vectors in the major foci of transmission have been described, no information

B. L. Travi; C. Ferro; H. Cadena; J. Montoya-lerma; G. H. Adler

2002-01-01

10

Canine visceral leishmaniasis: a histopathological study of lymph nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a zoonosis and a chronic systemic disease of the dog caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania. In the New World, the disease is caused by the species Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. There are only a few studies on the histopathology of lymph nodes in canine leishmaniasis. In the present paper, we report a histopathological

Wanderson Geraldo Lima; Marilene Suzan Marques Michalick; Maria Norma de Melo; Washington Luiz Tafuri; Wagner Luiz Tafuri

2004-01-01

11

Seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in southeast of Iran.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in many parts of Iran and infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoirs that play a key role in transmission to humans. The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in southeast of Iran. This survey was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in Kerman, Bam and Baft districts in Kerman province and Zabol in Sistan-Baluchestan province. Blood samples were taken from 201 dogs after complete clinical examination. Following hematological evaluation; collected sera were tested by indirect ELISA method for the presence of anti Leishmania infantum antibodies. Overall seroprevalence was 15.4 %, including 6.4, 3.5, 3 and 2.4 % in Bam, Zabol, Baft and Kerman, respectively. However, seroprevalence of disease was not significantly related to age, gender, presence of clinical signs and hematological disorders. Based to the results of the present study, CVL is endemic in southeastern Iran. Delayed diagnosis and euthanasia of potentially infectious animals may occur with an increased transmission risk to sand flies and subsequently to humans. Implementation of potent screening tests with high validity is essential for rapid detection and successful dog elimination programs in endemic parts of Iran. PMID:24808656

Mahshid, Mostafavi; Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Iraj, Sharifi; Sina, Kakooei; Javad, Khedri; Mehdi, Bamorovat

2014-06-01

12

Rapid Immunochromatographic Test for Serodiagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

An rK39 immunochromatographic test and immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) for serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis were evaluated. The two tests showed correlation for all but one of the sera obtained from 68 dogs confirmed as leishmaniasis cases and 40 dogs (22 healthy dogs and 18 dogs with other diseases) from areas where the disease is not endemic. Specificity was 100% for both tests, while sensitivity was 97% for the rapid test and 99% for IFAT.

Otranto, D.; Paradies, P.; Sasanelli, M.; Spinelli, R.; Brandonisio, O.

2004-01-01

13

Rapid immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

An rK39 immunochromatographic test and immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) for serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis were evaluated. The two tests showed correlation for all but one of the sera obtained from 68 dogs confirmed as leishmaniasis cases and 40 dogs (22 healthy dogs and 18 dogs with other diseases) from areas where the disease is not endemic. Specificity was 100% for both tests, while sensitivity was 97% for the rapid test and 99% for IFAT. PMID:15184465

Otranto, D; Paradies, P; Sasanelli, M; Spinelli, R; Brandonisio, O

2004-06-01

14

LEISHMANIOSE VISCERAL CANINA NO ESTADO DE RORAIMA, BRASIL LEISHMANIASIS VISCERAL CANINA EN EL ESTADO DE RORAIMA, BRASIL CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RORAIMA, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and Leishmania chagasi is the causal agent of the disease in Brazil. The transmission between vertebrate hosts occurs through the bite of a phlebotomine, whose main representative in the country is the Lutzomyia longipalpis. The disease has been described in some cities, presenting important

MELO EVANGELISTA

15

Feline Leishmania infection in a canine leishmaniasis endemic region, Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a serious zoonotic public health and veterinary problem in the Mediterranean basin. Leishmania infection in domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) has been reported in several countries where this zoonosis is endemic, such as Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Greece, Israel, Palestine and Brazil. The aim of this study was to contribute to the

C. Maia; J. Gomes; J. Cristóvão; M. Nunes; A. Martins; E. Rebêlo; L. Campino

2010-01-01

16

Successful Treatment of Canine Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Using Radio-Frequency Induced Heat (RFH) Therapy  

PubMed Central

Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Current treatments for CCL are cumbersome and toxic because they are prolonged and involve multiple injections of antimonials. Radio-frequency induced heat (RFH) therapy has been found to be highly effective against CL in humans. Here, we examined the efficacy of topical RFH therapy in the treatment of CL in two pet dogs. We found that RFH therapy induced complete clinical cure and lesion healing within 45 days and both dogs have remained disease free for the last 16 months. This report is the first to demonstrate that a single topical application of RFH therapy is safe and effective in inducing long-term cure of CCL.

Ahuja, Anil A.; Bumb, Ram A.; Mehta, Rajesh D.; Prasad, Neha; Tanwar, Ram K.; Satoskar, Abhay R.

2012-01-01

17

[Canine leishmaniasis in Campania: new and old foci].  

PubMed

Canine Leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in Campania Region (Italy) and is strictly related to Human Visceral Leishmaniasis. Past and present reports of the prevalence in the Region show that exist places were CanL has been known for a century (Vesuvius and Ischia Foci) and other localities where the disease appears to be recent (Caserta and Salerno provinces); moreover, the zoonosis is seen not only in endemic foci (autochthonous), but also in non-endemic areas (imported cases), for example in the Benevento and Avellino provinces. Two zymodemes have been identified in human and canine population and also in sandflies: MON 1 and MON 72. Endemic or stable CanL foci correspond with Vesuvius Area, Ischia island, Maddaloni and neighbouring Commons, other foci in the Salerno province. These foci are associated with optimal ecological condition, abundance of reservoirs and hosts, abundance of phlebotomine vectors, prevalence in canine population around 10-40%, incidence in canine population 5%, risk for human population 0.002%. Instable foci occur at the border of the stable foci: they may be the result of changes in climate with the occasional introduction of infected dogs in the areas; in the foci are registered low presence of phlebotomine vectors, prevalence around 0.5-3%, sporadic human cases. Today, in Campania region CanL undoubtedly has an increased incidence and a wider geographic distribution than before: new cases are now reported in areas that were previously non-endemic. Ecological, demographic and environmental changes, large population movements, urbanization have led to an increased incidence and to importation into suburbs with high densities of people and sand-flies. These changes include "global warming", increased number of stray dogs, dogs and population movements, changes in human population (increased number of immune-depressed and old people). Nowadays, the most important focus of CanL and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis of the Mediterranean area is located in Campania Region: during the year 2000, 143 cases of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis have been recorded in Italy, an half of them (83 cases) in Campania region. PMID:15305720

Baldi, L; Mizzoni, V; Guarino, A

2004-06-01

18

First Record of Autochthonous Canine Leishmaniasis in Hungary  

PubMed Central

Abstract Hungary is traditionally regarded as a leishmaniasis-free country, and human or canine cases diagnosed locally have been recorded as imported. However, recent entomological surveys have verified the presence in Hungary of Phlebotomus neglectus and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi, which have been incriminated as competent vectors of Leishmania infantum elsewhere in Europe. Following the occurrence in October 2007 of an undisputable clinical case of L. infantum canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a 4-year-old female pug in a kennel of 20 dogs in Tolna province, an investigation was performed to assess the infection status in that canine population and to search for putative phlebotomine vectors. Another female pug became sick during the study period (May–November 2008) and L. infantum was confirmed as the causative agent. The other animals appeared clinically healthy; however, 4 additional dogs were found positive by indirect fluorescent antibody test (2 dogs), or by buffy-coat PCR (1 dog), or by both methods (1 dog). Hence the overall Leishmania infection prevalence in the kennel was 30% (6/20). All dogs were born in the same place and had been always kept outdoors. They had neither been abroad nor received a blood transfusion. No sand flies were collected with CDC Standard Miniature Light traps, Mosquito Magnet® X (MMX) dry ice-baited traps, or sticky traps placed either in or around the kennel and at nearby chicken yards during July and August of 2008 and 2009. Considering the dogs' historical background and the failure to trap any sand fly vectors in the kennel area, the origin of CanL in this site remains unexplained.

Tanczos, Balazs; Balogh, Nandor; Kiraly, Laszlo; Biksi, Imre; Szeredi, Levente; Gyurkovsky, Monika; Scalone, Aldo; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Gramiccia, Marina

2012-01-01

19

Leishmania spp. Epidemiology of Canine Leishmaniasis in the Yucatan Peninsula  

PubMed Central

Canine Leishmaniasis is widespread in various Mexican states, where different species of Leishmania have been isolated from dogs. In the present study, we describe the detection of L. braziliensis, L. infantum, and L. mexicana in serum of dogs from the states of Yucatan and Quintana Roo in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). A total of 412 sera were analyzed by ELISA using the total extract of the parasite and the iron superoxide dismutase excreted by different trypanosomatids as antigens. We found the prevalence of L. braziliensis to be 7.52%, L. infantum to be 6.07%, and L. mexicana to be 20.63%, in the dog population studied. The results obtained with ELISA using iron superoxide dismutase as the antigen were confirmed by western blot analysis with its greater sensitivity, and the agreement between the two techniques was very high.

Lopez-Cespedes, A.; Longoni, S. S.; Sauri-Arceo, C. H.; Sanchez-Moreno, M.; Rodriguez-Vivas, R. I.; Escobedo-Ortegon, F. J.; Barrera-Perez, M. A.; Bolio-Gonzalez, M. E.; Marin, C.

2012-01-01

20

Endemic Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bhutan  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis was first reported in Bhutan in 2006. We conducted studies of the parasite, possible vectors and reservoirs, and leishmanin skin test and risk factor surveys in three villages. Nineteen cases were reported from seven districts. Parasite typing yielded two novel microsatellite sequences, both related to Indian L. donovani. In one case village, 40 (18.5%) of 216 participants had positive leishmanin skin test results, compared with 3 (4.2%) of 72 in the other case village and 0 of 108 in the control village. Positive results were strongly associated with the village and increasing age. None of the tested dogs were infected. Eighteen sand flies were collected, 13 Phlebotomus species and 5 Sergentomyia species; polymerase chain reaction for leishmanial DNA was negative. This assessment suggests that endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission has occurred in diverse locations in Bhutan. Surveillance, case investigations, and further parasite, vector, and reservoir studies are needed. The potential protective impact of bed nets should be evaluated.

Yangzom, Thinley; Cruz, Israel; Bern, Caryn; Argaw, Daniel; den Boer, Margriet; Velez, Ivan Dario; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Molina, Ricardo; Alvar, Jorge

2012-01-01

21

Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease  

PubMed Central

We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease.

Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

2013-01-01

22

Preventing Zoonotic Canine Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil: Pet Attachment and Adoption of Community Leishmania Prevention  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi (L.i. chagasi syn. infantum) in northeastern Brazil, was responsible for 51,000 new VL cases from 1980 to 2003. Household presence of L. infantum-infected dogs is a major risk factor for human infection. Despite culling of dogs based on seropositivity, canine L. infantum seroprevalence remains near 20%, suggesting that dog culling is ineffective for preventing VL spread. We administered a cross-sectional survey to 224 households within 300 m of the homes of VL human patients diagnosed within the last year. The goal was to develop a model for voluntary preventative use based on characteristics and motivations of dog owners. We identified that owner knowledge deficiencies regarding canine transmission of L. infantum associated with increased risk of dog infection (odds ratio [OR] = 3.681, confidence interval [CI] = 1.223, 11.08). Higher owner education was associated with decreased levels of dog seropositivity (OR = 0.40, CI = 0.20, 0.81). Pet attachment (P = 0.036) and perception of risk/disease knowledge (P = 0.040) were significantly associated with willingness to voluntarily purchase canine VL prevention. These results highlight the importance of owner attachment to their pet in implementing reservoir-targeted zoonotic VL prevention.

Esch, Kevin J.; Pontes, Nubia N.; Arruda, Paulo; O'Connor, Annette; Morais, Lorena; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Petersen, Christine A.

2012-01-01

23

First autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and its main vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in non-endemic areas have been reported over the last few years throughout the country. The objective of this research note is to describe an autochthonous case of CVL that occurred in the municipality of Volta Redonda, state of Rio de Janeiro, an area where the disease is not endemic, alerting veterinarians and the scientific community to the expansion of this important zoonosis and advising veterinary practitioners on how to deal with a suspicion of CVL. Canine visceral leishmaniasis can be misdiagnosed within a broad spectrum of canine diseases based on clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, knowledge of its clinical manifestations, specific and sensitive laboratory diagnostic tests and parasitological procedures are of the utmost importance for rapid confirmation and notification of a case, thus contributing directly to the control of a focus. PMID:24142177

de Campos, Monique Paiva; da Silva, Denise Amaro; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Velho, Artur Augusto Mendes; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

2013-01-01

24

Canine leishmaniasis: identification of asymptomatic carriers by polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting.  

PubMed

A major limitation to the study of the epidemiology of canine visceral leishmaniasis is the inability to identify and count asymptomatic carriers because classic diagnositc tests are insufficiently sensitive. We investigated the capacity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the parasite and immunoblotting to detect specific antibodies in samples from dogs living in an endemic area without any symptoms of leishmaniasis. Results of classic serologic tests (immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were negative. Two independent PCR assays detected the parasite in skin and conjunctival samples from 80% of the dogs. We found specific antibodies by immunoblot in 66% and 56% of the dogs had both specific antibodies and parasite DNA. As controls, samples from dogs with clinical manifestations of the disease before and after treatment were assayed. The frequency of positive PCR samples decreased after treatment, and although antibody levels decreased with cure of the disease, they remained detectable by immunoblot. Results showed that most of the dogs living in an endemic area had been exposed to Leishmania. Both PCR and immunoblot are sensitive enough to detect asyptomatic infection and could be valuable tools for studies monitoring the transmission of the disease and vaccination trials. PMID:8842114

Berrahal, F; Mary, C; Roze, M; Berenger, A; Escoffier, K; Lamouroux, D; Dunan, S

1996-09-01

25

The Pathogenesis and Clinical Course of Canine Leishmaniasis in Uzbekistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Uzbekistan spontaneous leishmaniasis in dogs can run as a localized process similar to cutaneous leishmaniasis in man or as a generalized process. Skin lesions represent the primary manifestations of spontaneous disease in dogs in both clinical forms o...

L. M. Isaev

1969-01-01

26

Canine visceral leishmaniasis: dog infectivity to sand flies from non-endemic areas.  

PubMed

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi in the New World), is a zoonotic, endemic disease in Western Europe and Latin America. The potential spreading to new regions was suggested by the appearance of canine VL among foxhounds in the US. Although the sand fly vectors in the major foci of transmission have been described, no information exists on other sand flies that could propagate the infection outside endemic areas. We evaluated the capacity of Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar) and Lutomyia youngi (Feliciangeli & Murillo), which are widely distributed in the New World, to acquire L chagasi (Cunha and Chagas) infections. A high proportion of L youngi were infected after feeding on an oligosymptomatic dog (51 per cent) or a polysymptomatic individual (95 per cent), but the intensity of infection was low (< 200 promastigotes/fly). L shannoni became infected only by feeding on the polysymptomatic dog, and the infection rate was lower (9 per cent) than in Lutzomyia longipalpis (36 per cent), and Lutzomyia evansi (Nunez-Tovar) (Lutz and Neiva) (38 per cent), but the intensity of infection (200 to > 500 promastigotes/fly) was comparable (L longipalpis) or higher (L evansi) than in the New World vectors. It is hypothesised that the presence of infected dogs in areas where L shannoni or L youngi occur could initiate new endemic cycles of VL in both South and North America. PMID:12002643

Travi, B L; Ferro, C; Cadena, H; Montoya-Lerma, J; Adler, G H

2002-02-01

27

Participation of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the epidemiology of canine visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vectorial competence of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is discussed in relation to the epidemiology of canine visceral leishmaniasis, taking into account its strict association with dogs and the low indices of natural infection presented by its known vector, the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. In order to evaluate natural infection by Leishmania chagasi and the infectivity of these parasites

Maria Teresa Zanatta Coutinho; Lilian Lacerda Bueno; Annelise Sterzik; Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara; Jose Ramiro Botelho; Mario De Maria; Odair Genaro; Pedro Marcos Linardi

2005-01-01

28

Comparative evaluation of several methods for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis diagnosis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serological methods using ELISA with recombinant-rK39 (ELISA-rK-39) and soluble extract-SE (ELISA-SE) antigens, the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) in comparison to an immunochromatography rapid diagnostic test (RDT-rK39) and with a direct parasitological exam (PA) for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis. The results showed that 89% (60/67) of the dogs were positive for at least one serological diagnostic test. ELISA-SE was the test that detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in the serum of the highest number of dogs (71.6%) followed by ELISA-rK39 (65.7%), IFAT (65.7%) and RDT-rK39 (55.2%). PA detected the lowest numbers (40.3%) of positive dogs. In relation to the total of examined dogs, the Kappa indexes (p ? 0.05) showed a good agreement between ELISA-SE and IFAT (88.1%; k = 0.7237), and it was also observed in the comparison of RDT-rK39 with ELISA-SE (83.6%, k= 0.6561), IFAT (83.5%, k= 0.6605) and PA (85.0%, k= 0.7074). A bad agreement was detected in any association of ELISA-rk39 with the other tests in either symptomatic or asymptomatic animals. ELISA as well as RDT using recombinant antigenic protein (rK39) were the methods that detected the lowest prevalence rates (33.3%) of CVL in asymptomatic dogs. In conclusion, only one test does not adequately identify dogs with CVL and it is necessary the association of two or more diagnostic tests. Because of the good agreement indexes of RDT-rK39 when evaluated with ELISA-SE, IFAT and PA it was suggested as a complementary method to be used in association with either ELISA-SE or IFAT, particularly in the symptomatic dogs. Furthermore, new studies are recommended in order to improve the sensitivity of tests mainly for asymptomatic dogs. PMID:25054496

Silva, Diogo Tiago da; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida; Alves-Martin, Maria Fernanda; Paixão, Mirian Dos Santos; Tenório, Michely da Silva; Lopes, Mara Lúcia Martins

2014-06-01

29

Decrease of the incidence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis after dog vaccination with Leishmune ® in Brazilian endemic areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leishmune®, the first prophylactic vaccine licensed against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), has been used in Brazil since 2004, where seropositive dogs are sacrificed in order to control human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We demonstrate here that vaccination with Leishmune® does not interfere with the serological control campaign (110,000 dogs). Only 1.3% of positivity (76 among 5860) was detected among Leishmune® uninfected

Clarisa B. Palatnik-de-Sousa; Ilce Silva-Antunes; Adilson de Aguiar Morgado; Ingrid Menz; Marcos Palatnik; Carlile Lavor

2009-01-01

30

Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in a reemerging focus of intense transmission in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was developed in the urban area of Governador Valadares, a reemerging focus of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, presenting 86 human cases of VL from 2008 to 2011. The disease prevailed in males (73.2%) with most patients between 0 and 9 years (44.1%) and a lethality rate of 16.2%. A canine survey was carried out on 16,529 domestic dogs in 35 districts in the area and it showed that 30.2% of them (4,992 dogs) were positive for VL by serum assays. Prevalence ratios for canine VL varied between 13.6% and 53.4%. The clinical exam of 343 seropositive dogs showed that 49.9% of them were considered symptomatic, with larger prevalence of canine VL being in short-furred animals (90%). The entomological survey was performed in eight districts, where 2,539 phlebotomines were captured, preferentially in the peridomicile (84.5%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species (90%) suggesting its participation in the VL transmission in the area. The correlation between canine prevalence and L. longipalpis density was evaluated. PMID:24000322

Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Tanure, Aline; Gomes, Marcela Esteves; Apolinário, Estefânia Conceição; Bodevan, Emerson Cotta; de Araújo, Holbiano Saraiva; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa

2013-01-01

31

Experimental Infection of Dogs with Leishmania and Saliva as a Model to Study Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, transmitted by the bite of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Dogs are the main domestic reservoir of the parasite. The establishment of an experimental model that partially reproduces natural infection in dogs is very important to test vaccine candidates, mainly regarding those that use salivary proteins from the vector and new therapeutical approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings In this report, we describe an experimental infection in dogs, using intradermal injection of Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland homogenate (SGH) of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Thirty-five dogs were infected with 1×107 parasites combined with five pairs of Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary glands and followed for 450 days after infection and clinical, immunological and parasitological parameters were evaluated. Two hundred and ten days after infection we observed that 31,4% of dogs did not display detectable levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies but all presented different numbers of parasites in the lymph nodes. Animals with a positive xenodiagnosis had at least 3,35×105 parasites in their lymph nodes. An increase of IFN-? and IL-10 levels was detected during infection. Twenty two percent of dogs developed symptoms of CVL during infection. Conclusion The infection model described here shows some degree of similarity when compared with naturally infected dogs opening new perspectives for the study of CVL using an experimental model that employs the combination of parasites and sand fly saliva both present during natural transmission.

Costa, Dirceu Joaquim; Carvalho, Rayssa M. de Araujo; Abbehusen, Melissa; Teixeira, Clarissa; Pitombo, Maiana; Trigo, Joelma; Nascimento, Flavia; Amorim, Lucilene; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lucia; do Socorro Pires Cruz, Maria; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Fukutani, Kyoshi; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Claudia

2013-01-01

32

SEROLOGICAL SURVEY WITH PCR VALIDATION FOR CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN NORTHERN PALESTINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leishmania infantumis the causative agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the Mediterranean region. A seroprevalence study for CVL was conducted in northern Palestine. Domestic dogs (n 5 148) were screened for antileishmanial antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ten dogs (6.8%) were seropositive. Promastigotes were isolated from one seropositive dog and identified asL. infantum by excreted factor

Abedelmajeed Nasereddin; Suheir Ereqat; Kifaya Azmi; Gad Baneth; Charles L. Jaffe; Ziad Abdeen

2006-01-01

33

The immune response and PBMC subsets in canine visceral leishmaniasis before, and after, chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets, in vitro lymphoproliferative response to leishmanial antigen, and Leishmania-specific serum antibody levels were examined in 11 dogs, naturally infected with L. infantum, and 9 healthy control dogs. A decrease in the percentage of CD4+ T-cells and an increase in the proportion of ?? T-cells and sIgG+ B-cells were observed during canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). These

Javier Moreno; Javier Nieto; Cristina Chamizo; Fernando González; Fernando Blanco; Douglas C. Barker; Jorge Alvar

1999-01-01

34

Antigenicity of the Leishmania infantum histones H2B and H4 during canine viscerocutaneous leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

In this study we show that sera from dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum contain antibodies that specifically react against the parasite H2B and H4 histones. The Leishmania H2B and the amino-terminal region of the histone H4, expressed as fusion proteins, when confronted with sera from canine viscerocutaneous leishmaniasis (VCL) dogs, were recognized by 63% and 47%, respectively. No reactivity was detected when sera from dogs naturally infected with pathogens other than Leishmania were used. Using a collection of synthetic peptides covering the complete sequence of both proteins, we have determined that the main linear antigenic determinants are located in the amino-terminal domains of these histones. The humoral response against histones H2B and H4 induced during canine leishmaniasis was found to be specific for Leishmania histones, since no cross-reactivity of the VCL sera with mammal histones was observed. Also, a comparative study of the prevalence of antibodies among VCL sera against the four core histones of L. infantum was performed. Although a large heterogeneity of the humoral responses against these proteins was found, histones H2A and H3 seem to be more prevalent immunogens than histones H2B and H4 during canine natural leishmaniasis. The origin of the anti-histone humoral response and its possible implications in the pathogenesis of Leishmania infection are discussed.

Soto, M; Requena, J M; Quijada, L; Perez, M J; Nieto, C G; Guzman, F; Patarroyo, M E; Alonso, C

1999-01-01

35

High-Throughput Analysis of Synthetic Peptides for the Immunodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis. Approximately 20% of zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis worldwide is caused by Leishmania infantum, which is also known as Leishmania chagasi in Latin America, and disease incidence is increasing in urban and peri-urban areas of the tropics. In this form of disease, dogs are the main reservoirs. Diagnostic methods used to identify Leishmania infected animals are not able to detect all of the infected ones, which can compromise the effectiveness of disease control. Therefore, to contribute to the improvement of diagnostic methods for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), we aimed to identify and test novel antigens using high-throughput analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunodominant proteins from L. infantum were mapped in silico to predict B cell epitopes, and the 360 predicted peptides were synthesized on cellulose membranes. Immunoassays were used to select the most reactive peptides, which were then investigated with canine sera. Next, the 10 most reactive peptides were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis protocol and tested using ELISA. The sensitivity and specificity of these peptides were also compared to the EIE-LVC Bio-Manguinhos kit, which is recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for use in leishmaniasis control programs. The sensitivity and specificity of the selected synthesized peptides was as high as 88.70% and 95.00%, respectively, whereas the EIE-LVC kit had a sensitivity of 13.08% and 100.00% of specificity. Although the tests based on synthetic peptides were able to diagnose up to 94.80% of asymptomatic dogs with leishmaniasis, the EIE-LVC kit failed to detect the disease in any of the infected asymptomatic dogs. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that ELISA using synthetic peptides is a technique with great potential for diagnosing CVL; furthermore, the use of these peptides in other diagnostic methodologies, such as immunochromatographic tests, could be beneficial to CVL control programs.

Faria, Angelica R.; Costa, Miriam M.; Giusta, Mario S.; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Penido, Marcus L. O.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.; Andrade, Helida M.

2011-01-01

36

Antiactin and antitubulin antibodies in canine visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis, a chronic and often fatal disease, is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Both specific and nonspecific antibodies are produced in the course of the disease, and autoantibodies may be involved in pathogenesis. Tubulin and actin have been found to be associated with L. donovani. To learn whether antiactin and antitubulin antibodies are present in visceral leishmaniasis, we tested sera from 263 infected dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to the antigens L. donovani, actin, and tubulin. All samples reacted positively with L. donovani, and a high percentage reacted positively with all three antigens. Sera from 202 uninfected dogs were also tested, none reacted with L. donovani antigen, although positive reactions were observed for 8 of the samples with actin or tubulin. It was found that the antibody-antigen reaction occurred at the Fab portion of the immunoglobulin molecule. Competitive enzyme immunoassays showed that the reaction was inhibited if the positive serum was first incubated with L. donovani antigen, actin, or tubulin and then tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results suggest that antiactin and antitubulin antibodies are present in the sera of dogs infected with visceral leishmaniasis.

Pateraki, E; Portocala, R; Labrousse, H; Guesdon, J L

1983-01-01

37

IMPACT OF CANINE CONTROL ON THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CANINE AND HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil is the only country endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) that regularly conducts epidemiologic and prophylactic control programs that involve the treatment of human cases, insect vector control, and the removal of seropositive infected dogs. This report reviews 60 studies reporting data on the efficacy of these recommended control tools and concludes that in Brazil 1) eradication of the

CLARISA B. PALATNIK-DE-SOUSA; RENATA DOS SANTOS; JOAO CARLOS FRANCA-SILVA; ROBERTO TEODORO DA COSTA; ALEXANDRE BARBOSA REIS; MARCOS PALATNIK; WILSON MAYRINK; ODAIR GENARO

38

Leishmaniasis  

MedlinePLUS

Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease spread by the bite of the female sandfly. ... There are different forms of leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects the skin and mucous membranes. Skin sores usually start at the site of the sandfly bite. In a ...

39

Immunogenicity of the P-8 amastigote antigen in the experimental model of canine visceral leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

The P-8 proteoglycolipid complex (P-8 PGLC), an amastigote antigen of L. pifanoi, has been demonstrated to induce protection in mouse models, as well as to induce Tc1/Th1-like cellular responses in American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Because the immunization with P-8 PGLC in the murine model does not appear to be genetically restricted, we have studied the reactivity of the P-8 PGLC in L. infantum infected dogs. In this study, it is shown that PBMC from experimentally infected dogs (asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic) significantly proliferated in response to soluble leishmanial antigen (SLA) or the P-8 PGLC. Further, quantification of the gene expression induced by the stimulation with P-8 in asymptomatically infected dogs showed an up-regulation of IFN-? and TNF-?, which were three to four-fold higher than that induced by soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA). While no measurable induction of IL-10 was observed, low levels of IL-4 mRNA were observed in response to both P-8 and SLA antigens. Thus, our studies establish that P-8 is recognized by infected canines and elicits a potentially curative/protective Th1-like immune response. The identification of Leishmania antigens that elicit appropriate immune responses across different host species (humans, canine) and disease manifestations (cutaneous or visceral) could be an advantage in generating a general vaccine for leishmaniasis.

Carrillo, E.; Ahmed, S.; Goldsmith-Pestana, K.; Nieto, J.; Osorio, Y.; Travi, B.; Moreno, J.; McMahon-Pratt, D.

2007-01-01

40

Immunogenicity of the P-8 amastigote antigen in the experimental model of canine visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The P-8 proteoglycolipid complex (P-8 PGLC), an amastigote antigen of Leishmania pifanoi, has been demonstrated to induce protection in mouse models, as well as to induce Tc1/Th1-like cellular responses in American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Because the immunization with P-8 PGLC in the murine model does not appear to be genetically restricted, we have studied the reactivity of the P-8 PGLC in Leishmania infantum infected dogs. In this study, it is shown that PBMC from experimentally infected dogs (asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic) significantly proliferated in response to soluble leishmanial antigen (SLA) or the P-8 PGLC. Further, quantification of the gene expression induced by the stimulation with P-8 in asymptomatically infected dogs showed an up-regulation of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, which were three to 4-fold higher than that induced by soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA). While no measurable induction of IL-10 was observed, low levels of IL-4 mRNA were observed in response to both P-8 and SLA antigens. Thus, our studies establish that P-8 is recognized by infected canines and elicits a potentially curative/protective Th1-like immune response. The identification of Leishmania antigens that elicit appropriate immune responses across different host species (humans, canine) and disease manifestations (cutaneous or visceral) could be an advantage in generating a general vaccine for leishmaniasis. PMID:17178178

Carrillo, E; Ahmed, S; Goldsmith-Pestana, K; Nieto, J; Osorio, Y; Travi, B; Moreno, J; McMahon-Pratt, D

2007-02-01

41

Evaluation of three recombinant Leishmania infantum antigens in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected disease and is fatal if untreated. Dogs serve as reservoirs for Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) due to their susceptibility to infection and high skin parasitism. Therefore, VL control in Brazil involves the elimination of seropositive dogs, among other actions. However, the most frequently used serological tests have limitations regarding sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we have selected three Leishmania antigens (C1, C8 and C9) and have produced them as recombinant proteins using pET-28a-TEV vector and Escherichia coli BL-21 as expression system. When tested in ELISA with human samples, the C9 antigen was the one showing the most promising results, with 68% sensitivity and 78% specificity. When testing canine samples, the C1, C8 and C9 antigens showed a sensitivity range from 70% to 80% and specificity range from 60% to 90%. The C1 antigen presented higher sensitivity (80%) and the C8 antigen presented higher specificity (90%). Due to it, we decided to mix and test C1 and C8 antigens together, resulting in the C18 antigen. The mix also yielded high percentages of detected symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs however it did not improve the performance of the diagnostic. Comparison of our tests with the tests recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health revealed that our antigens' sensitivities and the percentage of detected asymptomatic dogs were much higher. Our results suggest that the C1, C8, C18 and C9 recombinant proteins are good antigens to diagnose canine visceral leishmaniasis and could potentially be used in screening tests. To diagnose human visceral leishmaniasis, the C9 antigen presented reasonable results, but more optimization must be performed for this antigen to provide better performance. PMID:24801885

Fonseca, Aliani Moura; Faria, Angélica Rosa; Rodrigues, Fernandes Tenório Gomes; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Magalhães, Rubens Daniel Miserani; Cunha, João Luís Reis; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; de Andrade, Hélida Monteiro

2014-09-01

42

Recombinant K39 dipstick immunochromatographic test: a new tool for the serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The spread of human leishmaniasis has prompted the scientific community to study dogs as reservoirs for Leishmania infantum. Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is widespread in the Mediterranean area with a prevalence of up to 50%. The first step toward controlling the disease is to monitor its distribution, mainly in stray dogs. The validity of a recombinant K39 (rK39) dipstick test, commercially available for the serodiagnosis of human leishmaniasis, was evaluated using sera from 165 dogs selected on the basis of positive or negative lymph node smears at parasitological examination. The results were compared with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (cutoff 1:80). Sera from a group of dogs with other diagnosed diseases but negative for leishmaniasis were also tested to evaluate any cross-reactivity. Various procedures were used for testing whole blood samples. The relative specificity of the rK39 dipstick and IFAT was 100% (97 of 97) and 98.97% (96 of 97), whereas the relative sensitivity was 97.06% (66 of 68) and 98.53% (67 of 68), respectively. The results of the dipstick and IFAT corresponded except for 2 sera (k = 0.987). This data confirm the usefulness of rK39 antigen for diagnosing CanL both in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. The rK39 dipstick proved to be a rapid, sensitive, and specific test that may be very useful in the field for large-scale screening and also in veterinary practice, requiring minimal equipment and operator expertise. PMID:15690948

Otranto, Domenico; Paradies, Paola; Sasanelli, Mariateresa; Leone, Nicola; de Caprariis, Donato; Chirico, Jan; Spinelli, Rosa; Capelli, Gioia; Brandonisio, Olga

2005-01-01

43

Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal  

PubMed Central

The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection.

Maia, Carla; Dionisio, Lidia; Afonso, Maria Odete; Neto, Luis; Cristovao, Jose Manuel; Campino, Lenea

2013-01-01

44

Evaluation of the conjunctival swab for canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR-hybridization in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is caused by Leishmania chagasi (L. infantum) and dogs are considered to be the main domestic reservoir. The epidemiological control involves the elimination of infected dogs. Therefore, the correct diagnosis is very important in order to avoid the disease transmission or unnecessary culling of dogs. Recently, an antileishmanial vaccine for dogs was licensed and commercialized in Brazil. Vaccinated dogs test positive in the conventional serological tests, rendering these assays useless for control programs involving vaccinated animals. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an attractive alternative to the diagnosis in this context; but non-invasive samplings have great importance because they are simpler, painless and less resisted by dog-owners. This study aimed at evaluating the conjunctival swab (CS) for canine VL diagnosis by the PCR-hybridization procedure. Two groups of 23 seropositive dogs were used. CS samples were obtained from both eyes of each animal. The DNA extraction from CS was performed by the phenol chloroform method in group 1 and by boiling in group 2. In addition, blood was collected from each animal so that 30 microl was spotted onto filter paper (FP) and 1.0 ml was treated to obtain the buffy coat (BC). The DNA extraction from the BC and FP was accomplished by identical procedures in both groups using commercial kits. The PCR positivities for both groups 1 and 2 were, respectively: 73.9% and 52.2% (CS), 13% and 30.4% (BC), 8.7% and 17.4% (FP). The hybridization step increased the positivities for: 91.3% and 65.2% (CS), 21.7% and 34.8% (BC), 30.4% and 43.5% (FP), respectively. The highest frequency of positivity was obtained by the association between CS and DNA extraction by phenol chloroform. This approach can be very useful for diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis and could be applied to the follow-up and regular screening of vaccinated dogs. PMID:18242866

Ferreira, Sidney de Almeida; Ituassu, Leonardo Trindade; de Melo, Maria Norma; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

2008-04-15

45

Evidence for an impact on the incidence of canine leishmaniasis by the mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars in southern Italy.  

PubMed

Dogs are the domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum Nicolle (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the agent of zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis. In southern Europe, where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is widespread due to L. infantum, killing seropositive dogs is considered unacceptable and drug treatment has low efficacy in preventing transmission. We made a field evaluation of the efficacy of deltamethrin dog collars in a CanL focus of southern Italy, Mount Vesuvius area of Campania region, where the vector is Phlebotomus perniciosus Newstead (Diptera: Psychodidae), by assessing their impact on the incidence of CanL in an intervention town, compared to that in dogs of control towns where no collars were fitted. During two consecutive transmission seasons, collars were fitted to 350 (1998) and 354 (1999) dogs from San Sebastiano al Vesuvio (70% of the canine population). Control dogs (371 and 264 in the 2 years, respectively) were from four towns of the same area. Before each transmission season, the CanL seroprevalence in the intervention and control towns was evaluated by cross-sectional surveys and found to be similar (about 15% in 1998 and 10% in 1999, respectively). After each transmission period, incidence rates of seroconversions were determined in adult dogs that were serologically negative before the season under evaluation, and in puppies. After the 1998 season, 2.7% of the dogs in the intervention town seroconverted compared to 5.4% in the control towns (50% protection, P = 0.15). After the 1999 season, 3.5% of collared dogs seroconverted compared to 25.8% of control dogs (86% protection, P < 0.001). The increase in seroconversion rates recorded in control dogs suggests an increase in the Leishmania force of infection in the canine reservoir during the 1999 sandfly season, as supported by the concomitant increase of human cases in control towns and in the whole Campania region. Our results suggest that the impact of mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars on the incidence of CanL may be negligible during low transmission seasons, or probably in low endemic foci, but can be very strong when the force of transmission is high. PMID:11776454

Maroli, M; Mizzon, V; Siragusa, C; D'Oorazi, A; Gradoni, L

2001-12-01

46

Canine leishmaniasis. Immunophenotypic profile of leukocytes in different compartments of symptomatic, asymptomatic and treated dogs.  

PubMed

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CanL) is an emerging disease, expanding in various parts of the world. The infection caused by Leishmania, an intracellular protozoan parasite, can show different clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic or subclinical to symptomatic dogs, in which a wide spectrum of clinical signs is evident. The fact that the parasite replicates in different organs raises the hypothesis that each organ may have a specific immune response. The local immune responses should be evaluated and taken into consideration when developing prophylactic tools. Therefore, phenotypic characterization of peripheral blood, lymph node and bone marrow lymphocyte populations and the expression of class II molecules of major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) were performed in asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs and in dogs that had been diagnosed and treated for leishmaniasis. Our findings showed that blood and bone marrow lymphocytes from symptomatic dogs were highly activated. In bone marrow of asymptomatic and treated dogs, a high frequency of MHCII(+) lymphocytes was observed, as well as MHCII(+) monocytes in the treated group. These results show increased expression of MHCII molecules giving evidence for antigenic presentation mainly by lymphocytes. The symptomatic and treated dogs showed an expansion of CD4(+) T cells subpopulations in lymph nodes, revealing an important contribution of these cells in controlling local parasite replication. This study also underlines the eventual importance of CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) (double negative) and CD3(+)CD4(+)CD8(+) (double positive) T cell subsets in sensing and controlling latent infections and their possible function in the immune dynamics during CanL. The specific cellular immune responses raised in different compartments where the parasite replicates seem to have variable effects on local parasite control, highlighting the complexity of the cellular immune response developed by the dog infected by Leishmania infantum. PMID:20615553

Alexandre-Pires, Graça; de Brito, Maria Teresa Villa; Algueró, Cármen; Martins, Catarina; Rodrigues, Olivia Roos; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela

2010-10-15

47

Evaluation of a Prototype Flow Cytometry Test for Serodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a critical challenge since conventional immunoserological tests still present some deficiencies. The current study evaluated a prototype flow cytometry serology test, using antigens and fluorescent antibodies that had been stored for 1 year at 4°C, on a broad range of serum samples. Noninfected control dogs and Leishmania infantum-infected dogs were tested, and the prototype test showed excellent performance in differentiating these groups with high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy (100% in all analyses). When the CVL group was evaluated according to the dogs' clinical status, the prototype test showed outstanding accuracy in all groups with positive serology (asymptomatic II, oligosymptomatic, and symptomatic). However, in dogs which had positive results by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) but negative results by conventional serology (asymptomatic I), serological reactivity was not observed. Additionally, sera from 40 dogs immunized with different vaccines (Leishmune, Leish-Tec, or LBSap) did not present serological reactivity in the prototype test. Eighty-eight dogs infected with other pathogens (Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Babesia canis) were used to determine cross-reactivity and specificity, and the prototype test performed well, particularly in dogs infected with B. canis and E. canis (100% and 93.3% specificities, respectively). In conclusion, our data reinforce the potential of the prototype test for use as a commercial kit and highlight its outstanding performance even after storage for 1 year at 4°C. Moreover, the prototype test efficiently provided accurate CVL serodiagnosis with an absence of false-positive results in vaccinated dogs and minor cross-reactivity against other canine pathogens.

Ker, Henrique Gama; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; das Dores Moreira, Nadia; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Araujo, Marcio Sobreira Silva; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise

2013-01-01

48

A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL. PMID:24766461

Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Ferreira Rocha, Olguita G; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

2014-08-01

49

Evaluation of the conjunctival swab for canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR–hybridization in Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is caused by Leishmania chagasi (L. infantum) and dogs are considered to be the main domestic reservoir. The epidemiological control involves the elimination of infected dogs. Therefore, the correct diagnosis is very important in order to avoid the disease transmission or unnecessary culling of dogs. Recently, an antileishmanial vaccine for dogs was licensed and

Sidney de Almeida Ferreira; Leonardo Trindade Ituassu; Maria Norma de Melo; Antero Silva Ribeiro de Andrade

2008-01-01

50

STUDIES ON CONTROL OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS: IMPACT OF DOG CONTROL ON CANINE AND HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN JACOBINA, BAHIA, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effect of removing leishmania-infected dogs on the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis, a controlled intervention study was performed in northeast Brazil. The attempted elimination of seropositive dogs resulted in an initial significant decrease in the annual incidence of seroconversion among dogs from 36% to 6% over the first two years. In the following two years, the incidence increased

DAVID A. ASHFORD; JOHN R. DAVID; MIRALBA FREIRE; ROBERTA DAVID; ITALO SHERLOCK

51

Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology, disease patterns, immunology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of leishmaniasis are described. Various issues relating to leishmaniasis are highlighted: the relative lack of importance given to this disease compared with other infections, climate change and its possible impact on extension of endemicity of this infection, and new diagnostic tests which are improving diagnosis, especially in resource poor areas. Other important aspects discussed include the potential for newer oral therapy to change the way this disease is managed; Leishmania–HIV coinfection and groups at risk; and development of an effective vaccine.

Piscopo, Tonio V

2007-01-01

52

Recombinant single-chain canine interleukin 12 induces interferon gamma mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Canine visceral leishmaniasis poses important concerns for public health and veterinary medicine in many areas of the world. Resistance to it seems to be associated with cellular specific immune responses of the so-called Th1 type. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is one of the most potent inducers of Th1 type of immune responses to co-administered antigens. Herein, the cloning of canine IL-12, as a single-chain fusion protein (sccaIL-12), and its expression in biologically active form in COS-7 cells is reported. Supernatants from these cells stimulated the expression of comparable amounts of interferon gamma mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from dogs with natural visceral leishmaniasis. In addition, after stimulation with sccaIL-12, there was no difference between interferon gamma mRNA expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis and from normal healthy control animals. PMID:15127840

dos Santos, Lenita Ramires; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Chang, Yung-Fu; Olsen, John; McDonough, Sean P; Quimby, Fred; dos Santos, Washington Luis Conrado; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno de Sá

2004-03-01

53

Evaluation of rK39 Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis: Longitudinal Study and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need for sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for canine visceral leishmaniasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic dipstick RDTs using rK39 antigen for canine visceral leishmaniasis by (i) investigating the sensitivity of RDTs to detect infection, disease and infectiousness in a longitudinal cohort study of natural infection in Brazil, and (ii) using meta-analysis to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs from published studies. Methodology We used a rK39 RDT (Kalazar Detect Canine Rapid Test; Inbios) to test sera collected from 54 sentinel dogs exposed to natural infection in an endemic area of Brazil. Dogs were sampled bimonthly for up to 27 months, and rK39 results compared to those of crude antigen ELISA, PCR, clinical status and infectiousness to sandflies. We then searched MEDLINE and Web of Knowledge (1993–2011) for original studies evaluating the performance of rK39 RDTs in dogs. Meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity was performed using bivariate mixed effects models. Principal Findings The sensitivity of the rK39 RDT in Brazil to detect infection, disease and infectiousness was 46%, 77% and 78% respectively. Sensitivity increased with time since infection, antibody titre, parasite load, clinical score and infectiousness. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. The combined sensitivity of rK39 RDTs was 86.7% (95% CI: 76.9–92.8%) to detect clinical disease and 59.3% (37.9–77.6%) to detect infection. Combined specificity was 98.7% (89.5–99.9%). Both sensitivity and specificity varied considerably between studies. Conclusion The diagnostic performance of rK39 RDTs is reasonable for confirmation of infection in suspected clinical cases, but the sensitivity to detect infected dogs is too low for large-scale epidemiological studies and operational control programmes.

Quinnell, Rupert J.; Carson, Connor; Reithinger, Richard; Garcez, Lourdes M.; Courtenay, Orin

2013-01-01

54

High rates of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma nabiasi infection in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in sympatric and syntrophic conditions in an endemic canine leishmaniasis area: Epidemiological consequences.  

PubMed

Leishmania infantum infection has been reported in various host species, both domestic and wild, in some cases with high prevalence rates. However, until the recent discovery of infected hares, no studies had provided clear evidence of any significant reservoir other than domestic dogs. Our focus was on another lagomorph, Oryctolagus cuniculus or wild rabbit. This species is native to the Iberian Peninsula and its presence and abundance gave rise to the name of Spain. In an endemic area for canine leishmaniasis in the southeast of Spain, 150 rabbits were captured over a period of three years. Samples of blood, bone marrow, liver, spleen, heart and skin were taken and analysed through parasitological, serological and molecular techniques in order to detect Leishmania and Trypanosoma. 20.7% of the rabbits were infected with L. infantum and 82.4% with Trypanosoma nabiasi, and 14.8% of mixed infections were detected. Both parasites were found in all the animal organs analysed, a factor which, along with the presence of serological cross-reactions, must be taken into account in epidemiological studies on leishmaniasis. O. cuniculus is an abundant and gregarious species, with a long enough average lifespan to ensure L. infantum transmission. The presence of the parasite in the skin and blood of these rabbits with no acute manifestation of disease ensures its contact with the vector, which finds in their warrens a suitable biotope to inhabit. The rabbit therefore seems to meet the most of conditions for being considered a reservoir host of L. infantum. PMID:24774436

Díaz-Sáez, V; Merino-Espinosa, G; Morales-Yuste, M; Corpas-López, V; Pratlong, F; Morillas-Márquez, F; Martín-Sánchez, J

2014-05-28

55

Development of a Fluorescent Based Immunosensor for the Serodiagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis Combining Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometry  

PubMed Central

Background An accurate diagnosis is essential for the control of infectious diseases. In the search for effective and efficient tests, biosensors have increasingly been exploited for the development of new and highly sensitive diagnostic methods. Here, we describe a new fluorescent based immunosensor comprising magnetic polymer microspheres coated with recombinant antigens to improve the detection of specific antibodies generated during an infectious disease. As a challenging model, we used canine leishmaniasis due to the unsatisfactory sensitivity associated with the detection of infection in asymptomatic animals where the levels of pathogen-specific antibodies are scarce. Methodology Ni-NTA magnetic microspheres with 1,7 µm and 8,07 µm were coated with the Leishmania recombinant proteins LicTXNPx and rK39, respectively. A mixture of equal proportions of both recombinant protein-coated microspheres was used to recognize and specifically bind anti-rK39 and anti-LicTNXPx antibodies present in serum samples of infected dogs. The microspheres were recovered by magnetic separation and the percentage of fluorescent positive microspheres was quantified by flow cytometry. Principal Findings A clinical evaluation carried out with 129 dog serum samples using the antigen combination demonstrated a sensitivity of 98,8% with a specificity of 94,4%. rK39 antigen alone demonstrated a higher sensitivity for symptomatic dogs (96,9%), while LicTXNPx antigen showed a higher sensitivity for asymptomatic (94,4%). Conclusions Overall, our results demonstrated the potential of a magnetic microsphere associated flow cytometry methodology as a viable tool for highly sensitive laboratorial serodiagnosis of both clinical and subclinical forms of canine leishmaniasis.

Sousa, Susana; Cardoso, Luis; Reed, Steven G.; Reis, Alexandre B.; Martins-Filho, Olindo A.; Silvestre, Ricardo; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela

2013-01-01

56

Canine visceral leishmaniasis in the Krenak indigenous community, Resplendor, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2007.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of the local canine population in the Krenak indigenous community to detect parasites of the genus Leishmania and identify the circulating species and the proportion of asymptomatic dogs, while investigating associations between canine infection and the dogs' sex, age, and hair length. A seroepidemiological survey was performed, including 63 dogs. All the animals underwent clinical examination to verify the presence of characteristic signs, and serum samples were taken for serological tests (ELISA, IIF). Infected dogs culled by the health service were necropsied and the material was analyzed using molecular diagnostic techniques. The cross-sectional study detected a 46% prevalence rate, and the circulating species was Leishmania (L.) chagasi. The statistical analysis showed no association between infection and the independent variables. The study generated data on the epidemiological situation with canine infection in the area, which was previously unknown. PMID:21519710

Antônio, Eloiza Gonçalves; Malacco, Marcos Aurélio Fulgêncio; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Moreira, Eliana Furtado; Caldas, Ivo Santana; Pena, João Luiz; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins

2011-03-01

57

Immunogenicity of the P-8 amastigote antigen in the experimental model of canine visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The P-8 proteoglycolipid complex (P-8 PGLC), an amastigote antigen of Leishmania pifanoi, has been demonstrated to induce protection in mouse models, as well as to induce Tc1\\/Th1-like cellular responses in American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Because the immunization with P-8 PGLC in the murine model does not appear to be genetically restricted, we have studied the reactivity of the P-8 PGLC

E. Carrillo; S. Ahmed; K. Goldsmith-Pestana; J. Nieto; Y. Osorio; B. Travi; J. Moreno; D. McMahon-Pratt

2007-01-01

58

CLINICAL RECOVERY AND LIMITED CURE IN CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS TREATED WITH AMINOSIDINE (PAROMOMYCIN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three groups of three, six, and 12 dogs with parasitologically proven clinical visceral leishmaniasis (Leishmania chagasi infection) were treated with intramuscular aminosidine sulfate at doses of 20 mg\\/kg\\/day for 15 days; 80 mg\\/kg\\/day for 20 days, and 40 mg\\/kg\\/day for 30 days, respectively. Follow-up was by parasitologic ex- amination of bone marrow and skin, serology using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody

J. A. VEXENAT; P. L. OLLIARO; J. A. FONSECA DE CASTRO; R. CAVALCANTE; J. H. FURTADO CAMPOS; J. P. TAVARES; M. A. MILES

59

CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN COLOMBIA: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLINICAL AND PARASITOLOGIC STATUS AND INFECTIVITY FOR SAND FLIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the reservoir competency of canines with distinct clinical presentations of Leishmania chagasi infection. The parasitologic status of asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs was determined by standard culture methods Infectivity was assessed by multiple xenodiagnoses with Lutzomyia longipalpis, over a period of 2-11 months. Asymp- tomatic dogs were non-infective (0 of 5) while 2 of 7 oligosymptomatic dogs infected L.

BRUNO L. TRAVI; CARLOS J. TABARES; HORACIO CADENA; CRISTINA FERRO; YANETH OSORIO

2001-01-01

60

Transplacental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in reinfected pregnant female canines.  

PubMed

Twelve pregnant female canines, naturally infected with Toxoplasma gondii, were reinfected with T. gondii: three (GI) received tachyzoites subcutaneously (1.0 x 107), three (GII) were orally inoculated with oocysts (1.5 x 104), and six (GIII) were kept as a nonreinfected control group. All the reinfected female canines (GI and GII) miscarried or presented fetal death, while only one GIII female presented a stillborn in a litter of four pups (P < 0.01). Fever, lymphoadenopathy, miscarriage, and fetal death were the main clinical alterations observed. The highest serological titers detected through the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) were 1,024 (GI) and 4,096 (GII). In group III, the titers ranged between 64 and 256. By bioassays in mice, T. gondii was isolated in 17 organs of the reinfected adult canines, in 11 of the control group, and in 20 of the neonates. Positive immunostaining of cysts and/or tachyzoites were observed in 26 canine tissues (14 from GI and GII and ten from GIII). The agent was detected by immunohistochemistry in the encephalon of a neonate and in the spinal cord of a stillborn, thus, confirming that T. gondii infected canine fetuses, provoking miscarriages, even in bitches that presented primoinfection. PMID:19137327

Bresciani, K D S; Costa, A J; Toniollo, G H; Luvizzoto, M C R; Kanamura, C T; Moraes, F R; Perri, S H V; Gennari, S M

2009-04-01

61

Public Knowledge about and Detection of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Urban Divin?polis, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background. Leishmaniases are diseases with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations including cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) forms. Many factors may affect their occurrence and expansion including environmental, geographic, and social conditions. In the past two decades, Divinópolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, has exhibited the potential for a disease outbreak, with the appearance of CL, and VL cases (human and canine). Hence, this study was initiated to monitor public knowledge of the disease. Questionnaires were administered in four neighborhoods (Jardim Belvedere, Esplanada, Danilo Passos I and II) where most of the human and canine cases have been reported. The analyses demonstrated that public knowledge of the disease is sparse and fragmented. A strong perception of the dog as the main reservoir was observed. Five veterinary clinics were evaluated for the presence of canine VL using serological (RIFI and ELISA) and molecular (PCR-RFLP) techniques. This is the first study demonstrating the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in Divinópolis, suggesting a possible urbanization of VL.

Margonari, Carina; Menezes, Julia Alves; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Maia, Kamila Nunes; Eder de Oliveira, Michael; Luisa Fonseca, Amanda; Furtado de Sousa, Fabrizio; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Madureira, Ana Paula; Melo, Maria Norma; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro

2012-01-01

62

Congenital Transmission of Experimental Leishmaniasis in a Hamster Model  

PubMed Central

Little information is available on transplacental transmission of Leishmania spp. We determined the frequency and impact of congenital infection caused by Leishmania panamensis or L. donovani in experimentally infected hamsters. A polymerase chain reaction showed that congenital transmission occurred in 25.8% (24 of 93) of offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters and 14.6% (11 of 75) offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters. Mortality during lactation was higher in offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters and offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters than controls, and lymphoproliferation to Leishmania was more frequent in offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters (17.4%, 11 of 63) than in offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters (8.5%, 3 of 35). After weaning, only offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters had lower weight gain (P < 0.001) and hematocrit levels (P = 0.0045) than controls. Challenge of offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters with L. panamensis showed no differences in lesion evolution, and offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters were more susceptible to L. donovani challenge than controls. Consequently, prenatal exposure of hamsters to L. donovani significantly increased the mortality risk and susceptibility to secondary homologous infection.

Osorio, Yaneth; Rodriguez, Luz D.; Bonilla, Diana L.; Peniche, Alex G.; Henao, Hector; Saldarriaga, Omar; Travi, Bruno L.

2012-01-01

63

Congenital transmission of experimental leishmaniasis in a hamster model.  

PubMed

Little information is available on transplacental transmission of Leishmania spp. We determined the frequency and impact of congenital infection caused by Leishmania panamensis or L. donovani in experimentally infected hamsters. A polymerase chain reaction showed that congenital transmission occurred in 25.8% (24 of 93) of offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters and 14.6% (11 of 75) offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters. Mortality during lactation was higher in offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters and offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters than controls, and lymphoproliferation to Leishmania was more frequent in offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters (17.4%, 11 of 63) than in offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters (8.5%, 3 of 35). After weaning, only offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters had lower weight gain (P < 0.001) and hematocrit levels (P = 0.0045) than controls. Challenge of offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters with L. panamensis showed no differences in lesion evolution, and offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters were more susceptible to L. donovani challenge than controls. Consequently, prenatal exposure of hamsters to L. donovani significantly increased the mortality risk and susceptibility to secondary homologous infection. PMID:22556079

Osorio, Yaneth; Rodriguez, Luz D; Bonilla, Diana L; Peniche, Alex G; Henao, Hector; Saldarriaga, Omar; Travi, Bruno L

2012-05-01

64

Transmission potential, skin inflammatory response, and parasitism of symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs with visceral leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and it is transmitted by sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. Dogs are an important domestic reservoir, and control of the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) to humans includes the elimination of infected dogs. However, though dogs are considered to be an important element in the transmission cycle of Leishmania, the identification of infected dogs representing an immediate risk for transmission has not been properly evaluated. Since it is not possible to treat infected dogs, they are sacrificed when a diagnosis of VL is established, a measure that is difficult to accomplish in highly endemic areas. In such areas, parameters that allow for easy identification of reservoirs that represents an immediate risk for transmission is of great importance for the control of VL transmission. In this study we aimed to identify clinical parameters, reinforced by pathological parameters that characterize dogs with potential to transmit the parasite to the vector. Results The major clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic area were onicogriphosis, skin lesions, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, and weight loss. The transmission potential of these dogs was assessed by xenodiagnosis using Lutzomyia longipalpis. Six of nine symptomatic dogs were infective to Lutzomyia longipalpis while none of the five asymptomatic dogs were infective to the sandfly. Leishmania amastigotes were present in the skin of all clinically symptomatic dogs, but absent in asymptomatic dogs. Higher parasite loads were observed in the ear and ungueal region, and lower in abdomen. The inflammatory infiltrate was more intense in the ears and ungueal regions of both symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. In clinically affected dogs in which few or none Leishmania amastigotes were observed, the inflammatory infiltrate was constituted mainly of lymphocytes and macrophages. When many parasites were present, the infiltrate was also comprised of lymphocytes and macrophages, as well as a larger quantity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Conclusion Dogs that represent an immediate risk for transmission of Leishmania in endemic areas present clinical manifestations that include onicogriphosis, skin lesions, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, and weight loss. Lymphadenopathy in particular was a positive clinical hallmark since it was closely related to the positive xenodiagnosis.

Vercosa, BLA; Lemos, CM; Mendonca, IL; Silva, SMMS; de Carvalho, SM; Goto, H; Costa, FAL

2008-01-01

65

Canine leishmaniasis: clinical, parasitological and entomological follow-up after chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Six naturally infected dogs [two with no signs of leishmaniasis ('asymptomatic'), two with a few signs ('oligosymptomatic') and two with many signs ('polysymptomatic')] were studied before and after chemotherapy. Another two, non-infected dogs were kept as controls. The dogs were studied clinically, haematologically and parasitologically five times over 11 months and their infectivity to sandflies was evaluated before and after the treatment. The 'asymptomatic' dogs were as infective to sandflies as the 'symptomatic' before treatment but all dogs were un-infective for at least a few months following chemotherapy. Treatment led to a temporary improvement in the clinical and biochemical condition of most of the dogs, the symptomatic dogs becoming asymptomatic, but parasitological cure was uncommon after 10 months' follow-up. There was often no correlation between clinical condition, parasitological condition and infectivity to sandflies. Some dogs from both the 'asymptomatic' and 'symptomatic' groups became infective to sandflies several months post-treatment. PMID:7979624

Alvar, J; Molina, R; San Andrés, M; Tesouro, M; Nieto, J; Vitutia, M; González, F; San Andrés, M D; Boggio, J; Rodriguez, F

1994-08-01

66

Activity of amphotericin B in lipid emulsion in the initial treatment of canine leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Amphotericin B was given to 19 dogs with leishmaniasis. The drug was diluted in an emulsion prepared by mixing 50 mg of amphotericin B desoxycholate with 40 ml of sterile water and 10 ml of soya bean oil solution. The dogs were infused over nearly one hour with 50 ml/kg of normal saline followed by 10 ml/kg of mannitol 20 per cent. The mixture was then loaded over 30 to 60 minutes using a syringe pump. The emulsion was given twice weekly, at an increasing dosage (from 1 to 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight), for a minimum of eight injections. All 17 dogs receiving a total dosage of more than 10 mg/kg were clinically cured by the end of the treatment, and 14 of these had a negative polymerase chain reaction test on bone marrow. PMID:11327663

Lamothe, J

2001-04-01

67

Paraoxonase activity as a tool for clinical monitoring of dogs treated for canine leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine if the activity of paraoxonase (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme that works as a negative acute phase reactant, is a better predictor for the clinical recovery of leishmaniotic dogs receiving standard treatments compared with inflammatory markers such as C reactive protein (CRP) and electrophoretic fractions. For this purpose we tested 20 healthy dogs (controls) and 39 leishmaniotic dogs classified as sick (group A, n=23) or severely sick (group B, n=16) and tested at admission and after 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days. At admission, CRP and electrophoresis were altered in both groups, while PON1 activity was abnormal only in group B. There were no differences related to the outcome (mortality, complications or time of recovery). PON1 activity normalized in about 2 weeks in dogs that had abnormal values at admission and a final positive outcome; CRP normalized in 4-6 weeks and electrophoretic fractions were still altered after 6 weeks. The results show that, at admission, inflammatory markers did not predict the outcome of leishmaniasis. PON1 activity decreased only in some dogs with systemic inflammation but not in those with mild leishmaniasis: when decreased, PON1 normalized earlier than other markers in dogs that responded to treatment. This finding most likely depends on the rapid decrease in oxidative phenomena. PON1 activity should therefore be tested on admission: if low values are recorded, severe inflammation may be suspected and PON1 measurement may be repeated during treatment to early identify responsive dogs. PMID:24188864

Rossi, G; Ibba, F; Meazzi, S; Giordano, A; Paltrinieri, S

2014-01-01

68

Subtractive Phage Display Selection from Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Identifies Novel Epitopes That Mimic Leishmania infantum Antigens with Potential Serodiagnosis Applications  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs.

Costa, Lourena E.; Lima, Mayara I. S.; Chavez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Lage, Paula S.; Lopes, Eliane G. P.; Lage, Daniela P.; Ribeiro, Tatiana G.; Andrade, Pedro H. R.; de Magalhaes-Soares, Danielle F.; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Goulart, Luiz R.

2014-01-01

69

A multicentric evaluation of the recombinant Leishmania infantum antigen-based immunochromatographic assay for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health challenge in Brazil and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of the causative agent. The culling of animals to control VL in some countries makes the accurate diagnosis of canine VL (CVL) essential. Recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B were selected from a cDNA library of Leishmania infantum amastigotes due to their strong potential as candidates in diagnostic testing for CVL. The present multicentric study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of a prototype test using these antigens (DPP rLci1A/rLci2B) against 154 sera obtained from symptomatic dogs within three endemic areas of VL in Brazil. The specificity was evaluated using 40 serum samples from negative dogs and dogs infected with other pathogens. Sensitivity and specificity rates of DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype were compared to rates from other diagnostic tests currently in use by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, including DPP®LVC, EIE®LVC. Findings DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype offered similar performance to that offered by DPP®LVC rapid test, as follows: sensitivity of 87% (CI 81–91) and 88% (CI 82–93) and specificity of 100% (CI 91–100) and 97% (CI 87–100), respectively for DPP rLci1A/rLci2B and DPP®LVC. When results of these two tests were considered concomitantly, sensitivity increased to 93.5% (CI 89–96). Conclusions The recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B represent promising candidates for use in a multi-antigen rapid test for CVL. The inclusion of novel antigens to the DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype model could offer additionally enhanced sensitivity to detect animals infected by L. infantum.

2014-01-01

70

QBC for the diagnosis of human and canine american visceral leishmaniasis: preliminary data.  

PubMed

"Quantitative Buffy Coat" (QBC) is a direct and fast fluorescent method used for the identification of blood parasites. Since Leishmania chagasi circulates in blood, we decided to test it in American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). Bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) of 49 persons and PB of 31 dogs were analyzed. QBC was positive in BM of 11/11 patients with AVL and in 1/6 patients with other diseases. Amastigotes were identified in PB of 18/22 patients with AVL and in none without AVL. The test was positive in 30 out of the 31 seropositive dogs and in 28/28 dogs with Leishmania identified in other tissues. QBC is a promising method for diagnosis of human AVL, and possibly for the exam of PB of patients with AVL/AIDS, for the control of the cure and for the identification of asymptomatic carriers. Because it is fast and easy to collect and execute, QBC should be evaluated for programs of reservoir control. PMID:11813066

Liarte, D B; Mendonça, I L; Luz, F C; Abreu, E A; Mello, G W; Farias, T J; Ferreira, A F; Millington, M A; Costa, C H

2001-01-01

71

Evaluation of a novel chromatographic immunoassay based on Dual-Path Platform technology (DPP® CVL rapid test) for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is the major source of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and is transmitted from dogs to sand flies to humans. To control the spread of this disease, early and accurate detection of infected dogs is critical but challenging. Here we demonstrate the potential of the Dual-Path Platform (DPP(®)) CVL rapid test for detecting K26/K39-reactive antibodies in sera from clinically symptomatic (n=60) and asymptomatic (n=60) Leishmania infantum-infected dogs. For the specificity evaluation, assays were performed using known negative diagnostic serum samples (n=59) and cross-reaction control sera (n=11) from animals born in a VL-free area of Brazil. The diagnostic kit displayed high specificity (96%) but low sensitivity (47%) in identifying parasite-positive dogs without signs of CVL. However, the test sensitivity was significantly higher (98%) in diseased cases, indicating that this convenient test may be useful to identify the most infectious dogs. Efforts should be pursued to obtain a more sensitive DPP-multiplexed test parameter (i.e. based on simultaneous yet separate antibody detection of carefully selected multiple antigens of diagnostic utility) for effective serodiagnosis of early-infected dogs, as this will likely allow more efficient canine removal regimens than those used in practice by public health services. PMID:22137538

Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Ferreira, Adelson L; dos Santos, Claudiney B; Pinto, Israel de-Souza; de-Azevedo, Carolina T; Falqueto, Aloísio

2012-01-01

72

Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia: relationship between clinical and parasitologic status and infectivity for sand flies.  

PubMed

We studied the reservoir competency of canines with distinct clinical presentations of Leishmania chagasi infection. The parasitologic status of asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs was determined by standard culture methods Infectivity was assessed by multiple xenodiagnoses with Lutzomyia longipalpis, over a period of 2-11 months. Asymptomatic dogs were non-infective (0 of 5) while 2 of 7 oligosymptomatic dogs infected L longipalpis, transmitting the parasites at low rates (range 0.9-5.2% of engorged flies). Polysymptomatic dogs transmitted L. chagasi more frequently (4 of 8 dogs) and reached higher infection rates (range 5.0-22.5% of engorged flies). The skin of the ear tended to be more infective to sand flies than that of the abdomen. Polymerase chain reaction hybridization (PCR-H) was a sensitive method for detection of L. chagasi, yielding the highest positive rate in serum (16 of 17 dogs) with no distinction between clinical groups. No association between skin positivity by PCR-H and infectivity to sand flies was found. The infectivity of dogs from clinically comparable groups from Colombian and Mediterranean foci differed. This may be a reflection of varied nutritional conditions or vector competency of distinct sand fly species. PMID:11442205

Travi, B L; Tabares, C J; Cadena, H; Ferro, C; Osorio, Y

2001-01-01

73

Canine transmissible venereal tumour: cytogenetic origin, immunophenotype, and immunobiology. A review.  

PubMed

Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is the only known naturally occurring tumour that can be transplanted as an allograft across major histocompatibility (MHC) barriers within the same species, and even to other members of the canine family, such as foxes, coyotes and wolves. The progression of this tumour is unique in that, it follows a predictable growth pattern. In natural and experimental cases, the growth pattern includes progressive growth phase, static phase and regression phase, and this is followed by transplantation immunity in immunocompetent adults, while metastasis occurs in puppies and immunosuppressed dogs. Because of the uniqueness of CTVT transmission and progression, experimental investigations of various aspects of the biology of CTVT have been used to provide clues to the immunobiology of both animal and human tumours. This review examines the current state of knowledge of the aspects of the cytogenetic origin, immunophenotype, immunobiology and immunotherapy of CTVT. PMID:14535580

Mukaratirwa, S; Gruys, E

2003-09-01

74

Recombinant Canine Coronaviruses Related to Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus of Swine Are Circulating in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four canine coronavirus type II (CCoV-II) strains were identified in the guts and internal organs of pups which had died of acute gastroenteritis. The CCoV-II strains were strictly related to porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in the N-terminal domain of the spike protein, whereas in the other parts of the genome, a higher genetic relatedness to recent CCoV-II isolates was

Nicola Decaro; Viviana Mari; Marco Campolo; Alessio Lorusso; Michele Camero; Gabriella Elia; Vito Martella; Paolo Cordioli; Luis Enjuanes; Canio Buonavoglia

2009-01-01

75

A case of ocular canine transmissible venereal tumor  

PubMed Central

A 1-year-old, intact female mixed-breed dog was presented to St. George’s University Small Animal Clinic in Grenada for a third eyelid mass. The dog was diagnosed with a rare ocular transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and concurrent anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and dirofilariasis. Treatment with vincristine sulfate resulted in complete resolution of the TVT.

Milo, Jewel; Snead, Elisabeth

2014-01-01

76

Longitudinal analysis of serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune®.  

PubMed

Development of vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) may provide a prophylactic barrier, but antibody response detected by standard diagnostic techniques may not separate vaccinated from naturally infected dogs. Moreover, anti-Leishmania antibody levels in vaccinated dogs may be detectable for months. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate an "in-house" ELISA with three serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of CVL in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®). A total of 18 mongrel dogs were submitted to a complete protocol of the vaccine, monitored and evaluated in 5 times (T0-T4) up to 180 days after T0. Twenty-one days after the first dose (T1), 50% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA and 5.5% by IFAT, while by the official ELISA and DPP(®) CVL rapid test all dogs tested negative. At time T2, 42 days after of the first dose, 100%, 83.3%, 11.1%, and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, IFAT, official ELISA kit and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Ninety days after the first dose (T3), 100%, 83.3%, 72.2% and 33.3% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, IFAT, and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Finally, at time T4, 88.8%, 33.3%, 11.1% and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, DPP(®) CVL rapid test and IFAT, respectively. In conclusion, dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®) cross-react by an "in-house" ELISA and by the three official Brazilian serological tests for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis up to six months after the first vaccine dose, and may be mistakenly diagnosed and removed. PMID:23920056

Marcondes, Mary; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; de Araújo, Maria de Fátima Lereno; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Tolezano, José Eduardo; Vieira, Rafael F C; Biondo, Alexander W

2013-11-01

77

Efficacy of Combined Therapy with Liposome-Encapsulated Meglumine Antimoniate and Allopurinol in Treatment of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

An innovative liposomal formulation of meglumine antimoniate (LMA) was recently reported to promote both long-term parasite suppression and reduction of infectivity to sand flies in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. However, 5 months after treatment, parasites were still found in the bone marrow of all treated dogs. In order to improve treatment with LMA, the present study aimed to evaluate its efficacy in combination with allopurinol. Mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum were treated with six doses of LMA (6.5 mg Sb/kg of body weight/dose) given at 4-day intervals, plus allopurinol (20 mg/kg/24 h per os) for 140 days. Comparison was made with groups treated with LMA, allopurinol, empty liposomes plus allopurinol, empty liposomes, and saline. Dogs remained without treatment from day 140 to 200 after the start of treatment. The drug combination promoted both clinical improvement of dogs and significant reduction in the parasitic load in bone marrow and spleen on days 140 and 200 compared to these parameters in the pretreatment period. This is in contrast with the other protocols, which did not result in significant reduction of the bone marrow parasite load on day 200. Strikingly, the combined treatment, in contrast to the other regimens, induced negative quantitative PCR (qPCR) results in the liver of 100% of the dogs. Both xenodiagnosis and skin parasite determination by qPCR indicated that the drug combination was effective in blocking the transmission of skin parasites to sand flies. Based on all of the parasitological tests performed on day 200, 50% of the animals that received the combined treatment were considered cured.

da Silva, Sydnei M.; Amorim, Izabela F. G.; Ribeiro, Raul R.; Azevedo, Erly G.; Demicheli, Cynthia; Melo, Maria N.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; Gontijo, Nelder F.; Michalick, Marilene S. M.

2012-01-01

78

Characterization of Novel Leishmania infantum Recombinant Proteins Encoded by Genes from Five Families with Distinct Capacities for Serodiagnosis of Canine and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

To expand the available panel of recombinant proteins that can be useful for identifying Leishmania-infected dogs and for diagnosing human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), we selected recombinant antigens from L. infantum, cDNA, and genomic libraries by using pools of serum samples from infected dogs and humans. The selected DNA fragments encoded homologs of a cytoplasmic heat-shock protein 70, a kinesin, a polyubiquitin, and two novel hypothetical proteins. Histidine-tagged recombinant proteins were produced after subcloning these DNA fragments and evaluated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with panels of canine and human serum samples. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different recombinant proteins had different sensitivities (67.4–93.0% and 36.4–97.2%) and specificities (76.1–100% and 90.4–97.3%) when tested with serum samples from Leishmania-infected dogs and human patients with VL. Overall, no single recombinant antigen was sufficient to serodiagnosis all canine or human VL cases.

Oliveira, Geraldo G. S.; Magalhaes, Franklin B.; Teixeira, Marcia C. A.; Pereira, Andrea M.; Pinheiro, Cristiane G. M.; Santos, Lenita R.; Nascimento, Marilia B.; Bedor, Cheila N. G.; Albuquerque, Alessandra L.; dos-Santos, Washington L. C.; Gomes, Yara M.; Moreira, Edson D.; Brito, Maria E. F.; Pontes de Carvalho, Lain C.; de Melo Neto, Osvaldo P.

2011-01-01

79

Phlebotomine Vector Ecology in the Domestic Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral.

Ferro, Cristina; Marin, Dairo; Gongora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, Maria C.; Trujillo, Jorge E.; Rueda, Norma K.; Marin, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Perez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.

2011-01-01

80

Improved Canine and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis Immunodiagnosis Using Combinations of Synthetic Peptides in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundZoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and the domestic dogs are the main urban parasite reservoir hosts. In Brazil, indirect fluorescence antibody tests (IFAT) and indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using promastigote extracts are widely used in epidemiological surveys. However, their sensitivity and specificity have often been compromised

Míriam Maria Costa; Marcos Penido; Mariana Silva dos Santos; Daniel Doro; Eloísa de Freitas; Marilene Susan Marques Michalick; Gabriel Grimaldi; Ricardo Tostes Gazzinelli; Ana Paula Fernandes

2012-01-01

81

Standardization of a rapid immunochromatographic test with the recombinant antigens K39 and K26 for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) remains problematic because there areno reliable commercially available tests. Most laboratories use domestically prepared tests such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). We evaluated rapid immunochromatographic (RICH) test kits for the diagnosis of CVL. The tests were assembled with either Leishmania chagasi recombinant antigens K39 or K26 and with either gold-labelled Staphylococcus aureus protein A or Streptococcus pyogenes protein G. Fifty sera from dogs with CVL, 14 sera from dogs with Chagas disease, and 50 sera from normal healthy dogs were tested. The results show that the RICH test using recombinant antigen K39 has a sensitivity of 96% and 100% specificity for the diagnosis of CVL. No significant differences were observed in the tests assembled with either protein A or protein G. The RICH tests using recombinant antigen K26 were equally specific but less sensitive than those using K39. However, the 2 antigens complemented each other and increased the overall sensitivity of the test. Because of its simplicity and performance the RICH test is a quick and reliable alternative for the diagnosis of CVL either in conventional laboratories or for remote areas where laboratories are not readily accessible for conventional assays. PMID:16117962

da Costa, Roberto Teodoro; França, João Carlos; Mayrink, Wilson; Nascimento, Evaldo; Genaro, Odair; Campos-Neto, Antonio

2003-01-01

82

An ELISA based on recombinant spike protein S for the detection of antibodies to transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine-like canine coronaviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant canine coronaviruses, resembling the transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine (TGEV) in a 5? fragment of the S glycoprotein, have been detected recently and showed to be present in canine populations. The 5? fragment of the S protein (S?) of a TGEV-like canine coronavirus (CCoV), strain 174\\/06, was expressed in an Escherichia coli cell-free system. The purified recombinant polypeptide was

Gabriella Elia; Nicola Decaro; Vito Martella; Eleonora Lorusso; Viviana Mari; Stella Lucente Maria; Paolo Cordioli; Canio Buonavoglia

2010-01-01

83

Recombinant Canine Coronaviruses Related to Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus of Swine Are Circulating in Dogs?  

PubMed Central

Four canine coronavirus type II (CCoV-II) strains were identified in the guts and internal organs of pups which had died of acute gastroenteritis. The CCoV-II strains were strictly related to porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in the N-terminal domain of the spike protein, whereas in the other parts of the genome, a higher genetic relatedness to recent CCoV-II isolates was observed. Experimental infection of dogs with a TGEV-like isolate induced mild gastroenteritis without any systemic involvement. By virus neutralization tests, antigenic differences between reference and TGEV-like CCoVs were found. Our data support the potential recombinant origin of the TGEV-like CCoVs.

Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Campolo, Marco; Lorusso, Alessio; Camero, Michele; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Cordioli, Paolo; Enjuanes, Luis; Buonavoglia, Canio

2009-01-01

84

Long-lasting protection against canine visceral leishmaniasis using the LiESAp-MDP vaccine in endemic areas of France: Double-blind randomised efficacy field trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination against visceral leishmaniasis has received limited attention compared with cutaneous leishmaniasis, although the need for an effective vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis is pressing. Dogs constitute the major reservoir of Leishmania infantum\\/chagasi responsible for human visceral leishmaniasis. We have recently demonstrated that the combination of naturally excreted\\/secreted antigens, easily purified from culture supernatant of Leishmania infantum promastigotes (LiESAp) as vaccine

Jean-Loup Lemesre; Philippe Holzmuller; Rachel Bras Gonçalves; Gilles Bourdoiseau; Christophe Hugnet; Mireille Cavaleyra; Gérard Papierok

2007-01-01

85

Mapping and Sequencing of the Canine NRAMP1 Gene and Identification of Mutations in Leishmaniasis-Susceptible Dogs  

PubMed Central

The NRAMP1 gene (Slc11a1) encodes an ion transporter protein involved in the control of intraphagosomal replication of parasites and in macrophage activation. It has been described in mice as the determinant of natural resistance or susceptibility to infection with antigenically unrelated pathogens, including Leishmania. Our aims were to sequence and map the canine Slc11a1 gene and to identify mutations that may be associated with resistance or susceptibility to Leishmania infection. The canine Slc11a1 gene has been mapped to dog chromosome CFA37 and covers 9 kb, including a 700-bp promoter region, 15 exons, and a polymorphic microsatellite in intron 1. It encodes a 547-amino-acid protein that has over 87% identity with the Slc11a1 proteins of different mammalian species. A case-control study with 33 resistant and 84 susceptible dogs showed an association between allele 145 of the microsatellite and susceptible dogs. Sequence variant analysis was performed by direct sequencing of the cDNA and the promoter region of four unrelated beagles experimentally infected with Leishmania infantum to search for possible functional mutations. Two of the dogs were classified as susceptible and the other two were classified as resistant based on their immune responses. Two important mutations were found in susceptible dogs: a G-rich region in the promoter that was common to both animals and a complete deletion of exon 11, which encodes the consensus transport motif of the protein, in the unique susceptible dog that needed an additional and prolonged treatment to avoid continuous relapses. A study with a larger dog population would be required to prove the association of these sequence variants with disease susceptibility.

Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Renier, Corinne; Sanchez, Armand

2002-01-01

86

Peridomestic risk factors for canine leishmaniasis in urban dwellings: new findings from a prospective study in Brazil.  

PubMed

Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence and correlates of canine Leishmania infection (CLI), data on its incidence are still sparse, and little is known regarding risk factors for CLI. We studied a cohort of dogs in an urban area in Brazil to determine whether incidence varied with age, breed, and environmental characteristics. The mean follow-up was 1.5 years, and the crude incidence rate was 11.8 cases/100 dog-years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.6-15.6). In the multivariate analysis, short fur was the strongest predictor of CLI (relative risk [RR] = 9.4). In addition, our data indicate that raising pigs (RR = 4.1), chickens (RR = 3.3), or other livestock (RR = 2.6) significantly increased the risk of CLI. Thus, suggesting control measures directed towards modifying the environmental factors favoring contact between vectors, reservoirs, and susceptible humans, such as proximity to pigpens or hen houses. Furthermore, conventional control programs of insecticidal spraying of human dwellings should also apply insecticide in and around animal sheds. PMID:14640499

Moreira, Edson D; de Souza, Verena M M; Sreenivasan, Meera; Lopes, Nilson L; Barreto, Ronald B; de Carvalho, Lain P

2003-10-01

87

The Genetic Structure of Leishmania infantum Populations in Brazil and Its Possible Association with the Transmission Cycle of Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, Mediterranean basin and West and Central Asia. Although the geographic structure of L. infantum populations from the Old World have been described, few studies have addressed the population structure of this parasite in the Neotropical region. We employed 14 microsatellites to analyze the population structure of the L. infantum strains isolated from humans and dogs from most of the Brazilian states endemic for VL and from Paraguay. The results indicate a low genetic diversity, high inbreeding estimates and a depletion of heterozygotes, which together indicate a predominantly clonal breeding system, but signs of sexual events are also present. Three populations were identified from the clustering analysis, and they were well supported by F statistics inferences and partially corroborated by distance-based. POP1 (111 strains) was observed in all but one endemic area. POP2 (31 strains) is also well-dispersed, but it was the predominant population in Mato Grosso (MT). POP3 (31 strains) was less dispersed, and it was observed primarily in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Strains originated from an outbreak of canine VL in Southern Brazil were grouped in POP1 with those from Paraguay, which corroborates the hypothesis of dispersal from Northeastern Argentina and Paraguay. The distribution of VL in MS seems to follow the west-east construction of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline from Corumbá municipality. This may have resulted in a strong association of POP3 and Lutzomyia cruzi, which is the main VL vector in Corumbá, and a dispersion of this population in this region that was shaped by human interference. This vector also occurs in MT and may influence the structure of POP2. This paper presents significant advances in the understanding of the population structure of L. infantum in Brazil and its association with eco-epidemiological aspects of VL.

Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; dos Santos, Barbara Neves; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Ramos, Tereza Pompilio Bastos; Porrozzi, Renato; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Cupolillo, Elisa

2012-01-01

88

Molecular Fingerprinting of Leishmania infantum Strains following an Outbreak of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Central Israel  

PubMed Central

Human and canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum emerged in central Israel after an absence of over 30 years. The origin of this outbreak was investigated by examining genetic polymorphisms in 37 strains isolated from dogs and patients with visceral leishmaniasis in the continuously active northern Israeli and West Bank foci and in a new Israeli focus using DNA fingerprinting with the human multilocus minisatellite probe 33.15. Analysis of the patterns obtained by DNA fingerprinting separated the strains geographically into northern (clade B) and central (clades A and C) genotypic groups. These results suggest that the emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in central Israel is due not to parasite spread from northern Israel to the new focus but rather to increased parasite transmission in central Israel and the West Bank coupled with changes in the ecoepidemiology of this region.

Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Baneth, Gad; Schonian, Gabriele; Kanaan, Moein; Jaffe, Charles L.

2005-01-01

89

Overexpression of chemokine ligand 7 is associated with the progression of canine transmissible venereal tumor  

PubMed Central

Background Chemokines play multiple roles in the development and progression in a variety of tumors. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 (CXCL7) has been found associated with pro-inflammatory responses, but its role in cancer growth remains unclear. Our previous study showed that R phase tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) produced large amounts of interleukin (IL)-6 which antagonized transforming growth factor (TGF)-? derived from CTVT to diminish the immune-suppressive microenvironment. Now we intend to determine the expression pattern of CXCL7 and the role of IL-6/TGF-? in CXCL7 induction during spontaneous progressive (P) and regressive (R) phases in canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT). Results We have demonstrated that CXCL7 expressed at high level in P phase and down-regulated in R phase by western blot and real-time PCR. This suggested that CXCL7 expression was negatively correlated with the tumor growth. Co-culturing TILs with CTVT cells was found to reduce CXCL7 expression, while adding IL-6 blocking antibody reversed it. Moreover, in P phase CTVT, while IL-1? and TGF-? had no obvious effect on CXCL7 expression, IL-6 was found significantly to reduce CXCL7 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression results of CXCL7 receptor, CXCR2, further confirmed the effects of IL-6 concentration on the CXCL7 expression. Conclusion CXCL7 overexpression might be associated with the progressive growth of CTVT. The results shown here also suggest the role of CXCL7 in cancer development and the potential as the anti-cancer therapeutic target.

2012-01-01

90

Studies on the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in high-transmission areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Republic of Suriname  

PubMed Central

Background Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the vectors of Leishmania parasites, the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in the Republic of Suriname and is mainly caused by Leishmania (Vianna) guyanensis, but L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (L.) amazonensis, and L. (V.) naiffi also infect humans. Transmission occurs predominantly in the forested hinterland of the country. Information regarding the potential vectors of leishmaniasis in Suriname is limited. This study aims to broaden the knowledge about vectors involved in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname. For this purpose, sand flies were characterized in various foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the country, the districts of Para, Brokopondo, and Sipaliwini. Methods Sand flies were collected in areas around mining plots and villages using CDC light traps in the period between February 2011 and March 2013. They were categorized by examination of the spermathecea (females) and the external genitalia (males). Results A total of 2,743 sand fly specimens belonging to 34 different species were captured, including four species (Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lu. ayrozai, Lu. damascenoi, and Lu. sordellii) that had never before been described for Suriname. Five percent of the catch comprised Lu. squamiventris sensu lato, one female of which was positive with L. (V.) braziliensis and was captured in a gold mining area in Brokopondo. Other sand fly species found positive for Leishmania parasites were Lu. trichopyga, Lu. ininii, and Lu. umbratilis, comprising 32, 8, and 4%, respectively, of the catch. These were captured at gold mining areas in Brokopondo and Sipaliwini, but the Leishmania parasites they had ingested could not be identified due to insufficient amounts of DNA. Conclusions The sand fly fauna in Suriname is highly diverse and comprises Lutzomyia species capable of transmitting Leishmania parasites. Four new Lutzomyia species have been found, and four species - Lu. squamiventris (s.l.), Lu. trichopyga, Lu. ininii, and Lu. umbratilis - have been found to harbor Leishmania parasites. The latter were among the most abundant species captured. These observations may contribute to the understanding of leishmaniasis transmission and the development of control programs in Suriname.

2013-01-01

91

Linee Guida per il Controllo del Servatoio Canino della Leishmaniosi Viscerale Zoonotica in Italia. (Guidelines for the Control of the Canine Reservoir of Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis in Italy.)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis (ZVL) is a severe re-emerging disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Leishmania infantum. The agent is transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sandflies and dogs represent the only domestic reservoir. ZVL control by trad...

L. Gradoni M. Gramiccia C. Khoury M. Maroli

2004-01-01

92

An outbreak investigation of visceral leishmaniasis among residents of Dharan town, eastern Nepal, evidence for urban transmission of Leishmania donovani  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a predominantly rural disease, common in the low lands of eastern Nepal. Since 1997 VL cases have also been reported among residents of the city of Dharan. Our main research objective was to find out whether there had been local transmission of VL inside the city. Methods We conducted an outbreak investigation including a case–control study; cases were all urban residents treated for VL between 2000 and 2008 at BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, a university hospital in the city. For each case, we selected four random controls, with no history of previous VL; frequency-matched for age. Cases and controls were subjected to a structured interview on the main exposures of interest and potential confounders; a binominal multilevel model was used to analyze the data. We also collected entomological data from all neighborhoods of the city. Results We enrolled 115 VL patients and 448 controls. Cases were strongly clustered, 70% residing in 3 out of 19 neighborhoods. We found a strong association with socio-economic status, the poorest being most at risk. Housing was a risk factor independent from socio-economic status, most at risk were those living in thatched houses without windows. ‘Sleeping upstairs’ and ‘sleeping on a bed’ were strongly protective, OR of 0.08 and 0.25 respectively; proximity to a case was a strong risk factor (OR 3.79). Sand flies were captured in all neighborhoods; in collections from several neighborhoods presence of L. donovani could be demonstrated by PCR. Conclusion The evidence found in this study is consistent with transmission of anthroponotic VL within the city. The vector P. argentipes and the parasite L. donovani have both been identified inside the town. These findings are highly relevant for policy makers; in VL endemic areas appropriate surveillance and disease control measures must be adopted not only in rural areas but in urban areas as well.

2013-01-01

93

Comparison of the Infectivity and Transmission of Contemporary Canine and Equine H3N8 Influenza Viruses in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analyses indicate that canine influenza viruses (CIVs) (H3N8) evolved from contemporary equine influenza virus (EIV). Despite the genetic relatedness of EIV and CIV, recent evidence suggests that CIV is unable to infect, replicate, and spread among susceptible horses. To determine whether equine H3N8 viruses have equally lost the ability to infect, cause disease, and spread among dogs, we evaluated the infectivity and transmissibility of a recent Florida sublineage EIV isolate in dogs. Clinical signs, nasal virus shedding, and serological responses were monitored in dogs for 21 days after inoculation. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that both the viruses have maintained the ability to infect and replicate in dogs and result in seroconversion. Transmission of EIV from infected to sentinel dogs, however, was restricted. Furthermore, both CIV and EIV exhibited similar sialic acid-?2,3-gal receptor-binding preferences upon solid-phase binding assays. The results of the in vivo experiments reported here suggesting that dogs are susceptible to EIV and previous reports by members of our laboratory showing limited CIV infection in horses have been mirrored in CIV and EIV infections studies in primary canine and equine respiratory epithelial cells.

Pecoraro, Heidi L.; Bennett, Susi; Garretson, Kristina; Quintana, Ayshea M.; Lunn, Katharine F.; Landolt, Gabriele A.

2013-01-01

94

Laboratory Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The group of diseases known as the leishmaniases are caused by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leish- mania (39). Natural transmission of leishmania is carried out by a certain species of sandfly of the genus Phlebotomus (Old World) or Lutzomyia (New World). These are present in three different forms: (i) visceral leishmaniasis (VL), (ii) cutaneous leishmaniasis, and (iii) mucocutaneous

Shyam Sundar; M. Rai

2002-01-01

95

Leishmaniasis Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the skin and cause sores in the mucous membranes of the nose (most common location), mouth, or ... Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health ...

96

Leishmaniasis FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... count (thrombocytopenia). How common is leishmaniasis in the world? The number of new cases per year is ... million (400,000). In what parts of the world is leishmaniasis found? In the Old World (the ...

97

[Impact of canine demography on rabies transmission in N'djamena, Chad].  

PubMed

A transversal study using the clustering technique was carried out in 600 households to estimate dog-population density in the city of N'Djamena and evaluate the knowledge of the inhabitants concerning the risk of rabies. Dog-population density as estimated by negative binomial modelling was 0.03 dogs per person. The dog population estimated taking into account the extrapolated human population for 2001 was at 23 575 dogs (95% confidence interval, 14579-37921 dogs). Three-fourths of inhabitants reported that they had heard of rabies. Most respondents knew some rabies symptoms such as frothing at the mouth, restlessness, and aggressivity. In case of dog-bite injury many respondents said that they would seek care in medical facilities, e.g., health-care centers, hospitals and veterinary clinics, but some said they would also use traditional remedies, witch-doctor services, and self-medication. More than half of the respondents believed that symptomatic rabies could be cured. Because of confinement and feeding needs stray dogs are common. The canine vaccination rate is low (19%) for various reasons including limited financial resources, absence of transportation, unavailability of vaccination facilities, ignorance and negligence. Since access to health care after exposure can be difficult, mass vaccination of dogs is the recommended strategy to control rabies in cities like N'Djamena. Cooperation of all those involved in rabies control is necessary to promote the education and awareness action necessary to promote canine vaccination and reporting of exposure cases to competent authorities. PMID:15903078

Mindekem, R; Kayali, U; Yemadji, N; Ndoutamia, A G; Zinsstag, J

2005-01-01

98

Leishmaniasis in Sudan. Visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

From the early 1900s, visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala-azar) has been among the most important health problems in Sudan, particularly in the main endemic area in the eastern and central regions. Several major epidemics have occurred, the most recent--in Western Upper Nile province in southern Sudan, detected in 1988--claiming over 100,000 lives. The disease spread to other areas that were previously not known to be endemic for VL. A major upsurge in the number of cases was noted in the endemic area. These events triggered renewed interest in the disease. Epidemiological and entomological studies confirmed Phlebotomus orientalis as the vector in several parts of the country, typically associated with Acacia seyal and Balanites aegyptiaca vegetation. Infection rates with Leishmania were high, but subject to seasonal variation, as were the numbers of sand flies. Parasites isolated from humans and sand flies belonged to three zymodemes (MON-18, MON-30 and MON-82), which all belong to the L. donovani sensu lato cluster. Transmission dynamics have not been elucidated fully; heavy transmission in relatively scarcely populated areas such as Dinder national park suggested zoonotic transmission whereas the large numbers of patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in heavily affected villages may indicate a human reservoir and anthroponotic transmission. Clinical presentation in adults and in children did not differ significantly, except that children were more anaemic. Fever, weight loss, hepato-splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy were the most common findings. PKDL was much more common than expected (56% of patients with VL developed PKDL), but other post-VL manifestations were also found affecting the eyes (uveitis, conjunctivitis, blepharitis), nasal and/or oral mucosa. Evaluation of diagnostic methods showed that parasitological diagnosis should still be the mainstay in diagnosis, with sensitivities for lymph node, bone marrow and spleen aspirates of 58%, 70% and 96%, respectively. Simple, cheap serological tests are needed. The direct agglutination test (DAT) had a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 94%, positive predictive value of 78% and negative predictive value of 92%. As with other serological tests, the DAT cannot distinguish between active disease, subclinical infection or past infection. The introduction of freeze-dried antigen and control sera greatly improved the practicality and accuracy of the DAT in the field. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant K39 antigen had higher sensitivity than DAT (93%). The polymerase chain reaction using peripheral blood gave a sensitivity of 70-93% and was more sensitive than microscopy of lymph node or bone marrow aspirates in patients with suspected VL. The leishmanin skin test (LST) was typically negative during active VL and converted to positive in c. 80% of patients 6 months after treatment. Immunological studies showed that both Th1 and Th2 cell responses could be demonstrated in lymph nodes from VL patients as evidenced by the presence of messenger ribonucleic acid for interleukin (IL)-10, interferon gamma and IL-2. Treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from VL patients with IL-12 was found to drive the immune response toward a Th1 type response with the production of interferon gamma, indicating a potential therapeutic role for IL-12. VL responded well to treatment with sodium stibogluconate, which is still the first line drug at a dose of 20 mg/kg intravenously or intramuscularly per day for 15-30 d. Side effects and resistance were rare. Liposomal amphotericin B was effective, with few side effects. Control measures have not been implemented. Based on observations that VL does not occur in individuals who have a positive LST, probably because of previous cutaneous leishmaniasis, a vaccine containing heat-killed L. major promastigotes is currently undergoing a phase III trial. PMID:11370250

Zijlstra, E E; el-Hassan, A M

2001-04-01

99

The effect of removing potentially infectious dogs on the numbers of canine Leishmania infantum infections in an endemic area with high transmission rates.  

PubMed

To assess the effect of the rapid removal of potentially infectious dogs on the prevalence and incidence of canine infections, a prospective study was undertaken in an area endemic for Leishmania infantum. We used serological testing based on the rapid DPP rK28 fusion protein chromatographic immunoassay for this dog screening-and-culling intervention trial. The outcome was evaluated by measuring seropositivity and sero-conversion/-reversion rates for canine infection. Our estimates indicated that concomitant detection and elimination of seropositive dogs with active disease may affect the numbers of canine infections and disease burden temporarily, although it is insufficient as a measure to interrupt the zoonotic L. infantum transmission. However, most of the asymptomatic, seropositive dogs continuously exhibit low levels of antibodies and/or reverted, remaining seronegative thereafter. In the process of waiting for an effective vaccine, one option for canine reservoir control may be to identify these possibly genetically resistant animals and promote their expansion in the population. PMID:22665602

Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Santos, Claudiney B; Ferreira, Adelson L; Falqueto, Aloísio

2012-06-01

100

The Effect of Removing Potentially Infectious Dogs on the Numbers of Canine Leishmania infantum Infections in an Endemic Area with High Transmission Rates  

PubMed Central

To assess the effect of the rapid removal of potentially infectious dogs on the prevalence and incidence of canine infections, a prospective study was undertaken in an area endemic for Leishmania infantum. We used serological testing based on the rapid DPP rK28 fusion protein chromatographic immunoassay for this dog screening-and-culling intervention trial. The outcome was evaluated by measuring seropositivity and sero-conversion/-reversion rates for canine infection. Our estimates indicated that concomitant detection and elimination of seropositive dogs with active disease may affect the numbers of canine infections and disease burden temporarily, although it is insufficient as a measure to interrupt the zoonotic L. infantum transmission. However, most of the asymptomatic, seropositive dogs continuously exhibit low levels of antibodies and/or reverted, remaining seronegative thereafter. In the process of waiting for an effective vaccine, one option for canine reservoir control may be to identify these possibly genetically resistant animals and promote their expansion in the population.

Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Santos, Claudiney B.; Ferreira, Adelson L.; Falqueto, Aloisio

2012-01-01

101

American leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

The origin of leishmaniasis in the New World is discussed, and the numerous forms of the disease are briefly described. The epidemological pattern of American leishmaniasis is clearly that of a zoonosis in various stages of development. Nine geographical types of cutaneous leishmaniasis are recognized, and probably others exist also; the visceral disease is of the well known Mediterranean type and of a uniform type throughout the Americas. The prevalence of human infection in the different regions is discussed with particular reference to the animal reservoirs. Disturbances of the terrain for agricultural development, road construction, etc., lead to epidemics and there is some evidence that the disease is now spreading in Latin America.

Garnham, P. C. C.

1971-01-01

102

Detection of Leishmania ( L.) chagasi in canine skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by a protozoa parasite of the specie Leishmania (L.) chagasi endemic for humans and dogs in many regions of Brazil. The purpose of the present study was the detection of (L.) chagasi in canine skin tissues from three different groups of clinical signs: asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polysymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs. Lesional or non-lesional skin tissue

N. M. G. P. de Queiroz; R. C. V. da Silveira; A. C. F. de Noronha; T. M. F. S. Oliveira; R. Z. Machado; W. A. Starke-Buzetti

2011-01-01

103

Antinuclear antibodies in dogs with leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

An indirect immunofluorescence method using rat liver as material was developed to determine the incidence of antinuclear antibodies in serum from 44 adult dogs naturally infected with leishmaniasis and, for comparative purposes, in a control group of 30 healthy dogs. Animals in both groups were of different breeds with a similar age distribution. Antinuclear antibodies were not detected in the healthy dogs and only 15.9% of the diseased dogs, 12.0% males and 21.1% females, were positive. The results indicate that in contrast to previously reported figures, the incidence of antinuclear antibodies is low in canine leishmaniasis at least when diagnosis is first made. In order to investigate whether antinuclear antibodies may play a role in the development of the renal damage observed in canine leishmaniasis, the concentrations of serum creatinine were related to the presence of antinuclear antibodies. Only 28.5% of the antinuclear antibodies positive infected dogs showed hypercreatininemia as did 32.4% of the antinuclear antibodies negative infected dogs. Thus, antinuclear antibodies are not significantly cause-effect related to the development of the renal lesions seen in canine leishmaniasis. PMID:8767735

Lucena, R; Ginel, P J; Lopez, R; Novales, M; Martin, E; Molleda, J M

1996-06-01

104

Infectivity of seropositive dogs, showing different clinical forms of leishmaniasis, to Lutzomyia longipalpis phlebotomine sand flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a growing zoonosis with an increasing number of new cases and a rapid geographical spreading of the disease. In the present study, a canine survey was carried out in the city of Montes Claros (320,000 inhabitants), an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total number of 4795 dogs

Érika Monteiro Michalsky; Marília Fonseca Rocha; Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima; João Carlos França-Silva; Marize Quinhone Pires; Fernanda Santos Oliveira; Raquel Silva Pacheco; Sara Lopes dos Santos; Ricardo Andrade Barata; Álvaro José Romanha; Consuelo Latorre Fortes-Dias; Edelberto Santos Dias

2007-01-01

105

SDS-PAGE and Western blot of urinary proteinsin dogs with leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean area caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum, which usually produces renal failure. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot using antibodies to IgG and IgA from dogs were carried out in the urine of 22 dogs with leishmaniasis diagnosed by ELISA and confirmed by PCR, and 20 healthy dogs.

Rafael Barrera; Francisco Centeno; Jose A. Tapia

2003-01-01

106

Control of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: recommendations from Brasileish  

PubMed Central

On 26 October 2012, veterinary medicine clinicians and researchers, members of Brasileish - Study Group about Animal Leishmaniasis - met at the Regional Council of Veterinary Medicine of Minas Gerais, in the city Belo Horizonte, in order to discuss many aspects of the situation of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Brazil. In the face of recent national and international scientific evidence, we, the members of Brasileish, have elaborated some recommendations for the management and control of CVL in Brazil.

2013-01-01

107

A single-centre, open-label, controlled, randomized clinical trial to assess the preventive efficacy of a domperidone-based treatment programme against clinical canine leishmaniasis in a high prevalence area.  

PubMed

The innate immune response acting immediately after initial infection with Leishmania parasites is known to play a relevant role in prevention against clinical progression of the disease. Domperidone is a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist that has shown to enhance the innate cell-mediated immune response. The aim of this study was to assess the preventive efficacy of a domperidone-based treatment programme against clinical canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a high prevalence area. The study was performed with 90 healthy, seronegative dogs of different sex, age, weight and breed from a single veterinary clinic located in Valencia (Spain). Dogs were randomly allocated into two groups. Dogs in one group (domperidone-treated group; n=44) were administered an oral suspension of domperidone at 0.5mg/kg bw/day during 30 consecutive days, every 4 months. Dogs in the other group (negative control group; n=46) were left untreated. A 21-month follow-up period was implemented covering two seasonal phases of the sand fly vector. During this period all animals underwent periodic clinical examinations and blood samplings for anti-Leishmania serological testing. Dogs seropositive for Leishmania (IFAT antibody titre?1:80) plus at least one clinical sign consistent with CanL (indicative of active infection and incipient disease progression) were categorized as a 'prevention failure'. These dogs were withdrawn from the study after confirming the infection by direct observation of the parasite in smears of lymph nodes and/or bone marrow aspirates. The cumulative percentage of 'prevention failure' after 12 months was significantly lower in the domperidone-treated group than in the negative control group (7% versus 35%, p=0.003). Differences between groups persisted after 21 months (11% versus 48%, p<0.001). The prevention rate provided by domperidone was 80% during the first 12 months and 77% throughout the complete 21-month follow-up period, with odds ratios of 7.3 (p=0.001) and 7.15 (p<0.001), respectively, this indicating that the risk for domperidone-treated dogs to develop the clinical disease is quite 7 times lower than for dogs left untreated. The results of this study demonstrate that the implementation of a strategic domperidone-based treatment programme consisting in quarterly repeated 30-day treatments with domperidone effectively reduces the risk to develop clinical CanL in areas with high prevalence of the disease. PMID:24698328

Sabaté, David; Llinás, Jorge; Homedes, Josep; Sust, Mariano; Ferrer, Lluís

2014-07-01

108

Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries.

2014-01-01

109

KSAC, the First Defined Polyprotein Vaccine Candidate for Visceral Leishmaniasis?  

PubMed Central

A subunit vaccine using a defined antigen(s) may be one effective solution for controlling leishmaniasis. Because of genetic diversity in target populations, including both dogs and humans, a multiple-antigen vaccine will likely be essential. However, the cost of a vaccine to be used in developing countries must be considered. We describe herein a multiantigen vaccine candidate comprised of antigens known to be protective in animal models, including dogs, and to be recognized by humans immune to visceral leishmaniasis. The polyprotein (KSAC) formulated with monophosphoryl lipid A, a widely used adjuvant in human vaccines, was found to be immunogenic and capable of inducing protection against Leishmania infantum, responsible for human and canine visceral leishmaniasis, and against L. major, responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis. The results demonstrate the feasibility of producing a practical, cost-effective leishmaniasis vaccine capable of protecting both humans and dogs against multiple Leishmania species.

Goto, Yasuyuki; Bhatia, Ajay; Raman, Vanitha S.; Liang, Hong; Mohamath, Raodoh; Picone, Alessandro F.; Vidal, Silvia E. Z.; Vedvick, Thomas S.; Howard, Randall F.; Reed, Steven G.

2011-01-01

110

[Participation of the dog in the cycle of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the municipality of Viana, State of Espirito Santo, Brazil].  

PubMed

In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Viana municipality, Espírito Santo state, an investigation was performed on natural hosts of Leishmania among domestic animals, trying to correlate the presence of infected animals with the occurrence of the disease in humans. Within a three weeks period 186 dogs were examined and 32 (17.2%) were found infected. Eleven new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded during one year, among people living in the endemic area. A close relationship was observed between the presence of infected dogs and the occurrence of human leishmaniasis. In the area studied, the disease seems to behave as a zoonosis maintained by domestic dogs. PMID:3586998

Falqueto, A; Coura, J R; Barros, G C; Grimaldi Filho, G; Sessa, P A; Carias, V R; dé Jesus, A C; de Alencar, J T

1986-01-01

111

EMERGENCE OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN CENTRAL ISRAEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1994-1995, a child and five dogs from villages located between Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv, Israel were diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Based on these findings, the distribution of VL in domestic and wild canids in central Israel was examined. In the two villages where canine index cases were identified, a substantial proportion (11.5%, 14 of 122) of the dogs examined

GAD BANETH; GILLIAN DANK; EPHRAIM KEREN-KORNBLATT; ELIEZER SEKELES; IRIT ADINI; CAROL L. EISENBERGER; LIONEL F. SCHNUR; RONI KING; CHARLES L. JAFFE

112

In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled optical tomography of a transmissible venereal tumor model in the canine pelvic canal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography was performed concurrently with, albeit reconstructed without spatial a prior of, trans-rectal ultrasound (US) on transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) developed as a model in the canine pelvic canal. Studies were taken longitudinally at prior to, 14 days after, and 35 days after the TVT injection. As the tumor grew, the nodules became increasingly hyperabsorptive and moderately hyperscattering on NIR. The regions of strong NIR contrast, especially on absorption images, correlated well with those of US hypoechoic masses indicative of tumors. Combining the information of trans-rectal NIR and US detected the tumor more accurately than did the US alone at 14 days postinjection.

Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Piao, Daqing

2009-05-01

113

Babesiosis due to the canine Babesia microti-like small piroplasm in dogs - first report from Portugal and possible vertical transmission  

PubMed Central

Background Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis) is endemic in northern Portugal, but molecularly confirmed cases of infection with small piroplasms have not been reported in the country. Three German shepherd dogs - a bitch and its 2-month old pup and an unrelated male - clinically suspected of piroplasmosis were assessed for babesial infection. Results Parasitemia with small piroplasms was detected by microscopy in two dogs. All three dogs were positive by PCR and the Babesia microti-like small piroplasm (syn. Theileria annae) was identified by DNA sequencing. These are the first confirmed cases of babesiosis caused by the B. microti-like piroplasm both in dogs from Portugal and in dogs suspected of clinical piroplasmosis outside of Spain. Conclusions Although the bitch and the male had visited neighboring Galicia (northwestern Spain), where the disease is endemic, incursion of this piroplasm into northern Portugal is evident and infection of the non-traveled pup was due to either vertical transmission or autochthonous tick infection.

2011-01-01

114

Babesiosis due to the canine Babesia microti -like small piroplasm in dogs - first report from Portugal and possible vertical transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis) is endemic in northern Portugal, but molecularly confirmed cases of infection with small\\u000a piroplasms have not been reported in the country. Three German shepherd dogs - a bitch and its 2-month old pup and an unrelated\\u000a male - clinically suspected of piroplasmosis were assessed for babesial infection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Parasitemia with small piroplasms was detected by microscopy in

Paula Brilhante Simões; Luís Cardoso; Manuela Araújo; Yael Yisaschar-Mekuzas; Gad Baneth

2011-01-01

115

Visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne parasitic disease targeting tissue macrophages. It is among the most neglected infectious diseases. Classical manifestations of VL include chronic fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. Most cases can be detected through serologic and molecular testing. Although therapy has historically relied on antimonials, newer therapeutic options include conventional or liposomal amphotericin B, paromomycin and miltefosine. Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasingly reported and comes with additional diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This article provides an up-to-date clinical review of VL focusing on clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and issues related to HIV coinfection. PMID:22632641

van Griensven, Johan; Diro, Ermias

2012-06-01

116

Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-)tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control), surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL should be susceptible to elimination by rapid case detection and treatment combined with local vector control, and one of the most important interventions may well be socioeconomic development.

Ready, Paul D

2014-01-01

117

Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-)tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control), surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL should be susceptible to elimination by rapid case detection and treatment combined with local vector control, and one of the most important interventions may well be socioeconomic development. PMID:24833919

Ready, Paul D

2014-01-01

118

The increase in risk factors for leishmaniasis worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic development leads to changing interactions between humans and their physical and biological environment. Worldwide patterns of human settlement in urban areas have led in developing countries to a rapid growth of mega-cities where facilities for housing, drinking-water and sanitation are inadequate, thus creating opportunities for the transmission of communicable diseases such as leishmaniasis. Increasing risk factors are making leishmaniasis

P. Desjeux

2001-01-01

119

Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review was to close the gap in the approach to pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) by providing up-to-date information to obstetricians about physiopathology, epidemiology, vertical transmission, drugs and treatment during pregnancy. BACKGROUND: Infection with Leishmania chagasi during pregnancy is rare and deserves special attention since little information is available regarding the occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis during gestational period and the real possibility of vertical transmission of this disease. Because specific areas in the world are endemic for the disease and considering the continuous growth of the population, cases of pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis are becoming more frequent. Unfortunately, textbooks on infectious diseases do not include this specific group of patients, and studies in the literature on aspects related to pregnancy and visceral leishmaniasis are scarce. CONCLUSIONS: Vertical transmission of leishmaniasis is possible and the institution of treatment is imperative in cases of pregnant women with kala-azar. Amphotericin B is strongly recommended as the first choice drug due to its fewer maternal-fetal adverse effects.

Figueiro-Filho, Ernesto Antonio; Duarte, Geraldo; El-Beitune, Patricia; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Maia, Tamara Lemos

2004-01-01

120

Detection of the tumour suppressor gene TP53 and expression of p53, Bcl-2 and p63 proteins in canine transmissible venereal tumour.  

PubMed

Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a neoplasm transmitted among healthy dogs by direct contact with injured skin and/or mucous tissue. This study aimed to identify the TP53 gene, messenger RNA (mRNA) as well as the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and p63 proteins in histological sections of 13 CTVT samples at different stages of evolution. The in situ hybridization (ISH) and in situ reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were used, which showed the DNA homologous to TP53 and its respective mRNA in 92.3% of the samples. We detected p53, p63 and Bcl-2 proteins in most of the cell samples in different grades of intensity. In addition, 46% of the samples were in the progressive and 54% in the regression phase. This is the first description of these proteins and a detailed study of their role in CTVT cells needs to be addressed in or to verify how these cells undergo apoptosis. PMID:22077405

Stockmann, D; Ferrari, H F; Andrade, A L; Cardoso, T C; Luvizotto, M C R

2011-12-01

121

Serological diagnosis of leishmaniasis: on detecting infection as well as disease.  

PubMed Central

Serological tests are very frequently used in epidemiological surveys of leishmaniasis and other parasitoses. Their sensitivity and specificity are generally defined with respect to parasitism and disease, rather than infection. The reason is that known positives are those individuals most likely to yield parasites, or who have distinctive clinical signs, and concomitantly high antibody titres. This paper investigates the performance of one serological method, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), in detecting Leishmania infantum infection during an intensive 2-year cohort study of dogs in southern France. The results show that sensitivity and specificity with respect to infection can be simultaneously high, but maximum sensitivity is probably < 80%, and lasts for a relatively short period of 2-3 months after a lengthy incubation period. The IFAT gave the incidence of infection as 18-65% in the first year, whereas the best estimate of incidence based on parasite isolation and clinical observation was 72%. But data from the second year suggest that the 72% was itself an underestimate. We argue that, during epidemiological surveys, the IFAT in particular, and serological tests for leishmania in general, will underestimate prevalence, incidence and hence the scale of the control problem. However, there is evidence that tests for canine leishmaniasis employing high threshold titres will identify the most infectious animals, allowing selective treatment or culling of those which contribute disproportionately to transmission.

Dye, C.; Vidor, E.; Dereure, J.

1993-01-01

122

Epidemiological study on leishmaniasis in an area of environmental tourism and ecotourism, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, 2006-2007.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to carry out a serological survey of canine leishmaniasis and identify the phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The serological survey was conducted on a sample of 303 dogs, by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test. Phlebotomines were captured using automated light traps. The serological survey found that 30% of the dogs were seropositive, both from the center and from all districts of the town. A total of 2,772 specimens of phlebotomines were caught and the species most found was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%), which corroborated its role as the vector of for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the region. Phlebotomines of the species Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (the main vector for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Nyssomyia whitmani (the vector for Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis) were also caught. The findings indicate the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance, with attention towards diminishing the vector breeding sites and the transmission of these diseases in that region. PMID:19967228

Andrade, Ana Rachel Oliveira de; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Rocca, Maria Elizabeth Gizi; Aquino, Ricardo Braga

2009-01-01

123

[Cutaneous leishmaniasis].  

PubMed

Infections with Leishmania are increasing worldwide because of tourism and job-related travel; central Europe is no exception. Infections often first become apparent after return from an endemic region. Depending on the Leishmania species and the host immune status, different forms of cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (MCL) (L. brasiliensis complex) or visceral leishmaniasis (L. donovani as well as L. infantum) may develop. CL may heal spontaneously with scarring but can evolve into diffuse CL (with reduced immune response to L. amazonensis, L. guyanensis, L. mexicana or L. aethiopica) or into recurrent CL. Diagnostic criteria include travel to an endemic area as well as ulcerated plaques or nodules on an exposed site which show no tendency towards healing over 3-4 weeks. Differential diagnostic considerations include ecthyma, other infectious ulcers, and malignant neoplasms. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding Leishmania in a smear or tissue biopsy, as well as by culture. Therapy options range from topical treatment of simple CL of the Old World caused by L. major to systemic therapy which is needed for most complex cases of CL as well as MCL. Miltefosine is a less toxic option to replace the antimony compounds. PMID:17447043

von Stebut, E; Sunderkötter, C

2007-05-01

124

Application of a direct agglutination test for detection of specific anti-Leishmania antibodies in the canine reservoir.  

PubMed Central

A direct agglutination test (DAT) for detection of visceral leishmaniasis in humans has been developed. In this study, it was evaluated for applicability to detection of infections in dogs, a reservoir species. The reliability of the test was improved by treating the test sera with 0.2 M 2-mercaptoethanol and incubating them at 37 degrees C. Sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 98.9% when the test was used on serum samples from 220 dogs, including 26 with parasitologically confirmed canine leishmaniasis, 12 with suspected but unconfirmed leishmaniasis, and 182 with other conditions. The DAT detected specific antibodies in 10 dogs with canine leishmaniasis diagnosed by case history, clinical signs of leishmaniasis, and seropositivity in an immunofluorescence test using either promastigotes or amastigotes, as well as in 2 dogs suspected of having leishmaniasis. The performance of an antigen prepared from a homologous isolate of Leishmania infantum in the DAT was compared with that of an antigen from a laboratory-adapted strain of L. donovani (sensu lato). The homologous antigen compared favorably with the standard antigen, and the results provided further evidence of the potential of the DAT for detection of Leishmania infection in the canine reservoir host. The results of this study, together with those of our previous studies in human visceral leishmaniasis, demonstrate that the DAT is highly suitable for wide-scale epidemiological and ecological field work. This technique could also facilitate diagnosis of leishmaniasis in dogs in veterinary health services. Images

el Harith, A; Slappendel, R J; Reiter, I; van Knapen, F; de Korte, P; Huigen, E; Kolk, A H

1989-01-01

125

Vincristine modulates the expression of Ki67 and apoptosis in naturally occurring canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT).  

PubMed

We investigated eight adult dogs that were brought to veterinary clinics with a history of transmissible venereal tumors (TVT). Our goal was to demonstrate the occurrence of apoptosis and the cessation of cell proliferation at every phase of scheduled chemotherapy for naturally occurring TVT. Tissue samples were collected immediately after weekly treatments with vincristine sulfate and processed for histological purposes. Sections 5 ?m thick were stained by the TUNEL reaction for apoptosis and immunostained for Ki67 as a proliferation marker. We observed that after vincristine applications, tumor cell proliferation ceased and apoptosis increased. Ki67 HSCORE values were significantly lowered after the first and second treatments with the chemotherapeutic agent compared to controls, whereas TUNEL HSCORE values were significantly higher after two applications of vincristine compared to controls. Our results suggest that scheduled vincristine sulfate applications stabilize the induction of tumor regression by inducing apoptosis and preventing cell proliferation. PMID:22404564

Özalp, G R; Zik, B; Bastan, A; Peker, S; Özdemir-Salci, E S; Bastan, I; Darbaz, I; Salar, S; Karakas, K

2012-07-01

126

Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Noninvasive Zoonotic Transmission of Staphylococcus intermedius from a Canine Pet to a Human  

PubMed Central

rRNA-based molecular phylogenetic techniques were used to identify the bacterial species present in the ear fluid from a female patient with otitis externa. We report the identification of Staphylococcus intermedius from the patient and a possible route of transmission. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms indicated that the dominant species present was S. intermedius. A pet dog owned by the patient also was tested and found to harbor S. intermedius. In humans, the disease is rare and considered a zoonosis. Previously, S. intermedius has been associated with dog bite wounds, catheter-related injuries, and surgery. This study represents the first reported case of a noninvasive infection with S. intermedius.

Tanner, Michael A.; Everett, Christine L.; Youvan, Douglas C.

2000-01-01

127

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV.  

PubMed

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a rare disease in Europe. Relapses after treatment are more frequent than in visceral leishmaniasis. HIV patients infected by Leishmania have frequently visceral involvement, and responses to treatment are poor. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in HIV-infected patients has rarely been reported. A patient with centrofacial granuloma was diagnosed as having mucocutaneous leishmaniasis; simultaneously HIV infection was detected. To our knowledge this is the first case acquired in Europe. Intravenous meglumine antimonate 20 mg/kg/day for 28 days was proven to be useful. PMID:7949483

Miralles, E S; Núñez, M; Hilara, Y; Harto, A; Moreno, R; Ledo, A

1994-01-01

128

Relationship between dog culling and incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic dogs are the main reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas; one of the control measures adopted in Brazil is the elimination of this reservoir. In order to test the relationship between the euthanasia rate of the canine reservoir and the incidence of the disease in humans, data on dog culling from the Centre for Zoonosis Control of

Cáris Maroni Nunes; Marina Mota Pires; Karinne Marques da Silva; Filipe Daniel Assis; Jesualdo Gonçalves Filho; Silvia Helena Venturoli Perri

2010-01-01

129

Introduced Leishmaniasis on Taiwan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leishmaniasis is not known to be indigenous to Taiwan but a number of imported cases of visceral as well as post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis have been seen. Only two autochthonous cases of cutaneous-subcutaneous diseases have been documented in aborigi...

J. H. Cross J. J. Gunning D. J. Drutz J. C. Lien

1985-01-01

130

Epidemiological and Clinical Changes in American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in an Area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Transmission Over a 20-Year Period  

PubMed Central

The Health Post of Corte de Pedra is located in a region endemic for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the Brazilian state of Bahia, and it treats 500–1,300 patients annually. To describe temporal changes in the epidemiology of ATL, we reviewed a random sample of 10% of patient charts (N = 1,209) from 1988 to 2008. There was a twofold increase in the number of cases over the 20-year period, with fluctuations in 10-year cycles. Patients were most frequently male, between the ages of 10 and 30 years, and engaged in agricultural labor; 4.3% of patients had mucosal disease, and 2.4% of patients had disseminated disease. Over the study period, the number of disseminated cases increased threefold, the proportion of cases in younger patients and agricultural workers decreased, and the proportion of patients residing in coastal areas increased. ATL is on the rise in Bahia, with a 10-year periodicity and evolving changes in epidemiology and manifestations of disease.

Jirmanus, Lara; Glesby, Marshall J.; Guimaraes, Luiz H.; Lago, Ednaldo; Rosa, Maria Elisa; Machado, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

2012-01-01

131

Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The leishmaniases are a group of diseases caused by species of Leishmania and transmitted by the bite of the female sandfly. The major clinical forms include localized or disseminated cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral disease. Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis is most frequently caused by L. major and L. tropica in the Old World and by L. braziliensis, L. mexicana, and related species in the New World. L. donovani generally causes visceral disease in the Old World. We describe a case of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani in a traveller returning to the United States from Italy. Dermatologists should be aware of the clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis. PMID:23286822

Newlove, Tracy; Robinson, Maria; Meehan, Shane A; Pomerantz, Rhonda

2012-12-01

132

Different optical spectral characteristics in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate observed by triple-band trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different optical spectral characteristics were observed in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate by triple-wavelength trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The NIR imager acquiring at 705nm, 785nm and 808nm was used to quantify both the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) and oxygen saturation (StO2) in the prostate. The TVT tumor in the canine prostate as a model of prostate cancer was induced in a 7-year old, 27 kg dog. A 2 mL suspension of 2.5x106 cells/mL of homogenized TVT cells recovered from an in vivo subcutaneously propagated TVT tumor in an NOD/SCID mouse were injected in the cranial aspect of the right lobe of the canine prostate. The left lobe of the prostate had a cystic lesion present before TVT inoculation. After the TVT homogenate injection, the prostate was monitored weekly over a 9-week period, using trans-rectal NIR and TRUS in grey-scale and Doppler. A TVT mass within the right lobe developed a necrotic center during the later stages of this study, as the mass presented with substantially increased [HbT] in the periphery, with an area of reduced StO2 less than the area of the mass itself shown on ultrasonography. Conversely, the cystic lesion presented with slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the lesion shown on ultrasound with oxygen-reduction inside and in the periphery of the lesion. There was no detectable change of blood flow on Doppler US in the periphery of the cystic lesion. The slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the cystic lesion was correlated with intra-lesional hemorrhage upon histopathologic examination.

Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Rock, Kendra; Ownby, Charlotte L.; Slobodov, Gennady; Bunting, Charles F.; Piao, Daqing

2011-02-01

133

Chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three day infections of Leishmania donovani in the golden hamster (primary visceral test system) were used to test a total of 581 compounds (564 new compounds and 17 requiring additional testing) or antileishmanial activity against visceral leishmaniasis ...

W. L. Hanson V. L. Waits W. L. Chapman

1984-01-01

134

Drug Resistance in Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

The treatment options of leishmaniasis are limited and far from satisfactory. For more than 60 years, treatment of leishmaniasis has centered around pentavalent antimonials (Sbv). Widespread misuse has led to the emergence of Sbv resistance in the hyperendemic areas of North Bihar. Other antileishmanials could also face the same fate, especially in the anthroponotic cycle. The HIV/ visceral leishmaniasis (VL) coinfected patients are another potential source for the emergence of drug resistance. At present no molecular markers of resistance are available and the only reliable method for monitoring resistance of isolates is the technically demanding in vitro amastigote-macrophage model. As the armametrium of drugs for leishmaniasis is limited, it is important that effective monitoring of drug use and response should be done to prevent the spread of resistance. Regimens of simultaneous or sequential combinations should be seriously considered to limit the emergence of resistance.

Chakravarty, Jaya; Sundar, Shyam

2010-01-01

135

Cross-sectional serological study of canine Leishmania infection in Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important reemerging parasitic disease in the world. The domestic dog is the main reservoir in urban environments. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge on canine Leishmania infection in the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil, identifying the risk factors inherent in dog susceptibility to the infection. Two populations

F. C. M. Rondon; C. M. L. Bevilaqua; C. R. Franke; R. S. Barros; F. R. Oliveira; A. C. Alcântara; A. T. Diniz

2008-01-01

136

Evaluation of acute phase protein indexes in dogs with leishmaniasis at diagnosis, during and after short-term treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acute phase index based on a combination of acute phase proteins which permitted monitor- ing the response to therapy of canine leishmaniasis was developed and evaluated in this study. Six dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum were treated with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime ? , Merial, Lyon, France) 100 mg\\/kg\\/day sc, given concurrently for 20 days with allopurinol (Zyloric ?

S. MARTINEZ-SUBIELA; J. J. CERON

2005-01-01

137

The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in western China detected by PCR and serological tests  

PubMed Central

Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in western China, resulting in important public health problem. It is essential to evaluate the prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection for designing control policy. In the present study we report for the first time prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs living in Jiuzhaigou County (Sichuan Provence, China), which is not only an important endemic area of CanL but also a tourism scenic spot, detected by PCR, ELISA and dipstick test. The results could provide key information for designing control programs against canine and human leishmaniasis. In addition, the complete sequence of the Leishmania isolate from Sichuan Province has not been reported to date and we present the sequences of 116 base-pair (bp) fragment of the conserved region in the minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and the results of phylogenetic analyses based on the sequence of the amplified fragment. Results The proportion of dogs infected with Leishmania in Jiuzhaigou County was 36.79%, 9.43%, and 51.88% detected by ELISA, dipstick test, and PCR, respectively. The ELISA and PCR tests were more sensitive than dipstick test. The PCR method is the most sensitive way to detect dogs infected with Leishmania parasites. The total positive rate for infected dogs in the area was 59.43% by the three methods. The PCR products of 116-bp fragment amplified from the kDNA conserved region of dog blood samples and laboratory maintained L. infantum were DNA sequenced and the variation of the sequences was observed. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 116-bp fragment reveals that L. infantum is more genetically related to visceralizing species L. donovani than to the Leishmania species associated with cutaneous disease. Conclusions More than half of dogs living in the endemic Jiuzhaigou County were infected by L. infantum. Control measures, such as treatment or eradication of infected dogs, or prohibition of maintaining dogs, must be taken against these infected dogs due to their role in the transmission of the infection to vectors. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of conserved region in kDNA of Leishmania can effectively distinguish species of Leishmania.

2011-01-01

138

Canine ehrlichiosis.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria with tropism for hematopoietic cells. Monocytic ehrlichioses in dogs and humans are transmitted by ticks and primarily caused by E. canis and E. chaffeensis, respectively. E. canis causes canine monocytic ehrlichioses (CME), a potentially fatal disease in dogs that requires rapid and accurate diagnosis in order to initiate appropriate therapy leading to a favorable prognosis. CME is characterized by three stages; 1) acute, 2) subclinical and 3) chronic. Dogs infected with E. canis remain infected for their entire lives, even after receiving antibiotic treatment with doxycycline. The prevalence of E. canis is dependent on the distribution of the vector, Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick, which occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. The agent causing canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis (CGE) in Europe has been determined by nucleotide sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to be similar to both Ehrlichia equi and E. phagocytophila (Anaplasma phagocytophila), and is identical to the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). The vector of this pathogen in Europe is the common European tick, Ixodes ricinus and its reservoir - wild and domestic animals. Two distinct clinical disease syndromes, including chronic, moderate to sever anemia and polyarthritis, are associated with CGE. In areas infested with vectors of tick-borne agents known to be endemic for Lyme disease, veterinarians may suspect ehrlichiosis in dogs. PMID:14677903

Skotarczak, Bogumila

2003-01-01

139

Canine lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

Weller, R.E.

1986-10-01

140

Leishmaniasis in immunosuppressed individuals.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a vector-born chronic infectious disease caused by a group of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Whereas most immunocompetent individuals will not develop disease after Leishmania infection, immunosuppression is a well-established risk factor for disease. The most severe form is visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is typically fatal if untreated. Whereas human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection (VL-HIV) was initially mainly reported from southern Europe, it is now emerging in other regions, including East Africa, India, and Brazil. VL has also been found in a wide range of non-HIV-related immunosuppressive states, mainly falling under the realm of transplantation medicine, rheumatology, haematology, and oncology. Clinical presentation can be atypical in immunosuppressed individuals, being easily misdiagnosed or mistaken as a flare-up of the underlying disease. The best diagnostic approach is the combination of parasitological and serological or molecular methods. Liposomal amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Treatment failure and relapse rates are particularly high in cases of HIV co-infection, despite initiation of antiretroviral treatment. Primary prophylaxis is not recommended, but secondary prophylaxis is recommended when the patient is immunosuppressed. Cutaneous leishmaniasis can have a number of particular features in individuals with immunosuppression, especially if severe, including parasite dissemination, clinical polymorphism with atypical and often more severe clinical forms, and even visceralization. Mucosal leishmaniasis is more common. Treatment of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis can be challenging, and systemic treatment is more often indicated. With globally increased travel and access to advanced medical care in developing countries, the leishmaniasis burden in immunosuppressed individuals will probably continue to rise, warranting increased awareness and enhanced surveillance systems. PMID:24450618

van Griensven, J; Carrillo, E; López-Vélez, R; Lynen, L; Moreno, J

2014-04-01

141

Recovery and Characterization of a Minute Virus of Canines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four antigenically related transmissible agents were recovered from canine fecal specimens. The agents produced cytopathic effects in a continuous dog cell line developed in this laboratory. Increased antibody titers were demonstrated in three of the four...

L. N. Binn E. C. Lazar G. A. Eddy M. Kajima

1970-01-01

142

Leishmaniasis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leishmaniasis - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Leishmaniasis Infection English (Arabic) ?????????? ?? ??? ??? - ??????? ...

143

Immunogenicity of a multicomponent DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination of dogs, the domestic reservoir of Leishmania chagasi, could not only decrease the burden of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL), but could also indirectly reduce the incidence of human VL. Intramuscular vaccination of foxhounds with a Leishmania multicomponent (10 antigen) DNA vaccine resulted in antigen-induced lymphoproliferative and IFN-? (but not IL-4) responses. This response was not augmented by co-administration of

Omar A. Saldarriaga; Bruno L. Travi; Won Park; Luis E. Perez; Peter C. Melby

2006-01-01

144

Relative Risk of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil: A Spatial Analysis in Urban Area  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. Methodology This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas) of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n?=?412), were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features) and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. Principal Findings The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146). The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. Conclusions The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities.

de Araujo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Pinheiro, Leticia Cavalari; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Assuncao, Renato Martins; Carneiro, Mariangela

2013-01-01

145

Variation of proteinuria in dogs with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

A retrospective study was performed using 53 client owned dogs with leishmaniasis to determine whether the degree of proteinuria, evaluated by the urine protein/creatinine ratio (UP/C), changes following treatment with meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol. Medical records of dogs with leishmaniasis in clinical stage C (according to the Canine Leishmaniasis Working Group staging system) and either proteinuric or borderline proteinuric (according to the International Renal Interest Society [IRIS] staging system) were reviewed. All dogs were treated with meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol for 4-8 wk. After treatment, UP/C, total protein, and total globulin significantly decreased and albumin and the albumin/globulin ratio (A/G) increased. After treatment, 7 of the 53 dogs (13.4%) became nonproteinuric following either a proteinuric or borderline proteinuric stage. Moreover, 12 of the 53 proteinuric dogs (22.6%) changed their stage to borderline proteinuric. The antileishmaniasis treatment with meglumine antimoniate in combination with allopurinol in dogs significantly reduced the degree of proteinuria in a short period of time. The results of the current study may be useful to the veterinary practitioner in the clinical management of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in dogs with proteinuric chronic kidney disease. PMID:23690493

Pierantozzi, Marco; Roura, Xavier; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Poggi, Marco; Zatelli, Andrea

2013-01-01

146

Immunotherapy and Immunochemotherapy in Visceral Leishmaniasis: Promising Treatments for this Neglected Disease  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis has several clinical forms: self-healing or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; mucosal leishmaniasis; visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is fatal if left untreated. The epidemiology and clinical features of VL vary greatly due to the interaction of multiple factors including parasite strains, vectors, host genetics, and the environment. Human immunodeficiency virus infection augments the severity of VL increasing the risk of developing active disease by 100–2320 times. An effective vaccine for humans is not yet available. Resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in many regions, and the costs associated with drug identification and development, make commercial production for leishmaniasis, unattractive. The toxicity of currently drugs, their long treatment course, and limited efficacy are significant concerns. For cutaneous disease, many studies have shown promising results with immunotherapy/immunochemotherapy, aimed to modulate and activate the immune response to obtain a therapeutic cure. Nowadays, the focus of many groups centers on treating canine VL by using vaccines and immunomodulators with or without chemotherapy. In human disease, the use of cytokines like interferon-? associated with pentavalent antimonials demonstrated promising results in patients that did not respond to conventional treatment. In mice, immunomodulation based on monoclonal antibodies to remove endogenous immunosuppressive cytokines (interleukin-10) or block their receptors, antigen-pulsed syngeneic dendritic cells, or biological products like Pam3Cys (TLR ligand) has already been shown as a prospective treatment of the disease. This review addresses VL treatment, particularly immunotherapy and/or immunochemotherapy as an alternative to conventional drug treatment in experimental models, canine VL, and human disease.

Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Ker, Henrique Gama; Moreira, Nadia das Dores; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

2014-01-01

147

Optofluidic Intracavity Spectroscopy of Canine Hemangiosarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) uses light transmitted through a cellular body in a microfluidic optical resonator to distinguish different types of cells by their optical properties. The OFIS technique has dif- ferentiated canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cells from monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells based on their distinctive transmission spectra. A single characteristic parameter indicative of strong

Weina Wang; David W. Kisker; Douglas H. Thamm; Hua Shao; Kevin L. Lear

2011-01-01

148

Vaccination of dogs with six different candidate leishmaniasis vaccines composed of a chimerical recombinant protein containing ribosomal and histone protein epitopes in combination with different adjuvants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chimerical protein “Q”, composed of antigenic ribosomal and histone sequences, in combination with live BCG is a promising canine leishmaniasis vaccine candidate; one of the few vaccine candidates that have been tested successfully in dogs. Unfortunately, live BCG is not an appropriate adjuvant for commercial application due to safety problems in dogs. In order to find a safe adjuvant with

J. Poot; L. H. M. Janssen; T. J. van Kasteren-Westerneng; K. H. A. van der Heijden-Liefkens; V. E. J. C. Schijns; A. Heckeroth

2009-01-01

149

Diagnosis and management of oral leishmaniasis--case series and literature review.  

PubMed

The worldwide prevalence of leishmaniasis is increasing because of ecologic changes and increased medical profession awareness. Furthermore, solitary cases have been recently reported in Western countries. The authors describe the epidemiology, mode of transmission, and diagnosis of leishmaniasis and present 4 oral cases treated with systemic, localized, or combined therapy. The authors suggest that clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for atypical, resistant, oral and perioral lesions in individuals with a history of traveling in certain geographic regions. After diagnosis, treatment should be determined jointly by experts from the fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery, oral medicine, and dermatology based on leishmaniasis species and clinical presentation. PMID:24480757

Nadler, Chen; Enk, Claes D; Leon, Gilead T; Samuni, Yuval; Maly, Alexander; Czerninski, Rakefet

2014-05-01

150

Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leishmaniasis represents a complex of diseases with an important clinical and epidemiological diversity. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is of higher priority than cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as it is a fatal disease in the absence of treatment. Anthroponotic VL foci are of special concern as they are at the origin of frequent and deathly epidemics (e.g. Sudan). Leishmaniasis burden remains important: 88

P Desjeux

2004-01-01

151

The S gene of canine coronavirus, strain UCD-1, is more closely related to the S gene of transmissible gastroenteritis virus than to that of feline infectious peritonitis virus.  

PubMed

To gain insight into the genetic relationships among six canine coronavirus (CCV) strains, the variable region of the spike (S) protein gene was sequenced. The CCV strains were: two ATCC reference strains, the Insavc-1 vaccine strain, the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (Ames, IA) challenge strain, and two California field isolates (UCD-1 and UCD-2) from the 1970s. All six strains, downstream of the nucleocapsid (N) protein gene, had sufficient size for an ORF 7b, and thus, none were transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)-like since TGEV lacks ORF 7b. By sequence analysis of the variable domain at the 5' end of the S gene, five of the six CCV strains had a high degree of identity with feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). However, one CCV field isolate (UCD-1) was different and had a high degree of identity with the 5' end of the TGEV S gene. This suggests that RNA recombination occurred at this site between antigenically related coronaviruses. The low passage field isolates, UCD-1 and UCD-2, varied in their initial infectivity for swine testicular cells suggesting that sequence differences in the variable domain of the S gene may account for biological variation among CCVs. PMID:10475084

Wesley, R D

1999-06-01

152

Drug Resistance in Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with visceral and cutaneous manifestations, and is caused by over 15 different species of the protozoan parasite genus Leishmania. There are significant differences in the sensitivity of these species both to the standard drugs, for example, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine, and those on clinical trial, for example, paromomycin. Over 60% of patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar State, India, do not respond to treatment with pentavalent antimonials. This is now considered to be due to acquired resistance. Although this class of drugs has been used for over 60 years for leishmaniasis treatment, it is only in the past 2 years that the mechanisms of action and resistance have been identified, related to drug metabolism, thiol metabolism, and drug efflux. With the introduction of new therapies, including miltefosine in 2002 and paromomycin in 2005-2006, it is essential that there be a strategy to prevent the emergence of resistance to new drugs; combination therapy, monitoring of therapy, and improved diagnostics could play an essential role in this strategy.

Croft, Simon L.; Sundar, Shyam; Fairlamb, Alan H.

2006-01-01

153

Asymptomatic Visceral Leishmaniasis, Northern Israel  

PubMed Central

Asymptomatic human visceral leishmaniasis was identified in Israel by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Positive serum samples were more prevalent in visceral leishmaniasis–endemic (2.97%) compared to nonendemic (1.01%) regions (p=0.021). Parasite exposure was higher than expected, despite the small number of clinical cases, suggesting factors other than infection per se influence clinical outcome.

Adini, Irit; Ephros, Moshe; Chen, Jacopo

2003-01-01

154

Pediatric visceral leishmaniasis in Albania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in children is endemic in southern Europe but has not been previously reported from Albania. This prospective study reports the clinical and laboratory findings in 50 children with visceral leishmaniasis, the value of a direct agglutination test (DAT), and the result of treatment with meglumine antimonate.Materials and Methods: Sera obtained from 50 children with VL confirmed

Gjeorgjina Lito; Farzin Davachi; Genc Sulcebe; Hamaide Bregu; Mira Basha

2002-01-01

155

Circulating immune complexes and renal function in canine leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

A third component of complement (C3) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the concentration of IgG circulating immune complexes (CIC) in 91 dogs with naturally acquired leishmania infection and in a control group of 24 healthy dogs. Results were expressed as a percentage of a reference standard. Mean concentrations of CIC were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in leishmania-infected dogs (228.725 +/- 14.283%) than in controls (74.542 +/- 12.614%). An increase in CIC concentration was found in 57.1% of the leishmania-infected dogs. No significant differences could be recorded in CIC levels between males and females in either group. Infected dogs showing hypercreatininemia rendered a statistically significant (P < 0.030) higher serum CIC concentration than sick dogs with normal creatininemia. When hypercreatininemia (> or = 1.30 mg/dl) was used as an indicator for CIC increase, the positive predictive value obtained was 0.9 indicating that renal function impairment was associated with high serum CIC concentration in 90% of the infected dogs. PMID:8921735

Lopez, R; Lucena, R; Novales, M; Ginel, P J; Martin, E; Molleda, J M

1996-10-01

156

Transmigration of Mandibular Canines  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to present the first case of unusual reverse oblique (110 degrees to midsagittal plane) migration of mandibular right canine crossing the jaw midline and piercing the lower border of the mandible at the level of the opposite canine and also to report two more cases of transmigrated mandibular canine and one case of transmigrating mandibular canine. Mandibular canines are “cornerstone” of dental arch; their importance is manifested by their efficiency in masticatory function, stability of dental arch, and aid in maintaining natural facial expression. Early detection of this anomaly can help preserving these canines by orthodontic intervention or by surgical transplantation. This developmental anomaly is properly diagnosed by radiographic evaluation, which is primarily based on the panoramic radiograph. In patients with overretained deciduous canines or missing permanent canines, an intraoral radiograph should be supplemented with panoramic radiograph. This paper discusses the importance of early diagnosis of canine transmigration in treatment planning and reviews the various possible treatment options.

Umashree, N.; Kumar, Avinash; Nagaraj, Tejavathi

2013-01-01

157

Parasitic genotypes appear to differ in leishmaniasis patients compared with asymptomatic related carriers.  

PubMed

For numerous infectious diseases affecting humans, clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic forms to severe pathologies. The originality of this study was its focus on asymptomatic carriers of Leishmania infantum in southern France. The fundamental interest in these asymptomatic carriers is that they can be a reservoir of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. It remains to be established whether the parasitic genomes from asymptomatic carriers differ from those of patients. Multilocus microsatellite typing was used to investigate the genetic variation among 36 French strains of L. infantum. Nine Leishmania strains isolated from blood donors (asymptomatic carriers) were compared with 27 strains of L. infantum belonging to zymodemes, MON-1, -33 and -183. These strains were isolated from HIV positive or negative patients with visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, from canine leishmaniasis or from phlebotomine sandflies. Multilocus microsatellite typing data generated using 33 loci were analyzed by a Bayesian model-based clustering algorithm and construction of a phylogenetic tree based on genetic distances. Both analyses structured the MON-1 sample into two main clusters. Furthermore, genetic analysis demonstrated that these nine asymptomatic carrier strains are divided into two clusters grouped with the MON-1 strains. One cluster with seven strains is related to, but different from, human symptomatic strains from the Alpes-Maritimes region whereas the other cluster has the two remaining strains together with canine leishmaniasis strains as well as one strain from a visceral leishmaniasis patient. Genetic diversity among asymptomatic carrier was very weak since the nine Leishmania strains belong to only two genotypes. Genetic differentiations were evidenced between asymptomatic carrier strains and non-asymptomatic carrier strains and especially between asymptomatic carrier and HIV+ populations, although these findings require confirmation with a larger sample size. We believe that our data explore for the first time, the genetic diversity among L. infantum from asymptomatic human carriers and reveal a weak polymorphism compared with Leishmania parasites isolated from human patients. PMID:23380201

Hide, M; Marion, E; Pomares, C; Fisa, R; Marty, P; Bañuls, A L

2013-04-01

158

Interspecies transmission of canine influenza virus H5N2 to cats and chickens by close contact with experimentally infected dogs.  

PubMed

The novel H5N2 influenza virus, CA/SD/JT01/09, was isolated from the dog exhibiting respiratory signs in China in 2009. Dog to dog transmission of the novel H5N2 was previously confirmed. But interspecies transmission of the virus between dogs and the other animals has still remained unclear. To determine whether the virus can be transmitted directly from dogs to cats and chickens, we conducted contact exposure experiments. Susceptible cats and chickens were housed in the room which the novel H5N2 infected dogs were housed in, respectively. As a result, only one cat showed clear manifestations of H5N2 infection, but susceptibility of the other cats to H5N2 was confirmed by seroconversion. Eight of the exposure chickens showed clear manifestations of illness and 2 chickens died, and it demonstrates that chickens are susceptible to the recombinant H5N2. It implied that close contact between the H5N2-infected dogs and the cats and chickens resulted in spread of the virus to the sentinel animals. PMID:24656135

Hai-Xia, Feng; Yuan-Yuan, Liu; Qian-Qian, Song; Zong-Shuai, Ling; Feng-Xia, Zhang; Yan-Li, Zhu; Shi-Jin, Jiang; Zhi-Jing, Xie

2014-06-01

159

An immunohistochemical study in cases with usual and unusual clinicopathological findings of canine visceral leishmaniosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes pathologic findings and immunohistochemical diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in\\u000a 22 dogs who died naturally in the Aegean region of Turkey. At necropsy, lymphadenomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly, hepatic, and\\u000a nephrosclerotic lesions were conspicuous. Histopathologically, chronic inflammatory reactions of the spleen, lymph nodes,\\u000a bone marrow, liver, and skin were marked findings. Cytological and histological examinations showed macrophages loaded

Nihat Toplu; Ahmet Aydogan

160

Enhancing canine disaster search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes canine augmentation technology (CAT) for use in urban search and rescue (USAR). CAT is a WiFi enabled sensor array that is worn by a trained canines deployed in urban disasters. The system includes, but is not limited to, cameras that provide emergency responders with real-time data to remotely monitor, analyze and take action during USAR operations. An

James Tran; Alexander Ferworn; Cristina Ribeiro; Mieso Denko

2008-01-01

161

Proposal of Health Information System (HIS) as tool for the epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in urban areas.  

PubMed

In recent years leishmaniasis has become a serious Public Health problem in Italy. The coexistence of infected dogs, vectors and humans, makes urban areas suitable environment for the spread of this zoonotic disease. With the purpose to improve the current system for the control of leishmaniasis in urban areas, the authors report their experiences carrying out a Health Information System (HIS) for the surveillance of the disease in the city of Messina. The HIS project is built on a dataset containing geographical data on urban environment, census tracts at parish level and data of human and canine leishmaniasis cases reported in the last years. The HIS allows the spatial representation of the disease occurrence and can be used as a novel epidemiological tool to perform area-based surveillance. PMID:16881409

Brianti, E; Drigo, M; Zirilli, V B; Forino, D; Poglayen, G; Giannetto, S

2006-06-01

162

Epidemiologic Aspects of an Emerging Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Tbilisi, Georgia  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last 15 years, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has emerged as a public health concern in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. Methodology/Principal Findings Seroepidemiological surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence and incidence of infection in children and dogs within the main focus of VL, and to identify risk factors associated with human infection. Of 4,250 children investigated, 7.3% were positive by direct agglutination test in a baseline survey; an apparent incidence rate of 6.0% was estimated by one year follow-up. None of the seropositive children progressed to VL during the survey. Increased seropositivity at one year was predicted by presence at baseline of clustered flying insects (OR?=?1.49; P?=?0.001), perceived satisfactory sanitation (OR?=?1.65; P<0.001), stray dogs (OR?=?1.33; P?=?0.023), and by persistent fever during the 6 months prior to baseline survey (OR?=?14.2; P<0.001). Overall, 18.2% (107/588) of domestic and 15.3% (110/718) of stray dogs were seropositive by the rk39 dipstick test. Clinical VL signs were found in 1.3% of domestic and 2.9% of stray, seropositive dogs. Parasites isolated from human and dog samples were identified by PCR and phylogenetic analysis of the Leishmania 70 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP70) gene as Leishmania infantum. Conclusions/Significance There is an active focus of L. infantum transmission in Tbilisi with a high prevalence of human and canine infections.

Giorgobiani, Ekaterina; Chitadze, Nazibrola; Chanturya, Gvantsa; Grdzelidze, Marina; Jochim, Ryan C.; Machablishvili, Anna; Tushishvili, Tsiuri; Zedginidze, Yulia; Manjgaladze, Marina K.; Iashvili, Nino; Makharadze, Manana P.; Zakaraya, Tsiuri; Kikaleishvili, Konstantin; Markhvashvili, Ivan; Badashvili, Goderdzi; Daraselia, Teymuraz; Fay, Michael P.; Kamhawi, Shaden; Sacks, David

2011-01-01

163

Immunobiology of visceral leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), commonly known as kala-azar, is caused by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi in the Americas). These Leishmania species infect macrophages throughout the viscera, and parasites are typically found in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Patients with active disease typically exhibit marked immunosuppression, lack reactivity to the Leishmania skin test (LST), a delayed type hypersensitivity test, and their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) fail to respond when stimulated with leishmanial antigens in vitro. However, most people infected with visceralizing species of Leishmania never develop disease. Understanding immune failure and the underlying immune mechanism that lead to disease as well as control of infection are key questions for research in this field. In this review, we discuss immunological events described in human and experimental VL and how these can affect the outcome of infection.

Kumar, Rajiv; Nylen, Susanne

2012-01-01

164

Exames parasitológicos, imunoistoquímicos e histopatológicos para detecção de Leishmania chagasi em tecidos esplênicos de cães com leishmaniose visceral Parasitological, immunohistochemical and histopathological study for Leishmania chagasi detection in spleenic tissues of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was a Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis - CVL study by parasitological direct examination of Leishmania (L.) chagasi (imprinting and histological), immunohistochemical test and histopathological analysis using spleen tissues from 34 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Control Centre from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. According to the clinical signs, the dogs were divided in three groups: asymptomatics

Karen Ingrid Tasca; Wilma Aparecida; Starke Buzetti; Michely da Silva Tenorio; Silvana de Cássia Paulan

2009-01-01

165

[Nasolaryngotracheal mucosal leishmaniasis in an adolescent].  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a growing public health problem and it produces a great social impact. Laryngeal leishmaniasis without obvious gateway is rare; especially in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of laryngeal leishmaniasis with tracheal involvement and stenosis on a previously healthy teenager without environmental or personal risk factors. PMID:24862817

Forero, Mario; Pérez, Alexandra; Barajas, Norma C; Leyva, Yenny A; Zamora, Carlos

2014-06-01

166

Re-emergence of leishmaniasis in Spain: community outbreak in Madrid, Spain, 2009 to 2012.  

PubMed

Since July 2009, there has been a community outbreak of leishmaniasis in the south-west area of the Madrid autonomous community, Spain, affecting residents from four towns that are geographically close together and share extensive park areas. As of December 2012, 446 cases were reported (6 in 2009, 97 in 2010, 196 in 2011 and 147 in 2012), a mean incidence rate of 22.2 per 100,000 inhabitants during July 2009 and December 2012. The mean age was 44 years (range: 2 months to 95 years); 61.0% were male. A total of 68 (15.2%) had immunosuppressive conditions; 160 (35.9%) had visceral leishmaniasis and 286 (64.1%) cutaneous. A total of 421 (94.4%) cases were confirmed. Leishmania infantum was identified as the agent. Monitoring revealed high densities of the vector Phlebotomus perniciosus. The surveillance system for canine leishmaniasis did not detect any increase in prevalence during the period. Environmental control measures have been taken, such as improvements in sanitation and disinsection in the risk areas and control of the overpopulation of Leporidae, as xenodiagnosis studies have shown that hares play a role as active reservoirs. This is the largest reported community outbreak of leishmaniasis in Europe. The discovery of the new reservoir stands out in the multifactorial aetiology of the outbreak. Epidemiological research and environmental intervention measures are continuing. PMID:23929177

Arce, A; Estirado, A; Ordobas, M; Sevilla, S; García, N; Moratilla, L; de la Fuente, S; Martínez, A M; Pérez, A M; Aránguez, E; Iriso, A; Sevillano, O; Bernal, J; Vilas, F

2013-01-01

167

Topical insecticide treatments to protect dogs from sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis.  

PubMed Central

We compared the susceptibility of sand fly vectors to four topical insecticide treatments applied to domestic dogs, a reservoir of human leishmaniasis. Dogs were exposed to sand flies pretreatment and at 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months posttreatment. Sand fly bloodfeeding and survival rate of both fed and unfed flies were significantly reduced by the permethrin, deltamethrin, and fenthion treatments, but diazinon had no effect. The survival rate of bloodfed sand flies was reduced by up to 86% with deltamethrin collars. The antifeeding effect suggests that deltamethrin collars may be recommended to dog owners to protect their pets from sandfly- borne diseases. The combined effects on sand fly feeding and survival indicate that epidemiologic, community-based trials are warranted to test whether deltamethrin collars could reduce the incidence of canine and, hence, human leishmaniasis.

Reithinger, R.; Teodoro, U.; Davies, C. R.

2001-01-01

168

Neuroinflammation in advanced canine glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose The pathophysiological events that occur in advanced glaucoma are not well characterized. The principal purpose of this study is to characterize the gene expression changes that occur in advanced glaucoma. Methods Retinal RNA was obtained from canine eyes with advanced glaucoma as well as from healthy eyes. Global gene expression patterns were determined using oligonucleotide microarrays and confirmed by real-time PCR. The presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors was evaluated by immunolabeling. Finally, we evaluated the presence of serum autoantibodies directed against retinal epitopes using western blot analyses. Results We identified over 500 genes with statistically significant changes in expression level in the glaucomatous retina. Decreased expression levels were detected for large number of functional groups, including synapse and synaptic transmission, cell adhesion, and calcium metabolism. Many of the molecules with decreased expression levels have been previously shown to be components of retinal ganglion cells. Genes with elevated expression in glaucoma are largely associated with inflammation, such as antigen presentation, protein degradation, and innate immunity. In contrast, expression of many other pro-inflammatory genes, such as interferons or interleukins, was not detected at abnormal levels. Conclusions This study characterizes the molecular events that occur in the canine retina with advanced glaucoma. Our data suggest that in the dog this stage of the disease is accompanied by pronounced retinal neuroinflammation.

Jiang, Bing; Harper, Matthew M.; Kecova, Helga; Adamus, Grazyna; Kardon, Randy H.; Grozdanic, Sinisa D.

2010-01-01

169

Canine hearing loss management.  

PubMed

Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs. PMID:23122178

Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

2012-11-01

170

Immunogenicity of a multicomponent DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs.  

PubMed

Vaccination of dogs, the domestic reservoir of Leishmania chagasi, could not only decrease the burden of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL), but could also indirectly reduce the incidence of human VL. Intramuscular vaccination of foxhounds with a Leishmania multicomponent (10 antigen) DNA vaccine resulted in antigen-induced lymphoproliferative and IFN-gamma (but not IL-4) responses. This response was not augmented by co-administration of canine IL-12 or GM-CSF DNA adjuvants. The multicomponent DNA vaccine also induced a delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to viable L. donovani promastigotes and led to a reduction of parasite burden in an in vitro intracellular infection model, and in the draining lymph node of dogs early after cutaneous challenge. Thus, the multicomponent DNA vaccine was effective in priming dogs for a parasite-specific type 1 cellular immune response, which was able to restrict parasite growth. PMID:16310897

Saldarriaga, Omar A; Travi, Bruno L; Park, Won; Perez, Luis E; Melby, Peter C

2006-03-10

171

Rhinophymous leishmaniasis: A new variant.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is known for its wide clinical spectrum. The nose is one of the usual sites where the disease can present in many forms, such as psoriasiform plaques, furunculoid nodules, lupoid plaques, and erysipeloid or mucocutaneous types. We present a new morphology, i.e. rhinophyma-like plaque in an elderly male patient who presented with a large infiltrated plaque involving his nose and the adjoining area of his upper lip. It appeared to be rhinophyma of the nose but was diagnosed as cutaneous leishmaniasis after the demonstration of leishmania parasites in a skin smear preparation; he was treated satisfactorily with antimonials. PMID:19379654

Ul Bari, Arfan; Ejaz, Amer

2009-01-01

172

Isolation of Leishmania tropica from a patient with visceral leishmaniasis and disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Iran.  

PubMed

We report a case visceral leishmaniasis with disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in southern Iran. Typing of this parasite was performed by a species-specific polymerase chain reaction and isoenzyme electrophoresis. PMID:18784238

Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Pouladfar, Gholam R; Fakhar, Mahdi; Motazedian, Mohammad H; Hatam, Gholam R; Kadivar, Mohammad R

2008-09-01

173

Efficacy of a combination of 10% imidacloprid\\/50% permethrin for the prevention of leishmaniasis in kennelled dogs in an endemic area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% (Advantix®; Bayer AG, Germany) in a spot-on formulation was evaluated in the field as a control measure to prevent canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in dogs in an endemic area of southern Italy. In February 2005, out of 845 dogs initially tested for CanL, 631 dogs which tested negative (315 from a kennel in

Domenico Otranto; Paola Paradies; Riccardo Paolo Lia; Maria Stefania Latrofa; Gabriella Testini; Cinzia Cantacessi; Norbert Mencke; Gianluca Galli; Gioia Capelli; Dorothee Stanneck

2007-01-01

174

Voice Disorders in Mucosal Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. Objective To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age) and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. Results 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81%) were male and five (19%) female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years). The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%), followed by dysphonia (38.5%), odynophagia (30.8%) and dysphagia (26.9%). 23 patients (84.6%) presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. Conclusion We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some resonance structures (larynx, pharynx and nasal and oral cavities) or even to compensation mechanisms caused by the presence of lesions in the upper airways and digestive tract.

Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Lucena, Marcia Mendonca; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Jessica Rafael; de Araujo-Melo, Maria Helena; Terceiro, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira; de Sousa Torraca, Tania Salgado; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria

2014-01-01

175

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Ecuador: popular perceptions, knowledge, and treatment.  

PubMed

Popular perceptions and knowledge about cutaneous leishmaniasis and its treatment were studied in an endemic area of subtropical Northwest Ecuador. Although most of the adults surveyed were familiar with the disease, the vector, and traditional treatments, many showed a lack of knowledge about transmission of the disease, ulcer healing, and conventional treatment. Gender was found to have a significant impact on disease risk, perceptions, and treatment knowledge. Males experienced a risk of contracting cutaneous leishmaniasis that was almost triple that of women. Men were also more likely to perceive that the disease seriously diminished the victim's capacity to work. Women, on the other hand, were more prone to perceive that cutaneous leishmaniasis was a serious disease that significantly decreased self-esteem. Although 80% of the subjects knew at least one method of treating the disease, women tended to know more methods than men. Most of 150 different therapies reported involved the use of indigenous plants, chemicals, acids, antibiotics, heat treatments, or petroleum by-products. Some of these treatments could have clinical value. However, only 7% of the subjects knew about pentavalent antimonials. Almost 70% of the subjects with a past or present infection history were treated solely by traditional methods; only 12% received a full course of Glucantime, while 7.5% got an incomplete course. The findings indicate that it will be important to consider the identified gaps in knowledge and gender perceptions regarding the disease and its treatment when planning future control programs. PMID:8069334

Weigel, M M; Armijos, R X; Racines, R J; Zurita, C; Izurieta, R; Herrera, E; Hinojsa, E

1994-06-01

176

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in a patient receiving infliximab.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is endemic in the Mediterranean region, and the prevalence of latent infection in this area is high. Treatment with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists represents a major breakthrough in the treatment of several inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis. Reports describing opportunistic leishmaniasis in European patients treated with TNF-? antagonist drugs are rapidly accumulating. We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a patient treated with infliximab and corticosteroids. PMID:23270475

Hernández-Torres, Alicia; García-Vázquez, Elisa; Frías-Iniesta, José; Herrero-Martínez, José Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Joaquín

2013-07-01

177

Childhood cutaneous leishmaniasis: report of 117 cases from Iran  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), due to Leishmania major, is endemic in different parts of Iran and has long been recognized in most provinces of Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of childhood leishmaniasis in 3 areas at the southeast of Kashan. A descriptive study was carried out on all children referred to central laboratories during a 3-year period. Initial information including age, sex, sites of ulcer on the body, number of lesions, address, and the place of the disease was obtained. The study gathered 117 children, and the results showed a prevalence of 7.2% in patients with lesions among the population and 4.2% of people displayed lesion and scar. The ages of subjects were from 6 to 15 years (average 9.75 years). The boy: girl ratio was 1.2. All of our patients lived in an endemic area. The face was affected in 47.0% of cases. The encountered forms of leishmaniasis are as follows: papulonodular 27.4%, ulcer 60.7%, sporotrichoid 6%, impetiginous 2.5%, and erysipeloid 3.4%. Treatment with intramuscular meglumine antimoniate 20-30 mg/kg/day was done for 93 patients. Meglumine antimoniate treatment was tolerated with no side effects. All leishmaniasis lesions healed within an average period of 2-14 months. Hyperpigmented scars were formed in 25.6% of the patients, atrophic scars in 4.3%, and hypopigmented scars were in 3.4%, respectively. The findings of this study indicate increased prevalence of CL in the villages at the area of Kashan and Aran-Bidgol. The clinical finding patterns belonged to different endemic strains of L. major in Isfahan, which indicates the possible transmission of infection from Isfahan to this area.

Talaei, Rezvan; Shajari, Gholamreza; Vakili, Zarichehr; Taghaviardakani, Abbas

2006-01-01

178

Studies on Canine Dirofilariasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The etiologic agent of canine heartworm is a nematode, Dirofilaria immitis. Once the infective larvae enter the normal definitive host, a dog, an intermediate growth phase ensues. Symptoms and signs of infection in the dog can vary according to worm load....

W. F. Hutchinson R. W. Intermill

1974-01-01

179

Is the dog a possible reservoir for cutaneous leishmaniasis in suriname?  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Suriname, with at least 200 cases per year. Little is known about the biology of CL in the country. The most important parasite species is Leishmania Viannia guyanensis, but possible vectors and reservoirs are hardly incriminated. In the present study, it was investigated whether the dog could possibly be a zoonotic reservoir for the disease in Suriname. Forty-seven dogs were examined for overt clinical signs of leishmaniasis, and blood samples were collected on filter paper for serology (direct agglutination test) and molecular biology (by polymerase chain reaction). Three dogs had clinical signs that could be compatible with canine cutaneous leishmaniosis: dermatitis (two) or nasal lesion (one). Two dogs were seropositive with DAT (titre > 1?:?1600), and three animals had a borderline titre (1?:?800). All other animals (n = 42) were DAT negative. PCR analysis found Leishmania DNA equivalent to 1 parasite per mL in only one dog at a first round of analysis, but this animal was negative after retesting. The clinical, serological, and molecular data show some preliminary lines of evidence that canine leishmaniosis is present in Suriname, but further studies are needed to incriminate the reservoir, including a possible sylvatic cycle. PMID:24194768

Kent, Alida; Ramkalup, Prakash; Mans, Dennis; Schallig, Henk

2013-01-01

180

Key Facts about Canine Influenza (Dog Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Key Facts about Canine Influenza (Dog Flu) Questions & Answers On this Page What is ... more information on canine influenza virus? What is canine influenza (dog flu) ? Dog flu is a contagious ...

181

The ectopic maxillary canine: a case report.  

PubMed

A case is described of a severely ectopic maxillary canine, which underwent initial spontaneous improvement, and following extraction of the deciduous canine erupted satisfactorily. It provides a cautionary tale when considering surgical removal of ectopic maxillary canines. PMID:9800014

Kindelan, J; Cook, P

1998-08-01

182

Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak in Mazar-e Sharif, northern Afghanistan: an epidemiological evaluation.  

PubMed

In 2005, 200 cases of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) were recorded among International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) troops stationed in the Mazar-e Sharif airport area. Within the local population, investigations revealed 3782 cases of ZCL, 174 cases of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), and 2 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the period from March 21, 2004 to March 20, 2005, and 4045 cases of ZCL, 198 cases of ACL, and no cases of VL from March 21, 2005 to March 20, 2006. The previously unknown transmission dynamics of ZCL, and differing seasonal distribution of ZCL and ACL, are here defined, thus permitting quantification and prediction of infection rates in deployed troops for the first time. At Mazar-e Sharif, Phlebotomus papatasi and Rhombomys opimus occurred in the highest densities yet observed, together with record-high Leishmania major infection rates. Data indicate the existence of high-density, anthropogenically induced ZCL in Afghanistan. PMID:17888728

Faulde, Michael; Schrader, Joachim; Heyl, Gerhard; Amirih, Mohammed; Hoerauf, Achim

2008-07-01

183

Use of allopurinol for maintenance of remission in dogs with leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Current treatments for infected dogs with leishmaniasis do not always provide long-term control of the disease and clinical relapses are common. In this study, the usefulness of long-term allopurinol administration in the maintenance of clinical remission in canine leishmaniasis was evaluated. Fifteen dogs with natural leishmania infection were subjected to an initial treatment based on the simultaneous administration of meglumine antimoniate (100 mg/kg/day) and allopurinol (30 mg/kg/day). Once clinical remission was achieved, a maintenance treatment with allopurinol (20 mg/kg/day) administered for one week a month was instituted. Results were compared with those of a retrospective control group comprising 15 infected dogs which only followed the induction treatment. Relapses occurred in 86 per cent of control dogs within 14 months of discontinuing treatment. In contrast, those dogs on intermittent oral allopurinol administration were successfully maintained in clinical remission for a follow-up period of 10 to 44 months. In this latter group, specific antibody titres decreased or were unchanged, no side effects directly attributable to allopurinol were seen and treatment was well accepted by the owners. It is concluded that long-term intermittent administration of allopurinol is an effective way of maintaining clinical remission in dogs with leishmaniasis. PMID:9673902

Ginel, P J; Lucena, R; López, R; Molleda, J M

1998-06-01

184

Leishmaniasis in Israel and the Palestinian Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in the Middle East has been known since the early 1900s. Recent epidemiological studies show that they are re-emerging as important public health problems in areas long believed to be disease free. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania tropica, has become a significant problem in northern Israel and parts of the West Bank, whereas zoonotic foci of

Charles L. Jaffe; Gad Baneth; Ziad A. Abdeen; Yosef Schlein; Alon Warburg

2004-01-01

185

Canine degenerative myelopathy.  

PubMed

Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease that occurs in many breeds. The initial upper motor neuron spastic paraparesis and general proprioceptive ataxia in the pelvic limbs progress to a flaccid lower motor neuron tetraparesis. Recently, a missense mutation in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene was found to be a risk factor for DM, suggesting that DM is similar to some forms of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease). This article reviews the current knowledge of canine DM with regard to its signalment, clinical spectrum, diagnostic approach, and treatment. The implications of the SOD1 mutation on both diseases are discussed, comparing pathogenic mechanisms while conveying perspectives to translational medicine. PMID:20732599

Coates, Joan R; Wininger, Fred A

2010-09-01

186

Canine parvovirus: current perspective.  

PubMed

Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs-the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with high morbidity (100%) and frequent mortality up to 10% in adult dogs and 91% in pups. The disease condition has been complicated further due to emergence of a number of variants namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c over the years and involvement of domestic and wild canines. There are a number of different serological and molecular tests available for prompt, specific and accurate diagnosis of the disease. Further, both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are available to control the disease in animals. Besides, new generation vaccines namely recombinant vaccine, peptide vaccine and DNA vaccine are in different stages of development and offer hope for better management of the disease in canines. However, new generation vaccines have not been issued license to be used in the field condition. Again, the presence of maternal antibodies often interferes with the active immunization with live attenuated vaccine and there always exists a window of susceptibility in spite of following proper immunization regimen. Lastly, judicious use of the vaccines in pet dogs, stray dogs and wild canids keeping in mind the new variants of the CPV-2 along with the proper sanitation and disinfection practices must be implemented for the successful control the disease. PMID:23637476

Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj

2010-06-01

187

[Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].  

PubMed

Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage. PMID:14615786

Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

2003-01-01

188

Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania infection in naturally infected sand flies in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unknown. Methods 2650 sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and identified morphologically. The identified sand flies were tested for Leishmania infection by nested PCR. The source of blood meal of 10 freshly engorged females: 6 Phlebotomus longicuspis and 4 Phlebotomus sergenti, was determined using the Cyt b sequence. Results The collected sand flies consisted of 10 species, seven of which belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and three to the genus Sergentomyia. The most abundant species was P. longicuspis, accounting for 72% of the total sand flies collected. In females of three P. longicuspis and four P. sergenti, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica DNA was detected, respectively. The source of blood meal of engorged females showed that all sand flies tested fed on humans. Conclusions We report for the first time the natural infection of P. longicuspis with L. infantum in Morocco. The high frequency of this species in this region, in addition to its anthropophilic character make P. longicuspis the putative vector of L. infantum in this cutaneous leishmaniasis focus where L. tropica is confirmed as the causative agent of the disease and P. sergenti as its vector. The presence of L. infantum, and its presumed vector in this area, makes this a site of high risk of visceral leishmaniasis, mostly because of the proximity of a focus of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis.

2014-01-01

189

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review.  

PubMed

In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30-40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures. PMID:24626301

Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

2014-01-01

190

Predicting Geographic Variation in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Approximately 6,000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are reported annually in Colombia, a greater than twofold increase since the 1980s. Such reports certainly underestimate true incidence, and their geographic distribution is likely biased by local health service effectiveness. We investigated how well freely available environmental data explain the distribution of cases among 1,079 municipalities. For each municipality, a unique predictive logistic regression model was derived from the association among remaining municipalities between elevation, land cover (preclassified maps derived from satellite images), or both, and the odds of at least one case being reported. Land cover had greater predictive power than elevation; using both datasets improved accuracy. Fitting separate models to different ecologic zones, reflecting transmission cycle diversity, enhanced the accuracy of predictions. We derived measures that can be directly related to disease control decisions and show how results can vary, depending on the threshold selected for predicting a disease-positive municipality. The results identify areas where disease is most likely to be underreported.

Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid H.; Davies, Clive R.

2004-01-01

191

Animal reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis in India.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that has both zoonotic and anthroponotic etiologies. In India, VL is endemic, considered to be anthroponotic, and caused by Leishmania donovani . Anthroponotic diseases are maintained by transmission from human to human and to a lesser extent from human to animals. Serum samples from 1,220 animals from 7 human VL endemic districts of Bihar, India, were tested for antibodies to a recombinant kinetoplast antigen (rK39 antigen) present in amastigotes of visceralizing Leishmania species, i.e., L. donovani complex. Additionally, PCR was used to examine samples positive by rK39 antigen serology. Antibodies to rK39 indicative of VL were detected in 33 of 1,220 animals. Thirty-one of 867 goats (Capra hircus), 1 of 161 cattle (Bos indicus), and 1 of 54 wild rats (Rattus sp.) were positive by rK39 serology. None of 106 chickens (Gallus domesticus), 26 sheep (Ovis aries), 3 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus), or 3 dogs (Canis familiaris) was positive by rK39 serology. Leishmania donovani DNA was detected by PCR in 20 rK39 positive blood samples from goats and 1 sample from a cow. The present study indicates that goats are potential animal reservoirs of human VL in India. PMID:22765517

Singh, Niti; Mishra, Jyotsna; Singh, Ram; Singh, Sarman

2013-02-01

192

Field evaluation of alphacypermethrin in indoor residual spraying for leishmaniasis control in an endemic area, northern Morocco  

PubMed Central

Background In Morocco, the main strategies of leishmaniasis vector control are based on environmental modifications. Use of local residual indoor spraying with synthetic pyrethroids is often envisaged. The need to evaluate this control method is essential. The current study was conducted to determine the efficacy of an alphacypermethrin IRS program against leishmaniasis vectors in an endemic area in the north of Morocco. Methods The survey was conducted in four neighbouring localities in three different districts in northern Morocco: Ait Chaib and Aichoun in Sefrou district, Bouassem (Boulmane) and Lmrouj (Taounate). Indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin at a dose of 30 mg/m2 was used in Ait Chaib and Lmrouj localities during 2010, 2011 and 2012, while localities of Aichoun and Bouassem were taken as control. In the four studied areas, sand flies were collected bimonthly from April to November in 2011 and 2012, using sticky traps, to determine their abundance and feeding pattern. Alphacypermethrin IRS were evaluated for their residual effect using the WHO cone bioassay test. Leishmaniasis incidence was estimated by passive and active case detection in each study area. Results Significant reductions in leishmaniasis incidence and in gravidity rate were observed when comparing sprayed and unsprayed localities. The residual activity of alphacypermethrin at the concentration used lasted 10 weeks after spraying. However, the abundance of sand flies was not significantly affected by alphacypermethrin IRS. Conclusion This study indicated that IRS has a significant impact on leishmaniasis transmission; therefore it could be recommended as an effective tool for leishmaniasis control in areas with high leishmaniasis transmission.

2013-01-01

193

Diagnostic immunohistochemistry of canine round cell tumors.  

PubMed

Sixty-five canine skin neoplasms studied using immunocytochemistry, included 22 histiocytomas, 18 amelanotic melanomas, 14 cutaneous lymphosarcomas, six mast cell tumors, and five transmissible venereal tumors. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections were stained using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) immunoperoxidase technique for reactivity with S-100 protein, kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chains, alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, leukocyte common antigen (LCA), neuron-specific enolase, keratin, cytokeratin, muramidase, and vimentin. Detection of S-100, kappa and lambda light chains, neuron-specific enolase, and vimentin were most useful for screening these neoplasms. None of the markers examined was consistent in staining histiocytomas. While reactivity of S-100 (ten cases) and neuron-specific enolase (ten cases) was detected in some amelanotic melanomas, lambda light chain immunoglobulin (eight cases) was relatively consistent in cutaneous lymphomas. Mast cell neoplasms reacted with avidin and, therefore, were positive, even on negative control sections. Vimentin reacted strongly on all amelanotic melanomas and transmissible venereal tumors examined. These antibodies are helpful adjuncts in the differential diagnosis of canine skin tumors. PMID:3137715

Sandusky, G E; Carlton, W W; Wightman, K A

1987-11-01

194

Optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy of canine hemangiosarcoma.  

PubMed

The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) uses light transmitted through a cellular body in a microfluidic optical resonator to distinguish different types of cells by their optical properties. The OFIS technique has differentiated canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cells from monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells based on their distinctive transmission spectra. A single characteristic parameter indicative of strong multi-transverse-mode resonances was determined for each cell by forming a linear combination of the mean and standard deviation of the transmission spectra over one free spectral range, excluding the peaks of passive Fabry-Pérot cavities without cells. The difference in the characteristic parameters of HSA and monocyte samples was statistically highly significant with a p-value as low as 10(-6). The same method shows that the characteristic parameters of canine lymphoma and lymphocytes are distinct with p < 0.005. A receiver operating-characteristic curve constructed from t-distributions fit to the HSA and monocyte data indicates that 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity can be simultaneously achieved. PMID:20483694

Wang, Weina; Kisker, David W; Thamm, Douglas H; Shao, Hua; Lear, Kevin L

2011-04-01

195

Transverse mode analysis of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy of canine hemangiosarcoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) uses the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic optical resonator to distinguish cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Based on their distinctive characteristic transmission spectra, canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been differentiated using the OFIS technique with high statistical significance (p<10- 6). 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity were achieved simultaneously. A cell lens model explains trends in the transverse mode pattern in the transmission spectra of HSA cells and allows extraction of cell focal length.

Wang, Weina; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kisker, David W.; Lear, Kevin L.

2010-02-01

196

Protective Immunity and Vaccination Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Although a great deal of knowledge has been gained from studies on the immunobiology of leishmaniasis, there is still no universally acceptable, safe, and effective vaccine against the disease. This strongly suggests that we still do not completely understand the factors that control and/or regulate the development and sustenance of anti-Leishmania immunity, particularly those associated with secondary (memory) immunity. Such an understanding is critically important for designing safe, effective, and universally acceptable vaccine against the disease. Here we review the literature on the correlate of protective anti-Leishmania immunity and vaccination strategies against leishmaniasis with a bias emphasis on experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Okwor, Ifeoma; Mou, Zhirong; Liu, Dong; Uzonna, Jude

2012-01-01

197

Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde  

PubMed Central

Background Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in Cape Verde archipelago. Results To provide information regarding the health status of the canine population in Vila do Maio, Maio Island, Cape Verde, 53 rectal swabs were collected from 53 stray dogs during 2010 and 93 rectal swabs and 88 blood samples were collected from 125 stray dogs in 2011. All rectal swabs (2010 n?=?53; 2011 n?=?93) were analysed for the presence of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus nucleic acids by quantitative PCR methods. Specific antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were also assessed (2011 n?=?88). From the 2010 sampling, 43.3% (23/53) were positive for canine parvovirus DNA, 11.3% (6/53) for canine distemper virus RNA and 1.9% (1/53) for canine coronavirus RNA. In 2011, the prevalence values for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus were quite similar to those from the previous year, respectively 44.1% (41/93), and 1.1% (1/93), but canine distemper virus was not detected in any of the samples analysed (0%, 0/93). Antibodies against canine parvovirus were detected in 71.6% (63/88) blood samples and the seroprevalence found for canine distemper virus was 51.1% (45/88). Conclusions This study discloses the data obtained in a molecular and serological epidemiological surveillance carried out in urban populations of stray and domestic animals. Virus transmission and spreading occurs easily in large dog populations leading to high mortality rates particularly in unvaccinated susceptible animals. In addition, these animals can act as disease reservoirs for wild animal populations by occasional contact. Identification of susceptible wildlife of Maio Island is of upmost importance to evaluate the risk of pathogen spill over from domestic to wild animals in Cape Verde and to evaluate the associated threat to the wild susceptible species.

2014-01-01

198

Biochemistry and Chemotherapy of Malaria and Leishmaniasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leishmaniasis, a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania spp., is one of the major public health problems currently affecting humanity. Therapeutic agents for this disease are either ineffective or toxic. Malaria is considered to be the mo...

L. Nolan

1994-01-01

199

Biochemistry and Chemotherapy of Malaria and Leishmaniasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leishmaniasis, a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania ssp., is one of the major public health problems currently affecting humanity. Therapeutic agents for this disease are either ineffective or toxic. Malaria is considered to be the mo...

L. L. Nolan

1996-01-01

200

Biochemistry and Chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis and Malaria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leishmaniasis, a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania spp., is one of the major public health problems currently affecting humanity. Therapeutic agents for this disease are either ineffective or toxic. Malaria is considered to be the mo...

L. Nolan

1995-01-01

201

[Panniculitis in the setting of visceral leishmaniasis].  

PubMed

A 38-year-old male with a past history of intravenous drug use, AIDS and Visceral Leishmaniasis in 2000, was hospitalized after presenting with fever, myalgias and arthralgias, fatigue, hepatosplenomegaly and oedema of the inferior limbs. On the tenth day of admission, the patient developed painful subcutaneous nodules of the thighs and a Dermatology consultation was requested. A clinical and histological diagnosis of Leishmania Panniculitis was made, in the setting of Visceral Leishmaniasis recurrence. Leishmania Panniculitis is rarely found simultaneously with Visceral Leishmaniasis, and it is more frequently seen in HIV co-infected patients. In this case, the skin involvement allowed for an early diagnosis and histological confirmation of Leishmaniasis recrudescence to be made. PMID:22521027

Lencastre, André; João, Alexandre; Lopes, Maria João

2011-01-01

202

Development of Vaccines against Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease resulting in a global morbidity of 2,090 thousand Disability-Adjusted Life Years and a mortality rate of approximately 60,000 per year. Among the three clinical forms of leishmaniasis (cutaneous, mucosal, and visceral), visceral leishmaniasis (VL) accounts for the majority of mortality, as if left untreated VL is almost always fatal. Caused by infection with Leishmania donovani or L. infantum, VL represents a serious public health problem in endemic regions and is rapidly emerging as an opportunistic infection in HIV patients. To date, no vaccine exists for VL or any other form of leishmaniasis. In endemic areas, the majority of those infected do not develop clinical symptoms and past infection leads to robust immunity against reinfection. Thus the development of vaccine for Leishmania is a realistic public health goal, and this paper summarizes advances in vaccination strategies against VL.

Evans, Krystal J.; Kedzierski, Lukasz

2012-01-01

203

American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis: Effectiveness of an Immunohistochemical Protocol for the Detection of Leishmania in Skin  

PubMed Central

Background American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic in Latin America, where Brazil has over 27 thousand cases per year. The aim of the present study was to develop an immunohistochemical method (IHC) for ATL diagnosis. For this purpose, we used serum from a dog naturally infected with Leishmania (L) infantum (canine hyperimmune serum) as the primary antibody, followed by a detection system with a secondary biotinylated antibody. Methodology Skin samples were obtained from 73 patients in an endemic area of Caratinga, Minas Gerais (MG) State, Brazil all testing positive for ATL with the Montenegro skin test, microscopy, and PCR. Canine hyperimmune serum of a dog naturally infected with Leishmania (L.) infantum was employed as a primary antibody in an immunohistochemical diagnostic method using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase. To assess the specificity of this reaction, IHC assays employing two monoclonal antibodies were carried out. As the polymer-based technology is less time-consuming and labor intensive than the IHC labeled streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method, we compared the two methods for all samples. Results The IHC method detected ATL in 67 of the 73 cases (91.8%). Immunolabeled parasites were primarily detected inside macrophages either in the superficial or the deep dermis. Detection was facilitated by the high contrast staining of amastigotes (dark brown) against the light blue background. A lower detection rate (71.2%) was observed with the both of the monoclonal Leishmania antibodies compared to the canine hyperimmune serum. This may have been due to a non-specific background staining observed in all histological samples rendering positive detection more difficult. The higher efficacy of the canine hyperimmune serum in the IHC method was confirmed by the method using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase as well as that with the polymer-based technology (biotin-avidin-free system). Conclusions The data are encouraging with regard to validating IHC as a standard alternative method for ATL diagnosis.

Alves, Cibele Fontes; Alves, Cintia Fontes; Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Souza, Carolina Carvalho; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Melo, Maria Norma; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Raso, Pedro; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

2013-01-01

204

Visceral leishmaniasis and its control in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as kala-azar, reappeared in Bangladesh during the 1980s, approximately 7-8 years after large-scale use of DDT had been abandoned by the malaria eradication programme in the country. Pabna, Mymensingh and Rajshahi were the regions most affected with kala-azar. The article presents a historical review and information about the present status of leishmaniasis in Bangladesh together with control strategies and a proposed plan of operation. PMID:2650901

Elias, M; Rahman, A J; Khan, N I

1989-01-01

205

Abberantly placed impacted mandibular canine  

PubMed Central

Pre-eruptive migration of a tooth across the midline is termed as transmigration. It is believed that transmigration is rare and unique to the mandibular permanent canines, and even more rarely reported for others. Transmigration is a phenomenon of yet unknown etiology. It follows the direction of its long axis, with the crown leading the migration. The tendency of a canine to cross the barrier of mandibular midline suture is a more important consideration than the distance of migration after crossing the midline. Here we present one new case of aberrantly positioned right mandibular canine which has undergone migration and was accidently found on radiological examination before orthodontic treatment. Once diagnosed an aberrantly positioned impacted canine requires surgical removal.

Bahl, Rashi; Singla, Jeetinder; Gupta, Mohita; Malhotra, Ankit

2013-01-01

206

FIRST CASE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE URBAN CENTER OF RIO DE JANEIRO: CASE REPORT  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement.

da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; de Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

2014-01-01

207

First case of autochthonous human visceral leishmaniasis in the urban center of Rio de Janeiro: case report.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement. PMID:24553614

Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes de; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

2014-01-01

208

Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL): one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples) and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

Felinto de Brito, Maria Edileuza; Andrade, Maria Sandra; de Almeida, Ericka Lima; Medeiros, Angela Cristina Rapela; Werkhauser, Roberto Pereira; de Araujo, Ana Isabele Freitas; Brandao-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Paiva de Almeida, Alzira Maria; Gomes Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique

2012-01-01

209

Mucosal leishmaniasis ("espundia" Escomel, 1911).  

PubMed

One of the more serious clinical forms of leishmaniasis occurs in espundia when the mucosae of the upper respiratory passages are inflamed. This complication is a metastasis from a skin lesion caused by Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis (Lbb) although cases have been described associated with other leishmanial species. Epidemiological data suggest that a detectable mucosal metastasis occurs in fewer than 5% of patients infected with Lbb in our study area. The determinants of this complication are still largely obscure. The granuloma usually commences on the nasal septum. In about two-thirds of our patients the lesion remained restricted to the nose. In the rest the pharynx, palate, larynx and lips were involved, in this order. It is often difficult to isolate the parasite and for routine diagnosis the leishmanin skin reaction and serological tests are helpful. Although a serious condition, with possible mutilation and even death as subsequent complications, treatment is still mainly with pentavalent antimonials, introduced 40 years ago. These are most unsatisfactory for field use, being given parenterally and relatively toxic. In mucosal leishmaniasis, if sufficient antimony can be administered in a regular daily dose, the relapse rate is small (3 of 42 patients followed for a mean of 5 years). Also, antimony treatment of the initial skin ulcer due to Lbb followed for a mean of 4 years of 83 patients resulted in subsequent mucosal metastasis in only 2. Since espundia is relatively rare, specific treatment targeted to this specific problem is the efficient short term solution. At present there is no satisfactory alternative drug to those in current use. PMID:3037735

Marsden, P D

1986-01-01

210

Canine hypoadrenocorticism: Part I  

PubMed Central

Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease) has been referred to as “the great pretender,” due to its ability to mimic other common diseases in the dog and thereby represent a diagnostic challenge. Naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism is an uncommon canine disease. Young, female dogs are overrepresented. Hypoadrenocorticism typically results from immune-mediated destruction of all adrenocortical layers, resulting in deficiencies of min-eralocorticoids (aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (cortisol). A small number of dogs suffer from glucocorticoid deficiency only. Dogs suffering from hypoadrenocorticism may present in a variety of conditions, from a mildly ill dog to a shocky and recumbent dog. This review discusses etiology, pathophysiology, history, physical examination findings, and diagnostic findings in the Addisonian patient. A follow-up article (Part II) will discuss the definitive diagnosis and management strategies for these patients.

Klein, Susan C.; Peterson, Mark E.

2010-01-01

211

Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

Dantas-Torres, Filipe

2008-01-01

212

Quantification of Parasite Load in Clinical Samples of Leishmaniasis Patients: IL10 Level Correlates with Parasite Load in Visceral Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and accurate method to detect and quantify Leishmania parasite is urgently needed to facilitate early diagnosis of Leishmaniasis and monitoring of antileishmania therapy. In this study, real-time assay was applied to estimate parasite load in clinical samples of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) patients. The mean parasite load in blood of VL patients (n

Sandeep Verma; Rajesh Kumar; Gajendra Kumar Katara; Laishram Chandreshwor Singh; Narender Singh Negi; V. Ramesh; Poonam Salotra

2010-01-01

213

Seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum in northwestern Spain, an area traditionally considered free of leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Northwestern Spain has traditionally been considered to be free from leishmaniasis. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in this area and to assess the influence of several risk factors on the incidence of this disease. A total of 479 dogs attended at different veterinary clinics in northwestern Spain were tested for L. infantum with the immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test. The seroprevalence of L. infantum in this area was 3.7%. Most of the seropositive dogs lived in two locations: Valdcorras (seroprevalence of 29.2%) and Ourense (seroprevalence of 7.5%). The detection of high antibody titers in most of the seropositive dogs (many of which presented clinical signs) coupled with the certainity that some of these dogs had never been outside their home areas indicates the presence of this zoonosis in these two sites. On the other hand, companion dogs were significantly less likely to acquire the disease than sheep dogs, hunting dogs, and those from kennels. PMID:15604485

Amusategui, Inmaculada; Sainz, Angel; Aguirre, Enara; Tesouro, Miguel A

2004-10-01

214

Study of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela. The role of domestic animals.  

PubMed

During an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a locality (Las Rosas, Cojedes State, Venezuela) previously non-endemic, 12.9% of humans, 7% of dogs and 21.4% of donkeys (Equus asinus) had lesions with parasites. The agent in the three hosts was identified as Leishmania braziliensis, subspecies braziliensis at least in man and donkey. The probable vector was Lutzomyia panamensis. No infection was found in a small sample of wild mammals examined. The outbreak was apparently linked with the importation of donkeys with ulcers, from endemic areas. The authors call attention to the fact that not only in the foci of "uta", but also in areas of the other forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, dogs are frequently found infected. They emphasize the necessity of searching for the infection in donkeys and of performing hemocultures and xenodiagnosis with sandflies in human, canine and equine cases, to verify their possible role as sources of infection, and not merely as dead ends in the epidemiological chain of the disease. PMID:6535915

Aguilar, C M; Fernández, E; de Fernández, R; Deane, L M

1984-01-01

215

Maxillary canine with two root canals  

PubMed Central

To report a rare case of maxillary canine with two root canals. The case describes the treatment of a maxillary canine with two root canals which was referred from department of prosthodontia for intentional root canal treatment for prosthetic rehabilitation. Clinical examination revealed a maxillary canine with carious lesion and responded within normal limits to electric pulp test. Radiographic examination revealed a distal carious lesion (close proximity to pulp) and also appeared to be an additional canal in this permanent maxillary canine.

Bolla, Nagesh; Kavuri, Sarath Raj

2011-01-01

216

Osmotic sensitivity of canine spermatozoa.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine osmotic tolerance of canine spermatozoa. The study comprised three experiments: (1) spermatozoa suspended either in an egg yolk-citrate (EYC) extender or in Kenney skim milk extender were exposed to NaCl solutions ranging from 290 to 1500 mOsm; (2) spermatozoa suspended in EYC were exposed to 550 to 1500 mOsm solutions of glucose, galactose, or fructose; and (3) spermatozoa suspended in EYC or glucose-bovine serum albumin (G-BSA) were exposed to 0.6 M (approximately 900 mOsm) or 1.2 M (approximately 1600 mOsm) solutions of glycerol, ethylene glycol (EG), or dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO). In all experiments, motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa were assessed after they were diluted into isotonic medium at 37 degrees C. Exposure of canine spermatozoa to solutions of either NaCl or monosaccharides at osmolalities >500 mOsm caused a significant reduction of motility (P<0.01). Motility of spermatozoa was more affected by osmotic stress than their membrane integrity. Osmotic sensitivity of canine spermatozoa was dependent on the type of extender; spermatozoa suspended in the Kenney extender were more resistant to osmotic stress than those suspended in the EYC extender. Despite their sensitivity to exposure to high concentrations of nonpermeating agents, canine spermatozoa were rather resistant to exposure to glycerol and EG. However, Me(2)SO was toxic to canine spermatozoa; motility was substantially reduced after spermatozoa were exposed to 0.6 M Me(2)SO. The type of extender also affected the sensitivity of canine spermatozoa to Me(2)SO; spermatozoa suspended in the EYC extender were more resistant than those suspended in G-BSA. It was concluded that canine spermatozoa are sensitive to osmotic stress, but are tolerant to shrinking and swelling caused by exposure to permeating cryoprotectants. PMID:12061850

Songsasen, N; Yu, I; Murton, S; Paccamonti, D L; Eilts, B E; Godke, R A; Leibo, S P

2002-02-01

217

Leishmania tropica in rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) in a focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania tropica, has recently emerged in urban and rural foci of central and northern Israel, and constitutes a major public health concern. Rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), the suspected natural reservoir, were trapped in the cutaneous leishmaniasis urban focus of Maale Adumim in central Israel and evaluated for L. tropica infection by real-time kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology. Real-time PCR on blood and computerized western blot serology analysis was positive for L. tropica in 58% and 80%, respectively, of the hyraxes tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 region indicated that similar genotypes were present in humans and hyraxes from the same habitat. The high rates of infection and exposure to L. tropica among hyraxes supports their involvement in the transmission cycle of this parasite, and their potential role as a reservoir for human disease. PMID:20439960

Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Jaffe, Charles L; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Warburg, Alon; King, Roni; Svobodova, Milena; Peleg, Ofer; Baneth, Gad

2010-05-01

218

Molecular Epidemiology for Vector Research on Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by the genus Leishmania transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies. Surveillance of the prevalence of Leishmania and responsive vector species in endemic and surrounding areas is important for predicting the risk and expansion of the disease. Molecular biological methods are now widely applied to epidemiological studies of infectious diseases including leishmaniasis. These techniques are used to detect natural infections of sand fly vectors with Leishmania protozoa and are becoming powerful tools due to their sensitivity and specificity. Recently, genetic analyses have been performed on sand fly species and genotyping using PCR-RFLP has been applied to the sand fly taxonomy. In addition, a molecular mass screening method has been established that enables both sand fly species and natural leishmanial infections to be identified simultaneously in hundreds of sand flies with limited effort. This paper reviews recent advances in the study of sand flies, vectors of leishmaniasis, using molecular biological approaches.

Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Caceres, Abraham G; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

2010-01-01

219

Climate and leishmaniasis in French Guiana.  

PubMed

To study the link between climatic variables and the incidence of leishmaniasis a study was conducted in Cayenne, French Guiana. Patients infected between January 1994 and December 2010. Meteorological data were studied in relation to the incidence of leishmaniasis using an ARIMA model. In the final model, the infections were negatively correlated with rainfall (with a 2-month lag) and with the number of days with rainfall > 50 mm (lags of 4 and 7 months). The variables that were positively correlated were temperature and the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index with lags of 8 and 4 months, respectively. Significantly greater correlations were observed in March for rainfall and in November for the Multivariate El Niño/Southern Oscillation Index. Climate thus seems to be a non-negligible explanatory variable for the fluctuations of leishmaniasis. A decrease in rainfall is linked to increased cases 2 months later. This easily perceptible point could lead to an interesting prevention message. PMID:23939706

Roger, Amaury; Nacher, Mathieu; Hanf, Matthieu; Drogoul, Anne Sophie; Adenis, Antoine; Basurko, Celia; Dufour, Julie; Sainte Marie, Dominique; Blanchet, Denis; Simon, Stephane; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre

2013-09-01

220

[Comparative study of diagnostic methods for visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from Ilha Solteira, SP].  

PubMed

The purpose of the present work was a comparative study of diagnostic methods for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) using serological methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), histochemical (HE) and immunohistochemical (IMHC) tests using spleen, lymph node and liver canine tissues. In addition, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was done in blood and in tissues in order to compare and confirm no conclusive and negative diagnosis by the methods above. For this study, 34 dogs were divided according to clinical signs in asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polisymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs euthanized by Zoonotic Disease Control Center (CCZ) from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. The positivism indexes of ELISA, IMHC, IFAT and HE were 65.0, 62.0, 56.0 and 56.0%, respectively with the highest numbers of positive dogs in polisymptomatic (92.0%) followed by oligosymptomatic (57.0%) and asymptomatic dogs (12.5%). Furthermore, PCR confirmed the positive results and detected DNA in tissues from 100% of negative dogs and 89.0% suspects raising the animal positivism index up to 97.0%. In conclusion, PCR was the most sensitive and a valuable method for a definitive CVL diagnosis. PMID:20385055

de Assis, Juliana; de Queiroz, Nina Marí Gual Pimenta; da Silveira, Rita de Cássia Vieira; Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Oliveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Junior, Antonio Carlos Faconti de Noronha; Neves, Maria Francisca; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke

2010-01-01

221

The Biology and Control of Leishmaniasis Vectors  

PubMed Central

Vector control remains a key component of many anti-leishmaniasis programs and probably will remain so until an effective vaccine becomes available. Technologies similar to those used for control of adult mosquitoes, specifically interior residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets, are currently at the forefront as disease control measures. This article provides a review of literature on the biology and control of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the context of changing disease risks and the realities of modern vector control. The Literature Retrieval System of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Washington, DC, was the primary search engine used to review the literature.

Claborn, David M

2010-01-01

222

Patterns of Internal Elastic Lamina Morphology in the Canine Common Carotid Artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal elastic lamina (IEL) of normal canine carotid arteries was examined by scanning electron microscopy in pressure-fixed specimens with intact endothelium. IEL appearance showed a marked variation between animals and was classified into fenestrated sheet, fibrous, and mixed varieties. This interpretation of the apparent morphology was confirmed with transmission electron microscopy. It was clear that IEL fenestrae were associated

K. J. Hutchison; E. J. Sanders

1990-01-01

223

Leishmaniasis Research in Kenya: Parasite-Vector-Host Associations. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clinically speaking, there are 2 types of leishmaniasis in Kenya, visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, caused by Leishmania donovani, and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. aethiopica, L. major, L. tropica (a recent discovery), and L. donovani (post ka...

P. Lawyer J. Githure Y. Mebrahtu P. Perkins R. Muigai

1989-01-01

224

Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Throughout the world, pentavalent antimonial compounds (Sb(v)) have been the mainstay of antileishmanial therapy for more than 50 years. Sb(v) has been highly effective in the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL: kala-azar) at a low dose (10 mg/kg) for short durations (6-10 days). But in the early 1980s reports of its ineffectiveness emerged, and the dose of Sb(v) was eventually raised to 20 mg/kg for 30-40 days. This regimen cures most patients with VL except in India, where the proportion of patients unresponsive to Sb(v) has steadily increased. In hyperendemic districts of north Bihar, 50-65% patients fail treatment with Sb(v). Important reasons are rampant use of subtherapeutic doses, incomplete duration of treatment and substandard drugs. In vitro experiments have established emergence of Sb(v) resistant strains of Leishmania donovani, as isolates from unresponsive patients require 3-5 times more Sb(v) to reach similarly effectiveness against the parasite as in Sb(v) responders. Anthroponotic transmission in India has been an important factor in rapid increase in the Sb(v) refractoriness. Pentamidine was the first drug to be used and cured 99% of these refractory patients, but over time even with double the amount of initial doses, it cures only 69-78% patients now and its use has largely been abandoned in India. Despite several disadvantages, amphotericin B is the only drug available for use in these areas and should be used as first-line drug instead of Sb(v). The new oral antileishmanial drug miltefosine is likely to be the first-line drug in future. Unfortunately, development of newer antileishmanial drugs is rare; two promising drugs, aminosidine and sitamaquine, may be developed for use in the treatment of VL. Lipid associated amphotericin B has an excellent safety and efficacy profile, but remains out of reach for most patients because of its high cost. PMID:11703838

Sundar, S

2001-11-01

225

Patients with suspected visceral leishmaniasis in Istanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a four year study to investigate the Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) cases in, Turkey. Fifty- nine patients with suspected VL from Istanbul were included in this work. Bone marrow and blood samples of these patients were tested for possible VL infection using several methods including serological tests, microscopy, PCR. Nineteen (32.2%) patients had positive results for VL after one

Huseyin Cakan; Suat Saribas; Vecdet Oz; Erdal Polat; Mustafa Aslan

2010-01-01

226

Canine hip dysplasia. 1: Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractCAnine Hip Dysplasia is a heritable condition affecting the coxofemoral joints. It is due to the development of a pathological laxity within the joint. Which in turn leads to traumatic secondary osteoarthritic changes. The clinical expression of the disease is a hind-limb lameness or decreased exercise tolerance. Diagnosis of this condition by clinical signs alone is unreliable as large numbers

T. J. Quinlan

1975-01-01

227

CANINE HYPOTHYROIDISM: FACT OR FICTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 85% of hypothyroid dogs are reported to have skin lesions. Care should be taken in interpreting the reports of the prevalence of dermatologic signs in canine hypothyroidism because many of the reports have been written by dermatologists. Whatever the true incidence of these signs, they include alopecia (arrest of hair growth cycle in the telogen phase), dryness, scaling, dull

Thomas K. Graves

228

Neuronal Degeneration in Canine Narcolepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narcolepsy is a lifelong illness characterized by persistent sleepiness, hypnagogic hallucinations, and episodes of motor paralysis called cataplexy. We have tested the hypothesis that a transient neurodegenerative process is linked to symptom onset. Using the amino-cupric silver stain on brain sections from canine narcoleptics, we found elevated levels of axonal degeneration in the amygdala, basal forebrain (including the nucleus of

J. M. Siegel; R. Nienhuis; S. Gulyani; S. Ouyang; M. F. Wu; E. Mignot; R. C. Switzer; G. McMurry; M. Cornford

1999-01-01

229

Disorders of the canine penis.  

PubMed

Function and anatomy of the canine penis are reviewed. Functional abnormalities of the penis described include lack of erection and lack of ejaculation. Physical abnormalities of the penis also are described, including paraphimosis. Diagnosis and treatment options are described. PMID:11265490

Root Kustritz, M V

2001-03-01

230

Leishmania major: activity of tamoxifen against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a family of diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Various Leishmania species can cause human infection, producing a spectrum of clinical manifestations. The current treatments are unsatisfactory, and in absence of a vaccine, there is an urgent need for effective drugs to replace/supplement those currently in use. Recent studies have shown that the antineoplastic drug, tamoxifen, had direct leishmanicidal effect on several Leishmania species in vitro. Moreover, in vivo testing was carried out on some of the species and showed promising results. The authors have carried out the present work to complement previous published studies by investigating in vivo activity of tamoxifen in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania major. Groups of infected mice were given tamoxifen, orally, at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 15 days. Efficacy was assessed clinically, parasitologically, histopathologically by light and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results showed that untreated infected mice suffered from autoamputation of the inoculated foot pad. However, those which received tamoxifen showed marked improvement of the cutaneous lesions and reduction of parasite burden. TEM of the cutaneous lesions from infected mice revealed the fine structure of normal Leishmania amastigotes, whereas those from infected mice treated with tamoxifen showed considerable changes. All male mice that received tamoxifen showed scrotal swelling with evident histopathological changes in the testes that could seriously compromise fertility of male mice. In conclusion, although tamoxifen causes significant side effects to the male reproductive system in the mouse model, it could provide an alternative to current agents. Results of this study demonstrated in vivo activity of tamoxifen against Leishmania major, thus, suggesting that tamoxifen is a suitable lead for the synthesis of more effective and less toxic antileishmanial derivatives. PMID:21620834

Eissa, Maha M; Amer, Eglal I; El Sawy, Shefaa M F

2011-08-01

231

Clonally transmissible cancers in dogs and Tasmanian devils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) and canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) are the only known naturally occurring clonally transmissible cancers. These cancers are transmitted by the physical transfer of viable tumor cells that can be transplanted across histocompatibility barriers into unrelated hosts. Despite their common etiology, DFTD and CTVT have evolved independently and have unique life histories and host

E P Murchison

2008-01-01

232

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individually tested for neutralizing antibody against canine parvovirus to determine susceptibility...and tested for neutralizing antibody to canine parvovirus in the same manner...pretreating one with specific canine parvovirus antibody. If there is not at...

2010-01-01

233

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individually tested for neutralizing antibody against canine parvovirus to determine susceptibility...and tested for neutralizing antibody to canine parvovirus in the same manner...pretreating one with specific canine parvovirus antibody. If there is not at...

2009-01-01

234

Recovery and Characterization of a Minute Virus of Canines 1  

PubMed Central

Four antigenically related transmissible agents were recovered from canine fecal specimens. The agents produced cytopathic effects in a continuous dog cell line developed in this laboratory. Increased antibody titers were demonstrated in three of the four dogs which provided the isolates. The virus did not produce cytopathic effects in primary canine kidney or thymus cell cultures, or in cell cultures of human, simian, porcine, bovine, feline, and murine origin. The agent is resistant to ether, chloroform, and heat treatment, and the growth of the virus is inhibited by 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine. After acridine orange staining, green fluorescent intranuclear inclusions are seen in infected cell cultures. By electron microscopy, the virions measure approximately 20 to 21 nm in overall diameter and are present in the nuclei of infected cells. These properties are consistent with membership in the parvovirus or picodnavirus group. The agent hemagglutinates rhesus red blood cells at 5 C and by hemagglutination-inhibition tests could be readily distinguished from H-1, rat virus, and the minute virus of mice. Canine gamma globulin contains high titers of neutralizing antibody and neutralizing antibody was found in a high percentage of military dogs and in beagles of a breeding colony. Images

Binn, L. N.; Lazar, E. C.; Eddy, G. A.; Kajima, M.

1970-01-01

235

Survey of domestic cattle for anti- Leishmania antibodies and Leishmania DNA in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by an intracellular parasite Leishmania donovani in the Indian subcontinent, is considered to be anthroponotic. The role of domestic animals in its transmission is still\\u000a unclear. Although cattle are the preferred blood host for Phlebotomus argentipes, the sandfly vector of VL in the Indian subcontinent, very little information is available for their role in the disease

Mohammad Shafiul Alam; Debashis Ghosh; Mohammad Faizul Islam; Dinesh Mondal; Makoto Itoh; Rashidul Haque

2011-01-01

236

[Popular conceptions regarding cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia and their applicability in control programs].  

PubMed

A study was carried out to obtain information on prevailing popular ideas and attitudes about cutaneous leishmaniasis and its treatment in an isolated endemic area on the Colombian Pacific Coast. Interviews were conducted with a representative sample of individuals from the community and with health agents. The formal survey covered 736 households, 332 of them in a rural area (where leishmaniasis is endemic) and 404 in the city of Buenaventura (where there is no transmission of the disease.) The results showed that cutaneous leishmaniasis is well known in the rural area. The people have names for it (ya-te-vi or bejuco), have an understanding of its etiology (although their interpretation differs from that accepted by the scientific community), and have developed methods for preventing and treating it. The popular understanding of the disease results in behavior directed toward its prophylaxis and treatment that shares many characteristics with Western medicinal practices. The traditional treatments should be taken into account in the application of measures to control the disease in that area. PMID:1829895

Vázquez, M L; Kroeger, A; Lipowsky, R; Alzate, A

1991-05-01

237

Sand fly Surveillance within an Emerging Epidemic Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major has become a hot topic in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in the study area. Methods: Sand flies were collected biweekly from indoors and outdoors fixed places in the selected villages, using 30 sticky paper traps from the beginning to the end of the active season of 2006 in Kerman Province, south of Iran. The flies were mounted and identified. Some blood fed and gravid female sand flies of rodent burrows and indoors were dissected and examined microscopically for natural promastigote infection of Leishmania parasite during August to September. Results: In total, 2439 specimens comprising 8 species (3 Phlebotomus and 5 Sergentomyia) were identified. The most common sand fly was P. papatasi and represented 87.1% of sand flies from indoors and 57.2% from outdoors. The activity of the species extended from April to end October. There are two peaks in the density curve of this species, one in June and the second in August. Natural promastigote infection was found in P. papatasi (12.7%). Conclusion: Phlebotomus papatasi is considered as a probable vector among gerbils and to humans with a high percentage of promastigote infection in this new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The Bahraman area which until recently was unknown as an endemic area seems now to represent a focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in Iran.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi, MR; Hakimiparizi, M; Zahraei-Ramazani, AR; Abdoli, H; Akhavan, AA; Aghasi, M; Arandian, MH; Ranjbar, AA

2010-01-01

238

Canine heartworm disease in Porto Velho: first record, distribution map and occurrence of positive mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to make the first report on canine heartworm disease in the state of Rondônia and confirm its transmission in this state. Blood samples were randomly collected from 727 dogs in the city of Porto Velho. The samples were analyzed to search for microfilariae and circulating antigens, using three different techniques: optical microscopy on thick blood smears stained with Giemsa; immunochromatography; and PCR. Mosquitoes were collected inside and outside the homes of all the cases of positive dogs and were tested using PCR to search for DNA of Dirofilaria immitis. Ninety-three blood samples out of 727 (12.8%) were positive according to the immunoassay technique and none according to the thick smear method. Among the 93 positive dogs, 89 (95.7%) were born in Porto Velho. No difference in the frequency of infection was observed between dogs raised indoors and in the yard. PCR on the mosquitoes resulted in only one positive pool. This result shows that the transmission of canine heartworm disease is occurring in the city of Porto Velho and that there is moderate prevalence among the dogs. The techniques of immunochromatography and PCR were more effective for detecting canine heartworm than thick blood smears. The confirmation of canine heartworm disease transmission in Porto Velho places this disease in the ranking for differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules in humans in Rondônia. PMID:24473882

Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; da Cruz, Edson Neves; Cunha, Príscila Nayara Araújo; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

2013-01-01

239

ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail) are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106) of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease.

Loria-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando Jose

2014-01-01

240

Animal models for the study of leishmaniasis immunology.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail) are being infected, and different numbers ("low" 1 × 10(2) and "high" 1 × 10(6)) of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease. PMID:24553602

Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando José

2014-01-01

241

Leishmaniasis and Climate Change--Case Study: Argentina  

PubMed Central

Vector-borne diseases closely associated with the environment, such as leishmaniases, have been a usual argument about the deleterious impact of climate change on public health. From the biological point of view interaction of different variables has different and even conflicting effects on the survival of vectors and the probability transmission of pathogens. The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. These studies showed that the changes in transmission due to change or increase in frequency and intensity of climatic instability were expressed through changes in the probability of vector-human reservoir effective contacts. These changes of contact in turn are modulated by both direct effects on the biology and ecology of the organisms involved, as by perceptions and changes in the behavior of the human communities at risk. Therefore, from the perspective of public health and state policy, and taking into account the current nonlinear increased velocity of climate change, we concluded that discussing the uncertainties of large-scale models will have lower impact than to develop-validate mitigation strategies to be operative at local level, and compatibles with sustainable development, conservation biodiversity, and respect for cultural diversity.

Salomon, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, Maria Gabriela; Mastrangelo, Andrea Veronica; Fernandez, Maria Soledad

2012-01-01

242

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis of the Eyelid: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in certain areas of Iran, and in recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reports for rare and new forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis. We describe one unusual clinical form of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In a 27-year-old man, who noted a pimple on the upper eyelid 4 months before. The lesion was nodular and measured 1?cm?× 1?cm in diameter. A diagnosis of eyelid cutaneous leishmaniasis was made, and treatment was started with intramuscular meglumine antimonate. He showed a dramatic response, and the lesion almost completely disappeared.

Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Ali; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein

2013-01-01

243

Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of traditional vector control methods. The specific larval food source is unknown for all but a few sand fly species, and this is particularly true for the vectors of Leishmania parasites. We provide methods and materials that could be used to understand, and ultimately break, the transmission cycle of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods and Findings We demonstrated in laboratory studies that analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes found naturally in plant and animal tissues was highly effective for linking adult sand flies with their larval diet, without having to locate or capture the sand fly larvae themselves. In a field trial, we also demonstrated using this technique that half of captured adult sand flies had fed as larvae on rodent feces. Through the identification of rodent feces as a sand fly larval habitat, we now know that rodent baits containing insecticides that have been shown in previous studies to pass into the rodents' feces and kill sand fly larvae also could play a future role in sand fly control. In a second study we showed that rubidium incorporated into rodent baits could be used to demonstrate the level of bloodfeeding by sand flies on baited rodents, and that the elimination of sand flies that feed on rodents can be achieved using baits containing an insecticide that circulates in the blood of baited rodents. Conclusions Combined, the techniques described could help to identify larval food sources of other important vectors of the protozoa that cause visceral or dermal leishmaniasis. Unveiling aspects of the life cycles of sand flies that could be targeted with insecticides would guide future sand fly control programs for prevention of leishmaniasis.

Mascari, Thomas M.; Hanafi, Hanafi A.; Jackson, Ryan E.; Ouahabi, Souad; Ameur, Btissam; Faraj, Chafika; Obenauer, Peter J.; Diclaro, Joseph W.; Foil, Lane D.

2013-01-01

244

Canine coronavirus induces apoptosis in cultured cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is widespread in dogs in several countries and causes mild enteric illness evolving to severe enteritis in young pups.In in vitro cultures canine coronaviruses generally induce extensive cell death, however nature of the events leading to cell death remains largely unknown.We analysed the induction of cytopathic effect by CCoV in a canine fibrosarcoma cell line (A-72) in

A. Ruggieri; L. Di Trani; I. Gatto; M. Franco; E. Vignolo; B. Bedini; G. Elia; C. Buonavoglia

2007-01-01

245

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mullaitivu, Sri Lanka: a missing endemic district in the leishmaniasis surveillance system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe the emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a district of Sri Lanka, documented at the national level as having zero incidence. We analyzed data from the Sri Lanka Army (SLA) to describe reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis for all armed forces personnel located in all 24 districts of Sri Lanka. These data are not included in the National Surveillance System. From January 2011 through February 2013, 314 armed forces personnel were confirmed as having leishmaniasis. Of these, 223 (81.4%) were working within the district of Mullaitivu at the time of investigation and another 21 (6.5%) reported that the lesion first appeared when they were working in Mullaitivu. The reported cumulative annual incidence of leishmaniasis among the army population was 7.5 per 10000, while in the general area of Mullaitivu the incidence was 234 per 10000. Leishmaniasis is emerging in epidemic proportions in Mullaitivu and is still not detected through the public health surveillance system. Urgent attention directed at disease surveillance and control activities is needed to control this emerging public health threat. PMID:24858902

Semage, S N; Pathirana, K P N; Agampodi, S B

2014-08-01

246

Persistent expression of canine factor IX in hemophilia B canines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously demonstrated that direct intramuscular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying the human FIX (hFIX) cDNA can safely be administered to hemophilic B canines and express human factor IX protein; however, the functional activity of the hFIX protein could not be assessed due to anti-human FIX antibody (inhibitor) formation. To test the therapeutic efficacy of rAAV in hemophilic

H Chao; R J Samulski; D A Bellinger; P E Monahan; T C Nichols; C E Walsh

1999-01-01

247

Lutzomyia whitmani is the main vector of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Federal District and the most prevalent species in residential areas of the Administrative Region of Sobradinho*  

PubMed Central

Although cases of cutaneous Leishmaniasis have been reported in Brasilia - DF, its mode of transmission is still unknown. Center of Disease Control traps (CDC trap) placed around Sobradinho, a periurban area in the Brazilian Federal District, were able to capture a sample of phlebotomines composed of 89% Lutzomyia whitmani, 7% Lu. bacula, and 3% Lu. davisi specimens. Being of 77% of these specimens were captured in peridomiciliary. PCR analyses showed that the specimens were negative for Leishmania DNA. However, the high prevalence of Lu. Whitmani in the studied region suggests that it may be the main vector for the transmission of Leishmaniasis in peridomiciliary areas in the studied region.

Barreto, Mariana Boff; Carneiro, Andrea Lisboa; Torres, Fernando Araripe Goncalves; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

2014-01-01

248

Cost-effectiveness of canine vaccination to prevent human rabies in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The annual mortality rate of human rabies in rural Africa is 3.6 deaths per 100,000 individuals. Rabies can be prevented by prompt post-exposure prophylaxis, but this is costly and often inaccessible in rural Africa. As 99% of human exposures occur through rabid dogs, canine vaccination also prevents transmission of rabies to humans. Objective Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rabies control through annual canine vaccination campaigns in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Design We model transmission dynamics in dogs and wildlife and assess empirical uncertainty in the biological parameters to make probability-based evaluations of cost-effectiveness. Data Sources Epidemiological parameters from contact tracing study and literature; cost data from ongoing vaccination campaigns Target Population Two districts of rural Tanzania, Ngorongoro and Serengeti Time Horizon Ten years Perspective Health policymaker Interventions Vaccination coverage ranging from 0 to 95% in increments of 5% Outcome Measures Life-years for health outcomes and 2010 USD for economic outcomes Results of Base-Case Analysis Annual canine vaccination campaigns are very cost-effective in both districts compared with no canine vaccination. In Serengeti, annual campaigns up to 70% coverage are cost-saving. Results of Sensitivity Analysis Across a wide range of parameter assumptions and levels of societal willingness-to-pay for life-years, the optimal vaccination coverage for Serengeti is 70%. In Ngorongoro, though optimal coverage depends on willingness-to-pay, vaccination campaigns are always cost-effective and life-saving, and therefore preferred. Limitations Canine vaccination is very cost-effective in both districts, but there is greater uncertainty regarding the optimal coverage in Ngorongoro. Conclusions Annual canine rabies vaccination campaigns confer extraordinary value and dramatically reduce the health burden of rabies. Primary Funding Source US National Institutes of Health (U01 GM087719)

Fitzpatrick, Meagan C; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Mzimbiri, Imam; Lankester, Felix; Lembo, Tiziana; Meyers, Lauren A.; Paltiel, A David; Galvani, Alison P

2014-01-01

249

A Case of Canine Insulinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kolevská J., R. Husník, V. Brunclík, V. Mandys, Z. Vernerová, P. Schánilec, L. Barto‰ová, M. Svoboda:A Case of Canine Insulinoma . Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 353-358. The paper reports on a ten-year-old German Shepherd presented with a history of episodic weakness and convulsions after exercise. The patient showed status epilepticus upon presentation. Glucose concentrations repeatedly determined by glucometer were

J. KOLEVSKÁ; R. HUSNÍK; V. BRUNCLÍK; V. MANDYS; Z. VERNEROVÁ; P. SCHÁNILEC; L. BARTO; M. SVOBODA

250

Comparison of aminosidine (paromomycin) and sodium stibogluconate for treatment of canine leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum were treated subcutaneously with aminosidine at a dose of 10 mg kg?1 per day for four weeks. Antimonial compounds were used as reference drugs in twelve Leishmania-infected dogs. Eleven of the twelve dogs submitted to aminosidine therapy responded within 30 days. The treatment with the aminoglycoside antibiotic presented a marked decrease of anti-Leishmania

Alessandro Poli; Sabrina Sozzi; Guidi Grazia; Paolo Bandinelli; Francesca Mancianti

1997-01-01

251

A new molecular surveillance system for leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Presently, global efforts are being made to control and eradicate the deadliest tropical diseases through the improvement of adequate interventions. A critical point for programs to succeed is the prompt and accurate diagnosis in endemic regions. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are being massively deployed and used to improve diagnosis in tropical countries. In the present report, we evaluated the hypothesis of, after use for diagnosis, the reuse of the Leishmania RDT kit as a DNA source, which can be used downstream as a molecular surveillance and/or quality control tool. As a proof of principle, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect Leishmania spp. minicircle kinetoplast DNA from leishmaniasis RDT kits. Our results show that Leishmania spp. DNA can be extracted from used RDTs and may constitute an important, reliable, and affordable tool to assist in future leishmaniasis molecular surveillance methods. PMID:24752687

Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Acharya, Jyoti; Kato, Kentaro; Kaneko, Osamu; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo

2014-06-01

252

Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major world health problem. Diagnosis is suspected on evocative clinical presentation in patients living in or coming from endemic areas. Several methods have been used. The smear is a simple investigation used in endemic regions. The culture enables to identify the specimen. PCR has a high sensitivity. Montenegro's reaction is used in the epidemiological study. Pentavalent antimony derivatives remain the mainstay of systemic treatment. Their efficiency is well established. Their toxicity should be researched. Other treatments can be utilized, such as miltefosine. Local therapy is used in uncomplicated lesions. Injections of the pentavalent antimony derivate, cryotherapy and paromomycin ointmentsis are important options and should be used more frequently in Old World leishmaniasis. PMID:23858338

Masmoudi, Abderrahmen; Hariz, Wala; Marrekchi, Slaheddine; Amouri, Mariem; Turki, Hamida

2013-06-30

253

Epitope Mapping of the HSP83.1 Protein of Leishmania braziliensis Discloses Novel Targets for Immunodiagnosis of Tegumentary and Visceral Clinical Forms of Leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Gold standard serological diagnostic methods focus on antigens that elicit a strong humoral immune response that is specific to a certain pathogen. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify linear B-cell epitopes that are conserved among Leishmania species but are divergent from the host species Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris and from Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, to select potential targets for the immunodiagnosis of leishmaniasis. Using these criteria, we selected heat shock protein 83.1 of Leishmania braziliensis for this study. We predicted three linear B-cell epitopes in its sequence. These peptides and the recombinant heat shock protein 83.1 (rHSP83.1) were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) against serum samples from patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and from dogs infected with Leishmania infantum (canine VL [CVL]). Our data show that rHSP83.1 is a promising target in the diagnosis of TL. We also identified specific epitopes derived from HSP83.1 that can be used in the diagnosis of human TL (peptide 3), both human and canine VL (peptides 1 and 3), and all TL, VL, and CVL clinical manifestations (peptide 3). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves confirmed the superior performance of rHSP83.1 and peptides 1 and 3 compared to that of the soluble L. braziliensis antigen and the reference test kit for the diagnosis of CVL in Brazil (EIE-LVC kit; Bio-Manguinhos, Fiocruz). Our study thus provides proof-of-principle evidence of the feasibility of using bioinformatics to identify novel targets for the immunodiagnosis of parasitic diseases using proteins that are highly conserved throughout evolution. PMID:24807053

Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira

2014-07-01

254

Injectable Paromomycin for Visceral Leishmaniasis in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r ac t P<0.001); and in patients receiving amphotericin B, as compared with those receiving paromomycin, nephrotoxicity (4% vs. 0, P<0.001), fevers (57% vs. 3%), rigors (24% vs. 0, P<0.001), and vomiting (10% vs. <1%, P<0.001). Conclusions Paromomycin was shown to be noninferior to amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India. (ClinicalTrials.gov number,

Shyam Sundar; T. K. Jha; Chandreshwar P. Thakur; Prabhat K. Sinha; Sujit K. Bhattacharya

2007-01-01

255

Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the Palestinian West Bank: Potential Vectors of Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two forms of leishmaniasis are endemic to the Jenin district in the northern region of the West Bank. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania infantum, mainly affects infants. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)affects a broader age group and is probably caused by L. tropica. Although the Jenin district is the most important focus of leishmaniasis in the West Bank, the sand ßy

Samir S. Sawalha; Muhamad S. Shtayeh; Haroun M. Khanfar; Alon Warburg; Ziad A. Abdeen

2003-01-01

256

Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

2014-01-01

257

Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

2014-01-01

258

Molecular and Seroepidemiological Survey of Visceral Leishmaniasis among Humans and Domestic Dogs in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background New cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been reported recently in some parts of Mazandaran Province, north of Iran where the first human case of VL was reported in 1949. This study aimed to determine the present status of Leishmania infantum infection among humans and domestic dogs using serological and molecular methods in central parts of Mazandaran Province. Methods In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were randomly collected from 402 humans and forty-nine domestic dogs throughout 2009 and 2010 in the central part of Mazandaran Province including Semeskadeh and Kiakola districts where recent cases of human visceral leishmaniasis had been reported there. All the collected samples were tested by direct agglutination test (DAT) for the detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies as well as convenience PCR assay on whole blood samples for detection of leishmanial infection and identification of Leishmania species. Results None of 402 collected human (402) and dog (49) blood samples showed anti Leishmania infantum antibodies at titers 1:3200 and 1:320 as cut-off values of DAT, respectively but only 2 of domestic dogs (4.1%) were found PCR-positive corresponding to L.infantum. Conclusion This study confirms the circulation of L. infantum at least among domestic dogs and highlights the sporadic pattern of VL in the studied areas. Further investigations regarding to sand flies fauna and wild canines as reservoir hosts of the disease, are recommended.

Fakhar, M; Rahmati, B; Gohardehi, S; Mohebali, M; Akhoundi, B; Sharif, M; Ali Mahdavi, S

2011-01-01

259

Complete genome sequence of an avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus isolated from dogs in South Korea.  

PubMed

An avian-origin Korean H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) strain, designated A/canine/Korea/01/2007 (H3N2), was isolated from nasal swabs of pet dogs exhibiting severe respiratory syndrome in 2007. In the present study, we report the first complete genome sequence containing 3' and 5' noncoding regions (NCRs) of H3N2 CIV, which will provide important insights into the molecular basis of pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of CIV. PMID:22879618

Park, Seong-Jun; Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Hong, Minki; Na, Woonseong; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Poo, Haryoung; Park, Bong-Kyun; Song, Dae-Sub

2012-09-01

260

Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in children with liposomal amphotericin B  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used liposomal amphotericin B as first-choice treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in 106 immunocompetent children who acquired the infection in a temperate region of southern Europe (Italy) where Leishmania infantum visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. The aim of the study was to identify the minimum total dose of liposomal amphotericin B needed to cure the infection in children and reduce the

Lucio di Martino; Robert N. Davidson; Raffella Giacchino; Silvestro Scotti; Francesco Raimondi; Elio Castagnola; Loredana Tasso; Antonio Cascio; Luigi Gradoni; Marina Gramiccia; Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani; Anthony D. M. Bryceson

1997-01-01

261

PCR-ELISA for diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we demonstrate that the PCR-ELISA technique is sufficiently sensitive and specific for use as a diagnostic test in cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. DNA was extracted from cultures of Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania infantum, Leishmania tropica, Leishmania mexicana, Trypanosoma cruzi, and blood samples from individuals who presented a clinical diagnosis of leishmaniasis as well as from healthy individuals. The

J Piñero; E Mart??nez; R Pacheco; Z Aragón; F De Armas; A Del Castillo; B Valladares

1999-01-01

262

Bayesian Geostatistical Modeling of Leishmaniasis Incidence in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries with an estimated 350 million people at risk and approximately 2 million cases annually. Brazil is one of the most severely affected countries. Methodology We applied Bayesian geostatistical negative binomial models to analyze reported incidence data of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil covering a 10-year period (2001–2010). Particular emphasis was placed on spatial and temporal patterns. The models were fitted using integrated nested Laplace approximations to perform fast approximate Bayesian inference. Bayesian variable selection was employed to determine the most important climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic predictors of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Principal Findings For both types of leishmaniasis, precipitation and socioeconomic proxies were identified as important risk factors. The predicted number of cases in 2010 were 30,189 (standard deviation [SD]: 7,676) for cutaneous leishmaniasis and 4,889 (SD: 288) for visceral leishmaniasis. Our risk maps predicted the highest numbers of infected people in the states of Minas Gerais and Pará for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Our spatially explicit, high-resolution incidence maps identified priority areas where leishmaniasis control efforts should be targeted with the ultimate goal to reduce disease incidence.

Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Scholte, Ronaldo G. C.; Guimaraes, Luiz H.; Utzinger, Jurg; Vounatsou, Penelope

2013-01-01

263

Visceral leishmaniasis during pregnancy treated with meglumine antimoniate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Data on the efficacy and safety of pentavalent antimony in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis during pregnancy are scanty. A case of visceral leishmaniasis in a 39-year-old woman in the second trimester of pregnancy is reported here. The patient was hospitalized in poor condition with high fever and pancytopenia which had lasted for 6 weeks. A bone marrow aspirate

R. Utili; A. Rambaldi; Marie Françoise Tripodi; A. Andreana

1995-01-01

264

SERODIAGNOSIS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN TURKEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infantile Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis (IVL) and anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) have long been known to exist in the western and southeastern Turkey, respectively. To further study these and other related diseases, a recombinant antigen (rK39) specific to VL was used in an ELISA for serodiagnosis of selected patients and for screening dog reservoir populations in several endemic sites. Among 24

SERAY OZENSOY; YUSUF OZBEL; NEVIN TURGAY; M. ZIYA ALKAN; KADRI GUL; A. GILMAN-SACHS; K.-P. CHANG; STEVEN G. REED; M. ALI OZCEL

265

Review article Genetics of Canine Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Houpt K.A.: Genetics of Canine Behavior. Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: 431-444. Canine behavioral genetics is a rapidly moving area of research. In this review, breed differences in behavior are emphasized. Dog professionals' opinions of the various breeds on many behavior traits reveal factors such as reactivity, aggression, ease of training and immaturity. Heritability of various behaviors - hunting ability,

K. A. HOUPT

266

New developments in canine hepatozoonosis in North America: a review.  

PubMed

Canine hepatozoonosis is caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum, apicomplexan parasites transmitted to dogs by ingestion of infectious stages. Although the two agents are phylogenetically related, specific aspects, including characteristics of clinical disease and the natural history of the parasites themselves, differ between the two species. Until recently, H. canis infections had not been clearly documented in North America, and autochthonous infection with H. americanum has yet to be reported outside of the southern United States. However, recent reports demonstrate H. canis is present in areas of North America where its vector tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has long been endemic, and that the range of H. americanum is likely expanding along with that of its vector tick, Amblyomma maculatum; co-infections with the two organisms have also been identified. Significant intraspecific variation has been reported in the 18S rRNA gene sequence of both Hepatozoon spp.-infecting dogs, suggesting that each species may represent a complex of related genogroups rather than well-defined species. Transmission of H. americanum to dogs via ingestion of cystozoites in muscle of infected vertebrates was recently demonstrated, supporting the concept of predation as a means of natural transmission. Although several exciting advances have occurred in recent years, much remains to be learned about patterns of infection and the nature of clinical disease caused by the agents of canine hepatozoonosis in North America. PMID:19426444

Little, Susan E; Allen, Kelly E; Johnson, Eileen M; Panciera, Roger J; Reichard, Mason V; Ewing, Sidney A

2009-01-01

267

Evaluation of SPECT quantification of radiopharmaceutical distribution in canine myocardium  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the quantitative accuracy of SPECT for in vivo distributions of {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals using fanbeam (FB) and parallel-beam (PB) collimators and compares uniform and nouniform attenuation correction methods in terms of quantitative accuracy. SPECT quantification of canine myocardial radioactivity was performed followed by well counter measurements of extracted myocardial tissue samples. Transmission scans using a line source and an FB collimator were performed to generate nonuniform attenuation maps of the canine thorax. Emission scans with two energy windows were acquired. Images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm, with a dual-window scatter subtraction combined with either no attenuation compensation or single iteration Chang attenuation compensation based on a uniform attenuation map {mu}=0.152 cm{sup -1} or the nonuniform transmission map. The measured mean counts from the SPECT images were converted using the well counter. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared with well counter values, the in vivo distributions of {sup 99m}Tc were most accurately determined in FB and PB SPECT reconstructions with nonuniform attenuation compensation, under-estimated without attenuation compensation and overestimated with uniform attenuation compensation. 37 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

Li, Jianying; Jaszczak, R.L.; Greer, K.L. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

1995-02-01

268

Complexities of Assessing the Disease Burden Attributable to Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Among parasitic diseases, morbidity and mortality caused by leishmaniasis are surpassed only by malaria and lymphatic filariasis. However, estimation of the leishmaniasis disease burden is challenging, due to clinical and epidemiological diversity, marked geographic clustering, and lack of reliable data on incidence, duration, and impact of the various disease syndromes. Non-health effects such as impoverishment, disfigurement, and stigma add to the burden, and introduce further complexities. Leishmaniasis occurs globally, but has disproportionate impact in the Horn of Africa, South Asia and Brazil (for visceral leishmaniasis), and Latin America, Central Asia, and southwestern Asia (for cutaneous leishmaniasis). Disease characteristics and challenges for control are reviewed for each of these foci. We recommend review of reliable secondary data sources and collection of baseline active survey data to improve current disease burden estimates, plus the improvement or establishment of effective surveillance systems to monitor the impact of control efforts.

Bern, Caryn; Maguire, James H.; Alvar, Jorge

2008-01-01

269

Leishmaniasis sand fly vector density reduction is less marked in destitute housing after insecticide thermal fogging  

PubMed Central

Background Insecticide thermal fogging (ITF) is a tool to control vector borne diseases. Insecticide application success for vector control has been associated with housing materials and architecture. Vector abundance is correlated with weather changes. Nevertheless, housing quality and weather impacts on vector abundance have been unaccounted for in most New World insecticide control trials for leishmaniasis vectors. Methods We conducted a 15 month insecticide control trial that included two deltamethrin [6 mg a.i.m-2] based ITF interventions in 12 of 24 monitored houses at Trinidad de Las Minas, a hyperendemic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission village in western Panamá. During the study we followed sand fly (SF) abundance, keeping track of rainfall and quantified housing quality using an index based on architecture and construction materials. Results We found a 50 to 80% reduction in SF density in the fogged houses when compared with control houses, while controlling for seasonal changes in SF abundance associated with rainfall. We found heterogeneities in the reductions, as abundance changed according to SF species: Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dysponeta and Lu. triramula reduced in density between 40% and 90% after ITF. In contrast, Lu. trapidoi density increased 5% after ITF. Differences in the impact of ITF were associated with housing quality, the most destitute houses, i.e., those with features that ease insect entrance, had a disproportionally larger SF abundance, in some cases with increased domiciliary SF density following the ITF. Conclusion Our results suggest the potential of insecticide application to control SF density and leishmaniasis transmission could depend on housing quality beyond insecticide efficiency.

2013-01-01

270

Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in a patient treated with injectable paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis in India.  

PubMed

Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a skin manifestation that usually develops after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a major public health problem in India. The diagnosis and management of PKDL is complex. This is the first case report from India in which PKDL occurred after paromomycin treatment for VL in an Indian patient. PMID:22278840

Pandey, Krishna; Das, V N R; Singh, Dharmendra; Das, Sushmita; Lal, C S; Verma, N; Bimal, S; Topno, R K; Siddiqui, N A; Verma, R B; Sinha, P K; Das, Pradeep

2012-04-01

271

Drug policy for visceral leishmaniasis: a cost-effectiveness analysis: Drug policy for visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary objective To facilitate the choice of the best visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment strategy for first-line health services in (VL)-endemic areas, we compared in a formal decision analysis the cost and the cost- effectiveness of the different available options. methods We selected four drug regimens for VL on the basis of frequency of use, feasibility and reported efficacy studies. The

V. Vanlerberghe; G. Diap; P. J. Guerin; F. Meheus; S. Gerstl; P. Van der Stuyft; M. Boelaert

2007-01-01

272

Wave transmission characteristics and anisotropy of canine carotid arteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method was developed to generate and record three types of small amplitude waves (pressure, torsion and axial) in the exposed carotid artery of anesthetized dogs. The pressure waves were studied with the aid of miniature pressure transducers; electro-optical tracking units monitored the axial and circumferential surface displacements. Results from 6 dogs are presented in the form of the phase velocities and attenuation of three types of waves. The data demonstrate incompatibility with an isotropic elastic model for the mechanical behavior of the artery. The measured damping appears to be primarily due to the viscoelastic properties of the vessel wall material.

Moritz, W. E.; Anliker, M.

1974-01-01

273

First Molecular Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in Libya. The objective of this study was to investigate, for the first time, epidemiological features of CL outbreaks in Libya including molecular identification of parasites, the geographical distribution of cases and possible scenarios of parasite transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 450 patients that came from 49 areas distributed in 12 districts in north-west Libya. The patients' ages ranged from 9 months to 87 years (median age 25 years); 54% of the cases were males. Skin scrapings spotted on glass slides were collected for molecular identification of causative agent. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was amplified and subsequently characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. In total, 195 samples were successfully identified of which 148 (75.9%) were Leishmania major, and 47 (24.1%) Leishmania tropica. CL cases infected with L. major were found in all CL areas whereas L. tropica cases came mainly from Al Jabal Al Gharbi (46.4%), Misrata (17.8%) and Tarhuna districts (10.7%). A trend of seasonality was noticed for the infections with L. major which showed a clear peak between November and January, but was less pronounced for infections by L. tropica. Conclusion The first molecular study on CL in Libya revealed that the disease is caused by L. major and L. tropica and the epidemiological patterns in the different foci were the same as in other Mediterranean foci of CL.

Amro, Ahmad; Gashout, Aisha; Al-Dwibe, Hamida; Zahangir Alam, Mohammad; Annajar, Badereddin; Hamarsheh, Omar; Shubar, Hend; Schonian, Gabriele

2012-01-01

274

A zoonotic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in the highlands of Ethiopia, and almost always caused by Leishmania aethiopica. Hitherto, Addis Ababa (the capital city of Ethiopia) was not considered endemic for CL, mainly due to absence of epidemiological and field ecological studies. This report summarizes the preliminary epidemiological investigation that proved the existence of active transmission in southeastern Addis Ababa. Results Active case finding surveys were conducted in 3 localities, Saris, Kality, and Akaki, which are found in and around Bulbula-Akaki river gorges. During the surveys conducted in January 2005 - May 2006, a total of 35 cases with 9 active and 26 healed skin lesions were identified. Eighteen of the cases (51.4%) were found in Saris; while 10 (28.6%) and 7 (20%) cases were from Kality and Akaki respectively. Ten colonies of rock hyraxes (Heterohyrax brucei) were identified in the vicinities of the 3 localities. Three of the 48 hyraxes (6.3%) trapped from the surroundings harbored natural infections of Leishmania aethiopica. Confirmation of the Leishmania species of the 3 isolates was achieved by PCR amplification and RFLP analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Based on sandfly species composition and proximity of resting sites to human settlements, Phlebotomus longipes is circumstantially proven to be the vector of CL in south east Addis Ababa. Conclusion The study proves the existence of isolated zoonotic foci of CL in south eastern Addis Ababa, with P. longipes as the likely vector and H. brucei as the natural reservoir host.

2009-01-01

275

Reptiles and their importance in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Promastigote flagellates have been isolated from various species of lizard and from some other reptiles. It is known that sandflies readily feed upon lizards and it has been thought that reptiles could be a reservoir for mammalian leishmaniasis. A feature of reptilian infections is the extreme scarcity of parasites in blood smears and in tissue impression smears but isolations may readily be made in culture media. The intradermal inoculation of promastigote cultures from lizards into mammals and man induces a positive leishmanial response and gives rise to long-lasting dermal knots from which living parasites can be recovered for periods of several months. Associations between promastigotes and lizards in parts of the USSR, particularly in the Turkmenian SSR, and experimental work in the USSR on the transmission of promastigote strains to a variety of mammals, including gerbils, mice, monkeys, and man, are reviewed. The author accepts the generally held view that although promastigote flagellates of reptiles are important in an evolutionary context, having probably given rise to the mammalian leishmanias, present-day strains must be considered nonpathogenic for mammals.

Belova, E. M.

1971-01-01

276

Impact of ASHA Training on Active Case Detection of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, India  

PubMed Central

Background One of the major challenges for management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is early diagnosis of cases to improve treatment outcome and reduce transmission. We have therefore investigated active case detection of VL with the help of accredited social health activists (ASHA). ASHAs are women who live in the community and receive performance-based incentives for overseeing maternal and other health-related issues in their village. Methods and Principal Finding Through conducting interviews with 400 randomly selected ASHAs from four primary health care centers (PHCs), it was observed that their level of knowledge about visceral leishmaniasis (VL) regarding transmission, diagnosis, and treatment was limited. The baseline data indicated that less than 10% of VL cases seeking treatment at the PHCs were referred by ASHAs. To increase the knowledge and the referral rate of VL cases by ASHAs, training sessions were carried out during the monthly ASHA meetings at their respective PHCs. Following a single training session, the referral rate increased from less than 10% to over 27% and the overall knowledge about VL substantially improved. It was not possible, however, to demonstrate that ASHA training reduced the time that individuals had fever before treatment at the PHC. Conclusions Training ASHAs to identify VL cases in villages for early diagnosis and treatment at the local PHC is feasible and should be undertaken routinely to improve knowledge about VL.

Das, Vidya Nand Ravi; Pandey, Ravindra Nath; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Varsha; Kumar, Vijay; Matlashewski, Greg; Das, Pradeep

2014-01-01

277

Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.  

PubMed

The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:23293164

Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

2013-01-01

278

CD20 Expression in Normal Canine B Cells and in Canine non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the expression of CD20 in normal canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, normal canine spleen, and canine non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to determine the feasibility of using this antigen as a diagnostic aid and as a possible target for therapy. An antibody generated against a C-terminal (intracytoplasmic) epitope of human CD20 recognized proteins of 32-36 kd in normal and malignant

C. M. Jubala; J. W. Wojcieszyn; V. E. O. Valli; D. M. Getzy; S. P. Fosmire; D. Coffey; D. Bellgrau; J. F. Modiano

2005-01-01

279

[Knowledge of students about visceral leishmaniasis in public schools in Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil].  

PubMed

This is a sample survey (743 questionnaires) conducted in the months from April to November 2009 in ten pre-selected public schools located in eight districts of the city of Caxias. The students' knowledge of viral leishmaniasis (VL) and its transmission and prevention was evaluated through closed questionnaires. The results showed changes with the highest percentage of correct answers for answers about the transmission of disease and the symptoms of VL in humans and dogs after the campaign. However, educational campaigns are necessary measures to strengthen public participation in combating VL since before the educational work the majority of students stated that the disease was prevented by avoiding contact with sick dogs, however, after the campaign they stated that they avoid accumulations of trash. The research may serve as input to orient further educational actions of local teams for the control of VL. PMID:23896911

Lobo, Katiane dos Santos; Bezerra, Juliana Maria Trindade; Brito, Luciane Maria de Oliveira; da Silva, Joelma Soares; Pinheiro, Valéria Cristina Soares

2013-08-01

280

Microspatial Distributional Patterns of Vectors of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution and population trends through time of Lutzomyia species in a long-term focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in an Atlantic Forest area, northeastern Brazil. Sand fly populations of different ecological niches were monitored spatiotemporally in 2009. To summarize vegetation characteristics and phenology, we calculated the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index from Landsat images. Using niche modeling approaches, we assessed suites of environmental factors to identify areas of transmission risk. Although 12 species were detected, L. whitmani was the most abundant and broadly distributed across the area, particularly in peridomiciliary locations, and associated negatively with denser vegetation areas. On the other hand, L. complexa, L. sordelli, and L. tupynambai were found almost exclusively in forested areas (P < 0.05), and associated positively with denser vegetation. Lutzomyia species' occurrences are related to specific environmental combinations (with contrast among species) in the region.

Donalisio, Maria Rita; Peterson, A. Townsend; Costa, Pietra Lemos; da Silva, Fernando Jose; Valenca, Helio Franca; Shaw, Jeffrey J.; Brandao Filho, Sinval P.

2012-01-01

281

Immune Regulation during Chronic Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic parasitic disease associated with severe immune dysfunction. Treatment options are limited to relatively toxic drugs, and there is no vaccine for humans available. Hence, there is an urgent need to better understand immune responses following infection with Leishmania species by studying animal models of disease and clinical samples from patients. Here, we review recent discoveries in these areas and highlight shortcomings in our knowledge that need to be addressed if better treatment options are to be developed and effective vaccines designed.

Faleiro, Rebecca J.; Kumar, Rajiv; Hafner, Louise M.; Engwerda, Christian R.

2014-01-01

282

Hemophagocytic syndrome associated with visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The present paper reports a case of 6-year-old male child, suffering from pallor, fever and hepatosplenomegaly. A clinical diagnosis of enteric fever with a second possibility of malaria was considered. Laboratory findings included bicytopenia, hyperbilirubinemia and raised liver enzymes. Bone marrow examination revealed active hemophagocytosis. On extensive search few amastigote forms of Leishmania donovani were seen. Patient was negative for other viral, bacterial and malaria infections. The final diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with visceral leishmaniasis was made. There was response of anti-Leishmanial treatment with improvement in clinical condition. PMID:16741336

Agarwal, Shilpi; Narayan, Shashi; Sharma, Sunita; Kahkashan, Eram; Patwari, A K

2006-05-01

283

Leishmaniasis. Another threat to Persian Gulf veterans.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis, a protozoal infection transmitted by sand flies, is one of the most common parasitic diseases worldwide. As US military troops return from endemic areas, it is likely that physicians will encounter cases of this previously seldom seen disease. The incubation period is long, and initial infection is often insidious and difficult to diagnose. To prevent the high mortality of untreated visceral forms and the potentially disfiguring scarring of the cutaneous form, primary care physicians (especially those caring for Persian Gulf veterans) should be aware of the disease and familiar with its treatment. PMID:1749736

Lesho, E P

1991-12-01

284

CD20 expression in normal canine B cells and in canine non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

We examined the expression of CD20 in normal canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, normal canine spleen, and canine non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to determine the feasibility of using this antigen as a diagnostic aid and as a possible target for therapy. An antibody generated against a C-terminal (intracytoplasmic) epitope of human CD20 recognized proteins of 32-36 kd in normal and malignant canine lymphocytes. This antibody showed restricted membrane binding in a subset of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, in the B-cell regions from a normal canine spleen and lymph node, and in malignant cells from 19 dogs with B-cell NHL, but not from 15 dogs with T-cell NHL. The patterns of CD20 reactivity in these samples overlapped those seen using an antibody that recognizes canine CD79a. This anti-CD20 antibody is therefore suitable as an aid to phenotype canine NHL. In contrast, normal canine B cells were not recognized by any of 28 antibodies directed against the extracellular domains of human CD20 (including the chimeric mouse-human antibody Rituximab) or by any of 12 antibodies directed against the extracellular domains of mouse CD20. Thus, the use of CD20 as a therapeutic target will require the generation of specific antibodies against the extracellular domains of canine CD20. PMID:16006606

Jubala, C M; Wojcieszyn, J W; Valli, V E O; Getzy, D M; Fosmire, S P; Coffey, D; Bellgrau, D; Modiano, J F

2005-07-01

285

Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, Southern Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of inhabitants of an endemic area in Fars province toward cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Methods The study was carried out in Lapui district in Fars province, south of Iran, one of the most important foci of CL in this province. Sample size (237 residents) was calculated based on population. House-to-house survey was done to collect the data regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the inhabitants. The head of each household was interviewed by a trained staff to assess his/her KAP related to CL. A semi-structured KAP questionnaire was used for data collection. Results Mean age of participants was 39 and more than half of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40. Males constituted 172 (72.5%) of subjects. Most of the respondents (84.3%) were literate. The majority of the study population (83%) had heard about Salak (local name for CL) and most of these respondents (91%) were aware that CL is presented with a cutaneous lesion. Nearly two-third of the participants (63.5%) stated the bite of mosquito (not specifically sandflies) for CL transmission. The respondents' attitude regarding the treatment of CL was not satisfactory since only 48% believed that CL can be treated by medicine. A noticeable proportion of respondents (21%) believed in indigenous medicine for the treatment of CL. A small proportion of respondents (14%) stated that traditional healers are good at treating this disease. More than two-third (69%) of respondents believed that the disease is preventable although most of interviewees did not know about preventive measures. Conclusions In this study, insufficient knowledge of community about infection nature, vector, transmission mode and preventive measures of CL, highlights the needs for a health education initiative to enhance the awareness of people about CL. This would improve inhabitants' contribution in control program of CL in this area.

Sarkari, Bahador; Qasem, Asgari; Shafaf, Mohammad Reza

2014-01-01

286

Leishmania chagasi in Opossums (Didelphis albiventris) in an Urban Area Endemic for Visceral Leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

PubMed Central

We investigated the occurrence of Leishmania infantum chagasi in Didelphis albiventris opossums at a wild animal rehabilitation center in the city of Campo Grande, Brazil. A total of 54 opossums were tested for L. i. chagasi infection in peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. The samples were analyzed by direct examination, culturing in a specific medium, and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Leishmania i. chagasi DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism in 11 (20.37%) animals. A total of 81.81% of positive opossums were captured in areas of known visceral leishmaniasis transmission. These results suggest a role for D. albiventris in the urban transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.

Humberg, Roberta M. P.; Oshiro, Elisa T.; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires e; Ribolla, Paulo E. M.; Alonso, Diego P.; Ferreira, Alda M. T.; Bonamigo, Raquel A.; Tasso, Norton; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

2012-01-01

287

Multiple lesions of sporotrichoid leishmaniasis in a Filipino expatriate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was diagnosed in a Filipino man who had worked in Saudi Arabia for 2 years. Two primary lesions—one on the forearm and one on the abdomen—were characterized by \\

Douglas S. Walsh; Maria V. Balagon; Rodolfo M. Abalos; Estrelitta S. Tiongco; Roland V. Cellona; Tranquilino T. Fajardo; Gerald P. Walsh

1997-01-01

288

Association Between HTLV-I Infection with Chronic Lupoid Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): One of the different types of skin leishmaniasis is the Chronic Lupoid Leishmaniasis (CLL), which is caused by abnormal immune response. On the other hand, HTLV-I has been known to exist in some infectious diseases. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type1 (HTLV-I) and cutanous leishmaniasis exists endemically in Mashhad. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HTLV-I in CLL patients. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study involved 51 CLL patients admitted to cutaneous leishmaniasis clinics of Ghaem and Imam Reza hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. The blood samples were examined for serology tests through ELISA method. Results: The results of the experiments for evaluating the existence of HTLV-I in 51 patients under study in this research were proved to be negative. Conclusion: According to this pilot study, the distribution of HTLV-I in CLL patients is not higher than normal population.

Pezeshkpoor, Fakhrozaman; Rezaei, Seyed Abdol Rahim; Shirdel, Abbas; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Mansoreh; Yazdanpanah, Mohammad Javad

2013-01-01

289

Association Between HTLV-I Infection with Chronic Lupoid Leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Objective(s): One of the different types of skin leishmaniasis is the Chronic Lupoid Leishmaniasis (CLL), which is caused by abnormal immune response. On the other hand, HTLV-I has been known to exist in some infectious diseases. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type1 (HTLV-I) and cutanous leishmaniasis exists endemically in Mashhad. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HTLV-I in CLL patients. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study involved 51 CLL patients admitted to cutaneous leishmaniasis clinics of Ghaem and Imam Reza hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. The blood samples were examined for serology tests through ELISA method. Results: The results of the experiments for evaluating the existence of HTLV-I in 51 patients under study in this research were proved to be negative. Conclusion: According to this pilot study, the distribution of HTLV-I in CLL patients is not higher than normal population. PMID:24470878

Pezeshkpoor, Fakhrozaman; Rezaei, Seyed Abdol Rahim; Shirdel, Abbas; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Mansoreh; Yazdanpanah, Mohammad Javad

2013-03-01

290

Canine Cytogenetics - From band to basepair  

PubMed Central

Humans and dogs have coexisted for thousands of years, during which time we have developed a unique bond, centered on companionship. Along the way, we have developed purebred dog breeds in a manner that has resulted unfortunately in many of them being affected by serious genetic disorders, including cancers. With serendipity and irony the unique genetic architecture of the 21st Century genome of Man's best friend may ultimately provide many of the keys to unlock some of nature's most intriguing biological puzzles. Canine cytogenetics has advanced significantly over the past 10 years, spurred on largely by the surge of interest in the dog as a biomedical model for genetic disease and the availability of advanced genomics resources. As such the role of canine cytogenetics has moved rapidly from one that served initially to define the gross genomic organization of the canine genome and provide a reliable means to determine the chromosomal location of individual genes, to one that enabled the assembled sequence of the canine genome to be anchored to the karyotype. Canine cytogenetics now presents the biomedical research community with a means to assist in our search for a greater understanding of how genome architectures altered during speciation and in our search for genes associated with cancers that affect both dogs and humans. The cytogenetics ‘toolbox’ for the dog is now loaded. This review aims to provide a summary of some of the recent advancements in canine cytogenetics.

Breen, Matthew

2008-01-01

291

Environmental Risk Factors for the Incidence of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Sub-Andean Zone of Colombia (Chaparral, Tolima)  

PubMed Central

Environmental risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis were investigated for the largest outbreak recorded in Colombia. The outbreak began in 2003 in Chaparral, and in the following five years produced 2,313 cases in a population of 56,228. Candidate predictor variables were land use, elevation, and climatic variables such as mean temperature and precipitation. Spatial analysis showed that incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was higher in townships with mean temperatures in the middle of the county's range. Incidence was independently associated with higher coverage with forest or shrubs (2.6% greater for each additional percent coverage, 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.5–4.9%), and lower population density (22% lower for each additional 100 persons/km2, 95% CI = 7–41%). The extent of forest or shrub coverage did not show major changes over time. These findings confirmed the roles of climate and land use in leishmaniasis transmission. However, environmental variables were not sufficient to explain the spatial variation in incidence.

Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Ferro, Cristina; Cadena, Horacio; Marin, Dairo; Holford, Theodore R.; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.

2010-01-01

292

Report of the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) consortium meeting, New Delhi, India, 27-29 June 2012  

PubMed Central

Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a neglected complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)?a deadly, infectious disease that claims approximately 20,000 to 40,000 lives every year. PKDL is thought to be a reservoir for transmission of VL, thus, adequate control of PKDL plays a key role in the ongoing effort to eliminate VL. Over the past few years, several expert meetings have recommended that a greater focus on PKDL was needed, especially in South Asia. This report summarizes the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Consortium Meeting held in New Delhi, India, 27–29 June 2012. The PKDL Consortium is committed to promote and facilitate activities that lead to better understanding of all aspects of PKDL that are needed for improved clinical management and to achieve control of PKDL and VL. Fifty clinicians, scientists, policy makers, and advocates came together to discuss issues relating to PKDL epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and control. Colleagues who were unable to attend participated during drafting of the consortium meeting report.

2013-01-01

293

Bone Marrow Negative Visceral Leishmaniasis in an Adolescent Male  

PubMed Central

Visceral Leishmaniasis or Kala Azar is endemic in certain regions of India. In endemic areas, the constellation of fever, progressive weight loss, weakness, pronounced splenomegaly, anemia, leukopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia is highly suggestive of visceral leishmaniasis. Demonstration of the parasite in liver, splenic or bone marrow aspirates is confirmatory. We present a case in which Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies were demonstrated on splenic aspirate. We were unable to demonstrate LD bodies on bone marrow aspiration.

Jetley, S; Rana, S; Khan, S; Zeeba, JS; Hassan, MJ; Kapoor, P

2013-01-01

294

Leishmaniasis treatment—a challenge that remains: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by flagellate protozoan Leishmania spp. and represents an emergent illness with high morbidity and mortality in the tropics and subtropics. Since the discovery\\u000a of the first drugs for Leishmaniasis treatment (i.e., pentavalent antimonials), until the current days, the search for substances\\u000a with antileishmanial activity, without toxic effects, and able to overcome the emergence of drug

Dilvani O. Santos; Carlos E. R. Coutinho; Maria F. Madeira; Carolina G. Bottino; Rodrigo T. Vieira; Samara B. Nascimento; Alice Bernardino; Saulo C. Bourguignon; Suzana Corte-Real; Rosa T. Pinho; Carlos Rangel Rodrigues; Helena C. Castro

2008-01-01

295

Polymorphism in Tumor Necrosis Factor Genes Associated with Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent studies have shown that mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), a severe and debilitating form of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis infection, is accompanied by high circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-oL. Analysis of TNF polymorphisms in Venezuelan ACL patients and endemic unaffected controls demonstrates a high relative risk (RR) of 7.5 (P <0.001) of MCL disease

Maira Cabrera; Marie-Anne Shaw; Claire Sharpies; Hazel Williams; Marianella Castes; Jacinto Convit; Jenefer M. Blackwell

296

Therapeutic Enhancement of Protective Immunity during Experimental Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLeishmaniasis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Available therapies are problematic due to toxicity, treatment duration and emerging drug resistance. Mouse models of leishmaniasis have demonstrated that disease outcome depends critically on the balance between effector and regulatory CD4+ T cell responses, something mirrored in descriptive studies of human disease. Recombinant IL-2\\/diphtheria toxin fusion protein

Senad Divanovic; Aurelien Trompette; Jamie I. Ashworth; Marepalli B. Rao; Christopher L. Karp

2011-01-01

297

Sex Hormones and Modulation of Immunity against Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Sex-associated hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and progesterone have all been shown to modulate immune responses, which can result in differential disease outcomes between males and females, as well as between pregnant and nonpregnant females. Most parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis, usually result in more severe disease in males compared with females. This review highlights our current knowledge concerning the role of sex hormones in modulating leishmaniasis in both clinical settings and experimental disease models.

Snider, Heidi; Lezama-Davila, Claudio; Alexander, James; Satoskar, Abhay R.

2009-01-01

298

Therapeutic options for old world cutaneous leishmaniasis and new world cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Estimated worldwide incidence of tegumentary leishmaniasis (cutaneous leishmaniasis [CL] and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis [MCL]) is over 1.5 million cases per year in 82 countries, with 90 % of cases occurring in Afghanistan, Brazil, Iran, Peru, Saudi Arabia and Syria. Current treatments of CL are poorly justified and have sub-optimal effectiveness. Treatment can be based on topical or systemic regimens. These different options must be based on Leishmania species, geographic regions, and clinical presentations. In certain cases of Old World CL (OWCL), lesions can spontaneously heal without any need for therapeutic intervention. Local therapies (thermotherapy, cryotherapy, paromomycin ointment, local infiltration with antimonials) are good options with less systemic toxicity, reserving systemic treatments (azole drugs, miltefosine, antimonials, amphotericin B formulations) mainly for complex cases. The majority of New World CL (NWCL) types require systemic treatment (mainly with pentavalent antimonials), either to speed the healing or to prevent dissemination to oral-nasal mucosa as MCL (NWMCL). These types of lesions are potentially serious and always require systemic-based regimens, mainly antimonials and pentamidine; however, the associated immunotherapy is promising. This paper is an exhaustive review of the published literature on the treatment of OWCL, NWCL and NWMCL, and provides treatment recommendations stratified according to their level of evidence regarding the species of Leishmania implicated and the geographical location of the infection. PMID:24170665

Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio

2013-11-01

299

Prolonged ambulatory canine colonic motility.  

PubMed

Canine gastrointestinal motility is studied at present in animals confined to a small cage or sling. The aims of this study were to record colonic activity over a 24-h period in eight dogs by an ambulatory method. Motility signals from implanted strain gauges were processed and stored via a portable battery-operated amplifier and digital recorder housed in a jacket. Ambulant interdigestive activity was the same as observed in laboratory experiments, with migrating colonic motor complexes (CMCs) and infrequent giant contractions (GCs). Feeding caused a multiphasic alteration in motility for 582.1 +/- 18.1 min (mean +/- SE). There were four distinct phases. During the "early" (0-2 h) postprandial period, phase 1 (mean duration: 55.1 +/- 4.0 min), which was distinguished by CMCs of high frequency and elevated amplitude in the proximal colon, and phase 2 (78.2 +/- 6.2 min), which had CMC characteristics similar to those in the interdigestive period, occurred. Phase 3 (218.8 +/- 13.6 min), a further period of increased motility, and phase 4 (339.1 +/- 14.0 min), characterized by low-amplitude long-duration CMCs, occurred during the "late" (2 h onward) postprandial response. With the exception of phase 3, postprandial phases were not always present following food intake, and their expression was markedly influenced by variations in meal time and by defecation immediately following feeding. Spontaneous defecation was characterized by a variety of motor profiles, with a GC accompanying two-thirds of episodes. We conclude that a more complete picture of canine colonic motility has been documented because of the development of the ambulatory system. PMID:7733290

Scott, S M; Pilot, M A; Barnett, T G; Williams, N S

1995-04-01

300

Transmission assembly  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a transmission assembly. It comprises a first automatic transmission having a forward end adapted to be coupled to an internal combustion engine and a rearward end, the first automatic transmission including a drive shaft; a second automatic transmission having a forward end and a rearward end, and including a stator plate having a forward portion and a rearward portion. The stator plate located adjacent the forward end of the second automatic transmission, the drive shaft connecting the first automatic transmission in driving relation with the second automatic transmission; a coupling plate for connecting the rearward end of the first automatic transmission with the forward end of the second automatic transmission. The coupling plate rotatably supporting the drive shaft; and means for providing communication of pressurized transmission fluid between the first and second automatic transmissions.

Klazura, K.

1990-08-28

301

[The species composition and epidemiological significance of mosquitoes (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in the foci of visceral leishmaniasis in the Papsky District, Namangan Region, Uzbekistan].  

PubMed

In 2008, mosquito observations were made in 4 populated areas of the Papsky District, Namangan Region, Uzbekistan (Fergana Valley), where visceral leishmaniasis cases had been registered. The mosquitoes were caught in Oltinkan, Gulistan, Chodak, and Chorkesar in July and in Oltinkan in September. A total of 7245 mosquitoes were caught in the living and utility premises during the observation period. The mosquito fauna of this focus was found to represent 10 species: P. papatasi, P. sergenti, P. alexandri, P. caucasicus, P. nuri, P. keshishiani, P. angustus, P. longiductus, S. grecovi, and S. sumbarica. It also contained P. papatasi, a vehicle for transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, P. sergenti, an anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis vehicle, and P. longiductus, a visceral leishmaniasis one. The major site of hatching and habitat for mosquitoes were utility premises for large and small cattle. A polymerase chain reaction was used to determine mosquito infestation with L. infantum. A total of 38 female pools of 5 species: P. papatasi, P. sergenti, P. keshishiani, P. angustus, and P. longiductus were tested. Testing of female mosquitoes for L. infantum yielded a negative result. PMID:23088148

Ponirovski?, E N; Zhirenkina, E N; Strelkova, M V; Baranets, M S; Fatullaeva, A A; Ponomareva, V I; Kovalenko, D A; Nasyrova, R M; Razakov, Sh A; Shonian, G

2012-01-01

302

[Therapy of leishmaniasis in France: consensus on proposed guidelines].  

PubMed

Because it relies on potentially toxic, difficult-to-handle, or expensive compounds the therapy of leishmaniasis is still a complex issue in 2010, especially for visceral leishmaniasis in immuno-suppressed subjects, or in patients with cutaneous and mucosal involvement. This induces a wide diversity of observed therapeutic practices, some being sub-optimal. The Société de Pathologie Exotique organised a meeting dedicated to the therapy of leishmaniasis in France that led to the first consensus on therapeutic guidelines. Liposomal amphotericin B is the first-line option for visceral leishmaniasis both in immunocompetent, and immunosuppressed patients (cumulated doses of 20 mg/kg and 30-40 mg/kg, respectively). Secondary prophylaxis with either liposomal amphotericin B, pentamidine or meglumine antimoniate is proposed to patients with heavy immunosuppression until immunity has been restored for at least 6 months. While the efficacy of new topical formulations of paromomycin is being tested, patients with Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis may be left untreated, or be administered a combination of superficial cryotherapy plus intralesional antimony, or even--in complex situations--receive systemic therapy. The efficacy of a short course of pentamidine (L. guyanensis/L. panamensis) and a 20-day schedule of meglumine antimoniate (L. braziliensis) is solidly established. However, in well-defined situations, local therapy of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis is now considered acceptable. PMID:21106333

Buffet, Pierre A; Rosenthal, Éric; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Lightburne, Edward; Couppié, Pierre; Morizot, Gloria; Lachaud, Laurence; Marty, Pierre; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

2011-02-01

303

Avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus circulating in farmed dogs in Guangdong, China.  

PubMed

Since 2006, more and more cases of the infectious H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) in pet dogs have been reported in Southern China. However, little is known about the prevalence situation of H3N2 CIV infections in farmed dogs in China. This is the first systematic epidemiological surveillance of CIV in different dog populations in Southern China. Two virus strains A/Canine/Guangdong/1/2011(H3N2) and A/canine/Guangdong/5/2011(H3N2) were isolated from canine nasal swabs collected at one dog farm in Guangzhou and the other farm in Shenzhen. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of eight gene segments of these viruses revealed that they were most similar to the newly isolated canine H3N2 viruses in dogs and cats from Korea and China, which originated from avian strain. This indicates that H3N2 CIV may be a common pathogen for pet and farmed dog populations in Southern China at present. Serological surveillance has shown that the infection rate of this avian-origin canine influenza in farmed dogs and in pet dogs were 12.22% and 5.3%, respectively; as determined by the ELISA. The data also suggested that transmission occurred, most probably by close contact, between H3N2 CIV infected dogs in different dog populations in recently years. As H3N2 outbreaks among dogs continue in the Guangdong Province (located very close to Hong Kong), the areas where is densely populated and with frequent animal trade, there is a continued risk for pet H3N2 CIV infections and for mutations or genetic reassortment leading to new virus strains with increased transmissibility among dogs. Further in-depth study is required as the H3N2 CIV has been established in different dog populations and posed potential threat to public health. PMID:24298574

Su, Shuo; Chen, Ye; Zhao, Fu-Rong; Chen, Ji-Dang; Xie, Jie-Xiong; Chen, Zhong-Ming; Huang, Zhen; Hu, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Min-Ze; Tan, Li-Kai; Zhang, Gui-Hong; Li, Shou-Jun

2013-10-01

304

Serologic survey for canine coronavirus in wolves from Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolves (Canis lupus) were captured in three areas of Interior Alaska (USA). Four hundred twenty-five sera were tested for evidence of exposure to canine coronavirus by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody procedure. Serum antibody prevalence averaged 70% (167/ 240) during the spring collection period and 25% (46/185) during the autumn collection period. Prevalence was 0% (0/42) in the autumn pup cohort (age 4-5 mo), and 60% (58/97) in the spring pup cohort (age 9-10 mo). Prevalence was lowest in the Eastern Interior study area. A statistical model indicates that prevalence increased slightly each year in all three study areas. These results indicate that transmission occurs primarily during the winter months, antibody decay is quite rapid, and reexposure during the summer is rare.

Zarnke, R. L.; Evermann, J.; Ver, Hoef, J. M.; McNay, M. E.; Boertje, R. D.; Gardner, C. L.; Adams, L. G.; Dale, B. W.; Burch, J.

2001-01-01

305

Dilated Canine Hearts: A Specimen For Teaching Cardiac Anatomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an alternate mechanism for teaching cardiovascular anatomy using dilated canine hearts. The article describes the methodology and academic benefits of using canine hearts in an anatomy laboratory.

Dr. Lee Anne Cope (Winthrop University)

2008-09-01

306

9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...113.300 and the requirements prescribed in this section. (1) To detect ferret virulent canine distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of the Master Seed Virus equivalent to...

2010-01-01

307

9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...113.300 and the requirements prescribed in this section. (1) To detect ferret virulent canine distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of the Master Seed Virus equivalent to...

2009-01-01

308

Isolation and characterization of canine factor IX.  

PubMed

Canine plasma factor IX was purified to homogeneity by a combination of barium citrate precipitation and three-step column chromatographies of DEAE sepharose, heparin agarose and a monoclonal antifactor IX antibody-linked agarose. Canine factor IX has an apparent molecular size of 61 kDa, which is slightly smaller than that of human factor IX, as determined by denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its amino acid composition, amino-terminal and carboxyterminal amino acid sequences agreed well with those predicted from the reported cDNA. Unlike purified human factor IX, canine factor IX preparation often showed a discrete smaller molecular species (approximately 50 kDa) which was generated by a specific proteolytic cleavage between Arg310 and Val311. When purified canine factor IX was utilized as a standard for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, the concentration of canine factor IX in the pooled normal dog plasma was determined to be 5.3 micrograms/ml with 11.2% carbohydrate content (or 4.7 micrograms/ml for its polypeptide chain moiety). Concentration of plasma factor IX antigen was measured in six severely affected, unrelated hemophilia B dogs. Four had factor IX antigen of less than 1% of the normal, and two had undetectable levels. The latter two had gross molecular abnormalities in their factor IX genes. Three obligate carrier females had variable but proportionately reduced factor IX antigen and factor IX coagulant activity levels. These results provide a quantitative method for measuring canine factor IX antigen which is a prerequisite for studying hemostasis and development of gene transfer approaches in the canine model of hemophilia B. PMID:8701406

Sugahara, Y; Catalfamo, J; Brooks, M; Hitomi, E; Bajaj, S P; Kurachi, K

1996-03-01

309

Cutaneous leishmaniasis of the Old World.  

PubMed

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoal infection of the skin. Several species of Leishmania cause this disease in the Old World. It is manifested as chronic nodular to ulcerative lesions of the skin, which last for many months and may be disfiguring. They eventually heal leaving a scar. Local care of the lesion and treatment of secondary bacterial infection are essential for healing. Antileishmania therapy is indicated in immunocompromised hosts, patients with progressive, multiple, or critically located lesions. Pentavalent antimony compounds remain the main therapeutic option for all species. They are given intravenously (i.v.), intramuscularly (i.m.), or intralesionally. Cryotherapy, and some systemic antifungal agents have been used successfully. Oral azoles are promising new treatments for lesions caused by L. Major. Several other alternatives and their evidence are also presented. PMID:12728282

Alrajhi, A A

2003-02-01

310

Visceral leishmaniasis in immunosuppressed Caucasian patient  

PubMed Central

A 64-year-old man was admitted with fever, weight loss, fatigue and night sweats. He was known to have rheumatoid arthritis and had been taking methotrexate for 1 year. He had worked in Saudi Arabia until 1994 and had been living in Spain for 6 months every year. Clinical examination showed an enlarged spleen. Routine investigations showed pancytopaenia. Serial blood cultures were negative. CT scan confirmed splenomegaly and was otherwise unremarkable. Bone marrow biopsy revealed Leishmania amastigote consistent with a diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. After discussing with the hospital for tropical diseases (HTD), he was started on liposomal amphotericin B. Following two infusions of amphotericin B, he started improving as his fever, night sweats and weakness had settled. He was then discharged and followed up in HTD clinic 4 weeks later where he was found to be consistently improving.

TOQEER, Muhammad; Rahman, Nadeem; Whitehead, Mark W; Lockwood, Diana

2012-01-01

311

Autoimmune manifestations in patients with visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne protozoal infection caused by replication of Leishmania species in macrophages. VL is characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly and cytopenia. Apart from those classic clinical characteristics, VL has been associated with autoimmune clinical and laboratory features. Reported herein are 16 consecutive patients with VL who were checked for laboratory autoimmune manifestations. A variety of autoimmune antibodies including elevated titers of antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor were detected in all patients. Of note, no laboratory autoimmune manifestations were detected in the seven patients who were re-evaluated 3 months after therapy. It is concluded that autoimmune laboratory manifestations during VL infection are common. These may mistakenly lead to diagnosis of an autoimmune disorder. PMID:22516744

Liberopoulos, Evangelos; Kei, Anastazia; Apostolou, Fotini; Elisaf, Moses

2013-08-01

312

Bacterial superinfection in Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is a polymorphic disease. It is generally accepted that bacterial superinfection may play a role in the clinical appearance of the lesions and may delay or prevent the healing process. However, the pattern of bacterial pathogens involved has rarely been investigated. Material/Methods The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species contaminating the suspected ZCL and their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. Microscopic examination of stained smears and cultures were used to differentiate ZCL from non-ZCL lesions in a rural area north of Isfahan, Iran from July to December 2009. Bacteria were isolated from the lesions and identified and antibiotic susceptibility was determined by standard microbiological techniques. Results The results show that 602 (68%) of 855 patients were positive for ZCL, of which 83.4% with volcano-shape, 8.8% psoriasiform, 6.6% popular form and 1.2% with other atypical forms of ZCL. The bacteria were isolated from 66.8% of ZCL (70% of volcano-shape, 60% of psoriasiform and 25% of popular form) and 64.7% of non-ZCL lesions. The most common species were Staphylococcus aureus (41.7%) and S. epidermidis (28%) followed by Bacillus sp. Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., Enterobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Cefazolin and Clindamycin were the most effective antibiotics. Conclusions Bacterial superinfection appears to be very common in ZCL, but its prevalence is not different from that of non-ZCL lesions and it has little effect on the clinical appearance of anthroponotic cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL). Local lesion care and management of bacterial superinfection must be considered in the treatment of ZCL.

Doudi, Monir; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Narimani, Manizheh

2012-01-01

313

Selection against canine hip dysplasia: Success or failure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a multifactorial skeletal disorder which is very common in pedigree dogs and represents a huge concern for canine welfare. Control schemes based on selective breeding have been in operation for decades. The aim of these schemes is to reduce the impact of CHD on canine welfare by selecting for reduced radiographic evidence of CHD pathology

Bethany Wilson; Frank W. Nicholas; Peter C. Thomson

2011-01-01

314

Hypocretin Levels in Sporadic and Familial Cases of Canine Narcolepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial and sporadic forms of narcolepsy exist in both humans and canines. Mutations in the hypocretin receptor 2 gene (Hcrtr 2) cause canine familial narcolepsy. In humans, mutations in hypocretin-related genes are rare, but cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 is undetectable in most sporadic cases. Using the canine model, we investigated (1) whether hypocretin deficiency is involved in sporadic cases and

Beth Ripley; Nobuhiro Fujiki; Mutsumi Okura; Emmanuel Mignot; Seiji Nishino

2001-01-01

315

Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction  

PubMed Central

Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historical field data for wildlife, with important implications for disease control in dog populations. Here, we examine historical and more recent field data, in the context of host ecology and epidemic theory, to understand better the role of density in rabies transmission and the reasons why culling fails to control rabies. We conclude that the relationship between host density, disease incidence and other factors is complex and may differ between species. This highlights the difficulties of interpreting field data and the constraints of extrapolations between species, particularly in terms of control policies. We also propose that the complex interactions between dogs and people may render culling of free-roaming dogs ineffective irrespective of the relationship between host density and disease incidence. We conclude that vaccination is the most effective means to control rabies in all species.

Morters, Michelle K; Restif, Olivier; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Wood, James L N; Conlan, Andrew J K

2013-01-01

316

Peridomiciliary Breeding Sites of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in areas modified by humans indicates that phlebotomine sand fly vectors breed close to human habitations. Potential peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomines were sampled in an area of transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil. Three concentric circles rounding houses and domestic animal shelters, with radii of 20, 40, and 60 m, defined the area to be monitored using adult emergence traps. Of the 67 phlebotomines collected, Lutzomyia intermedia comprised 71.6%; Lutzomyia schreiberi, 20.9%; and Lutzomyia migonei, 4.5%. The predominance of L. intermedia, the main species suspected of transmitting L. (V.) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil, indicates its participation in the domiciliary transmission of ACL, providing evidence that the domiciliary ACL transmission cycle might be maintained by phlebotomines that breed close to human habitations. This finding might also help in planning measures that would make the peridomiciliary environment less favorable for phlebotomine breeding sites.

Vieira, Vivaldo Pim; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Biral dos Santos, Claudiney; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Falqueto, Aloisio

2012-01-01

317

Peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in areas modified by humans indicates that phlebotomine sand fly vectors breed close to human habitations. Potential peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomines were sampled in an area of transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil. Three concentric circles rounding houses and domestic animal shelters, with radii of 20, 40, and 60 m, defined the area to be monitored using adult emergence traps. Of the 67 phlebotomines collected, Lutzomyia intermedia comprised 71.6%; Lutzomyia schreiberi, 20.9%; and Lutzomyia migonei, 4.5%. The predominance of L. intermedia, the main species suspected of transmitting L. (V.) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil, indicates its participation in the domiciliary transmission of ACL, providing evidence that the domiciliary ACL transmission cycle might be maintained by phlebotomines that breed close to human habitations. This finding might also help in planning measures that would make the peridomiciliary environment less favorable for phlebotomine breeding sites. PMID:23091196

Vieira, Vivaldo Pim; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Biral dos Santos, Claudiney; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Falqueto, Aloísio

2012-12-01

318

WIDESPREAD ATYPICAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BY LEISHMANIA(L.) CHAGASI IN NICARAGUA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leishmania chagasi, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, has recently been associated with atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Central America; however, little comprehensive information about this disease is available. Clinical, epidemiologic, and parasitologic characteristics of 252 ACL cases and 44 VL cases in Nicaragua were analyzed. Visceral leishmaniasis is primarily associated with malnourished children less than

ALEJANDRO BELLI; DAVID GARCIA; XIOMARA PALACIOS; SONIA VALLE; ELSA VIDEA; ENA TINOCO; FRANCISCA MARIN; EVA HARRIS

1999-01-01

319

Successful treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with lipid formulations of amphotericin B in two immunocompromised patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentavalent antimonial drugs are habitually the first choice for treating leishmaniasis, although they possess well-known toxicity and may present some therapeutic failure. Lipid formulations of amphotericin B (LFAB) have been increasingly used for treating several types of leishmaniasis. However, the administration of such lipid formulations specifically to patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is still rare, including immunocompromised patients to whom

Valdir S. Amato; Ana Rabello; Alexandre Rotondo-Silva; Adriana Kono; Tânia Patrícia H. Maldonado; Isabel C. Alves; Lucile M. Floeter-Winter; Vicente Amato Neto; Maria Aparecida Shikanai-Yasuda

2004-01-01

320

Immunologic Observations in Canine Interstitial Nephritis  

PubMed Central

Immunofluorescence studies in cases of chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN) in the dog demonstrated deposition of canine IgC and C'3 in the thickened capillary walls of the glomeruli and in the mesangium. Eluates obtained from the nephritic kidneys contained antibodies of IgG type and reacted with autologous or homologous nephritic kidneys but not with normal kidneys or with any normal canine tissue. The staining pattern of fluorescein-conjugated eluates was similar to that obtained with anti-canine IgG or anti-canine C'3. The eluates did not contain leptospiral antibodies. The findings indicate that complement-fixing immune complexes are deposited in the damaged glomeruli in CIN. The nature of the antigen involved in these complexes is unknown, but it does not seem to be a component of normal canine tissue and could thus be viral or bacterial. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4

Krohn, Kai; Mero, Matti; Oksanen, Aili; Sandholm, Markus

1971-01-01

321

Transmigration of mandibular canine - case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. Results The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation.

Gruszka, Katarzyna; Rozylo, T. Katarzyna; Rozylo-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Denkiewicz, Katarzyna; Maslowska, Klaudia

2014-01-01

322

Evaluation of cleaving agents other than trypsin in direct agglutination test for further improving diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed Central

Trypsin treatment of Leishmania promastigote antigen has proved to be indispensible in the direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). In the present study four antigen batches were prepared with pronase (400 micrograms/ml), lipase (0.45% [wt/vol]), pancreatin (0.3% [wt/vol]), or 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) (1.2% [vol/vol]) at a ratio of 20:1 versus promastigote packed cell volume or a density of 10(8)/ml. Batches prepared in this way performed satisfactorily when compared with the performance of the initial trypsinated antigen. Even higher was the sensitivity and specificity of the 2-ME-processed antigen, scoring a minimum DAT titer of 1:102,400 in the VL and CVL group and a maximum of 1:400 in the negative control group. Corresponding titers ranging from 1:6,400 to 1:12,800 and 1:800 to 1:1,600 were obtained with the antigen variants processed with pronase, lipase, pancreatin, or trypsin. By combining the use of indigenous Leishmania donovani subspecies from Sudan, Bangladesh, or Morocco and incorporating 2-ME instead of trypsin in the antigen processing step, a threefold increase in titer was attained in sera from the respective areas where VL is endemic. 2-ME-processed antigen suspensions maintained stability at 4 degrees C for up to 9 months, as evidenced by the absence of autoagglutination and the reproducibility of DAT readings with standard sera. The specificity of DAT was further improved by supplementation of the sample diluent with 0.03 M urea and incubation of the test plates at 37 degrees C for 1 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

el Harith, A; Chowdhury, S; al-Masum, A; Semiao-Santos, S; Karim, E; el-Safi, S; Haque, I

1995-01-01

323

Conditions associated with canine hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

Careful review of the literature regarding clinical signs caused by hypothyroidism in dogs has shown that some assumptions regarding the relation of hypothyroidism to other conditions are based on anecdotal evidence. Cutaneous manifestations are present in most hypothyroid dogs, but the specific abnormalities and breed variations remain to be clearly defined. Decreased metabolic rate manifested by obesity and lethargy is also common. Neurologic manifestations, although uncommon, clearly occur in hypothyroid dogs. Cardiac abnormalities seem to be common, but their clinical significance is questionable. The only consistent hematologic abnormality that occurs in hypothyroid dogs is anemia; evidence for acquired von Willebrand's disease or other bleeding disorders is negligible. Reproductive dysfunction secondary to hypothyroidism is unlikely to occur in male dogs, and there is no evidence to support abnormalities in female dogs. The relation of megaesophagus, laryngeal paralysis, ocular abnormalities, and gastrointestinal disorders with hypothyroidism remains to be established. Future research into canine hypothyroidism may serve to convert dogma into a more clear understanding of the manifestations and pathophysiologic findings of this common endocrinopathy. PMID:11570133

Panciera, D L

2001-09-01

324

Biomarkers in canine inflammatory bowel disease diagnostics.  

PubMed

Canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a heterogeneous group of chronic gastrointestinal disorders. The etiology, similar to human IBD, remains unknown. Canine IBD is diagnosed by exclusion, which is a long, time and money-consuming process due to the need of elimination of other diseases presenting with similar symptoms. Therefore, a search for a specific and sensitive marker is needed to overcome these difficulties. The article is divided into 3 sections presenting up-to-date information about laboratory markers, immunohistochemical markers and changes in the neurochemical coding of the enteric nervous system, concentrating on their usefulness and future applications. Data concerning laboratory and immunohistochemical markers is based mainly on canine IBD, while the neuroimmunohistochemistry section presents knowledge from human IBD due to the lack of such studies in veterinary medicine. PMID:24195302

Wdowiak, M; Rychlik, A; Ko?odziejska-Sawerska, A

2013-01-01

325

Shingles Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Transmission Español: Transmisión Shingles cannot be passed from one ... Prevention & Treatment Related Pages Preventing Varicella Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Images and logos on this ...

326

AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

327

Reliability of mandibular canines as indicators for sexual dichotomy.  

PubMed

Introduction: Amongst the various calcified structures in the human body, teeth have gained lot of popularity in estimating the sex of an individual as they are highly resistant to destruction and decomposition. Using permanent mandibular canines many researchers have predicted a high level of accuracy in identifying the sex correctly. The purpose of our study was to gauge the effectiveness of mandibular canines in discerning sex. Materials & Methods: Fifty dental casts each of males and females were utilized for the study. Mesio-distal dimension and inter-canine distance of mandibular right and left canine was recorded using digital vernier caliper and mandibular canine index was calculated. Results: The mean value of mesio-distal dimensions of right and left mandibular canine was slightly greater in males compared to females. The mandibular canine index was equal in both sexes. Inter-canine distance was marginally higher in males compared to females. Despite of higher values in males none of the parameters were statistically significant. Conclusion: The results herein bolster contemporary studies that mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines and mandibular canine index do not reflect sexual dimorphism and that its application should be discontinued in sex prediction among Indian populations. How to cite this article: Hosmani J V, Nayak R S, Kotrashetti V S, Pradeep S, Babji D. Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):1-7. PMID:24155571

Hosmani, Jagadish V; Nayak, Ramakant S; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; S, Pradeep; Babji, Deepa

2013-02-01

328

Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Amongst the various calcified structures in the human body, teeth have gained lot of popularity in estimating the sex of an individual as they are highly resistant to destruction and decomposition. Using permanent mandibular canines many researchers have predicted a high level of accuracy in identifying the sex correctly. The purpose of our study was to gauge the effectiveness of mandibular canines in discerning sex. Materials & Methods: Fifty dental casts each of males and females were utilized for the study. Mesio-distal dimension and inter-canine distance of mandibular right and left canine was recorded using digital vernier caliper and mandibular canine index was calculated. Results: The mean value of mesio-distal dimensions of right and left mandibular canine was slightly greater in males compared to females. The mandibular canine index was equal in both sexes. Inter-canine distance was marginally higher in males compared to females. Despite of higher values in males none of the parameters were statistically significant. Conclusion: The results herein bolster contemporary studies that mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines and mandibular canine index do not reflect sexual dimorphism and that its application should be discontinued in sex prediction among Indian populations. How to cite this article: Hosmani J V, Nayak R S, Kotrashetti V S, Pradeep S, Babji D. Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):1-7.

Hosmani, Jagadish V; Nayak, Ramakant S; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; S, Pradeep; Babji, Deepa

2013-01-01

329

Canine hematopoietic tumors: diagnosis, treatment and complications  

SciTech Connect

Canine hematopoietic tumors constitute a group of neoplasms that are frequently encountered in veterinary practice. Although common, they are also a diagnostically confusing group of tumors due to continued revision of their definition and classification. The confusion that arises from these changes presents the clinician with a perpetual challenge of diagnosis and therapy. Therapy of canine hematopoietic tumors has traditionally evolved from treatment of human patients with similar diseases, and in turn, these neoplasms have served as models for evaluating newer therapies for possible application in human patients. Methods of treatment have included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hyperthermia. 9 tabs.

Weller, R.E.

1986-02-01

330

Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer.

Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S.; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A.

2014-01-01

331

Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis resembling borderline-tuberculoid leprosy: a new clinical presentation?  

PubMed

Both cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis are endemic in Northern Ethiopia. The different clinical presentations depend on the responsible organism and the host's immune response. Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis is the type most frequently seen. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis is relatively rare and usually associated with mucous membrane involvement. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis presents with multiple lesions, can be difficult to diagnose and responds less favourably to treatment. We report here 2 patients with unusual presentations of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis presenting with large hypopigmented skin lesions mimicking borderline-tuberculoid leprosy. To our knowledge this presentation has not been described before and may present difficulties in making a definite diagnosis in regions where both leprosy and cutaneous leishmaniasis are endemic. Lepromatous leprosy and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are regularly confused, particularly when no skin smears for acid-fast bacillus or Leishman-Donovan bodies are performed. PMID:22434112

Dassoni, Federica; Abebe, Zerihun; Naafs, Bernard; Morrone, Aldo

2013-01-01

332

The seroprevalence of canine respiratory coronavirus and canine influenza virus in dogs in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To determine whether canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) and canine influenza virus (CIV) are present in dogs in New Zealand.METHODS: Serum samples from 251 dogs of varying age, breed and clinical histories were tested for the presence of antibodies to CRCoV and CIV, using indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) analysis. The population sampled represented a wide geographic area but principally encompassed

O Knesl; FJ Allan; S Shields

2009-01-01

333

Old-world leishmaniasis presenting as a nasal mass.  

PubMed

Mucosal leishmaniasis is a major problem in Latin America but has been rarely noticed in our region. Although there have been a few reports of mucosal involvement especially in the oral cavity from Southwest Iran, yet none have been presented from the Northeast where Leishmania tropica is the major concern. We report a patient with endonasal leishmaniasis due to L. tropica, an extremely rare entity in immunocompetent patients in our region. He presented with a mass in the left nasal vestibule causing a sense of obstruction on the same side, accompanied by occasional rhinorrhea and mild epistaxis. This case exemplifies the need for considering leishmaniasis as a differential diagnosis for nasal obstruction in this endemic area. PMID:24685852

Bakhshaee, Mahdi; Shabani, Shahaboddin; Farzadnia, Mehdi; Shamsian, Seyed Aliakbar; Layegh, Pouran

2014-01-01

334

Determinants for the Development of Visceral Leishmaniasis Disease  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease associated with a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. Among the most important questions in Leishmania research is why some species like L. donovani infect visceral organs, whereas other species like L. major remain in the skin. The determinants of visceral leishmaniasis are still poorly understood, although genomic, immunologic, and animal models are beginning to provide important insight into this disease. In this review, we discuss the vector, host, and pathogen factors that mediate the development of visceral leishmaniasis. We examine the progression of the parasite from the initial site of sand fly bite to the visceral organs and its ability to survive there. The identification of visceral disease determinants is required to understand disease evolution, to understand visceral organ survival mechanisms, and potentially to develop better interventions for this largely neglected disease.

McCall, Laura-Isobel; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Matlashewski, Greg

2013-01-01

335

IL-17 Production in Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Interleukin 17 (IL-17) plays a critical role in inflammation and autoimmunity. Very little is known about IL-17 in protozoa infection. Here we show that lymphocytes from mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) produce higher levels of IL-17 than uninfected controls (UC) (p<0.01). There was a tendency for higher number of cells in tissue expressing IL-17 in ML than in CL and a direct correlation between number of cells expressing IL-17 and cellular inflammation at the lesion site (r2 = 0.86, p = 0.0001). This data gives support for the role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory reaction in leishmaniasis.

Bacellar, Olivia; Faria, Daniela; Nascimento, Marcia; Cardoso, Thiago M.; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.; Scott, Phillip; Carvalho, Edgar M.

2009-01-01

336

Lipsosomal Amphotericin B for Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Treatment options for cutaneous leishmaniasis in the United States are problematic because the available products are either investigational, toxic, and/or of questionable effectiveness. A retrospective review of patients receiving liposomal amphotericin B through the Walter Reed Army Medical Center for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis during 2007–2009 was conducted. Twenty patients who acquired disease in five countries and with five different strains of Leishmania were treated, of whom 19 received a full course of treatment. Sixteen (84%) of 19 experienced a cure with the initial treatment regimen. Three patients did not fully heal after an initial treatment course, but were cured with additional dosing. Acute infusion-related reactions occurred in 25% and mild renal toxicity occurred in 45% of patients. Although the optimum dosing regimen is undefined and the cost and toxicity may limit widespread use, liposomal amphotericin B is a viable treatment alternative for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Wortmann, Glenn; Zapor, Michael; Ressner, Roseanne; Fraser, Susan; Hartzell, Josh; Pierson, Joseph; Weintrob, Amy; Magill, Alan

2010-01-01

337

Reactivation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after Renal Transplantation: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 45-year-old man with reactivation of previously existing and subsiding cutaneous leishmaniasis on his wrist and lower leg (shin) after renal transplantation was admitted to our dermatology service on March 2008. He presented to us with two huge tumoral and cauliflower-like lesions. Skin smear and histopathology of skin showed leishman bodies and confirmed the diagnosis. After renal transplantation, he received cyclosporine plus prednisolone to induce immunosuppression and reduce the probability of transplant rejection. After immunosuppressive therapy, reactivation of cutaneous leishmaniasis with the above presentation took place. The patient responded to 800?mg/day intravenous sodium stibogluconate for 3 weeks plus local cryotherapy. Systemic plus local therapy along with reducing the doses of immunosuppressive drugs led to improvement of lesions. Reactivation of leishmaniasis after immunosuppression has been rarely reported.

Salehi, Mehrnaz; Kamyab, Kambiz

2014-01-01

338

Microalbuminuria and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Paediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania donovani, is a serious form of leishmaniasis and fatal if untreated. Nearly half of the VL cases are children. There are very few studies of renal function in pediatric visceral leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate renal dysfunction by studying glomerular filtration rate (GFR), microalbuminuria, and microscopic examination of urine. Laboratory analysis was performed on blood and urine samples of 40 parasitologically confirmed pediatric VL cases. Laboratory data of urine examination showed albuminuria in 10% (4/40), white blood cells in 20% (8/40), hematuria in 10% (4/40), microalbuminuria in 37.5% (15/40), and decreased GFR in 27.5% (11/40). Renal involvement was manifested in most of the pediatric VL cases. These findings may help clinicians in decision making for safe and suitable antileishmanial treatment particularly in childhood VL.

Verma, Neena; Lal, Chandra Shekhar; Rabidas, Vidyanand; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Dharmendra; Kumar, Sanjay; Verma, Rakesh Bihari; Das, Pradeep

2013-01-01

339

[Unusual presentation of visceral leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent patient].  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is endemic in Tunisia. The incidence in adult patients has increased in recent years; but most of these patients are not HIV positive as in other Mediterranean countries where all the cases are associated with HIV. We present the case of a woman with symptoms suggestive of leishmaniasis but whose bone marrow was sterile and whose serological tests for Leishmania spp. were negative. For this patient, the parasite was only detected in a routine duodenal biopsy. There are few reports of visceral leishmaniasis cases diagnosed by duodenal biopsy and almost all patients were HIV positive in that case. Thus it seems interesting to perform a duodenal biopsy in case of a difficult diagnostic even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms and/or HIV infection. PMID:16580803

Bel Haj Salah, M; Mekni, A; Khanfir, M; Bellil, K; Benhaha-Bellil, S; Chelly, I; Kchir, N; Haouet, S; Zitouna, M-M

2006-03-01

340

Canine adenovirus downstream processing protocol.  

PubMed

Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration. A Benzonase(®) digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38-45 %. PMID:24132487

Puig, Meritxell; Piedra, Jose; Miravet, Susana; Segura, María Mercedes

2014-01-01

341

Bibliometric analysis of leishmaniasis research in Medline (1945-2010)  

PubMed Central

Background Publications are often used as a measure of success of research work. Leishmaniasis is considered endemic in 98 countries, most of which are developing. This article describes a bibliometric review of the literature on leishmaniasis research indexed in PubMed during a 66-year period. Methods Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. The search strategy was Leishmania [MeSH] or leishmaniasis [MeSH] from 1 January 1945 until 31 December 2010. Neither language nor document type restrictions were employed. Results A total of 20,780 references were retrieved. The number of publications increased steadily over time, with 3,380 publications from 1945-1980 to 8,267 from 2001-2010. Leishmaniasis documents were published in 1,846 scientific journals, and Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (4.9%) was the top one. The USA was the predominant country by considering the first author’s institutional address (16.8%), followed by Brazil (14.9%), and then India (9.0%), however Brazil leads the scientific output in 2001-2010 period (18.5%), followed by the USA (13.5%) and India (10%). The production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalised by population (Israel and Switzerland), by gross domestic product (Nepal and Tunisia), and by gross national income per capita (India and Ethiopia). For geographical area, Europe led (31.7%), followed by Latin America (24.5%). Conclusions We have found an increase in the number of publications in the field of leishmaniasis. The USA and Brazil led scientific production on leishmaniasis research.

2013-01-01

342

American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species  

PubMed Central

We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama.

2014-01-01

343

American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species.  

PubMed

We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

Dutari, Larissa C; Loaiza, Jose R

2014-01-01

344

Outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Israel.  

PubMed

This study describes a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania tropica, in the Galilee region of northern Israel. Thirty-three cases from 4 villages (northern part) and from the city of Tiberias (southern part) have been clinically diagnosed since 1996. Parasites from 13 patients and from 6 sand flies were characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, 2 immunological methods, and 3 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Isolates from the northern part were antigenically similar to Leishmania major and were different from other L. tropica isolates, including those from the southern part of the focus. They belonged to a newly reported zymodeme and were separable from all known Israeli L. tropica isolates, by use of 2 different PCR-based methods. Five (5.2%) of 97 Phlebotomus (Adlerius) arabicus and 2 (1.2%) of 162 Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti females from the northern part of the focus were found to be infected with L. tropica. Three of 29 hyraxes (Procavia capensis) were positive for Leishmania ribosomal DNA. Thus, the northern part of this emerging focus of CL in Israel is distinct from all known L. tropica foci. P. arabicus is the main vector, and it transmits parasites that are different from other L. tropica isolates, with respect to antigenic, molecular, and biochemical parameters. PMID:14513429

Jacobson, Raymond L; Eisenberger, Carol L; Svobodova, Milena; Baneth, Gad; Sztern, Julia; Carvalho, Jorge; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; El Fari, Mustafa; Shalom, Uri; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Pratlong, Francine; Schonian, Gabriele; Schnur, Lionel F; Jaffe, Charles L; Warburg, Alon

2003-10-01

345

Visceral leishmaniasis: experimental models for drug discovery.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is a chronic protozoan infection in humans associated with significant global morbidity and mortality. The causative agent is a haemoflagellate protozoan Leishmania donovani, an obligate intracellular parasite that resides and multiplies within macrophages of the reticulo-endothelial system. Most of the existing anti-leishmanial drugs have serious side effects that limit their clinical application. As an alternate strategy, vaccination is also under experimental and clinical trials. The in vitro evaluation designed to facilitate rapid testing of a large number of drugs has been focussed on the promastigotes milt little attention on the clinically relevant parasite stage, amastigotes. Screening designed to closely reflect the situation in vivo is currently time consuming, laborious, and expensive, since it requires intracellular amastigotes and animal model. The ability to select transgenic Leishmania expressing reporter proteins, such as the green fluorescent proteins (GFP) or the luciferase opened up new possibilities for the development of drug screening models. Many experimental animal models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, but none accurately reproduces what happens in humans. Available in vitro and in vivo methodologies for antileishmanial drug screening and their respective advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. PMID:21321417

Gupta, Suman

2011-01-01

346

Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "? 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. PMID:23999330

Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

2013-12-01

347

[Visceral leishmaniasis in Central Asia and Kazakhstan].  

PubMed

At present sporadic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are encountered mainly in the natural foci. The natural foci of VL are situated mainly in valleys and foothills. In southern areas of the Turkmen SSR the majority of cases were registered in small settlements situated near wells in interbarkhan lowerings. The reservoir of pathogen here may be Vulpes vulpes and dogs and the most likely vector is Phlebotomus turanicus. In Kazakhstan cases of VL are encountered in the thickets of the Syr-Darya floodlands in Kzyl-Orda Province, where the natural reservoir of the pathogen are Canis aureus L. and Vulpes corsac, and the vector is P. smirnovi. Synanthropic foci in Dzhambul and Chimkent, where dogs were most likely the source of the infection and P. longiductus was the vector, are at present inactive. The maps have been plotted where landscape dissemination of mosquitoes (VL vectors) is compared to places of habitation of Canis aureus L. and VL incidence in humans at peaks of the disease endemia. Medical personnel should be on the look-out for VL on the whole territory with VL natural foci. PMID:2146471

Dergacheva, T I; Darchenkova, N N

1990-01-01

348

Leishmaniasis in the United States: Treatment in 2012  

PubMed Central

Although civilian physicians in the United States seldom encounter patients with leishmaniasis, therapeutic advances in endemic regions have opened the door to approaches that can be applied in this country. Advances revolve around the use of oral miltefosine in all forms of leishmaniasis and the use of short-course intravenous liposomal amphotericin B in visceral and possibly cutaneous infection. Lengthy, traditional intravenous treatment with pentavalent antimony (sodium stibogluconate) still has a role in the United States; however, although expensive, miltefosine and liposomal amphotericin B are considerably more appealing selections for initial therapy.

Murray, Henry W.

2012-01-01

349

Canine hip dysplasia, 2: Control and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractCanine hip dysplasia was first recognized 40 years ago (Schnelle, 1935) and since then it has been accepted as a common pathological condition of the coxofemoral joint. It is a disease that is characterized by an abnormal laxity of the joint which may or may not cause clinical signs of hind-limb lameness. Although it appears to be most prevalent in

T. J. Quinlan

1975-01-01

350

Intraabdominal mesh prosthesis in a canine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is still at an investigational stage, and varying methods have been described in the literature. These include the transabdominal preperitoneal approach, the intraperitoneal onlay mesh procedure, and the extraperitoneal approach. This study evaluates the differences in macroscopic adhesion formation between transabdominal preperitoneal mesh placement, intraperitoneal onlay mesh procedures, and extraperitoneal mesh placement in a canine model.

B. Schlechter; J. Marks; R. B. Shillingstad; J. L. Ponsky

1994-01-01

351

Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China  

PubMed Central

Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang

2011-01-01

352

DELINEATING TOXIC AREAS BY CANINE OLFACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A research project was undertaken to learn how the highly acute olfactory sensitivity of the canine could be applied with advantage to environmental problems. The objectives were to determine how dogs could be trained to detect hazardous and toxic pollutants in the environment an...

353

Case study in canine intestinal lymphangiectasia  

PubMed Central

Abstract A 9.52 kg, 9-year-old, spayed female beagle was presented with the chief complaint of abdominal distention of 1 week’s duration. A presumptive diagnosis of canine intestinal lymphangectasia was arrived at by exclusion of other causes for the patient’s ascites. The patient was successfully treated with dietary modification and immunosuppressive therapy.

2005-01-01

354

Remote detection of explosives using trained canines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of dogs is a search method which combines high probability of detection, speed of search, and low cost. It was concluded that the canine could be used for explosive screening of personnel, but that it was imperative that the dog be in a position remote from employees and employee traffic. A study was made of the design of booths

1983-01-01

355

Infectious canine hepatitis associated with prednisone treatment  

PubMed Central

An 11-week-old, female Alaskan husky dog housed outdoors in the Yukon, Canada, was diagnosed with infectious canine hepatitis. The predisposing factors in this puppy for such a rare disease included inappropriate vaccination program, potential contact with endemic wildlife, and immunosuppression due to prednisone treatment.

Wong, Valerie M.; Marche, Candace; Simko, Elemir

2012-01-01

356

In vitro electrical activity in canine colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro slow wave activity was studied in strips of right and left canine colon with silver\\/silver chloride electrodes. Using visual and computer analysis, slow wave frequency and coupling was assessed between different recording sites and the effect of a cholinergic agonist on coupling and frequency was determined. A regular slow wave was always found to be present. Frequency in

N L Shearin; K L Bowes; Y J Kingma

1979-01-01

357

A novel bocavirus in canine liver  

PubMed Central

Background Bocaviruses are classified as a genus within the Parvoviridae family of single-stranded DNA viruses and are pathogenic in some mammalian species. Two species have been previously reported in dogs, minute virus of canines (MVC), associated with neonatal diseases and fertility disorders; and Canine bocavirus (CBoV), associated with respiratory disease. Findings In this study using deep sequencing of enriched viral particles from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, necrotizing vasculitis, granulomatous lymphadenitis and anuric renal failure, we identified and characterized a novel bocavirus we named Canine bocavirus 3 (CnBoV3). The three major ORFs of CnBoV3 (NS1, NP1 and VP1) shared less than 60% aa identity with those of other bocaviruses qualifying it as a novel species based on ICTV criteria. Inverse PCR showed the presence of concatemerized or circular forms of the genome in liver. Conclusions We genetically characterized a bocavirus in a dog liver that is highly distinct from prior canine bocaviruses found in respiratory and fecal samples. Its role in this animal’s complex disease remains to be determined.

2013-01-01

358

PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN AND CANINE NARCOLEPSY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narcolepsy-cataplexy is a disabling neurological disorder that affects 12000 individuals. The main clinical features of narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness and symptoms of abnormal REM sleep (cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations) are currently treated using amphetamine-like compounds or modafinil and antidepressants. Pharmacological research in the area is facilitated greatly by the existence of a canine model of the disorder. The mode

SEIJI NISHINO; EMMANUEL MIGNOT

1997-01-01

359

Ultrasound imaging of the canine tympanic bulla  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for imaging the canine tympanic bulla, external ear canal and adjacent structures using currently available ultrasound equipment was established. Lateral and ventral transducer positions were identified for this purpose and a 6.5 MHz curvilinear transducer was considered to be optimal. The sonographic appearance of these structures in cadavers and live dogs unaffected by ear disease is documented. Fluid

A. M. Dickie; R. Doust; L. Cromarty; V. S. Johnson; M. Sullivan; J. S. Boyd

2003-01-01

360

Renal cryoablation in a canine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To assess the potential safety and utility of cryoablation for treatment of selected renal tumors in a canine model.Methods. Ultrasound and direct physical measurements (depth and width) of five cryolesions were compared. Cryolesions were examined histologically in 6 animals, which were killed at 4 hours, 2 days, 1 week, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Mortality\\/morbidity was assessed

Robert A. Stephenson; Dawn K. King; L. Ralph Rohr

1996-01-01

361

Infectious canine hepatitis associated with prednisone treatment.  

PubMed

An 11-week-old, female Alaskan husky dog housed outdoors in the Yukon, Canada, was diagnosed with infectious canine hepatitis. The predisposing factors in this puppy for such a rare disease included inappropriate vaccination program, potential contact with endemic wildlife, and immunosuppression due to prednisone treatment. PMID:23633720

Wong, Valerie M; Marche, Candace; Simko, Elemir

2012-11-01

362

78 FR 29698 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing a Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Field Testing a Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...an unlicensed Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA. The environmental assessment, which is...Inc. Product: Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA. Possible Field Test Locations:...

2013-05-21

363

Phlebotominae fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an urban district of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, endemic for visceral leishmaniasis: characterization of favored locations as determined by spatial analysis.  

PubMed

Belo Horizonte, the capital of the southeastern state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the fourth-largest city in the country, has the highest incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) together with a high prevalence of canine VL. The Northeast Sanitary District (NSD) of Belo Horizonte has the largest historical average of human VL cases in the metropolitan region, and is classified as a priority area for epidemiological and entomological monitoring of the disease. The objectives of the present study were to determine the seasonal variation in phlebotomine fauna and to describe the environmental situations in the NSD through characterization of peri-domiciles and application of geographical information system analysis. Entomological captures were performed every two weeks during the period July 2006 to June 2007 using HP light traps placed at 16 locations where cases of human VL had been reported in 2005. The environmental characterization of these locations was accomplished using forms and photographic images. Spatial analyses was used to determine the influence of vegetation, hydrography, altitude and pockets of poverty on the occurrence of cases of human and canine VL, and of phlebotomine vectors. A total of 633 phlebotomines belonging to the subtribes Psychodopygina and Lutzomyina were captured and, of these, 75% were identified as Nyssomyia whitmani and 11% as Lutzomyia longipalpis. The majority of the studied peri-domiciles presented inadequate hygienic conditions that would favor the development of phlebotomines. No significant correlations could be established between biogeographical aspects and either the incidence of human and canine VL or the occurrence of phlebotomines. The proximity of areas with vegetation, villages, slums and open watercourses exerted little influence on the incidence of VL. These findings reinforce the urbanization of the VL profile since the disease occurred in locations where conditions that have been classically related to its prevalence were not present. The results reported herein will be important for implementing measures against VL in the study area. PMID:21110938

Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Falcão, Alda Lima; de Carvalho, Deborah Aparecida Alves; de Souza, Carina Margonari; Freitas, Christian Rezende; Gomes Lopes, Camila Ragonezi; Moreno, Elizabeth Castro; Melo, Maria Norma

2011-02-01

364

Characterization of an H3N2 canine influenza virus isolated from Tibetan mastiffs in China.  

PubMed

Ten 3-month-old Tibetan mastiffs became ill 2 days after they were bought from a Tibetan mastiff exhibition, and 4 of them died 2 weeks later. A canine influenza virus (ZJ0110) was isolated from the lung of a deceased Tibetan mastiff and was characterized in detail. Sequence analysis indicated that the 8 genes of the canine isolate were most similar to those of avian-origin canine influenza viruses (H3N2) isolated in South Korea in 2007, with which they shared >98% sequence identity. ZJ0110 could experimentally infect 6-month-old beagles by intranasal inoculation and by airborne transmission, causing severe respiratory syndrome. Moreover, ZJ0110 could replicate in the upper respiratory tracts of mice and guinea pigs, and the virus titer was comparable to that in the upper respiratory tracts of dogs. Although the virus was genetically of avian origin, ZJ0110 could not experimentally infect chicken or ducks by intranasal inoculation. These results suggest that dogs might be an intermediary host in which avian influenza viruses adapt to replicate in mammals. PMID:23107656

Teng, Qiaoyang; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Dawei; Zhou, Jiewen; Dai, Xiaoguang; Chen, Zhaoguo; Li, Zejun

2013-03-23

365

Genital lesions and distribution of amastigotes in bitches naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports indicate that Leishmania chagasi has tropism to the male canine genital system, which is associated with shedding of the organism in the semen, supporting the hypothesis of venereal transmission. The aim of this study was to describe the lesions and assess parasite load in the genital system of bitches with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CanL). Symptomatic (n=5) and asymptomatic

Fabiana L. Silva; Antonio A. M. Rodrigues; Isabela O. P. Rego; Raquel L. H. Santos; Raquel G. Oliveira; Teane M. A. Silva; Mariana N. Xavier; Ernane F. Nascimento; Renato L. Santos

2008-01-01

366

To bite or not to bite: Canine apprehensions in a large, suburban police department  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a dearth of empirical research on the use of police canines. This article examines the use of canines in a large, suburban police department over a six-year period (1993–1998). Use of force reports, canine-apprehension reports, arrest data, and the canine unit's monthly activity reports were reviewed. Five rates were calculated: (1) canine-apprehension rate, (2) canine bite rate, (3)

Edward R. Hickey; Peter B. Hoffman

2003-01-01

367

[Parasitological, immunohistochemical and histopathological study for Leishmania chagasi detection in splenic tissues of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis].  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was a Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis--CVL study by parasitological direct examination of Leishmania (L.) chagasi (imprinting and histological), immunohistochemical test and histopathological analysis using spleen tissues from 34 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Control Centre from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. According to the clinical signs, the dogs were divided in three groups: asymptomatics (8 dogs), oligosymptomatics (17 dogs) and symptomatics (9 dogs). After the accomplishment of all diagnostic tests, 22 dogs were considered positives (64.7%) and 12 (35.3%) were negatives to CVL. From these positive dogs, 1/22 (4.5%) was asymptomatic, 12/22(54.5%) were oligosymptomatics and 8/22 (40.1%) were symptomatics. The histopathological study in spleen tissues from positive, especially symptomatic dogs, showed a diffuse chronic inflammation with thickness of capsular and trabecular regions and there was extensive morphologic alteration of the red and white pulp by the presence of abundant macrophages full with amastigotes, the granulomatous inflammatory reaction and haemorrhagic areas. The data of this work from histopathologic examination and direct microscopic visualization of L. (L.) chagasi showed that the spleen was an useful organ to collect sample tissues for CVL diagnosis. The immunostaining detected the highest number of positive dogs and were considered an important and conclusive method to be used in addition to parasitological methods for CVL, particularly in asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic dogs. PMID:19500457

Tasca, Karen Ingrid; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke; Tenorio, Michely da Silva; Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Lima, Flávia Luna; de Queiroz, Nina Mari Gual Pimenta; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Souza; Neves, Maria Francisca; de Noronha, Antonio Carlos Faconti; de Assis, Juliana

2009-01-01

368

Novel Arylimidamides for Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis? †  

PubMed Central

Arylimidamides (AIAs) represent a new class of molecules that exhibit potent antileishmanial activity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], <1 ?M) against both Leishmania donovani axenic amastigotes and intracellular Leishmania, the causative agent for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). A systematic lead discovery program was employed to characterize in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities, pharmacokinetics, mutagenicities, and toxicities of two novel AIAs, DB745 and DB766. They were exceptionally active (IC50 ? 0.12 ?M) against intracellular L. donovani, Leishmania amazonensis, and Leishmania major and did not exhibit mutagenicity in an Ames screen. DB745 and DB766, given orally, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of liver parasitemia in two efficacy models, L. donovani-infected mice and hamsters. Most notably, DB766 (100 mg/kg of body weight/day for 5 days) reduced liver parasitemia in mice and hamsters by 71% and 89%, respectively. Marked reduction of parasitemia in the spleen (79%) and bone marrow (92%) of hamsters was also observed. Furthermore, these compounds distributed to target tissues (liver and spleen) and had a moderate oral bioavailability (up to 25%), a large volume of distribution, and an elimination half-life ranging from 1 to 2 days in mice. In a repeat-dose toxicity study of mice, there was no indication of liver or kidney toxicity for DB766 from serum chemistries, although mild hepatic cell eosinophilia, hypertrophy, and fatty changes were noted. These results demonstrated that arylimidamides are a promising class of molecules that possess good antileishmanial activity and desirable pharmacokinetics and should be considered for further preclinical development as an oral treatment for VL.

Wang, Michael Zhuo; Zhu, Xiaohua; Srivastava, Anuradha; Liu, Qiang; Sweat, J. Mark; Pandharkar, Trupti; Stephens, Chad E.; Riccio, Ed; Parman, Toufan; Munde, Manoj; Mandal, Swati; Madhubala, Rentala; Tidwell, Richard R.; Wilson, W. David; Boykin, David W.; Hall, James Edwin; Kyle, Dennis E.; Werbovetz, Karl A.

2010-01-01

369

Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in India.  

PubMed

Kala-azar has re-emerged from near eradication. The annual estimate for the incidence and prevalence of kala-azar cases worldwide is 0.5 million and 2.5 million, respectively. Of these, 90% of the confirmed cases occur in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sudan. In India, it is a serious problem in Bihar, West Bengal and eastern Uttar Pradesh where there is under-reporting of kala-azar and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in women and children 0-9 years of age. Untreated cases of kala-azar are associated with up to 90% mortality, which with treatment reduces to 15% and is 3.4% even in specialized hospitals. It is also associated with up to 20% subclinical infection. Spraying of DDT helped control kala-azar; however, there are reports of the vector Phlebotomus argentipes developing resistance. Also lymphadenopathy, a major presenting feature in India raises the possibility of a new vector or a variant of the disease. The widespread co-existence of malaria and kala-azar in Bihar may lead to a difficulty in diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. In addition, reports of the organism developing resistance to sodium antimony gluconate--the main drug for treatment--would make its eradication difficult. Clinical trials in India have reported encouraging results with amphotericin B (recommended as a third-line drug by the National Malaria Eradication Programme). Phase III Trials with a first-generation vaccine (killed Leishmania organism mixed with a low concentration of BCG as an adjuvant) have also yielded promising results. Preliminary studies using autoclaved Leishmania major mixed with BCG have been successful in preventing infection with Leishmania donovani. Until a safe and effective vaccine is developed, a combination of sandfly control, detection and treatment of patients and prevention of drug resistance is the best approach for controlling kala-azar. PMID:10416321

Bora, D

1999-01-01

370

Recurrent visceral leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Current treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis (pentavalent antimony, amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B and mitelfosine) achieve long-term clinical cure in the majority of immunocompetent patients. Disease relapse is usually provoked by T-cell number or function impairment (corticosteroid or cytotoxic therapy, transplant recipients, advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease). Case presentation We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis with multiple relapses in a 75-year-old Greek immunocompetent man. Visceral leishmaniasis relapses occurred despite appropriate treatment with liposomal amphotericin B 3mg/kg/day on days one to five, 14 and 21 (for the first episode and the first relapse) and mitelfosine 150mg/day for 28 days (for the second relapse). The third relapse was treated with high-dose liposomal amphotericin B (10mg/kg for two consecutive days), followed by a secondary prophylaxis of 3mg/kg once per month, which prevented disease reappearance during one year of follow-up. Conclusion An unusual case of recurrent visceral leishmaniasis in an older immunocompetent patient was treated with high-dose liposomal amphotericin B and a monthly prophylaxis with no evidence of a relapse after one year of follow-up.

2013-01-01

371

A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis found in Indiana.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis was diagnosed in an Indiana resident, an 80-year-old man who had visited Afghanistan 7 months earlier. Although cultures were negative, skin biopsy demonstrated round to oval bodies that stained strongly positive with Giemsa staining. His ulcerated plaques cleared readily with oral ketoconazole. PMID:24010517

Fathi, Ramin; Fathi, Ahmad

2013-07-01

372

Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: revisiting paradigms of epidemiology and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In the last 20 years, despite the known underestimation of cases, Brazil registered a marked increase in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis. The main goal of this review is to reflect on some aspects of this zoonosis in Brazil and also to encourage the discussion in order to find more viable, effective and affordable strategies to be implemented by

Filipe Dantas-Torres; Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho

2006-01-01

373

Evaluation of PCR for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of Leishmania PCR was performed with bone marrow, lymph node, and blood samples from 492 patients, 60 positive controls, and 90 negative controls. Results were compared with microscopy results for Giemsa-stained smears. PCR and microscopy of lymph node and bone marrow aspirates from patients with microscopically confirmed visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were equally sensitive. However, in patients clinically suspected

OMRAN F. OSMAN; LINDA OSKAM; ED E. ZIJLSTRA; NEL C. M. KROON; GERARD J. SCHOONE; EL-TAHIR A. G. KHALIL; AHMED M. EL-HASSAN; PIET A. KAGER

1997-01-01

374

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in expatriates in northern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a protozoal disease transmitted by sandflies. It is endemic across the desert of the Middle East to Afghanistan and Africa. This paper reviews the findings in 148 expatriates with cutaneous leishmaniasis seen in Arar, northern Saudi Arabia, during a five year period. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was seen in all age groups. Farm workers, labourers and military personnel stationed in the region during the Gulf war were most affected. There was a seasonal variation with maximum incidence between November and January. The lesions were commonly multiple, the number of lesions per patient ranged from one to twelve. 18% of the lesions were located on the face, 34% on the upper extremity, 42% on the lower extremity and six per cent on other sites. The average duration of the lesions before diagnosis was two months. The most common complications were secondary bacterial skin infection (pyoderma and cellulitis) and residual scarring. The response to sodium stibogluconate was good. There has been a gradual reduction in the number of cases from a peak of 64 in 1991 to twelve in 1995. As compared to studies in the indigenous population, cutaneous leishmaniasis tends to be more frequent and server in expatriates from non endemic areas. There is a need for increased awareness of this disorder, especially in the home countries of these expatriates. PMID:9299828

Kubeyinje, E P; Belagavi, C S; Jamil, Y A

1997-04-01

375

Liposomal amphotericin B as a treatment for human leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Between 700,000 and 1.2 million cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and between 200,000 and 400,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is fatal if left untreated, occur annually worldwide. Liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB), alone or in combination with other drugs, has been extensively studied as VL treatment, but data on routine field use are limited, and several challenges to patients' access to this life-saving drug remain. Areas covered: This article provides a review of clinical studies on LAMB for VL and other forms of leishmaniasis. The current development of generic versions of LAMB and related challenges are also discussed. Expert opinion: LAMB proved to be highly efficacious and safe in over 8000 VL patients treated by MÉdecins Sans Frontières in South Asia, and its use was feasible even at primary healthcare level. Despite requiring higher doses, LAMB is the drug of choice to treat vulnerable groups (e.g., pregnant or HIV positive) and relapsing VL patients in East Africa. LAMB should be included in national VL guidelines and registered in all VL endemic countries. Its cost should be further reduced and regulatory pathways to prove bioequivalence for generic LAMB products should be implemented.

Balasegaram, Manica; Ritmeijer, Koert; Lima, Maria Angeles; Burza, Sakib; Ortiz Genovese, Gemma; Milani, Barbara; Gaspani, Sara; Potet, Julien; Chappuis, Francois

2012-01-01

376

Visceral leishmaniasis complicated by fungal pulmonary valve endocarditis.  

PubMed

We present a rare neglected case of fungal pulmonary valve endocarditis which presented with typical extra cardiac manifestations after repeated injections for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Surgical intervention to replace the pulmonary valve was the only option to manage the patient in spite of extensive medical treatment. PMID:16473409

Darwazah, Ahmad K; Hawari, Mohammad H; Qaqa, Zakaria; Abu Sham'a, Raed A H; Sharabati, Barakat

2006-10-01

377

Lipid nanoparticles containing oryzalin for the treatment of leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oryzalin is a dinitroaniline drug that has attracted recent interest for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Its use as an antiparasitic therapeutic agent is limited by the low water solubility associated with an in vivo rapid clearance, leading to the administration of larger and possibly toxic doses in in vivo studies, and the use of solvents that may lead to undesirable

R. Lopes; C. V. Eleutério; L. M. D. Gonçalves; M. E. M. Cruz; A. J. Almeida

378

A new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shiraz, Iran.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) continues to be an increasing public health problem in Iran. Shiraz, a city in Fars Province in southwestern Iran, is one of the endemic foci of CL. However, there is no formal report of endemicity of CL in rural areas of Shiraz. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an epidemic of zoonotic CL in this area. The purpose of this study was to examine the epidemiological features of leishmaniasis in three villages in rural areas of Shiraz and to identify the causative species of leishmaniasis using nested PCR with clinical direct samples. The prevalence of infection among 1000 inhabitants of the three villages was 23.2%. Prevalences of ulcers and scars were 7 and 16.2%, respectively. The most infected age group was 0-9 years, with a rate of 14.2%. Children are more than twice as susceptible to the infection. In this study, the Leishmania major strain was identified in the majority of cases. The results of this epidemiological study indicate a high prevalence of leishmaniasis in rural areas of Shiraz. PMID:19223055

Razmjou, Shahrzad; Hejazy, Hossein; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein; Baghaei, Mehdi; Emamy, Motevalli; Kalantary, Mohsen

2009-07-01

379

Twenty years of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Aleppo, Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica has long been associated with Aleppo in Syria. For 20 years up to the mid-1980s, the number of cases reported annually in the city and environs has remained low, not exceeding a few hundred. Since then, there has been a sudden increase to several thousand cases reported each year. The increase seems too great

Ahmed Tayeh; Lama Jalouk; Sandy Cairncross

1997-01-01

380

Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Indian Subcontinent: Modelling Epidemiology and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn the Indian subcontinent, about 200 million people are at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In 2005, the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh started the first regional VL elimination program with the aim to reduce the annual incidence to less than 1 per 10,000 by 2015. A mathematical model was developed to support this elimination program with basic

Anette Stauch; Ram Rup Sarkar; Albert Picado; Bart Ostyn; Shyam Sundar; Suman Rijal; Marleen Boelaert; Jean-Claude Dujardin; Hans-Peter Duerr

2011-01-01

381

Short communication Feline leishmaniasis in Jerusalem: Serological investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis, present in the Mediterranean area and well recognized in Israel and Palestine for human and dog disease. A serological study using an ELISA techniquewas performed on 104 cats living in the Jerusalem area. Seroprevalence was 6.7% (7\\/104). Significant correlation between seropositive cat results and altitude >2500 ft was observed (p

Abedelmajeed Nasereddin; Harold Salant; Ziad Abdeen

382

New insights into the diagnosis and chemotheraphy for visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe form of leishmaniasis - a disease caused by protozoan parasites and transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly. In VL, parasites migrate to the vital organs and bone marrow, destroying white and red blood cells. VL has been called the parasitic version of HIV/AIDs (Human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), as it attacks the immune system. The most common form of the disease is cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin lesions and often leaves the infected individual permanently disfigured. Even though the disease is treatable, current treatments are difficult to administer, too expensive, or toxic for extensive use in developing nations. Furthermore, resistance to treatment is an increasing problem, particularly in India. 90% of people with VL die if the infection is left untreated, and death can come within 2 years, significantly faster than AIDS. The search for new drugs continues, with new chemical and natural compounds. Many potential drug targets have been identified in biochemical and molecular studies, and some have been validated. Attempts to exploit these targets are in progress. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical features, control Strategies, diagnosis and current treatment about visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:24033264

Kumar, V Dinesh; Verma, Priya Ranjan Prasad; Singh, Sandeep Kumar

2014-04-01

383

Panniculitis Is an Important Feature of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Pathology  

PubMed Central

Background. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an inflammatory parasitic infection characterized by superficial and deep perivascular infiltration with or without granuloma formation. Clinical diagnosis usually requires seeing Leishmania bodies. Methods. We report two cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis with unusual histological finding of panniculitis. Case 1: a 36-year-old male presented with multiple ulcerative nodules involving the left leg for two months duration which was greatly responsive to antimony intralesional therapy. Case 2: A 45-year-old woman presented with painless nodules on her upper chest of a 10-week duration which were successfully treated with oral and topical zinc sulphate. Results. Diagnosis of both cases was confirmed by finding the Leishmania bodies with Gimesa stain in addition to the diffuse dermal inflammatory cellular infiltration of the dermis forming granulomatous dermatitis. Mixed cellular infiltration of lymphocytes, histiocytes, and plasma cells of the panniculus caused both septal and lobular panniculitis. Conclusion. Cutaneous leishmaniasis can cause panniculitis and this could be seen more commonly if deep biopsies were taken. So cutaneous leishmaniasis must be considered in evaluating pathology of panniculitis especially in endemic regions.

Sharquie, Khalifa E.; Hameed, Ammar Faisal

2012-01-01

384

Comparative salivary gland transcriptomics of sandfly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Immune responses to sandfly saliva have been shown to protect animals against Leishmania infection. Yet very little is known about the molecular characteristics of salivary proteins from different sandflies, particularly from vectors transmitting visceral leishmaniasis, the fatal form of the disease. Further knowledge of the repertoire of these salivary proteins will give us insights into the molecular evolution of

Jennifer M Anderson; Fabiano Oliveira; Shaden Kamhawi; Ben J Mans; David Reynoso; Amy E Seitz; Phillip Lawyer; Mark Garfield; MyVan Pham; Jesus G Valenzuela

2006-01-01

385

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

1988-02-02

386

Manual transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This new text provides the coverage of standard transmissions available. Domestic and imported cars are discussed, and a separate chapter is devoted to import vehicle drive trains. Overdrive systems are also covered in detail. Necessary tools for manual transmission servicing are listed and discussed, and safety information is highlighted throughout. Each chapter contains objectives, ''Facts to Remember'' (lists within the

1987-01-01

387

A cDNA encoding canine muscle-type phosphofructokinase.  

PubMed

The canine muscle-type-phosphofructokinase-encoding gene (M-PFK) was sequenced by using a combination of cDNA cloning and RT-PCR amplification. The canine M-PFK sequence shares 88 and 90% identity with rabbit and human M-PFK, respectively. The canine ORF was determined to be 6-bp longer than either human or rabbit M-PFK due to a 6-bp insertion at the end of exon 13. PMID:8654960

Smith, B F; Henthorn, P S; Rajpurohit, Y; Stedman, H; Wolfe, J H; Patterson, D F; Giger, U

1996-02-12

388

Analysis of Candidate Susceptibility Genes in Canine Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine diabetes is a complex genetic disease of unknown aetiology. It affects 0.005-1.5% of the canine population and shows a clear breed predisposition with the Samoyed being at high risk and the Boxer being at low risk of developing the disease. Canine diabetes is considered to be a disease homologue for human type 1 diabetes (T1D). It results in insulin

ANDREA D. SHORT; B. Catchpole; L. J. Kennedy; A. Barnes; N. Fretwell; C. Jones; W. Thomson; W. E. R. Ollier

2007-01-01

389

Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis: IgM and Polyclonal B-Cell Activation Lead to Disease Exacerbation  

PubMed Central

In visceral leishmaniasis, the draining lymph node (DLN) is the initial site for colonization and establishment of infection after intradermal transmission by the sand fly vector; however, little is known about the developing immune response within this site. Using an intradermal infection model, which allows for parasite visceralization, we have examined the ongoing immune responses in the DLN of BALB/c mice infected with L. infantum. Although not unexpected, at early times post-infection there is a marked B cell expansion in the DLN, which persists throughout infection. However, the characteristics of this response were of interest; as early as day 7 post-infection, polyclonal antibodies (TNP, OVA, chromatin) were observed and the levels appeared comparable to the specific anti-leishmania response. Although B-cell-deficient JHD BALB/c mice are relatively resistant to infection, neither B-cell-derived IL-10 nor B-cell antigen presentation appear to be primarily responsible for the elevated parasitemia. However, passive transfer and reconstitution of JHD BALB/c with secretory immunoglobulins, (IgM or IgG; specific or non-specific immune complexes) results in increased susceptibility to L. infantum infection. Further, JHD BALB/c mice transgenetically reconstituted to secrete IgM demonstrated exacerbated disease in comparison to wild type BALB/c mice as early as 2 days post-infection. Evidence suggests that complement activation (generation of C5a) and signaling via the C5aR (CD88) is related to the disease exacerbation caused by IgM rather than cytokine levels (IL-10 or IFN-?). Overall these studies indicate that polyclonal B cell activation, which is known to be associated with human visceral leishmaniasis, is an early and intrinsic characteristic of disease and may represent a target for therapeutic intervention.

Deak, Eszter; Jayakumar, Asha; Wing Cho, Ka; Goldsmith-Pestana, Karen; Dondji, Blaise; Lambris, John D.; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

2010-01-01

390

The immunotherapeutic potential of activated canine alveolar macrophages and antitumor monoclonal antibodies in metastatic canine melanoma.  

PubMed

A variety of immune cell activators can enhance the cytotoxic effects of monocytes/macrophages including interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and muramyl peptides, which are under investigation for cancer therapy in humans and dogs. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) in particular, are strategically located within the lung and provide a potential defense against cancer cells metastatic to the lung. For this reason, we examined the in vitro cytotoxic potential of fresh and IFN-gamma-activated PAMs from normal dogs targeted to canine malignant melanoma cells with antiganglioside monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Antiganglioside mAbs 14.G2a (anti-GD2) and R24 (anti-GD3), both in clinical trials for human neuroectodermal tumors including melanoma, significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of canine melanoma mediated by canine PAMs. Further, the cytotoxicity mediated by recombinant canine IFN-gamma-activated canine PAMs, in combination with anti-GD2 ganglioside mAb 14.G2a, enhanced melanoma cytotoxicity above that seen with mAb 14.G2a alone. This documentation of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mediated by activated PAMs suggests that activation and targeting of resident pulmonary immune cells be pursued as a means to control pulmonary metastases. PMID:10546161

Soergel, S A; MacEwen, E G; Vail, D M; Potter, D M; Sondel, P M; Helfand, S C

1999-09-01

391

Measurement for canine IgE using canine recombinant high affinity IgE receptor ? chain (Fc?RI?).  

PubMed

To detect allergen-specific IgE in dogs with allergic diseases, we developed a recombinant canine high affinity IgE receptor ? chain (Fc?RI?)-based IgE detection system. Using the recombinant protein of canine Fc?RI? expressed by an Escherichia coli expression system, we could detect house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) allergen-specific IgE in sera from dogs naturally and experimentally sensitized to this allergen with ELISA and western blotting. The IgE binding activity of recombinant canine Fc?RI? on ELISA was impaired by heat treatment of these sera. The specificity of this recombinant canine Fc?RI?-based IgE detection system was confirmed by inhibition assays with canine IgE. The recombinant canine Fc?RI?-based IgE detection system established in this study offers an alternative tool to measure allergen-specific IgE in dogs. PMID:22322186

Tsukui, Toshihiro; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Kurata, Keigo; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Ohmori, Keitaro; Masuda, Kenichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Iwabuchi, Shigehiro

2012-07-01

392

Eruption sequence of the permanent maxillary canine: a radiographic review.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the eruption sequence of the permanent maxillary canine in patients to determine if it follows the previously established normal pattern: first premolar, second premolar, and canine. A total of 363 panoramic radiographs of patients 7-12 years of age were evaluated; in 261 (72%) of the patients, the permanent canine erupted after the first and second premolars. Based on the results obtained in this study, the eruption sequence of the permanent maxillary canine followed the historical normal pattern for the majority of patients in this population. The difference in eruption sequence for males versus females was not significant. PMID:24983186

Rawson, Kenneth G; Hofelich, Robyn; Welch, Dan B; Stoeckel, Daniel C

2014-01-01

393

Interest in paromomycin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease, and it is classified as one of the most important tropical fly-borne infections. This disease can cause two types of clinical manifestations: cutaneous forms and visceral forms. Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also called kala-azar, is a very serious infection that can be fatal. The management of visceral leishmaniasis requires informed diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Continuous research and development regarding the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis had led to many improvements. Paromomycin is a relatively new antibiotic drug that has been used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis for several years. This article reviews and discusses the use of paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis therapy.

Wiwanitkit, Viroj

2012-01-01

394

Adenosine and Immune Imbalance in Visceral Leishmaniasis: The Possible Role of Ectonucleotidases  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is responsible for most Leishmania-associated deaths. VL represents a serious public health problem that affects many countries. The immune response in leishmaniasis is very complex and is poorly understood. The Th1 versus Th2 paradigm does not appear to be so clear in visceral leishmaniasis, suggesting that other immunosuppressive or immune-evasion mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of VL. It has been demonstrated that generation of adenosine, a potent endogenous immunosuppressant, by extracellular enzymes capable to hydrolyze adenosine tri-nucleotide (ATP) at the site of infection, can lead to immune impairment and contribute to leishmaniasis progression. In this regard, this paper discusses the unique features in VL immunopathogenesis, including a possible role for ectonucleotidases in leishmaniasis.

Paletta-Silva, Rafael; Meyer-Fernandes, Jose Roberto

2012-01-01

395

Production of antibodies to canine IL1? and canine TNF to assess the role of proinflammatory cytokines  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-1 and TNF are important proinflammatory cytokines implicated in both antimicrobial host defense and pathogenesis of diseases with an immune-mediated and\\/or inflammatory component. Respective studies in the dog have been hampered by the unavailability of reagents allowing the specific measurement of canine cytokine proteins and the effect of canine cytokine neutralization by Ab. Starting with recombinant canine (rcan) IL-1? and

Vannozza Baggio; Fabienne Ott; René W. Fischer; Hermann Gram; John Peele; David Spreng; Hugo Schmökel; Thomas W. Jungi

2005-01-01

396

Development of a label-free immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance technique for the detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies in canine serum.  

PubMed

In this work, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor was developed using an 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) modified gold SPR sensor chip for the detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies. The soluble antigens of L. infantum were securely immobilized on an SPR gold disk by an 11-MUA self-assembled monolayer. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) techniques were employed in the characterization of the antigen immobilization. After the immunosensor construction, canine serum positive for visceral leishmaniasis was added to its surface and showed significant variation in the SPR angle, indicating excellent sensitivity of the technique for antigen-antibody interaction detection. Moreover, the addition of negative serum was accompanied by a smaller response, demonstrating that the immunosensor shows good specificity against anti-L. infantum antibodies. Therefore, this work demonstrates the successful development of an SPR sensor for anti-L. infantum antibodies detection in short time, showing a great perspective as a sensing system of visceral leishmaniasis in endemic regions. PMID:23500472

Souto, Dênio E P; Silva, Jussara V; Martins, Helen R; Reis, Alexandre B; Luz, Rita C S; Kubota, Lauro T; Damos, Flávio S

2013-08-15

397

Treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis (L. infantum) with miltefosine in a patient with Good syndrome.  

PubMed

We report on a 76-year old patient with recurrent mucosal leishmaniasis. Multiple treatment regimens were administered. After the second relapse, immunologic workup and review of the patient's history revealed the presence of Good syndrome, characterized by immunodeficiency in patients with thymoma. The third relapse was treated with oral miltefosine with complete resolution of the lesions. Miltefosine is an option for treating Old World leishmaniasis (Leishmania infantum) and immunodeficiency should be considered in patients with recurrent leishmaniasis. PMID:23871798

Stoeckle, Marcel; Holbro, Andreas; Arnold, Andreas; Neumayr, Andreas; Weisser, Maya; Blum, Johannes

2013-10-01

398

Serologic investigations of canine parvovirus and canine distemper in relation to wolf (Canis lupus) pup mortalities.  

PubMed

Twenty-one serum samples from 18 wolves (Canis lupus) were collected from 1985 to 1990 from northwestern Montana (USA) and southeastern British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper (CD), infectious canine hepatitis, and Lyme disease; we found prevalences of 13 (65%) of 19, five (29%) of 17, seven (36%) of 19, and 0 of 20 wolves for these diseases, respectively. Pups died or disappeared in three of the eight packs studied. In these three packs, adult pack members had CPV titers > or = 1,600 or CD titers > or = 1,250. In packs that successfully raised pups, CPV and CD titers were low. We propose that CPV or CD may have caused some pup mortalities. PMID:8028116

Johnson, M R; Boyd, D K; Pletscher, D H

1994-04-01

399

Electrophysiology of Cl secretion in canine trachea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Conventional microelectrode techniques were employed to determine the mechanism of Cl secretion by canine tracheal epithelium. Epinephrine, a potent stimulator of Cl secretion in these cells, hyperpolarized both the transepithelial potential (20 to 38.9 mV) and the potential across the basolateral membrane (-63.9 to -68.2 mV) and depolarized the potential across the apical membrane (-43.9 to -29.3 mV). Epinephrine

Stephen R. Shorofsky; Michael Field; Harry A. Fozzard

1983-01-01

400

Madin-Darby canine kidney cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vectorial transport of salt and water in the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line is indicated by the formation of domes when a monolayer is grown on an impermeable support. We investigated aldosterone-induced dome formation and evaluated the dome as an experimental model. Transepithelial dome resistance was about 80 Ocm2 and constant when dome size exceeded 2 · 10-4 cm2.

H. Oberleithner; U. Vogel; U. Kersting

1990-01-01

401

Dopamine D, Mechanisms in Canine Narcolepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by abnormal manifestations of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and ex- cessive daytime sleepiness. Using a canine model of the disease, we found that central D, antagonists suppressed cataplexy, a form of REM-sleep atonia occurring in narco- lepsy, whereas this symptom was aggravated by D, agonists. The effect on cataplexy was stereospecific for the S(-) en-

Seiji Nishino; Janis Arrigoni; Delphine Valtier; Joseph D. Miller; Christian Guilleminault; William C. Dement

402

Biological potency and radioimmunoassay of canine calcitonin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcitonin (CT) is a major calcitropic hormone. Because of low cross reactivity of canine CT (cCT) in radioimmunoassays (RIA) developed for other species, a homologous RIA is needed. Synthesis of cCT allowed study of its biologic potency using a rat bioassay and its plasma half-life in dogs. The availability of cCT also made possible the development of a homologous RIA

H. A. W Hazewinkel; I Schoenmakers; D Pelling; M Snijdelaar; J Wolfswinkel; J. A Mol

1999-01-01

403

A Linkage Map of the Canine Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map of the canine genome has been developed by typing 150 microsatellite markers using 17 three-generation pedigrees, composed of 163 F2individuals. One hundred and thirty-nine markers were linked to at least one other marker with a lod score ? 3.0, identifying 30 linkage groups. The largest chromosome had 9 markers spanning 106.1 cM. The average distance between

Cathryn S. Mellersh; Amelia A. Langston; Gregory M. Acland; Melissa A. Fleming; Kunal Ray; Neil A. Wiegand; Leigh V. Francisco; Mark Gibbs; Gustavo D. Aguirre; Elaine A. Ostrander

1997-01-01

404

Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

2014-01-01

405

Estrogen receptors in canine mammary tumors.  

PubMed

The presence of estrogen receptor in 67 canine mammary lesions was correlated with pathological features of the disease. All tissue specimens were analyzed for estrogen receptor content by a sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation method previously used in analyzing human breast cancer cytosols. Pathological features of the tissues were assessed by a veterinary pathologist without knowledge of results of estrogen receptor analysis. Sixty-two (92.5%) of the tissue samples analyzed were classified as epithelial neoplastic lesions, and 38 of these (61.3%), including 24 adenocarcinomas, were estrogen receptor for positive (i.e., estrogen receptor concentration equal to or greater than 10 fmol/mg cytosol protein). All five of the nonepithelial neoplastic lesions were estrogen receptor negative. Canine and human breast cancers share common histological types and have similar biological behavior. If a significant percentage of canine mammary cancer is also estrogen dependent, the dog may be a useful model for hormonal studies and for the development of models of endocrine therapy for human breast cancer. PMID:7074608

MacEwen, E G; Patnaik, A K; Harvey, H J; Panko, W B

1982-06-01

406

Increasing incidence of canine leptospirosis in Switzerland.  

PubMed

A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

2014-01-01

407

Prostate Histotripsy in an Anticoagulated Canine Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose Histotripsy is a non-invasive ultrasound technology which induces microbubble formation (cavitation) within tissues producing mechanical tissue fractionation. During initial in-vivo feasibility canine studies of prostate ablation, minimal hematuria was observed. In the current study, we sought to further explore this phenomenon by performing extensive prostate histotripsy treatments in anticoagulated canines. Materials and Methods Histotripsy was performed on 9 canine subjects pre-treated with 6 mg of oral warfarin for 3 to 5 days using an extracorporeal 750 kHz therapeutic ultrasound transducer delivering acoustic pulses to the prostatic urethra and periurethral parenchyma. After 7–28 days, the subjects were euthanized, transrectal prostate ultrasound was performed and the prostate was harvested. Serum hemoglobin and International Normalization Ratio (INR) were measured immediately prior to histotripsy treatment and at euthanasia. Results Mean treatment INR was 4.6 (median 2.4, range 1.2 to 11.3). There was no clinically significant change in hemoglobin concentration at euthanasia compared to baseline. At harvest, histologic sections of the prostate revealed a large cavity corresponding to the planned treatment volume incorporating the prostatic urethra and parenchyma in all subjects. Urine was clear within 2 days of treatment and no blood clots were seen. Conclusions Despite therapeutic and supratherapeutic anticoagulation, histotripsy resulted in minimal bleeding despite significant fractionation and tissue debulking of the prostate. These results have prompted further studies to understand the mechanism of non-thermal hemostasis underlying histotripsy.

Wheat, Jeffery C.; Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Cain, Charles A.; Xu, Zhen; Roberts, William W.

2009-01-01

408

Ultrasonographic evaluation of the canine shoulder.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the normal ultrasonographic anatomy of the canine shoulder. Fourteen shoulders from 7 clinically normal mid-sized dogs were radiographed and imaged using high frequency ultrasound. Each shoulder was isolated postmortem, and the ultrasonographic and gross anatomy was studied during dissection. The ultrasonographic appearance of the shoulder specimens was similar to that found in the live dogs. Twenty-four shoulders isolated postmortem from 12 variably sized dogs were also used to characterize the normal ultrasound anatomy over a range of sizes. Important anatomic structures that could be consistently evaluated were the biceps tendon and bursa, the bicipital groove surface, the supraspinatous tendon, the infraspinatous tendon, the teres minor tendon, and the caudal aspect of the humeral head. Results of ultrasonographic examination of 4 dogs with shoulder lameness are described to illustrate some applications of canine shoulder ultrasonography in the evaluation of the canine shoulder. In these dogs, ultrasound was a valuable tool to evaluate effusion and synovial proliferation within the bicipital bursa, supraspinatous and biceps tendinitis, biceps tendon strain, and dystrophic calcification. PMID:10463832

Long, C D; Nyland, T G

1999-01-01

409

HIV Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... of transmission from scratching because there is no transfer of body fluids between people. Can I get ... infected blood or semen, exposure to the air, heat from cooking, and stomach acid would destroy the ...

410

New evidence for canine dietary function in Afropithecus turkanensis.  

PubMed

Despite considerable post-cranial and cranial morphological overlap with Proconsul, Afropithecus turkanensis is distinguished from that taxon by a suite of anterior dental and gnathic characters shared in common with extant pitheciin monkeys (i.e. low crowned, robust and laterally splayed canines, procumbent incisors, prognathic premaxilla, powerful temporalis muscles, reduced or absent maxillary sinuses, and deep mandibular corpora). Pitheciins are unique among living anthropoids because their canines serve a habitual dietary function and are not strictly influenced by inter-male competition. Given the functional association between pitheciin canine morphological specializations and sclerocarp foraging, a feeding strategy where the hard pericarps of unripe fruit are mechanically deformed by the canines, it has been suggested that Afropithecus may also have used its canines in a dietary context. This is confirmed by quantitative morphometric analyses of Afropithecus canine curvature and basal dimensions demonstrating that Afropithecus and extant pitheciins (Chiropotes, Cacajao) are distinguished from all other anthropoids by pronounced and evenly distributed mesial canine crown contours as well as greater resistance to canine bending in both the mesiodistal and labiolingual axes. In addition, Afropithecus, Chiropotes and Cacajao are also shown to have significantly longer and more curved premaxillae with greater incisor procumbency that effectively isolates the incisor and canine functional complexes. These morphological similarities are a result of convergence and not a shared derived ancestry. Despite their considerable morphological overlap, it is unlikely that Afropithecus and extant pitheciin diets are identical given significant dissimilarities in their post-canine morphology, maximum angular gape and body size. Nevertheless, Afropithecus canine dietary function is unique among hominoids and may have been a key component for the expansion of hominoids into Eurasia at the end of the early Miocene. PMID:22554411

Deane, Andrew S

2012-06-01

411

Effects of different concentrations of artemisinin and artemisinin-iron combination treatment on Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells  

PubMed Central

Artemisinin is a sesquitrepenelactone with an endoperoxide bridge. It is a naturally occurring substance from Artemisia species plants. Artemisia species have been used in oriental medicine for centuries to treat malaria, gastrointestinal helminthosia, diarrhea, and as an antipyretic and sedative agent. Antileishmanial activity of the plants has been announced a few years ago. Dogs are the most important reservoir of leishmaniasis in some parts of the world. To use it as an antileishmanial drug in dogs, its side effects on different organs, among them the kidney as the organ of elimination have to be elucidated. Artemisinin with different concentrations (0.15, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 ?g/ml) was added to the culture of MDCK (Madin darby canine kidney) cells with and without iron (86 ?g/dl). All the changes were controlled and photographed every 12 hours using an invert microscope. After 60 hours, supernatants and cell extracts were examined for LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) concentration and total protein. Also TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) test was performed on cell extracts. Some microscopic slides were prepared from the cells and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic exams. Biochemical parameters showed cellular reaction and injury in a concentration dependent manner. Cell injury was more severe in the iron-added groups. Microscopic exams showed cell and nuclear swelling, granular degeneration, vacuole and vesicle formation, cellular detachment, piknosis, karyorrhexis, cellular necrosis and inhibition of new mitosis. On using the drug for leishmaniasis treatment in the dog, it should be done with caution and supervision.

Zare, Payman; Mohammadpour, Hemn; Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Hossein

2012-01-01

412

Leishmania Major Infection Among Psammomys Obesus and Meriones Shawi: Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sidi Bouzid (Central Tunisia)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A study was undertaken between November 2008 and March 2010, in the focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Central Tunisia, to evaluate the role of Psammomys obesus (n=472) and Meriones shawi (n=167) as reservoir hosts for Leishmania major infection. Prevalence of L. major infection was 7% versus 5% for culture (p=not signifiant [NS]), 19% versus 16% for direct examination of smears (p=NS), and 20% versus 33% (p=NS) for Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test among P. obesus and M. shawi, respectively. The peak of this infection was in winter and autumn and increased steadily with age for the both species of rodents. The clinical examination showed that depilation, hyper-pigmentation, ignition, and severe edema of the higher edge of the ears were the most frequent signs observed in the study sample (all signs combined: 47% for P. obesus versus 43% for M. shawi; p=NS). However, the lesions were bilateral and seem to be more destructive among M. shawi compared with P. obesus. Asymptomatic infection was ?40% for both rodents. This study demonstrated that M. shawi plays an important role in the transmission and the emergence of Leishmania major cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

Toumi, Amine; Snoussi, Mohamed-Ali; Chlif, Sadok; Zaatour, Amor; Boukthir, Aicha; Bel Haj Hamida, Nabil; Chemkhi, Jomaa; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben-Salah, Afif

2011-01-01

413

Concomitant Infection with Leishmania donovani and L. major in Single Ulcers of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients from Sudan.  

PubMed

In Sudan human leishmaniasis occurs in different clinical forms, that is, visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Clinical samples from 69 Sudanese patients with different clinical manifestations were subjected to a PCR targeting the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene for Leishmania species identification. Mixed infections were suspected due to multiple overlapping peaks presented in some sequences of the COII amplicons. Cloning these amplicons and alignment of sequences from randomly selected clones confirmed the presence of two different Leishmania species, L. donovani and L. major, in three out of five CL patients. Findings were further confirmed by cloning the ITS gene. Regarding other samples no significant genetic variations were found in patients with VL (62 patients), PKDL (one patient), or ML (one patient). The sequences clustered in a single homogeneous group within L. donovani genetic group, with the exception of one sequence clustering with L. infantum genetic group. Findings of this study open discussion on the synergetic/antagonistic interaction between divergent Leishmania species both in mammalian and vector hosts, their clinical implications with respect to parasite fitness and response to treatment, and the route of transmission with respect to vector distribution and or adaptation. PMID:24744788

Babiker, A M; Ravagnan, S; Fusaro, A; Hassan, M M; Bakheit, S M; Mukhtar, M M; Cattoli, G; Capelli, G

2014-01-01

414

Improvement of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study on canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was to evaluate the effects of fusion strength, type of activation, culture media and site of transfer on developmental potential of SCNT embryos. We also examined the potential of enucleated bovine oocytes to serve as cytoplast recipients of canine somatic cells. Firstly, we evaluated the morphological characteristics

G. Jang; H. J. Oh; M. K. Kim; Y. H. Fibrianto; M. S. Hossein; H. J. Kim; J. J. Kim; S. G. Hong; J. E. Park; S. K. Kang; B. C. Lee

2008-01-01

415

Entire Genomic Sequence of Novel Canine Papillomavirus Type 13  

PubMed Central

Papillomaviruses are associated with benign and malignant neoplasias of the skin and mucous membranes. The sequence of a novel canine papillomavirus was determined from DNA detected in the oral cavity of a dog. The sequence of the novel virus canine papillomavirus type 13 (CPV13) shares the highest levels of similarity with the Tau papillomaviruses CPV2 and CPV7.

Ackermann, Mathias; Favrot, Claude; Tobler, Kurt

2012-01-01

416

Canine Evolution in Sabretoothed Carnivores: Natural Selection or Sexual Selection?  

PubMed Central

The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T.

2013-01-01

417

Distribution and density of the canine renal cortical lymphatic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution and density of the canine renal cortical lymphatic system. The pattern, distribution, and extent of the lymphatic circulation in the canine renal cortex was studied with light and electron microscopy, in two groups of animals, one with and one without ipsilateral ureteric obstruction for 3 days. Recognition of lymphatics in tissue sections was facilitated by mild dilatation, induced in

Kurt H Albertine; Charles C C O'Morchoe

1979-01-01

418

First detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in Brazil  

PubMed Central

The presence of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), 2a and 2b has been described in Brazil, however, the type 2c had not been reported until now. In the current study, seven out of nine samples from dogs with diarrhea were characterized as CPV-2c, indicating that this virus is already circulating in the Brazilian canine population.

Streck, Andre Felipe; de Souza, Carine Kunzler; Goncalves, Karla Rathje; Zang, Luciana; Pinto, Luciane Dubina; Canal, Claudio Wageck

2009-01-01

419

Clinical presentation and renal evaluation of human visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar): a retrospective study of 57 patients in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disease caused by various species of Leishmania. We made a retrospective study of 57 consecutive patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Patients with visceral leishmaniasis were identified using the registries of the São José Infectious Diseases Hospital. The sample was divided into two groups: patients with serum creatinine (Scr) <1.3mg\\/dL and Scr ? ? ?

Elizabeth F. Daher; Leandro F. Evangelista; Geraldo B. Silva Júnior; Rafael S. A. Lima; Eveline B. Aragão; Germana A. J. C. Arruda; Noemi M. F. Galeano; Rosa M. S. Mota; Rodrigo A. Oliveira; Sônia L. Silva

2008-01-01

420

Leishmaniasis Worldwide and Global Estimates of Its Incidence  

PubMed Central

As part of a World Health Organization-led effort to update the empirical evidence base for the leishmaniases, national experts provided leishmaniasis case data for the last 5 years and information regarding treatment and control in their respective countries and a comprehensive literature review was conducted covering publications on leishmaniasis in 98 countries and three territories (see ‘Leishmaniasis Country Profiles Text S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S11, S12, S13, S14, S15, S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S22, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27, S28, S29, S30, S31, S32, S33, S34, S35, S36, S37, S38, S39, S40, S41, S42, S43, S44, S45, S46, S47, S48, S49, S50, S51, S52, S53, S54, S55, S56, S57, S58, S59, S60, S61, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S67, S68, S69, S70, S71, S72, S73, S74, S75, S76, S77, S78, S79, S80, S81, S82, S83, S84, S85, S86, S87, S88, S89, S90, S91, S92, S93, S94, S95, S96, S97, S98, S99, S100, S101’). Additional information was collated during meetings conducted at WHO regional level between 2007 and 2011. Two questionnaires regarding epidemiology and drug access were completed by experts and national program managers. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence ranges were estimated by country and epidemiological region based on reported incidence, underreporting rates if available, and the judgment of national and international experts. Based on these estimates, approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cases and 0.7 to 1.2 million VL and CL cases, respectively, occur each year. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is more widely distributed, with about one-third of cases occurring in each of three epidemiological regions, the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, and western Asia from the Middle East to Central Asia. The ten countries with the highest estimated case counts, Afghanistan, Algeria, Colombia, Brazil, Iran, Syria, Ethiopia, North Sudan, Costa Rica and Peru, together account for 70 to 75% of global estimated CL incidence. Mortality data were extremely sparse and generally represent hospital-based deaths only. Using an overall case-fatality rate of 10%, we reach a tentative estimate of 20,000 to 40,000 leishmaniasis deaths per year. Although the information is very poor in a number of countries, this is the first in-depth exercise to better estimate the real impact of leishmaniasis. These data should help to define control strategies and reinforce leishmaniasis advocacy.

Velez, Ivan D.; Bern, Caryn; Herrero, Merce; Desjeux, Philippe; Cano, Jorge; Jannin, Jean

2012-01-01

421

Patients' associations and the control of leishmaniasis in Peru.  

PubMed

American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is an important health problem in Peru, particularly in the mountainous Cuzco Region, where 25% of all new cases reported in 1989 were located. Cases have increased considerably since the beginning of the 1980s, when large-scale seasonal migration to ende